Fox, J; Williams, C
121 college students completed the Anomalous Experience Inventory and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter. Multiple regression analyses provided significant models predicting both Paranormal Experience and Belief; the main predictors were the other subscales of the Anomalous Experience Inventory with the Keirsey variables playing only a minor role.
Kelly, Kevin R.; Jugovic, Heidi
Data from the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II online instrument and Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for 203 college freshmen were analyzed. Positive correlations appeared between the concurrent MBTI and Keirsey measures of psychological type, giving preliminary support to the validity of the online version of Keirsey. (Contains 28 references.)…
Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W; Ryan, Kathleen A; Kelly, Maria N; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S
Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P = .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.
Tuli, Sanjeev Y.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Kelly, Maria N.; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S.
Background Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. Results The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P = .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. Conclusions The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board
Ziegert, Andrea L.
Explores the relationship between student personality types and measures of student performance in principles of microeconomics using the Keirsey Sorter, a 70-question Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); results from the Test of Understanding of College Economics (TUCE); and course grades. Suggests that personality types do affect student…
Administrators in any field are often called upon to make decisions involving ethical considerations, but are not always well prepared or prone to do so. This situation of being faced with ethical concerns is perhaps more true for educational administrators than for leaders in other arenas. Not only are administrators at school, since they deal…
Pour Yousefian Barfeh, Davood; Ebron, Jonalyn G.; Pabico, Jaderick P.
In this study researchers pay attention to the essence of Insertion Sort and propose a sorter in Membrane Computing. This research shows how a theoretical computing device same as Membrane Computing can perform the basic concepts same as sorting. In this regard, researches introduce conditional reproduction rule such that each membrane can reproduce another membrane having same structure with the original membrane. The researchers use the functionality of comparator P system as a basis in which two multisets are compared and then stored in two adjacent membranes. And finally, the researchers present the process of sorting as a collection of transactions implemented in four levels while each level has different steps.
Lawrence, Robyn; Taylor, Larry W.
The personality preferences and temperaments of 82 intermediate accounting students were identified by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter. Relationships were found between personality variables and the number of class absences, class participation, and the performance in homework and problems on the final examination.…
Wicklein, Robert C.; Rojewski, Jay W.
Of secondary school teachers who completed the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter, 136 were in technology education, 110 in industrial arts. Two types were prevalent among industrial arts teachers: Extrovert Sensing Feeling Judging and Introvert Sensing Feeling Judging. Technology education teachers were more Extrovert Intuitive Thinking Judging,…
Daughenbaugh, Richard; Ensminger, David; Frederick, Lynda; Surry, Daniel
This study sought to determine if different personality types express more or less satisfaction with courses delivered online versus those delivered in the classroom. The methodology employed two online surveys--the Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) and a course satisfaction instrument. The participants were 146 college students taking online and…
O'Brien, Roger T.
Discusses aspects of Jungian typology: (1) three pairs of opposing attitudes or functions; (2) the training applications of Jung's psychological types; and (3) instruments measuring Jungian typology, including Myers-Briggs Type Indicators, Keirsey Temperament Sorter, Personal Style Inventory, Keegan Type Measuring Instrument, and Personal Style…
Barron, Daniel D.
Understanding learning styles can help teachers get beyond lecture, text, and test. This article reviews some of the research and literature on learning styles, highlighting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, the 4-MAT System, and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Includes related Web sites and print resources. (PEN)
Nummelin, J.; Buckley, D.
Small metal or other electrically conductive parts of same shape but different composition quickly sorted with differential-coil eddy-current sorter. Developed to distinguish between turbine blades of different alloys, hardnesses, and residual stress, sorter generally applicable to parts of simple and complex shape.
Masriyah; Firmansyah, M. H.
This research is descriptive-qualitative research. The purpose is to describe students’ mathematical literacy in solving PISA on space and shape content based on Keirsey personality theory. The subjects are four junior high school students grade eight with guardian, artisan, rational or idealist personality. Data collecting methods used test and interview. Data of Keirsey Personality test, PISA test, and interview were analysed. Profile of mathematical literacy of each subject are described as follows. In formulating, guardian subject identified mathematical aspects are formula of rectangle area and sides length; significant variables are terms/conditions in problem and formula of ever encountered question; translated into mathematical language those are measurement and arithmetic operations. In employing, he devised and implemented strategies using ease of calculation on area-subtraction principle; declared truth of result but the reason was less correct; didn’t use and switch between different representations. In interpreting, he declared result as area of house floor; declared reasonableness according measurement estimation. In formulating, artisan subject identified mathematical aspects are plane and sides length; significant variables are solution procedure on both of daily problem and ever encountered question; translated into mathematical language those are measurement, variables, and arithmetic operations as well as symbol representation. In employing, he devised and implemented strategies using two design comparison; declared truth of result without reason; used symbol representation only. In interpreting, he expressed result as floor area of house; declared reasonableness according measurement estimation. In formulating, rational subject identified mathematical aspects are scale and sides length; significant variables are solution strategy on ever encountered question; translated into mathematical language those are measurement, variable, arithmetic
Lee, Dongkyu; Hwang, Bohyun; Kim, Byungkyu
Originally introduced by H. A. Pohl in 1951, dielectrophoretic (DEP) force has been used as a striking tool for biological particle manipulation (or separation) for the last few decades. In particular, dielectrophoresis activated cell sorters (DACSes) have been developed for applications in various biomedical fields. These applications include cell replacement therapy, drug screening and medical diagnostics. Since a DACS does not require a specific bio-marker, it is able to function as a biological particle sorting tool with numerous configurations for various cells [e.g. red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), circulating tumor cells, leukemia cells, breast cancer cells, bacterial cells, yeast cells and sperm cells]. This article explores current DACS capabilities worldwide, and it also looks at recent developments intended to overcome particular limitations. First, the basic theories are reviewed. Then, representative DACSes based on DEP trapping, traveling wave DEP systems, DEP field-flow fractionation and DEP barriers are introduced, and the strong and weak points of each DACS are discussed. Finally, for the purposes of commercialization, prerequisites regarding throughput, efficiency and recovery rates are discussed in detail through comparisons with commercial cell sorters (e.g. fluorescent activated and magnetic activated cell sorters).
Howard University s newly acquired Fluorescence Activated Cytometric Sorter (FACS) has been integrated into the new flow cytometric core facility...training (i.e. antibody panel setup and sample preparations). In the three months it has been active, six Howard University researchers have used the
Roux, Simon; Enault, Francois; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Sullivan, Matthew B
Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome), new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs) of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter's prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages). Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs) as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision) on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in "reverse" to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made available through the i
Roux, Simon; Enault, Francois; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.
Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome), new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs) of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages). Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs) as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision) on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made available through the i
Shonka, J.J.; Kelley, J.E.; O'Brien, J.M.
In the mid-1940's, Dr. C. Lapointe developed a Geiger tube based uranium ore scanner and picker to replace hand-cobbing. In the 1990's, a modern version of the Lapointe Picker for soil sorting was developed around the need to clean the Johnston Atoll of plutonium. It worked well with sand, but these systems are ineffective with soil, especially with wet conditions. Additionally, several other constraints limited throughput. Slow moving belts and thin layers of material on the belt coupled with the use of multiple small detectors and small sorting gates make these systems ineffective for high throughput. Soil sorting of clay-bearingmore » soils and building debris requires a new look at both the material handling equipment, and the radiation detection methodology. A new class of Super-Sorters has attained throughput of one hundred times that of the old designs. Higher throughput means shorter schedules which reduce costs substantially. The planning, cost, implementation, and other site considerations for these new Super-Sorters are discussed. Modern soil segregation was developed by Ed Bramlitt of the Defense Nuclear Agency for clean up at Johnston Atoll. The process eventually became the Segmented Gate System (SGS). This system uses an array of small sodium iodide (NaI) detectors, each viewing a small volume (segment), that control a gate. The volume in the gate is approximately one kg. This system works well when the material to be processed is sand; however, when the material is wet and sticky (soils with clays) the system has difficulty moving the material through the gates. Super-Sorters are a new class of machine designed to take advantage of high throughput aggregate processing conveyors, large acquisition volumes, and large NaI detectors using gamma spectroscopy. By using commercially available material handling equipment, the system can attain processing rates of up to 400 metric tons/hr with spectrum acquisition approximately every 0.5 sec, so the
Ozbay, Baris; Jones, Alex; Gibson, Emily
Lab on a chip technology allows for the replacement of traditional cell sorters with microfluidic devices which can be produced less expensively and are more compact. Additionally, the compact nature of microfluidic cell sorters may lead to the realization of their application in point-of-care medical devices. Though techniques have been demonstrated previously for sorting in microfluidic devices with optical or electro-osmotic switching, both of these techniques are expensive and more difficult to implement than pressure switching. This microfluidic cell sorter design also allows for easy integration with optical spectroscopy for identification of cell type. Our current microfluidic device was fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a polymer that houses the channels, which is then chemically bonded to a glass slide. The flow of fluid through the device is controlled by pressure controllers, and the switching of the cells is accomplished with the use of a high performance pressure controller interfaced with a computer. The cells are fed through the channels with the use of hydrodynamic focusing techniques. Once the experimental setup is fully functional the objective will be to determine switching rates, explore techniques to optimize these rates, and experiment with sorting of other biomolecules including DNA.
Drozdovski, Aleksandr K
Based on experimental studies in education, professions and sports, an attempt was made to combine the following two historically disconnected research directions in the study of the natural human traits into a single coordinate system: Pavlov’s theory on the properties of the nervous system, as well as the types of higher nervous activity, and Jung’s theory on psychological types. It is noted that Pavlov’s school of thought was developed by his followers in Russia within the scientific school of differential psychophysiology, while Yung’s theory was developed through the works of well-known American researchers Myers and Keirsey. The spatial model that is presented here rests on the knowledge of the properties of the human nervous system and enables the prediction of psychological characteristics, temperament, and psychological types of individuals belonging to a wide age range. PMID:26056499
Gu, Xuemei; Krenn, Mario; Erhard, Manuel; Zeilinger, Anton
We present an in principle lossless sorter for radial modes of light, using accumulated Gouy phases. The experimental setups have been found by a computer algorithm, and can be intuitively understood in a geometric way. Together with the ability to sort angular-momentum modes, we now have access to the complete two-dimensional transverse plane of light. The device can readily be used in multiplexing classical information. On a quantum level, it is an analog of the Stern-Gerlach experiment-significant for the discussion of fundamental concepts in quantum physics. As such, it can be applied in high-dimensional and multiphotonic quantum experiments.
Gu, Xuemei; Krenn, Mario; Erhard, Manuel; Zeilinger, Anton
We present an in principle lossless sorter for radial modes of light, using accumulated Gouy phases. The experimental setups have been found by a computer algorithm, and can be intuitively understood in a geometric way. Together with the ability to sort angular-momentum modes, we now have access to the complete two-dimensional transverse plane of light. The device can readily be used in multiplexing classical information. On a quantum level, it is an analog of the Stern-Gerlach experiment—significant for the discussion of fundamental concepts in quantum physics. As such, it can be applied in high-dimensional and multiphotonic quantum experiments.
Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.
A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The FACS system takes advantage of microfluidics to create a cell sorter that can fit in the palm of the hand. A micron-scale channel allows cells to pass by a blue diode which causes emission of marker-expressed cells which are detected by a filtered photodetector. A small microcontroller then counts cells and operates high speed valves to select which chamber the cell is collected in (a collection chamber or a waste chamber). Cells with the expressed characteristic will be collected in the collection chamber. This system has been built and is currently being tested. We are also designing a system with integrated MEMS-based pumps and valves for a small and compact unit to fly on small satellite-based biology experiments.
Antshel, K. M.; Stallone, K.; AbdulSabur, N.; Shprintzen, R.; Roizen, N.; Higgins, A. M.; Kates, W. R.
Background: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a microdeletion syndrome caused by a 22q11.2 chromosomal deletion. Methods: In this study, parents reported on their own temperament as well as the temperament of their child. Sixty-seven children with VCFS (mean age = 10.8, SD = 2.8; range 6-15), and age-, race- and gender-ratio matched samples of…
Gonzalez, I.; Pinto, A.
A new device is proposed consisting of an endless screw attached to a small sorter actuated by ultrasounds where particles collect from soil or dust to be separated and collected in different reservoirs for their return to the Earth.
This paper takes a cue from Harvard neuroscientists Jerome Kagan and Nancy Snidman's (2004) comment that Jung's work on typology has remarkable relevance to their research on neurobiological correlates of temperament and develops the links between the theorists separated by almost a century. The paper begins with a brief review of temperament traits in personality psychology. Kagan and Snidman's 11-year longitudinal study is then analysed and correlated with Jung's psychological attitude types of introversion and extraversion, demonstrating that Jung's close empirical observations of human nature fit explicitly with objective measurements of neurobiological sensitivity thresholds and their expression in temperament. Emerging research on neurobiologically sensitive adults and children from Aron (1997, 2004, 2011) and differential susceptibility theory (DST) is presented as extrapolating the same links between temperament and physiological sensitivity found in Jung's introversion and Kagan and Snidman's high-reactive type. The paper concludes with a consideration of the subjective psyche as a necessary aspect to understanding the self and human consciousness as whole. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Teglasi, Hedwig; Cohn, Andrea; Meshbesher, Nicole
The link between learning problems and social-emotional difficulties is well documented and both are associated with temperamental risk factors. Whereas temperament refers to individual differences in biologically based dispositions for responding to and engaging with one's surroundings, developmental outcomes are the products of experiences as…
Rihmer, Zoltán; Akiskal, Kareen K; Rihmer, Annamária; Akiskal, Hagop S
The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship between affective temperaments and clinical mood disorders and to summarize the earlier and most recent studies on affective temperaments in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Current research findings show that specific affective temperament types (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious) are the subsyndromal (trait-related) manifestations and commonly the antecedents of minor and major mood disorders. Up to 20% of the population has some kind of marked affective temperaments; depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperament is more frequent in women, whereas hyperthymic and irritable temperaments predominate among men. Molecular genetic studies show a strong involvement of the central serotonergic (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments) and dopaminergic (hyperthymic temperament) regulation, suggesting that the genetic potential of major mood episodes lies in these temperaments. Premorbid affective temperament types have an important role in the clinical evolution of minor and major mood episodes including the direction of the polarity and the symptom formation of acute mood episodes. They can also significantly affect the long-term course and outcome including suicidality and other forms of self-destructive behaviours such as substance use and eating disorders.
Islam, M Z; McMullin, J N; Tsui, Y Y
Development of a microfluidic device is generally based on fabrication-design-fabrication loop, as, unlike the microelectronics design, there is no rigorous simulation-based verification of the chip before fabrication. This usually results in extremely long, and hence expensive, product development cycle if micro/nano fabrication facilities are used from the beginning of the cycle. Here, we illustrate a novel approach of device prototyping that is fast, cheap, reliable, and most importantly, this technique can be adopted even if no state-of-the-art microfabrication facility is available. A water-jet machine is used to cut the desired microfluidic channels into a thin steel plate which is then used as a template to cut the channels into a thin sheet of a transparent and cheap polymer material named Surlyn® by using a Hot Knife™. The feature-inscribed Surlyn sheet is bonded in between two microscope glass slides by utilizing the techniques which has been being used in curing polymer film between dual layer automotive glasses for years. Optical fibers are inserted from the sides of chip and are bonded by UV epoxy. To study the applicability of this prototyping approach, we made a basic microfluidic sorter and tested its functionalities. Sample containing microparticles is injected into the chip. Light from a 532-nm diode laser is coupled into the optical fiber that delivers light to the interrogation region in the channel. The emitted light from the particle is collected by a photodiode (PD) placed over the detection window. The device sorts the particles into the sorted or waste outlets depending on the level of the PD signal. We used fluorescent latex beads to test the detection and sorting functionalities of the device. We found that the system could detect all the beads that passed through its geometric observation region and could sort almost all the beads it detected. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Parkin, Stephen; Coomber, Ross
This paper considers the 'shooting gallery' phenomenon and presents findings from a sample of injecting drug users with experience of attending such premises in the South-West of England (UK). Due to the reciprocal relationship within these settings, involving the provision of drugs for place, the term Informal Sorter House has been coined by the authors. The social organisation and associative health risks within Informal Sorter Houses were found to have resounding similarities with those previously identified within American settings. However, several differences were also noted. Namely, Informal Sorter Houses appear to be located within a continuum of control that contains regulated, unregulated, and restored injecting environments and accordingly, it is suggested that such environments are in constant flux. A further difference relates to drug-user activism identified within such settings. This involves the establishment of an informal, street-based harm reduction practice that provides potential for future service development.
Fuad, Nurul M.; Skommer, Joanna; Friedrich, Timo; Kaslin, Jan; Wlodkowic, Donald
At present, the major hurdle to widespread deployment of zebrafish embryo and larvae in large-scale drug development projects is lack of enabling high-throughput analytical platforms. In order to spearhead drug discovery with the use of zebrafish as a model, platforms need to integrate automated pre-test sorting of organisms (to ensure quality control and standardization) and their in-test positioning (suitable for high-content imaging) with modules for flexible drug delivery. The major obstacle hampering sorting of millimetre sized particles such as zebrafish embryos on chip-based devices is their substantial diameter (above one millimetre), mass (above one milligram), which both lead to rapid gravitational-induced sedimentation and high inertial forces. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present an innovative design of a micromechanical large particle in-flow sorter (MILPIS) capable of analysing, sorting and dispensing living zebrafish embryos for drug discovery applications. The system consisted of a microfluidic network, revolving micromechanical receptacle actuated by robotic servomotor and opto-electronic sensing module. The prototypes were fabricated in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. Elements of MILPIS were also fabricated in an optically transparent VisiJet resin using 3D stereolithography (SLA) processes (ProJet 7000HD, 3D Systems). The device operation was based on a rapidly revolving miniaturized mechanical receptacle. The latter function was to hold and position individual fish embryos for (i) interrogation, (ii) sorting decision-making and (iii) physical sorting..The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers embedded in the system
Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra
The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274
Lolich, María; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Zapata, Stephanie; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S
Links between affective temperaments and folk culture have been infrequently explored systematically. Creativity and personality and temperament studies, conversely, have reported several associations. Tango is one of the most typical Argentinean folk dance-musical repertoires. The main purpose of this study is to compare affective temperaments between Argentinean professional tango dancers and the general population. TEMPS-A was administered to a sample of 63 professional tango dancers and 63 comparison subjects from the general population who did not practice tango. Subscale median scores and total median scores with non-parametric statistics were analyzed. Median scores on hyperthymic subscale (p ≤ 0.001), irritable subscale (p=0.05) and total median score were significantly higher among tango dancers compared to controls (p ≤ 0.001). Self-report measures were used. A larger sample size would have provided greater statistical power for data analysis. Besides, the naturalistic study design did not allow controlling for other clinical variables and limited the generalization of results to broader populations. Our data adds new evidence for the hypothesis that artistic performance is related to one's temperament. Tango passionata, which has both melancholic and vigorous (including "upbeat") features, seems to impart tango dancers' hyperthymic and irritable temperament features. Our study supports the increasing literature on the validity of utilizing temperament as a sub-affective traits in relation to artistic creativity and performing arts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Sakallı Kani, Ayşe; Aksoy Poyraz, Cana; Öcek Baş, Tuba; Arıkan, Mehmet Kemal
Affective temperaments are the subclinical manifestations or phenotypes of mood states and hypothetically represent one healthy end of the mood disorder spectrum. However, there is a scarcity of studies investigating the neurobiological basis of affective temperaments. One fundamental aspect of temperament is the behavioral reactivity to environmental stimuli, which can be effectively evaluated by use of cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting the diversity of information processing. The aim of the present study is to explore the associations between P300 and the affective temperamental traits in healthy individuals. We recorded the P300 ERP waves using an auditory oddball paradigm in 50 medical student volunteers (23 females, 27 males). Participants' affective temperaments were evaluated using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-auto questionnaire version (TEMPS-A). In bivariate analyses, depressive temperament score was significantly correlated with P300 latency ( r s = 0.37, P < .01). In a multiple linear regression analysis, P300 latency showed a significant positive correlation with scores of depressive temperament (β = 0.40, P < .01) and a significant negative one with scores of cyclothymic temperament (β = -0.29, P = .03). Affective temperament scores were not associated with P300 amplitude and reaction times. These results indicate that affective temperaments are related to information processing in the brain. Depressive temperament may be characterized by decreased physiological arousal and slower information processing, while the opposite was observed for cyclothymic temperament.
Schmid, Lothar; Weitz, David A; Franke, Thomas
We describe a versatile microfluidic fluorescence-activated cell sorter that uses acoustic actuation to sort cells or drops at ultra-high rates. Our acoustic sorter combines the advantages of traditional fluorescence-activated cell (FACS) and droplet sorting (FADS) and is applicable for a multitude of objects. We sort aqueous droplets, at rates as high as several kHz, into two or even more outlet channels. We can also sort cells directly from the medium without prior encapsulation into drops; we demonstrate this by sorting fluorescently labeled mouse melanoma cells in a single phase fluid. Our acoustic microfluidic FACS is compatible with standard cell sorting cytometers, yet, at the same time, enables a rich variety of more sophisticated applications.
Chen, Yue; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Kung, Yu-Chun; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu
We report a 3D microfluidic pulsed laser-triggered fluorescence-activated cell sorter capable of sorting at a throughput of 23,000 cells sec−1 with 90% purity in high-purity mode and at a throughput of 45,000 cells sec−1 with 45% purity in enrichment mode in one stage and in a single channel. This performance is realized by exciting laser-induced cavitation bubbles in a 3D PDMS microfluidic channel to generate high-speed liquid jets that deflect detected fluorescent cells and particles focused by 3D sheath flows. The ultrafast switching mechanism (20 μsec complete on-off cycle), small liquid jet perturbation volume, and three-dimensional sheath flow focusing for accurate timing control of fast (1.5 m sec−1) passing cells and particles are three critical factors enabling high-purity sorting at high-throughput in this sorter. PMID:23844418
Holmes, Kevin L; Fontes, Benjamin; Hogarth, Philip; Konz, Richard; Monard, Simon; Pletcher, Charles H; Wadley, Robert B; Schmid, Ingrid; Perfetto, Stephen P
Flow cytometric cell sorting of biological specimens has become prevalent in basic and clinical research laboratories. These specimens may contain known or unknown infectious agents, necessitating precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from biohazards arising from the use of sorters. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) was proactive in establishing biosafety guidelines in 1997 (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99-117) and subsequently published revised biosafety standards for cell sorting of unfixed samples in 2007 (Schmid et al., Cytometry Part A J Int Soc Anal Cytol 2007;71A:414-437). Since their publication, these documents have become recognized worldwide as the standard of practice and safety precautions for laboratories performing cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 2007, and the document requires an update. The new Standards provides guidance: (1) for laboratory design for cell sorter laboratories; (2) for the creation of laboratory or instrument specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and (3) on procedures for the safe operation of cell sorters, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and validation of aerosol containment. Published © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc.
Holmes, Kevin L.; Fontes, Benjamin; Hogarth, Philip; Konz, Richard; Monard, Simon; Pletcher, Charles H.; Wadley, Robert B.; Schmid, Ingrid; Perfetto, Stephen P.
Flow cytometric cell sorting of biological specimens has become prevalent in basic and clinical research laboratories. These specimens may contain known or unknown infectious agents, necessitating precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from biohazards arising from the use of sorters. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) was proactive in establishing biosafety guidelines in 1997 (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99–117) and subsequently published revised biosafety standards for cell sorting of unfixed samples in 2007 (Schmid et al., Cytometry Part A J Int Soc Anal Cytol 2007;71A:414–437). Since their publication, these documents have become recognized worldwide as the standard of practice and safety precautions for laboratories performing cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 2007, and the document requires an update. The new Standards provides guidance: (1) for laboratory design for cell sorter laboratories; (2) for the creation of laboratory or instrument specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and (3) on procedures for the safe operation of cell sorters, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and validation of aerosol containment. PMID:24634405
Macedo, A; Marques, M; Bos, S; Maia, B R; Pereira, T; Soares, M J; Valente, J; Gomes, A A; Nogueira, V; Azevedo, M H
We examined if perfectionism and the perception of being an anxious person were associated with more negative infant temperament ratings by the mothers. 386 women (mean age=30.08; standard deviation=4.21) in their last trimester of pregnancy completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and an item about their perception of being or not an anxious person. The Portuguese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness were used to generate diagnoses according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. After delivery, women completed eight items of the Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire (developed by our team) and filled in, again, the BDI-II and were interviewed with the DIGS. Women with depression (DSM-IV/ICD-10) and probable cases of depression using different cut-offs adjusted to Portuguese prevalence (BDI-II), in pregnancy and postpartum, were excluded. The Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed to have factorial validity and internal consistency. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between perfectionism total scale score and item 6 from the temperament scale ("is your baby irritable or fussy?"). Considering MPS 3-factor solution found for pregnancy there was also a statistically significant negative correlation between SOP and the same item. Women with low SOP differed from those with medium and high SOP in the total temperament score. Moreover, the low SOP group differed from the medium group on items three and four scores. There were no significant associations with SPP, which is the dimension more closely associated with negative outcomes. There was an association between anxiety trait status (having it or not) and scoring low, medium or high in the infant temperament scale. The proportion of anxious vs. non-anxious women presenting a high score on the infant temperament scale was higher (24.2% vs. 12
Lorr, Maurice; Stefic, Edward C.
The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the dimensionality of the Thorndike Dimensions of Temperament (TDOT) when administered in a single stimulus form; and (b) to test a set of hypotheses relative to the constructs measured in the TDOT. (Author/RK)
This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…
Rothbart, Mary Klevjord
Describes the development of a parent-report to assess infant temperament and presents longitudinal findings. Scales were developed to measure activity level, soothability, fear, distress to limitations, smiling/laughter, and duration of orienting. Longitudinal analyses showed that stability in some scales was age-related. (Author/DB)
Kikuchi, Y; Nakaya, M; Ikeda, M; Takeda, M; Nishi, M
According to previous studies, temperament predicts a large share of the variance in job stress. It may be necessary for mental health practitioners to offer intervention strategies in accordance with individual temperament. To investigate the relationship between job stress and temperament among nurses in a general hospital and to provide insight into personality traits influencing their mental or physical health. A questionnaire survey of nurses in a general hospital. Work stress was measured using the Japanese version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) scale. Temperament was assessed by a Japanese version of Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to determine the independent contribution of temperament to effort-reward ratio and over-commitment. Response rate was 48% (326/685). Temperament predicted part of the variance of the four ERI ratios (effort-reward ratio 26%; effort-esteem ratio 27%; effort-promotion ratio 26%; and effort-security ratio 18%) and also of over-commitment (38%). Depressive temperament influenced all four ERI ratios and over-commitment. Anxious temperament influenced only over-commitment. Nurses with depressive or anxious temperaments should be identified, monitored for signs of job stress and offered interventions to prevent adverse physical and mental effects.
Ramacciotti, C E; Paoli, R A; Ciapparelli, A; Marcacci, G; Placidi, G E; Dell'Osso, L; Garfinkel, P E
In this study, we investigate the affective temperamental characteristics in a sample of ED (eating disorder) patients. 49 ED patients diagnosed by the SCID (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV), were divided into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence of Binge Eating (restricting-anorexia nervosa [R-AN]= 16; Binge Eaters= 33). All patients were administered the TEMPS-I (Temperament Evaluation Memphis Pisa Semistructured - Interview), to assess affective temperament. A third group of controls (N= 1010), derived from a study with the TEMPS-I on normal subjects, was included for comparison. A full affective temperament was not found in patients of the restricting group. By contrast 24% of the binge eating group had a full affective temperament of one of three types. Comparing the three temperaments for the three groups, only cyclothymic temperament proved to be significant, with higher levels in the binge eating group (p<0.01). In this study, people with R-AN do not show a full affective temperament. However, people with binge eating, had depressive and hyperthymic temperament, and displayed higher level of cyclothymic temperament than the normal population. The findings of this study add to a growing literature on temperament in people with ED; particularly, they add to the view that may be various paths leading to R-AN, and these may differ from those of binge eating.
Wei, Youhua; Wang, Zhinan; Xu, Zhongqiang; Chen, Ping; Hao, Lili
To examine the temperament of children with vocal fold nodules. To compare the temperament dimension and temperamental types of 42 children with vocal fold nodules with 46 vocally normal children, using Chinese children's Temperament Problem Screening system (CCTPSs). The children with vocal fold nodules differed significantly from the comparison group in their temperament dimension's adaptability, intensity of reaction, mood value, persistency and temperamental types. There are more difficult and slow-to-warm-up children in patients with vocal fold nodules than vocally normal children.
This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical
Swindale, Nicholas V; Mitelut, Catalin; Murphy, Timothy H; Spacek, Martin A
Few stand-alone software applications are available for sorting spikes from recordings made with multi-electrode arrays. Ideally, an application should be user friendly with a graphical user interface, able to read data files in a variety of formats, and provide users with a flexible set of tools giving them the ability to detect and sort extracellular voltage waveforms from different units with some degree of reliability. Previously published spike sorting methods are now available in a software program, SpikeSorter, intended to provide electrophysiologists with a complete set of tools for sorting, starting from raw recorded data file and ending with the export of sorted spikes times. Procedures are automated to the extent this is currently possible. The article explains and illustrates the use of the program. A representative data file is opened, extracellular traces are filtered, events are detected and then clustered. A number of problems that commonly occur during sorting are illustrated, including the artefactual over-splitting of units due to the tendency of some units to fire spikes in pairs where the second spike is significantly smaller than the first, and over-splitting caused by slow variation in spike height over time encountered in some units. The accuracy of SpikeSorter's performance has been tested with surrogate ground truth data and found to be comparable to that of other algorithms in current development.
Holmes, Kevin L.
In spite of the recognition by the flow cytometry community of potential aerosol hazards associated with cell sorting, there has been no previous study that has thoroughly characterized the aerosols that can be produced by cell sorters. In this study an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer was used to determine the concentration and aerodynamic diameter of aerosols produced by a FACS Aria II cell sorter under various conditions. Aerosol containment and evacuation was also evaluated using this novel methodology. The results showed that high concentrations of aerosols in the range of 1–3 μm can be produced in fail mode and that with decreased sheath pressure, aerosol concentration decreased and aerodynamic diameter increased. Although the engineering controls of the FACS Aria II for containment were effective, sort chamber evacuation of aerosols following a simulated nozzle obstruction was ineffective. However, simple modifications to the FACS Aria II are described that greatly improved sort chamber aerosol evacuation. The results of this study will facilitate the risk assessment of cell sorting potentially biohazardous samples by providing much needed data regarding aerosol production and containment. PMID:22052694
Karam, Elie G; Itani, Lynn; Fayyad, John; Hantouche, Elie; Karam, Aimee; Mneimneh, Zeina; Akiskal, Hagop; Rihmer, Zoltán
Several studies have shown temperament variants in suicidality. Yet, to our knowledge, the association between temperaments and suicide attempts has not been studied on a nationally representative level nor systematically in subjects with no mental disorders. Also, although hyperthymic temperament is recognized as protective of most mental disorders, its role in the protection from self-harm remains inconclusive. The study is based on nationally representative data of all Lebanese adults. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, whereas the five affective temperaments were assessed using the TEMPS-A. Anxious temperament is a solid and strong risk factor for suicide attempts in subjects with (OR: 10.1) and without (OR: 9.0) mental disorders. Depressive (OR: 4.3) and irritable (OR: 5.1) temperaments are risk factors for suicide attempt among subjects with mental disorders. Hyperthymic temperament plays a dual role in females with mental disorders: while the hyperthymic trait "having self-confidence" is strongly protective of suicide attempts, "liking to be the boss", "getting into heated arguments", and "the right and privilege to do as I please" are hyperthymic risk traits for suicide attempts reflecting the "dark side" of the hyperthymic temperament. Interestingly, these three hyperthymic risk traits--in the absence of "having self-confidence"--are a universal risk for suicide attempt in females with mental disorder. Social desirability could have led to the under-reporting of suicide attempts and mental disorders. The anxious temperament plays a strong role in predicting suicide attempts in the community, in the presence and absence of diagnosable mental disorders. The irritable and the depressive temperaments are additional risks in subjects with mental disorders. The dual role of the hyperthymic temperament is quite interesting: while it is protective of suicidal behavior, it also has a dark side in subjects with
Robinson, Lauren M; Skiver Thompson, Rebekah; Ha, James C
Puppy assessments for companion dogs have shown mixed long-term reliability. Temperament is cited among the reasons for surrendering dogs to shelters. A puppy temperament test that reliably predicts adult behavior is one potential way to lower the number of dogs given to shelters. This study used a longitudinal design to assess temperament in puppies from 8 different breeds at 7 weeks old (n = 52) and 6 years old (n = 34) using modified temperament tests, physiological measures, and a follow-up questionnaire. For 7-week-old puppies, results revealed (a) puppy breed was predictable using 3 variables, (b) 4 American Kennel Club breed groups had some validity based on temperament, (c) temperament was variable within litters of puppies, and (d) certain measures of temperament were related to physiological measures (heart rate). Finally, puppy temperament assessments were reliable in predicting the scores of 2 of the 8 adult dog temperament measures. However, overall, the puppy temperament scores were unreliable in predicting adult temperament.
Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas; Shermis, Mark
Measurement of temperament is an important endeavor with international appeal; however, cross-national invariance (i.e., equivalence of test scores across countries as established by empirical comparisons) of temperament tests has not been established in published research. This study examines the cross-national invariance of school-aged…
Riese, Marilyn L.
The appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants from 30 pairs of full-term and 15 pairs of preterm same-sex twins were compared for neonatal temperament. The evaluation of neonatal temperament included ratings of irritability, resistance to soothing, activity level, reactivity, and reinforcement value. Results…
Dorow, Ernest B.
Temperament type is a key to understanding the classroom behavior of social studies teachers. Current criticisms of strategies employed, dependence on the textbook, fact oriented testing, and the dearth of problem solving in lesson planning are grounded in professional decisions based on temperament preferences. Employing four types of temperament…
Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda
Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…
Rawlings, Anna Maria; Tapola, Anna; Niemivirta, Markku
Although temperament and motivation both reflect individual differences in what is perceived as rewarding or threatening, and what is to be approached and what avoided, respectively, we know rather little about how they are connected in educational settings. In this study, we examined how different aspects of temperament (reward and punishment…
An apparatus is described for counting and recording the number of electrical pulses occurring in each of a timed sequence of groups of pulses. The particular feature of the invention resides in a novel timing circuit of the univibrator type which provides very accurately timed pulses for opening each of a series of coincidence channels in sequence. The univibrator is shown incorporated in a pulse analyzing system wherein a series of pulse counting channels are periodically opened in order, one at a time, for a predetermtned open time interval, so that only one channel will be open at the time of occurrence of any of the electrical pulses to be sorted.
Petrus, Marloes L. C.; van Veluw, G. Jerre; Wösten, Han A. B.; Claessen, Dennis
Streptomycetes are filamentous soil bacteria that are used in industry for the production of enzymes and antibiotics. When grown in bioreactors, these organisms form networks of interconnected hyphae, known as pellets, which are heterogeneous in size. Here we describe a method to analyze and sort mycelial pellets using a Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS). Detailed instructions are given for the use of the instrument and the basic statistical analysis of the data. We furthermore describe how pellets can be sorted according to user-defined settings, which enables downstream processing such as the analysis of the RNA or protein content. Using this methodology the mechanism underlying heterogeneous growth can be tackled. This will be instrumental for improving streptomycetes as a cell factory, considering the fact that productivity correlates with pellet size. PMID:24561666
Stanghellini, Giovanni; Rosfort, René
The complex relationship between temperament and personal identity, and between these and mental disorders, is of critical interest to both philosophy and psychopathology. More than other living creatures, human beings are constituted and characterized by the interplay of their genotype and phenotype. There appears to be an explanatory gap between the almost perfect genetic identity and the individual differences among humans. One reason for this gap is that a human being is a person besides a physiological organism. We propose an outline of a theoretical model that might somewhat mitigate the explanatory discrepancies between physiological mechanisms and individual human emotional experience and behaviour. Arguing for the pervasive nature of human affectivity, i.e., for the assumption that human consciousness and behaviour is characterised by being permeated by affectivity; to envisage the dynamics of emotional experience, we make use of a three-levelled model of human personal identity that differentiates between factors that are simultaneously at work in the constitution of the individual human person: 1) core emotions, 2) affective temperament types/affective character traits, and 3) personhood. These levels are investigated separately in order to respect the methodological diversity among them (neuroscience, psychopathology, and philosophy), but they are eventually brought together in a hermeneutical account of human personhood. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McGarry, Robert J.
Discussed is how musicians can get used to playing in equal temperament--the system of tuning in which all 12 tones of the chromatic scale stand equidistant from each other in both a logarithmical and musical sense. (RM)
Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.
Temperament among children (N = 111 20-month-olds) from three cultural backgrounds in the United States (Latin American, Japanese American, and European American) was investigated. In accord with a biobehavioral universalist perspective on the expression of early temperament, few significant group differences in child temperament were found, regardless of cultural background. However, factors associated with maternal reports of child temperament differed by cultural group. The findings provide insight into the nature of child temperament generally and temperament of children in immigrant families specifically as well as parenting in immigrant families. PMID:23264709
Song, MinKyoung; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C
Temperament activity level can serve as a proxy for nondeliberate activity and an important part of overall energy expenditure. However, little is known about any association between temperament activity level and children's levels of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. We examined whether temperament activity level in young children is associated with moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity later in childhood and midadolescence. We also assessed if parenting behaviors moderate any association. Data were obtained from 799 children and their mothers involved in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Growth curve analyses were used to examine the relationships over time, controlling for child and parent characteristics. High temperament activity level at age 4.5 was associated with higher moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity at age 9 (β = 5.15; SE =2.47; P < .001). The association became no longer significant after 10.2 years of age. The association was moderated by parental support for physical activity (β = -2.56; SE = 1.01; P = .01). Low temperament activity level in early childhood was a risk factor for low physical activity in later childhood and adolescence. Parental support for physical activity may be beneficial for children whose temperament activity level is low.
Necka, Edward; Hlawacz, Teresa
In contrast to vast literature devoted to the relationships between creativity and personality, relatively few studies addressed the question of the creativity-temperament link. Temperament is conceptualized as the biologically rooted, mostly inborn, foundations for personality and other individual traits. Sixty artists and 60 bank officers…
Iverson, Sydney L.; Gartstein, Maria A.
Research Findings: Temperament, often defined in terms of reactive and regulatory tendencies, has been shown to predict child outcomes over and above other risk factors and represents a critical aspect of social-emotional development. The present article is a systematic review of temperament-based interventions targeting caregivers, wherein the…
Rettew, David C; Stanger, Catherine; McKee, Laura; Doyle, Alicia; Hudziak, James J
Few studies of temperament have tested goodness-of-fit theories of child behavior problems. In this study, we test the hypothesis that interactions between child and parent temperament dimensions predict levels of child psychopathology after controlling for the effects of these dimensions individually. Temperament and psychopathology were assessed in a total of 175 children (97 boys, 78 girls; mean age, 10.99 years; SD, 3.66 years) using composite scores from multiple informants of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory and the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. Parent temperament was assessed using the adult version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Statistical analyses included multiple regression procedures to assess the contribution of child-parent temperament interactions after controlling for demographic variables, other types of child psychopathology, and the individual Temperament and Character Inventory and Junior Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions. Interactions between child and parent temperament dimensions predicted higher levels of externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems over and above the effects of these dimensions alone. Among others, the combination of high child novelty seeking with high maternal novelty was associated with child attention problems, whereas the combination of high child harm avoidance and high father harm avoidance was associated with increased child internalizing problems. Many child temperament dimensions also exerted significant effects independently. The association between a child temperament trait and psychopathology can be dependent upon the temperament of parents. These data lend support to previous theories of the importance of goodness-of-fit.
Edmunds, Neil; Schultz, Andrew
Using Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, authors studied 213 industrial education students in 22 secondary schools in Nebraska to ascertain whether the inventory placed students proportionately into same categories as Myers-Briggs normative group--defined by Keirsey. Large numbers of Sensory Thinker (ST) type found in 60 percent of classes. STs aimed…
Cattle temperament has been reported to influence blood metabolites. Specifically, temperament was related with increased circulation of serum NEFA, decreased blood urea nitrogen, and reduced insulin sensitivity. Metabolic alterations such as these may impact cattle immune function, performance trai...
Temperament, or excitability, is a behavioral trait that has been shown to impact physiology and performance. Temperament in cattle alters the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thereby influencing circulating concentrations of catecholamines and glucocorticoids. The physiological ...
Cheng, I-Fang; Froude, Victoria E; Zhu, Yingxi; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Chang, Hsien-Chang
We present a high throughput (maximum flow rate approximately 10 microl/min or linear velocity approximately 3 mm/s) continuous bio-particle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) at an optimum AC frequency of 500 kHz. The high throughput sorting is achieved with a sustained twDEP particle force normal to the continuous through-flow, which is applied over the entire chip by a single 3D electrode array. The design allows continuous fractionation of micron-sized particles into different downstream sub-channels based on differences in their twDEP mobility on both sides of the cross-over. Conventional DEP is integrated upstream to focus the particles into a single levitated queue to allow twDEP sorting by mobility difference and to minimize sedimentation and field-induced lysis. The 3D electrode array design minimizes the offsetting effect of nDEP (negative DEP with particle force towards regions with weak fields) on twDEP such that both forces increase monotonically with voltage to further increase the throughput. Effective focusing and separation of red blood cells from debris-filled heterogeneous samples are demonstrated, as well as size-based separation of poly-dispersed liposome suspensions into two distinct bands at 2.3 to 4.6 microm and 1.5 to 2.7 microm, at the highest throughput recorded in hand-held chips of 6 microl/min.
Larocque, Hugo; Gagnon-Bischoff, Jérémie; Mortimer, Dominic; Zhang, Yingwen; Bouchard, Frédéric; Upham, Jeremy; Grillo, Vincenzo; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim
The orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried by optical beams is a useful quantity for encoding information. This form of encoding has been incorporated into various works ranging from telecommunications to quantum cryptography, most of which require methods that can rapidly process the OAM content of a beam. Among current state-of-the-art schemes that can readily acquire this information are so-called OAM sorters, which consist of devices that spatially separate the OAM components of a beam. Such devices have found numerous applications in optical communications, a field that is in constant demand for additional degrees of freedom, such as polarization and wavelength, into which information can also be encoded. Here, we report the implementation of a device capable of sorting a beam based on its OAM and polarization content, which could be of use in works employing both of these degrees of freedom as information channels. After characterizing our fabricated device, we demonstrate how it can be used for quantum communications via a quantum key distribution protocol.
Chen, Yue; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Chung, Aram; Kung, Yu-Chung; Teitell, Michael A.; Di Carlo, Dino; Chiou, Pei-Yu
We present a Pulsed Laser Activated Cell Sorter (PLACS) realized by exciting laser induced cavitation bubbles in a PDMS microfluidic channel to create high speed liquid jets to deflect detected fluorescent samples for high speed sorting. Pulse laser triggered cavitation bubbles can expand in few microseconds and provide a pressure higher than tens of MPa for fluid perturbation near the focused spot. This ultrafast switching mechanism has a complete on-off cycle less than 20 μsec. Two approaches have been utilized to achieve 3D sample focusing in PLACS. One is relying on multilayer PDMS channels to provide 3D hydrodynamic sheath flows. It offers accurate timing control of fast (2 m sec-1) passing particles so that synchronization with laser bubble excitation is possible, an critically important factor for high purity and high throughput sorting. PLACS with 3D hydrodynamic focusing is capable of sorting at 11,000 cells/sec with >95% purity, and 45,000 cells/sec with 45% purity using a single channel in a single step. We have also demonstrated 3D focusing using inertial flows in PLACS. This sheathless focusing approach requires 10 times lower initial cell concentration than that in sheath-based focusing and avoids severe sample dilution from high volume sheath flows. Inertia PLACS is capable of sorting at 10,000 particles sec-1 with >90% sort purity.
Gray, Joe W.; Alger, Terry W.; Lord, David E.
A fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter using a fluid drive system, a nozzle with an orifice having a small ratio of length to diameter, and mechanism for vibrating the nozzle along its axis at high frequencies. The orifice is provided with a sharp edge at its inlet, and a conical section at its outlet for a transition from a short cylindrical aperture of small length to diameter ratio to free space. Sample and sheath fluids in separate low pressure reservoirs are transferred into separate high pressure buffer reservoirs through a valve arrangement which first permit the fluids to be loaded into the buffer reservoirs under low pressure. Once loaded, the buffer reservoirs are subjected to high pressure and valves are operated to permit the buffer reservoirs to be emptied through the nozzle under high pressure. A sensor and decision logic is positioned at the exit of the nozzle, and a charging pulse is applied to the jet when a particle reaches a position further downstream where the droplets are formed. In order to adjust the timing of charge pulses, the distance between the sensing station at the outlet of the nozzle and the droplet breakoff point is determined by stroboscopic illumination of the droplet breakoff region using a laser and a revolving lucite cylinder, and a beam on/off modulator. The breakoff point in the region thus illuminated may then be viewed, using a television monitor.
Yuan, Jinzhou; Zhou, Jessie; Raizen, David M.; Bau, Haim H.
Animal motility varies with genotype, disease, aging, and environmental conditions. In many studies, it is desirable to carry out high throughput motility-based sorting to isolate rare animals for, among other things, forward genetic screens to identify genetic pathways that regulate phenotypes of interest. Many commonly used screening processes are labor-intensive, lack sensitivity, and require extensive investigator training. Here, we describe a sensitive, high throughput, automated, motility-based method for sorting nematodes. Our method is implemented in a simple microfluidic device capable of sorting thousands of animals per hour per module, and is amenable to parallelism. The device successfully enriches for known C. elegans motility mutants. Furthermore, using this device, we isolate low-abundance mutants capable of suppressing the somnogenic effects of the flp-13 gene, which regulates C. elegans sleep. By performing genetic complementation tests, we demonstrate that our motility-based sorting device efficiently isolates mutants for the same gene identified by tedious visual inspection of behavior on an agar surface. Therefore, our motility-based sorter is capable of performing high throughput gene discovery approaches to investigate fundamental biological processes. PMID:26008643
Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Van Hulle, Carol; Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
We describe large-sample research using the Infant Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith and Rothbart, 1996) in 1,076 infants at 6 and 12 months of age. The Lab-TAB was designed to assess temperament dimensions through a series of episodes that mimic everyday situations. Our goal is to provide guidelines for scoring Lab-TAB episodes to derive temperament composites. We also present a set of analyses examining mean differences and stability of temperament in early infancy, gender differences in infant temperament, as well as a validation of Lab-TAB episodes and composites with parent reported Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ; Rothbart, 1981) scales. In general, laboratory observed temperament was only modestly related to parent reported temperament. However, temperament measures were significantly stable across time and several gender differences that align with previous research emerged. In sum, the Lab-TAB usefully assesses individual differences in infant emotionality. PMID:28596748
Responds to a parent question regarding two children's differing temperaments. Provides information on temperament traits, focusing on approach-withdrawal, adaptability, distractibility, mood, and the role of stress. Discusses the importance of parents recognizing their own temperament as well as their child's and offers suggestions for addressing…
Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F.; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children who stutter (CWS) and typically developing children (TDC) differ from each other on composite temperament factors or on individual temperament scales. Methods: Participants consisted of 116 age and gender-matched CWS and TDC (3.04-8.11). Temperament was assessed with a Dutch…
Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…
Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates and carcass weight. The objective of this research study was to evaluate temperament scoring methods in beef cattle. Crossbred (n = 228) calves were evaluated for temperament at weaning by ...
Brock, M. E.; Freuler, A.; Baranek, G. T.; Watson, L. R.; Poe, M. D.; Sabatino, A.
This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3-7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations…
Ganiban, Jody M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Ulbricht, Jennifer; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David
This study assessed genetic and environmental contributions to temperament during adolescence within the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development project (NEAD; D. Reiss, J. M. Neiderhiser, E. M. Hetherington, & R. Plomin, 2000). NEAD is a national study that includes twins and other sibling types who vary in regard to genetic relatedness. Seven hundred twenty sibling pairs (aged 12.1-13.5 years) participated at Time 1, and 395 sibling pairs (aged 14.7-16.2 years) participated again at Time 2. At both Times, mothers and fathers rated their children's temperament (emotionality, activity, sociability, and shyness). At Times 1 and 2, genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in temperament, whereas shared environmental contributions were negligible. However, at Time 1, genetic contributions were inflated, and shared environmental contributions were masked if sibling contrast effects were not taken into account. At Time 2, sibling interaction effects had little impact on estimates of genetic and environmental contributions to temperament. Last, temperament stability was primarily explained by genetic factors, whereas both genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for change.
Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Barrett, Melissa; Synnott, Howe; McCraw, Stacey
There is limited research examining temperament and personality in bipolar II disorder. We sought to determine any over-represented temperament and personality features in bipolar II disorder compared to other affective groups. Scores on a self-report measure of temperament and personality were examined in a sample of 443 participants diagnosed with unipolar, bipolar I and bipolar II disorder. After controlling for age, gender, age of depression onset and current depression severity, those with bipolar II disorder were characterized by higher irritability, anxious worrying, self-criticism and interpersonal sensitivity scores, and with lower social avoidance scores compared to unipolar participants. No differences were found between bipolar sub-types on any temperament and personality sub-scales. Limitations included the lack of a control group, a relatively small sample of bipolar I participants, and with the cross-sectional design disallowing conclusions regarding premorbid personality traits as opposed to illness 'scarring' effects. Further research should seek to clarify whether certain temperament and personality styles are over-represented in bipolar II disorder. Any over-represented characteristics may assist with diagnostic differentiation from phenomenologically similar conditions and lead to more appropriate clinical management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Riley, D G; Gill, C A; Boldt, C R; Funkhouser, R R; Herring, A D; Riggs, P K; Sawyer, J E; Lunt, D K; Sanders, J O
cattle often have the reputation for a poor or dangerous temperament. Identification of genomic regions that associate with temperament of such cattle may be useful for genetic improvement strategies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate subjective temperament scores (1 to 9; higher scores indicated more unfavorable temperament) for aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness, and overall temperament of one-half steers in feedlot conditions at 1 yr of age and compare those scores of those steers when evaluated approximately 1 mo postweaning, and conduct whole genome association analyses using SNP markers and the temperament traits of those steers at 1 yr of age and for temperament traits of all calves at weaning. Contemporary groups ( < 0.001) were steers born in the same year and season, and fed in the same feedlot pen. Aggressiveness of steers at 1 yr of age was not associated with aggressiveness at weaning (linear regression coefficient did not differ from 0; = 0.96), but regressions of all other yearling scores of steers on the scores at weaning were positive (coefficients ranged from 0.26 ± 0.04 to 0.32 ± 0.04; < 0.001). Estimates of Pearson correlation coefficients (using unadjusted values and residual values) of the different traits measured at 1 yr of age were large ( > 0.63; < 0.008) except for aggressiveness with nervousness, flightiness, or gregariousness, which did not differ from 0 ( > 0.1). Five SNP on BTA 1, 24, and 29 had suggestive associations (0.17 < [adjusted for FDR] < 0.24) with aggressiveness, nervousness, or flightiness at evaluation postweaning and 13 SNP on 11 chromosomes had suggestive associations (0.07 < [adjusted for FDR] < 0.24) with aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, or overall temperament score of steers at 1 yr of age. Genes close to these loci with roles in neural systems of various organisms included synaptotagmin 4 (BTA 24), FAT atypical cadhedrin 3 (BTA 29), tubulin tyrosine ligase-like 1 (BTA 5
This paper traces William James's famous "temperament thesis" according to which the philosophical stance that individuals take depends on their "temperaments." It seeks to understand James's conception of temperament by locating James within a set of contemporary investigations that linked the sources of mental, and even higher, intellectual processes to the physiological and organic constitution of the individual. The paper argues that James understood temperament along the reflex-arc model and discusses the implications of that physiological account of temperament for James's overall conception of philosophy.
Calabrese, K R
Violence and aggression in the workplace are problems that most Americans confront on a daily basis. The present study is an exploration of the predisposition to conflict in a work environment in which personality traits responsible for increased sarcasm and increased anger in response to sarcasm are identified. Participants represented two subdepartments within a city general hospital. The Keirsey Temperament Sorter (D. Keirsey, 1998) test for departmental temperament and a sarcasm survey designed by the author were used to test for frequency of sarcasm and anger in relation to differing categories of sarcasm. Angry reactions were gauged in relation to sarcasm directed at job performance, personal life, behavior, and appearance. Conclusions from this study point to many variables as causes for workplace anger; these include influences from organizational culture, work environment, psychological defense mechanisms, leadership decisions, stress, task orientation, and personality differences. Sarcasm trigger points leading to anger may be predicted based on a work group's personality composition. A homogeneous personality composition within a work group may involve factors such as personality characteristics common to a particular profession, organizational demands, and hiring practices.
Gray, J.W.; Alger, T.W.; Lord, D.E.
A fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter using a fluid drive system of high pressure in the range of 250 to 1000 psi for greater flow velocity, a nozzle with an orifice having a small ratio of length to diameter for laminar flow rates well above the critical Reynolds number for the high flow velocity, and means for vibrating the nozzle along its axis at high frequencies in a range of about 300 kHz to 800 kHz ae described. The orifice is provided with a sharp edge at its inlet, and a conical section at its outlet for a transition from a short cylindrical aperture of small length to diameter ratio to free space. Sample and sheath fluids in separte low pressure reservoirs are transferred into separate high pressure buffer reservoirs through valve means which first permit the fluids to be loaded into the buffer reservoirs under low pressure. Once loaded, the buffer reservoirs are subjected ato high pressure and valves are operated to permit the buffer reservoirs to be emptied through the nozzle under high pressure. A sensor and decision logic is positioned at the exit of the nozzle, and a charging pulse is applied to the jet when a particle reaches a position further downstream where the droplets are formed. In order to adjust the timing of charge pulses, the distance between the sensing station at the outlet of the nozzle and the droplet breakoff point is determined by stroboscopic illumination of the droplet breakoff region using a laser and a revolving lucite cylinder for breaking up the coherency of the laser, and a beam on/off modulator. The breakoff point in the region thus illuminated may then be viewed, using a television monitor.
Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…
Ardani, Amir Rezaei; Naghibzadeh, Bahram; Farid Hosseini, Farhad; Asadpour, Zahra; Khabazianzadeh, Fatemeh
Involvement of personality traits in susceptibility to suicidal behaviour has attracted considerable research interest over the past decades. This study was motivated by reports that emotionality may play a potentially confounding role in the association between the personality profile and suicidal behaviour. We assessed the association between personality traits, as measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and suicidal behaviour, while controlling for the effects of Affective Temperaments, measured using the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) in a sample of 140 consecutive self-poisoning nonlethal suicide (SNS) attempters admitted to the Emergency Toxicology Clinic, comparing them with a sample of 140 age and sex matched healthy controls. After controlling for Affective Temperaments, the temperament dimension of Novelty Seeking (NS) and the character dimensions of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence remained significantly associated with SNS attempts. NS, in particular, was most consistently and uniquely associated with suicidal behaviour. The present study conveys the difficulty in disentangling the personality profile of SNS attempters from their emotionality. We conclude that the risk associated with certain personality traits is often entirely mediated by Affective Temperaments and few dimensions independently contribute to the risk of self-poisoning nonlethal suicidal behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Merler, E; Gioffrè, F; Rozio, L; Bizzotto, R; Mion, M; Sarto, F
The paper reports 9 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed by means of histology or cytology that were observed among women resident in the Veneto Region, Northern Italy, whose only activity that could involve exposure to asbestos was as rag sorter. These cases are part of a group of about 260 subjects with mesothelioma whose entire working and residential history has been collected. The women worked as rag sorters between the 1940's and 1960's in textile recycling (8 cases) or (one case) at a paper mill where cotton was used for paper production. The work as rag sorter helps to explain the high proportion of mesotheliomas among women with an occupational exposure to asbestos.
Dermen, Diran; And Others
In an earlier report, one of the authors describes 28 temperament factors for which there is sufficient consensus in the literature to call them "established". From 1 to 5 distinct bipolar subscales were suggested to mark each factor; 12 or 16 item subscales were written, each balanced in terms of the two defined poles and in terms of numbers of…
Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.; Walden, Tedra A.
The purpose of this article is to discuss definitional and measurement issues as well as empirical evidence regarding temperament, especially with regard to children's (a)typical speech and language development. Although all ages are considered, there is a predominant focus on children. Evidence from considerable empirical research lends support…
Stevenson, J; Graham, P
This paper discusses conceptual issues and begins with a consideration of definitions of temperament. It is suggested that the purposes for which temperament has been studied have, to some degree, dictated methods used and inferences drawn. Those psychopathologists interested in the relationship between temperament and psychiatric disorder, or emotional and behavioural disturbance, have tended to use different methods from those more concerned with delineating the structure of personality. Some issues and problems are common to both approaches, e.g. the definition of behaviour reflecting temperament in terms of style rather than content. Other issues, such as the difficulty involved in drawing a clear distinction between temperamental attributes and mental disorders, are restricted to one approach. The relative contribution of gentic and environmental effects is of interest to both psychopathologists (who wish to examine this issue in relation to the development of the individual), and to psychologists (who are usually more concerned with populations or aggregate effects). The application of biometric genetic models might clarify this issue, and various suggestions are made regarding steps that need to be taken if such models are to be successfully applied.
Oakland, Thomas; Singh, Kuldeep; Callueng, Camelo; Puri, Gurmit Singh; Goen, Akiko
Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 8- through 16-years-old in India (n = 400) and the United States of America (n = 3,200) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible styles. In general, Indian children prefer extroverted to…
Clauss, Jacqueline A; Seay, April L; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Avery, Suzanne N; Cao, Aize; Cowan, Ronald L; Benningfield, Margaret M; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano
Children born with an inhibited temperament are at heightened risk for developing anxiety, depression and substance use. Inhibited temperament is believed to have a biological basis; however, little is known about the structural brain basis of this vulnerability trait. Structural MRI scans were obtained from 84 (44 inhibited, 40 uninhibited) young adults. Given previous findings of amygdala hyperactivity in inhibited individuals, groups were compared on three measures of amygdala structure. To identify novel substrates of inhibited temperament, a whole brain analysis was performed. Functional activation and connectivity were examined across both groups. Inhibited adults had larger amygdala and caudate volume and larger volume predicted greater activation to neutral faces. In addition, larger amygdala volume predicted greater connectivity with subcortical and higher order visual structures. Larger caudate volume predicted greater connectivity with the basal ganglia, and less connectivity with primary visual and auditory cortex. We propose that larger volume in these salience detection regions may result in increased activation and enhanced connectivity in response to social stimuli. Given the strong link between inhibited temperament and risk for psychiatric illness, novel therapeutics that target these brain regions and related neural circuits have the potential to reduce rates of illness in vulnerable individuals. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse
Age, gender and cross-national differences of children ages 8 through 16 in Greece (n = 400) and the United States (n = 5,400) are examined on four temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible styles. In general, Greek children prefer extroverted to introverted styles and organized…
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…
Gonda, Xenia; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S
Affective temperaments may carry distinct evolutionary advantages both on the individual or a group level, so we can expect that in different cultural and national samples the frequency of dominant affective temperaments will show characteristic differences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of distribution of dominant affective temperaments in different national studies of general non-clinical population. In our study we included six studies published in different countries around the world (Argentina, Germany, Hungary, Korea, Portugal, and Lebanon) which investigated a large sample of non-clinical population using TEMPS-A, and reported frequencies for dominant affective temperaments. The frequencies of dominant affective temperaments were compared using chi square tests. We found a significant difference in the frequency of affective temperaments among the different national studies in case of the cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments. We found important parallels between the frequency of affective temperaments and cultural dimensions described by Hofstede (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). The characteristics encompassed by the depressive temperament show considerable similarities with Hofstede's individualism-collectivism dimension, while those of the hyperthymic temperament seem to be similar to uncertainty avoidance, and the irritable temperament shows similarities with Hofstede's power distance. Furthermore, the relative frequency of these dominant temperaments in case of the different national samples paralleled the relative scores of these countries on the corresponding cultural scales. Our results indicate an important relationship between affective temperaments and cultural dimensions, which suggests that these phenomena may be the manifestations of the same genetically determined predispositions in different forms. We included a study by Erfurth et al. (2005), in which affective temperaments were evaluated
Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.
Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688
Park, Chun Il; An, Suk Kyoon; Kim, Hae Won; Koh, Min Jung; Namkoong, Kee; Kang, Jee In; Kim, Se Joo
Chronotype, an individual׳s preferred time for activity and sleep, has been known to be associated with affective disorders. Affective temperaments may be subclinical manifestations that represent a biological diathesis for affective disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between circadian preferences and affective temperaments. Six hundred and forty one healthy young adults (376 male, 265 female) completed the Korean Translation of Composite Scale of Morningness to measure diurnal preferences and the Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) to measure cyclothymic, depressive, hyperthymic, irritable, and anxious affective temperaments. Multivariate analyses of covariance were computed with the five affective temperaments as dependent variables, chronotype and gender as an independent variable, and age as a covariate. One hundred and sixteen subjects were classified as having morning-type (18.1%), 402 as intermediate-type (62.7%), and 123 as evening-type (19.2%) circadian preferences. Evening-type was significantly associated with greater depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments, while morning-type was significantly associated with hyperthymic temperament. The present study only used self-report questionnaires to measure diurnal preference. Evening-type subjects were more likely to have depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments, whereas morning-types were more likely to have hyperthymic temperament. This relationship between chronotype and affective temperament might be important for vulnerability to affective disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jaracz, Marcin; Paciorek, Przemysław; Buciński, Adam; Borkowska, Alina
Recent studies indicate that choice of profession is related to differences in affective temperament, which is probably due to various predispositions needed to efficiently perform particular professions. The aim of the present study was to assess affective temperament and executive functions in a sample of emergency medicine professionals. 75 emergency medicine professionals were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament was assessed by means of TEMPS-A. Executive functions were assessed by means of Trail Making Test and Stroop Color Word Interference Test. Subjects showed significantly higher rates of hyperthymic, compared to depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments. The principal component analysis revealed that hyperthymic temperament contributes to a different factor, than the remaining ones. Higher rates of depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments were related to poorer performance in Trail Making Test, whereas hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effect. Due to the size of the sample, results of the present study may have lacked power to show all the relationships between tested variables. Hyperthymic temperament promotes efficient performance of complex tasks under time pressure. Depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments have the opposite effect. This makes hyperthymic temperament a desirable trait in emergency medicine professionals, performing complex medical tasks under extreme conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lin, Chien-Chen; Ni, Mei-Hui; Chang, Yu-Chung; Yeh, Hsiu-Lun; Lin, Feng-Huei
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been proven useful in research and clinical applications. However, the generation of mAbs by conventional hybridoma technology is time-, cost- and labor-consuming. Here we developed a simplified procedure for efficient generation and selection of antibody-producing hybridomas within 1 h, using a particular cell sorter design, a cytoflow reactor-based cell sorter (CBCS) which consists mainly of the "cytoflow reactor" that comprises two components, a reaction chamber and a glass tubing for air and medium exchange by gravity, and the "sorting material", human EGFR-conjugated bamboo charcoal, for specific B-cell enrichment. The high surface area and porous structure of bamboo charcoal greatly increased cell density and protein production. Moreover, from Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy and IFA analysis, the carboxylation and immobilization of bamboo charcoal can be introduced easily by nitric acid treatment and conjugated handily with human EGFR using EDC/NHS. Other evidences, such as IFA, showed that the specific hybridomas generated in this study could secrete specific anti-human EGFR antibodies. Our design allows the production of mAbs while avoiding time-consuming steps, such as large numbers of limiting dilutions and screening assays, and demonstrates that the CBCS could be a powerful tool for monoclonal antibody production. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dembińska-Krajewska, Daria; Rybakowski, Janusz
The aim of the paper is to describe the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) constructed by prominent researchers of affective disorders, under the direction of Hagop Akiskal, and functioning in full version since 2005. The article refers to the definitions of temperament, including the concept of affective temperament, related to the area of emotionality and conceptualized as the endophenotype of affective disorders. Based on clinical observations, initially four types of temperament had been delineated: hiperthymic, depressed, irritable and cyclothymic, and, subsequently, the anxious temperament was added. Full version of the scale contains 110 items for the five types of temperament, which were discussed in detail. The TEMPS-A has been translated into 32 languages and its verification was performed in many countries, including Poland. The scale has been widely used in epidemiological and clinical studies in general population, in patients with affective disorders, and in other diseases. In affective disorders, different types of temperament show, among others, a relationship to the type and symptomatology of bipolar disorder as well as to a predisposition to suicidal behavior. In Poznań centre, an association between several dimensions of temperament of the TEMPS-A, and prophylacic efficacy of lithium has been shown. Different types of temperament also play a role in other mental disorders and somatic diseases. In the final section of the article, the studies performed so far on the molecular-genetic determinants of temperament dimensions, measured by the TEMPS-A are presented.
Fenstermacher, Susan K.; Saudino, Kimberly J.
Links among imitation, performance on a standardized test of intellectual development, and laboratory-assessed temperament were explored in 311 24-month old twin pairs. Moderate phenotypic associations were found between imitation, mental development, and temperament dimensions of Affect/Extraversion and Task Orientation. Covariance between imitation and mental development reflected genetic and shared environmental influences, whereas associations between imitation and temperament reflected genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences. Genetic factors linking imitation and temperament were the same as those linking temperament and mental development. Nonetheless, approximately 62% of total genetic variance on imitation was independent of genetic influences on mental development and temperament, suggesting that young children’s imitation is not simply an index of general cognitive ability or dispositional style but has many underlying genetic influences that are unique. PMID:27840593
Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J
Links among imitation, performance on a standardized test of intellectual development, and laboratory-assessed temperament were explored in 311 24-month old twin pairs. Moderate phenotypic associations were found between imitation, mental development, and temperament dimensions of Affect/Extraversion and Task Orientation. Covariance between imitation and mental development reflected genetic and shared environmental influences, whereas associations between imitation and temperament reflected genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences. Genetic factors linking imitation and temperament were the same as those linking temperament and mental development. Nonetheless, approximately 62% of total genetic variance on imitation was independent of genetic influences on mental development and temperament, suggesting that young children's imitation is not simply an index of general cognitive ability or dispositional style but has many underlying genetic influences that are unique.
Janssen, James A; Kolacz, Jacek; Shanahan, Lilly; Gangel, Meghan J; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; Wideman, Laurie
Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA) patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian). Parents reported their children's temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13) and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males' high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12). Males' surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54) and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12). No predictions from females' childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, and surgency may directly seek out pastimes that involve PA
Sakai, Y; Akiyama, T; Miyake, Y; Kawamura, Y; Tsuda, H; Kurabayashi, L; Tominaga, M; Noda, T; Akiskal, K; Akiskal, H
This study aims to demonstrate the relevance of temperament to job stress. The subjects were 848 male and 366 female Japanese company employees. Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) and Munich Personality Test (MPT) were administered to assess temperaments, and the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ) to assess job stress. We used hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis in order to demonstrate whether temperament variables added any unique variance after controlling the effects of other predictors such as gender, age and job rank. In all subscales of the GJSQ, temperament predicted a large share of the variance in job stress. Remarkably, for interpersonal relationship stressors, the temperament variables added greater variance than that predicted by gender, age and job rank. Summary of the hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that the irritable temperament was associated with the most prominent vulnerability, followed by cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. The schizoid temperament had difficulty in the area of social support. On the other hand, the hyperthymic temperament displayed significant robustness in facing most job stressors; the melancholic type showed a similar pattern to a lesser degree. The findings may be different in a clinical Japanese sample, or a cohort of healthy employees from a different cultural background. Temperament influences job stress significantly-indeed, it impacts on such stress with greater magnitude than age, gender and job rank in most areas examined. Temperament influences interpersonal relationship stressors more than workload-related stressors. Interestingly, in line with previous clinical and theoretical formulations, the hyperthymic and melancholic types actually appear to be "hyper-adapted" to the workplace.
Suskauer, Stacy J; Cintas, Holly L; Marini, Joan C; Gerber, Lynn H
Children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) must participate in therapy to achieve motor performance objectives. Their behavioral style may influence motor performance. For this reason, the temperament of children with types III or IV OI was assessed prospectively to 1) compare their temperament with that of nondisabled children, 2) investigate the relationship between temperament and gross motor performance, and 3) examine relationships among temperament, parental overprotection and coping, physical activity, muscle strength, and motor performance. Age-appropriate Carey Temperament Scales, Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF), and the Vulnerable Child/Overprotecting Parents Scale were completed for 35 children 1 to 12 years old. Additional measures included the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, Parent Daily Hassles Scale, manual muscle testing, Pediatric Activity Record, and a Summed Severity Score. Spearman correlations and multiple regression were used to identify and predict significant relationships. Temperament of children with OI differed from age-based norms in only 1 domain: activity. Motor performance (BAMF) correlated significantly with 3 domains of temperament: persistence (r = -.48), approach (r = -.34), and activity (r =.40). Activity was also related to the ratio of head circumference to body length (r = -.45) and the number of fractures in the preceding year (r = -.35). Parents' reports of their daily hassles significantly correlated with several domains of the child's temperament. No significant relationships were identified between parental overprotection and temperament or motor performance. The temperament of children with types III and IV OI does not differ from that of their nondisabled peers, with the exception of lower activity scores. Although it is considered a biological attribute, the expression of temperament, specifically activity, may be influenced by learned behaviors. Because gross motor performance is related to
Paavonen, Vesa; Luoto, Kaisa; Lassila, Antero; Leinonen, Esa; Kampman, Olli
Individual temperament is associated with psychiatric morbidity and could explain differences in psychiatric comorbidities. We investigated the association of temperament profile clusters with anxiety disorder comorbidity in patients with depression. We assessed the temperament of 204 specialized care-treated depressed patients with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and their diagnoses with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Two-step cluster analysis was used for defining patients' temperament profiles and logistic regression analysis was used for predicting different anxiety disorders for various temperament profiles. Four temperament clusters were found: 1) Novelty seekers with highest Novelty Seeking scores (n = 56),2) Persistent with highest Persistence scores (n = 36), 3) Reserved with lowest Novelty Seeking scores (n = 66) and 4) Wearied with highest Harm avoidance, lowest Reward Dependence and lowest Persistence scores (n = 58). After adjusting for clinical variables, panic disorder and/or agoraphobia were predicted by Novelty seekers' temperament profile with odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8 - 6.9, p < 0.001), social anxiety disorder was predicted by Wearied temperament profile with OR = 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6 - 7.5, p = 0.002), and generalized anxiety disorder was predicted by Reserved temperament profile with OR = 2.6 (95% CI = 1.2 - 5.3, p = 0.01). The patients' temperament profiles were assessed while displaying depressive symptoms, which may have affected results. Temperament clusters with unique dimensional profiles were specifically associated with different anxiety disorders in this study. These results suggest that TCI-R could offer a valuable dimensional method for predicting the risk of anxiety disorders in diverse depressed patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.; Walden, Tedra A.
The purpose of this article is to discuss definitional and measurement issues as well as empirical evidence regarding temperament, especially with regard to children's (a)typical speech and language development. Although all ages are considered, there is a predominant focus on children. Evidence from considerable empirical research lends support to the association between temperament, childhood development and social competence. With regard to communication disorders, extant literature suggests that at least certain elements of temperament (e.g., attention regulation, inhibitory control) are associated with the presence of certain communication disorders. However, the precise nature of this association remains unclear. Three possible accounts of the association between temperament and speech-language disorder are presented. One, the disability model (i.e., certain disorders impact psychological processes leading to changes in these processes, personality, etc., Roy & Bless, 2000a) suggests speech-language disorders may lead to or cause changes in psychological or temperamental characteristics. The disability account cannot be categorically refuted based on currently available research findings. The (pre)dispositional or vulnerability model (i.e., certain psychological processes directly cause the disorder or indirectly modify the course or expression of the disorder, Roy & Bless, 2000a) suggests that psychological or temperamental characteristics may lead to or cause changes in speech-language disorders. The vulnerability account has received some empirical support with regard to stuttering and voice disorders but has not received widespread empirical testing for most speech-language disorders. A third, interaction account, suggests that “disability” and ““vulnerability” may both impact communication disorders in a complex, dynamically-changing manner, a possibility that must await further empirical study. Suggestions for future research directions are
Guerim, Laura D; de Carvalho, Hudson W; Lara, Diogo R
The relationship between temperament and sexual orientation has been poorly characterized. We have used the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament (AFECT) model to evaluate this association in a large population sample. Data from 16,571 subjects between 21 and 45 years old (mean age=29.1±6.3 yrs, 69.4% females) was collected anonymously through Internet in Brazil. Regarding affective temperaments, male cyclothymics and dysphorics had the lowest percentage of people with heterosexual orientation and the highest percentages of people with bisexual and homosexual orientations. The opposite profile was observed in hyperthymic and euthymic types. Among females, the volatile, cyclothymic, apathetic, disinhibited and euphoric types were less often observed in people with "pure" heterosexual orientation and more often in people with bisexual orientation. In men only, homosexuality was more common among the depressive, cyclothymic and dyphorics temperaments. Emotional trait analysis showed that heterosexual subjects differed statistically from all other groups by having higher scores of coping and stability and lower scores of sensitivity and desire. Overall, the effect sizes were small to moderate, with the largest differences between "pure" heterosexuals and people with bisexual orientation, particularly in women. Subjects with heterosexual orientation who have had homosexual experience and those with homosexual orientation presented intermediate scores. Cross-sectional design, lack of potentially important covariates (e.g., maltreatment) and data collected by Internet only. Externalized and unstable traits were associated mainly with bisexuality. The group of heterosexuals with homosexual fantasies or experiences offers a new approach for the study of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brock, Matthew E.; Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Poe, Michele D.; Sabatino, Antoinette
Purpose This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3–7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Methods Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt & Carey, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (Carey & McDevitt, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three dimensional constructs of sensory features (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsivness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. Results The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Conclusions Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally associated with sensory response patterns. Shared mechanisms underlying sensory responsiveness
Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Mitake, Tomoe; Nogi, Yukako; Inoue, Koki
Insomnia among workers reduces the quality of life, contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs and losses in work performance. The relationship between occupational stress and insomnia has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperament in occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between temperament, occupational stress, and insomnia. The subjects were 133 Japanese daytime local government employees. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Insomnia was assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that the higher subdivided stress group by "role conflict" (OR = 5.29, 95% CI, 1.61-17.32) and anxious temperament score (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19-1.49) was associated with the presence of insomnia using an adjusted model, whereas other factors were excluded from the model. The study limitations were the sample size and the fact that only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. This study demonstrated the relationships between workers' anxious temperament, role conflict, and insomnia. Recognizing one's own anxious temperament would lead to self-insight, and the recognition of anxious temperament and reduction of role conflict by their supervisors or coworkers would reduce the prevalence of insomnia among workers in the workplace.
Cipriano, Elizabeth A.; Stifter, Cynthia A.
This longitudinal study assessed whether maternal behavior and emotional tone moderated the relationship between toddler temperament and preschooler's effortful control. Maternal behavior and emotional tone were observed during a parent-child competing demands task when children were 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at 2 years…
Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others
The Perception of Baby Temperament Scales (PBT) were used to elicit parental perceptions of infant temperament, with the results rated for internal consistency and congruence between parents. Data was obtained from 26 families, with both father and mother describing their first-born infants at five months of age. The PBT Scales deal with a range…
The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of temperament scoring. Crossbred (n=228) calves were evaluated for temperament by an individual evaluator at weaning by two methods of scoring: 1) pen score (1 to 5 scale, with higher scores indicating increasing degree of nervousness, aggressiven...
Hough, Leaetta M.
Much of the scientific community has believed that temperament variables could not be included in batteries of tests to predict job performance because no generalized principles could be discerned from the results. For Project A, a major Army project on the prediction of job performance, a temperament inventory was developed and implemented. This…
Jaynes, W. E.
As a follow-up to studies by McKechnie (1974) and Marano (1976), the relation of self-report questionnaire measures of worker motivation and temperament to similar measures of participation in leisure activities was explored. One sample of 72 college students was given worker motivation and temperament questionnaires. A second sample of 126…
Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang
Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…
Rapee, Ronald M.; Coplan, Robert J.
Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines…
Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen
Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear,…
Oakland, Thomas; Alghorani, Mohammed Adnan; Lee, Dong Hun
Temperament styles of 400 Palestinian children living in Gaza are described, examined for possible gender and age differences, and compared with those of 3,200 US children in light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs. The results show that Palestinian children generally prefer practical to imaginative, feeling to…
Iwawaki, Saburo; And Others
Assesses the generalizability of structure of temperament across culture. Responses of 304 Japanese college students (59.5 male) to the Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS) were compared to those of the American sample studied by Lerner, Palermo, Spiro and Nesselroade (1982) through the use of confirmatory factor analytic procedures. (Author/BE)
Schoen, Michael J.; Nagle, Richard J.
Investigated relationship between temperament and school readiness scores among 152 kindergarten children. All correlations between Temperament Assessment Battery for Children (TABC) scales and Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) scores were significant when effects of receptive vocabulary were removed. Results showed that, once TABC persistence…
McClowry, Sandra Graham
Maternal reports of child temperament were used to develop temperament profiles of school-age children. The subjects were 883 children who were between 4 and 12 years of age. The children's families varied substantially in their socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. To develop the profiles, the dimensions derived from the School-Age Temperament Inventory were subjected to a second order principal factor analysis with varimax rotation. Pearson chi-squares were used to determine whether sociodemographic variables were proportionally represented among the profiles. Forty-two percent of the children were classified into four temperament profiles. High maintenance and cautious/slow to warm up were deemed as challenging temperaments. Industrious and social/eager to try were mirror images of those profiles and were labeled easy. Some children were both types of challenging or easy profiles. The generalizability of the profiles in relation to the sociodemographic variables of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status was also examined. Challenging temperament profiles were disproportionately represented by boys, Hispanic children, and those from lower socioeconomic families. Girls were over represented in the group that included both types of easy temperaments. Social/eager to try children were more often from higher rather than lower socioeconomic status families. Clinical applications and research implications for the profiles are discussed. The profiles can be used as exemplars that parents can use to recognize their child's temperament. Further research is needed to explore whether different developmental outcomes are associated with the profiles. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA).
Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates, and carcass weight. Three research studies are summarized which indicate the potential influence of temperament on metabolism. In Brahman heifers, (n=12) the 6 most temperamental and 6 mos...
Sterry, Terry W.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Gartstein, Maria A.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B.
This study examined whether children's social behavior mediated the associations between specific dimensions of temperament and peer acceptance, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. We also explored the role of child's age on the associations between temperament and social functioning. Primary caregiver reports of temperament…
Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.
The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…
Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.
Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…
This paper presents a discussion of principles and problems of neurotransmitter challenge tests using examples of experiments, most of which were performed in the author's laboratory. Drugs targeting synthesis, release, receptors or reuptake of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenergic transmitter (TM) systems were used for characterizing or discriminating certain temperament or personality traits and their sub-factors. Any personality or temperament trait is characterized by multiple TM responses, thus constellations of hormone responses to drugs acting on different TM systems or on different sources of TM activity were investigated within individuals in crossover designs. The major conclusions are: (i) intra-individual patterns of hormone responses to different TM-related drugs, or to agonists and antagonists, can help to discriminate subtypes of temperament dimensions, and (ii) the latency and shape of response curves may help specify processes of biological responses related to psychological dimensions and reveal common TM sensitivities in clusters of traits. TM sensitivity, defined by hormone responses, does not always correspond to accompanying behavioural indicators, but may provide more specific information on underlying mechanisms. Additional consideration of drug doses and experimental induction of stressors may serve to identify temperament-related susceptibilities to certain drugs. Limitations of the challenge approach and recommendations for future research are discussed.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja
Obesity, a common health condition in adolescence leading to severe medical complications, is assumed to be influenced by temperament factors. This paper investigates associations between reactive and regulative temperament, problematic eating behaviours and excess weight. Several self-report instruments were completed by 130 adolescents (mean age 14.13 ± 0.61 years), including 27 overweight and obese individuals (20.8%). Bootstrap analysis revealed a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between reactive temperament and body mass index percentile, which differed according to gender: Restrained eating, which predicted weight gain, was more present in girls having a higher sensitivity to reward and in boys showing a higher sensitivity to punishment. No effect of regulative temperament was found. These results have important implications for weight management programmes, as they suggest that reducing restrained eating by working on temperament may help to control weight. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Kitamura, Toshinori; Ohashi, Yukiko; Minatani, Mariko; Haruna, Megumi; Murakami, Mikihiko; Goto, Yoshitaka
Accuracy of temperament assessment is a prerequisite in research studies. To identify the extent to which parental assessment of child temperament is biased by their personal attributes, we proposed a new structural equation model, in which biases of parental attributes in their assessment of child temperament can be separated from the true (i.e. non-biased) associations between the two. We examined 234 father-mother pairs using questionnaires including Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, and Impulsivity; Social Desirability Scale; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Temperament and Character Inventory; and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Paternal Depression and Persistence, maternal Trait Anger, and parental Novelty Seeking showed significant bias in assessment of Emotionality. Maternal Self-transcendence showed significant bias in assessment of child Impulsivity. Researchers should be cautious about biases in parental assessment of children's Emotionality and Impulsivity, but other temperament traits may be free from such biases. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Tanabe, Sanshi; Terao, Takeshi; Shiotsuki, Ippei; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ishii, Keisuke; Shigemitsu, Osamu; Fujiki, Minoru; Hoaki, Nobuhiko
Suicide has been reported to be associated with cyclothymic, irritable, depressive and anxious temperaments. In contrast, hyperthymic temperament has been reported to be protective against suicide. In the present study, we hypothesized that Japanese patients with suicide attempt may have higher scores of cyclothymic, irritable, depressive, and anxious temperaments but lower scores of hyperthymic temperament than non-suicidal patients. In order to examine this hypothesis, we investigated Japanese patients of a university emergency center. The association of temperament and suicide attempt was investigated in 116 patients referred to a university emergency center for intoxication or injury. Of them, 35 patients of suspected suicide attempt were categorized as 18 patients who intended to die with attempted suicide and suffered from self-inflicted but not fatal injury (Suicide Attempt II), 4 patients whose intention to die were undetermined although they suffered from self-inflicted injury (Undetermined Suicide-Related Behavior II), and 13 patients who had no intention to die although they suffered from self-inflicted injury (Self-Harm II). Logistic regression analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the present suicide attempt and the number of suicide attempts, respectively. Anxious temperament scores were significantly and directly associated with Suicide Attempt II group whereas irritable temperament scores were associated with Self-Harm II group. The present findings suggest that those with anxious temperament may have more suicide attempts than those with other temperaments, indicating anxious temperament as a risk factor of suicide attempt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wachs, Theodore D
Temperament refers to relatively stable, early appearing, biologically rooted individual differences in behavioral traits. Individual differences in temperament are multidetermined encompassing both biological and experiential influences. Evidence indicates that certain temperament traits, such as impulsivity, inhibition, and negative emotionality, can serve as developmental risk factors. Evidence also indicates that other temperament traits, such as flexible self-regulation, sociability, and task orientation, can serve to increase children's resilience. Five potential mechanisms through which individual differences in temperament can increase vulnerability or facilitate resilience are presented: (1) Differential treatment of children with different temperaments by caregivers or teachers (reactive covariance). (2) Children with different temperament styles seeking out environments that may increase risk or promote resilience (active covariance). (3) Goodness or poorness of fit between child temperament characteristics and environmental demands. (4) Children with different temperaments reacting to similar levels or types of stress in different ways. (5) Different coping strategies used by children with different temperaments.
Rodriguez, Kristan D; Bartoloni, Joseph A; Hendricson, William D
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between personality preferences of incoming fourth-year dental students at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio as measured by the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II and their third-year clinical productivity and percentage of broken appointments. All 105 incoming fourth-year dental students in 2016 were invited to participate in the study, and 92 students completed the temperament questionnaire, for a response rate of 87.5%. Those students' clinical activity during their third year was measured by production points and percentage of broken appointments extracted from the electronic health record. The results showed that the majority of the respondents were extroverts rather than introverts and that the extroverts had significantly higher production points and significantly fewer broken appointments than the introverts. The most common personality preferences were sensing and judging. More than two-thirds of the respondents represented the Guardian temperament, one of four categories on the temperament measure. These findings help highlight the traits that may contribute to success in clinical training during dental school and support the notion that clinical success may be influenced by certain personality characteristics as well as the technical and specialized skills of dentistry.
Babadagi, Zehra; Karabekiroglu, Koray M Z; Ucar, Filiz; Say, Gokce Nur; Yuce, Murat; Yildirim, Zeynep Gulcin
Temperament refers to the totality of individual characteristics present from birth that determine a child's unique style of behavior. Maternal personality and attitudes, one of the factors affecting temperament traits in children, is a frequently investigated subject. However, paternal variables have remained insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between the fathers' temperament, character, attitudes, psychopathology and temperament of the 3-6 years-old children. The parents of 36-60 months-old children in the preschool settings in Samsun were included in the study (n:200). Their mothers completed "Maternal Sociodemographic Form" prepared by the researcher, and the temperament of children "Children Behaviour Questionnare" were scored by the mothers. Their fathers completed "Paternal Sociodemographic Form", and to assess father psychopathology "Brief Symptom Inventory", to determine father temperament and character "Temperament and Character Inventory" and to determine attitudes "Parenting Attitudes Scale" were scored by the fathers. In this study, we found several significant associations between children's temperament and fathers temperament and character, attitudes styles and psychopathology. The scores of paternal harm avoidance increase and self directedness decrease were found to be significantly positivily correlated with negative temperamental charecteristics of the children. The democratic attitudes of fathers were significantly correlated with positive temperamental scores of the children. All domains of paternal psychopathology were found to be in significant association with negative temperamental characteristics of the children. Our findings showed the complex interplay between determinants of parenting. Specifically, this study is one of the first to investigate paternal personality, psychopathology and attitudes, alone and in interaction with preschool child temperament.
LoBue, Vanessa; Coan, James A.; Thrasher, Cat; DeLoache, Judy S.
Indicators of temperament appear early in infancy and remain relatively stable over time. Despite a great deal of interest in biological indices of temperament, most studies of infant temperament rely on parental reports or behavioral tasks. Thus, the extent to which commonly used temperament measures relate to potential biological indicators of infant temperament is still relatively unknown. The current experiment examines the relationship between a common parental report measure of temperament – the Infant Behavior Questionnaire – Revised (IBQ-R) – and measures of frontal EEG asymmetry in infants. We examined associations between the subscales of the IBQ-R and frontal EEG asymmetry scores recorded during a combined series of neutral attentional and putatively emotional recording conditions in infants between 7 and 9 months of age. We predicted that approach-related subscales of the IBQ-R (e.g., Approach, Soothability) would be related to greater left prefrontal asymmetry, while withdrawal-related subscales (e.g., Distress to Limitations, Fear, Falling Reactivity, Perceptual Sensitivity) would be related to greater right prefrontal asymmetry. In the mid- and lateral-frontal regions, Approach, Distress to Limitations, Fear, Soothability, and Perceptual Sensitivity were generally associated with greater left frontal activation (rs≥.23, ps<0.05), while only Falling Reactivity was associated with greater right frontal activation (rs≤−.44, ps<0.05). Results suggest that variability in frontal EEG asymmetry is robustly associated with parental report measures of temperament in infancy. PMID:21829482
Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children’s temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684
Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie
Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. © The Author(s) 2016.
Sayin, Aslihan; Aslan, Salçuk
The terms temperament, character and personality have been used almost synonymously despite their different meanings. Hippocratic physicians conceptualized illness, including melancholia, in dimensional terms as an out-growth of premorbid characteristics. In modern times, full-scale application of this dimensional concept to psychiatric disorders led Kraepelin, Schneider and Kretschmer to hypothesize that the 'endogenous psychoses are nothing other than marked accentuation of normal types of temperament'. Akiskal's 'soft-bipolarity' and 'affective temperaments' concepts and Cloninger's psychobiological model of temperament and character, which includes four temperament and three character dimensions, are examples of this dimensional approach from the last two decades. Hypotheses concerning the relationship between personality disorders and mood disorders have been described, but it is likely that a single unitary model would not adequately capture the complexity inherent in the relationship between mood and personality disorders. The DSM multiaxial approach to diagnosis encourages the clinician to distinguish state (Axis I) from trait (Axis II) features of mental disorders. Categorical systems like DSM have been criticised because of their inability to mention temperament, character and personality features. In this review, examples of dimensional approaches to mood disorders are given and discussed under the influence of temperament, character and personality disorders. For this purpose, literature from 1980 to 2004 has been reviewed through Pub/med, using the following key words.
Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample ( n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.
Ehrt, U; Brieger, P; Marneros, A
The history of the temperament concept begins in ancient Greece. The humoral theory remained influential over the centuries. At the beginning of the 20 th century, both Wilhelm Wundt and his pupil Emil Kraepelin formulated new aspects. Wundt described two dimensions: "speed of variability of emotions" and "intensity of emotions". Kraepelin observed four fundamental states (depressive, manic, irritable and cyclothymic), which he linked to manic-depressive illness. Since then different lines of temperament research have evolved: (1) psychiatric-psychopathological theories (e. g. Ewald, Kretschmer and Sheldon), which tend to see temperament as a dilution of full-blown affective disorders; (2) neurobiological theories (e. g. Pavlov, Eysenck and Gray), which understand temperament as determined by underlying neurobiological processes - especially levels of arousal; and (3) developmental theories (e. g. Chess & Thomas, Rothbart and Kagan), which derived their temperament concept from early childhood observations. Recent theories (e. g. those of Cloninger or Akiskal) combine different aspects. After reviewing the historical temperament concepts we present underlying factors which are linked to affective disorders (such as emotional reactivity, cyclicity or trait affectivity). Finally, we illustrate the importance of temperament concepts for research in affective disorders.
Farkas, Chamarrita; Vallotton, Claire
Temperament refers to individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation and is influenced by genetic and experiential variation and maturation. Temperament reflects biologically based individual differences that emerge in early life and remain relatively stable thereafter. Given the growing interest in cultural variation in infant temperament, this study examined the temperament of 12-month-old children in Chile and the US. The aims were to validate a version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised - Very Short Form in Spanish for Chile and to compare Chilean and US infants' temperament. For the first aim, 150 Chilean infants aged 10-15 months were assessed, and 73 US infants aged 10-15 months were examined for the second aim. The children's parents completed a demographic questionnaire and the IBQ-R-VSF, which measures three dimensions of temperament: Surgency, Negative Affectivity, and Effortful Control. The reliability of each dimension for the Chilean sample was between 0.70 and 0.75, and significant differences between Chilean and US infants emerged. Parents of Chilean infants reported higher levels of Effortful Control, whereas US parents reported that their infants exhibited higher levels of Negative Affectivity. A relationship between parents' higher educational level and infants' higher levels of Surgency was found for both countries. No gender or age differences were observed for any of the three temperament dimensions. These results and their implications for cultural studies are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olivencia-Carrión, Maria Angustias; Ferri-García, Ramón; Rueda, María Del Mar; Jiménez-Torres, Manuel Gabriel; López-Torrecillas, Francisca
Nomophobia is defined as the fear of being out of mobile phone contact and is considered to be a phobia of the modern age. The current study set out to establish the relationship between temperament and personality and the development of nomophobia. The sample was composed of 968 participants selected from the Andalusian population, of which there were 182 males and 785 females aged from 23.19 years. The instruments used were the Questionnaire to Assess Nomophobia (QANIP; Olivencia-Carrión et al., 2018) and the Temperament and Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R; Cloninger et al., 1993). We found that cooperation is a characteristic that significantly reduces nomophobic levels, particularly for the two factors of Mobile Phone Addiction and Negative Consequences. Furthermore, Reward Dependence appears to be positively related to two of the factors involved in nomophobia, namely Mobile Phone Addiction and Loss of Control, suggesting a relationship between Nomophobia and personality. These findings are discussed in terms of their usefulness for identifying the personality predictors of nomophobia in order to develop preventive and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Ricca, Valdo
In the last decades, three main different personality domains have been investigated in the field of eating disorders: personality traits, temperament, and personality disorders. The use of a wide range of instruments and the presence of many different approaches in the definition of personality dimensions make it difficult to summarize the emerging results from different studies. The aim of this narrative review is to critically highlight and discuss all interesting developments in this field, as reflected in the recent literature. The study of personality and temperament in eating disorders seems to be in line with the recently suggested dimensional approach, which highlights the importance of symptoms aggregation, rather than the categorical diagnoses. Recent literature seems to confirm that specific personality and temperamental profiles can be drawn for patients with eating disorders, which can discriminate different eating disorders' diagnoses/symptoms. These observations have relevant clinical implications as treatment of eating disorders is largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions. However, large longitudinal studies are needed to better clarify the suggested relationships and to identify more defined therapeutic strategies.
Zambra, N; Gimeno, D; Blache, D; van Lier, E
Temperament can be defined as the fearfulness and reactivity of an animal in response to humans and strange, novel or threatening environments. The productive performance of an animal is affected by its temperament, and selection of calm animals might improve their adaptation to the farming environment and handling, as well as improve productivity. The temperament was measured in lambs of two breeds of sheep in Uruguay. The effects of dam's age, type of birth, age of the lamb and contemporary group (CG; lambs belonging to the same year, flock, sex and rearing group) on the temperament of the lambs and the heritability of temperament were estimated with a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Overall, 4962 Corriedale lambs and 2952 Merino lambs from 13 farms were tested. Temperament was measured using the isolation box test, isolating a lamb inside the box for 30 s, and recording the vibrations produced by its movements. The average temperament score (±s.e.m.) of the Corriedale lambs was 24.7 (±0.23) and that of the Merino was 36.8 (±0.45). Temperament was not associated with dam's age, type of birth or lamb's age. There were no relevant differences in the agitation score between lambs born in 2010 and 2011. The mean of the distribution of possible values of heritability (±s.d.) was 0.18 (±0.05) for the Corriedale and 0.31 (±0.06) for the Merino. The likelihood of heritability values to be greater than 0.15 exceeded 70% in the Corriedale and 90% in the Merino. The temperament of Merino and Corriedale sheep in Uruguay is moderately heritable. It is not related to dam's age, type of birth or age of the lambs; however, it is affected by some aspect of the CG.
Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid
Temperament and personality traits can serve as both risk factors as well as protective factors in the development of morbid obesity. In the present review, we present an overview of studies focusing on the relationship between temperament/personality and morbid obesity in pre-operative and postoperative bariatric surgery patients. We consider studies that focus on both a categorical and dimensional point of view on temperament/personality, as well as studies based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Finally, we will integrate the research findings, discuss the implications for assessment and treatment and formulate suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Stroustrup, Annemarie; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Svensson, Katherine; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cantoral, Alejandra; Solano González, Maritsa; Torres-Calapiz, Mariana; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J
Temperament is a psychological construct that reflects both personality and an infant's reaction to social stimuli. It can be assessed early in life and is stable over time Temperament predicts many later life behaviors and illnesses, including impulsivity, emotional regulation and obesity. Early life exposure to neurotoxicants often results in developmental deficits in attention, social function, and IQ, but environmental predictors of infant temperament are largely unknown. We propose that prenatal exposure to both chemical and non-chemical environmental toxicants impacts the development of temperament, which can itself be used as a marker of risk for maladaptive neurobehavior in later life. In this study, we assessed associations among prenatal and early life exposure to lead, mercury, poverty, maternal depression and toddler temperament. A prospective cohort of women living in the Mexico City area were followed longitudinally beginning in the second trimester of pregnancy. Prenatal exposure to lead (blood, bone), mercury, and maternal depression were assessed repeatedly and the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) was completed when the child was 24 months old. The association between each measure of prenatal exposure and performance on individual TTS subscales was evaluated by multivariable linear regression. Latent profile analysis was used to classify subjects by TTS performance. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate the prospective association between prenatal exposures and TTS performance. 500 mother-child pairs completed the TTS and had complete data on exposures and covariates. Three latent profiles were identified and categorized as predominantly difficult, intermediate, or easy temperament. Prenatal exposure to maternal depression predicted increasing probability of difficult toddler temperament. Maternal bone lead, a marker of cumulative exposure, also predicted difficult temperament. Prenatal lead exposure modified this association
Digman, J M; Shmelyov, A G
Russian schoolchildren (N = 480) 8-10 years old were rated by their teachers on 60 scales drawn from 3 sources: the temperament literature, studies of child personality, and Russian educators. Analysis of 21 temperament scales produced 4 meaningful components: sociability, anger, impulsivity, and fear. Component scores formed from these scales were then analyzed in the context of the remaining scales, leading to a solution that demonstrated the usefulness of the Big Five for the organization of personality characteristics in the Russian language and culture. The high degree of relation between the temperament dimensions and 4 of the 5 personality dimensions supports the view of many developmentalists that temperament not only is a major component of personality but may be the foundation of personality.
Durfee, Dallin; Colton, John
The physics of waves, resonance, harmonics, and beats has determined how musical instruments are tuned, and has even affected the kinds of music written in different time periods. The laws of physics make it impossible for any fixed scale to have perfect consonance for all chords in all keys, and as a result, various musical scales, or temperaments, have been developed and used throughout history. The study of musical temperament is a rich application of wave physics. It ties several principles together in a context which can be very motivating for students. Furthermore, the topic is accessible to students in introductory classes. We have developed an open source application called Temperament Studio which allows students to explore musical temperament and to hear and measure the effects predicted by wave physics.
Bergdahl, Maud; Bergdahl, Jan
The aim of the present study was to investigate character and temperament dimensions of personality in six men and 31 women (aged 20-57 yr) with severe dental anxiety, and to evaluate whether these dimensions were associated with the level of dental anxiety. The Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were used. High ratings in novelty seeking and female gender predicted high DAS scores. Compared with controls, the patients scored significantly higher on the temperament dimension, novelty seeking. For character dimensions, the patients scored lower on cooperativeness and higher on self-transcendence than controls. Our results indicated that patients with dental anxiety are neurotic extravert (i.e. novelty seekers who experience brief dissociative periods and magical thinking). Furthermore, the combination of the inherited temperament dimension novelty seeking and the social learned character dimension cooperativeness and self-transcendence seem to form a vulnerable personality to develop dental anxiety.
Maurer, Ralph; And Others
Results concur with the Thomas-Chess findings in identifying three main temperament groups: difficult, easy, and slow to warm up. Membership in the difficult group predicted later childhood behavior disorder in both sexes. (Author)
Augustine, Mairin E; Stifter, Cynthia A
This longitudinal study highlights the role of specific parenting behaviors in specific contexts when predicting moral development in children of varying temperament types. A sample of mother-child dyads took part in a competing demands task involving differing "do" and "don't" contextual demands when the child was 2 years of age. Child temperament was also assessed at this time, yielding inhibited, exuberant, and low-reactive temperament groups. Children's moral behavior was assessed at 5.5 years of age. Models examining the interaction of temperament and mother behaviors in each context indicated that mother's reasoning/explanation and ignoring in the "do" context predicted later moral behavior in inhibited children, whereas redirection and commands in the "don't" context predicted moral behavior in exuberant children.
Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P
Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.
Amann, Benedikt; Mergl, Roland; Torrent, Carla; Perugi, Giulio; Padberg, Frank; El-Gjamal, Nadja; Laakmann, Gregor
Obesity and its related disorders are growing epidemic across the world. Research on links between the bipolar spectrum and obesity has proliferated in the last few years. As some forms of abnormal temperament are considered as subtypes of the soft bipolar spectrum, we aimed to evaluate abnormal temperaments in morbidly obese patients. Using a short version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego, we investigated abnormal depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable or anxious temperament in 213 patients with morbid obesity compared to a control group of 90 patients admitted prior to organ transplantation. Additionally, the Beck-Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Self-Report Manic Inventory (SRMI) were applied to assess current mood status. The obese group showed statistically significantly more psychiatric comorbidities compared to the control group. Abnormal temperaments were significantly more often observed in patients with morbid obesity rather than in controls. Cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments showed specificity to obesity. Obese patients had significantly higher scores on the BDI, while no difference for SRMI scores was found among the whole groups. All temperaments were positively correlated with BDI and SRMI in the obese group. The control group was not matched for demographic characteristics. Our results need replication but indicate an affective overlap in the form of abnormal temperament and depressive symptoms in obese patients, whereas mood swings should be evaluated and early mood stabilization considered for patients with significant weight gain to prevent obesity or to reduce already existing overweight. Studies of mood stabilizers and prospective observations would shed further insight on this complex interface of a major clinical and public health issue.
Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Mitake, Tomoe; Nogi, Yukako; Inoue, Koki
Insomnia among workers reduces the quality of life, contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs and losses in work performance. The relationship between occupational stress and insomnia has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperament in occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between temperament, occupational stress, and insomnia. The subjects were 133 Japanese daytime local government employees. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Insomnia was assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that the higher subdivided stress group by “role conflict” (OR = 5.29, 95% CI, 1.61–17.32) and anxious temperament score (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19–1.49) was associated with the presence of insomnia using an adjusted model, whereas other factors were excluded from the model. The study limitations were the sample size and the fact that only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. This study demonstrated the relationships between workers’ anxious temperament, role conflict, and insomnia. Recognizing one’s own anxious temperament would lead to self-insight, and the recognition of anxious temperament and reduction of role conflict by their supervisors or coworkers would reduce the prevalence of insomnia among workers in the workplace. PMID:28407025
Ottoni, Gustavo L; Antoniolli, Eduardo; Lara, Diogo R
Chronotype has long been associated with mental disorders and temperamental features. This study aims to investigate the association of circadian preference with a new model for emotional and affective temperament. In this Web survey, 6436 subjects (27.2% males) answered the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS), the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), and questions on subjective sleep parameters for a sleep-based chronotype measure. Temperament was more strongly correlated with daily energy score than with chronotype. For emotional dimensions, Volition, Coping, and Control positively correlated with high and stable daily energy, contrary to Sensitivity. Evening types showed a less adaptive emotional profile than morning and intermediate types, who showed a relatively similar emotional pattern. Focus and order (facets of Control), energy (facet of Volition), caution (facet of Inhibition), and problem facing (facet of Coping) were distinctive for the three circadian types, being particularly low in evening types and high in morning types. Differences between affective temperaments were more pronounced for morning and afternoon than for evening scores. Cyclothymic and euphoric temperaments, which relate to bipolar disorders, and apathetic, volatile, and disinhibited temperaments, which relate to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), showed the latest chronotype (i.e., evening preference). In conclusion, temperament was more associated with absolute energy levels than with chronotype. Evening types had less emotional control, coping, volition, and caution, and more affective instability and externalization. The circadian daily energy profile can be very informative about human temperament and vice versa, and their combined assessment may be useful in the evaluation of psychiatric patients.
Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.
Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582
Mombach, Karin Daniele; de Souza Brito, Cesar Luis; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Casagrande, Daniela Schaan; Mottin, Claudio Cora
The prevalence of smoking habits in severe obesity is higher than in the general population. There is some evidence that smokers have different temperaments compared to non-smokers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations between smoking status (smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers) and temperament characteristics in bariatric surgery candidates. We analyzed data on temperament of 420 bariatric surgery candidates, as assessed by the AFECTS scale, in an exploratory cross-sectional survey of bariatric surgery candidates who have been grouped into smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. We detected significant statistical differences in temperament related to the smoking status in this population after controlling the current use of psychiatric medication. Smokers had higher anxiety and lower control than non-smokers. Ex-smokers with BMI >50 kg/m(2) presented higher coping and control characteristics than smokers. Smoking in bariatric surgery candidates was associated with lower control and higher anxious temperament, when controlled by current use of psychiatric medication. Smokers with BMI >50 kg/m(2) presented lower coping and control than ex-smokers. Assessment of temperament in bariatric surgery candidates may help in decisions about smoking cessation treatment and prevention of smoking relapse after surgery.
Dragan, Małgorzata; Dragan, Wojciech
The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders ( n = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which the relationship between the three temperament traits and anxiety were fully mediated by metacognition. Dissimilar models were identified for the male and female subgroups, and also with reference to individual categories of maladaptive metacognition. The findings support the significance of metacognition as a factor influencing the temperament-anxiety relationship. Moreover, they confirm the roles both of emotional reactivity and of perseveration, being major traits related to anxiety which also turned out to be strongly associated with metacognition. In case of the models for the categories of metacognition, emotional reactivity was associated with negative beliefs, perseveration with negative and positive beliefs, while briskness predicted anxiety independently of metacognition. These results suggest the existence of more specific associations between temperament traits, anxiety, and various types of metacognition.
Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Graunke, Katharina Luise; Langbein, Jan; Schwerin, Manfred; Ponsuksili, Siriluck
Temperament affects ease of handling, animal welfare, and economically important production traits in cattle. The use of gene expression profiles as molecular traits provides a novel means of gaining insight into behavioural genetics. In this study, differences in adrenocortical expression profiles between 60 F 2 cows (Charolais × German Holstein) of distinct temperament types were analysed. The cows were assessed in a novel-human test at an age of 90 days. Most of the adrenal cortex transcripts which were differentially expressed (FDR <0.05) were found between temperament types of 'fearful/neophobic-alert' and all other temperament types. These transcripts belong to several biological functions like NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, Glucocorticoid Receptor Signalling and Complement System. Overall, the present study provides new insight into transcriptional differences in the adrenal cortex between cows of distinct temperament types. Genetic regulations of such molecular traits facilitate uncovering positional and functional gene candidates for temperament type in cattle.
Seery, Carol Hubbard; Watkins, Ruth V; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Shigeto, Aya
This paper is the second in a series of two articles exploring subtypes of stuttering, and it addresses the question of whether and how language ability and temperament variables may be relevant to the study of subtypes within the larger population of children who stutter. Despite observations of varied profiles among young children who stutter, efforts to identify and characterize subtypes of stuttering have had limited influence on theoretical or clinical understanding of the disorder. This manuscript briefly highlights research on language and temperament in young children who stutter, and considers whether the results can provide guidance for efforts to more effectively investigate and elucidate subtypes in childhood stuttering. Issues from the literature that appear relevant to research on stuttering subtypes include: (a) the question of whether stuttering is best characterized as categorical or continuous; (b) interpretation of individual differences in skills and profiles; and (c) the fact that, during the preschool years, the interaction among domains such as language and temperament are changing very rapidly, resulting in large differences in developmental profiles within relatively brief chronological age periods. The reader will be able to: (1) discuss possible associations of language ability and temperament to the development of stuttering in young children; (2) summarize the subtyping research from the literature on language ability and temperament in young children; (3) generate directions for future research of stuttering subtypes drawn from the literature related to language ability and temperament in young children.
Adamek, Lauren; Nichols, Shana; Tetenbaum, Samara P.; Bregman, Joel; Ponzio, Christine A.; Carr, Edward G.
Temperament is important for considering differences among diagnostic groups and for understanding individual differences that predict problematic behavior. Temperament characteristics, such as negative affectivity, effortful control, and surgency (highly active and impulsive), are predictive of externalizing behavior in typically developing…
Weber, Ruth A.; And Others
Results suggest that various aspects of Strange Situation behavior are related to both maternal and infant temperament, and that maternal temperament is a predictor of attachment security, particularly for Type A mother-avoidant infants. (Author/RH)
Callueng, Carmelo M.
Temperament has a long history of scholarship dating back as early as 350 BC when Hippocrates (1984) associated body fluids or temperament with behavior. Temperament is broadly described as stylistic and relatively stable traits that subsume intrinsic tendencies to act and react in somewhat predictable ways to people, events, and other stimuli.…
Figueira, M Luisa; Caeiro, Lara; Ferro, Ana; Cordeiro, Raul; Duarte, Pedro M; Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K
The structure of temperament displays subaffective traits as attributes of adaptive value. There are few studies on how different professions compare on temperaments. Our aim was to examine the relationship between the choices of Portuguese students in their fields of study, and their respective temperaments. The sample included 1386 students from six different universities (law, engineering, arts, medicine, psychology, and nursing), of both genders (67% female), and ages between 17 and 58 (X + or - SD = 21 + or - 3.4). Law and art students presented a cyclothymic or irritable temperament. Engineering students presented a hyperthymic temperament. Psychology and nursing students presented predominantly depressive and anxious temperaments. Medicine students were least extreme in temperament scores or frequencies. Nursing students came largely from one university located in a Portuguese city (northeast from Lisbon) which could be a potential limitation to be confirmed. Distinct temperamental profiles of students enrolled in different professional fields could be identified in our sample taking into account the presence or absence of excessive temperaments. Future physicians did not present a predominant temperament, future lawyers and artists presented predominantly a cyclothymic or irritable temperament, future engineers presented a hyperthymic temperament and, future psychologists and nurses presented predominantly depressive and anxious temperaments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.
Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year-old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured…
De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan
The numerous temperament and personality constructs in childhood impede the systematic integration of findings on how these individual differences relate to developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews the main temperament and personality theories and proposes a theoretical taxonomy representing the common structure of both temperament and…
Lee, Eunju J.
A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…
Nelson, JoAnn Neville
To examine relationships between parents' ratings of children's temperament or behavior style and behavior of mothers and fathers toward individual children, 47 mothers and 47 fathers with a preschool child independently completed the Parent Temperament Questionnaire and the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory. Dimensions of temperament measured…
Pelco, Lynn E.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn
This article discusses the role of temperament in the development of young children with disabilities and the five dimensions of temperament: activity level, intensity, mood, persistence, and reaction to new experiences. Types of behavioral tendencies that exemplify each temperament dimension are described, along with interaction adaptation…
Ballou, Roger A.; Brown, Richard A.
Examined relationship between temperament and burnout in 52 college resident assistants (RAs). None of four RA temperament groupings differed significantly from each other in burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Concluded that each temperament type deals with RA job in special way and each is susceptible to burnout if healthy…
Worobey, John; Islas-Lopez, Maria
Studies of infant temperament are inconsistent with regard to convergence across measurement sources. In addition, little published work is available that describes temperament in minority infants. In this study, measures of temperament at three and six months were made for 24 African-American infants. Although maternal ratings of activity and…
Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…
Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.; Gleason, Tracy R.
Research on preschoolers' friendships has focused on superficial similarities but has not examined whether similarities exist between friends in personality characteristics such as temperament. This study examined the hypothesis that friends would have similar temperaments and that the relationship between temperament and friendship would be…
Cloninger, C. Robert
The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) is the third stage of development of a widely used multiscale personality inventory that began with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and then the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The author describes the third stage of the psychobiological theory of temperament and…
• The American beef industry is paying more attention to cattle temperament, but studies examining relationships between temperaments and grazing behavior or animal performance on rangelands are limited. • We studied range beef cow temperaments using the behavioral syndromes framework. Cows classifi...
Teglasi, Hedwig; Epstein, Seymour
Illustrates the applicability of temperamental constructs to personality theory by mapping key temperament constructs onto Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory (CEST). Examines the role of temperament in shaping experiences, and looks at the implications for education and socialization that stem from the synthesis of temperament constructs and…
Laceulle, Odilia M; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther
This study aimed to test the vulnerability model of the relationship between temperament and mental disorders using a large sample of adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Lives' Survey (TRAILS). The vulnerability model argues that particular temperaments can place individuals at risk for the development of mental health problems. Importantly, the model may imply that not only baseline temperament predicts mental health problems prospectively, but additionally, that changes in temperament predict corresponding changes in risk for mental health problems. Data were used from 1195 TRAILS participants. Adolescent temperament was assessed both at age 11 and at age 16. Onset of mental disorders between age 16 and 19 was assessed at age 19, by means of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO CIDI). Results showed that temperament at age 11 predicted future mental disorders, thereby providing support for the vulnerability model. Moreover, temperament change predicted future mental disorders above and beyond the effect of basal temperament. For example, an increase in frustration increased the risk of mental disorders proportionally. This study confirms, and extends, the vulnerability model. Consequences of both temperament and temperament change were general (e.g., changes in frustration predicted both internalizing and externalizing disorders) as well as dimension specific (e.g., changes in fear predicted internalizing but not externalizing disorders). These findings confirm previous studies, which showed that mental disorders have both unique and shared underlying temperamental risk factors. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Kong, Kai Ling; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Feda, Denise M; Eiden, Rina D; Sharma, Neha N; Stier, Corrin L; Epstein, Leonard H
Food reinforcement refers to how hard someone is motivated to work to gain access to food. Infant temperament is defined as behavioral styles, or constitutionally based individual differences in reactive and regulatory aspects of behavior. Identifying correlates of food reinforcement, such as infant temperament, may help identify infants at risk for future negative health consequences (e.g., overweight or obesity) of high food reinforcement. This study tested aspects of parent-reported negative reactivity and regulation and their associations with relative food reinforcement in a cross-sectional sample of 105 9- to 18-month-old infants. Hierarchical linear regression models were then used to predict infant food reinforcement for the temperament dimensions that were significantly related to it. Two temperament dimensions, cuddliness (regulatory aspect) (B = -0.050, ΔR 2 = 0.074, p = 0.005) and rate of recovery from distress and arousal (reactive aspect) (B = -0.040, ΔR 2 = 0.045, p = 0.031), were inversely associated with relative food reinforcement. Clarifying the nature of relationships between these two behavioral predictors, infant temperament and relative food reinforcement, and early obesity can elucidate the role of individual differences in early obesity risk and can further inform targets for early behavioral obesity preventive interventions.
Lee, Soo Jin; Park, Soo Hyun; Chae, Han
Sasang typology is a personalized traditional medicine widely used in clinical diagnosis and treatment in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the biopsychological personality profiles of traditional Korean Sasang typology in a clinical sample of Korean children. A total of 150 children were classified as one of three traditional Korean Sasang types (19 So-Yang, 118 Tae-Eum, and 13 So-Eum) by two clinical experts in Sasang typology. The childrens' mothers completed the Korean version of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). The four temperament dimensions of JTCI were compared between the different Sasang types using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and profile analysis. There were no significant differences in age, gender, and parents' education levels across the Sasang types. The JTCI temperament profile for each of the child Sasang types was significantly different (profile analysis, df = 5.315, F = 2.508, p = 0.027). There were significant differences in novelty-seeking ( F = 3.850, p = 0.023) and novelty-seeking subscales, but not with other temperament dimensions. These results demonstrated distinct temperament traits associated with traditional Korean Sasang types in children using an objective biopsychological personality inventory. With further investigation into the biopsychological profiles of the children, the longitudinal stability of the Sasang typology can be examined.
Kalkan Akcay, Emine; Canan, Fatih; Simavli, Huseyin; Dal, Derya; Yalniz, Hacer; Ugurlu, Nagihan; Gecici, Omer; Cagil, Nurullah
To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality. Using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors (17 with myopia, 12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants. Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness, cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, and P<0.01, respectively). Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.
Lee, Kounseok; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Jhung, Kyungun; Park, Jin Young
Chronotype is largely classified as being morning or evening types according to preference for daily activity and the preferred bedtime. This study examined the relationship between chronotype and temperament/character dimensions among university students. A total of 2857 participants completed the 140-item Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS) from a 5-score scale as well as the 13-item composite scale for morningness-eveningness (CSM). In this study, we classified chronotype as "morning," "neither," or "evening" types according to CSM scores and compared the scores in terms of 4 temperament dimensions and 3 character dimensions. The evening type showed high values for novelty seeking and harm avoidance, whereas the morning type had high scores for persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. A logistic regression analysis after controlling for age and gender showed that chronotype significantly associated with persistence and novelty seeking. The results of this study suggest that chronotype is different according to gender and age and in addition, chronotype closely correlates with temperament and character. Among these, eveningness was associated with high novelty seeking, whereas morningness was associated with high persistence. Further studies are required to investigate the relationship between chronotype and temperament/character dimensions in a wider age bracket. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jonas, Wibke; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J; Wazana, Ashley; Fleming, Alison S
Research findings are inconclusive when it comes to whether breastfeeding is associated with the mother-infant relationship or infant temperament. We examined the association between breastfeeding at three months postpartum and infant temperament at 18 months postpartum and whether this link was affected by the mothers' anxiety and mediated by her sensitivity. We assessed 170 mothers for breastfeeding and anxiety using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at three months postpartum, maternal sensitivity using the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale at six months postpartum and infant temperament using the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire at 18 months postpartum. Mothers who breastfed at three months postpartum were more sensitive in their interactions with their infants at six months postpartum, and elevated sensitivity, in turn, predicted reduced levels of negative affectivity in infant temperament at 18 months postpartum. This indirect mediation persisted after controlling for confounders (effect ab = -0.0312 [0.0208], 95% CI = -0.0884 to -0.0031). A subsequent analysis showed that the mediation through sensitivity only occurred in women experiencing higher anxiety, with a STAI score ≥33.56 at three months (ab = -0.0250 [0.0179], 95% CI = -0.0759 to -0.0013). Our results suggest that breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity may have a positive impact on the early development of infant temperament. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baer, Julie; Schreck, Meghan; Rettew, David C.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ayer, Lynsay; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Kuny-Slock, Ana V.; Hudziak, James J.
We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5–18 years old (54% male; mean age=10.8) were evaluated. Regression equations were used to test models of the main and interactive effects of temperament and maternal parenting behavior on the Social Problems and Social Competence Subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children ages 4 to 18. Higher levels of child Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower levels of Persistence were significantly associated with poorer social functioning. When accounting for child temperament, neither maternal parenting nor the interaction between maternal parenting and child temperament were significantly associated with social functioning. However, the interaction between maternal positive involvement and harm avoidance trended toward significance, such that at higher levels of harm avoidance, more extreme levels of maternal positive involvement were related to lower levels of social functioning. Further research on the interplay between child temperament and parenting across different stages of development is warranted. PMID:26085784
Stetkiewicz-Lewandowicz, Agnieszka; Borkowska, Alina; Sobów, Tomasz
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. This situation stimulates research of its ethiopathogenesis. The role of psychosocial factors like depression, stress is underlined. Also personality traits play an important role in this process. The aim of study was to assess temperament and character traits in a group of patients with IHD. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to determine temperament and character dimensions. Temperament traits: harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), novelty seeking (NS), persistence (P), character traits: cooperativeness (C), self-directedness (SD), self-transcendence (ST). Each of these traits has a varying number of subscales. The dimensions are determined from a 240-item questionnaire. Patients with IHD obtained higher scores in HA dimension of the TCI questionnaire. The study group achieved lower score in a subscale of NS called extravagance (NS3), and higher score of C dimension called compassion (C4). The intensity of temperament and character traits are different in a group of patients with IHD in comparison with the control group especially in dimensions of HA, NS3 and C4. Variables that differentiated the study group were also sex, age and years of education.
Colaco, Marc; Dobkin, Roseanne D; Sterling, Matthew; Schneider, Dona; Barone, Joseph
Dysfunctional voiding (DV) is an extremely common pediatric complaint. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between DV and childhood temperament. Information about the voiding behaviors and temperaments of 50 children was examined using a case-control model. Caregivers were asked to fill out the Children's Behavior Questionnaire in order to rate their child on the dimensions of surgency, negative affect, and effortful control. The relationship between DV and these dimensions was then evaluated. Males with DV were found to have lower effortful control than males with normal voiding habits. Females with DV did not demonstrate a difference in effortful control, but did demonstrate a higher rate of surgency. The results suggest that temperament does have an association with DV. These findings are in line with temperamental associations with other externalizing trouble behaviors and may inform potential treatment strategies for DV.
Rosellini, Anthony J; Lawrence, Amy E; Meyer, Joseph F; Brown, Timothy A
Although situational avoidance is viewed as the most disabling aspect of panic disorder, few studies have evaluated how dimensions of neurotic (i.e., neuroticism, behavioral inhibition) and extraverted (i.e., extraversion, behavioral activation) temperament may influence the presence and severity of agoraphobia. Using logistic regression and structural equation modeling, we examined the unique effects of extraverted temperament on situational avoidance in a sample of 274 outpatients with a diagnosis of panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Results showed low extraverted temperament (i.e., introversion) to be associated with both the presence and the severity of situational avoidance. Findings are discussed in regard to conceptualizations of conditioned avoidance, activity levels, sociability, and positive emotions within the context of panic disorder with agoraphobia.
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Trancik, Anika; Wilson, Anna C.; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8–11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point occurring 1 year apart. LPA identified 5 frustration and 4 anxiety regulation profiles based on children’s physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. The relation of effortful control to conduct problems was mediated by frustration regulation profiles, as was the relation of effortful control to depression. Anxiety regulation profiles did not mediate relations between temperament and adjustment. PMID:21413935
Canan, Fatih; Karakaş, Ayşe Akman; Geçici, Nihal
Introduction Psychosocial factors have been implicated as being important in the onset and/or exacerbation of urticaria. Aim To examine both personality factors of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and the correlations between illness duration, severity of itching, urticaria activity score (UAS) and temperament-character dimensions. Material and methods A total number of 70 CIU patients and 60 healthy individuals were included in the study. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered individually. The relationship between UAS, illness duration and severity of pruritus and TCI subscales were evaluated. Results The CIU group had significantly higher scores of novelty seeking and lower scores of cooperativeness, reward dependence and self-directedness than the control group. Conclusions The current study shows that CIU patients have distinctive temperament and character dimensions when compared with the control group. We suggest that evaluation and treatment of CIU should also include psychosomatic approaches in clinical practice. PMID:26161056
Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.
Temperament dimensions influence children’s approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children’s social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3) – lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity – predict children’s more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind. PMID:21499499
Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee
Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population.
Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho
Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. Results A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. Conclusion These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. PMID:22993530
López-Torrecillas, Francisca; Perales, José C; Nieto-Ruiz, Ana; Verdejo-García, Antonio
Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140) were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory), trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale), and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task). The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months respectively. Temperament measures, and
Graunke, Katharina L; Nürnberg, Gerd; Repsilber, Dirk; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan
Studies on animal temperament have often described temperament using a one-dimensional scale, whereas theoretical framework has recently suggested two or more dimensions using terms like "valence" or "arousal" to describe these dimensions. Yet, the valence or assessment of a situation is highly individual. The aim of this study was to provide support for the multidimensional framework with experimental data originating from an economically important species (Bos taurus). We tested 361 calves at 90 days post natum (dpn) in a novel-object test. Using a principal component analysis (PCA), we condensed numerous behaviours into fewer variables to describe temperament and correlated these variables with simultaneously measured heart rate variability (HRV) data. The PCA resulted in two behavioural dimensions (principal components, PC): novel-object-related (PC 1) and exploration-activity-related (PC 2). These PCs explained 58% of the variability in our data. The animals were distributed evenly within the two behavioural dimensions independent of their sex. Calves with different scores in these PCs differed significantly in HRV, and thus in the autonomous nervous system's activity. Based on these combined behavioural and physiological data we described four distinct temperament types resulting from two behavioural dimensions: "neophobic/fearful--alert", "interested--stressed", "subdued/uninterested--calm", and "neoophilic/outgoing--alert". Additionally, 38 calves were tested at 90 and 197 dpn. Using the same PCA-model, they correlated significantly in PC 1 and tended to correlate in PC 2 between the two test ages. Of these calves, 42% expressed a similar behaviour pattern in both dimensions and 47% in one. No differences in temperament scores were found between sexes or breeds. In conclusion, we described distinct temperament types in calves based on behavioural and physiological measures emphasising the benefits of a multidimensional approach.
Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D
Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p < 0.01) and handling facility (p < 0.0001) and handling facility by temperament score interaction (p < 0.001), breeding season pregnancy rate was lower in excited versus calm cows [88.6% (798/901) vs 94.1% (607/645); p < 0.001]. Cows with an excitable temperament took 24 more days to become pregnant compared to calm cows (median days to pregnancy, 35 vs 59 days; p < 0.0001). In Experiment 2, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p < 0.05), pregnancy loss was higher in excited versus calm cows [5.5% (36/651) vs 3.2% (20/623), p < 0.0001]. In conclusion, beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring
Erdoğan Taycan, Serap; Taycan, Okan
The current study sought to investigate the affective temperaments of patients with epilepsy and possible relationships between disease characteristics and temperament profiles. A total of 70 adults with epilepsy and 70 healthy volunteers completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A). Patients with epilepsy had higher scores on these three scales than healthy controls. With respect to temperaments, irritable temperament alone was significantly higher in patients than controls. Irritable temperament also had a significant positive correlation with psychiatric history, whereas depressive temperament had a significant positive correlation with illness and treatment duration. Patients who had suffered simple partial and complex partial seizures had higher anxious temperament scores than patients with generalized epilepsy. Because the study group was recruited through consecutive patients seen in a single neurology clinic, our findings may not be representative of PWE in general. Because irritability is one of the key symptoms of interictal dysphoric disorder and because TEMPS-A irritable temperament and BDI scores were found to be significantly related, the high rate of irritable temperament in our patient sample may be associated with depressive mood. We may suggest that at least some of the affective symptoms in patients with epilepsy and the historical concept of "epileptic personality" may be explained by affective temperaments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martin, John C.; Buican, Tudor N.
Method and apparatus for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser defines an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam interrogates the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam intersects the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis.
Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.
Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.
We previously reported that animal temperament influences the rectal temperature response, sickness behavior scores, serum concentrations of epinephrine (Burdick et al., 2011; Innate Immunity), and serum cytokine concentrations (Hulbert et al., 2009; J. Anim. Sci. 86 (Suppl 2):527) following a provo...
Cervera, Maria Dolores; Mendez, Rosa Maria
This study examined the relationships between temperament and ecological context among Yucatec Mayan children based on the assumption that maternal ethnotheories act as mediators and are related to world view. Since the latter is related to ecological context, its transformation may result in variations in ethnotheories and, therefore, temperament…
Yagmurlu, Bilge; Yavuz, H. Melis
The aim of the study was to investigate social competence in children with orthopaedic disability and its concurrent relations to child's temperament, health condition, and maternal warmth. Participants were 68 Turkish children (mean = 5.94 years) with chronic orthopaedic disability and their mothers coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mother…
Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505
Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.
This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van den Hout, Anja; Wessels, Sylvia; Franken, Ingmar; Rassin, Eric
Pain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children, as well as scales for measuring sensitivity of…
The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...
Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.
Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…
Fernández-Vilar, Ma Angeles; Carranza, Jose Antonio
The majority of studies on temperament in the educational context originate from the Anglo-Saxon culture, where there has been an increase in research in this field over the last four decades. The objective of this paper is to contribute towards systematizing of relevant findings that have been carried out in the educational context from the field…
Sought to define the population and formulate tentative treatment implications from the results of somatotyping 60 emotionally disturbed adolescent girls. Results showed a predominance of endomorphic-mesomorph and mesomorphic-endomorph temperament. Tentative treatment recommendations are given. (Author/JAC)
Mixture models are appropriate for data that arise from a set of qualitatively different subpopulations. In this study, latent class analysis was applied to observational data from a laboratory assessment of infant temperament at four months of age. The EM algorithm was used to fit the models, and the Bayesian method of posterior predictive checks…
Nelson, Travis M; Griffith, Thomas M; Lane, Katherine J; Thikkurissy, Sarat; Scott, JoAnna M
Little is known about implications of temperament for children who receive nitrous oxide inhalation sedation (N 2 O/O 2 ) for dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate whether child temperament is associated with success in N 2 O/O 2 . Child-caregiver dyads were enrolled from patients aged 36-95 months receiving dental care with N 2 O/O 2 at a university-based pediatric dental clinic. To assess child temperament, 48 caregivers completed the Children's Behavior Questionnaire Short Form. Patient behavior was abstracted from Frankl scores recorded in the patient's chart. The overall behavioral failure rate was 15% (n = 7/48). There was no significant difference in sedation outcome associated with sex, health, insurance status, or complexity of treatment provided. Sedation outcome was significantly associated with the broad temperament domain of Effortful Control and its subscales Attentional Focusing and Inhibitory Control. The Negative Affectivity subscales of Frustration, Sadness, and Soothability and the Extraversion/Surgency subscales Activity and Impulsivity were also significantly associated with sedation outcome. The results of this study suggest that Effortful Control is associated with behavior during dental treatment with N 2 O/O 2 . The subscales of Attention Focusing, Inhibitory Control, Frustration, Fear, Sadness, Soothability, Activity, and Impulsivity may also be important determinants of child behavior during dental treatment.
Salley, Brenda; Miller, Angela; Bell, Martha Ann
Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Vasey, Michael W.; Phillips, Beth M.; Hazen, Rebecca A.
This article discusses converging evidence from developmental, clinical, and cognitive psychology suggesting that there is significant overlap between research findings on affect, temperament, and attentional processes associated with pathological anxiety. We offer a proposal for the integration of these 3 areas aimed at developing a more clear…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…
Yeh, Yu-Chu; Li, Me-Lin
Based on Yeh's (2004) "Ecological Systems Model of Creativity Development", this study investigated the effects that age, the use of emotion regulation strategies, temperament, and exposure to creative drama instruction have on the development of creativity among preschool children. Participants were 116 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. This…
Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C
Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. 2014 APA
Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia
Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…
Oakland, Thomas; Mpofu, Elias; Sulkowski, Michael
Temperament styles of 600 Zimbabwe children are described and compared to those of 3,200 U.S. children. Gender and age differences are described for children in Zimbabwe and compared to U.S. children. Results indicate that Zimbabwe children generally prefer extroverted to introverted styles, practical to imaginative styles, feeling to thinking…
Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Tereszko, Anna; Dembinska-Krajewska, Daria; Arciszewska, Aleksandra; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika; Rybakowski, Janusz
Chronotype is a stable trait presenting one's circardian preference. Since chronotype disturbances are common in patients with affective disorders, our aim is to evaluate chronotypes related to affective temperaments, measured with the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The study included 618 subjects (151 men and 467 women) within the framework of web-based design. They all fulfilled a questionnaire, consisting of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), Sleep Wake Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SWPAQ), and the TEMPS-A scale. Multiple regression models revealed that after controlling for age and gender: irritable and cyclothymic temperaments were negatively associated with total CSM score, CSM morning affect and circadian preference components, Sleepability (S), Vigilance (V), Wakeability (W) and positively with Morningness (M) and Eveningness (E) subscales of SWPAQ; anxious temperament was negatively associated with total CSM scores, CSM morning affect and with S, V, W subscales of SWPAQ; depressive temperament was negatively associated with Falling asleep, S, V, W subscales of SWPAQ; hyperthymic temperament was positively associated with CSM morning affect and V, W and negatively with M subscales of SWPAQ. The results show distinctiveness of the associations between hyperthymic temperament and circadian preferences, compared to all other TEMPS-A temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious). In the CMS scale, only hyperthymic temperament was related to morning affect. In the SWPAQ scale, hyperthymic temperament was the only one associated with earlier morningness (earlier wake up time preference), increased parameters of vigor - wakeability, vigilance, and also the only one not associated with decreased plasticity of circadian rhythm (sleepability and falling asleep). Results also point to some similarities between cyclothymic and irritable temperaments in some aspects of the chronotype.
DePasquale, C.; Wagner, Tyler; Archard, G.A.; Ferguson, B.; Braithwaite, V.A.
Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration—collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.
McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin
Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Claes, Laurence; Bartsch, Merle; Schulze, Mareike; Langenberg, Svenja; Köhler, Hinrich; Marschollek, Michael; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid
Our aim was to investigate if physical activity (PA) in bariatric surgery patients is related to temperament. Preoperative (n = 70) and post-operative (n = 73) patients were categorized as being physically 'active' versus 'inactive' on the basis of objective PA monitoring. Assessment included the behavioural inhibition system (BIS)/behavioural activation system (BAS) scales, the effortful control (EC) subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form, a numeric pain rating scale and measures for depressive and eating disorder symptoms. 'Active' did not differ from 'inactive' patients with regard to temperament (BIS, BAS, and EC). Regressions with PA grouping as dependent variable (adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), depressive or eating disorder symptoms, or pain intensity) indicated an association between lower BMI and more PA in the preoperative and the post-operative group. In the post-operative group, in addition to lower BMI, also lower age and higher BIS reactivity contributed to more PA. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between BMI and BIS suggesting that low BMI was only associated with more PA in post-operative patients with high BIS. The results indicate that temperament per se does not contribute to the level of PA in bariatric surgery patients. However, in post-operative patients, lower BMI was associated with a higher likelihood of being physically active particularly in patients with anxious temperament. These preliminary findings need further investigation within longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80) and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17) participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases. PMID:23311945
Kim, Eunjoo; Garrett, Amy; Boucher, Spencer; Park, Min-Hyeon; Howe, Meghan; Sanders, Erica; Kelley, Ryan G; Reiss, Allan L; Chang, Kiki D; Singh, Manpreet K
Prior studies have suggested that inhibited temperament may be associated with an increased risk for developing anxiety or mood disorder, including bipolar disorder. However, the neurobiological basis for this increased risk is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine temperament in symptomatic and asymptomatic child offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD) and to investigate whether inhibited temperament is associated with aberrant hippocampal volumes compared with healthy control (HC) youth. The OBD group consisted of 45 youth, 24 of whom had current psychiatric symptoms (OBD + s) and 21 without any psychiatric symptoms (OBD - s), and were compared with 24 HC youth. Temperament characteristics were measured by using the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure hippocampal volumes. The association between temperament and hippocampal volumes was tested by using multiple regression analysis. Compared with the OBD - s group, the OBD + s group had significantly more inhibited temperament traits, less flexibility, more negative mood, and less regular rhythm in their daily routines. In contrast, the OBD - s group was more likely to approach novel situations compared with OBD + s or HC groups. Within the OBD + s group, a more inhibited temperament was associated with smaller right hippocampal volumes. In this study, symptomatic OBD were characterized by an inhibited temperament that was inversely correlated with hippocampal volume. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether inverse correlations between hippocampal volume and inhibited temperament represent early markers of risk for later developing bipolar disorder.
Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi; Salehi, Alireza; Nimroozi, Majid; Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdiyeh; Amini, Fatemeh; Parvizi, Zahra
Background: Temperament is one of the key concepts in traditional Persian medicine (TPM), which is the quality that will be obtained by the reaction between the four elements of water, earth, fire and air, and its property is different from the component property. According to TPM, temperament is influenced by many factors and the bulk of the body is one of these factors. In this study, we aimed at determining the relationship between person’s temperament based on the knowledge of TPM and the body mass index (BMI). Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study that examines the relationship between person’s temperament and their BMI. For this purpose, 86 employees (20-40 years) of Shiraz Medical School were selected and their temperaments assessed using Dr. Mojahedi’s temperament questionnaire and visitation by a TPM specialist. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In this study, 86 employees were evaluated including 18 (20.9%) male and 68 (79.1%) female. The mean age of the participants was 32.45±4.93 years old and the mean BMI was 23.75±2.94. Minimum and maximum BMI were related to people with temperament of cold and dry and cool temperament and more with the mean of 20.55±1.90 and 28.13±0.35, where the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0003). BMI in people with a temperament of hot and dry was significantly less than those with cool and wet temperament (P=0.01). Conclusion: Based on TPM, people with wet temperament are usually more obese and people with dry temperament are thinner. The results of this study confirm that obese people are cold and wet or have phlegmatic temperament whereas in comparison thin people are drier. This is in-line with the principles of TPM. PMID:27840480
Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi; Salehi, Alireza; Nimroozi, Majid; Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdiyeh; Amini, Fatemeh; Parvizi, Zahra
Temperament is one of the key concepts in traditional Persian medicine (TPM), which is the quality that will be obtained by the reaction between the four elements of water, earth, fire and air, and its property is different from the component property. According to TPM, temperament is influenced by many factors and the bulk of the body is one of these factors. In this study, we aimed at determining the relationship between person's temperament based on the knowledge of TPM and the body mass index (BMI). This study is a cross-sectional study that examines the relationship between person's temperament and their BMI. For this purpose, 86 employees (20-40 years) of Shiraz Medical School were selected and their temperaments assessed using Dr. Mojahedi's temperament questionnaire and visitation by a TPM specialist. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. In this study, 86 employees were evaluated including 18 (20.9%) male and 68 (79.1%) female. The mean age of the participants was 32.45±4.93 years old and the mean BMI was 23.75±2.94. Minimum and maximum BMI were related to people with temperament of cold and dry and cool temperament and more with the mean of 20.55±1.90 and 28.13±0.35, where the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0003). BMI in people with a temperament of hot and dry was significantly less than those with cool and wet temperament (P=0.01). Based on TPM, people with wet temperament are usually more obese and people with dry temperament are thinner. The results of this study confirm that obese people are cold and wet or have phlegmatic temperament whereas in comparison thin people are drier. This is in-line with the principles of TPM.
Sherman, Brian J.; Vousoura, Eleni; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Verdeli, Helen
Introduction The current study examined the relationships between parental depression, offspring depression, and offspring temperament among 203 offspring of parents with or without depression. The specific aim was to investigate how offspring difficult temperament affects frequency, severity, and duration of offspring major depressive episodes (MDEs). Methods As part of an ongoing multigenerational study assessing familial transmission of depression, offspring were assessed over a 20-year study period. Offspring temperament was assessed at baseline using the Dimensions of Temperament Survey and diagnostic interviews were conducted at each of the four waves using best estimate procedures. Results Difficult temperament predicted greater frequency of lifetime MDEs. Parental depression moderated the relationship between offspring difficult temperament and severity of MDEs, such that difficult temperament was associated with increased severity ratings among high-risk, but not low-risk offspring. Dimensional analysis revealed that lower rhythmicity and adaptability were associated with greater number of lifetime MDEs, while higher inattention/distractibility was associated with shorter duration of MDEs. Discussion Certain limitations must be noted, namely the self-report nature of temperament data and the relatively small sample size drawn from a clinical and predominantly Caucasian and Christian sample. Notwithstanding these limitations, our results suggest that the clinical presentation of major depression may reflect temperamental profiles and should be considered in diagnostic and treatment settings. PMID:27130957
Sherman, Brian J; Vousoura, Eleni; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Verdeli, Helen
The current study examined the relationships between parental depression, offspring depression, and offspring temperament among 203 offspring of parents with or without depression. The specific aim was to investigate how parental depression and offspring difficult temperament affect frequency, severity, and duration of offspring major depressive episodes (MDEs). As part of an ongoing multigenerational study assessing familial transmission of depression, offspring were assessed over a 20-year study period. Offspring temperament was assessed at baseline using the Dimensions of Temperament Survey and diagnostic interviews were conducted at each of the four waves using best estimate procedures. Difficult temperament predicted greater frequency of lifetime MDEs. Parental depression moderated the relationship between offspring difficult temperament and severity of MDEs, such that difficult temperament was associated with increased severity ratings among high-risk, but not low-risk offspring. Dimensional analysis revealed that lower rhythmicity and adaptability were associated with greater number of lifetime MDEs, higher inattention/distractibility was associated with shorter duration of MDEs, and greater activity was associated with decreased severity of MDEs. Certain limitations must be noted, namely the self-report nature of temperament data and the relatively small sample size drawn from a clinical and predominantly Caucasian and Christian sample. Notwithstanding these limitations, our results suggest that the clinical presentation of major depression may reflect temperamental profiles and should be considered in diagnostic and treatment settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M
Sleep-temperament associations have not yet been examined among university students, despite awareness of the high incidence of sleep problems in this population. The present study was conducted (a) to examine whether sleep quality was associated with temperament among university-attending young adults and (b) to determine whether particular components of sleep quality were differentially associated with temperament. University students completed questionnaires designed to assess sleep quality and temperament. Poor sleep quality was associated with increased negative affect and orienting sensitivity as well as decreased effortful control; regression analyses revealed differential associations between components of nighttime sleep quality and temperament ratings. The presented study reveals conceptual continuity in sleep-temperament relations from infancy to young adulthood and highlights important avenues for future research.
Baum, Katherine T.; Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Dunn, David W.; Bates, John E.; Austin, Joan K.
Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures. Our major goal was to test whether family adaptive resources moderated the relationship between early temperament dimensions and current behavior problems in 287 children with new-onset seizures. Two of the three temperament dimensions (difficultness and resistance to control) were positively correlated with total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (all p < 0.0001). The third temperament dimension, unadaptability, was positively correlated with total and internalizing problems (p < 0.01). Family adaptive resources moderated the relationships between temperament and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at school. Children with a difficult early temperament who live in a family environment with low family mastery are at the greatest risk for behavior problems. PMID:17267291
Brand, Bodo; Hadlich, Frieder; Brandt, Bettina; Schauer, Nicolas; Graunke, Katharina L.; Langbein, Jan; Repsilber, Dirk; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Schwerin, Manfred
In the past decade the number of studies investigating temperament in farm animals has increased greatly because temperament has been shown not only to affect handling but also reproduction, health and economically important production traits. However, molecular pathways underlying temperament and molecular pathways linking temperament to production traits, health and reproduction have yet to be studied in full detail. Here we report the results of metabolite profiling of the prefrontal cortex and serum of cattle with distinct temperament types that were performed to further explore their molecular divergence in the response to the slaughter procedure and to identify new targets for further research of cattle temperament. By performing an untargeted comprehensive metabolite profiling, 627 and 1097 metabolite features comprising 235 and 328 metabolites could be detected in the prefrontal cortex and serum, respectively. In total, 54 prefrontal cortex and 51 serum metabolite features were indicated to have a high relevance in the classification of temperament types by a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis. A clear discrimination between fearful/neophobic-alert, interested-stressed, subdued/uninterested-calm and outgoing/neophilic-alert temperament types could be observed based on the abundance of the identified relevant prefrontal cortex and serum metabolites. Metabolites with high relevance in the classification of temperament types revealed that the main differences between temperament types in the response to the slaughter procedure were related to the abundance of glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls and sterol lipids. Differences in the abundance of metabolites related to C21 steroid metabolism and oxidative stress indicated that the differences in the metabolite profiles of the four extreme temperament types could be the result of a temperament type specific regulation of molecular pathways that are known to be involved in the stress and fear response
Brand, Bodo; Hadlich, Frieder; Brandt, Bettina; Schauer, Nicolas; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Repsilber, Dirk; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Schwerin, Manfred
In the past decade the number of studies investigating temperament in farm animals has increased greatly because temperament has been shown not only to affect handling but also reproduction, health and economically important production traits. However, molecular pathways underlying temperament and molecular pathways linking temperament to production traits, health and reproduction have yet to be studied in full detail. Here we report the results of metabolite profiling of the prefrontal cortex and serum of cattle with distinct temperament types that were performed to further explore their molecular divergence in the response to the slaughter procedure and to identify new targets for further research of cattle temperament. By performing an untargeted comprehensive metabolite profiling, 627 and 1097 metabolite features comprising 235 and 328 metabolites could be detected in the prefrontal cortex and serum, respectively. In total, 54 prefrontal cortex and 51 serum metabolite features were indicated to have a high relevance in the classification of temperament types by a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis. A clear discrimination between fearful/neophobic-alert, interested-stressed, subdued/uninterested-calm and outgoing/neophilic-alert temperament types could be observed based on the abundance of the identified relevant prefrontal cortex and serum metabolites. Metabolites with high relevance in the classification of temperament types revealed that the main differences between temperament types in the response to the slaughter procedure were related to the abundance of glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls and sterol lipids. Differences in the abundance of metabolites related to C21 steroid metabolism and oxidative stress indicated that the differences in the metabolite profiles of the four extreme temperament types could be the result of a temperament type specific regulation of molecular pathways that are known to be involved in the stress and fear response.
Tees, Michael T; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen
To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n = 288) in 2006-2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother's experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and "difficult temperament" was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with three or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15-2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at 1 year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81-5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother's mental health.
Baldessarini, Ross J; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Tondo, Leonardo
Clinical characteristics proposed to be associated with suicidal risk include affective temperament types. We tested this proposal with two methods in a large sample of subjects with mood and anxiety disorders. We assessed consecutive, consenting subjects clinically for affective temperament types and by TEMPS-A self-ratings for associations of temperament with suicidal ideation and acts, using standard bivariate methods, and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 2561 subjects (major depressive, 1171; bipolar, 919, anxiety disorders, 471), temperament-types and TEMPS-A (39-item Italian version) subscale scores differed by risk of suicidal acts or ideation. Suicidal acts and ideation were most associated with cyclothymic and dysthymic, and less with hyperthymic temperaments. These associations were sustained by multivariate modeling that included diagnosis, age, sex, and diagnosis. Not all subjects completed TEMPS-A self-ratings; clinical assessments of temperaments were not standardized, and long-term stability of temperament assessments was not tested. The findings support and extend associations of cyclothymic-dysthymic temperaments with suicidal acts and ideation, whereas hyperthymic temperament may be protective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Candilera, Gabriella; Rosafio, Iole; Erbuto, Denise; Battuello, Michele; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo
Women constitute only a small proportion of inmates, but several studies have shown that they have higher rates of psychiatric disturbance than incarcerated men and community samples. Mental health treatment is necessary to prevent severe illness and suicide in these women. The convenience sample consisted of 40 female detainees and 40 controls who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A), insecure attachment (ECR), impulsivity (BIS-11), and sexual behavior (SESAMO). The incarcerated women had higher levels of affective temperament (except for hyperthymia), avoidance, anxiety, impulsivity, and psychosexual issues than the female community sample. Many interrelated emotional and affective disturbances affect the physical and psychological well-being of women in jail, and it is possible that these problems may lead to suicide. Health professionals need to develop gender-specific therapeutic interventions for women in jail. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F
Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.
Allan, Nicholas P.; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Hart, Sara A.; Taylor, Jeanette
A multivariate independent pathway model was used to examine the shared and unique genetic and environmental influences of Positive Affect (PA), Negative Affect (NA), and effortful control (EC) in a sample of 686 twin pairs (M age = 10.07, SD = 1.74). There were common genetic influences and nonshared environmental influences shared across all three temperament dimensions and shared environmental influences in common to NA and EC. There were also significant independent genetic influences unique to PA and NA and significant independent shared environmental influences unique to PA. This study demonstrates that there are genetic and environmental influences that affect the covariance among temperament dimensions as well as unique genetic and environmental influences that influence the dimensions independently. PMID:24729641
Mixture models are appropriate for data that arise from a set of qualitatively different subpopulations. In this study, latent class analysis was applied to observational data from a laboratory assessment of infant temperament at four months of age. The EM algorithm was used to fit the models, and the Bayesian method of posterior predictive checks was used for model selection. Results show at least three types of infant temperament, with patterns consistent with those identified by previous researchers who classified the infants using a theoretically based system. Multiple imputation of group memberships is proposed as an alternative to assigning subjects to the latent class with maximum posterior probability in order to reflect variance due to uncertainty in the parameter estimation. Latent class membership at four months of age predicted longitudinal outcomes at four years of age. The example illustrates issues relevant to all mixture models, including estimation, multi-modality, model selection, and comparisons based on the latent group indicators.
Komsi, Niina; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Keskivaara, Pertti; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo E
Continuity of temperament from 6 months (the IBQ) to 5.5 years (the CBQ) was explored in Finnish children (n=231) within the theoretical framework deviced by Rothbart. Activity level, smiling and laughter, distress to limitations and fear showed significant differential homotypic and heterotypic continuity, while soothability and duration of orienting showed significant differential heterotypic continuity. On the level of latent superconstructs, infant positive and negative affectivity accounted for 4.6, 22.3, and 6.0% of the variance in childhood extraversion, effortful control and negative affectivity, respectively. Infant and childhood temperament clustered into profile types named "resilient", "undercontrolled", and "overcontrolled" mirroring ipsative continuity. These findings give empirical credence to Rothbart's theory by replicating and extending previous findings in significant ways.
Van Ammers, E C; Sellman, J D; Mulder, R T
The influence of temperament on substance abuse in schizophrenia is poorly understood, whereas it is known to play an important role in other clinical populations. In a sample of 28 male schizophrenics, Cloninger's dimensions of temperament were measured with the use of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Levels of four commonly used substances were recorded. There was a significant correlation between the novelty-seeking dimension and past use of alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine and current use of caffeine and nicotine. There was no relationship between substance use and clinical symptoms or demographic variables. The possible implications of abnormal mean TPQ scores in the sample as well as a weak correlation between symptom patterns and TPQ scores are discussed. The findings suggest that novelty-seeking type behaviors contribute to substance use in schizophrenia.
Atiye, Minna; Miettunen, Jouko; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu
Although suggested as an important contributor to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, temperament has not previously been studied adopting a meta-analytical approach. We therefore pooled data (N = 14 studies; N = 3315 cases, N = 3395 controls) on Cloninger's temperament traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence and persistence) in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Persistence was significantly higher than in the controls in all eating disorders except for BED the highest levels being observed in AN. Correspondingly, the highest effect sizes for harm avoidance were seen in AN. Novelty seeking was significantly elevated relative to the controls only in BN. Harm avoidance was significantly lower, and reward dependence was significantly higher in individuals who had recovered from AN than in those who remained ill. Future studies with a longitudinal design are needed to explore the temporal relationships between eating disorders and temperament traits. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen
Accounting for both bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and child temperament can fine-tune theoretical models of the role of parenting and temperament in children's development of adjustment problems. Evidence for bidirectional and interactive effects between parenting and children's characteristics of frustration, fear, self-regulation, and impulsivity was reviewed, and an overall model of children's individual differences in response to parenting is proposed. In general, children high in frustration, impulsivity and low in effortful control are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative parenting, while in turn, many negative parenting behaviors predict increases in these characteristics. Frustration, fearfulness, and effortful control also appear to elicit parenting behaviors that can predict increases in these characteristics. Irritability renders children more susceptible to negative parenting behaviors. Fearfulness operates in a very complex manner, sometimes increasing children's responses to parenting behaviors and sometimes mitigating them and apparently operating differently across gender. Important directions for future research include the use of study designs and analytic approaches that account for the direction of effects and for developmental changes in parenting and temperament over time. PMID:21461681
Galler, J R; Cervera, M D; Harrison, R H
Temperament ratings using a modified Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire were assessed in marginally malnourished and healthy comparison infants aged 7-13 months. The children were selected from a total of 81 children in this age range living in a rural region of southern Yucatan, Mexico. Eleven marginally malnourished infants whose weights fell between one-half and two standard deviations below local means and 14 comparison children whose weights fell one-half to two standard deviations above the local means were included in the study. Lengths did not differ between index and comparison groups. Related temperament categories were statistically grouped into two factors. Factor 1 (Difficult Child), which included approach, mood, threshold, adaptability and rhythmicity, showed a significant nutrition × sex interaction; Factor 2 (Activity) did not distinguish the groups. Comparison boys were viewed as significantly easier than marginally malnourished boys, and they were more adaptable to change and predictable in biological functions. Girls were similar regardless of nutritional status, and their scores were intermediate between those of malnourished and well-nourished boys. These findings were not significantly associated with environmental conditions in the home.
Allmann, Anna E.S.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Klein, Daniel N.
Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children’s temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were three and nine years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were three and six years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children’s early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263
DeLisi, Matt; Fox, Bryanna H; Fully, Matthew; Vaughn, Michael G
Recent interest among criminologists on the construct of temperament has been fueled by DeLisi and Vaughn's (2014) temperament-based theory of antisocial behavior. Their theory suggests that core self-regulation capacity and negative emotionality are the most salient temperament features for understanding the emergence and maintenance of antisocial and violent behavior, even among offending populations. The present study tests the relative effects of these temperamental features along with psychopathic traits and trauma in their association with violent and non-violent delinquency in a sample of 252 juvenile offenders. Results from a series of negative binomial regression models indicate that temperament was uniformly more strongly associated with violent and non-violent delinquency than psychopathic traits and childhood traumatic events. Exploratory classification models suggested that temperament and psychopathy possessed similar predictive capacity, but neither surpassed prior history of violence and delinquency as a predictor of future offending. Overall, findings are supportive of DeLisi and Vaughn's temperament-based theory and suggest temperament as conceptualized and measured in the present study may play an important role as a risk factor for violent and non-violent delinquency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pitzer, Martina; Esser, Guenter; Schmidt, Martin H; Laucht, Manfred
Despite theoretical discrepancies between different concepts of temperament, some core dimensions are thought to be common to the various models. We compared temperamental traits derived from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) model and the Cloninger dimensions in the developmental course and investigated the associations of temperament with sex as well as with obstetric risks or psychosocial risks present at birth. Participants were 151 boys and 157 girls born at differing degrees of obstetric and psychosocial risk from a longitudinal study on a high-risk community sample. In infancy and childhood, NYLS-derived temperamental characteristics were assessed by a highly structured parent interview and standardized behavioral observations. At age 15 years, the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory/12-18 was administered. Moderate correlations were found between Junior Temperament and Character Inventory scales in adolescence and NYLS-derived factors in childhood. The psychosocial risk load seemed to influence the expression of novelty seeking or corresponding NYLS-derived factors, whereas the obstetric risks did not contribute to variation in temperament. Our findings further support highly sex-specific gene x environment interactions on temperament in the developmental course. The content of our NYLS-derived factors and the specific type of association across different temperament constructs fit into the increasing consensus regarding a small number of higher-order temperamental traits.
DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R
Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya
This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R) and…
Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Inoue, Koki
The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one’s own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one’s supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support. PMID:27227771
Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Inoue, Koki
The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.
Acar, Ibrahim H.; Torquati, Julia C.; Encinger, Amy; Colgrove, Amy
The current study examined the associations between low-income preschool children's temperament (reactive and regulatory) and their relationships with parents and teachers. In particular, we focused on the moderating role of regulatory temperament on reactive temperament in the prediction of closeness and conflict with parents and teachers. Two…
Maria A. Gartstein,; Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Kirchhoff, Cornelia; Putnam, Samuel P.
The present study was designed to examine cross-cultural differences in longitudinal links between infant temperament toddler behavior problems in the U.S. (N= 250) and Russia (N= 129). Profiles of risk/protective temperament factors varied across the two countries, with fewer significant temperament effects observed for the Russian, relative to…
Sorondo, Barbara M; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C
Effects of temperament and maternal stress on infant sleep behaviors were explored longitudinally. Negative temperament was associated with sleep problems, and with longer sleep latency and night wakefulness, whereas maternal stress was associated with day sleep duration, suggesting infant and maternal characteristics affect sleep differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Bush, Nicole R.
Temperament was examined as a moderator of maternal parenting behaviors, including warmth, negativity, autonomy granting, and guidance. Observations of parenting and questionnaire measures of temperament and adjustment were obtained from a community sample (N = 214; ages 8-12). Trajectories of depression and anxiety were assessed across 3 years.…
del Rosario, Mithi; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted
Temperament atypicalities have been documented in infancy and early development in children who develop autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigates whether there are differences in developmental trajectories of temperament between infants and toddlers with and without ASD. Parents of infant siblings of children with autism…
Rivers, Jessica Wood; Stoneman, Zolinda
This study examined associations between sibling temperaments, differential parenting, and the quality of the relationships between 50 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their typically developing siblings. The temperament dimension of persistence, but not activity level or emotional intensity, was found to relate to the quality of…
Nathans, Laura L.; Meece, Darrell; Kossek, Ellen; Barratt, Marguerite
Previous research has documented associations between young children's social development and both temperament and child care quality. The preponderance of research in this area has focused on preschool-age and older children, resulting in few studies focusing on these variables during infancy. In the current investigation, temperament and child…
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.
Past research provides associations between maternal parenting behaviors and characteristics such as depression and toddlers' fearful temperament. Less is known about how maternal cognitive characteristics and normal personality relate to fearful temperament. This study examined associations among the maternal cognitive characteristic of accuracy,…
This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning with the 8...
The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected for this study based on temperament score. Bulls were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters for serial sampling to evaluate peri...
Oren, Meral; Jones, Ithel
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between child temperament, teacher-child relationships, and teacher-child interactions in four preschool classrooms. The preliminary analyses revealed classroom differences for all variables. In all the classrooms except one, the temperament factor Reactivity had positive and high…
Stoneman, Zolinda; And Others
Examined contemporaneous associations between child temperament and marital and family functioning in 2-child families. Mothers and fathers in 70 families completed measures of marital satisfaction, family climate, spousal conflict, depression, and ratings of older and younger sibling temperament. Found strong associations between active-emotional…
Gartstein, Maria A.; Prokasky, Amanda; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan; Bridgett, David J.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia; Leerkes, Esther; Cheatham, Carol L.; Eiden, Rina D.; Mize, Krystal D.; Jones, Nancy Aaron; Mireault, Gina; Seamon, Erich
There is renewed interest in person-centered approaches to understanding the structure of temperament. However, questions concerning temperament types are not frequently framed in a developmental context, especially during infancy. In addition, the most common person-centered techniques, cluster analysis (CA) and latent profile analysis (LPA),…
Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia
Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9-13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance.
Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia
Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9–13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance. PMID:28446886
The aim of this study was to determine how children's temperament and language skills predict the effects of teacher-child relationships in preschool. Parents and preschool teachers completed three questionnaires: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale, the Marmara Development Scale and the Short Temperament Scale for Children. The relational…
Auerbach, Judith G.; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Arbelle, Shoshana; Cypin, Nira; Friedman, Adi; Landau, Rivka
As part of a longitudinal investigation of infants at familial risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mothers and fathers independently completed temperament ratings on their infants. In this paper, we examine the 7-, 12-, and 25-month temperament of 58 boys, 36 of whom were considered at familial risk for ADHD and 22 of whom…
Weiss, Sandra J; Jonn-Seed, Mary St; Wilson, Peggy
Temperament profiles of pre-term, low birth weight (LBW) infants were assessed at 6 months of age using standardized norms from the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ). The contributions of perinatal risk, ethnicity, and gender to various temperament dimensions were examined. The sample included 152 infants with a mean birth weight of 1687 g and a mean gestational age of 31 weeks. Eighty percent of the infants were classified as having temperaments that were difficult to manage. Irregularity of the infants' biorhythms, slowness in their ability to adapt to changes, and distractibility were the most problematic. Birth weight, gestational age, and gender were not associated with temperament. Perinatal morbidity was related to the temperament dimension of infant persistence, with implications for the infant's attention span and task performance. Euro American infants were rated as more persistent and less intense in emotional expression than were infants of other ethnic groups. Results suggest the need for a more direct assessment of the effects of neurobiological processes on development of temperament phenotypes and for measurement of temperament that is socioculturally appropriate.
Perna, Giampaolo; di Pasquale, Danila; Grassi, Massimiliano; Vanni, Giovanna; Bellodi, Laura; Caldirola, Daniela
Adult patients with panic disorder (PD) show high levels of harm avoidance and anxiety sensitivity. Peculiar temperament profiles and high anxiety sensitivity have been proposed as developmental risk factors for PD in adult age. Since familial-genetic influences play a role both in PD and in anxiety sensitivity and temperament profiles, this study aims to investigate the possible association between family history of PD and peculiar temperament-character profiles or high anxiety sensitivity in offspring of patients with PD. Thirty-four children of patients with PD with/without agoraphobia and 30 children of healthy subjects were compared. Temperament and character dimensions and anxiety sensitivity levels of children were obtained by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory and the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Children of patients with PD and children of healthy subjects differed neither in temperament and character dimensions nor in anxiety sensitivity levels. Our results show that family history of PD is not associated with peculiar temperament and character profiles or high anxiety sensitivity in children, suggesting that these factors may not be early expressions of familial vulnerability to PD. Since the sample is small and the study has a cross-sectional design, longitudinal studies in larger samples are warranted to confirm these findings and to clarify the role of anxiety sensitivity and temperament-character dimensions in the development of PD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Prins, Pier J.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits; Hartman, Catharina A.
The present study first examined the links between reactive temperament (negative affectivity), regulative temperament (effortful control [EC]) and internalizing problems in adolescents (12-18 years) with anxiety disorders (ANX; N = 39) and without anxiety disorders (nANX; N = 35). Links differed between ANX and nANX participants. Negative…
Mullola, Sari; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hirstio-Snellman, Paula; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa
Associations between teacher-perceived temperament, educational competence (EC), and school grades in mother language (ML) and mathematics (Math) were assessed in 3212 students (1619 girls) in Secondary School (aged 13-19) taken from a nationally representative Finnish sample. Temperament was assessed with scales from the TABC-R and DOTS-R…
Gartstein, Maria A.; Bateman, Alison E.
In this longitudinal study, 83 parents of infants between 3 and 12 months completed questionnaires assessing demographic information, infant temperament, and maternal depression. When these children were at least 18 months of age, parents completed follow-up questionnaires assessing toddler temperament and depression-like symptoms. We were…
Lee, Dong Hun; Oakland, Thomas; Ahn, Changgu
Temperament styles of 4,628 South Korean children, ages 9-17, are described in reference to possible gender and age differences and compared with those of 3,200 US age peers in the light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs, one that highlights four bipolar qualities: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative,…
Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken
A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the…
Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo
This cross-national research examined temperament style preferences among children in three sub-Saharan African countries (i.e., Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and possible differences between them on four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted-introverted, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. Children in these…
Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.
This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…
This observational study investigated children's temperaments and their relation to behavior and emotion across different contexts. Temperament, or individual behavioral style, was conceptualized as the manifestation of affect displays and social behaviors in context, with emotions acting as signals for interactions. Ratings of child temperament…
Weiss, Sandra J.; St. Jonn-Seed, Mary; Harris-Muchell, Carolyn
Background: Preliminary evidence indicates that fetal drug exposure may be associated with alterations in temperament. However, studies often do not dissociate the potential effects of drug exposure from other perinatal or environmental factors that could influence temperament phenotypes. Methods: High risk children (n = 120) were followed from…
Martin, Roy P.
Current definitions of temperament are reviewed, and two types of rating scales designed to measure temperamental variables are described. Also, brief reviews of the literature on the relationship of temperament to general cognitive ability, achievement, and psychopathology are presented. Implications for school psychologists are discussed.…
Takai, Yoshifumi; Terao, Takeshi; Goto, Shinjiro; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Wang, Yumei; Araki, Yasuo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperament on quality of life and social adaptation in depressive patients with mood disorder. Forty-six consecutive depressive outpatients were investigated by using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version, the Munich Personality Test, the World Health Organization Quality of Life 26 (WHO QOL 26), and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS). The unpaired t-test, Pearson's r and multiple regression analysis were used to assess three variables (age, the number of temperaments and/or personality types, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores) as independent variables with the scores of WHO QOL 26 and SASS as the dependent variables. The number of temperaments and/or personalities and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores were significantly and negatively associated with WHO QOL 26 scores while only the number of temperaments and/or personalities was significantly and negatively associated with SASS scores. The findings suggest that the combination of temperaments and/or personality types assessed with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version and the Munich Personality Test may worsen both quality of life and social adaptation and that some temperaments and/or personality types in combination may be subclinical manifestations of mood disorders. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Lehman, Elyse Brauch; And Others
A new measure of temperament, Rothbart's Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), was used to compare children with attachments to objects and those without such attachments. Comparisons were used to determine whether temperament differences between children with and without a history of object attachment held for children with and without a…
The objective of this trial was to use cattle temperament, as determined by exit velocity only, as a means to evaluate the impact of temperament on carcass merit and the possible utilization of exit velocity alone as a sorting tool within the feedlot. At the time of processing, exit velocity and bod...
Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi
This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…
Lukowski, A F; Milojevich, H M
Although group differences have been found between children with Down syndrome (DS) and typically developing (TD) children when considering sleep problems and temperament independently, none of the research conducted to date has examined sleep-temperament associations in children with DS. The present research was conducted to determine (1) whether the sleep problems experienced by children with DS are associated with temperament or (2) if the demonstrated relations between sleep and temperament differ from those that are observed in TD children. The present study included examination of relations between parent-reported sleep problems and temperament in 19 children with DS and 20 TD controls matched on developmental age. The results revealed group differences in temperament and sleep problems. Mediation models indicated that temperament (effortful control and inhibitory control) mediated the association between group and sleep problems; sleep problems also mediated the association between group and temperament (effortful and inhibitory control). Findings indicated that sleep problems may serve as both cause and consequence of variability in effortful and inhibitory control and provide insight as to future experimental studies that should be conducted to better elucidate these relations. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Al-Hendawi, Maha; Reed, Evelyn
Individual differences in temperament can be protective or risk factors that may enhance or interfere with children's healthy development and educational success. This study examined the concurrent and predictive relationships between temperament, school adjustment, and academic achievement in children at-risk. Seventy-seven children at-risk, ages…
This study measured physiological, immunological, and endocrinological responses of Bos indicus cattle of differing temperaments to transportation. Based on temperament score (TS) the 7 most Calm (TS = 0.84 ± 0.03) and 8 most Temperamental (TS = 3.37 ± 0.18) Brahman bulls were selected from our rese...
Buturak, Sadiye Visal; Emel, Erdogan Bakar; Koçak, Orhan Murat
Treatment adherence is one of the most important factors that may determine treatment response in patients with bipolar disorders (BD). Many factors have been described to be associated with treatment adherence in BD. Temperament that can influence the course of BD will have an impact on treatment adherence. The aim of this study is to investigate temperament effect on treatment adherence in euthymic patients with BD-I. Eighty patients with BD-I participated in the study. A psychiatrist used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders to determine the diagnosis and co-morbidities. Hamilton Depression and Young Mania Rating Scale were used to detect the remission. We used the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, San Diego Autoquestionnaire and the 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale to evaluate temperament and treatment adherence, respectively. The study group was divided into two groups as "treatment adherent" and "treatment non-adherent". The cyclothymic and anxious temperament scores of the treatment non-adherent patients with BD-I were significantly higher than those of the treatment adherent group (p < 0.001, p = 0.006, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis determined that cyclothymic temperament predicted treatment non-adherence (p = 0.009). It should be kept in mind that BD-I patients with cyclothymic temperament may be treatment non-adherent and future studies should explore whether temperament characteristics deteriorate BD-I course by disrupting treatment adherence.
Mullola, Sari; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa
Background: Student's temperament plays a significant role in teacher's perception of the student's learning style, educational competence (EC), and teachability. Hence, temperament contributes to student's academic achievement and teacher's subjective ratings of school grades. However, little is known about the effect of gender and teacher's age…
Pekdogan, Serpil; Kanak, Mehmet
The purpose of this research is to explore the social competence and temperament of 4-6 age group children attending pre-school education institutions, to identify whether their social competence levels vary by gender, and to show the relationship between the sub-dimensions of social competence and those of temperament. The study group consists of…
Since the 1980s, research has been examining the role of temperament in education. In particular, academic achievement and school adjustment were among the first variables to be examined. Subsequently, several studies have documented associations between temperament and either academic achievement or school adjustment. However, no review of this…
Altınbaş, Gülçin; Altınbaş, Kürşat; Gülöksüz, Selin Aktan; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Aydemir, Ömer; Özgen, Güliz
Panic disorder is one of the highly heritable anxiety disorders; and temperament characteristics are considered predicting liability to panic disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests temperament characteristics are intermediate phenotypes for clinical conditions. Given this background, we aimed to investigate temperament characteristics in patients with panic disorder, their first-degree relatives, and healthy controls. Study sample consisted of 60 patients with panic disorder, 37 first-degree relatives of these patients, and 37 age, gender, and education level matched healthy controls (HC). SCID-I, the Panic Agoraphobia Scale, and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory were applied to assess clinical characteristics of the patient group. Temperament characteristics were assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). Anxious, depressive, cyclothymic, and irritable temperament scores of patients were higher than those of HC. There was no difference between the patients and the relatives, with the exception of higher anxious temperament scores in patients. Overall, our findings suggest that anxious temperament characteristic might be a trait marker for liability to panic disorder. Further research with a prospective design in a larger sample is required to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The objective of this trial was to use exit velocity as a means of determining temperament of cattle to evaluate the impact of temperament on animal health. At the time of processing, exit velocity and body weight were recorded on 20 pens of cattle (2,877 head) at a commercial feedlot. Infrared sens...
Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…
Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly
There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.
The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...
Rowinski, Tomasz; Cieciuch, Jan; Oakland, Thomas
The Polish Temperament Styles Questionnaire (PTSQ), derived from Student Style Questionnaire (SSQ) was developed to measure four bipolar temperament styles: extroverted versus introverted, practical versus imaginative, thinking versus feeling, and organized versus flexible. The study focuses on factorial validity and measurement invariance…
Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer
This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…
Rothbart, Mary K.
Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…
Sherry, John L.
Shows that the biologically rooted individual difference behavior variable of temperament was consistent and moderately strong causal factor in forming television use motivations among undergraduate students. Finds distinct patterns of relationships between temperament and all television use gratifications supporting the uses and gratifications…
Mullola, Sari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Ravaja, Niklas; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
This study examined whether teacher-rated versus self-rated student temperaments are different in relation to the school grades in Maths and Mother language (ML) instruction in a nationally representative sample of Finnish Secondary School students (n?=?1,063, mean age 15.1 years). The results indicated that teacher-rated temperament was more…
Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Loncaric, Darko
With the aim of measuring preschool children temperament, EASI temperament Survey has been applied. Preschool teachers (N = 192), all female, rated a total of N = 3275 children (1612 girls and 1639 boys) with mean age M 4.368 (SD = 1.482) within age range between 7 months and 7.7 years. Validation for the instrument was run. Factor analysis on…
Oakland, Thomas; Pretorius, Jenny D.; Lee, Dong Hun
Four bipolar temperament qualities (i.e. extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible) of 800 South African children, ages 9-10, 11-12, 13-14 and 15-17, first are described and then compared to temperament qualities of 800 US children of the same ages. South African children do not differ in their…
Oakland, Thomas; Lub, Li
Preferences for four bipolar temperament qualities (i.e. extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible styles) of 400 Chinese children, ages 9, 11, 13 and 15, first are described and then compared to temperament qualities of 3,539 US children of the same ages. Chinese children more frequently prefer…
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and…
Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana
This study examined how child temperament was related to parents’ time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers’ workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work. PMID:25960588
del Rosario, Mithi; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted
Temperament atypicalities have been documented in infancy and early development in children who develop autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigates whether there are differences in developmental trajectories of temperament between infants and toddlers with and without ASD. Parents of infant siblings of children with autism completed the Carey Temperament Scales about their child at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. Temperament trajectories of children with ASD reflected increases over time in activity level, and decreasing adaptability and approach behaviors relative to high-risk typically developing children. This study is the first to compare temperament trajectories between high-risk typically developing infants and infants subsequently diagnosed with ASD in the developmental window when overt symptoms of ASD first emerge. PMID:23820765
Burrows, Catherine A; Usher, Lauren V; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A
This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N = 104, aged 10-16) self-reported less surgency and more negative affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N = 94, aged 10-16) on effortful control or affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA.
Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.
Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured diagnostic interview on preschool psychopathology. In bivariate analyses, temperamental dysphoria and low exuberance were associated with depression; fear, low exuberance, and low sociability were associated with anxiety disorders; and disinhibition and dysphoria were associated with oppositional defiant disorder. Although there were no bivariate associations between temperament and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disinhibition emerged as a unique predictor in multivariate analyses. Findings indicate that the pattern of relations between temperament and psychopathology in older youth and adults is evident as early as age 3. PMID:21391025
Brown, Geoffrey L; McBride, Brent A; Bost, Kelly K; Shin, Nana
This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers' workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work.
Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.
This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N=104, aged 10–16) self-reported less Surgency and more Negative Affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N=94, aged 10–16) on Effortful Control or Affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA. PMID:26589536
Dolenc, Barbara; Sprah, Lilijana; Dernovšek, Mojca Z; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop S
TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire) is a self-rated instrument that measures five affective temperaments: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable, and anxious. The aim of our study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Slovenian TEMPS-A and to ascertain if temperament profile is related to the professions chosen by Slovenian students. 892 Slovenian university students in six different professional fields (economics, geography, engineering, law, sports pedagogy and nursing) were included in our study. Cronbach's reliability coefficients denoted acceptable internal consistency of the subscales. Principal component analysis revealed relatively good internal structure of the instrument. Nursing and geography students scored the highest on depressive temperament. Sports pedagogues as well as engineers demonstrated the most firm personality structure with distinctive hyperthymic temperament. Law students revealed the most irritable temperament, while nursing and law students scored the highest on anxious temperament. Sample of Slovenian students is not representative for general population. The structure of the sample was crucial as well, as it comprised mainly of younger students who just started their study. The Slovenian version of the TEMPS-A proved to have relatively good internal consistency and internal structure. The questionnaire verified as a reliable and valid instrument and generally in line with previous studies. This study strengthens the perspective that professional areas could be associated with distinct affective temperament profile that could influence career decisions. The findings in students of economics, geography, and sport pedagogy are new as they have not been previously investigated by TEMPS researchers. The results open new possibilities for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jaracz, Marcin; Rosiak, Izabela; Borkowska, Alina
Introduction The risk of professional burnout is constituted by job-related as well as individual factors. The latter involve affective temperament, which influences the perception of job-related stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the affective temperament, the level of job stress and professional burnout, as well as the relationships between these variables, in public servants and nurses. Material and methods 100 civil servants and 100 nurses were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament and burnout were assessed by means of TEMPS-A and MBI questionnaires, respectively. To measure the level of job-related stress, we have designed a 6-item self-reported questionnaire, which considered stressors common for both professions. Results Compared to the civil servants, nurses showed higher rate of anxious temperament and experienced greater intensity of job-related stress. The groups did not differ in the intensity of burnout symptoms. The rates of cyclothymic and anxious temperaments correlated with the intensity of stress, and burnout symptoms in the group of nurses. Within the civil servants group, the level of stress correlated with intensity of burnout, however no correlations with affective temperament were observed. The regression analysis performed in both groups revealed the significant effect of stress and cyclothymic temperament on burnout, while the effect of anxious temperament was not significant. Conclusions Cyclothymic and anxious temperaments are related to the level of experienced job stress and the risk of burnout. In professions like nursing, where employees show elevated rates of these temperaments, burnout prevention and stress management education is of particular importance. PMID:28586391
Kikuchi, Yoko; Nakaya, Makoto; Ikeda, Miki; Okuzumi, Shoko; Takeda, Mihoko; Nishi, Miyoko
A casual relationship between temperament, job stress and depressive symptoms has not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses at a Japanese general hospital. A self-report survey was conducted among 706 nurses. We measured job stress, temperament, and depressive symptoms using the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire, the TEMPS-A and a screening scale of items from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. In order to examine the causal relationship between the measures the stepwise multiple regression and path analyses were used. Depressive symptoms were modestly correlated with job stress (γ = -0.23-0.30). Except for hyperthymic temperament measures, the correlations between depressive symptoms and temperament types were significant and moderate (γ = 0.36-0.50). Overtime, job control as well as depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, p < 0.05; β = 0.19, p < 0.01; β = 0.26, p < 0.001; β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively). Path-analysis revealed that depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament influenced depressive symptoms both directly (β = 0.67, p < 0.001) and indirectly via job stress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001 from temperament to job stress; β = 0.20, p < 0.05 from job stress to depressive symptoms). Irritable and anxious types of temperament and quantitative job overload did not contribute to the path-analytic model. Health care professionals should consider temperament, especially depressive and cyclothymic types, in order to help employees cope better with job stress factors. We need further research about the effective intervention to help employees better cope with their job stress.
Jaracz, Marcin; Rosiak, Izabela; Bertrand-Bucińska, Anna; Jaskulski, Maciej; Nieżurawska, Joanna; Borkowska, Alina
The risk of professional burnout is constituted by job-related as well as individual factors. The latter involve affective temperament, which influences the perception of job-related stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the affective temperament, the level of job stress and professional burnout, as well as the relationships between these variables, in public servants and nurses. 100 civil servants and 100 nurses were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament and burnout were assessed by means of TEMPS-A and MBI questionnaires, respectively. To measure the level of job-related stress, we have designed a 6-item self-reported questionnaire, which considered stressors common for both professions. Compared to the civil servants, nurses showed higher rate of anxious temperament and experienced greater intensity of job-related stress. The groups did not differ in the intensity of burnout symptoms. The rates of cyclothymic and anxious temperaments correlated with the intensity of stress, and burnout symptoms in the group of nurses. Within the civil servants group, the level of stress correlated with intensity of burnout, however no correlations with affective temperament were observed. The regression analysis performed in both groups revealed the significant effect of stress and cyclothymic temperament on burnout, while the effect of anxious temperament was not significant. Cyclothymic and anxious temperaments are related to the level of experienced job stress and the risk of burnout. In professions like nursing, where employees show elevated rates of these temperaments, burnout prevention and stress management education is of particular importance.
Akiskal, H S; Brieger, P; Mundt, C; Angst, J; Marneros, A
In temperament research, three traditions can be found: (1) in psychiatry or psychopathology, (2) in neurobiology, and (3) in developmental psychology. After giving an overview, we present results and theories concerning the relation between temperament and affective disorders. Based on Kraepelin's concept of the fundamental states ("Grundszustände"), we describe four types of temperament: hyperthymic (manic), depressive, irritable, and cyclothymic. A fifth anxious temperament is added. Clinical description and scientific implications are described in the light of recent work by Akiskal and the German version of the TEMPS-A scale, a self-report questionnaire for assessing temperament.
Edhborg, Maigun; E-Nasreen, Hashima; Kabir, Zarina Nahar
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during the first year postpartum is common in Bangladesh, and many infants are exposed to hostile and aggressive environment. The aim of the current study was to investigate how IPV (physical, emotional, and sexual) impacts on the mother's perception of her infant's temperament 6 to 8 months postpartum, and whether maternal depressive symptom at 6 to 8 months postpartum is a mediator in this association. A total of 656 rural Bangladeshi women and their children 6 to 8 months postpartum were included in this study. Data were collected by structured interviews. The women were asked about physical, sexual, and emotional IPV; depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depressive Symptoms [EPDS]); and their perception of infant temperament assessed by the Infant Characteristic Questionnaire (ICQ). Descriptive analyses were conducted for prevalence of IPV and maternal depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis was conducted with a series of linear regressions with types of IPV as independent variables, ICQ including its subscales as dependent variables and maternal depressive symptoms as potential mediator. All the analyses were adjusted for the woman's and her husband's ages and number of children of the couple. Nearly 90% of the mothers reported some kind of IPV at 6 to 8 months postpartum. All types of IPV were directly associated with the mother's perception of her infant as unadaptable. Maternal depressive symptom was a mediating factor between physical IPV and the ICQ subscales fussy-difficult and unpredictable. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated between sexual and emotional IPV, and the mother's perception of the infant as unpredictable. The results showed that IPV influenced how mothers perceived their infant's temperament. It is important that health care professionals at maternal and child health services enquire about IPV with possibilities to refer the family or the mother and infant for appropriate support.
Christian, Lisa M.; Galley, Jeffrey D.; Hade, Erinn M.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Kamp-Dush, Claire; Bailey, Michael T.
Background Understanding the dynamics of the gut-brain axis has clinical implications for physical and mental health conditions, including obesity and anxiety. As such disorders have early life antecedents, it is of value to determine if associations between the gut microbiome and behavior are present in early life in humans. Methods We used next generation pyrosequencing to examine associations between the community structure of the gut microbiome and maternal ratings of child temperament in 77 children at 18-27 months of age. It was hypothesized that children would differ in their gut microbial structure, as indicated by measures of alpha and beta diversity, based on their temperamental characteristics. Results Among both boys and girls, greater Surgency/Extraversion was associated greater phylogenetic diversity. In addition, among boys only, subscales loading on this composite scale were associated with differences in phylogenetic diversity, the Shannon Diversity index (SDI), beta diversity, and differences in abundances of Dialister, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Parabacteroides. In girls only, higher Effortful Control was associated with a lower SDI score and differences in both beta diversity and Rikenellaceae were observed in relation to Fear. Some differences in dietary patterns were observed in relation to temperament, but these did not account for the observed differences in the microbiome. Conclusions Differences in gut microbiome composition, including alpha diversity, beta diversity, and abundances of specific bacterial species, were observed in association with temperament in toddlers. This study was cross-sectional and observational and, therefore, does not permit determination of the causal direction of effects. However, if bidirectional brain-gut relationships are present in humans in early life, this may represent an opportunity for intervention relevant to physical as well as mental health disorders. PMID:25449582
Ryckman, Kandace; Richmond, Sarah A; Anderson, Laura N; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Macarthur, Colin; Maguire, Jonathon L; Howard, Andrew W
Approximately one-half of all children will sustain a fracture before adulthood. Understanding the factors that place a child at increased risk of fracture is necessary to inform effective injury prevention strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between temperament and fracture risk in preschool-aged children. Children aged 3 to 6 years who were diagnosed with a fracture were recruited from the Hospital for Sick Children Fracture Clinic. Using a retrospective case-control study design, the 148 cases were frequency-matched by age and sex to 426 controls from the TARGet Kids primary care paediatric cohort. The Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire, a 36-item caregiver response questionnaire was used to assess three of the following temperament factors: surgency (e.g., high activity level), negative affect (e.g., anger, fear, discomfort) and effortful control (e.g., attentional focusing). Unadjusted logistic models demonstrated no association between children with previous fracture and higher scores of surgency (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84, 1.34), negative affect (unadjusted OR=1.15, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.42) or effortful control (unadjusted OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.03). Further, models adjusted for covariates also demonstrated no significant association with surgency (1.00, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.29), negative affect (1.09, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.37) and effortful control (0.80, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.05). None of the three main temperament types identified by the Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire were associated with an increase in fracture risk.
Studer-Luethi, Barbara; Bauer, Catherine; Perrig, Walter J
Studies revealing transfer effects of working memory (WM) training on non-trained cognitive performance of children hold promising implications for scholastic learning. However, the results of existing training studies are not consistent and provoke debates about the potential and limitations of cognitive enhancement. To examine the influence of individual differences on training outcomes is a promising approach for finding causes for such inconsistencies. In this study, we implemented WM training in an elementary school setting. The aim was to investigate near and far transfer effects on cognitive abilities and academic achievement and to examine the moderating effects of a dispositional and a regulative temperament factor, neuroticism and effortful control. Ninety-nine second-graders were randomly assigned to 20 sessions of computer-based adaptive WM training, computer-based reading training, or a no-contact control group. For the WM training group, our analyses reveal near transfer on a visual WM task, far transfer on a vocabulary task as a proxy for crystallized intelligence, and increased academic achievement in reading and math by trend. Considering individual differences in temperament, we found that effortful control predicts larger training mean and gain scores and that there is a moderation effect of both temperament factors on post-training improvement: WM training condition predicted higher post-training gains compared to both control conditions only in children with high effortful control or low neuroticism. Our results suggest that a short but intensive WM training program can enhance cognitive abilities in children, but that sufficient self-regulative abilities and emotional stability are necessary for WM training to be effective.
Tate, Allan D.; Trofholz, Amanda; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Berge, Jerica M.
Background Child temperament is a measure of an individual's behavioral tendencies. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether child temperament modified the overweight risk associated with parent feeding behaviors and child eating behaviors. Methods A sample of predominantly African American, Midwest families (N=120) recruited from four metropolitan primary care clinics participated in this cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Parents reported on feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child temperament. Results Difficult temperament was not statistically related to parent feeding practices or child eating behaviors (p>0.05). Tests of interaction indicated that the risk of child overweight differed by difficult temperament and easy temperament for two child eating behaviors (emotional eating and food fussiness, p<0.05). For example, the effect of food fussiness decreased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but increased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Further, the effect of emotional eating increased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but decreased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Conclusions Tailoring parent-level interventions to child temperament or promoting environments that trigger less reactive individual responses may be effective in lowering risk of child overweight. PMID:26916725
Tate, Allan D; Trofholz, Amanda; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Berge, Jerica M
Child temperament is a measure of an individual's behavioral tendencies. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether child temperament modified the overweight risk associated with parent feeding behaviors and child eating behaviors. A sample of predominantly African American, Midwest families (N = 120) recruited from four metropolitan primary care clinics participated in this cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Parents reported on feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child temperament. Difficult temperament was not statistically related to parent feeding practices or child eating behaviors (p > 0.05). Tests of interaction indicated that the risk of child overweight differed by difficult temperament and easy temperament for two child eating behaviors (emotional eating and food fussiness, p < 0.05). For example, the effect of food fussiness decreased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but increased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Further, the effect of emotional eating increased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but decreased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Tailoring parent-level interventions to child temperament or promoting environments that trigger less reactive individual responses may be effective in lowering risk of child overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T
Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) in cows with aggressive vs. adequate temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200
Koufaki, I; Polizoidou, V; Fountoulakis, K N
The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,since its foundation by Polybos (4th century B.C.) and the school of Cos, its predominant role in theshaping of the anthropological and humanitarian sciences, until the modern theoretical formulations,such as those proposed by Robert Cloninger and Hagop Akiskal. Secondly, recent literature ispresented, which suggests a strong link of different temperament structures to mental health andpsychopathology. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) was the first psychologist to establish approaches topersonality differences and to distinguish three dimensions of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversionand Psychotisism. Eysenck was followed by McCrae and Costa who proposed that there are five basicdimensions of personality ("Big Five"). In the mid-1980s, Robert Cloninger developed a distinctivedimensional model of temperament and character traits. Hagop Akiskal emphasized on the affectivecomponents of temperament and their possible connections to mood disorders and creativity.Specifically, temperament assessment seems to help in differentiating between the relationship ofvarious temperaments and the clinical manifestations of bipolar illness. Within the area of mood disorders,specific affective temperaments might constitute vulnerability factors, as well as clinical pictureand illness course modifiers. Viewing mood disorders under this prism gives birth to the concept ofthe bipolar spectrum with major implications for all aspects of mental health research and providingof care. The hyperthymic and the depressive temperaments are related to the more 'classic' bipolarpicture (that is euphoria, grandiose and paranoid thinking, antisocial behavior, psychomotor accelerationand reduced sleep and depressive episodes respectively). On the contrary cyclothymic, anxiousand irritable temperaments are related
Huang, Hao; Milione, Giovanni; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; An Nguyen, Thien; Nolan, Daniel A.; Li, Ming-Jun; Tur, Moshe; Alfano, Robert R.; Willner, Alan E.
Mode division multiplexing (MDM)– using a multimode optical fiber’s N spatial modes as data channels to transmit N independent data streams – has received interest as it can potentially increase optical fiber data transmission capacity N-times with respect to single mode optical fibers. Two challenges of MDM are (1) designing mode (de)multiplexers with high mode selectivity (2) designing mode (de)multiplexers without cascaded beam splitting’s 1/N insertion loss. One spatial mode basis that has received interest is that of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. In this paper, using a device referred to as an OAM mode sorter, we show that OAM modes can be (de)multiplexed over a multimode optical fiber with higher than −15 dB mode selectivity and without cascaded beam splitting’s 1/N insertion loss. As a proof of concept, the OAM modes of the LP11 mode group (OAM−1,0 and OAM+1,0), each carrying 20-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed and quadrature phase shift keyed data streams, are transmitted 5km over a graded-index, few-mode optical fibre. Channel crosstalk is mitigated using 4 × 4 multiple-input-multiple-output digital-signal-processing with <1.5 dB power penalties at a bit-error-rate of 2 × 10−3. PMID:26450398
Huang, Hao; Milione, Giovanni; Lavery, Martin P J; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; An Nguyen, Thien; Nolan, Daniel A; Li, Ming-Jun; Tur, Moshe; Alfano, Robert R; Willner, Alan E
Mode division multiplexing (MDM)- using a multimode optical fiber's N spatial modes as data channels to transmit N independent data streams - has received interest as it can potentially increase optical fiber data transmission capacity N-times with respect to single mode optical fibers. Two challenges of MDM are (1) designing mode (de)multiplexers with high mode selectivity (2) designing mode (de)multiplexers without cascaded beam splitting's 1/N insertion loss. One spatial mode basis that has received interest is that of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. In this paper, using a device referred to as an OAM mode sorter, we show that OAM modes can be (de)multiplexed over a multimode optical fiber with higher than -15 dB mode selectivity and without cascaded beam splitting's 1/N insertion loss. As a proof of concept, the OAM modes of the LP11 mode group (OAM-1,0 and OAM+1,0), each carrying 20-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed and quadrature phase shift keyed data streams, are transmitted 5km over a graded-index, few-mode optical fibre. Channel crosstalk is mitigated using 4 × 4 multiple-input-multiple-output digital-signal-processing with <1.5 dB power penalties at a bit-error-rate of 2 × 10(-3).
Huang, Hao; Milione, Giovanni; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; An Nguyen, Thien; Nolan, Daniel A.; Li, Ming-Jun; Tur, Moshe; Alfano, Robert R.; Willner, Alan E.
Mode division multiplexing (MDM)- using a multimode optical fiber’s N spatial modes as data channels to transmit N independent data streams - has received interest as it can potentially increase optical fiber data transmission capacity N-times with respect to single mode optical fibers. Two challenges of MDM are (1) designing mode (de)multiplexers with high mode selectivity (2) designing mode (de)multiplexers without cascaded beam splitting’s 1/N insertion loss. One spatial mode basis that has received interest is that of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. In this paper, using a device referred to as an OAM mode sorter, we show that OAM modes can be (de)multiplexed over a multimode optical fiber with higher than -15 dB mode selectivity and without cascaded beam splitting’s 1/N insertion loss. As a proof of concept, the OAM modes of the LP11 mode group (OAM-1,0 and OAM+1,0), each carrying 20-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed and quadrature phase shift keyed data streams, are transmitted 5km over a graded-index, few-mode optical fibre. Channel crosstalk is mitigated using 4 × 4 multiple-input-multiple-output digital-signal-processing with <1.5 dB power penalties at a bit-error-rate of 2 × 10-3.
An, Jaemin; Lee, Jangwon; Lee, Sang Ho; Park, Jungyul; Kim, Byungkyu
In this paper, we successfully separated malignant human breast cancer epithelial cells (MCF 7) from healthy breast cells (MCF 10A) and analyzed the main parameters that influence the separation efficiency with an advanced dielectrophoresis (DEP)-activated cell sorter (DACS). Using the efficient DACS, the malignant cancer cells (MCF 7) were isolated successfully by noninvasive methods from normal cells with similar cell size distributions (MCF 10A), depending on differences between their material properties such as conductivity and permittivity, because our system was able to discern the subtle differences in the properties by generating continuously changed electrical field gradients. In order to evaluate the separation performance without considering size variations, the cells collected from each outlet were divided into size-dependent groups and counted statistically. Following that, the quantitative relative ratio of numbers between MCF 7 and MCF 10A cells in each size-dependent group separated by the DEP were compared according to applied frequencies in the range 48, 51, and 53 MHz with an applied amplitude of 8 V(pp). Finally, under the applied voltage of 48 MHz-8 V(pp) and a flow rate of 290 microm/s, MCF 7 and MCF 10A cells were separated with a maximum efficiency of 86.67% and 98.73% respectively. Therefore, our suggested system shows it can be used for detection and separation of cancerous epithelial cells from noncancerous cells in clinical applications.
Effective behavioral management plans are tailored to unique behavioral patterns of each individual species. However, even within a species behavioral needs of individuals can vary. Factors such as age, sex, and temperament can affect behavioral needs of individuals. While some of these factors, such as age and sex, are taken into account, other factors, such as an individual’s temperament, are rarely specifically provided for in behavioral management plans. However, temperament may affect how animals respond to socialization, positive reinforcement training and other forms of enrichment. This review will examine how individual differences in temperament might affect, or be affected by, behavioral management practices for captive primates. Measuring temperament may help us predict outcome of social introductions. It can also predict which animals may be difficult to train using traditional methods. Further, knowledge of temperament may be able to help identify individuals at risk for development of behavioral problems. Taken together, understanding individual differences in temperament of captive primates can help guide behavioral management decisions. PMID:22518067
Takeda, Kazuya; Uchida, Hiroshi; Inoue, Keiichi
Correlations of calves' temperament with carcass traits were estimated to clarify the genetic relationships between them in Japanese Black cattle. The temperament records for 3128 calves during auction at a calf market were scored on a scale of 1 (calm) to 5 (nervous) as temperament score (TS), and the TS were divided into two groups (TSG): TS 1 and 2 comprised TSG 1, and 3 to 5 constituted TSG 2. Carcass data were obtained from 33 552 fattened cattle. A threshold animal model was used for analyzing the underlying liability for TSG, whereas a linear one was used for TS and carcass traits. The heritability estimates for TS and TSG were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively. On the other hand, moderate to high heritability estimates were obtained for carcass traits (0.40 to 0.68). The temperament scores were negatively correlated with carcass weight, rib thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.13 to -0.59). In contrast, weak to moderate positive correlations were found between the temperament scores and rib eye area or yield estimate (0.16 to 0.45). The temperament scores and beef marbling score had no correlation. These results showed that it is possible to improve temperament and carcass traits simultaneously. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Gonda, Xenia; Koufaki, Ioanna; Hyphantis, Thomas; Cloninger, C Robert
Bipolar disorder constitutes a challenge for clinicians in everyday clinical practice. Our knowledge concerning this clinical entity is incomplete, and contemporary classification systems are unable to reflect the complexity of this disorder. The concept of temperament, which was first described in antiquity, provides a helpful framework for synthesizing our knowledge on how the human body works and what determines human behavior. Although the concept of temperament originally included philosophical and sociocultural approaches, the biomedical model is dominant today. It is possible that specific temperaments might constitute vulnerability factors, determine the clinical picture, or modify the course of illness. Temperaments might even act as a bridge between genes and clinical manifestations, thus giving rise to the concept of the bipolar spectrum, with major implications for mental health research and treatment. More specifically, it has been reported that the hyperthymic and the depressive temperaments are related to the more "classic" bipolar disorder, whereas cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments are related to more complex manifestations and might predict poor response to treatment, violent or suicidal behavior, and high comorbidity. Incorporating of the concept of temperament and the bipolar spectrum into the standard training of psychiatric residents might well result in an improvement of everyday clinical practice.
Mahre, M B; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Jesse, F F A
The delayed domestication of may be associated with their poor temperament and to date there is no published information on the temperament of the farmed Understanding of the temperament and selection program for its evaluation in a breeding herd is important not only for farming but also to other types of animal production. We investigated the temperament of ( = 17) raised in the tropics and determined its relationship with stress. A distance of 13.2 m was fixed for the measurement of flight times. hinds with rapid speed are considered temperamental. Each hind was earmarked for a crush test score between 1 and 5; 1 represents calm and 5 represents highly agitated . Stress was determined by measuring plasma cortisol using a cortisol RIA kit and live weight gain was determined by weighing the animals weekly. The hinds were aged using their date of birth records. We found a strong negative correlation between flight time, crush score, and plasma cortisol concentration ( < 0.05). Animals with very poor temperament have elevated plasma cortisol level and lower weight gain ( < 0.05). It was concluded that flight time, crush score, and plasma cortisol concentration could be used for selecting hinds based on temperament for the breeding herd. This method is quick and easy to implement on a farm; therefore, it remains the test choice for selecting animals based on temperament for the breeding herd.
Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament using a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This paper provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific behaviors using the Lab-TAB and for forming behavioral composites that correspond to commonly researched temperament dimensions. We used mother ratings and independent post-visit observer ratings to provide validity evidence in a community sample of 4.5 year-old children. 12 Lab-TAB behavioral episodes were employed, yielding 24 within-episode temperament components that collapsed into 9 higher-level composites (Anger, Sadness, Fear, Shyness, Positive Expression, Approach, Active Engagement, Persistence, and Inhibitory Control). These dimensions of temperament are similar to those found in questionnaire-based assessments. Correlations among the 9 composites were low to moderate, suggesting relative independence. As expected, agreement between Lab-TAB measures and post-visit observer ratings was stronger than agreement between the Lab-TAB and mother questionnaire. However, for Active Engagement and Shyness, mother ratings did predict child behavior in the Lab-TAB quite well. Findings demonstrate the feasibility of emotion-eliciting temperament assessment methodologies, suggest appropriate methods for data aggregation into trait-level constructs, and set some expectations for associations between Lab-TAB dimensions and the degree of cross-method convergence between the Lab-TAB and other commonly used temperament assessments. PMID:21480723
Van Meter, Anna R; Youngstrom, Eric A
Learning more about how biological traits, like temperament and sensitivity in the behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral activation (BAS) systems, relate to mood pathology is consistent with the Research Domain Criteria initiative׳s goal of investigating mechanisms of risk. Korean young adults (n=128) and American young adults (n=630, of whom 23 has recent treatment for bipolar disorder, and 21for depression) completed self-report questionnaires, including the TEMPS-A, the BIS/BAS scales, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hypomanic Checklist (HCL-32). Linear regression quantified relations between mood symptoms, sample characteristics, temperament, and BIS/BAS. Temperament styles explained 49% of the variance in BDI scores. BIS explained an additional 1% of the variance in BDI scores. BAS Fun and Reward (p<.01), in addition to cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments (p<.001) explained 21% of the variance in HCL-32 scores. Sample characteristics were not significant predictors in the full model. Differences in sample size, the cross-sectional study design, and lack of collateral report or behavioral measures of constructs are limitations. Affective temperament and BIS/BAS are complementary but distinct constructs. Affective temperament, particularly cyclothymic, may represent a stronger diathesis for mood pathology, and seems potent irrespective of culture or diagnosis. Assessing temperament may help overcome some challenges in diagnosing mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Rafaela; Gaspardo, Claudia Maria; Cordaro Bucker Furini, Guilherme; Martinez, Francisco Eulogio; Martins Linhares, Maria Beatriz
Children born preterm are at risk for later developmental disorders. The present study examined the predictive effects of neonatal, sociodemographic, and temperament characteristics on behavioral outcomes at toddlerhood, in children born preterm. The sample included 100 toddlers born preterm and with very-low-birth-weight, and their mothers. Neonatal characteristics were evaluated using medical records. The mothers were interviewed using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire for temperament assessment, and the Child Behavior Checklist for behavioral assessment. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Predictors of 39% of the variability of the total behavioral problems in toddlers born prematurely were: temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control, lower family socioeconomic status, and younger mothers at childbirth. Temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control and lower family socioeconomic status were predictors of 23% of the variability of internalizing behavioral problems. Additionally, 37% of the variability of externalizing behavioral problems was explained by temperament with more Negative Affectivity and less Effortful Control, and younger mothers at childbirth. The neonatal characteristics and stressful events in the neonatal intensive care unit did not predict behavioral problems at toddlerhood. However, temperament was a consistent predictor of behavioral problems in toddlers born preterm. Preventive follow-up programs could assess dispositional traits of temperament to provide early identification of preterm infants at high-risk for behavioral problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simcock, Gabrielle; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Kildea, Sue; Cobham, Vanessa; Stapleton, Helen; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne
This study examined the effects of disaster-related prenatal maternal stress on infant temperament and whether the sex of the infant or the timing of the stressor in pregnancy would moderate the effects. Mothers' objective experiences of a sudden-onset flood in Queensland, Australia, their subjective emotional reactions, and cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed. At 6 months postpartum, 121 mothers reported their infant's temperament on the 5 dimensions of the Short Temperament Scale for Infants. When controlling for postnatal maternal factors, subjective prenatal maternal stress and cognitive appraisal of the disaster were associated with easier aspects of infant temperament. However, several interesting interactions emerged showing negative effects of the flood. With higher levels of objective hardship in pregnancy, boys (but not girls) received more irritable temperament ratings. When the flood occurred early in pregnancy, higher levels of objective hardship predicted more arrhythmic infant temperament. Finally, mothers whose emotional response to the flood exceeded the hardship they endured reported significantly more active-reactive infants. Prenatal maternal stress from a natural disaster predicted more difficult temperament ratings that were moderated by infant sex, timing of the flood in gestation, and mother's emotional response to the disaster.
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and 6 years using the Short Temperament Scale STS (Prior, Sanson, Smart & Oberklaid, 2000). Six of 131 statistical tests of association between stuttering severity and behaviors and temperament traits were statistically significant at the 5% level, which was no more than expected by chance alone. On the basis of parent responses to the STS, preschoolers who exhibited different levels of stuttering severity and behaviors did not generally express temperament traits differently from one another. Stuttering severity and stuttering behaviors were not associated with the precursors of anxiety. Overall, taking multiple tests into consideration, results show little evidence of association between stuttering severity and temperament up to 4 years of age or between stuttering behaviors and temperament up to 6 years of age.
Low Kapalu, C M; Gartstein, M A
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an x-linked genetic disorder that represents the most common hereditary cause of Intellectual Disability (ID). Very specific behavioural features (e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stereotyped behaviour) are associated with FXS in adolescents and adults, yet research on temperament and behavioural characteristics in young children with FXS has been more limited and less conclusive. This study investigated temperament differences in young boys (3-7 years old) with FXS (N = 26) recruited from a national FXS centre and controls (N = 26) matched on age, gender and race. Compared with controls, boys with FXS exhibited less overall surgency/extraversion and effortful control. Boys with FXS also displayed significantly greater activity and shyness and less attentional focusing, inhibitory control, soothability and high intensity pleasure (tendency to enjoy intense/complex activities), relative to comparison children. A significant interaction between age and diagnosis (FXS or control) was observed for negative affectivity only. Attention difficulties commonly found in adolescents and adults with FXS appear to also be characteristic of young boys with FXS, as reflected by lower effortful control. Age-related findings concerning negative affectivity may be particularly significant, leading to improved intervention/preventative efforts. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gencay-Can, Asli; Can, Serdar Suleyman
Personality may play an important role in the development and initiation of fibromyalgia (FM). It may also be used for individualized treatment planning. We aimed to assess personality profiles of FM patients and to evaluate the association of personality profiles with education, symptom severity, depression, anxiety, and functioning. Forty-two female patients with FM and 48 healthy female controls were enrolled in the study. We assessed personality profiles of FM patients using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to detect the correlation between the TCI and education, symptom severity, depression, anxiety, and functioning. FM patients had significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) scores, and lower self-directedness (SD) scores than those in the healthy controls. High HA scores were related to impaired functioning, depression, and anxiety symptoms. A negative correlation has been found between SD scores and depression scores. The study suggests that FM patients have distinctive temperament and character profile compared with healthy controls. FM patients tend to have high HA, high ST, and low SD scores.
Josefsson, A; Larsson, C; Sydsjö, G; Nylander, P-O
To investigate whether women with postpartum depression differ in personality traits from healthy postpartum women, healthy controls from the normal Swedish population and non-postpartum women with major depression. Forty-five women with postpartum depression were compared with 62 healthy postpartum women, 62 age-matched, healthy, non-postpartum women from a normal sample and 74 non-postpartum women with major depression from a clinical sample. The edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used in order to screen for postpartum depression. A clinical diagnostic interview was done including a rating with the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale. Personality i.e. temperament and character was measured by the temperament and character inventory. Harm avoidance (HA) was higher (p < 0.001) and self-directedness (SD) scored lower (p < 0.001) in women with postpartum depression compared to healthy postpartum women. These differences were the most important differences between these two groups. Women with postpartum depression scored lower (p = 0.001) in cooperativeness (CO) and higher (p = 0.019) in self-transcendence (ST) compared to healthy postpartum women. Women with postpartum depression scored overall similar to women with major depression. High HA and low SD can be seen as vulnerability factors for developing a depression and especially in a stressful situation as childbirth.
Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Chen, Sue-Huei; Huang, Chien
The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated. Cloninger's Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported to predict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, we aimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquency and substance abuse. Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history of substance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwestern Taiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjects were assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders on an individual base. The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were significantly younger, consumed less betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse. Consistent with the results of Cloninger's studies, novelty seeking positively correlated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inversely correlated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substance abuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.
Orlak, Katarzyna; Tylka, Jan
The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28) adopted by Makowska and Merecz. The health impact of job strain with moderating effects of temperament traits was estimated with logistic regression (forward stepwise selection based on the likelihood ratio for the model). The analyses confirmed the moderating role of temperament in the health consequences of work-related stress. High score in novelty seeking was identified as independent temperament risk factor for mental health disturbances in judiciary staff facing at least medium job demands. The job control was a protective factor while relative risk of negative health outcomes was also elevated due to female gender. Temperament may control sensitivity to the environmental exposure to psychosocial hazards at work and its health consequences. Further research is needed to explore and understand better the moderating role of temperament in the relation between job stress (strain) and health in different vocational groups and workplaces. Med Pr 2017;68(3):375-390. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Karam, Elie G.; El Khoury, Elaine; Itani, Lynn
Background An essential point in evaluating the utility of measuring temperaments is the stability of the instrument used especially in the presence of mental disorders. One of the most commonly used instruments in the clinical setting is the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). To our knowledge, the TEMPS-A’s stability in an outpatient adult clinical setting has not been evaluated. Objective: To assess the stability of the effect of temperament, time and clinical intervention. Methods: A sample of 89 adult outpatients was assessed at baseline and follow-up on their TEMPS-A scores. Diagnoses of mental disorders were reached through clinical interviews, and the severity of the conditions was clinically assessed at baseline and follow-up on a Likert scale. Changes in scores were examined in terms of z-scores, and possible predictors of the change in scores were assessed. Results: Eighty-nine percent of all subjects’ temperaments scores did not change or changed less than one z-score, and specifically: 84.2% in the case of depressive, 89.9% for cyclothymic, 92.1% for hyperthymic, 92.2% for irritable, and 86.5% for anxious temperaments. For all of the five temperaments, age, gender, time difference between baseline and follow up, number of diagnoses, and percent improvement were not significantly associated with the change in temperament scores. Limitations: Well-established severity measures would add to the validity of any future findings. Conclusion: Shifts in temperament scores between baseline and follow-up were minor, thus proving the stability of temperaments and the TEMPS-A scale in a clinical setting. PMID:27733865
Trofimova, Irina N; Sulis, William
Objective: Temperament and mental illness have been linked to the same systems of behavioral regulation. A temperament model, carefully structured to respond to subtle differences within systems of behavior regulation, should exhibit distinct temperament patterns in the presence of mental illness. Previous comparisons of temperament profiles in mental disorders used mostly emotionality-related traits. In contrast, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, verbal, and mental aspects of behavior and maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to temperament traits as well as to symptoms of mental illnesses. This article reports on the coupling of sex, age, and temperament traits with Major Depression (MD) using the FET framework. Method: Intake records of 467 subjects, ages 17-24, 25-45, 46-65, 66-84 were examined, with temperament assessed by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (based on the FET). Results: The presence of MD was associated with changes in mean temperament scores on 9 of the 12 traits. The results were in line with the DSM-5 criteria of fatigue (patients with MD reported a significant decrease in three types of endurance - motor-physical, social-verbal, and mental), of psychomotor retardation (a significant decrease in physical and social-verbal tempo) and of worthlessness (as low Self-Confidence). The results also showed that three new symptoms, high Impulsivity, high Neuroticism, and diminished Plasticity, should be considered as depressive symptoms in future versions of the DSM. As a significant negative result, no interaction of age or sex (with the exception of the Self-Confidence scale) with MD was found for temperament traits. Conclusion: The value of differentiating between physical, social, and mental aspects of behavior is demonstrated in the differential effects of major depression and gender. The value of differentiating between
Trofimova, Irina N.; Sulis, William
Objective: Temperament and mental illness have been linked to the same systems of behavioral regulation. A temperament model, carefully structured to respond to subtle differences within systems of behavior regulation, should exhibit distinct temperament patterns in the presence of mental illness. Previous comparisons of temperament profiles in mental disorders used mostly emotionality-related traits. In contrast, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, verbal, and mental aspects of behavior and maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to temperament traits as well as to symptoms of mental illnesses. This article reports on the coupling of sex, age, and temperament traits with Major Depression (MD) using the FET framework. Method: Intake records of 467 subjects, ages 17–24, 25–45, 46–65, 66–84 were examined, with temperament assessed by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (based on the FET). Results: The presence of MD was associated with changes in mean temperament scores on 9 of the 12 traits. The results were in line with the DSM-5 criteria of fatigue (patients with MD reported a significant decrease in three types of endurance – motor-physical, social-verbal, and mental), of psychomotor retardation (a significant decrease in physical and social-verbal tempo) and of worthlessness (as low Self-Confidence). The results also showed that three new symptoms, high Impulsivity, high Neuroticism, and diminished Plasticity, should be considered as depressive symptoms in future versions of the DSM. As a significant negative result, no interaction of age or sex (with the exception of the Self-Confidence scale) with MD was found for temperament traits. Conclusion: The value of differentiating between physical, social, and mental aspects of behavior is demonstrated in the differential effects of major depression and gender. The value of differentiating
Zeschel, Eike; Bingmann, Tiffany; Bechdolf, Andreas; Krüger-Oezguerdal, Seza; Correll, Christoph U; Leopold, Karolina; Pfennig, Andrea; Bauer, Michael; Juckel, Georg
Prodromal symptoms prior to first episode mania/hypomania have been reported. However, the relationship between temperament and manic/hypomanic prodromal symptoms has not been investigated. We hypothesized that subjects scoring higher on cyclothymic and irritable temperament scales show more manic/hypomanic prodromal symptoms. Euthymic patients diagnosed with bipolar-I or -II disorder within 8 years underwent retrospective assessments with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the Bipolar Prodrome Symptom Scale-Retrospective (BPSS-R). Among 39 subjects (36.1 ± 9.9 years, females = 59%, bipolar-I = 62%) 100% and 92.3% reported subthreshold mania (mean = 7.4 ± 2.9) or subthreshold depressive symptoms (mean = 2.4 ± 1.5), and 87.2% and 43.6% reported general psychopathology (mean = 3.2 ± 2.0) or subthreshold psychotic symptoms (mean = 0.7 ± 1.0) prior to their first hypo-/manic episode. Subjects with higher cyclothymic and irritable temperament scores showed more subthreshold symptoms prior to the first manic/hypomanic episode, mainly subthreshold hypo-/manic symptoms (cyclothymic temperament r = 0.430; p = 0.006; irritable temperament r = 0.330; p = 0.040), general psychopathology symptoms (cyclothymic temperament r = 0.316; p = 0.05; irritable temperament r = 0.349; p = 0.029) and subthreshold psychotic symptoms (cyclothymic temperament r = 0.413; p = 0.009). In regression analyses, cyclothymic temperament explained 16.1% and 12.5% of the variance of the BPSS-R total score (p = 0.045) and psychosis subscore (p = 0.029). Retrospective study, no control group, small sample size. We present data, which indicate a relationship between cyclothymic and irritable temperament and prodromal symptoms prior to the first manic/hypomanic episode. These findings support the notion that assessing cyclothymic temperament to identify people at-risk of developing bipolar-I and -II disorder may help to increase the
Gassab, L; Mechri, A; Bacha, M; Gaddour, N; Gaha, L
Recent research postulated that temperaments represent the subclinical foundations of affective disorders, and an early clue for a recurrent, prebipolar disorder. Akiskal et al. operationalized five types of temperaments: depressive, hyperthymic, irritable, cyclothymic and anxious. The aims of this study were to compare the affective temperaments scores in patients with bipolar I, II and recurrent depression disorders and to explore the relation between temperaments scores and clinical features of those affective disorders. This was a comparative cross-sectional study, concerning three groups: patients with bipolar I disorder (BIP I) (n=31, 20 men and 11 women, mean age=42.0+/-10.1 years), patients with bipolar II disorder (BIP II) (n=18, 11 men and seven women, mean age=40.7+/-10.8 years) and patients with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD) (n=66, 28 men and 38 women, mean age=45.0+/-9.3 years). All patients were in remission of a major depressive episode. The affective temperaments were assessed by the Akiskal and Mallya Affective Temperament questionnaires. Hyperthymic temperament mean scores were higher in BIP I (10.8+/-5.4) and BIP II (10.3+/-5.5) groups compared to RDD group (5.5+/-4.0) (p<10(-3)). Depressive temperament mean score was significantly higher in RDD group (10.5+/-4.3), compared to BIP I (7.3+/-4.6) and BIP II (5.4+/-2.9) groups (p<10(-3)). Cyclothymic temperament mean score was higher in BIP II group (4.7+/-5.8) compared to BIP I (3.3+/-3.9) and RDD (2.5+/-3.9) groups, but this difference was not significant (p=0.08). No difference was found between the three groups concerning irritable temperament scores. Negative correlation was found between hyperthymic and depressive temperament scores in BIP I (r=-0.81, p<0.001) and RDD (r=-0.73, p<0.001) groups, but not in BIP II group. Concerning the clinical correlates with affective temperament scores, negative correlation was found between hyperthymic temperament score and number of depressive
Gündoğar, Duru; Kesebir, Sermin; Demirkan, Arda Kazim; Yaylaci, Elif Tatlidil
The aim of this study was to investigate if the relationship between affective temperament and resilience in major depression is different in cases with and without childhood trauma. For this purpose 100 cases with major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis according to DSM-IV were evaluated consecutively in their regular outpatient clinic follow-up interviews. Diagnostic interviews were done with SCID-I, affective temperament was evaluated with TEMPS-A (Evaluation of Temperament Memphis, Pisa, Paris and SanDiego-Autoquestionnaire) Temperament Questionnaire, resilience was evaluated with The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA)-Turkish version. The presence of childhood trauma (CT) was determined by Early Trauma Inventory. In MDD cases without CT a correlation was present between psychological resilience and hyperthymic temperament, while there was a correlation between psychological resilience and depressive temperament in cases with CT. The relationship between depressive temperament and psychological resilience in cases with CT was observed in the perception of self, family cohesion, and social resources dimensions of psychological resilience. In depression cases with and without childhood trauma, the relationship between temperament and resilience appears to be different. According to our results psychological resilience was associated with hyperthymic temperament in depressive cases without childhood trauma, while it was associated with depressive temperament in depressive cases with childhood trauma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Satoko; Miyake, Yuko; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Noda, Toshie; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S
In Japan, Kraepelin's descriptions on four "fundamental states" of manic depressive illness, the concepts of schizoid temperament by Kretschmer and obsessional and melancholic type temperament by Shimoda and Tellenbach have been widely accepted. This research investigates the construct validity of these temperaments through factor analysis. TEMPS-A measured depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments and MPT rigidity, esoteric and isolation subscales measured, respectively, melancholic type and schizoid temperaments. Factor analysis was implemented with TEMPS-A alone and TEMPS-A and MPT combined data. With TEMPS-A alone analysis, Factor 1 included 1 depressive, 11 cyclothymic and 12 irritable temperament items with a factor loading higher than 0.4; Factor 2 included 1 depressive and 10 hyperthymic temperament items; and Factor 3 included 2 depressive temperament items only. With TEMPS-A and MPT combined data, Factor 1 included 3 depressive, 11 cyclothymic and 5 irritable temperament items with a factor loading higher than 0.4 (interpreted as the central cyclothymic tendency for all affective temperaments along Kretschmerian lines and accounting for 11.7% of the variance); Factor 2 included 6 hyperthymic temperament items (6.22% of variance); Factor 3 included 1 cyclothymic, 7 irritable and 1 schizoid temperament items (interpreted as the irritable temperament and accounting for 3.24% of the variance); Factor 4 included 1 depressive temperament and 5 melancholic type items (interpreted as the latter, accounting for 2.66% of the variance); Factor 5 included 5 depressive temperament items, along interpersonal sensitivity and passivity lines, and accounting for 2.31% of the variance; and Factor 6 included 4 schizoid temperament items accounting for 2.07% of the variance. We did not use the Kasahara scale, which some believe to better capture the Japanese melancholic type. Sample was 70% male. These analyses confirm the factor validity of depressive
Beekman, Charles; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Buss, Kristin A; Loken, Eric; Moore, Ginger A; Leve, Leslie D; Ganiban, Jody M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David
This study used a data-driven, person-centered approach to examine the characterization, continuity, and etiology of child temperament from infancy to toddlerhood. Data from 561 families who participated in an ongoing prospective adoption study, the Early Growth and Development Study, were used to estimate latent profiles of temperament at 9, 18, and 27 months. Results indicated that four profiles of temperament best fit the data at all three points of assessment. The characterization of profiles was stable over time, while membership in profiles changed across age. Facets of adoptive parent and birth mother personality were predictive of children's profile membership at each age, providing preliminary evidence for specific environmental and genetic influences on patterns of temperament development from infancy to toddlerhood. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Beekman, Charles; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Buss, Kristin A.; Loken, Eric; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David
This study used a data-driven, person-centered approach to examine the characterization, continuity, and etiology of child temperament from infancy to toddlerhood. Data from 561 families who participated in an ongoing prospective adoption study, the Early Growth and Development Study, were used to estimate latent profiles of temperament at 9, 18, and 27 months. Results indicated that four profiles of temperament best fit the data at all three points of assessment. The characterization of profiles was stable over time while membership in profiles changed across age. Facets of adoptive parent and birth mother personality were predictive of children’s profile membership at each age, providing preliminary evidence for specific environmental and genetic influences on patterns of temperament development from infancy to toddlerhood. PMID:26332208
Boles, Richard E; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H
To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity.
Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K
Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease.
Ozcan Dag, Zeynep; Alpua, Murat; Isik, Yuksel; Buturak, S Visal; Tulmac, Ozlem B; Turkel, Yakup
To evaluate the temperament and quality of life (QoL) of patients with PCOS. Fifty-three adult patients with PCOS and 38 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographic characteristics including age, education and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Affective temperaments were assessed by the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) scale. The general health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument used in this study was short Form 36. Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) were also performed. The patients with PCOS had significantly higher rates of depressive, anxious and hyperthymic scores compared to controls. The PCOS patients had significantly lower mean SF-36 health summary scores. TEMPS-A seems to be an easy and reliable test to evaluate temperament in PCOS patients.
Schwartz, Caley B.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne P.; Zahka, Nicole E.; Coman, Drew C.; Kojkowski, Nicole M.; Hileman, Camilla M.; Mundy, Peter C.
Variation in temperament is characteristic of all people but is rarely studied as a predictor of individual differences among individuals with autism. Relative to a matched comparison sample, adolescents with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) reported lower levels of Surgency and higher levels of Negative Affect. Variability in temperament predicted symptomotology, social skills, and social-emotional outcomes differently for individuals with HFA than for the comparison sample. This study is unique in that temperament was measured by self-report, while all outcome measures were reported by parents. The broader implications of this study suggest that by identifying individual variability in constructs, such as temperament, that may influence adaptive functioning, interventions may be developed to target these constructs and increase the likelihood that individuals with HFA will achieve more adaptive life outcomes. PMID:19165586
Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda L
This study examined how coparenting and firstborn children's temperament predicted children's cooperative behavior in response to maternal requests for assistance in the care of a 1-month-old infant sibling. Children's cooperative responding was observed during a diaper change session for 216 firstborns (ages 13 to 70 months; M = 32). Parents also completed questionnaires assessing coparenting and children's temperament. Results suggested that coparenting quality moderated the association between children's temperament (i.e., soothability) and children's cooperation as revealed in a Temperament × Cooperative Coparenting × Undermining Coparenting interaction. Specifically, low soothability predicted low levels of children's cooperation in families with high undermining and low cooperative coparenting, over and above the effects of child age, gender, and mothers' education. Findings further our understanding of how temperamental characteristics and coparenting quality conjointly predict individual differences in firstborn children's positive adjustment across the transition to siblinghood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Boles, Richard E.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H.
Objective To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Design Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. Participants The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Results Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Conclusion Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity. PMID:23884967
Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L
Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; and, Rochelle F. Hentges; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.
Guided by evolutionary game theory (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005), this study aimed to identify the genetic precursors and the psychosocial sequelae of inhibited temperament in a sociodemographically disadvantaged and racially diverse sample of 201 two-year-old children who experienced elevated levels of domestic violence. Using a multi-method, prospective design across three annual measurement occasions, SEM analyses indicated that trained observer ratings of inhibited temperament at age two were uniquely predicted by polymorphisms in dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Children's inhibited temperament, in turn, indirectly predicted decreases in their externalizing problems at age four through its association with greater behavioral flexibility at three years of age. Results highlight the value of integrating evolutionary and developmental conceptualizations in more comprehensively charting the developmental cascades of inhibited temperament. PMID:23527493
Burns, James G
Differences in temperament (consistent differences among individuals in behavior) can have important effects on fitness-related activities such as dispersal and competition. However, evolutionary ecologists have put limited effort into validating their tests of temperament. This article attempts to validate three standard tests of temperament in guppies: the open-field test, emergence test, and novel-object test. Through multiple reliability trials, and comparison of results between different types of test, this study establishes the confidence that can be placed in these temperament tests. The open-field test is shown to be a good test of boldness and exploratory behavior; the open-field test was reliable when tested in multiple ways. There were problems with the emergence test and novel-object test, which leads one to conclude that the protocols used in this study should not be considered valid tests for this species. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Rode, Jennifer L; Kiel, Elizabeth J
We examined prenatal depression, postpartum depression, and infant temperament, respectively, in a mediated process model to predict maternal role. Using a prospective, observational design, we surveyed 168 women during pregnancy and then in postpartum. Data analyses supported the contribution of each variable in an ascending fashion (ab = -0.01, SE = 0.004, 95 % CI [-0.021, -0.004]), such that infant temperament had the strongest effects (sr(2) = .124, p < .001). Further, postpartum depression was found to influence maternal role with both direct effects and indirect effects via infant temperament. These results highlighted the significant impact postpartum depression may have on maternal role. Future interventions targeting mothers experiencing or who are at risk for depression may consider tools to improve mother-baby interactions. The effects of such intervention may subsequently improve both infant temperament and maternal role evaluation.
Bylinka, Joanna; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz
This correlational study investigated the relationships between temperament, beliefs about pain control, and pain intensity ratings in a group of 103 women diagnosed with endometriosis. Temperament traits were assessed using the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory. Beliefs about pain control were measured using the Polish version of the Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire. The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-11) was used to measure pain intensity. There was a high negative correlation between the temperament trait of endurance and pain intensity ratings. Moderate negative correlations with pain intensity were found for internal beliefs about pain control. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the endurance trait and internal beliefs about pain control accounted for 33 % of the variance in pain intensity ratings in women with endometriosis.
Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken
A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower.
Tees, Michael T.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen
To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n=288) in 2006–2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother’s experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, two months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and “difficult temperament” was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with 3 or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15–2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at one year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22–8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81–5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother’s mental health. PMID:19554438
Scott, Brandon G.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Clifford, Sierra; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Stoll, Ryan; Goldsmith, H.Hill
Twin factor mixture modeling was used to identify temperament profiles while simultaneously estimating a latent factor model for each profile with a sample of 787 twin pairs (M[subscript age] = 7.4 years, SD = 0.84; 49% female; 88.3% Caucasian), using mother- and father-reported temperament. A four-profile, one-factor model fit the data well.…
Lara, Diogo R; Bisol, Luisa W; Brunstein, Miriam G; Reppold, Caroline T; de Carvalho, Hudson W; Ottoni, Gustavo L
Based on many temperament frameworks, here we propose an integration of emotional and affective temperaments (the AFECT model), forming a common substrate for mood, behavior, personality and part of cognition. Temperament is conceived as a self-regulated system with six emotional dimensions: volition, anger, inhibition, sensitivity, coping and control. The different combinations of these emotional dimensions result in 12 affective temperament types, namely depressive, anxious, apathetic, obsessive, cyclothymic, dysphoric, irritable, volatile, disinhibited, hyperthymic and euphoric. We also developed and validated a self-report scale to evaluate this construct, the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS). Exploratory and confirmatory psychometric analyses were performed with the internet version of the AFECTS in 2947 subjects (72% females, 35±11years old). The factors interpreted as volition, anger, inhibition, sensitivity, coping and control showed very good Cronbach's alphas for 5 dimensions (0.87-0.90) and acceptable alpha for inhibition (0.75). Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated this 6-factor structure when considering inhibition as a second-order factor with fear and caution as first-order factors (SRMR=0.061; RMSEA=0.053). In the Affective section, all 12 categorical affective temperaments were selected in the categorical choice, with 99% of volunteers identifying at least one adequate description of their affective temperament. Only the internet version was used in a general population sample. The AFECT model provides an integrated framework of temperament as a self-regulated system, with implications for mental health, psychiatric disorders and their treatment. The AFECTS showed good psychometric properties to further study this model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eory, Ajandek; Rozsa, Sandor; Gonda, Xenia; Dome, Peter; Torzsa, Peter; Simavorian, Tatevik; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Akiskal, Knarig K; Akiskal, Hagop S; Rihmer, Zoltan; Kalabay, Laszlo
Smoking behaviour and its course is influenced by personality factors. Affective temperaments could allow a more specific framework of the role trait affectivity plays in this seriously harmful health-behaviour. The aim of our study was to investigate if such an association exists in an ageing population with a special emphasis on gender differences. 459 primary care patients completed the TEMPS-A, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Subjects were characterized according to their smoking behaviour as current, former or never smokers. Univariate analysis ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to analyse differences in the three smoking subgroups to predict smoking initiation and maintenance. Current smokers were younger and less educated than former or never smokers. Males were more likely to try tobacco during their lifetime and were more successful in cessation. Depressive, cyclothymic and irritable temperament scores showed significant differences between the three smoking subgroups. Irritable temperament was a predictor of smoking initiation in females whereas depressive temperament predicted smoking maintenance in males with a small, opposite effect of HAM-A scores independent of age, education, lifetime depression and BDI scores. Whereas smoking initiation was exclusively predicted by a higher BDI score in males, smoking maintenance was predicted by younger age and lower education in females. The cross-sectional nature of the study design may lead to selective survival bias and hinder drawing causal relationships. Affective temperaments contribute to smoking initiation and maintenance independently of age, education, and depression. The significant contribution of depressive temperament in males and irritable temperament in females may highlight the role of gender-discordant temperaments in vulnerable subgroups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Clark, Lee Anna
Personality and psychopathology long have been viewed as related domains, but the precise nature of their relations remains unclear. Through most of the 20th century, they were studied as separate fields; within psychopathology, clinical syndromes were separated from personality disorders in 1980. This division led to the revelation of substantial overlap among disorders both within and across axes and to the joint study of normal and abnormal personality. The author reviews these literatures and proposes an integrative framework to explain personality-psychopathology relations: Three broad, innate temperament dimensions--negative affectivity, positive affectivity, and disinhibition--differentiate through both biologically and environmentally based developmental processes into a hierarchical personality trait structure and, at their extremes, are risk factors (diatheses) for psychopathology, especially given adverse life experiences (stress). Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Degnan, Kathryn A.; Almas, Alisa N.; Fox, Nathan A.
Anxiety disorders are prevalent throughout childhood and adolescence. As such, identifying the factors and mechanisms that precede, maintain, or exacerbate anxiety disorders is essential for the development of empirically-based prevention and intervention programs. The current review focuses on child temperament (i.e., behavioral inhibition) and the child’s environment, including parenting, child care, and peer relationships, as these factors have been linked to internalizing problems and anxiety diagnoses. Research programs are needed that examine the associations between the environment and anxiety in temperamentally at-risk populations. In order to be successful, early intervention and prevention programs require a more detailed analysis of the interplay between various environmental contexts, both distal and proximal to the child, and the child’s temperamental reactivity to novelty and threat. Furthermore, conducting these investigations across multiple levels of analysis in large-scale, longitudinal samples would be an important addition to the literature on the developmental psychopathology of anxiety. PMID:20158575
Tsekov, Roumen; Lensen, Marga C.
The migration of living cells usually obeys the laws of Brownian motion. While the latter is due to the thermal motion of the surrounding matter, the locomotion of cells is generally associated with their vitality. We study what drives cell migration and how to model memory effects in the Brownian motion of cells. The concept of temperament is introduced as an effective biophysical parameter driving the motion of living biological entities in analogy with the physical parameter of temperature, which dictates the movement of lifeless physical objects. The locomemory of cells is also studied via the generalized Langevin equation. We explore the possibility of describing cell locomemory via the Brownian self-similarity concept. An heuristic expression for the diffusion coefficient of cells on structured surfaces is derived.
Rosellini, Anthony J.; Lawrence, Amy E.; Meyer, Joseph F.; Brown, Timothy A.
Although situational avoidance is viewed as the most disabling aspect of panic disorder (PD), few studies have evaluated how dimensions of neurotic (i.e., NT; neuroticism, behavioral inhibition) and extraverted (i.e. ET; extraversion, behavioral activation) temperament may influence the presence and severity of agoraphobia (AG). Using logistic regression and structural equation modeling, the present study examined the unique effects of ET on situational avoidance in a sample of 274 outpatients diagnosed with PD with and without AG. Results showed low ET (i.e., introversion) to be associated with both the presence and severity of situational avoidance. Findings are discussed in regard to conceptualizations of conditioned avoidance, activity levels, sociability, and positive emotions within the context of PD with AG. PMID:20455614
Roberts, Jane E.; Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Robinson, Marissa; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Hatton, Deborah D.
Early patterns of temperament lay the foundation for a variety of developmental constructs such as self-regulation, psychopathology, and resilience. Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) display unique patterns of temperament compared to age-matched clinical and non-clinical samples, and early patterns of temperament have been associated with later anxiety in this population. Despite these unique patterns in FXS and recent reports of atypical factor structure of temperament questionnaires in Williams Syndrome (Leyfer, John, Woodruff-Borden, & Mervis, 2012), no studies have examined the latent factor structure of temperament scales in FXS to ensure measurement validity in this sample. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of a well-validated parent-reported temperament questionnaire, the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001), in a sample of 90 males with FXS ages 3-9 years. Our data produced a similar, but not identical, three-factor model that retained the original CBQ factors of negative affectivity, effortful control, and extraversion/surgency. In particular, our FXS sample demonstrated stronger factor loadings for fear and shyness than previously reported loadings in non-clinical samples, consistent with reports of poor social approach and elevated anxiety in this population. Although the original factor structure of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire is largely retained in children with FXS, differences in factor loading magnitudes may reflect phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome. These findings may inform future developmental and translational research efforts. PMID:24380785
Micalizzi, Lauren; Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J
A genetically informed longitudinal cross-lagged model was applied to twin data to explore etiological links between difficult temperament and negative parenting in early childhood. The sample comprised 313 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Difficult temperament and negative parenting were assessed at ages 2 and 3 using parent ratings. Both constructs were interrelated within and across age (rs .34-.47) and showed substantial stability (rs .65-.68). Difficult temperament and negative parenting were influenced by genetic and environmental factors at ages 2 and 3. The genetic and nonshared environmental correlations (rs .21-.76) at both ages suggest overlap at the level of etiology between the phenotypes. Significant bidirectional associations between difficult temperament and negative parenting were found. The cross-lagged association from difficult temperament at age 2 to negative parenting at age 3 and from negative parenting at age 2 and difficult temperament at age 3 were due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental factors. Substantial novel genetic and nonshared environmental influences emerged at age 3 and suggest change in the etiology of these constructs over time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bray, Emily E; Sammel, Mary D; Seyfarth, Robert M; Serpell, James A; Cheney, Dorothy L
It is often assumed that measures of temperament within individuals are more correlated to one another than to measures of problem solving. However, the exact relationship between temperament and problem-solving tasks remains unclear because large-scale studies have typically focused on each independently. To explore this relationship, we tested 119 prospective adolescent guide dogs on a battery of 11 temperament and problem-solving tasks. We then summarized the data using both confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory principal components analysis. Results of confirmatory analysis revealed that a priori separation of tests as measuring either temperament or problem solving led to weak results, poor model fit, some construct validity, and no predictive validity. In contrast, results of exploratory analysis were best summarized by principal components that mixed temperament and problem-solving traits. These components had both construct and predictive validity (i.e., association with success in the guide dog training program). We conclude that there is complex interplay between tasks of "temperament" and "problem solving" and that the study of both together will be more informative than approaches that consider either in isolation.
Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Robert D
Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother's self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother's negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother's depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son's self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother's self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth's report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Leite, Leticia; Machado, Leonardo N; Lara, Diogo R
It is unclear how temperament is related to alcohol-related behavior in large population studies. We have used the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS) model to evaluate how emotional traits and affective temperaments are associated with alcohol use, abuse, and dependence in the general population. Data from 10,603 subjects (mean age=28.0±7.8 years, 70.3% females) was collected anonymously by the Internet in Brazil using the AFECTS model and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Alcohol use was stratified into control, low use, abuse, and dependence groups. The analysis of dimensional traits showed that Volition and Coping were lower, and Sensitivity was higher, in the abuse and dependence groups, with no differences between the Control and the Low Use groups. Alcohol consumption was also associated with lower Control, Stability, and Caution, and higher with Anger, Anxiety, and Desire, with significant differences between all groups. Regarding affective temperament types, alcohol abuse and dependence were associated with euphoric and cyclothymic temperaments in both genders, which was mirrored by a lower frequency of both euthymic and hyperthymic types. Only hyperthymics were overrepresented in the Control group for both genders. Data was collected by Internet only. A global dysfunction of emotional traits and a predominance of cyclothymic and euphoric temperaments were associated with alcohol-related behavior. Prevention and treatment strategies may be developed more effectively if these traits are taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zhe-Wei; Hua, Jing; Xu, Yu-Hong
Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in its temperament 3 months after birth. Method. A total of 302 mother-3-month-infant dyads enrolled the retrospective cohort study. 76 mothers had regular gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in their pregnancy; 62 mothers had irregular tactile stimulation on the fetus, and the rest of 164 mothers who had no tactile stimulation served as nonexposure group. Temperament was assessed using the EITS (a nine-dimensional scale of temperament). Results. Significant difference in temperament type was found among infants in 3 groups at 3 months of age. In the regular practice group, the babies with easy type temperament accounted for 73.7%, which was higher than that in irregular practice group (53.2%, P = 0.012) and that in the control group (42.1%, P < 0.001). Compared to infants in no practice group, the infants who had received regular gentle tactile stimulation before birth were lower in negative mood (P = 0.047) while higher in adaptability (P < 0.001), approach (P = 0.001), and persistence (P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion. Regular gentle tactile stimulation on fetus may promote the formation of easy type infant temperament. PMID:26180374
Locke, Robin L; Lagasse, Linda L; Seifer, Ronald; Lester, Barry M; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R
This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on temperament in 4-month-olds of the Maternal Lifestyle Study (N = 958: 366 cocaine exposed, 37 opiate exposed, 33 exposed to both drugs, 522 matched comparison). The study evaluated positivity and negativity during The Behavior Assessment of Infant Temperament (Garcia Coll et al., 1988). Parents rated temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart, 1981). Cocaine-exposed infants showed less positivity overall, mainly during activity and threshold items, more negativity during sociability items, and less negativity during irritability and threshold items. Latent profile analysis indicated individual temperament patterns were best described by three groups: low/moderate overall reactivity, high social negative reactivity, and high nonsocial negative reactivity. Infants with heavy cocaine exposure were more likely in high social negative reactivity profile, were less negative during threshold items, and required longer soothing intervention. Cocaine- and opiate-exposed infants scored lower on Infant Behavior Questionnaire smiling and laughter and duration of orienting scales. Opiate-exposed infants were rated as less respondent to soothing. By including a multitask measure of temperament we were able to show context-specific behavioral dysregulation in prenatally cocaine-exposed infants. The findings indicate flatter temperament may be specific to nonsocial contexts, whereas social interactions may be more distressing for cocaine-exposed infants.
Cassiano, Rafaela Guilherme Monte; Gaspardo, Claudia Maria; Faciroli, Ricardo Augusto de Deus; Martinez, Francisco Eulógio; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins
The aim of this study was to compare temperament and behavior profiles among groups of preterm toddlers differentiated by level of prematurity and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), controlling for neonatal clinical conditions and chronological age. The sample comprised 100 preterm toddlers segregated according to level of prematurity (75 very preterm and 25 moderate/late preterm) and presence of BPD (n=36) and ROP (n=63). Temperament was assessed by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire and behavior by the Child Behavior Checklist. The MANOVA was performed with a post-hoc univariate test. The level of prematurity and the presence of BPD and ROP did not affect temperament and behavioral problems in toddlers born preterm. However, the covariates age and length of stay in NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) affected temperament and behavioral problems, respectively. The older toddlers showed higher inhibitory control and lower activity levels than younger toddlers (range of 18-36months-old). Additionally, toddlers who stayed in the NICU longer showed more pervasive development and emotionally reactive problems than toddlers who stayed in NICU for less time. The level of prematurity and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity did not affect temperament and behavioral problems in toddlers born preterm. However, a longer stay in the NICU increased the risk for behavioral problems, and age enhanced the regulation of temperament at toddlerhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse
Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Serafini, Gianluca; Berrettoni, Claudia; Angeletti, Gloria; Koukopoulos, Alexia; Tatarelli, Roberto; Lester, David; Roselli, Domenico; Primiero, Francesco M
The aim of the authors in this study was to assess the prevalence of postpartum depression and evaluate the association of affective temperaments with emotional disorders in a sample of 92 pregnant women consecutively admitted for delivery between March and December 2009. In the first few days postpartum, women completed the Suicidal History Self-rating Screening Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire, and the Gotland Male Depression Scale. Fifty percent of the women reported an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 9 or higher, and 23% a score of 13 or higher. Women with a dysphoric-dysregulated temperament had higher mean scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale (p < 0.05), the Gotland Male Depression Scale (p < 0.001), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (p < 0.001), and the Suicidal History Self-Rating Screening Scale (p < 0.01) than other women after adjusting for covariates. Multiple logistic regression analysis with the temperament groups as the dependent variable indicated that only the Gotland Male Depression Scale was significantly associated with temperament when controlling for the presence of other variables. Women with a dysphoric-dysregulated temperament were 1.23 times as likely to have higher depressive symptom scores. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of psychiatric screening programs in the postpartum period as well as factors associated with depression and suicidality during the same period.
Micalizzi, Lauren; Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.
A genetically informed longitudinal cross-lagged model was applied to twin data to explore etiological links between difficult temperament and negative parenting in early childhood. The sample comprised 313 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Difficult temperament and negative parenting were assessed at ages 2 and 3 using parent ratings. Both constructs were interrelated within and across age (rs .34–.47) and showed substantial stability (rs .65–.68). Difficult temperament and negative parenting were influenced by genetic and environmental factors at ages 2 and 3. The genetic and nonshared environmental correlations (rs .21–.76) at both ages suggest overlap at the level of etiology between the phenotypes. Significant bidirectional associations between difficult temperament and negative parenting were found. The cross-lagged association from difficult temperament at age 2 to negative parenting at age 3 and from negative parenting at age 2 and difficult temperament at age 3 were due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental factors. Substantial novel genetic and nonshared environmental influences emerged at age 3 and suggest change in the etiology of these constructs over time. PMID:26490166
Giusti, Lorenzo; Provenzi, Livio; Tavian, Daniela; Missaglia, Sara; Butti, Niccolò; Montirosso, Rosario
Individual differences in infants' temperament are under genetic control. We investigated the association between brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF val66met ) polymorphism and temperament in 63 full-term infants. Met-carriers (N=25) had lower Regulatory capacities compared to val-homozygotes (N=38). These findings suggest that the BDNF polymorphism affects early temperament individual differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M
Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( < 0.01) compared to that of the EXC cohorts. Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and
Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M
Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts.
Mullola, Sari; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Alatupa, Saija; Hintsanen, Mirka; Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
Student's temperament plays a significant role in teacher's perception of the student's learning style, educational competence (EC), and teachability. Hence, temperament contributes to student's academic achievement and teacher's subjective ratings of school grades. However, little is known about the effect of gender and teacher's age on this association. We examined the effect of teacher's and student's gender and teacher's age on teacher-perceived temperament, EC, and teachability, and whether there is significant same gender or different gender association between teachers and students in this relationship. The participants were population-based sample of 3,212 Finnish adolescents (M= 15.1 years) and 221 subject teachers. Temperament was assessed with Temperament Assessment Battery for Children - Revised and Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey batteries and EC with three subscales covering Cognitive ability, Motivation, and Maturity. Data were analyzed with multi-level modelling. Teachers perceived boys' temperament and EC more negatively than girls'. However, the differences between boys and girls were not as large when perceived by male teachers, as they were when perceived by female teachers. Males perceived boys more positively and more capable in EC and teachability than females. They were also stricter regarding their perceptions of girls' traits. With increasing age, males perceived boys' inhibition as higher and mood lower. Generally, the older the teacher, the more mature he/she perceived the student. Teachers' ratings varied systematically by their gender and age, and by students' gender. This bias may have an effect on school grades and needs be taken into consideration in teacher education. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Nemcsik, János; Vecsey-Nagy, Milán; Szilveszter, Bálint; Kolossváry, Márton; Karády, Júlia; László, Andrea; Kőrösi, Beáta; Nemcsik-Bencze, Zsófia; Gonda, Xénia; Merkely, Béla; Rihmer, Zoltán; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál
A bidirectional relationship exists between psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases, however less is known with regards to personality traits. Accumulating data suggest that affective temperaments are both associated with psychiatric and somatic diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate the associations between different affective temperaments and the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. 200 consecutive patients referred to coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) due to suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in our study. Medical history and demographic parameters were recorded and all patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The presence of coronary artery disease was evaluated based on the CCTA images. 39 patients were free of any coronary atherosclerosis (CCTA-) and 161 had coronary atherosclerosis (CCTA+). Hyperthymic affective temperament score was higher in CCTA- subjects as compared to CCTA+ (13.1±3.0 vs 11.5±4.6, p=0.010, respectively). Hyperthymic affective temperament score showed a significant independent, inverse relationship with coronary atherosclerosis (OR: 0.91 CI: 0.82-0.99, p=0.04). Our results suggest that hyperthymic affective temperament is independently associated with the absence of CAD. It requires further research to delineate the mechanism mediating the effect of hyperthymia on better coronary artery health and establishing potential biochemical or behavioral factors, both of which could be exploited for prevention and treatment purposes. But it is plausible, that the evaluation of affective temperaments have importance both in relation with psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kyeong, Sunghyon; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Hae-Jeong; Hwang, Dong-Uk
Novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA) are two major dimensions of temperament in Cloninger׳s neurobiological model of personality. Previous neurofunctional and biological studies on temperament dimensions of HA and NS suggested that the temperamental traits have significant correlations with cortical and subcortical brain regions. However, no study to date has investigated the functional network modular organization as a function of the temperament dimension. The temperament dimensions were originally proposed to be independent of one another. However, a meta-analysis based on 16 published articles found a significant negative correlation between HA and NS (Miettunen et al., 2008). Based on this negative correlation, the current study revealed the whole-brain connectivity modular architecture for two contrasting temperament groups. The k-means clustering algorithm, with the temperamental traits of HA and NS as an input, was applied to divide the 40 subjects into two temperament groups: 'high HA and low NS' versus 'low HA and high NS'. Using the graph theoretical framework, we found a functional segregation of whole brain network architectures derived from resting-state functional MRI. In the 'high HA and low NS' group, the regulatory brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), are clustered together with the limbic system. In the 'low HA and high NS' group, however, brain regions lying on the dopaminergic pathways, such as the PFC and basal ganglia, are partitioned together. These findings suggest that the neural basis of inhibited, passive, and inactive behaviors in the 'high HA and low NS' group was derived from the increased network associations between the PFC and limbic clusters. In addition, supporting evidence of topological differences between the two temperament groups was found by analyzing the functional connectivity density and gray matter volume, and by computing the relationships between the morphometry and function of the brain
Riley, D G; Gill, C A; Herring, A D; Riggs, P K; Sawyer, J E; Lunt, D K; Sanders, J O
The objective of this work was to estimate heritability of each of 5 subjectively measured aspects of temperament of cattle and the genetic correlations of pairs of those traits. From 2003 to 2013, Nellore-Angus F2 and F3 calves (n = 1,816) were evaluated for aspects of temperament at an average 259 d of age, which was approximately 2 mo after weaning. Calves were separated from a group and subjectively scored from 1 (calm, good temperament) to 9 (wild, poor temperament) for aggressiveness (willingness to hit an evaluator), nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness (willingness to separate from the group), and a distinct overall score by 4 evaluators. Data were analyzed using threshold and linear models with additive genetic random effects. Two-trait animal models (nonthreshold) included the additive genetic covariance for pairs of traits and were used to estimate additive genetic correlations. Contemporary groups (n = 104) represented calves penned together for evaluation on given evaluation days. Heifers had greater (worse) means for all traits than steers (P < 0.05). The regression of score on age in days was included in final models for flightiness (P = 0.05; -0.006 ± 0.003) and gregariousness (P = 0.025; -0.007 ± 0.003). Estimates of heritability were large (0.51, 0.4, 0.45, 0.49, and 0.47 for aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness, and overall temperament, respectively; SE = 0.07 for each). The ability to use this methodology to distinctly separate different aspects of calf temperament appeared to be limited, as estimates of additive genetic correlations were near unity for all pairs of traits; estimates of phenotypic correlation ranged from 0.88 ± 0.01 to 0.99 ± 0.002 for pairs of traits. Distinct subsequent analyses indicated a significant negative relationship of 4 of the various temperament scores with weight at weaning (regression coefficients ranged from -0.008 ± 0.002 for nervousness, flightiness, and gregariousness to -0.003 ± 0
Bostrom, P. K.; Broberg, M.; Bodin, L.
Background: Despite previous efforts to understand temperament in children with intellectual disability (ID), and how child temperament may affect parents, the approach has so far been unidimensional. Child temperament has been considered in relation to diagnosis, with the inherent risk of overlooking individual variation of children's temperament…
Farrell, Ann H; Brook, Christina; Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A
Conventionally, individual differences have been assessed using temperament measures for infants and children, and personality measures for adults. We chose to explore both temperament and personality to see whether a convergence exists specifically during adolescence. A sample of 225 adolescents completed Rothbart's Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R), a 4-factor temperament scale, and the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO PI-R), a 6-factor personality scale. As hypothesized, we found significant relations between the 2 measures. However, there were some important differences between the 2 measures regarding Honesty-Humility, Openness, and Frustration that highlight the unique contributions of both instruments to understanding and measuring adolescent individual differences. As there is a relatively scant history of measuring temperament or personality in adolescence, it is sometimes difficult for researchers to decide which instrument is most appropriate. The results reported here suggest that either the EATQ-R or the HEXACO PI-R could be appropriate, depending on the specific research questions being asked.
Curtindale, Lori; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Bennett-Murphy, Laura; Hull, Sarah
Applying optimal stimulation theory, the present study explored the development of sustained attention as a dynamic process. It examined the interaction of modality and temperament over time in children and adults. Second-grade children and college-aged adults performed auditory and visual vigilance tasks. Using the Carey temperament questionnaires (S. C. McDevitt & W. B. Carey, 1995), the authors classified participants according to temperament composites of reactivity and task orientation. In a preliminary study, tasks were equated across age and modality using d' matching procedures. In the main experiment, 48 children and 48 adults performed these calibrated tasks. The auditory task proved more difficult for both children and adults. Intermodal relations changed with age: Performance across modality was significantly correlated for children but not for adults. Although temperament did not significantly predict performance in adults, it did for children. The temperament effects observed in children--specifically in those with the composite of reactivity--occurred in connection with the auditory task and in a manner consistent with theoretical predictions derived from optimal stimulation theory. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in Negative Affectivity; (b) low self-esteem is associated with Depression; and (c) low self-esteem is associated with Aggression. These findings replicated for boys and girls, two measures of self-esteem, and child and mother reports of temperament. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and temperament, and provides much needed data on the nature of self-esteem in ethnic minority populations. PMID:19740537
This study examined the role of child temperament as moderator of the effect of parenting style on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. A series of structural equation models were fit to a representative sample of 2,631 Canadian children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. In addition to testing for the presence of Temperament × Parenting interactions, these models also examined the direct and indirect effects of a number of additional contextual factors such as neighborhood problems, neighborhood cohesion, social support, and maternal depression. The results indicate that exposure to more positive parenting reduces behavior problems in children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. No moderating effects of temperament on hostile parenting were found. Such results serve to highlight the pivotal role of positive features of the rearing environment as catalysts for the successful adaptation of children with difficult/unadaptable temperaments. The results of this modeling work also serve to emphasize the importance of considering the ways in which more distal factors can affect children's behavioral adaptation by contributing to changes in proximal family processes.
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.
The relevance of parenting behavior to toddlers’ development necessitates a better understanding of the influences on parents during parent-child interactions. Toddlers’ inhibited temperament may relate to parenting behaviors, such as intrusiveness, that predict outcomes later in childhood. The conditions under which inhibited temperament relates to intrusiveness, however, remain understudied. A multi-method approach would acknowledge that several levels of processes determine mothers’ experiences during situations in which they witness their toddlers interacting with novelty. As such, the current study examined maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment about shyness as moderators of the relation between toddlers’ inhibited temperament and maternal intrusive behavior. Participants included 92 24-month-olds toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers’ inhibited temperament and maternal intrusiveness were measured observationally in the laboratory. Mothers supplied saliva samples at the beginning of the laboratory visit and 20 minutes after observation. Maternal cortisol reactivity interacted with inhibited temperament in relation to intrusive behavior, such that mothers with higher levels of cortisol reactivity were observed to be more intrusive with more highly inhibited toddlers. Embarrassment related to intrusive behavior as a main effect. These results highlight the importance of considering child characteristics and psychobiological processes in relation to parenting behavior. PMID:23750532
Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A
Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.
Hong, Fang; Doan, Stacey N; Lopez, Angelica; Evans, Gary W
Self-regulation is associated with many positive outcomes, but there is limited information about individual difference regarding children's spontaneous use of strategies to self-regulate and the relative success of those strategies. In the current study, we examined whether temperament and gender are associated with self-regulation and explored the types of spontaneous strategies children use during Mischel's delay of gratification protocol. In addition, we investigated whether spontaneous strategy use during the task could moderate the effects of temperament on self-regulation and whether temperament would mediate the effect of gender on self-regulation. Participants were 349 9-year-olds (182 boys, M age = 9.18, SD = 1.17). Mothers reported on children's temperament and the Delay of Gratification task was used to assess self-regulation. Both temperament and child's gender were significantly associated with children's delay time. Girls were able to delay longer than boys, and children scoring high on activity level were less able to delay. Activity level also mediated the relationship between gender and delay time. Finally, we found an interaction effect between activity level and certain strategies in relation to self-regulatory behavior.
Zeller, MH; Boles, RE; Reiter-Purtill, J
Objective To examine maternal parenting behaviors, child temperament and their potential interactions in families of obese children and demographically similar families of nonoverweight children. Design A total of 77 obese youth (M body mass index (BMI) z-score values, zBMI = 2.4; ages 8–16, 59% female, 50% African American) and their parents were recruited from a pediatric weight management clinic and compared to 69 families of nonoverweight youth (M zBMI = − 0.03). Comparison youth were classmates of each obese participant matched on gender, race and age. Measurements Maternal report of child temperament, parenting style and anthropometric assessments were obtained. Results Compared to nonoverweight youth, mothers of obese youth described their child as having a more difficult temperament and their parenting style as lower in behavioral control. A logistic regression model indicated that difficult temperament, lower behavioral control and the interaction of low maternal warmth and difficult child temperament were associated with increased odds of a child being classified as obese. Conclusions Treatment-seeking obese youth and their parents are characterized by different parent and child factors when compared to nonoverweight comparison families. These findings direct investigators to test more complex models of the relation between parent and child characteristics and their mutual role in the weight-related behavior change process. PMID:18698318
Victor, Daniela; Sakado, Kaoru; Mundt, Christoph; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas
One aim of the present study was the psychometric evaluation of the German version of the questionnaire TEMPS-A of Akiskal, Mundt, Maier and Angst , which explores five affective temperaments. Another aim was to create a short version of the questionnaire. For that purpose the TEMPS-A was filled in by n = 62 in-patients who suffered from Major Depression. Then the relation between the five types of temperament and the big five personality factors was examined. The intercorrelations of the five temperament scales of the TEMPS-A showed mainly moderate associations. The correlations with the big five personality factors resulted in significant associations of all temperaments with neuroticism. By factor analyses, conducted for each scale of the TEMPS-A, we developed a short form of the TEMPS-A with 30 items. The evaluation of the TEMPS-A is just beginning. The TEMPS-A is an important basis for the further examination of the relationship between temperament and psychiatric disorders.
Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat
The ability to characterise psychopathologies on the basis of their underlying neurobiology is critical in improving our understanding of disorder etiology and making more effective diagnostic and treatment decisions. Given the well-documented relationship between temperament (i.e. core personality traits) and psychopathology, research investigating the neurobiological substrates that underlie temperament is potentially key to our understanding of the biological basis of mental disorder. We present evidence that specific areas of the prefrontal cortex (including the dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices) and limbic structures (including the amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens) are key regions associated with three fundamental dimensions of temperament: Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Constraint. Proposed relationships are based on two types of research: (a) research into the neurobiological correlates of affective and cognitive processes underlying these dimensions; and (b) research into the neurobiology of various psychopathologies, which have been correlated with these dimensions. A model is proposed detailing how these structures might comprise neural networks whose functioning underlies the three temperaments. Recommendations are made for future research into the neurobiology of temperament, including the need to focus on neural networks rather than individual structures, and the importance of prospective, longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies in at-risk youth.
Sussman, Adrienne F.; Ha, James C.; Bentson, Kathy L.; Crockett, Carolyn M.
Temperament differs among individuals both within and between species. Evidence suggests that differences in temperament of group members may parallel differences in social behavior among groups or between species. Here, we compared temperament between three closely related species of monkey - rhesus (Macaca mulatta), long-tailed (M. fascicularis), and pigtailed (M. nemestrina) macaques - using cage-front behavioral observations of individually housed monkeys at a National Primate Research Center. Frequencies of 12 behaviors in 899 subjects were analyzed using a PCA to identify temperament components. The analysis identified four components, which we interpreted as Sociability towards humans, Cautiousness, Aggressiveness, and Fearfulness. Species and sexes differed in their average scores on these components, even after controlling for differences in age and early-life experiences. Our results suggest that rhesus macaques are especially aggressive and unsociable towards humans, long-tailed macaques are more cautious and fearful, and pigtailed macaques are more sociable towards humans and less aggressive than the other species. Pigtailed males were notably more sociable than any other group. The differences observed are consistent with reported variation in these species’ social behaviors, as rhesus macaques generally engage in more social aggression and pigtailed macaques engage in more male-male affiliative behaviors. Differences in predation risks are among the socioecological factors that might make these species-typical behaviors adaptive. Our results suggest that adaptive species-level social differences may be encoded in individual-level temperaments, which are manifested even outside of a social context. PMID:23225368
Baldessarini, Ross J; Innamorati, Marco; Erbuto, Denise; Serafini, Gianluca; Fiorillo, Andrea; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio
Affective temperaments are associated with suicidal risk, but their predictive value relative to diagnosis of major affective disorder is uncertain. We compared diagnoses, affective-temperament ratings (TEMPS-A), and other potential risk factors in 956 psychiatric inpatients, using bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression modeling for associations with suicidal status. Lifetime suicide-attempt rates were high (43.9% overall), ranking by diagnosis: bipolar-II (58.4%), major depressive (50.0%), bipolar-I (44.6%), other (38.0%), and psychotic (33.9%) disorders. TEMPS-A scores for depressive (dep), cyclothymic (cyc), irritable (irr), and anxious (anx) temperaments and their sum were strongly associated with suicidal risk; hyperthymic (hyp) temperament scores were inversely associated; and a composite measure (dep+cyc+irr+anx - hyp), even more strongly associated. The composite score was highly, independently associated with suicidal behavior (p<0.0001), as was female sex (p=0.0002), but older age and diagnosis of major affective disorder, much less (both p=0.02). Measures of affective temperament-types were independently and more strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt than was diagnosis of a major affective disorder. However, in this hospitalized cohort, suicide rates were high across diagnoses, possibly limiting the predictive value of diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gartstein, Maria A; Prokasky, Amanda; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan; Bridgett, David J; Braungart-Rieker, Julia; Leerkes, Esther; Cheatham, Carol L; Eiden, Rina D; Mize, Krystal D; Jones, Nancy Aaron; Mireault, Gina; Seamon, Erich
There is renewed interest in person-centered approaches to understanding the structure of temperament. However, questions concerning temperament types are not frequently framed in a developmental context, especially during infancy. In addition, the most common person-centered techniques, cluster analysis (CA) and latent profile analysis (LPA), have not been compared with respect to derived temperament types. To address these gaps, we set out to identify temperament types for younger and older infants, comparing LPA and CA techniques. Multiple data sets (N = 1,356; 672 girls, 677 boys) with maternal ratings of infant temperament obtained using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003) were combined. All infants were between 3 and 12 months of age (M = 7.85; SD = 3.00). Due to rapid development in the first year of life, LPA and CA were performed separately for younger (n = 731; 3 to 8 months of age) and older (n = 625; 9 to 12 months of age) infants. Results supported 3-profile/cluster solutions as optimal for younger infants, and 5-profile/cluster solutions for the older subsample, indicating considerable differences between early/mid and late infancy. LPA and CA solutions produced relatively comparable types for younger and older infants. Results are discussed in the context of developmental changes unique to the end of the first year of life, which likely account for the present findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Buonomo, Ilaria; Fiorilli, Caterina; Geraci, Maria Angela; Pepe, Alessandro
The authors compared the relations between general psychological difficulties and dimensions of temperament in children with and without learning disability (LD). The main aim was to analyze whether and to what extent children's temperament dimensions contribute to their general psychological difficulties when LD diagnosis, age, and gender are taken into account. Participants were 52 elementary school children 7-11 years old (M age = 8.61 years, SD = 1.21 years). Twenty-six of them had been diagnosed with LD. Six teachers rated their pupils with and without LD in relation to their general psychological difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and temperament dimensions (Italian Questionnaires of Temperament). In children with LD, the main dimensions of temperament with the power to predict general psychological difficulties (i.e., emotionality and social orientation) concern these students' relationships with others (teachers and peers). The findings of the current study draw educators' and practitioners' attention to the fact that children's temperamental characteristics may affect how they experience their LD, with significant implications for their later social adjustment.
Garon, Nancy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Smith, Isabel M; Brian, Jessica; Roncadin, Caroline; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Armstrong, Vickie; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Roberts, Wendy
Temperament was investigated in a group of high-risk infants (N = 383; 45 % girls) who had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in community control infants (N = 162; 46 % girls) with no family history of ASD (low-risk). The infants were assessed at age 12 months using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and at 24 months using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire. At 36 months, an independent blind diagnostic assessment for ASD was conducted using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). The results indicate not only differences in temperament traits between the high- and low-risk groups, but also differences in the structure of higher-order temperament factors. The results support the importance of early reactive temperament in the development of Effortful Control in the high-risk sample. Furthermore, Effortful Control at 24 months appears to play a critical role in predicting later ASD symptoms (at 36 months). Taken together, these findings support the use of early temperament as an endophenotype for ASD.
Nystrom, Beatrice; Bengtsson, Hans
Personality is generally considered to be biologically founded in temperament, and temperamental qualities have proven to be relatively stable across childhood and into adulthood (Caspi, Roberts & Shiner, ). Temperament predicts important developmental outcomes such as academic performance (Muris, ), and social functioning (Eisenberg, Fabes, Guthrie & Reiser, ), and it has also been found to be strongly related to the etiology and maintenance of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children (Muris, Meesters & Blijlevens, ; Nigg, ). To allow for the possibility of making early interventions, identification of potential risk factors (such as temperamental dispositions) is of great importance (Rettew & McKee, ). As temperament is multidimensional and has many different manifestations, parents and teachers are valuable sources in providing information about children's temperament (Rothbart & Bates, ; Tackett, Slobodskaya, Mar et al., ), and caregiver questionnaires are frequently used in child personality research. However, such questionnaires are only useful if their reliability and validity have been established. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds, Kieras, Rueda & Rothbart, ), which focuses specifically on the ages between 7 and 11 years. The TMCQ is the least validated of the Rothbart measures, and although reliability data have been presented, together with some validity data, for a computerized self-report version of the questionnaire (Simonds & Rothbart, ), information about the reliability and validity for the caregiver version is scant. In the present paper, we report such data for a Swedish sample. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Prunier, Armelle; Moussu, Chantal; Calandreau, Ludovic; Lansade, Léa
The present study investigates how the temperament of the animal affects the influence of acute stress on the acquisition and reacquisition processes of a learning task. After temperament was assessed, horses were subjected to a stressor before or after the acquisition session of an instrumental task. Eight days later, horses were subjected to a reacquisition session without any stressor. Stress before acquisition tended to enhance the number of successes at the beginning of the acquisition session. Eight days later, during the reacquisition session, contrary to non-stressed animals, horses stressed after acquisition, and, to a lesser extent, horses stressed before acquisition, did not improve their performance between acquisition and reacquisition sessions. Temperament influenced learning performances in stressed horses only. Particularly, locomotor activity improved performances whereas fearfulness impaired them under stressful conditions. Results suggest that direct exposure to a stressor tended to increase acquisition performances, whereas a state of stress induced by the memory of a stressor, because it has been previously associated with the learning context, impaired reacquisition performances. The negative effect of a state of stress on reacquisition performances appeared to be stronger when exposure to the stressor occurred after rather than before the acquisition session. Temperament had an impact on both acquisition and reacquisition processes, but under stressful conditions only. These results suggest that stress is necessary to reveal the influence of temperament on cognitive performances. PMID:23626801
Zeller, M H; Boles, R E; Reiter-Purtill, J
To examine maternal parenting behaviors, child temperament and their potential interactions in families of obese children and demographically similar families of nonoverweight children. A total of 77 obese youth (M body mass index (BMI) z-score values, zBMI=2.4; ages 8-16, 59% female, 50% African American) and their parents were recruited from a pediatric weight management clinic and compared to 69 families of nonoverweight youth (M zBMI=-0.03). Comparison youth were classmates of each obese participant matched on gender, race and age. Maternal report of child temperament, parenting style and anthropometric assessments were obtained. Compared to nonoverweight youth, mothers of obese youth described their child as having a more difficult temperament and their parenting style as lower in behavioral control. A logistic regression model indicated that difficult temperament, lower behavioral control and the interaction of low maternal warmth and difficult child temperament were associated with increased odds of a child being classified as obese. Treatment-seeking obese youth and their parents are characterized by different parent and child factors when compared to nonoverweight comparison families. These findings direct investigators to test more complex models of the relation between parent and child characteristics and their mutual role in the weight-related behavior change process.
Hong, Fang; Doan, Stacey N.; Lopez, Angelica; Evans, Gary W.
Self-regulation is associated with many positive outcomes, but there is limited information about individual difference regarding children’s spontaneous use of strategies to self-regulate and the relative success of those strategies. In the current study, we examined whether temperament and gender are associated with self-regulation and explored the types of spontaneous strategies children use during Mischel’s delay of gratification protocol. In addition, we investigated whether spontaneous strategy use during the task could moderate the effects of temperament on self-regulation and whether temperament would mediate the effect of gender on self-regulation. Participants were 349 9-year-olds (182 boys, Mage = 9.18, SD = 1.17). Mothers reported on children’s temperament and the Delay of Gratification task was used to assess self-regulation. Both temperament and child’s gender were significantly associated with children’s delay time. Girls were able to delay longer than boys, and children scoring high on activity level were less able to delay. Activity level also mediated the relationship between gender and delay time. Finally, we found an interaction effect between activity level and certain strategies in relation to self-regulatory behavior. PMID:29163300
Poustka, L; Parzer, P; Brunner, R; Resch, F
Basic symptoms are early subtle changes in thinking, feeling and perception that are subjectively experienced and precede the onset of a psychotic illness. In adult samples, high basic symptom scores are regarded as specific risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to explore the relevance of basic symptoms of psychiatric disorders in adolescent patients with special focus on early detection of psychosis. Furthermore, the association between basic symptoms and personality traits has been investigated. From 89 adolescents, who were consecutive inpatients with different psychiatric disorders in 1995 and 1997, 54 were followed up 4.7 years later. Patients were examined with the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms at the time of the first presentation and follow-up. Additionally, personality traits were assessed at follow-up using the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. None of the subjects made the transition to schizophrenia, despite high baseline scores of basic symptoms at the initial assessment. Indirect minus symptoms were found to be the most valid predictor of a persisting psychiatric diagnosis. In addition, this specific category was strongly associated with the personality traits harm avoidance and self-directedness. In adolescents, basic symptoms in association with personality traits present as a nonspecific indicator of psychopathology rather than as an indicator of vulnerability to schizophrenia. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mulder, R T; Joyce, P R
This paper attempts to construct a simplified system for the classification of personality disorders, and relates this system to normally distributed human personality characteristics. One hundred and forty-eight subjects with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the SCID-II structured clinical interview for personality disorders. A four-factor solution of personality disorder symptoms was obtained and we labelled these factors 'the four As': antisocial, asocial, asthenic and anankastic. The factors related to the four temperament dimensions of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), but less closely to Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) dimensions. The four factors were similar to those identified in a number of studies using a variety of assessment methods and this lends some credibility to our findings. It suggests that a more parsimonious set of trait descriptors could be used to provide simpler, less overlapping categories that retain links with current clinical practice. In addition, these factors can be seen as extremes of normally distributed behaviours obtained using the TPQ questionnaire.
Rasmussen, Josh E; Belk, Mark C
Behavioral traits of individuals are important phenotypes that potentially interact with many other traits, an understanding of which may illuminate the evolutionary forces affecting populations and species. Among the five axes of temperament is the propensity to behave boldly in the presence of a perceived risk. To determine the effect of different predatorial regimes on boldness and fearfulness, we assessed the behavior of individuals in a novel portable swim chamber (i.e., forced open-field test) by Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora ( n = 633). We used an information theoretic framework to compare generalized (logistic) linear fixed-effects models of predatorial regime (predator-free [ n = 6] and predator [ n = 4] sites), sex, and standard length (SL). Fish from predator sites were much more fearful in the novel arena than fish from nonpredator sites. This varied by length, but not by sex. At 48 mm SL, fish from nonpredator sites were 4.9 times more likely to express bold behavior (ambulation) in the novel swim chamber as fish from predator sites. Probabilities of "ambulating" within the swim chamber increased with size for nonpredator sites and decreased with size for predator sites.
Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.
Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D; Hyde, Luke W
Early callous-unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous-unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous-unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous-unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous-unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous-unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous-unemotional behaviour pathway. Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous-unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.
Background Early callous–unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous–unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. Aims To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous–unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Method Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous–unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Results Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous–unemotional behaviour pathway. Conclusions Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous–unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. PMID:27765772
Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per
Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.
Clifford, Sally M.; Hudry, Kristelle; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.
The current study investigated early temperament in 54 infants at familial high-risk of ASD and 50 controls. Parental report of temperament was assessed around 7, 14 and 24 months of age and diagnostic assessment was conducted at 3 years. The high-risk group showed reduced "Surgency" at 7 and 14 months and reduced "Effortful Control" at 14 and 24…
McElwain, Nancy L.; Ogolsky, Brian G.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Holland, Ashley S.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann
Child-child similarity on attachment and temperament were examined, in turn, as predictors of interaction quality between previously unacquainted children. At 33 months, child-mother attachment security was assessed, and parents reported on child temperament. At 39 months, 114 children were randomly paired into 57 same-sex dyads and observed…
This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) induced changes in body temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS...
Trofimova, Irina; Sulis, William
Temperament and mental illness are thought to represent varying degrees along the same continuum of neurotransmitter imbalances. A taxonomy of temperament could provide the basis for a new taxonomy of mental illness. Most popular models of temperament, being based heavily on emotionality traits, show very poor ability to discriminate between mental disorders. The main goal of this study was to examine whether a temperament model based on modern neurophysiology and possessing an extensive set of non-emotionality traits provides better discrimination between Major Depression (MD), Generalized Anxiety (GAD) and Comorbid MD and GAD, in comparison to emotionality-based temperament models. Using the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire, the temperament profiles of 687 individuals (396 clients of private psychiatric and psychological practice, and 291 control subjects) were compared across four adult age groups (18-24, 25-45, 46-65, 66-84). MD and GAD appear to be accurately distinguished by the traits of Motor Endurance and Motor Tempo (much lower values in depression), and Neuroticism (much higher value in anxiety). Comorbids can be distinguished based on a significant decrease in the traits of Plasticity, Intellectual Endurance, Sensitivity to Probabilities, and increased Impulsivity. These effects seemed independent of age and gender. The results suggest the benefits of including non-emotionality-related traits and the usefulness of a functional approach to both taxonomy of temperament and classification of mental disorders.
Vitiello, Virginia E.; Moas, Olga; Henderson, Heather A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Munis, Pelin M.
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child temperament differentially predicted academic school readiness depending on the quality of classroom interactions for 179 Head Start preschoolers. Teachers rated children's temperament as overcontrolled, resilient, or undercontrolled in the fall and reported on children's…
Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.
The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.
Previous research has suggested that mothers' behaviors may serve as a mechanism in the development from toddler fearful temperament to childhood anxiety. The current study examined the maternal characteristic of accuracy in predicting toddlers' distress reactions to novelty in relation to temperament, parenting, and anxiety development.…
Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Kodama, Kensuke; Kohno, Kentaro; Makino, Mayu; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Araki, Yasuo; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori
There is a well-known association between artistic creativity and cyclothymic temperament but the neural correlates of cyclothymic temperament have not yet been fully identified. Recently, we showed that the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus may be associated with esthetic judgment of representational paintings, we therefore sought to investigate brain activity during esthetic judgment of paintings in relation to measures of cyclothymic temperament. Regions of interest (ROI) were set at the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus using automated anatomical labeling, and percent signal changes of the ROIs were measured by marsbar toolbox. The associations between percent signal changes of the ROIs during esthetic judgments of paintings and cyclothymic temperament scores were investigated by Pearson׳s coefficient. Moreover, the associations were further analyzed using multiple regression analysis whereby cyclothymic temperament scores were a dependent factor and percent signal changes of the 3 ROIs and the other 4 temperament scores were independent factors. There was a significantly negative association of cyclothymic temperament scores with the percent signal changes of the left lingual gyrus during esthetic judgments of paintings, but not with those of bilateral cuneus. Even after adjustment using multiple regression analysis, this finding remained unchanged. The number of subjects was relatively small and the task was limited to appreciation of paintings. The present findings suggest that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.
Childhood temperament and family environment have been shown to predict internalizing and externalizing behavior; however, less is known about how temperament and family environment interact to predict changes in problem behavior. We conducted latent growth curve modeling on a sample assessed at ages 5, 7, 10, 14, and 17 (N = 337). Externalizing…
Venables, Peter H.; Raine, Adrian
Previous work has shown that malnutrition has deleterious effects on both IQ and aspects of temperament. It is hypothesized that while malnutrition bears a direct relation to IQ, aspects of temperament are also involved in a mediating role so that they produce indirect associations between malnutrition and IQ. The study examines the association of…
Spangler, Sibylle M.; Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Vierhaus, Marc; Teubert, Manuel; Lamm, Bettina; Kolling, Thorsten; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Fassbender, Ina; Lohaus, Arnold; Knopf, Monika; Keller, Heidi
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether temperament and cognitive abilities are related to recognition performance of Caucasian and African faces and of a nonfacial stimulus class, Greebles. Seventy Caucasian infants were tested at 3 months with a habituation/dishabituation paradigm and their temperament and cognitive abilities…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate
Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…
Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Frosch, Cynthia A.
This study explored how children's self-concepts were related to child temperament, dyadic parenting behavior, and triadic family interaction. At age 3, child temperament, mothers' and fathers' parenting behavior, and triadic (mother, father, and child) family interaction were observed in the homes of 50 families. At age 4, children's…
This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...
Bennett, A. J.; Lee, J. P.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
Obtaining substantial nonlinear effects at the single-photon level is a considerable challenge that holds great potential for quantum optical measurements and information processing. Of the progress that has been made in recent years one of the most promising methods is to scatter coherent light from quantum emitters, imprinting quantum correlations onto the photons. We report effective interactions between photons, controlled by a single semiconductor quantum dot that is weakly coupled to a monolithic cavity. We show that the nonlinearity of a transition modifies the counting statistics of a Poissonian beam, sorting the photons in number. This is used to create strong correlations between detection events and to create polarization-correlated photons from an uncorrelated stream using a single spin. These results pave the way for semiconductor optical switches operated by single quanta of light.
Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Natasha E.; Clark, Lee Anna
Few studies have investigated the combined effects of temperament and executive functioning (EF) on anxious and depressive symptomatology in youth. The current study is the first to investigate the joint and interactive contribution of mother- and youth self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and EF to the explanation of anxious and depressive symptomatology. Participants included 174 adolescent males (Mage = 13.6 ± 1.35). Results confirmed the joint and interactive contribution of temperament in the explanation of anxious and depressive symptomatology. Further, EF contributed to the explanation of anxious/depressive symptomatology via interaction with youth-, but not mother-reported, temperament; it was not a unique predictor. Results support the need to consider both affective dimensions of temperament and EF in etiological models of anxious and depressive symptomatology, which has implications for identifying at-risk youth and developing early intervention and targeted problem-specific prevention programs. PMID:26754748
Latzman, Robert D; Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Natasha E; Clark, Lee Anna
Few studies have investigated the combined effects of temperament and executive functioning (EF) on anxious and depressive symptomatology in youth. The current study is the first to investigate the joint and interactive contribution of mother- and youth self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and EF to the explanation of anxious and depressive symptomatology. Participants included 174 adolescent males (M age = 13.6 ± 1.35). Results confirmed the joint and interactive contribution of temperament in the explanation of anxious and depressive symptomatology. Further, EF contributed to the explanation of anxious/depressive symptomatology via interaction with youth-, but not mother-reported, temperament; it was not a unique predictor. Results support the need to consider both affective dimensions of temperament and EF in etiological models of anxious and depressive symptomatology, which has implications for identifying at-risk youth and developing early intervention and targeted problem-specific prevention programs.
Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Saudino, Kimberly J.; Wertz, Annie E.; Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Chawla, Sonia
Twin studies suggest that parent ratings of temperament exaggerate differences between twins. The present study examined whether such contrast effects also operate for nontwin siblings. The activity level (AL) and shyness of 95 nontwin sibling pairs (ages 3 to 8 years) were assessed via parent ratings and objective measures (actigraph and observer ratings). Siblings showed no resemblance in either parent-rated AL or shyness; however, sibling resemblance for actigraph AL and observer-rated shyness was substantial. Thus, parents do contrast their nontwin siblings when rating these 2 temperament dimensions. Moreover, the importance of sibling differences in temperament to the sibling relationship and differential maternal treatment varied across the different measures of AL and shyness, suggesting that parent perceptions may play a role in these associations. PMID:15535780
Robins, Richard W; Donnellan, M Brent; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in Negative Affectivity; (b) low self-esteem is associated with Depression; and (c) low self-esteem is associated with Aggression. These findings replicated for boys and girls, two measures of self-esteem, and child and mother reports of temperament. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and temperament, and provides much needed data on the nature of self-esteem in ethnic minority populations.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034
Akiskal, Kareen K; Savino, Mario; Akiskal, Hagop S
With the possible exception of cyclothymia in artists, there is a paucity of data in the literature on the temperament in different professions. For this exploratory study, we sought to generate preliminary data on temperaments among psychiatric outpatients, including physicians (n=41), lawyers (n=30), managers and executives (n=35), industrialists (n=48), architects (n=27), journalists (n=34), and a mixed group of artists (n=48). They were compared with age, sex, social class, and affective disorder matched outpatients outside of these professions, drawn from the same clinical settings to serve as our Comparison Group (CG, n=120). We used an interview version of the Akiskal-Mallya criteria for temperaments. We finally used the DSM-III-R obsessive compulsive personality (OC traits). Compared with the CG, lawyers and physicians had high rates of dysthymic temperament and OC traits. Managers, like lawyers and doctors, had high rates on OC traits but were different in being very low on cyclothymic and twice as hyperthymic than the CG was. Industrialists, who, by definition, were self-made, had even higher rates of hyperthymic traits. Both architects and artists seemed to have benefited from being cyclothymic (3-4 times higher than CG's); interestingly, architects had higher levels of OC traits, and artists were less obsessional than the CG was. Overall, among managers/executives and lawyers, 41% met criteria for affective temperaments, whereas the equivalent rate among the remainder was 77%. Given that this is a chart review of existing clinical records, it was not possible to be blind to the profession of the patients. A mixed group of artists may have obscured differences among artists from different domains of art (e.g., poets vs. performing artists), and the same can be said of physicians (e.g., internists vs. surgeons). A disclaimer would be appropriate: Ours is not a study on eminence in the different professions but on the temperament and personality profiles
Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.
The interaction between a temperament profile (four groups determined by high vs. low resistance to control [unmanageability] and unadaptability [novelty distress]) and family stress in predicting externalizing problems at school in children followed from kindergarten through 8th grade (ages 5 – 13) was investigated. The sample consisted of 556 families (290 boys). At Time 1 just prior to kindergarten, mothers retrospectively reported on their child’s temperament during infancy. Each year, mothers reported stress and teachers reported children’s externalizing problems. Temperament profile was tested as a moderator of the stress-externalizing association for various time periods. Results indicated that the combination of high resistance to control and high unadaptability strengthens the stress-externalizing association. Findings are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:23438634
Solmeyer, Anna; Feinberg, Mark E
We explored how parent gender, infant temperament, and coparenting dynamics worked together to shape mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms, stress, and parental efficacy during early parenthood. We were interested in the coparenting relationship as a context that shapes how parents respond to their infant’s temperamental qualities. Participants were 139 couples who had recently given birth to their first child. Parent reports of temperament were collected when the infant was 4–8 months old and reports of coparenting and parent adjustment were collected at 13 months. Two-level random intercept models revealed interactions among temperament and coparenting, highlighting the family system as a context for how men and women adapt to their parenting role. There was little evidence for mother-father differences in these associations. PMID:21868100
Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Dalbudak, Ercan; Durkaya, Mine; Cetin, Rabia; Evren, Bilge; Cakmak, Duran; Ertem-Vehid, Hayriye
The aim of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between childhood trauma, temperament, character, and psychopathology among alcohol-dependent men. Participants were 156 alcohol-dependent men consecutively admitted to a dependency treatment unit. The Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-Revised were administered to all participants. Childhood abuse and neglect did not have any effect on temperament and character scores in multivariate analysis. Whereas childhood abuse had a significant main effect on all types of clinical psychopathology except depression and psychoticism scores, childhood neglect only had a significant main effect on depression scores. There was no interaction between childhood abuse and neglect on these analyses. Among alcohol-dependent men, childhood abuse and neglect contribute to general psychopathology through distinct clinical consequences, independently of temperamental and characterological features. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Volpe, Umberto; Di Maso, Virginia; Monteleone, Palmiero
Published studies suggested an implication of oxytocin in some temperament characteristics of personality. Therefore, we measured oxytocin secretion in 23 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 27 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19 healthy controls and explored the relationships between circulating oxytocin and patients' personality traits. Plasma oxytocin levels were significantly reduced in AN women but not in BN ones. In healthy women, the attachment subscale scores of the reward dependence temperament and the harm avoidance (HA) scores explained 82% of the variability in circulating oxytocin. In BN patients, plasma oxytocin resulted to be negatively correlated with HA, whereas no significant correlations emerged in AN patients. These findings confirm a dysregulation of oxytocin production in AN but not in BN and show, for the first time, a disruption of the associations between hormone levels and patients' temperament traits, which may have a role in certain deranged behaviours of eating disorder patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Premo, Julie E.; Buss, Kristin A.
Child gender may exert its influence on development, not as a main effect, but as a moderator among predictors and outcomes. We examined this notion in relations among toddler fearful temperament, maternal protective parenting, maternal accuracy in predicting toddler distress to novelty, and child social withdrawal. In two multi-method, longitudinal studies of toddlers (24 months at Time 1; ns = 93 and 117, respectively) and their mothers, few main effect gender differences occurred. Moderation existed in both studies: only for highly accurate mothers of boys, fearful temperament related to protective parenting, which then predicted later social withdrawal. Thus, studying only main-effect gender differences may obscure important differences in how boys and girls develop from fearful temperament to later social withdrawal. PMID:27231411
Kiel, Elizabeth J; Premo, Julie E; Buss, Kristin A
Child gender may exert its influence on development, not as a main effect, but as a moderator among predictors and outcomes. We examined this notion in relations among toddler fearful temperament, maternal protective parenting, maternal accuracy in predicting toddler distress to novelty, and child social withdrawal. In two multi-method, longitudinal studies of toddlers (24 months at Time 1; n s = 93 and 117, respectively) and their mothers, few main effect gender differences occurred. Moderation existed in both studies: only for highly accurate mothers of boys, fearful temperament related to protective parenting, which then predicted later social withdrawal. Thus, studying only main-effect gender differences may obscure important differences in how boys and girls develop from fearful temperament to later social withdrawal.
Otsuka, Ayano; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Masuya, Jiro; Ichiki, Masahiko; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi
Recent studies have suggested that multiple factors interact with the onset and prognosis of major depressive disorders. In this study, we investigated how child abuse, affective temperaments, and interpersonal sensitivity are interrelated, and how they affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. A total of 415 volunteers from the general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, which are all self-administered questionnaires. Data were subjected to structural equation modeling (Mplus), and single and multiple regression analyses. The effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity and 4 affective temperaments, including depressive, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments. In addition, the effect of these temperaments on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity, indicating the indirect enhancement of depressive symptoms. In contrast to these 4 temperaments, the hyperthymic temperament did not mediate the effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms; its effect was not mediated by interpersonal sensitivity. However, a greater hyperthymic temperament predicted decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal sensitivity, independent of any mediation effect. Because this is a cross-sectional study, long-term prospective studies are necessary to confirm its findings. Therefore, recall bias should be considered when interpreting the results. As the subjects were adults from the general population, the results may not be generalizable towards all patients with major depression. This study suggests that child abuse and affective temperaments affect depressive symptoms partly through interpersonal sensitivity. Interpersonal sensitivity may have a major role in forming the link between abuse, affective
Saarinen, Aino I L; Rosenström, Tom H; Hakulinen, Christian A; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Hintsanen, Mirka H M; Pulkki-Råback, Laura M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether adventurous and explosive temperament profiles (presumed precursors of antisocial and borderline personality) are associated with character traits over a 15-year follow-up and (b) whether social support and attachment security modify the relationship between temperament profiles and character development. 2,028 subjects of the Young Finns study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Relationship Questionnaire at 3 assessment points between 1997 and 2012. Both explosive and adventurous temperament profiles seemed to predispose individuals to have less mature personalities; that is, these profiles were consistently associated with lower cooperativeness (P < .001), and explosive temperament also with lower self-directedness (P < .001), over the entire follow-up period. These relationships did not vary significantly at the individual level and were sustained after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. However, the presence of high social support and secure attachment was found to decrease the likelihood that explosive temperament would lead to an immature adulthood character (P < .001). In contrast, persons with the adventurous temperament were likely to have a more mature character under low social support and an immature one under high experienced social support (P < .05). Individuals with the explosive temperament benefit from high social support and secure attachment. From the point of view of the therapy process, this knowledge might be of importance. In contrast, individuals with the adventurous temperament were able to direct their behavior better in social environments that were not likely to support their basic temperaments. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Fisher, Helen E.; Island, Heide D.; Rich, Jonathan; Marchalik, Daniel; Brown, Lucy L.
A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI). Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone, and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: (1) Curious/Energetic, (2) Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, (3) Analytical/Tough-minded, and (4) Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems. In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: (1) gender; (2) level of education; (3) religious preference; (4) political orientation; (5) the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship. Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000+ members in six other countries. Correlations with the five variables characterize the FTI and are consistent with mechanisms using the proposed neuromodulators. We also report on an analysis between the FTI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, using a college sample (n = 215), which showed convergent validity. The results provide novel correlates not available in other questionnaires: religiosity, political orientation, and attitudes about sex in a relationship. Also, an Eigen analysis replicated the four clusters of co-varying items. The FTI, with its broad systems and non-pathologic factors complements existing personality questionnaires. It provides an index of some brain systems that contribute to temperament, and may be useful in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community. PMID:26284018
Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Fernández, Pilar; Resches, Mariela; Gómez-Taibo, María Luisa
The aims of this study are: (1) to describe language and temperament characteristics of one group of low risk preterm (PR) children and a group of full-term (FT) children and (2) to identify those factors which can predict language outcomes at 30 months of age, with special attention on temperament. There is evidence of differences between very or extremely PR and FT children in relation to characteristics of temperament and language development. However, not many studies have been carried out with healthy PR children. The participants were 142 low risk PR children (mean gestational age (GA): 32.60 weeks) and 49 FT children (mean GA 39.84 weeks). The temperament of the children was assessed at 10 months of age through the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R). At 22 months of age the cognitive development of the children was assessed through the Spanish adaptation of the Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). In order to assess the children's language development the Galician adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI was applied at 30 months of age. In addition, socio-demographic information about the children and their families was gathered at birth. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the language measures of interest (word production, MLU3, and sentence complexity) between groups. The only differences found between the PR and the FT children in the IBQ-R were restricted to the smiling and laughter and the fear subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses performed indicate that GA did not have any predictive effect on language measures taken at 30 months. Cognitive scores were an important predictor of language measures, although certain temperament subscales contributed in a significant way to the variance of language measures, particularly low intensity pleasure, approach, high intensity pleasure, sadness, and vocal reactivity. Therefore, extroverted (positive affectivity) temperament seems to be beneficial for language
Sharp, Julia R; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Abdullah, Kawsari; Chen, Yang; Perrin, Eliana M; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S
Outdoor free play is important for preschoolers' physical activity, health, and development. Certain temperamental characteristics are associated with obesity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviors in preschoolers, but the relationship between temperament and outdoor play has not been examined. This study examined whether there is an association between temperament and outdoor play in young children. Healthy children aged 1 to 5 years recruited to The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!), a community-based primary care research network, from July 2008 to September 2013 were included. Parent-reported child temperament was assessed using the Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Outdoor free play and other potential confounding variables were assessed through validated questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between temperament and outdoor play, adjusted for potential confounders. There were 3393 children with data on outdoor play. The association between negative affectivity and outdoor play was moderated by sex; in boys, for every 1-point increase in negative affectivity score, mean outdoor play decreased by 4.7 minutes per day. There was no significant association in girls. Surgency was associated with outdoor play; for every 1-point increase in surgency/extraversion, outdoor play increased by 4.6 minutes per day. Young children's temperamental characteristics were associated with their participation in outdoor free play. Consideration of temperament could enhance interventions and strategies to increase outdoor play in young children. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between children's early temperament and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singer, Alison B; Wolff, Mary S; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M
Gestational phthalate exposures have been adversely associated with attention, externalizing, and internalizing behaviors in childhood. Early childhood temperament may be a marker of later behavioral patterns. We therefore sought to determine whether gestational phthalate exposures were associated with infant and toddler temperament. The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study is a prospective cohort study of children born between May 1998 and July 2001 in New York City (N=404). Phthalate metabolites were measured in spot urine samples collected from pregnant women in their third trimester. Child temperament was assessed by parental report at 12-months using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) (N=204) and at 24-months using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (TBAQ) (N=279). We used multiple linear regression to evaluate associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and eleven temperament domains. Phthalate biomarker concentrations were weakly associated with lower gross motor activity levels as well as higher duration of orienting at the 12-month assessment. Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and the sum of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (∑DEHP) were associated with lower levels of smiling and laughing at 12 months. At 24-months, social fear and lower pleasure was linked to higher concentrations of MCPP and MBzP, and higher ∑DEHP was weakly associated with increased anger levels at 24-months. Though we observed some weak associations between biomarkers of prenatal exposure to phthalates and temperament at 12- and 24-months, overall phthalates biomarkers were not strongly associated with alterations in temperament. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni
Affective temperaments have been so far understudied in anorexia nervosa (AN) despite the relevance of personality and both affective and anxious comorbidity with regard to vulnerability, course, and outcome of this deadly disorder. Ninety-eight female inpatients diagnosed with AN and 131 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study and completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in addition to assessments of eating psychopathology, depression, and anxiety. AN patients and HCs differed in all affective temperaments. The diagnostic subtypes of AN differed as well with binge-purging individuals being more cyclothymic and anxious than those with restricting-type AN. TEMPS-A scores correlated with body mass index and eating psychopathology but not with duration of illness. Concerning comorbidity, grater scores on the depressive and lower scores on the hyperthymic temperaments were found in depressed patients. Those who had either an anxious or irritable temperament were significantly more diagnosed with an anxious disorder than those who did not show this temperament. When logistic regression was performed, high depressive/low hyperthymic and high irritable/anxious traits resulted to be associated with depressive and anxious comorbidity, respectively, independently of confounding factors. Cross-sectional design, some patients on medications, few baseline clinical differences between diagnostic subtypes, no other personality assessments. An affective continuum strongly associated with mood and anxious comorbidity emerged in AN. Such an evaluation could have several research and clinical implications given the need of improving treatment individualization and early interventions for such a complex disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sarisoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Ö Mer Faruk; Öztürk, Arif; Yilman, Tuba; Mor, Sema; Özturan, Deniz Deniz; Yazici, Neslihan; Gümüş, Kübra
The purpose of this study was to investigate temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and the relation of these traits with dissociative symptoms. Sixty patients (60) diagnosed with conversion disorder according to DSM-IV-TR and 60 healthy volunteers were included in the study. All participants' temperament and character traits were determined using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Patients with conversion disorder were divided into two subgroups using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), dissociative (n=30, 50%) and non-dissociative (n=30, 50%). The two conversion disorder subgroups were compared with the control group in terms of temperament and character traits. Correlation analysis was also performed between TCI and DES scores in the entire conversion group. Novelty seeking (NS) scores were lower in both the dissociative and non-dissociative groups compared to the control group. Harm avoidance (HA) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the control group. Reward dependence (RD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative and control group. Self-directedness (SD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the control group. Self-transcendence (ST) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative group. DES scores were negatively correlated with RD and SD scores in the entire conversion group and positively correlated with ST scores. Low NS temperament traits may be associated with conversion disorder. High HA and low RD temperament traits and low SD and high ST character traits may be associated with pathological dissociation in patients with conversion disorder.
Borkowska, A; Bieliński, M; Szczęsny, W; Szwed, K; Tomaszewska, M; Kałwa, A; Lesiewska, N; Junik, R; Gołębiewski, M; Sikora, M; Tretyn, A; Akiskal, K; Akiskal, H
Many studies show high prevalence of affective disorders in obese patients. Affective temperament is a subclinical manifestation of such conditions. The 5-HTT gene encoding the serotonin transporter may be involved in both mood and eating dysregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene on affective temperament types, depressive symptoms and Body Mass Index (BMI) in obese patients. This study involved 390 patients (237 females, and 153 males) with obesity. The TEMPS-A questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to evaluate affective temperaments and prevalence of depression. DNA was obtained for serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) genotyping. In obese patients S/S genotype was associated with depressive and L/L with cyclothymic temperament. Subjects with L/L genotype presented significantly higher BMI and greater intensity of depressive symptoms in BDI and HDRS. Females scored higher in anxious and depressive, while males in hyperthymic, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments. Females scored higher in BDI (subjective depression) while males in HDRS (objective depression). TEMPS-A, BDI and HDRS are frequently used in studies on affective disorders. However, these methods do not examine all dimensions of mood and personality. In obese patients S allele of 5-HTTLPR was associated with development of depressive temperament while L allele corresponded with greater obesity and prevalence of depression. Different mechanisms may be involved in manifestation of depression in males and females with obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Unseld, Matthias; Dworschak, Giselle; Tran, Ulrich S; Plener, Paul L; Erfurth, Andreas; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto-Michael; Kapusta, Nestor D
Substance abuse is among the leading causes of preventable diseases and premature death but reasons and conditions leading to substance abuse are complex and multifaceted. Different models of abuse and dependence assume an underlying emotional vulnerability. Individual behavioral and emotional reactivity patterns of personality are considered in the concept of temperament but studies linking different types of temperament with substance use are rare. In this study we investigated 1380 inhabitants (59.7% females; 40.3% males) of residential student homes in Austria, using Akiskals TEMPS-M auto-questionnaire. Further, we administered the CAGE- and the HSI-questionnaire and assessed other psychoactive substance use to examine associations between traits of temperament and substance abuse using ordered logistic regression. Temperaments follow different distributions in both genders: Women have higher scores on the depressive, cyclothymic, and anxious subscales and lower scores on the hyperthymic scale than men. The cyclothymic and particularly irritable temperament serve as predictors of self-reported nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse and cannabis use. Interestingly, the depressive temperament seems to be protective against self-reported cannabis use. Substance abuse assessment is based on self-reports only and urine drug and blood tests were not performed. Also, the history of substance abuse is not documented thus temperamental factors could have been influenced by substance abuse if the time of onset was in early adolescence. The study design was cross-sectional, thus limiting causal interpretations. It might be important to consider temperamental traits as protective- and risk factors in the etiology, prevention and therapy of substance abuse in future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Asik, Mehmet; Altinbas, Kursat; Eroglu, Mustafa; Karaahmet, Elif; Erbag, Gokhan; Ertekin, Hulya; Sen, Hacer
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are reported to experience depressive episodes at a higher rate than healthy controls (HC). Affective temperament features are psychiatric markers that may help to predict and identify vulnerability to depression in women with PCOS. Our aim was to evaluate the affective temperaments of women with PCOS and to investigate the association with depression and anxiety levels and laboratory variables in comparison with HC. The study included 71 women with PCOS and 50 HC. Hormonal evaluations were performed for women with PCOS. Physical examination, clinical history, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and TEMPS-A were performed for all subjects. Differences between groups were evaluated using Student's t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Correlations and logistic regression tests were performed. All temperament subtype scores, except hyperthymic, and HADS anxiety, depression, and total scores were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared to HC. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between BMI and irritable temperament, and insulin and HADS depression scores in patients with PCOS. Additionally, hirsutism score and menstrual irregularity were correlated with HADS depression, anxiety and total scores in PCOS patients. In logistic regression analysis, depression was not affected by PCOS, hirsutism score or menstrual irregularity. However, HADS anxiety score was associated with hirsutism score. Our study is the first to evaluate the affective temperament features of women with PCOS. Consequently, establishing affective temperament properties for women with PCOS may help clinicians predict those patients with PCOS who are at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Erickson, Nora L; Gartstein, Maria A; Dotson, Jo Ann Walsh
To present a systematic review of literature and evaluate effects of prenatal maternal depression and anxiety on the development of infant temperament. A literature search for studies published between January 1981 and January 2017 was undertaken using the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed, as well as reference lists from select resources. Search terms included variations on infant temperament, prenatal/pregnancy, depression, mood, and anxiety. Studies were included if researchers measured psychological distress during pregnancy as indicated by maternal depression, anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, or a combination of these factors in relation to the development of infant temperament (i.e., parent report or laboratory observations of temperament from 1 to 12 months). In total, 34 articles met inclusion criteria. Authors, year of publication, country of origin, sample information, methods, timing, and applicable results were summarized and compared across studies. No standardized data analysis was conducted because of methodologic differences across the identified studies. Of the 34 identified studies, 22 included an indicator of depression (11 with significant results), 26 included an indicator of anxiety (14 with significant results), and 9 included an indicator of pregnancy-specific anxiety (7 with significant results). Overall research outcomes were equivocal. Across studies on symptoms of depression and anxiety, findings related to the potential effect on infant temperament were mixed. Nonetheless, support for the role of prenatal psychological factors in the development of infant temperament emerged in a subset of population-based studies, including research to target the effects of pregnancy-specific anxiety. Future research is needed with greater consistency across studies with respect to methods (e.g., timing and assessment tools). Specific recommendations for nurses and providers include more routine screening and psychoeducation for expectant
Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith Semon; Deković, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A G
Several models of individual differences in environmental sensitivity postulate increased sensitivity of some individuals to either stressful (diathesis-stress), supportive (vantage sensitivity), or both environments (differential susceptibility). In this meta-analysis we examine whether children vary in sensitivity to parenting depending on their temperament, and if so, which model can best be used to describe this sensitivity pattern. We tested whether associations between negative parenting and negative or positive child adjustment as well as between positive parenting and positive or negative child adjustment would be stronger among children higher on putative sensitivity markers (difficult temperament, negative emotionality, surgency, and effortful control). Longitudinal studies with children up to 18 years (k = 105 samples from 84 studies, Nmean = 6,153) that reported on a parenting-by-temperament interaction predicting child adjustment were included. We found 235 independent effect sizes for associations between parenting and child adjustment. Results showed that children with a more difficult temperament (compared with those with a more easy temperament) were more vulnerable to negative parenting, but also profited more from positive parenting, supporting the differential susceptibility model. Differences in susceptibility were expressed in externalizing and internalizing problems and in social and cognitive competence. Support for differential susceptibility for negative emotionality was, however, only present when this trait was assessed during infancy. Surgency and effortful control did not consistently moderate associations between parenting and child adjustment, providing little support for differential susceptibility, diathesis-stress, or vantage sensitivity models. Finally, parenting-by-temperament interactions were more pronounced when parenting was assessed using observations compared to questionnaires. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all
Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke
Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fisher, Helen E; Island, Heide D; Rich, Jonathan; Marchalik, Daniel; Brown, Lucy L
A new temperament construct based on recent brain physiology literature has been investigated using the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI). Four collections of behaviors emerged, each associated with a specific neural system: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone, and estrogen/oxytocin system. These four temperament suites have been designated: (1) Curious/Energetic, (2) Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, (3) Analytical/Tough-minded, and (4) Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems. In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: (1) gender; (2) level of education; (3) religious preference; (4) political orientation; (5) the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship. Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000+ members in six other countries. Correlations with the five variables characterize the FTI and are consistent with mechanisms using the proposed neuromodulators. We also report on an analysis between the FTI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, using a college sample (n = 215), which showed convergent validity. The results provide novel correlates not available in other questionnaires: religiosity, political orientation, and attitudes about sex in a relationship. Also, an Eigen analysis replicated the four clusters of co-varying items. The FTI, with its broad systems and non-pathologic factors complements existing personality questionnaires. It provides an index of some brain systems that contribute to temperament, and may be useful in psychotherapy, business, medicine, and the legal community.
Scott, Brandon G.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Clifford, Sierra; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Stoll, Ryan; Goldsmith, H. Hill
Twin factor mixture modeling was used to identify temperament profiles, while simultaneously estimating a latent factor model for each profile with a sample of 787 twin pairs (Mage =7.4 years; SD = .84; 49% female; 88.3% Caucasian), using mother- and father-reported temperament. A 4-profile, 1-factor model fit the data well. Profiles included ‘Regulated, Typical Reactive’, ‘Well-regulated, Positive Reactive’, ‘Regulated, Surgent’, and ‘Dysregulated, Negative Reactive.’ All profiles were heritable, with heritability lower and shared environment also contributing to membership in the ‘Regulated, Typical Reactive’ and ‘Dysregulated, Negative Reactive’ profiles. PMID:27291568
DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mahurin-Smith, Jamie; Coletto, Mary-Kelsey; Petrill, Stephen A.
Background Despite support for the use of conversational language measures, concerns remain regarding the extent to which they may be confounded with aspects of child temperament, extraversion in particular. Aims This study of 161 twins from the Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP) examined the associations between children’s conversational language use and three key aspects of child temperament: Surgency (i.e., introversion/extraversion), Effortful Control (i.e., attention and task persistence), and Negative Affectivity (e.g., fear, anger, sadness). Child biological sex was considered as a possible moderating factor. Methods & Procedures Correlational analyses were conducted between aspects of temperament during early school-age years (i.e., 7 to 8 yrs), as measured by the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire-Short Form (CBQ; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006), and six different measures of children’s conversational language use: total number of complete and intelligible utterances (TCICU), number of total words (NTW), mean length of utterance (MLU), total number of conjunctions (TNC), number of different words (NDW), and measure D (i.e., a measure of lexical diversity). Values for NTW, TNC, and NDW were derived both on the entire sample and on the first 100 C-units. Correlations between language and temperament were compared between girls and boys using the Fisher r-to-z transformation to examine the significance of potential moderating effects. Outcomes & Results Children’s reported variability in Effortful Control did not correlate significantly with any of the child language measures. In contrast, children’s Negative Affectivity and Surgency tended to demonstrate positive, albeit modest, correlations with those conversational language measures that were derived from the sample as a whole, rather than from a standardized number of utterances. MLU, as well as measures of NDW and NTW derived from standardized sample lengths of 100 C-units, did not correlate with
Sutin, A R; Kerr, J A; Terracciano, A
In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight-management strategies in adolescence. Participants (N=4153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index and waist circumference. At ages 14-15 years, study children (n=2975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight-management strategies. Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15 years. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at ages 4-5 years were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating and use of unhealthy weight-management strategies at ages 14-15 years. Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age.
Słopień, Agnieszka; Rybakowski, Filip; Rajewski, Andrzej
Previous studies revealed the possibility of abnormal personality development role in the etiology of eating disorders. It was found that a diagnosis of personality disorders, mostly borderline personality and/or histrionic personality can be made in about 44-46% of bulimic patients. The inconsistencies in identifying personality types using categorical assessment approaches have encouraged a conceptualization of the personality from a dimensional perspective. It was revealed that the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) are useful in studying patients with eating disorders. The aim of the study was personality dimensions and depression symptoms assessment in bulimic patients. We studied 36 women with purging type bulimia according to DSM-IV and ICD 10 criteria. The mean age of the studied women was 19.7 years. The control group were 44 healthy women: university and last year high school students (mean age 20.4). We assessed body height, body mass and Body Mass Index (BMI). Severity of depression symptoms was assessed with the use of Beck Depression Index (BDI), and personality dimensions with the use of (TCI). Women from the study group had higher harm avoidance (HA) scores, which shows that bulimic patients are shy, fearful, doubtful, tend to be inhibited in most social situations. Mood disorders present in the studied women influenced HA scores. The results of the study revealed lower possibilities of self-directness in bulimic patients in comparison with the control group. Negative correlation between BDI and SD scores, shows that a decrease of depression severity may lead to an increase of self-esteem, independence and effectiveness of bulimic patients.
McMahon, C A; Boivin, J; Gibson, F L; Hammarberg, K; Wynter, K; Saunders, D; Fisher, J
Is anxiety focused on the pregnancy outcome, known to be particularly salient in women conceiving through assisted reproductive technology (ART), related to difficult infant temperament? While trait anxiety predicts infant temperament, pregnancy-focused anxiety is not associated with more difficult infant temperament. A large body of research has provided convincing evidence that fetal exposure to maternal anxiety and stress in pregnancy has adverse consequences for child neurodevelopmental, behavioural and cognitive development, and that pregnancy-specific anxiety (concerns related to the pregnancy outcome and birth) may be of particular significance. Women conceiving through ART are of particular interest in this regard. Research over more than 20 years has consistently demonstrated that while they do not differ from spontaneously conceiving (SC) women with respect to general (state and trait) anxiety, they typically report higher pregnancy-specific anxiety. While research suggests normal behavioural and developmental outcomes for children conceived through ART, there is some evidence of more unsettled infant behaviour during the first post-natal year. The longitudinal cohort design followed 562 nulliparous women over a 7-month period, during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 4 months after birth. Approximately equal numbers of nulliparous women conceiving through ART (n = 250) and spontaneously (SC: n = 262) were recruited through ART clinics and nearby hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Participants completed three anxiety measures (state, trait, pregnancy specific) at time 1 in the third trimester of pregnancy and a measure of infant temperament at time 2, 4 months after birth. At time 1, relevant socio-demographic, pregnancy (maternal age, smoking, alcohol, medications, medical complications) information was recorded and at time 2, information regarding childbirth (gestation, infant birthweight, mode of delivery) and post-natal (concurrent
Venables, Peter H; Raine, Adrian
Previous work has shown that malnutrition has deleterious effects on both IQ and aspects of temperament. It is hypothesized that while malnutrition bears a direct relation to IQ, aspects of temperament are also involved in a mediating role so that they produce indirect associations between malnutrition and IQ. The study examines the association of 3 indices of malnutrition-stunting, anemia and wasting-to Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ) and temperament in 1,376 3-year-old and 11-year-old children in Mauritius. Two dimensions of temperament were extracted from ratings of behavior and were labeled as Uninhibited (UI) and Task Orientation (TO). At age 3 stunting had direct relations to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ and also indirect relations via the mediating effect of temperament (UI but not TO). In the case of anemia there were no direct relations to VIQ or PIQ but both temperament meditators were involved in indirect relations. For wasting, indirect but not direct relations were observed. When age 11 cognitive performance was examined, there were direct relations to stunting and anemia and indirect relations via UI, but not TO. The relations between malnutrition and IQ were graded and linear showing that it is not only when malnutrition is defined by its severest levels that it has an effect on cognitive performance. It is suggested that malnutrition affects those brain structures and functions that are involved in both cognitive behavior and temperament. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.
Skogheim, Thea Steen; Vollrath, Margarete Erika
This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between “every day”, “4 to 6 times a week”, and “0 to 3 times a week”. The child’s weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored. PMID:26633494
Skogheim, Thea Steen; Vollrath, Margarete Erika
This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), and completed a questionnaire at the child's 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between "every day", "4 to 6 times a week", and "0 to 3 times a week". The child's weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored.
Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lynch, John W.; Smithers, Lisa G.
Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into ‘easy’ and ‘difficult’. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637
Matsuzaki, Hideki; Terao, Takeshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kohno, Kentaro; Takeshima, Minoru; Baba, Hajime; Honma, Hiroshi
The Japanese archipelago stretches over 4000km from north to south and has four large islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. Previously, using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-auto questionnaire version (TEMPS-A), we compared the hyperthymic scores of residents in Sapporo, Obihiro, Takaoka, Koshigaya, and Oita cities (which are located at latitudes of 43°N, 42°N, 36°N, 36°N and 33°N with various combinations of ambient temperament and sunshine in Japan, respectively). We found that latitude predicted significant variance in hyperthymic temperament, and that ambient temperature, but not sunshine, significantly affected hyperthymic temperament scores. However, the analysis failed to consider the effects of naturally occurring low-dose lithium on temperament. In addition to the TEMPS-A data previously collected, we measured lithium levels of the five cities. The effect of temperature, sunshine, and lithium levels on hyperthymic temperament was analyzed for the five cities. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that lithium levels as well as latitude, but not temperature or sunshine, predicted significant variance in hyperthymic temperament scores. Hyperthymic temperament scores were significantly and positively associated with lithium levels whereas they were significantly and negatively associated with latitude. The light, temperature, lithium exposure that residents actually received was not measured. The number of regions studied was limited. The findings might not be generalized to residents across Japan or other countries. The present findings suggest that lithium in drinking water may positively maintain hyperthymic temperament, and that latitude may negatively maintain it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McCreery, Michael P.
With the limited success of social skills training on particularly disruptive behaviors, researchers have begun to develop a more holistic approach grounded in "temperament" research that focuses on supporting underlying traits as they emerge during development. Based on this approach, this column provides a theoretical basis and…
Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Luster, Tom
This study examined the hypothesis that the association between hostile attributions and aggressive behavior with peers is moderated by children's temperament among three samples of preschoolers. Hostile attributions were assessed through videotape-based and story-based laboratory procedures. Maternal ratings and laboratory-based assessment…
Kelmanson, Igor A.
Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioral…
Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.
This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…
Lengua, L.J.; Kovacs, E.A.
This study examined longitudinal associations between child temperament (fearfulness, irritability, positive emotionality, self-regulation) and parenting (acceptance, involvement, inconsistent discipline) in predicting children's internalizing and externalizing problems using a community sample (N = 92) of children (ages 8-11) and their mothers.…
Tackett, Jennifer L.; Kushner, Shauna C.; De Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan
The current investigation addressed several questions in the burgeoning area of child personality assessment. Specifically, the present study examined overlapping and nonoverlapping variance in two prominent measures of child personality assessment, followed by tests of convergent and divergent validity with child temperament and psychopathology.…
Progress in a primary-grade reading program was determined for 106 first-born, second-grade students at the end of the school year. Previous data available for this sample included Thomas-Chase-Birch temperament ratings, family intactness and socioeconomic status at age four, and Metropolitan Readiness Test scores at age six. The value of these…
Silberg, Judy L.; Gillespie, Nathan; Moore, Ashlee A.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Bates, John; Aggen, Steven; Pfister, Elizabeth; Canino, Glorisa
Objective Despite an increasing recognition that psychiatric disorders can be diagnosed as early as preschool, little is known how early genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders during this very early period of development. Method We assessed infant temperament at age 1, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) at ages 3 through 5 years in a sample of Hispanic twins. Genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects were estimated for each temperamental construct and psychiatric disorder using the statistical program MX. Multivariate genetic models were fitted to determine whether the same or different sets of genes and environments account for the co-occurrence between early temperament and preschool psychiatric disorders. Results Additive genetic factors accounted for 61% of the variance in ADHD, 21% in ODD, and 28% in SAD. Shared environmental factors accounted for 34% of the variance in ODD and 15% of SAD. The genetic influence on difficult temperament was significantly associated with preschool ADHD, SAD, and ODD. The association between ODD and SAD was due to both genetic and family environmental factors. The temperamental trait of resistance to control was entirely accounted for by the shared family environment. Conclusions There are different genetic and family environmental pathways between infant temperament and psychiatric diagnoses in this sample of Puerto Rican preschool age children. PMID:25728588
Silberg, Judy L; Gillespie, Nathan; Moore, Ashlee A; Eaves, Lindon J; Bates, John; Aggen, Steven; Pfister, Elizabeth; Canino, Glorisa
Despite an increasing recognition that psychiatric disorders can be diagnosed as early as preschool, little is known how early genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders during this very early period of development. We assessed infant temperament at age 1, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) at ages 3 through 5 years in a sample of Hispanic twins. Genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects were estimated for each temperamental construct and psychiatric disorder using the statistical program MX. Multivariate genetic models were fitted to determine whether the same or different sets of genes and environments account for the co-occurrence between early temperament and preschool psychiatric disorders. Additive genetic factors accounted for 61% of the variance in ADHD, 21% in ODD, and 28% in SAD. Shared environmental factors accounted for 34% of the variance in ODD and 15% of SAD. The genetic influence on difficult temperament was significantly associated with preschool ADHD, SAD, and ODD. The association between ODD and SAD was due to both genetic and family environmental factors. The temperamental trait of resistance to control was entirely accounted for by the shared family environment. There are different genetic and family environmental pathways between infant temperament and psychiatric diagnoses in this sample of Puerto Rican preschool age children.
Laible, Deborah; Eye, Jessica; Carlo, Gustavo
The purpose of this study was to determine whether aspects of conscience cohere into broader dimensions and to examine how these broader dimensions of conscience relate to parenting, temperament, and social behavior. One hundred and thirteen adolescents (M age = 15.88 years, 51% female) completed measures of sympathy, guilt, empathic anger, shame,…
Mittal, Renu; Russell, Beth S.; Britner, Preston A.; Peake, Philip K.
Delay of gratification in young children has been linked to long-term behavioral and academic outcomes. This study explored temperament, personality, and child-parent attachment as possible associates of delay ability. The sample consisted of 50 2- and 3-year-old children and their primary caregivers. Two laboratory tasks, the Preschool Strange…
Temperament and perceived family and friend support were significantly related to depressive symptoms and delinquent activity in 975 adolescents (high school sophomores and juniors) in western New York. Results suggest that part of the influence of temperamental difficulty may be a result of reduced levels of family and friend support. (SLD)
Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; D'Alessandro, Marta; Cerutti, Rita
Research Findings: The present cross-sectional study investigated the question of whether 6 different temperament dimensions (inhibition to novelty, social orientation, motor activity, positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and attention) influenced cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) in 168 children (86 three/four-year-olds and 82…
Simonds, John F.; Simonds, M. Patricia
Mothers of children attending nursery schools completed the Behavior Style Questionnaire (BSQ) from which scores for nine temperament categories were derived. Found membership in groups based on factor scores independent of sex, socioeconomic class, age but not ordinal birth position. (Author)
Storkamp, Barbara J.; And Others
This study compared 17 toddlers identified as prenatally exposed to cocaine (along with marijuana, alcohol, or nicotine), with another group of 10 toddlers with no prenatal exposure. All subjects were African-American, 1-3 years of age, and in foster care. Toddlers were age- and gender-matched and compared on measures of temperament, development,…
Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya; Wong, Maria S.
Parental depressive symptomatology has consistently been linked to child maladjustment, but these effects are not universal. This investigation examined the role of child temperament as a moderator of the effects of parental depression on behavior problems in five-year-old children. Parents reported on their own depressive symptoms, and both…
Porter, Christian L.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; Zeng, Qing; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua
The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers…
Ha, Daniel; Ha, James
The study of personality or temperament is well developed in many species, but in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) it has lagged behind. We applied one common methodology, subjective surveys, performed by their owners, to investigate the dimensions of cat temperament. To do this, we developed an eighteen question survey covering common behavioral traits of cats, and had the evaluators rank their cat on a seven point Likert scale for trait. The responses were analyzed with factor analysis, and resulted in six significant dimensions of temperament across the 251 surveys. The six dimensions, in order of importance, are: Cat Social, Active, Human Nonsocial, Human Aggressive, and Intense. Supplemental questions were also included in all the surveys, and MANOVA analysis of these showed that outdoor usage, feeding style (ad-lib vs. meal fed), living with other cats, sex, duration of ownership, and previous history as a stray all had effects on at least one of the dimensions of cat temperament. Future work is clearly needed to fully validate our model and to further investigate our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huelsman, Timothy J.; Gagnon, Sandra Glover; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Griggs, Marissa Swaim
Research Findings: Child temperament is an important construct, but its measurement has been marked by a number of weaknesses that have diminished the frequency with which it is assessed in practice. We address this problem by presenting the results of a quantitative construct validation study. We calculated validity indices by hypothesizing the…
Canfield, Caitlin F.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Ganea, Patricia A.
By 3?years of age, children generally have a firm understanding of others' reliability, but there is considerable variation among individual children. Little attention has been paid to factors that influence such individual differences. This study addressed this by assessing the relation between reliability understanding and temperament in…
Visu-Petra, Laura; Cheie, Lavinia; Câmpan, Maria; Scutelnicu, Ioana; Benga, Oana
The present study aimed to investigate early interrelationships between temperament, short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM), while also relating them to incipient anxious traits in a sample of 4-7-year-olds. Preschoolers were evaluated using verbal and visuospatial STM and WM tasks, while parental reports were used to assess children's…
Eley, Diann; Young, Louise; Przybeck, Thomas R
Australia shares many dilemmas with North America regarding shortages of doctors in rural and remote locations. This preliminary study contributes to the establishment of a psychobiological profile for rural doctors by comparing temperament and character traits with an urban cohort. The aim was to compare the individual levels and combinations of temperament (mildly heritable and stable) and character (developmental and modifiable) traits of rural and urban general practitioners (GPs). Rural (n = 120) and urban (n = 94) GPs completed a demographic questionnaire and the TCI-R 140 to identify levels of the 7 basic dimensions of temperament and character. These are Novelty Seeking (NS), Harm Avoidance (HA), Reward Dependence (RD), Persistence (PS), Self-Directedness (SD), Cooperativeness (CO), and Self-Transcendence (ST). Preliminary results show rural GPs were higher in the temperament traits of NS and lower in HA compared with the urban sample. All female GPs were higher in RD and CO compared with all males, and all older GPs (over 55 years) were lower in RD compared with all younger GPs. This preliminary work may be the precursor to a new approach for the recruitment and retention of rural doctors through a greater awareness of personality traits conducive to the rural workforce. Further work may help inform appropriate policies to attract and retain this workforce and be a useful adjunct to the counseling of students interested in rural medicine by providing a better understanding of "what it takes" to be a rural doctor.
Janson, Harald; Mathiesen, Kristin S.
The authors applied I-States as Objects Analysis (ISOA), a recently proposed person-oriented analytic approach, to the study of temperament development in 921 Norwegian children from a population-based sample. A 5-profile classification based on cluster analysis of standardized mother reports of activity, sociability, emotionality, and shyness at…
Seifer, Ronald; Schiller, Masha
Describes the core constructs of attachment theory, namely, the attachment system and secure-base behavior. Discusses contextual factors thought to be crucial in development of individual differences in attachment, especially maternal sensitivity, and considers child characteristics, especially temperament, that may contribute to the attachment…
Primi, Ricardo; Wechsler, Solange Muglia; de Cassia Nakano, Tatiana; Oakland, Thomas; Guzzo, Raquel Souza Lobo
The development and validation of the Brazilian Temperament Scale for Students (BTSS) are examined through the use of data from 1,258 children and adolescents, ages 10 through 21 (M = 15.0, SD = 2.1, 56% females). Three psychometric properties of BTSS are reported: its internal structure (e.g., validity), its reliability, and cut points to best…
Verstraeten, Katrien; Vasey, Michael W.; Raes, Filip; Bijttebier, Patricia
The present study examined the relations between temperament, ruminative response style and depressive symptoms both cross-sectionally and prospectively (1 year follow-up) in a community sample of 304 seventh- through tenth-graders. First, higher levels of negative affectivity (NA), lower levels of positive affectivity (PA) and lower levels of…
Blair, Kimberly A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Kochanoff, Anita; Whipple, Beth
The contributions of temperamental styles and emotional coping strategies to the development of preschoolers' social competence and behavior problems were investigated. The ability to cope with emotion was found to be more important than temperament alone in the development of prosocial behavior. Our results indicate that the use of passive coping…
LaBounty, Jennifer; Bosse, Lindsey; Savicki, Stephanie; King, Jaline; Eisenstat, Sophie
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between temperament and social cognition, including theory of mind and emotion understanding, in 34 preschool-aged children (aged 3-4 years). Theory of mind was measured with a belief-desire reasoning assessment, and emotion understanding was measured with an affective…
Chen, Nan; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann
In order to advance our understanding of the etiology of individual differences in child maladjustment (i.e., conduct and emotional problems), we tested hypotheses about the statistical interactions between child temperament and two aspects of the family environment: maternal negativity and positivity, and household chaos (e.g., crowding, noise, lack of routines). Mothers (n = 149) reported on their child's effortful control, negative affect, surgency, and behavioral/emotional problems. The age range of the children was 3 to 7 years old and half of the sample was girls. Observers rated maternal negativity and positivity based on brief structured interaction tasks in the laboratory. Child temperament moderated the association between maternal negativity/positivity and child maladjustment. Maternal negativity and child problem behavior were associated only for those children who also were high in surgency or negative affectivity. Maternal positivity was associated with less child problem behavior for those high in surgency. Child effortful control interacted with both maternal negativity and chaos. Maternal negativity and child problem behavior were most strongly associated for children who were low in effortful control and living in chaotic homes. The results point to distinct transactions between child temperament and maternal negativity/positivity that depend in part on the dimensions of temperament and parenting behavior in question.
De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; De Clercq, Barbara J.
To test the spectrum hypothesis--postulating that clinical and non-clinical samples are primarily differentiated by mean-level differences--, this study evaluates differences in parent-rated temperament, personality and maladjustment among a low-symptom (N = 81), a high-symptom (N = 94) ASD-group, and a comparison group (N = 500). These classic…
Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Schmidt, Louis A; Henderson, Heather A; Schulkin, Jay; Fox, Nathan A
Behavioral problems in young children can take on a variety of forms, which are linked to distinct antecedents and co-occurring markers. Internalizing difficulties in young children, for example, have been linked to individual differences in infant temperament and cortisol levels. In addition, there is growing evidence that these biobehavioral mechanisms are also shaped by gender. Four-year-old children participated in a study examining the relations between salivary cortisol and behavioral maladjustment as a function of gender and temperament. Both longitudinal (maternal report of infant temperament at 9 months) and concurrent (morning salivary cortisol at age 4) data were used to predict two forms of maladjustment: 'Withdrawal' (maternal report of internalizing behavior and laboratory observation of social reticence) and 'Acting Out' (maternal report of externalizing behavior and laboratory observation of solitary active play). High basal cortisol levels were strongly associated with Withdrawal in male participants. However, the relation was significant only in boys who exhibited high levels of negative temperament in infancy. There were no comparable findings with 'Acting Out' beyond a main effect of gender reflecting greater difficulty in boys. The data suggested that there are unique biobehavioral mechanisms shaping specific patterns of maladjustment in childhood.
Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Schmidt, Louis A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Schulkin, Jay; Fox, Nathan A.
SUMMARY Behavioral problems in young children can take on a variety of forms, which are linked to distinct antecedents and co-occurring markers. Internalizing difficulties in young children, for example, have been linked to individual differences in infant temperament and cortisol levels. In addition, there is growing evidence that these biobehavioral mechanisms are also shaped by gender. Four-year-old children participated in a study examining the relations between salivary cortisol and behavioral maladjustment as a function of gender and temperament. Both longitudinal (maternal report of infant temperament at 9 months) and concurrent (morning salivary cortisol at age 4) data were used to predict two forms of maladjustment: ‘Withdrawal’ (maternal report of internalizing behavior and laboratory observation of social reticence) and ‘Acting Out’ (maternal report of externalizing behavior and laboratory observation of solitary active play). High basal cortisol levels were strongly associated with Withdrawal in male participants. However, the relation was significant only in boys who exhibited high levels of negative temperament in infancy. There were no comparable findings with ‘Acting Out’ beyond a main effect of gender reflecting greater difficulty in boys. The data suggested that there are unique biobehavioral mechanisms shaping specific patterns of maladjustment in childhood. PMID:18650023