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Sample records for kek photon factory

  1. A database for operation logging of the KEK photon factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Cheol On

    1990-08-01

    A prototype database for operation logging of the KEK Photon Factory storage ring has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the basic design of the operation logging system and its performance. Front-end control computers gather various data concerning the operation of the storage ring, and transfer them to a large general-purpose computer through a token-ring network. We have adopted a relational database system so as to save large amounts of data under daily operation. An interactive software tool was developed to retrieve data and to make graphic representations easily.

  2. On KEK B-Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, H.

    2009-07-01

    There are two principles which the management of a research institute like KEK must respect when dealing with such big project as B-Factory. One is the scientific merit of the project and the other is the organizational consideration which includes financial, human, technical and historical elements. Ideally, the two principles are to be fully taken into account. But, in many cases, one or the other is only partially fulfilled due to unavoidable circumstances. The lack of flexibility to respond to all possible situations is more dangerous and may lead to a disaster as in the case of SSC. I will describe the process which lead to the successful construction, operation and physics presentations of KEK B-Factory following faithfully the official records.

  3. Super B Factory at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, ByungGu

    2008-11-01

    A Super—KEKB factory, an asymmetric—energy e+e- lepton collider at KEK in Japan, has been proposed with the design peak luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1, which is about 50 times higher than that of the current operation of the KEKB collider. The physics goal of this project is mainly to measure extremely rare heavy flavor weak decays and CP violation phenomena, which are very sensitive on physics beyond the Standard Model. Hot physics topics and the status of experimental design are briefly described.

  4. Super B Factory at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Byung Gu

    2008-11-23

    A Super--KEKB factory, an asymmetric--energy e{sup +}e{sup -} lepton collider at KEK in Japan, has been proposed with the design peak luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 50 times higher than that of the current operation of the KEKB collider. The physics goal of this project is mainly to measure extremely rare heavy flavor weak decays and CP violation phenomena, which are very sensitive on physics beyond the Standard Model. Hot physics topics and the status of experimental design are briefly described.

  5. An overview of the slow-positron beam facility at the photon factory, KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Toshikazu; Shirakawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Atsushi; Shidara, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Nakahara, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    The KEK slow-positron source is in the final stage of construction. The beam line comprises a 31 m long vacuum duct within an axial magnetic field and a following electrostatic guided section. In order to vary the energy of a positron beam dedicated to depth-profile measurements, a high voltage station capable of applying 60 kV has been installed in the beam transport system. The target assembly (a water-cooled tantalum rod of 5 radiation lengths and a moderator with multiple tungsten vanes) and the following straight section (8 m; used for positron storage) are under high voltage. The beam duct located downstream is at ground potential. Positron beams passing through this region have a high kinetic energy. A focusing triplet quadrupole lens and a moderator on the retarding electrode are located at the end of the magnetic transport. This beam line has 9 right-angle-curved ducts, comprising a radius of curvature of 40 cm. Positrons with a maximum energy of 60 keV are guided by bending magnets attached to the beam-transport ducts. A transport system to switch from magnetically guided to electrostatically guided has been installed. The design of the brightness-enhancement stage of the positron beam for positron re-emission microscopy is in progress. In a preliminary experiments at 2.0 GeV with a 2 kW primary beam, 4×10 6e +/s of slow positrons were observed by detecting annihilation γ-rays at the end of the magnetic beam-transport line. Further improvements are expected by careful surface and thermal treatments of the moderator.

  6. Photon collider Higgs factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  7. Data scanner and event builder for the SMVD of the KEK B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Manobu; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Mitsuo; Fujita, Youichi; Ozaki, Hitoshi . Physics Div.); Fukunaga, Chikara . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-02-01

    The authors are designing a readout system for a silicon microstrip vertex detector (SMVD) to be used in the KEK B-factory experiment. In order to obtain optimum numbers for the buffer size and the processing time they have constructed a simplified model using Verilog Hardware Description language (HDL). They estimated the live-time fractions of the SMVD readout system for various configurations.

  8. Time expanding multihit TDC for the BELLE TOF detector at the KEK B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, G.; Kichimi, H.; Yamaguchi, H.

    1997-12-31

    Utilizing a time expansion technique, a multihit TDC has been developed for readout of the BELLE TOF detector at the KEK B-Factory. Time digitization consists of three steps: tagging an input signal with respect to a beam collision synchronized reference clock, expansion of this time interval, and readout by a conventional multihit TDC. Using a time expansion factor of 20 and a multihit TDC with a 500 ps LSB, this system provides a precision TOF measurement of 25 ps LSB, {approximately}20 ps resolution, and with a dead time of less than 1 {mu}s.

  9. Development and evaluation of charge-sensitive preamplifier for CsI calorimeter in the KEK B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Manobu; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Tamai, Kunio ); Takemoto, Megumi; Hayashii, Hisashi )

    1994-08-01

    In the KEK B-factory the barrel part of the electromagnetic calorimeter comprises 7,000 CsI(Tl) crystals. Each crystal has two photodiodes (HAMAMATSU S2744-03) and two preamplifiers. The capacitance of the photodiode is 100 pF at a bias voltage of 60 V and the leakage current is less than 4 nA. The authors developed a charge-sensitive preamplifier for the electromagnetic calorimeter (CsI(Tl)) in the KEK B-factory. They examined noise characteristic, dynamic range and power-supply ripple-rejection ratio on power rails.

  10. Figures and Data Plots from the Published Papers of the BELLE Experiment at the KEK - B Factory

    DOE Data Explorer

    This resource provides more than 300 citations to preprints and papers with the figures from each one pulled out separately for easy access and downloading. These are physics publications. Be sure to also see the page of Technical Journal publications at http://belle.kek.jp/belle/bellenim/index.htm and the lists of conference presentations from 2000 through 2009. Belle is a high-energy physics (HEP) experiment that began in 1999 at the KEK B-factory in Japan under the direction of the international Belle Collaboration. The original Letter of Intent from the Collaboration stated their scientific goal as follows:

    The laws of nature have a high degree of symmetry between matter and antimatter; violations of this symmetry, the so-called CP violations, are only seen as a small effect in the decays of neutral K mesons. Although experimental evidence for CP violation was first observed 30 years ago, we still do not understand how they occur. In 1973, Kobayashi and Maskawa (KM) noted that CP violation could be accommodated in the Standard Model only if there were at least six quark flavors, twice the number of quark flavors known at that time. The KM model for CP violation is now considered to be an essential part of the Standard Model. In 1980, Sanda and Carter pointed out that the KM model contained the possibility of rather sizable CP violating asymmetries in certain decay modes of the B meson. The subsequent observation of a long b quark lifetime and a large amount of mixing in the neutral B meson system indicated that it would be feasible to carry out decisive tests of the KM model by studying B meson decays. Our collaboration has been formed around the common interest of clarifying the long standing physics puzzle of CP violation. Our goal is to make a definitive test of the Standard ModelÆs predictions for CP violations in the decays of B mesons. [Copied, with editing, from Letter of Intent (KEK-Report94-2, April 1994); see http://belle.kek

  11. The control system of the photon factory storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Cheol On

    1989-05-01

    The Photon Factory 2.5 GeV electron storage ring at KEK, a dedicated machine for synchrotron radiation, stored its first beam on March, 1982. The first control system of the storage ring comprised seven distributed minicomputers connected through a star-type network. However, from 1985 they have been gradually replaced in order to meet increasing system requirements. At present, the control system uses four "supermini" computers as device controllers and a general-purpose computer as a library computer. These computers are connected to each other through a token ring-type network. Each control computer independently performs several processes. However, console functions as man-machine interfaces of all processes can be treated in a unified way using the network. A prototype database for operation logging has been completed and tested.

  12. BELLE High Energy Physics Experiment at the KEK B-factory: Data and Physics Results for CPV, Rare, DKM, 5S, Charm, Tau, and New Particles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Belle is a high-energy physics (HEP) experiment that began in 1999 at the KEK B-factory in Japan under the direction of the International Belle Collaboration. The Collaboration was formed around the common interest of clarifying a long standing physics puzzle, that of CP violation. The goal of the experiments was to make a definitive test of the Standard Models predictions for CP violations in the decays of B mesons. The original Belle experiment verified the KM theory, leading to a Nobel prize in 2008 for Kobayashi and Maskawa. Belle II Collaboration is now working on additional discoveries.

  13. KEK NODAL system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, S.; Abe, K.; Akiyama, A.; Katoh, T.; Kikutani, E.; Koiso, H.; Kurihara, N.; Oide, K.; Shinomoto, M.

    1985-10-01

    The KEK NODAL system, which is based on the NODAL devised at the CERN SPS, works on an optical-fiber token ring network of twenty-four minicomputers (Hitachi HIDIC 80's) to control the TRISTAN accelerator complex, now being constructed at KEK. KEK NODAL retains main features of the original NODAL: the interpreting scheme, the multi-computer programming facility, and the data-module concept. In addition, it has the following characteristics: fast execution due to the compiler-interpreter method, a multicomputer file system, a full-screen editing facility, and a dynamic linkage scheme of data modules and NODAL functions. The structure of the KEK NODAL system under PMS, a real-time multitasking operating system of HIDIC 80, is described; the NODAL file system is also explained.

  14. KEK digital accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  15. Compact scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the photon factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeichi, Yasuo; Inami, Nobuhito; Suga, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoshio; Ono, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope developed at the Photon Factory. Piezo-driven linear stages are used as coarse stages of the microscope to realize excellent compactness, mobility, and vibrational and thermal stability. An X-ray beam with an intensity of ˜107 photons/s was focused to a diameter of ˜40 nm at the sample. At the soft X-ray undulator beamline used with the microscope, a wide range of photon energies (250-1600 eV) is available. The microscope has been used to research energy materials and in environmental sciences.

  16. Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Gaponov, Yurii; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2007-01-19

    We are now developing automated sample exchange robots for high-throughput protein crystallographic experiments for onsite use at synchrotron beam lines. It is part of the fully automated robotics systems being developed at the Photon Factory, for the purposes of protein crystallization, monitoring crystal growth, harvesting and freezing crystals, mounting the crystals inside a hutch and for data collection. We have already installed the sample exchange robots based on the SSRL automated mounting system at our insertion device beam lines BL-5A and AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory. In order to reduce the time required for sample exchange further, a prototype of a double-tonged system was developed. As a result of preliminary experiments with double-tonged robots, the sample exchange time was successfully reduced from 70 seconds to 10 seconds with the exception of the time required for pre-cooling and warming up the tongs.

  17. The New Structural Materials Science Beamlines BL8A and 8B at Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, A.; Sugiyama, H.; Koyama, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-06-23

    BL8A and 8B are new beamlines for structural materials science at Photon Factory. The primary characteristics of both beamlines are similar. The incident beam is monochromatized by the Si(111) double-flat crystal monochromator and focused at the sample position by a Rh-coated bent cylindrical quartz mirror. The Weissenberg-camera-type imaging-plate (IP) diffractometers were installed. The X-ray diffraction experiments for structural studies of strongly correlated materials, such as transition metals, molecular conductors, endohedral fullerenes, nano-materials, etc, are conducted at these stations.

  18. Radiation safety interlock system for Photon Factory X-ray beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satow, Yoshinori; Kosuge, Takashi; Matsushita, Tadashi

    1988-02-01

    Self-contained interlock systems for the X-ray beam lines of the Photon Factory were designed and fabricated in order to protect experimenters and the service staff from radiation hazards while at the same time providing experimenters with smooth and easy access to the synchrotron radiation sources. The interlock systems utilize programmable sequence controllers in order to meet the individual safety logic required for beam line characteristics. The environment as well as components related to the interlock systems, system features, safety logic and operating conditions are described along with the design principles. A few operational remarks concerning the interlock systems are also presented.

  19. New physics searches with Higgs-photon associated production at the Higgs factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hong-Yu

    2015-11-01

    A future Higgs factory is being designed for precise measurement of Higgs characteristics and to search for new physics. In this paper we propose that the Higgs-photon associated production process, e+ e- →γh could be a useful channel for new physics. We express new physics model-independently in the effective Lagrangian approach, and find that the new physics effects of γh have only two degrees of freedom, much fewer than the Higgsstrahlung process. This point could be used to reduce the degeneracies of Wilson coefficients. We also calculate for the first time the 95% confidence level(CL) bounds of γh at the Higgs factory, and prove that γh is more sensitive to some dimension-6 operators than the current experimental data. In the optimistic scenario new physics effects may be observed at the CEPC or FCC-ee after the first couple of years of their run. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275102) and Tsinghua Scholarship for Overseas Graduate Studies

  20. New beam-position monitor system for upgraded Photon Factory storage ring.

    PubMed

    Haga, K; Honda, T; Tadano, M; Obina, T; Kasuga, T

    1998-05-01

    Accompanying the brilliance-upgrading project at the Photon Factory storage ring, the beam-position monitor (BPM) system has been renovated. The new system was designed to enable precise and fast measurements to correct the closed-orbit distortion (COD), as well as to feed back the orbit position during user runs. There are 42 BPMs newly installed, amounting to a total of 65 BPMs. All of the BPMs are calibrated on the test bench using a coaxially strung metallic wire. The measured electrical offsets are typically 200 micro m in both directions, which is 1/2-1/3 of those of the old-type BPMs. In the signal-processing system, PIN diode switches are employed in order to improve reliability. In the fastest mode, this system is capable of measuring COD within about 10 ms; this fast acquisition will allow fast suppression of the beam movement for frequencies up to 50 Hz using a global feedback system. PMID:15263599

  1. Silicon photomultiplier as a detector of Cherenkov photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpar, S.; Dolenec, R.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Križan, P.; Mazuka, Y.; Pestotnik, R.; Stanovnik, A.; Yamaoka, M.

    2008-09-01

    A novel photon detector—i.e. the silicon photomultiplier—whose main advantage over conventional photomultiplier tubes is the operation in high magnetic fields, has been tested as a photon detector in a proximity focusing RICH with aerogel radiator. This type of RICH counter is proposed for the upgrade of the Belle detector at the KEK B-factory. Recently produced silicon photomultipliers show less noise and have larger size, which are important issues for a large area photon detector. We measured the single photon pulse height distribution, the timing resolution and the position sensitivity for different silicon photomultipliers (Hamamatsu MPPC HC025, HC050, and HC100). The silicon photomultipliers were then used to detect Cherenkov photons emitted by cosmic ray particles in a proximity focusing aerogel RICH. Various light guides were investigated in order to increase the detection efficiency.

  2. AR-NE3A, a New Macromolecular Crystallography Beamline for Pharmaceutical Applications at the Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Sasajima, Kumiko; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Mori, Takeharu; Toyoshima, Akio; Kishimoto, Shunji; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Amano, Yasushi; Warizaya, Masaichi; Sakashita, Hitoshi

    2010-06-23

    Recent advances in high-throughput techniques for macromolecular crystallography have highlighted the importance of structure-based drug design (SBDD), and the demand for synchrotron use by pharmaceutical researchers has increased. Thus, in collaboration with Astellas Pharma Inc., we have constructed a new high-throughput macromolecular crystallography beamline, AR-NE3A, which is dedicated to SBDD. At AR-NE3A, a photon flux up to three times higher than those at existing high-throughput beams at the Photon Factory, AR-NW12A and BL-5A, can be realized at the same sample positions. Installed in the experimental hutch are a high-precision diffractometer, fast-readout, high-gain CCD detector, and sample exchange robot capable of handling more than two hundred cryo-cooled samples stored in a Dewar. To facilitate high-throughput data collection required for pharmaceutical research, fully automated data collection and processing systems have been developed. Thus, sample exchange, centering, data collection, and data processing are automatically carried out based on the user's pre-defined schedule. Although Astellas Pharma Inc. has a priority access to AR-NE3A, the remaining beam time is allocated to general academic and other industrial users.

  3. AR-NE3A, a New Macromolecular Crystallography Beamline for Pharmaceutical Applications at the Photon Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Hiraki, Masahiko; Sasajima, Kumiko; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Amano, Yasushi; Warizaya, Masaichi; Sakashita, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Takashi; Mori, Takeharu; Toyoshima, Akio; Kishimoto, Shunji; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput techniques for macromolecular crystallography have highlighted the importance of structure-based drug design (SBDD), and the demand for synchrotron use by pharmaceutical researchers has increased. Thus, in collaboration with Astellas Pharma Inc., we have constructed a new high-throughput macromolecular crystallography beamline, AR-NE3A, which is dedicated to SBDD. At AR-NE3A, a photon flux up to three times higher than those at existing high-throughput beams at the Photon Factory, AR-NW12A and BL-5A, can be realized at the same sample positions. Installed in the experimental hutch are a high-precision diffractometer, fast-readout, high-gain CCD detector, and sample exchange robot capable of handling more than two hundred cryo-cooled samples stored in a Dewar. To facilitate high-throughput data collection required for pharmaceutical research, fully automated data collection and processing systems have been developed. Thus, sample exchange, centering, data collection, and data processing are automatically carried out based on the user's pre-defined schedule. Although Astellas Pharma Inc. has a priority access to AR-NE3A, the remaining beam time is allocated to general academic and other industrial users.

  4. Electron Cloud Effects in the KEK-PS and the KEK/JAERI Joint Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, T.; Irie, Y.; Kato, S.; Ohmi, K.; Ohmori, C.; Satoh, K.; Uota, M.; Hayashi, N.

    2002-12-01

    An e-p instability is potentially a serious problem for proton rings in JKJ, which forces us to study the e-p instability in several high-intensity proton rings. This work informs JKJ whether we have to take measures to cure the instability. A TiN coating on the chamber surface is one of remedies. Results of SEY measurements performed at KEK are discussed. The observation of electron cloud candidates at the KEK 12 GeV PS Main Ring is also presented.

  5. The Physics of the B Factories

    DOE PAGES

    Bevan, A. J.

    2014-11-19

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  6. Damping Wiggler Study at KEK-ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, T.; Hayano, H.; Honda, Y.; Kubo, K.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Muto, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Sakai, H.; Nakamura, N.; Korostelev, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Ross, Marc; /SLAC

    2006-02-07

    The effects of damping wiggler magnets have been studied at KEK-ATF damping ring, which is a 1.3 GeV storage ring capable of producing ultra-low emittance electron beams. The fast beam damping is a significant issue for the damping ring. The tuning method with 4 sets of wiggler magnets was investigated for the ultra-low emittance beam. The effect on the beam quality, which is related to the transverse (x and y) and the longitudinal (z and {Delta}p/p), has been measured by the wire scanner, SR monitor, the laser wire, streak camera and the energy spread monitor. We report on the operational condition and the measurement results.

  7. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, T.; Wada, K.; Yagishita, A.; Kosuge, T.; Saito, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Shirakawa, A.; Sanami, T.; Ikeda, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Kakihara, K.; Shidara, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps-). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a 22Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  8. T0 chopper developed at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Ueno, Kenji; Ohkubo, Ryuji; Sagehashi, Hidenori; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Yokoo, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    We developed a T0 chopper rotating at 100 Hz at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for the reduction of background noise in neutron scattering experiments at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The T0 chopper consists of a rotor of 120 kg made from Inconel X750, supported by mechanical bearings in vacuum. The motor is located outside the vacuum and the rotation is transmitted into vacuum through magnetic seals. The motor should rotate in synchronization with the production timing of pulsed neutrons. The rotational fluctuations and running time were in good agreement with the specifications, i.e., phase control accuracy of less than 5 μs and running time of more than 4000 h without changing any component. A semi-auto installation mechanism was developed for installing under the shielding and for maintenance purposes. Based on the result of the development, actual machines were made for the neutron beamlines at J-PARC. We successfully reduced the background noise to 1/30 at neutron energies near 500 meV.

  9. Measurement of the CKM Angle alpha with the B-factories.

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, Adrian; /Liverpool U.

    2005-12-21

    B-meson decays involving b {yields} u transitions are sensitive to the Unitarity Triangle angle {alpha} (or {phi}{sub 2}). The B-factories at SLAC and KEK have made significant progress toward the measurement of {alpha} in recent years. This paper summarizes the results of the B-factories' constraints on {alpha}.

  10. L-band Photocathode RF gun at KEK-STF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.; Kashiwagi, S.; Isoyama, G.; Kato, R.; Sugimoto, N.; Kuriki, M.

    2011-05-01

    The superconducting RF test facility (STF) in KEK is a facility to promote R&D of the International Linear Collider (ILC) cavities and cryomodule. L-band photocathode RF gun has been developed at KEK-STF as an electron beam source for cryomodule test scheduled in autumn of 2011. The RF cavity of the gun will be operated with a 1.3 GHz RF frequency, 1 msec RF pulse width, 5 Hz repetition rate at normal conductivity. The cavity was prepared by collaborative work with DESY and FNAL, and fabricated by FNAL. The RF conditioning of the cavity has been started since April 2010. A cesium telluride thin film as a photocathode material has been adopted, and the preparation equipment for cesium telluride has been newly designed and constructed. By using this new system, a fabrication and a performance estimation of the cesium telluride thin film as a photocathode are the next step of the research.

  11. The Physics of the B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, A. J.; Golob, B.; Mannel, Th.; Prell, S.; Yabsley, B. D.; Aihara, H.; Anulli, F.; Arnaud, N.; Aushev, T.; Beneke, M.; Beringer, J.; Bianchi, F.; Bigi, I. I.; Bona, M.; Brambilla, N.; Brodzicka, J.; Chang, P.; Charles, M. J.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, H.-Y.; Chistov, R.; Colangelo, P.; Coleman, J. P.; Drutskoy, A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Eidelman, S.; Eigen, G.; Eisner, A. M.; Faccini, R.; Flood, K. T.; Gambino, P.; Gaz, A.; Gradl, W.; Hayashii, H.; Higuchi, T.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, P. D.; Kass, R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kou, E.; Križan, P.; Kronfeld, A.; Kumano, S.; Kwon, Y. J.; Latham, T. E.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lüth, V.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Meadows, B. T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Ocariz, J.; Olsen, S. L.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Palano, A.; Pich, A.; Playfer, S.; Poluektov, A.; Porter, F. C.; Robertson, S. H.; Roney, J. M.; Roodman, A.; Sakai, Y.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seidl, R.; Sekula, S. J.; Steinhauser, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Swanson, E. S.; Tackmann, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; van de Water, R.; Vasseur, G.; Verkerke, W.; Waldi, R.; Wang, M. Z.; Wilson, F. F.; Zupan, J.; Zupanc, A.; Adachi, I.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bellis, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Biassoni, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cartaro, C.; Chauveau, J.; Chen, C.; Chiang, C. C.; Cowan, R.; Dalseno, J.; Davier, M.; Davies, C.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Echenard, B.; Epifanov, D.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gary, J. W.; Godang, R.; Graham, M. T.; Hafner, A.; Hamilton, B.; Hartmann, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hearty, C.; Iwasaki, Y.; Khodjamirian, A.; Kusaka, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lazzaro, A.; Li, J.; Lindemann, D.; Long, O.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinelli, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muller, D. R.; Nakazawa, H.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Pacetti, S.; Palombo, F.; Pedlar, T. K.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pilloni, A.; Poireau, V.; Prothmann, K.; Pulliam, T.; Rama, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roudeau, P.; Schrenk, S.; Schroeder, T.; Schubert, K. R.; Shen, C. P.; Shwartz, B.; Soffer, A.; Solodov, E. P.; Somov, A.; Starič, M.; Stracka, S.; Telnov, A. V.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uglov, T.; Vinokurova, A.; Walsh, J. J.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Wormser, G.; Wright, D. H.; Ye, S.; Zhang, C. C.; Abachi, S.; Abashian, A.; Abe, K.; Abe, N.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Abrams, G. S.; Adam, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Adametz, A.; Adye, T.; Agarwal, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ahn, B. S.; Ahn, H. S.; Aitchison, I. J. R.; Akai, K.; Akar, S.; Akatsu, M.; Akemoto, M.; Akhmetshin, R.; Akre, R.; Alam, M. S.; Albert, J. N.; Aleksan, R.; Alexander, J. P.; Alimonti, G.; Allen, M. T.; Allison, J.; Allmendinger, T.; Alsmiller, J. R. G.; Altenburg, D.; Alwyn, K. E.; An, Q.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Andress, J. C.; Angelini, C.; Anipko, D.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Anthony, P. L.; Antillon, E. A.; Antonioli, E.; Aoki, K.; Arguin, J. F.; Arinstein, K.; Arisaka, K.; Asai, K.; Asai, M.; Asano, Y.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Asner, D. M.; Aso, T.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Aston, D.; Atmacan, H.; Aubert, B.; Aulchenko, V.; Ayad, R.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Azzolini, V.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Baak, M. A.; Back, J. J.; Bagnasco, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Bailey, D. S.; Bailey, S.; Bailly, P.; van Bakel, N.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Banas, E.; Band, H. R.; Banerjee, S.; Baracchini, E.; Barate, R.; Barberio, E.; Barbero, M.; Bard, D. J.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Barrett, M.; Bartel, W.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batignani, G.; Battaglia, M.; Bauer, J. M.; Bay, A.; Beaulieu, M.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, T. W.; Becker, J.; Becla, J.; Bedny, I.; Behari, S.; Behera, P. K.; Behn, E.; Behr, L.; Beigbeder, C.; Beiline, D.; Bell, R.; Bellini, F.; Bellodi, G.; Belous, K.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, G.; Benitez, J. F.; Benkebil, M.; Berger, N.; Bernabeu, J.; Bernard, D.; Bernet, R.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berryhill, J. W.; Bertsche, K.; Besson, P.; Best, D. S.; Bettarini, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhimji, W.; Bhuyan, B.; Biagini, M. E.; Biasini, M.; van Bibber, K.; Biesiada, J.; Bingham, I.; Bionta, R. M.; Bischofberger, M.; Bitenc, U.; Bizjak, I.; Blanc, F.; Blaylock, G.; Blinov, V. E.; Bloom, E.; Bloom, P. C.; Blount, N. L.; Blouw, J.; Bly, M.; Blyth, S.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bomben, M.; Bondar, A.; Bondioli, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Bonvicini, G.; Booke, M.; Booth, J.; Borean, C.; Borgland, A. W.; Borsato, E.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Botov, A. A.; Bougher, J.; Bouldin, K.; Bourgeois, P.; Boutigny, D.; Bowerman, D. A.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Boyd, J. T.; Bozek, A.; Bozzi, C.; Bračko, M.; Brandenburg, G.; Brandt, T.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.; Breon, A. B.; Breton, D.; Brew, C.; Briand, H.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Brigljević, V.; Britton, D. I.; Brochard, F.; Broomer, B.; Brose, J.; Browder, T. E.; Brown, C. L.; Brown, C. M.; Brown, D. N.; Browne, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, C.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Bünger, C.; Bugg, W.; Bukin, A. D.; Bula, R.; Bulten, H.; Burchat, P. R.; Burgess, W.; Burke, J. P.; Button-Shafer, J.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Buzzo, A.; Cai, Y.; Calabrese, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Calderini, G.; Camanzi, B.; Campagna, E.; Campagnari, C.; Capra, R.; Carassiti, V.; Carpinelli, M.; Carroll, M.; Casarosa, G.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castelli, G.; Cavallo, N.; Cavoto, G.; Cecchi, A.; Cenci, R.; Cerizza, G.; Cervelli, A.; Ceseracciu, A.; Chai, X.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Chang, M. C.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, D. S.; Chao, M.; Chao, Y.; Charles, E.; Chavez, C. A.; Cheaib, R.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, E.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P.; Chen, S.; Chen, W. T.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. Q.; Cheng, B.; Cheon, B. G.; Chevalier, N.; Chia, Y. M.; Chidzik, S.; Chilikin, K.; Chistiakova, M. V.; Cizeron, R.; Cho, I. S.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, H. H. F.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, S. K.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Christ, S.; Chu, P. H.; Chun, S.; Chuvikov, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cinabro, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Claus, R.; Claxton, B.; Clifton, Z. C.; Cochran, J.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cohn, H.; Colberg, T.; Cole, S.; Colecchia, F.; Condurache, C.; Contri, R.; Convert, P.; Convery, M. R.; Cooke, P.; Copty, N.; Cormack, C. M.; Dal Corso, F.; Corwin, L. A.; Cossutti, F.; Cote, D.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Cottingham, W. N.; Couderc, F.; Coupal, D. P.; Covarelli, R.; Cowan, G.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Crawley, H. B.; Cremaldi, L.; Crescente, A.; Cristinziani, M.; Crnkovic, J.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Cunha, A.; Curry, S.; D'Orazio, A.; Dû, S.; Dahlinger, G.; Dahmes, B.; Dallapiccola, C.; Danielson, N.; Danilov, M.; Das, A.; Dash, M.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Daudo, F.; Dauncey, P. D.; David, P.; Davis, C. L.; Day, C. T.; De Mori, F.; De Domenico, G.; De Groot, N.; De la Vaissière, C.; de la Vaissière, Ch.; de Lesquen, A.; De Nardo, G.; de Sangro, R.; De Silva, A.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Del Buono, L.; Del Gamba, V.; del Re, D.; Della Ricca, G.; Denig, A. G.; Derkach, D.; Derrington, I. M.; DeStaebler, H.; Destree, J.; Devmal, S.; Dey, B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Marco, E. Di; Dickopp, M.; Dima, M. O.; Dittrich, S.; Dittongo, S.; Dixon, P.; Dneprovsky, L.; Dohou, F.; Doi, Y.; Doležal, Z.; Doll, D. A.; Donald, M.; Dong, L.; Dong, L. Y.; Dorfan, J.; Dorigo, A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dowd, R.; Dowdell, J.; Drásal, Z.; Dragic, J.; Drummond, B. W.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Duh, Y. C.; Duh, Y. T.; Dujmic, D.; Dungel, W.; Dunwoodie, W.; Dutta, D.; Dvoretskii, A.; Dyce, N.; Ebert, M.; Eckhart, E. A.; Ecklund, S.; Eckmann, R.; Eckstein, P.; Edgar, C. L.; Edwards, A. J.; Egede, U.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Elmer, P.; Emery, S.; Enari, Y.; Enomoto, R.; Erdos, E.; Erickson, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Erwin, R. J.; Escalier, M.; Eschenburg, V.; Eschrich, I.; Esen, S.; Esteve, L.; Evangelisti, F.; Everton, C. W.; Eyges, V.; Fabby, C.; Fabozzi, F.; Fahey, S.; Falbo, M.; Fan, S.; Fang, F.; Fanin, C.; Farbin, A.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Feindt, M.; Fella, A.; Feltresi, E.; Ferber, T.; Fernholz, R. E.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Field, R. C.; Filippi, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Fischer, P.-A.; Fisher, A. S.; Fisher, P. H.; Flacco, C. J.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; Flanagan, J.; Flanigan, J. M.; Ford, K. E.; Ford, W. T.; Forster, I. J.; Forti, A. C.; Forti, F.; Fortin, D.; Foster, B.; Foulkes, S. D.; Fouque, G.; Fox, J.; Franchini, P.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Franek, B.; Frank, E. D.; Fransham, K. B.; Fratina, S.; Fratini, K.; Frey, A.; Frey, R.; Friedl, M.; Fritsch, M.; Fry, J. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujikawa, M.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiyama, Y.; Fukunaga, C.; Fukushima, M.; Fullwood, J.; Funahashi, Y.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furano, F.; Furman, M.; Furukawa, K.; Futterschneider, H.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabriel, T. A.; Gabyshev, N.; Gaede, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaidot, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gaillard, J. R.; Galagedera, S.; Galeazzi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Gamet, R.; Gan, K. K.; Gandini, P.; Ganguly, S.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gaponenko, I.; Garmash, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Garzia, I.; Gaspero, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Gatto, C.; Gaur, V.; Geddes, N. I.; Geld, T. L.; Genat, J.-F.; George, K. A.; George, M.; George, S.; Georgette, Z.; Gershon, T. J.; Gill, M. S.; Gillard, R.; Gilman, J. D.; Giordano, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giraud, P.-F.; Gladney, L.; Glanzman, T.; Glattauer, R.; Go, A.; Goetzen, K.; Goh, Y. M.; Gokhroo, G.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golubev, V. B.; Gopal, G. P.; Gordon, A.; Gorišek, A.; Goriletsky, V. I.; Gorodeisky, R.; Gosset, L.; Gotow, K.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graffin, P.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Green, M. G.; Greene, M. G.; Grenier, G. J.; Grenier, P.; Griessinger, K.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinyov, B. V.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grosdidier, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grosso, P.; Grothe, M.; Groysman, Y.; Grünberg, O.; Guido, E.; Guler, H.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Guo, Q. H.; Guo, R. S.; Guo, Z. J.; Guttman, N.; Ha, H.; Ha, H. C.; Haas, T.; Haba, J.; Hachtel, J.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadig, T.; Hagner, C.; Haire, M.; Haitani, F.; Haji, T.; Haller, G.; Halyo, V.; Hamano, K.; Hamasaki, H.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hamilton, R.; Hamon, O.; Han, B. Y.; Han, Y. L.; Hanada, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Handa, F.; Hanson, J. E.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harada, Y.; Harrison, P. F.; Harrison, T. J.; Harrop, B.; Hart, A. J.; Hart, P. A.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Harton, J. L.; Haruyama, T.; Hasan, A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hast, C.; Hastings, N. C.; Hasuko, K.; Hauke, A.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hee, C.; Heenan, E. M.; Heffernan, D.; Held, T.; Henderson, R.; Henderson, S. W.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Hervé, S.; Heß, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Hicheur, A.; Higashi, Y.; Higasino, Y.; Higuchi, I.; Hikita, S.; Hill, E. J.; Himel, T.; Hinz, L.; Hirai, T.; Hirano, H.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Hitomi, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Höcker, A.; Hoi, C. T.; Hojo, T.; Hokuue, T.; Hollar, J. J.; Hong, T. M.; Honscheid, K.; Hooberman, B.; Hopkins, D. A.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hoshina, K.; Hou, S.; Hou, W. S.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hsu, C. L.; Hsu, S. C.; Hu, H.; Hu, T.; Huang, H. C.; Huang, T. J.; Huang, Y. C.; Huard, Z.; Huffer, M. E.; Hufnagel, D.; Hung, T.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Hyun, H. J.; Ichizawa, S.; Igaki, T.; Igarashi, A.; Igarashi, S.; Igarashi, Y.; Igonkina, O.; Ikado, K.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, K.; Ilic, J.; Inami, K.; Innes, W. R.; Inoue, Y.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itagaki, K.; Itami, S.; Itoh, K.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Iverson, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwai, G.; Iwai, M.; Iwaida, S.; Iwamoto, M.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwashita, T.; Izen, J. M.; Jackson, D. J.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Jackson, P. S.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Jacoby, C.; Jaegle, I.; Jain, V.; Jalocha, P.; Jang, H. K.; Jasper, H.; Jawahery, A.; Jayatilleke, S.; Jen, C. M.; Jensen, F.; Jessop, C. P.; Ji, X. B.; John, M. J. J.; Johnson, D. R.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolly, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, N.; Joshi, N. J.; Judd, D.; Julius, T.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, R.; Kah, D. H.; Kaiser, S.; Kaji, H.; Kajiwara, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kameshima, T.; Kaminski, J.; Kamitani, T.; Kaneko, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kani, T.; Kapusta, P.; Karbach, T. M.; Karolak, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kasami, K.; Katano, G.; Kataoka, S. U.; Katayama, N.; Kato, E.; Kato, Y.; Kawai, H.; Kawai, M.; Kawamura, N.; Kawasaki, T.; Kay, J.; Kay, M.; Kelly, M. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kent, N.; Kerth, L. T.; Khan, A.; Khan, H. R.; Kharakh, D.; Kibayashi, A.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kikuchi, M.; Kikutani, E.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, P.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, S. M.; Kim, T. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, Y. J.; King, G. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Kirk, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kitayama, I.; Klemetti, M.; Klose, V.; Klucar, J.; Knecht, N. S.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Knowles, D. J.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M. J.; Koblitz, S.; Koch, H.; Kocian, M. L.; Kodyš, P.; Koeneke, K.; Kofler, R.; Koike, S.; Koishi, S.; Koiso, H.; Kolb, J. A.; Kolya, S. D.; Kondo, Y.; Konishi, H.; Koppenburg, P.; Koptchev, V. B.; Kordich, T. M. B.; Korol, A. A.; Korotushenko, K.; Korpar, S.; Kouzes, R. T.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kowalewski, R.; Kozakai, Y.; Kozanecki, W.; Kral, J. F.; Krasnykh, A.; Krause, R.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Krebs, J.; Kreisel, A.; Kreps, M.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Kroeger, R.; Kroeger, W.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kroseberg, J.; Kubo, T.; Kuhr, T.; Kukartsev, G.; Kulasiri, R.; Kulikov, A.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumita, T.; Kuniya, T.; Kunze, M.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuo, T.-L.; Kurashiro, H.; Kurihara, E.; Kurita, N.; Kuroki, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kutter, P. E.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kvasnička, P.; Kyberd, P.; Kyeong, S. H.; Lacker, H. M.; Lae, C. K.; Lamanna, E.; Lamsa, J.; Lanceri, L.; Landi, L.; Lang, M. I.; Lange, D. J.; Lange, J. S.; Langenegger, U.; Langer, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Latour, E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lavin, D. R.; Layter, J.; Lebbolo, H.; LeClerc, C.; Leddig, T.; Leder, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lee, C. L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, M. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Lee, S. E.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Lees, J. P.; Legendre, M.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, R.; Leonardi, E.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Lepeltier, V.; Leruste, Ph.; Lesiak, T.; Levi, M. E.; Levy, S. L.; Lewandowski, B.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lewis, P.; Li, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Gioi, L. Li; Libby, J.; Lidbury, J.; Lillard, V.; Lim, C. L.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C. S.; Lin, J. Y.; Lin, S. W.; Lin, Y. S.; Lindquist, B.; Lindsay, C.; Lista, L.; Liu, C.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, R.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Liventsev, D.; Lo Vetere, M.; Locke, C. B.; Lockman, W. S.; Di Lodovico, F.; Lombardo, V.; London, G. W.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lopez, L.; Lopez-March, N.; Lory, J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Louvot, R.; Lu, A.; Lu, C.; Lu, M.; Lu, R. S.; Lueck, T.; Luitz, S.; Lukin, P.; Lund, P.; Luppi, E.; Lutz, A. M.; Lutz, O.; Lynch, G.; Lynch, H. L.; Lyon, A. J.; Lyubinsky, V. R.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Mackay, C.; MacNaughton, J.; Macri, M. M.; Madani, S.; Mader, W. F.; Majewski, S. A.; Majumder, G.; Makida, Y.; Malaescu, B.; Malaguti, R.; Malclés, J.; Mallik, U.; Maly, E.; Mamada, H.; Manabe, A.; Mancinelli, G.; Mandelkern, M.; Mandl, F.; Manfredi, P. F.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Manoni, E.; Mao, Z. P.; Margoni, M.; Marker, C. E.; Markey, G.; Marks, J.; Marlow, D.; Marques, V.; Marsiske, H.; Martellotti, S.; Martin, E. C.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, L.; Martinez, A. J.; Marzolla, M.; Mass, A.; Masuzawa, M.; Mathieu, A.; Matricon, P.; Matsubara, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuo, H.; Mattison, T. S.; Matvienko, D.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, B.; Mazur, M. A.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; McFall, J. D.; McGrath, P.; McKemey, A. K.; McKenna, J. A.; Mclachlin, S. E.; McMahon, S.; McMahon, T. R.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Melen, R.; Mellado, B.; Menges, W.; Menke, S.; Merchant, A. M.; Merkel, J.; Messner, R.; Metcalfe, S.; Metzler, S.; Meyer, N. T.; Meyer, T. I.; Meyer, W. T.; Michael, A. K.; Michelon, G.; Michizono, S.; Micout, P.; Miftakov, V.; Mihalyi, A.; Mikami, Y.; Milanes, D. A.; Milek, M.; Mimashi, T.; Minamora, J. S.; Mindas, C.; Minutoli, S.; Mir, L. M.; Mishra, K.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyake, H.; Miyashita, T. S.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Moffitt, L. C.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohapatra, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohapatra, D.; Moll, A.; Moloney, G. R.; Mols, J. P.; Mommsen, R. K.; Monge, M. R.; Monorchio, D.; Moore, T. B.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Morandin, M.; Morgan, N.; Morgan, S. E.; Morganti, M.; Morganti, S.; Mori, S.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morris, J. P.; Morsani, F.; Morton, G. W.; Moss, L. J.; Mouly, J. P.; Mount, R.; Mueller, J.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mugge, M.; Muheim, F.; Muir, A.; Mullin, E.; Munerato, M.; Murakami, A.; Murakami, T.; Muramatsu, N.; Musico, P.; Nagai, I.; Nagamine, T.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Nagayama, S.; Nagel, M.; Naisbit, M. T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakajima, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, I.; Nakamura, T.; Nakamura, T. T.; Nakano, E.; Nakayama, H.; Nam, J. W.; Narita, S.; Narsky, I.; Nash, J. A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nauenberg, U.; Nayak, M.; Neal, H.; Nedelkovska, E.; Negrini, M.; Neichi, K.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Neri, N.; Nesom, G.; Neubauer, S.; Newman-Coburn, D.; Ng, C.; Nguyen, X.; Nicholson, H.; Niebuhr, C.; Nief, J. Y.; Niiyama, M.; Nikolich, M. B.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishimura, K.; Nishio, Y.; Nitoh, O.; Nogowski, R.; Noguchi, S.; Nomura, T.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Nozaki, S.; Nozaki, T.; Nugent, I. M.; O'Grady, C. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, F. G.; Oberhof, B.; Oddone, P. J.; Ofte, I.; Ogawa, A.; Ogawa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Ohno, F.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshima, Y.; Ohuchi, N.; Oide, K.; Oishi, N.; Okabe, T.; Okazaki, N.; Okazaki, T.; Okuno, S.; Olaiya, E. O.; Olivas, A.; Olley, P.; Olsen, J.; Ono, S.; Onorato, G.; Onuchin, A. P.; Onuki, Y.; Ooba, T.; Orimoto, T. J.; Oshima, T.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ostrowicz, W.; Oswald, C.; Otto, S.; Oyang, J.; Oyanguren, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozcan, V. E.; Paar, H. P.; Padoan, C.; Paick, K.; Palka, H.; Pan, B.; Pan, Y.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Panetta, J.; Panova, A. I.; Panvini, R. S.; Panzenböck, E.; Paoloni, E.; Paolucci, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Park, C. S.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Park, K. S.; Park, W.; Parry, R. J.; Parslow, N.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patel, P. M.; Patrignani, C.; Patteri, P.; Pavel, T.; Pavlovich, J.; Payne, D. J.; Peak, L. S.; Peimer, D. R.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrini, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Peng, C. C.; Peng, J. C.; Peng, K. C.; Peng, T.; Penichot, Y.; Pennazzi, S.; Pennington, M. R.; Penny, R. C.; Penzkofer, A.; Perazzo, A.; Perez, A.; Perl, M.; Pernicka, M.; Perroud, J.-P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Pestotnik, R.; Peters, K.; Peters, M.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petigura, E.; Petrak, S.; Petrella, A.; Petrič, M.; Petzold, A.; Pia, M. G.; Piatenko, T.; Piccolo, D.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Piemontese, M.; Pierini, M.; Pierson, S.; Pioppi, M.; Piredda, G.; Pivk, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Polci, F.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Posocco, M.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, R. J. L.; Prasad, V.; Prebys, E.; Prencipe, E.; Prendki, J.; Prepost, R.; Prest, M.; Prim, M.; Pripstein, M.; Prudent, X.; Pruvot, S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Purohit, M. V.; Qi, N. D.; Quinn, H.; Raaf, J.; Rabberman, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Ragghianti, G.; Rahatlou, S.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahmat, R.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Randle-Conde, A.; Rankin, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ratkovsky, S.; Raven, G.; Re, V.; Reep, M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Reidy, J.; Reif, R.; Reisert, B.; Renard, C.; Renga, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Richman, J. D.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ritter, M.; Rivetta, C.; Rizzo, G.; Roat, C.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Robertson, A. I.; Robutti, E.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D. M.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Rodriguez, R.; Roe, N. A.; Röhrken, M.; Roethel, W.; Rolquin, J.; Romanov, L.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Rong, G.; Ronga, F. J.; Roos, L.; Root, N.; Rosen, M.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rossi, A.; Rostomyan, A.; Rotondo, M.; Roussot, E.; Roy, J.; Rozanska, M.; Rozen, Y.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, A. E.; Ruddick, W. O.; Ruland, A. M.; Rybicki, K.; Ryd, A.; Ryu, S.; Ryuko, J.; Sabik, S.; Sacco, R.; Saeed, M. A.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sagawa, H.; Sahoo, H.; Sahu, S.; Saigo, M.; Saito, T.; Saitoh, S.; Sakai, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakaue, H.; Saleem, M.; Salnikov, A. A.; Salvati, E.; Salvatore, F.; Samuel, A.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanders, P.; Sandilya, S.; Sandrelli, F.; Sands, W.; Sands, W. R.; Sanpei, M.; Santel, D.; Santelj, L.; Santoro, V.; Santroni, A.; Sanuki, T.; Sarangi, T. R.; Saremi, S.; Sarti, A.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satapathy, M.; Sato, Nobuhiko; Sato, Noriaki; Sato, Y.; Satoyama, N.; Satpathy, A.; Savinov, V.; Savvas, N.; Saxton, O. H.; Sayeed, K.; Schaffner, S. F.; Schalk, T.; Schenk, S.; Schieck, J. R.; Schietinger, T.; Schilling, C. J.; Schindler, R. H.; Schmid, S.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schmuecker, H.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schönmeier, P.; Schofield, K. C.; Schott, G.; Schröder, H.; Schram, M.; Schubert, J.; Schümann, J.; Schultz, J.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Schwierz, R.; Schwitters, R. F.; Sciacca, C.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, I. J.; Seeman, J.; Seiden, A.; Seitz, R.; Seki, T.; Sekiya, A. I.; Semenov, S.; Semmler, D.; Sen, S.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Serbo, V. V.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Serfass, B.; Serra, M.; Serrano, J.; Settai, Y.; Seuster, R.; Sevior, M. E.; Shakhova, K. V.; Shang, L.; Shapkin, M.; Sharma, V.; Shebalin, V.; Shelkov, V. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shen, D. Z.; Shen, Y. T.; Sherwood, D. J.; Shibata, T.; Shibata, T. A.; Shibuya, H.; Shidara, T.; Shimada, K.; Shimoyama, M.; Shinomiya, S.; Shiu, J. G.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Shpilinskaya, L. I.; Sibidanov, A.; Sicard, E.; Sidorov, A.; Sidorov, V.; Siegle, V.; Sigamani, M.; Simani, M. C.; Simard, M.; Simi, G.; Simon, F.; Simonetto, F.; Sinev, N. B.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sinha, R.; Sitt, S.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Sloane, R. J.; Smerkol, P.; Smith, A. J. S.; Smith, D.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, J. G.; Smol, A.; Snoek, H. L.; Snyder, A.; So, R. Y.; Sobie, R. J.; Soderstrom, E.; Soha, A.; Sohn, Y. S.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sokolov, A.; Solagna, P.; Solovieva, E.; Soni, N.; Sonnek, P.; Sordini, V.; Spaan, B.; Spanier, S. M.; Spencer, E.; Speziali, V.; Spitznagel, M.; Spradlin, P.; Staengle, H.; Stamen, R.; Stanek, M.; Stanič, S.; Stark, J.; Steder, M.; Steininger, H.; Steinke, M.; Stelzer, J.; Stevanato, E.; Stocchi, A.; Stock, R.; Stoeck, H.; Stoker, D. P.; Stroili, R.; Strom, D.; Strother, P.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stypula, J.; Su, D.; Suda, R.; Sugahara, R.; Sugi, A.; Sugimura, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Suitoh, S.; Sullivan, M. K.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Summers, D. J.; Sun, L.; Sun, S.; Sundermann, J. E.; Sung, H. F.; Susaki, Y.; Sutcliffe, P.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, J. I.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Swain, J. E.; Swain, S. K.; T'Jampens, S.; Tabata, M.; Tackmann, K.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Takayama, T.; Takita, M.; Tamai, K.; Tamponi, U.; Tamura, N.; Tan, N.; Tan, P.; Tanabe, K.; Tanabe, T.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Taras, P.; Tasneem, N.; Tatishvili, G.; Tatomi, T.; Tawada, M.; Taylor, F.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, G. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Teodorescu, L.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Teramoto, Y.; Teytelman, D.; Thérin, G.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Thiessen, D.; Thomas, E. W.; Thompson, J. M.; Thorne, F.; Tian, X. C.; Tibbetts, M.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tinslay, J. S.; Tiozzo, G.; Tisserand, V.; Tocut, V.; Toki, W. H.; Tomassini, E. W.; Tomoto, M.; Tomura, T.; Torassa, E.; Torrence, E.; Tosi, S.; Touramanis, C.; Toussaint, J. C.; Tovey, S. N.; Trapani, P. P.; Treadwell, E.; Triggiani, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trischuk, W.; Troost, D.; Trunov, A.; Tsai, K. L.; Tsai, Y. T.; Tsujita, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tumanov, A.; Tung, Y. W.; Turnbull, L.; Turner, J.; Turri, M.; Uchida, K.; Uchida, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueki, M.; Ueno, K.; Ujiie, N.; Ulmer, K. A.; Unno, Y.; Urquijo, P.; Ushiroda, Y.; Usov, Y.; Usseglio, M.; Usuki, Y.; Uwer, U.; Va'vra, J.; Vahsen, S. E.; Vaitsas, G.; Valassi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vallereau, A.; Vanhoefer, P.; van Hoek, W. C.; Van Hulse, C.; van Winkle, D.; Varner, G.; Varnes, E. W.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasileiadis, G.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Verderi, M.; Versillé, S.; Vervink, K.; Viaud, B.; Vidal, P. B.; Villa, S.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Vinograd, E. L.; Vitale, L.; Vitug, G. M.; Voß, C.; Voci, C.; Voena, C.; Volk, A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Vuagnin, G.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, A. P.; Wagner, D. L.; Wagner, G.; Wagner, M. N.; Wagner, S. R.; Wagoner, D. E.; Walker, D.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallom, D.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. G.; Wang, K.; Wang, L.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, P.; Wang, T. J.; Wang, W. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wappler, F. R.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, J. E.; Watson, N. K.; Watt, M.; Weatherall, J. H.; Weaver, M.; Weber, T.; Wedd, R.; Wei, J. T.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wenzel, W. A.; West, C. A.; West, C. G.; West, T. J.; White, E.; White, R. M.; Wicht, J.; Widhalm, L.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wienands, U.; Wilden, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, G.; Williams, J. C.; Williams, K. M.; Williams, M. I.; Willocq, S. Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Winstrom, L. O.; Winter, M. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittlin, J.; Wittmer, W.; Wixted, R.; Woch, A.; Wogsland, B. J.; Won, E.; Wong, Q. K.; Wray, B. C.; Wren, A. C.; Wright, D. M.; Wu, C. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Xella, S. M.; Xie, Q. L.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yéche, Ch.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaki, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamaoka, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yan, D. S.; Yan, Y.; Yanai, H.; Yanaka, S.; Yang, H.; Yang, R.; Yang, S.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yashchenko, S.; Yashima, J.; Yasin, Z.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, S. W.; Yeh, P.; Yi, J. I.; Yi, K.; Yi, M.; Yin, Z. W.; Ying, J.; Yocky, G.; Yokoyama, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Young, C. C.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, Z.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Yusa, Y.; Yushkov, A. N.; Yuta, H.; Zacek, V.; Zain, S. B.; Zallo, A.; Zambito, S.; Zander, D.; Zang, S. L.; Zanin, D.; Zaslavsky, B. G.; Zeng, Q. L.; Zghiche, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. M.; Zhulanov, V.; Ziegler, T.; Ziegler, V.; Zioulas, G.; Zisman, M.; Zito, M.; Zürcher, D.; Zwahlen, N.; Zyukova, O.; Živko, T.; Žontar, D.

    2014-11-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C. Please note that version 3 on the archive is the auxiliary version of the Physics of the B Factories book. This uses the notation alpha, beta, gamma for the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. The nominal version uses the notation phi_1, phi_2 and phi_3. Please cite this work as Eur. Phys. J. C74 (2014) 3026.

  12. Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(1021) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source : a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  13. B-Factory Interaction Region Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, M.

    1997-05-01

    High luminosity B factories are generally high current (1-3 A) e^+e^- storage ring accelerators that operate at a center-of-mass energy equal to the mass of the Υ4S resonance (10.58 GeV). The high beam currents are achieved by storing a large number of bunches (several hundred to several thousand) into each beam. Two designs, the ones located at SLAC and KEK, also have asymmetric beam energies. This imparts a boost to the nearly stationary B mesons formed from the decay of the Υ4S and allows precision vertex tracking detectors to look for a difference between the decay profiles of the matter and anti-matter B mesons thereby observing a violation of CP. Bringing these stored beams into collision is one of the major challenges of any B factory design. In order to achieve high luminosity the beams must be tightly focused. This pushes the final focusing elements close enough to the interaction point to be inside the solenoidal field of the physics detector. In addition, beam related detector backgrounds from synchrotron radiation and scattered beam particles must be kept below an acceptable level. The major B factory designs at Cornell University, KEK, and SLAC have all addressed these problems in various ways that depend on specific accelerator design decisions. This presentation will describe the accelerator choices that affect the interaction region design of a B factory and discuss how the above designs address the challenges posed by a high luminosity B factory.

  14. Analysis of KEK-ATF optics and coupling using LOCO

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.; Nelson, Janice; Ross, Marc C.

    2004-06-30

    LOCO is a computer code for analysis of the linear optics in a storage ring based on the closed orbit response to steering magnets. The analysis provides information on focusing errors, BPM gain and rotation errors, and local coupling. Here, we discuss the details of the LOCO implementation at the KEK-ATF Damping Ring, and report the initial results. Some of the information obtained, for example on the BPM gain and coupling errors, has not previously been determined. We discuss the possibility of using the data provided by the LOCO analysis to reduce the vertical emittance of the ATF beam.

  15. Slime Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity using slime, a colloid: it behaves like both a solid and liquid. Explains how slime can be produced from guar gum. An activity where students work in teams and become a slime factory is presented. (PR)

  16. Superfluid helium cryogenic systems for superconducting RF cavities at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, H.; Hara, K.; Honma, T.; Hosoyama, K.; Kojima, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Kanekiyo, T.; Morita, S.

    2014-01-29

    Recent accelerator projects at KEK, such as the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) for R and D of the International Linear Collider (ILC) project and the compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), employ superconducting RF cavities made of pure niobium, which can generate high gradient acceleration field. Since the operation temperature of these cavities is selected to be 2 K, we have developed two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for stable operation of superconducting RF cavities for each of STF and cERL. These two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems are identical in principle. Since the operation mode of the cavities is different for STF and cERL, i.e. the pulse mode for STF and the continuous wave mode for cERL, the heat loads from the cavities are quite different. The 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems mainly consists of ordinary helium liquefiers/refrigerators, 2 K refrigerator cold boxes, helium gas pumping systems and high-performance transfer lines. The 2 K refrigerators and the high-performance transfer lines are designed by KEK. Some superconducting RF cavity cryomodules have been already connected to the 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for STF and cERL respectively, and cooled down to 2 K successfully.

  17. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory: photosynthetic photon fluxes affect the accumulation of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Eiji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m(-2) s(-)1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

  18. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory: photosynthetic photon fluxes affect the accumulation of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Eiji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m(-2) s(-)1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity.

  19. Production of Tetraquark State Tcc at B-Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyima, Rashidin

    2013-12-01

    We study production of the tetraquark state Tcc via virtual photon at the B-factories in the QCD factorization framework. We predict the cross section of tetraquark state production in the leading order at the B-factories.

  20. Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This prepares the way for a Neutrino Factory (NF) in which high energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The NF concept was proposed in 1997 at a time when the discovery that the three known types of neutrino ({nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}) can change their flavor as they propagate through space (neutrino oscillations) was providing a first glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source: a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  1. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  2. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  3. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  4. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  5. Neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R. J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that θ13>0 . The measured value of θ13 is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO ν Design Study consortium. EURO ν coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO ν baseline accelerator facility will provide 1 021 muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  6. KEKB and PEP-II B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Two asymmetric B-Factories KEKB at KEK and PEP-II at SLAC are under construction, designed to study CP violation in the b-quark sector with a center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. These two new accelerators are high luminosity two-ring two-energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders with one interaction point. There are many challenging accelerator physics and engineering issues associated with the high beam currents and high luminosities of these rings. The chosen solutions to these issues and the general parameters of the two rings are described in detail side-by-side. KEKB and PEP-II are well into the installation phase and are both scheduled to be completed in 1998. The particle physics programs are scheduled to start in 1999.

  7. Development of the detector system for β -decay spectroscopy at the KEK Isotope Separation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Jung, H. S.; Oyaizu, M.; Mukai, M.; Jeong, S. C.; Ozawa, A.

    2016-06-01

    The KEK Isotope Separation System has been developed to study the β -decay properties of the neutron-rich nuclei around the neutron magic number N = 126. These properties are essential for understanding the origin of the third peak in the r-process element abundance pattern. The detector system for β -decay spectroscopy at the KEK Isotope Separation System should have high detection efficiency for low-energy β -rays, and should be operated under a low-background environment. The detector system of the KEK Isotope Separation System consists of β -ray telescopes and a tape transport system. The solid angle covered by the β -ray telescopes is as large as 75% of 4 π in total. The Qβ -value dependence of the detection efficiency was estimated by Geant4 simulation. The background rate was 0.09 cps using a veto counter system and Pb shields. This background rate allows us to measure the lifetime of 202Os.

  8. A fast beam loss monitor system for the KEK proton synchrotron complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J. A.; Kishiro, J.; Arakawa, D.; Hiramatsu, S.

    1991-06-01

    Efforts to increase the intensity of the KEK proton synchrotron have led to the need for a new fast response beam loss monitor system. The design and some prelimitary test results of a new beam loss monitor system are presented.(AIP)

  9. Application of fiber laser for a Higgs factory

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.

    2014-06-04

    This paper proposes a medium size(~6km) circular Higgs factory based on a photon collider. The recent breakthrough in fiber laser technology by means of a coherent amplifier network makes such a collider feasible and probably also affordable.

  10. High Resolution BPM Upgrade for the ATF Damping Ring at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Briegel, C.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.; Wendt, M.; Zhang, D.; Terunuma, N.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-08-17

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also implements a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization as well as results of beam studies are presented. The next generation of linear colliders require ultra-low vertical emittance of <2 pm-rad. The damping ring at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is designed to demonstrate this mission critical goal. A high resolution beam position monitor (BPM) system for the damping ring is one of the key tools for realizing this goal. The BPM system needs to provide two distnict measurements. First, a very high resolution ({approx}100-200nm) closed-orbit measurement which is averaged over many turns and realized with narrowband filter techniques - 'narrowband mode'. This is needed to monitor and steer the beam along an optimum orbit and to facilitate beam-based alignment to minimize non-linear field effects. Second, is the ability to make turn by turn (TBT) measurements to support optics studies and corrections necessary to achieve the design performance. As the TBT measurement necessitates a wider bandwidth, it is often referred to as 'wideband mode'. The BPM upgrade was initiated as a KEK/SLAC/FNAL collaboration in the frame of the Global Design Initiative of the International Linear Collider. The project was realized and completed using Japan-US funds with Fermilab as the core partner.

  11. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, H.; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Ohta, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimizu, N.

    2016-10-01

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the qz direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  12. Interaction Region Upgrades of e+ e- B-Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; /SLAC

    2008-02-22

    Both the PEP-II and KEKB B-Factories have plans to upgrade their Interaction Regions (IRs) in order to improve luminosity performance. Last summer PEP-II added cooling to the IR beam pipe in order to increase beam currents thereby raising the luminosity. In addition, PEP-II is working on a design that modifies the permanent magnets near the Interaction Point (IP) for an even higher luminosity increase. KEKB is also planning an improvement to their IR that will decrease the detector beam pipe radius. In addition, KEK has a design to increase the luminosity of KEKB to 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} which includes changes to the IR. PEP-II is also investigating the feasibility of a 1 x 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} luminosity design. I summarize these various upgrades and concentrate on issues common to the different designs.

  13. Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.

    In 1987, Midlands Technical College (MTC), in Columbia, South Carolina, initiated a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) project, the Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD, which integrated various college departments with the goal of manufacturing a high quality, saleable product. The faculty developed a teaching factory model which was designed to…

  14. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas; Goodsell, Mark D.

    2013-11-07

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter. We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  15. Beam Test of Multi-Bunch Energy Compensation System in the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Korhonen, Timo; Nakamura, Shogo; Naito, Takashi; Oide, Katsunobu; Takeda, Seishi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji

    2004-08-01

    A beam test of the multi-bunch energy compensation system (ECS) was performed using the Δ F method with the 2856± 4.327 MHz accelerating structures in the accelerator test facility (ATF) at KEK. The 1.54 GeV S-band linac of the ATF was designed to accelerate a multi-bunch beam that consists of 20 bunches with 2.8 ns spacing. The multi-bunch beam with 2.0× 1010 electrons/bunch has an energy deviation of about 8.5% at the end of the linac due to transient beam loading without ECS. The ATF linac is the injector of the ATF damping ring (DR), whose energy acceptance is ± 0.5%. The beam loading compensation system is necessary in the ATF linac for the successful injection of multi-bunch into DR. The rf system of the linac consists of 8 regular rf units with the SLED system and 2 ECS rf units without the SLED system. The accelerating structures of the regular units are driven at 2856 MHz and the 2 ECS structures are operated with slightly different rf frequencies of 2856± 4.327 MHz. In the beam test, we have succeeded in compressing the multi-bunch energy spread within the energy acceptance of the DR using Δ F ECS. The principle of the beam loading compensation system of KEK-ATF and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  16. Studies on the Electro-Polishing process with Nb sample plates at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Saeki, Takayuki; Funahashi, Y.; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kato, Seigo; Nishiwaki, Michiru; Sawabe, Motoaki; Ueno, Kenji; Watanabe, K.; Clemens, William A.; Geng, Rongli; Manus, Robert L.; Tyagi, Puneet

    2009-11-01

    In this article, two subjects would be described. the first subject is on the production of stains on the surface of Nb sample plates in Electro-polishing (EP) process and the second subject is on the development of defects/pits in the EP process on the surface of a Nb sample plate. Recently, some 9-cell cavities were treated with new EP acid at KEK and the performance of these cavities were limited by heavy field emissions. On the inside surface of these cavities, brown stains were observed. We made an effort to reproduce the brown stains on Nb sample plates with an EP setup in laboratory with varying the concentration of Nibium in the EP acid. We found that the brown stains would appear only when processed with new EP acid. In the second subject, we made artificial pits on the surface of a Nb-sample plate and observed the development of the pits after each step of 30um-EP process where 120um was removed in total by the EP process. This article describes these series EP-tests with Nb sample plates at KEK.

  17. Manning the Unmanned Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests that total factory integration through computer networks, even when technically feasible, might be unwieldy, inefficient, and uneconomical because the human factor and accumulated know-how of the work force tend to be overlooked. (Author/JOW)

  18. e+ e- Factory Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The impressive performance of current (KEKB) and recent (PEP-II) B-Factory colliders has increased interest in developing even higher luminosity B-factories. Two new designs are being developed (SuperKEKB and SuperB). Both designs plan to deliver a luminosity in the range of 1 x 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, nearly 100 times the present B-factory level. Achieving this high luminosity requires high-current beams and short bunch lengths and/or a new way of colliding the beams. The SuperB design employs a crabbed magnetic waist with a large crossing angle and the SuperKEKB design is looking at crab cavities with high-current beams and/or a travelling focus. I describe the designs being studied to achieve the high luminosity needed for the next generation of B-Factories.

  19. Status of neutrino factory and muon collider R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    2001-06-17

    A significant worldwide R and D effort is presently directed toward solving the technical challenges of producing, cooling, accelerating, storing, and eventually colliding beams of muons. Its primary thrust is toward issues critical to a Neutrino Factory, for which R and D efforts are under way in the U.S., via the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC); in Europe, centered at CERN; and in Japan, at KEK. Under study and experimental development are production targets handling intense proton beams (1-4 MW), phase rotation systems to reduce beam energy spread, cooling channels to reduce transverse beam emittance for the acceleration system, and storage rings where muon decays in a long straight section provide a neutrino beam for a long-baseline (3000 km) experiment. Critical experimental activities include development of very high gradient normal conducting RF (NCRF) and superconducting RF (SCRF) cavities, high-power liquid-hydrogen absorbers, and high-field superconducting solenoids. Components and instrumentation that tolerate the intense decay products of the muon beam are being developed for testing. For a high-luminosity collider, muons must be cooled longitudinally as well as transversely, requiring an emittance exchange scheme. In addition to the experimental R and D effort, sophisticated theoretical and simulation tools are needed for the design. Here, the goals, present status, and future R and D plans in these areas will be described.

  20. Flying wire beam profile monitors at the KEK PS main ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Arakawa, Dai; Koba, Kiyomi; Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi; Yoshii, Masahito

    2002-04-01

    Transverse beam profile monitors called "Flying Wires" have been installed and operated at the 12-GeV main ring of the KEK Proton Synchrotron. A carbon wire of 7 μm in diameter scans the beam with a maximum speed of 20 m/s and produces secondary particles from the beam-wire scattering. The minimum wire material and fast scanning speed have been chosen to achieve the precise profile measurement and minimum beam destruction because the requirements are critical for the lowest kinetic energy of 500 MeV. The basic performance has been thoroughly tested. A new stroboscopic procedure has been established to reconstruct beam profiles that rapidly change with a time scale of 1 ms or less. The monitors have demonstrated capability of obtaining profitable information for the mechanism of the halo formation and beam loss.

  1. Micron-scale laser-wire scanner for the KEK Accelerator Test Facility extraction line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogert, Stewart T.; Blair, Grahame A.; Boorman, Gary; Bosco, Alessio; Deacon, Lawrence C.; Karataev, Pavel; Aryshev, Alexander; Fukuda, Masafumi; Terunuma, Nobihiro; Urakawa, Junji; Corner, Laura; Delerue, Nicolas; Foster, Brian; Howell, David; Newman, Myriam; Senanayake, Rohan; Walczak, Roman; Ganaway, Fred

    2010-12-01

    A laser-wire transverse electron beam size measurement system has been constructed and operated at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) extraction line at KEK. The construction of the system is described in detail along with the environment of the ATF related to the laser wire. A special set of electron beam optics was developed to generate an approximately 1μm vertical focus at the laser-wire location. The results of our operation at the ATF extraction line are presented, where a minimum rms electron beam size of 4.8±0.3μm was measured, and smaller electron beam sizes can be measured by developing the method further. The beam size at the laser-wire location was changed using quadrupoles and the resulting electron beam size measured, and vertical emittance extracted.

  2. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St. (Duplicate Color view of HAER MI-334-1) - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  3. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  4. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  5. The Invention Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.; Scott, Neil G.; Gabrielli, Sandy D.

    2007-01-01

    The Invention Factory is a nontraditional youth-based, after-school program in Honolulu that teaches information technology and mechanics to teenagers through interactive, hands-on projects that improve human computer interaction for individuals with disabilities. One objective of the program is to stimulate interest in science and engineering…

  6. The Old Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Technology education is not just about things, systems, and processes. It can also be about history, people, technological change, and impacts on society. In this design challenge, one uses technology education principles and ideas to convert an old factory into a museum and learning center. The challenge with this historical resource is to think…

  7. Sequence Factorial and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties…

  8. NNLO leptonic and hadronic corrections to Bhabha scattering and luminosity monitoring at meson factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calame, C. Carloni; Czyż, H.; Gluza, J.; Gunia, M.; Montagna, G.; Nicrosini, O.; Piccinini, F.; Riemann, T.; Worek, M.

    2011-07-01

    Virtual fermionic N f = 1 and N f = 2 contributions to Bhabha scattering are combined with realistic real corrections at next-to-next-to-leading order in QED. The virtual corrections are determined by the package bha_nnlo_hf, and real corrections with the Monte Carlo generators B hagen-1P h, H elac-P hegas and E khara. Numerical results are discussed at the energies of and with realistic cuts used at the Φ factory DANE, at the B factories PEP-II and KEK, and at the charm/τ factory BEPC II. We compare these complete calculations with the approximate ones realized in the generator B abaY aga@NLO used at meson factories to evaluate their luminosities. For realistic reference event selections we find agreement for the NNLO leptonic and hadronic corrections within 0.07% or better and conclude that they are well accounted for in the generator by comparison with the present experimental accuracy.

  9. The Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  10. SLAC B Factory computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics.

  11. B-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1988-04-01

    We briefly review the physics of CP violation and the interest of studying this phenomenon in the B-meson system. The need for very large numbers of B-decays is shown, and a number of approaches for B-factories are compared. In particular, e/sup +/e/sup /minus// linear and circular colliders are discussed in some detail, with specific examples presented. 31 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. EMIR data factory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Barreto, M.; Castro, N.; Garzón, F.; Guerra, D.; Insausti, M.; López-Martín, L.; López, P.; Molgó, J.; Patrón, J.

    2014-07-01

    EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infrarrojo) is a wide-field, near-infrared, multi-object spectrograph, with image capabilities, which will be located at the Nasmyth focus of GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias). It will allow observers to obtain many intermediate resolution spectra simultaneously, in the nIR bands Z, J, H, K. A multi-slit mask unit will be used for target acquisition. This paper shows an overview of EMIR Data Factory System which main functionality is to receive raw images from DAS (Data Acquisition system), collect FITS header keywords, store images to database and propagate images to other GCS (GTC Control System) components to produce astronomical data. This system follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GCS. The Data Factory System needs the DAS, the Sequencer, GUI and the Monitor Manager subsystems to operate. DAS generates images and sends them to the Data Factory. Sequencer and GUI (Graphical User Interface) provide information about instrument and observing program. The Monitor Manager supplies information about telescope and instrument state.

  13. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability. PMID:16022703

  14. Factory Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bomber, Tom

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are not available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.

  15. Factory Cost Model

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  16. A large superconducting thin solenoid magnet for TRISTAN experiment (VENUS) at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, M.; Asai, O.; Fujita, R.; Hirabayashi, H.; Ishibashi, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kuno, K.; Matsui, T.; Satow, T.; Wakamoto, K.

    1985-03-01

    A 30 Gev e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider TRISTAN is now under construction at KEK. The detector system VENUS in TRISTAN requires a large space of 7.5 kG magnetic field for the tracking of the particles while keeping the material thickness of the magnet as thin as possible. The superconducting thin solenoid magnet which is in the middle of the construction has 3.4m in warm bore diameter and 5.24m in usable length with material thickness of 0.52 radiation length. The geometrical thickness of the magnet is as thin as 208 mm while the outside dimension is as large as 4m /phi/x5.64m. Since the electro-magnetic force is toward outside, the coil is supported by an aluminum 'case' covering outside the coil instead of a bobbin in the coil. The water cooled welding technique and an expandable mandrel were developed to form the coil-case composite. The conductor is made of NbTi/Cu and pure aluminum stabilizer is extruded so as to contain the conductor in the stabilizer. The cooling of the magnet is provided by the forced flow of two phase helium in the cooling channel of the 'case'. The cryostat uses CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) to reduce the material thickness of the magnet. The construction method and the design were confirmed by 1m/phi/ superconductive model and real size non-superconductive model. Major components such as conductors and cryostat have been completed and the magnet will be excited next spring.

  17. Sequence factorial and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-06-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties of generalized M-bonomial coefficients by which a vast majority of practical problems involving generalized M-bonomial coefficients can be solved are derived.

  18. A Classroom of Polymer Factories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

  19. The eldercare factory.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly.

  20. The nearby supernova factory

    SciTech Connect

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-23

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to {approx}12 SNe/month in 2003.

  1. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  2. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  3. Photon-photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

  4. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O(1021) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  5. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  6. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  7. Photon-photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1996-01-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et al., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention [1]. A 1990 article by V.I. Telnov describes the situation at that time [2]. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held [3]. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons—the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

  8. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Rare Kaon Decays, KEK experiment E391 and E14 at the Japan Physics and Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau Wai

    2012-12-06

    The goal of the J-PARC neutral kaon experiment (E14/KOTO) is to discover and measure the rate of the kaon rare decay to pi-zero and two neutrinos. This flavor changing neutral current decay proceeds through second-order weak interactions. Other, as yet undiscovered particles, which can mediate the decay could provide an enhancement (or depletion) to the branching ratio which in the Standard Model is accurately predicted within a few percent to be 2.8x10-11. The experiment is designed to observe more than 100 events at the Standard Model branching. It is a follow-up of the KEK E391a experiment and has stage-2 approval by J-PARC PAC in 2007. E14/KOTO has collaborators from Japan (Kyoto, Osaka, Yamagata, Saga), US (Arizona State, Chicago, Michigan Ann Arbor), Taiwan (National Taiwan), Korea, and Russia (Dubna). The experiment exploits the 300kW 30-50 GeV proton delivery of the J-PARC accelerator with a hermetic high acceptance detector with a fine grained Cesium Iodide (CsI) crystal calorimeter, and state of the art electronic front end and data acquisition system. With the recovery of the tsunami disaster on March 11th 2011, E14 is scheduled to start collecting data in December 2012. During the detector construction phase, Chicago focuses on the front end electronics readout of the entire detector system, particularly the CsI calorimeter. The CsI crystals together with its photomultipliers were previously used at the Fermilab KTeV experiment (E832/E799), and were loaned to E14 via this Chicago DOE support. The new readout electronics includes an innovative 10-pole pulse-shaping technique coupled with high speed digitization (14-bit 125MHz and 12-bit 500MHz). This new instrument enables us to measure both energy and timing, particularly with timing resolution better than 100 psec. Besides the cost saving by elimination of the standard time to digital converters, it is now possible to measure the momenta of the final state photons for additional background suppression

  10. The Low Energy Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; Geer, Steve; Ellis, Malcolm; Fernandez Martinez, Enrique; Li, Tracey; Pascoli, Silvia; Mena, Olga

    2010-03-30

    We show that a low energy neutrino factory with a baseline of 1300 km and muon energy of 4.5 GeV has an excellent physics reach. The results of our optimisation studies demonstrate that such a setup can have remarkable sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -4}, and to the mass hierarchy for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -3}. We also illustrate the power of the unique combination of golden and platinum channels accessible to the low energy neutrino factory. We have considered both a 20 kton totally active scintillating detector and a 100 kton liquid argon detector as possible detector technologies, finding that a liquid argon detector with very good background rejection can produce sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta with that of the International Design Study neutrino factory.

  11. From Superbeams to Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan

    2010-03-30

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities (beta-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R and D program.

  12. First refraction contrast imaging via Laser-Compton Scattering X-ray at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Tatsuro; Washio, Masakazu; Araki, Sakae; Fukuda, Masafumi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji

    2012-07-31

    Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS) is one of the most feasible techniques for high quality, high brightness, and compact X-ray source. High energy electron beam produced by accelerators scatters off the laser photon at a small spot. As a laser target, we have been developing a pulsedlaser storage cavity for increasing an X-ray flux. The X-ray flux was still inadequate that was 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}/sec, however, we performed first refraction contrast imaging in order to evaluate the quality of LCS X-ray. Edge enhanced contrast imaging was achieved by changing the distance from sample to detector. The edge enhancement indicates that the LCS X-ray has small source size, i.e. high brightness. We believe that the result has demonstrated good feasibility of linac-based high brightness X-ray sources via laser-electron Compton scatterings.

  13. Charm Factories: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweber, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The next generation tau-charm factory, the third Beijing Electron Spectrometer (BESIII) at the new Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII), has begun data collection. I discuss the flavor physics reach of the BESIII charm program and conclude with a discussion on future proposed tau-charm facilities.

  14. Rural "Dropout Factories" Often Overshadowed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    In the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in the northwest corner of South Carolina, high schools' attempts to curb student dropouts may not match what many people picture when they hear talk of the nation's "dropout factories." Yet one-fifth of the 2,000 high schools nationwide categorized that way by researchers at Johns Hopkins University…

  15. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  16. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  17. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  18. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  19. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  20. Systems factorial technology with R.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Blaha, Leslie M; McIntire, John P; Havig, Paul R; Townsend, James T

    2014-06-01

    Systems factorial technology (SFT) comprises a set of powerful nonparametric models and measures, together with a theory-driven experiment methodology termed the double factorial paradigm (DFP), for assessing the cognitive information-processing mechanisms supporting the processing of multiple sources of information in a given task (Townsend and Nozawa, Journal of Mathematical Psychology 39:321-360, 1995). We provide an overview of the model-based measures of SFT, together with a tutorial on designing a DFP experiment to take advantage of all SFT measures in a single experiment. Illustrative examples are given to highlight the breadth of applicability of these techniques across psychology. We further introduce and demonstrate a new package for performing SFT analyses using R for statistical computing.

  1. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  2. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R. ); Garren, A.A. )

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab.

  3. Apiary B Factory Lattice Design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-05-03

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper presents the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent.

  4. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-05-30

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8{degree} angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3{degree} angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design.

  5. Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  6. A Project to Design and Build the Magnets for a New Test Beamline, the ATF2, at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M.; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Masuzawa, Mika; Bolzon, Benoit; Jeremie, Andrea; /Annecy, LAPP

    2011-02-07

    In order to achieve the high luminosity required at the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System, and to maintain the beams collisions with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, a special beamline has been designed and built as an extension of the existing extraction beamline of the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK, Japan. The ATF provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam that is comparable to the ILC requirements; the ATF2 mimics the ILC final focus system to create a tightly focused, stable beam. There are 37 magnets in the ATF2, 29 quadrupoles, 5 sextupoles and 3 bends. These magnets had to be acquired in a short time and at minimum cost, which led to various acquisition strategies; but nevertheless they had to meet strict requirements on integrated strength, physical dimensions, compatibility with existing magnet movers and beam position monitors, mechanical stability and field stability and quality. This paper will describe how 2 styles of quadrupoles, 2 styles of sextupoles, one dipole style and their supports were designed, fabricated, refurbished or modified, measured and aligned by a small team of engineers from 3 continents.

  7. Lattice and beam optics design for suppression of CSR-induced emittance growth at the KEK-ERL test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, M.; Yokoya, K.; Suwada, T.; Enomoto, A.

    2007-06-01

    The lattice and beam optics of the arc section of the KEK-ERL test facility, having an energy of 200 MeV, were optimized to efficiently suppress emittance growth based on a simulation using a particle-tracking method taking coherent synchrotron radiation effects into account. The lattice optimization in the arc section was performed under two conditions: a high-current mode with a bunch charge of 76.9 pC without bunch compression, and a short-bunch mode with bunch compression, producing a final bunch length of around 0.1 ps. The simulation results showed that, in the high-current mode, emittance growth was efficiently suppressed by keeping a root-mean-square (rms) bunch length of 1 ps at a bunch charge of 76.9 pC, and in the short-bunch mode, emittance growth was kept within permissible limits with a maximum allowable bunch charge of 23.1 pC at an rms bunch length of 0.1 ps.

  8. On-line experimental results of an argon gas cell-based laser ion source (KEK Isotope Separation System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Jung, H. S.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2016-06-01

    KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) has been developed at RIKEN to produce neutron rich isotopes with N = 126 to study the β -decay properties for application to astrophysics. The KISS is an element-selective mass-separation system which consists of an argon gas cell-based on laser ion source for atomic number selection and an ISOL mass-separation system. The argon gas cell of KISS is a key component to stop and collect the unstable nuclei produced in a multi-nucleon transfer reaction, where the isotopes of interest will be selectively ionized using laser resonance ionization. We have performed off- and on-line experiments to study the basic properties of the gas cell as well as of the KISS. We successfully extracted the laser-ionized stable 56Fe (direct implantation of a 56Fe beam into the gas cell) atoms and 198Pt (emitted from the 198Pt target by elastic scattering with a 136Xe beam) atoms from the KISS during the commissioning on-line experiments. We furthermore extracted laser-ionized unstable 199Pt atoms and confirmed that the measured half-life was in good agreement with the reported value.

  9. A Survey of Small Factories*

    PubMed Central

    Jefferys, Margot; Wood, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    This survey was undertaken by a group of doctors, nurses, and lecturers in the Department of Public Health of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as part of the teaching programme for the Diploma in Public Health. Fifty small factories in an area of a metropolitan borough were invited to answer questions concerning their industrial processes, their labour force, their premises, their first-aid provision, and the visits they received from officials of local and central government. Forty-eight of these factories responded and observations were made by teams of three recording independently of each other in 45. A variety of industries was represented in these 48 firms, half of which employed less than 10 workers. The working environment, in respect of sanitary arrangements, cleanliness and tidiness, lighting on stairs and passage ways, was considered to be unsatisfactory in many firms. Some instances of inadequate safeguards of machines were seen. The accident rate was found to be rather less than the computed national rate for manufacturing industry in 1956. First-aid equipment and workers were also considered to be deficient in a number of instances. In case of accident and for the treatment of minor ailments most firms made use of a local casualty and out-patient department of a general hospital. This service was considered quite adequate. Many firms had not been visited by the Factory Inspector or his deputy during the previous year. Rather more had received visits from the local authority health inspectors. Many firms expressed confusion about the duties and functions of their various official visitors. The conclusions drawn from this limited enquiry were that the working conditions in small factories are often unsatisfactory; that in areas such as the one surveyed it is unrealistic to think in terms of development of an industrial health service similar to those operating in Slough and Harlow; and that the greatest impact on environmental

  10. Black holes as antimatter factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Petrov, Alexey A.

    2009-09-01

    We consider accretion of matter onto a low mass black hole surrounded by ionized medium. We show that, because of the higher mobility of protons than electrons, the black hole would acquire positive electric charge. If the black hole's mass is about or below 1020 g, the electric field at the horizon can reach the critical value which leads to vacuum instability and electron-positron pair production by the Schwinger mechanism. Since the positrons are ejected by the emergent electric field, while electrons are back-captured, the black hole operates as an antimatter factory which effectively converts protons into positrons.

  11. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  12. Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16: The Naval Aircraft Factory H-16 flying boat, seen here on a beaching dolly on the Langley seaplane ramp, was one of 150 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most H-16s built were made by Curtiss, so the type is more readily known under that name. The NACA performed hull pressure distribution tests at Langley during 1929.

  13. Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory): This example of the Douglas DT-2 torpedo plane, which flew as 'NACA 11,' was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Langley's NACA staff studied the take-off characteristics of a twin-float seaplane with this aircraft.

  14. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, K.K.

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  15. Factorial Validity of Student Ratings of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Robert D.; Murray, Harry G.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the Systematic Distortion Hypothesis by examining the factorial validity of student ratings of university teaching. Factorial validity is defined as the degree to which covariance among judged traits resembles the actual or true covariation of observable behaviors underlying these traits. Although many studies have examined the…

  16. Photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.

  17. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  18. Factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ehri

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a procedure to test factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. When the group membership is at level 2, multilevel factorial invariance can be tested by a simple extension of the standard procedure. However level-1 group membership raises problems which cannot be appropriately handled by the standard procedure, because the dependency between members of different level-1 groups is not appropriately taken into account. The procedure presented in this article provides a solution to this problem. This paper also shows Muthén's maximum likelihood (MUML) estimation for testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups as a viable alternative to maximum likelihood estimation. Testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-2 groups and testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups are illustrated using empirical examples. SAS macro and Mplus syntax are provided.

  19. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  20. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  1. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  2. The photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Russell L.

    2009-10-01

    There are no TEM waves, only photons. Lets build a photon, using a radio antenna. A short antenna (2L<< λ) simplifies the calculation, letting B fall off everywhere as 1/r^2. The Biot-Savart law finds B = (μ0/4π)(LI0/r^2)θφt. The magnetic flux thru a semi-circle of radius λ/2 is set equal to the flux quantum h/e, determining the needed source strength, LI0. From this, one can integrate the magnetic energy density over a sphere of radius λ/2 and finds it to be 1.0121 hc/λ. Pretty close. A B field collapses when the current ceases, but the photon evades this by creating a ɛ0E / t displacement current at center that fully supports the toroidal B assembly as it moves at c. This E=vxB arises because the photon moves at c. Stopped, a photon decays. At every point along the photon's path, an observer will note a transient oscillation of an E field. This sources the EM ``guiding wave'', carrying little or no energy and expanding at c. At the head of the photon, all these spherical guiding waves gather ``in-phase'' as a planar wavefront. This model speaks to all the many things we know about light. The photon is tiny, but its guiding wave is huge.

  3. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  4. Radiation aspects of the B-Factory at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.C.; Nelson, W.R.; Mao, X.S.

    1996-11-01

    The B-Factor is a high-energy physics project at SLAC that studies the phenomenon of CP violation from collisions between two stored beams; high energy electrons (HER, maximum 12-GeV) and low energy positrons (LER, maximum 4-GeV). Both the HER and LER are located in an underground tunnel of 2,200-m-long circumference with a maximum stored current of 3 A. The injector consists of the existing SLAC 2-mile-long LINAC with two extraction and transport lines for both rings. Radiation aspects of the machine are addressed in the context of machine protection and personnel protection. Specific illustrations (e.g., the estimations of neutron, photon and synchrotron radiation environment in the ring tunnel and the radiation levels outside a typical Interaction Region, etc.) are given to show a few natures of the radiation issues for the B-Factory and to reflect the appropriate SLAC policies on radiation safety.

  5. 6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  6. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  7. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  8. Riken RI Beam Factory, Harvest Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En'yo, H.

    2015-06-01

    At RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF), having all the experimental facilities in place, the uranium-beam intensity recorded 25pnA in 2014. With use of this powerful beam many experiments are begin performed by variety of researchers from all over the world, producing a lot of new data which were just a dream in several years ago. Recent status of RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) is presented with future prospects in science and an accelerator plan.

  9. Photon generator

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  10. Photonic lanterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Argyros, Alexander; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-12-01

    Multimode optical fibers have been primarily (and almost solely) used as "light pipes" in short distance telecommunications and in remote and astronomical spectroscopy. The modal properties of the multimode waveguides are rarely exploited and mostly discussed in the context of guiding light. Until recently, most photonic applications in the applied sciences have arisen from developments in telecommunications. However, the photonic lantern is one of several devices that arose to solve problems in astrophotonics and space photonics. Interestingly, these devices are now being explored for use in telecommunications and are likely to find commercial use in the next few years, particularly in the development of compact spectrographs. Photonic lanterns allow for a low-loss transformation of a multimode waveguide into a discrete number of single-mode waveguides and vice versa, thus enabling the use of single-mode photonic technologies in multimode systems. In this review, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology. We will also discuss some of its applications in more detail. Furthermore, we foreshadow future applications of this technology to the field of nanophotonics.

  11. Construction and development of a UV free electron laser under the cooperation of Nihon U, KEK, PNC, ETL and Tohoku U

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, K.; Tanaka, T.; Torizuka, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The construction and the development of a UV free electron laser have been started under the cooperation of Nihon U, KEK, PNC, ETL and Tohaku U. The project requires a 100MeV S-band electron linear accelerator to expand the oscillation of FEL using fundamental mode to the UV region. The injection system consists of a thermionic RF-gun with a LaB cathode and an {alpha} magnet for magnetic bunching. We are studying to reduce the back-bombardment electrons to realize the macropulse length of 20{mu}sec. Electron beams, up to the energy of 100MeV, are injected into the optical oscillators. Changing the accelerating energy and/or undulator parameters, this system will cover the range from infrared to ultraviolet for the applications in various fields.

  12. Application of disturbance observer-based control in low-level radio-frequency system in a compact energy recovery linac at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Feng; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Omet, Mathieu; Sigit, Basuki Wibowo

    2015-09-01

    A disturbance observer (DOB)-based control for a digital low-level radio-frequency (LLRF) system in a compact energy recovery linac (cERL) at KEK has been developed. The motivation for this control approach is to compensate for or suppress the disturbance signal in the rf system such as beam loading, power supply ripples, and microphonics. Disturbance signals in specified frequency ranges were observed and reconstructed accurately in the field-programmable gate array and were then removed in the feedforward model in real time. The key component in this DOB controller is a disturbance observer, which includes the inverse mathematical model of the rf plant. In this paper, we have designed a DOB control-based approach in order to improve the LLRF system performance in disturbance rejection. We have confirmed this approach in the cERL beam commissioning.

  13. A simple demonstration of zero factorial equals one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Munir; Mahmood, Ibtihal

    2016-08-01

    When asked, a number of students answer zero factorial to be zero as a continuation to the answer of one factorial to be one. Any instructor would then seek a justification of zero factorial to be one from computing nCn via the well- known combination formula. This article conveys a simple presentation of zero factorial to be one based on lower and upper bounds of n factorial. We have not seen this explanation covered in any algebra textbook.

  14. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. PMID:26602942

  15. Vesicle Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  16. Photons Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batic, Matej; Begalli, Marcia; Han, Min Cheol; Hauf, Steffen; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Han Sung; Grazia Pia, Maria; Saracco, Paolo; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2014-06-01

    A systematic review of methods and data for the Monte Carlo simulation of photon interactions is in progress: it concerns a wide set of theoretical modeling approaches and data libraries available for this purpose. Models and data libraries are assessed quantitatively with respect to an extensive collection of experimental measurements documented in the literature to determine their accuracy; this evaluation exploits rigorous statistical analysis methods. The computational performance of the associated modeling algorithms is evaluated as well. An overview of the assessment of photon interaction models and results of the experimental validation are presented.

  17. Green photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.

  18. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  19. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Koneke, Karsten; /MIT, LNS

    2007-11-16

    In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system. Finally, I will summarize the current status and future prospects of radiative penguin B physics at the B factories.

  20. From super beams to neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities ({beta}-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R&D program.

  1. Photon-photon collisions via relativisitic mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, James K.

    2012-07-11

    Photon-photon scattering at low energies has been predicted theoretically for many years. However, due to the extremely small cross section there has been no experimental confirmation of this. Due to the rapid increase in laser irradiances and projected peak irradiances in planned facilities regimes could be reached where photon-photon scattering could be experimentally observed. We will first review basic aspects of photon-photon collisions concentrating on the calculation of the photon-photon scattering cross section. Then we will discuss the possibilities for observing these phenomena in ultra-high irradiance laser-plasma interactions involving relativistic mirrors.

  2. Making Connections: After the Factories Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; Bergman, Edward M.

    This analysis of employment patterns in the American South extends a 1985 report, "After the Factories: Changing Employment Patterns in the Rural South," which was based on the years between 1977-1982. The 1985 report included Texas, but this analysis includes only the 12 Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB) member states. This new analysis…

  3. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  4. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  5. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-11-03

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two.

  6. Microalgae photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floume, Timmy; Coquil, Thomas; Sylvestre, Julien

    2011-05-01

    Due to their metabolic flexibility and fast growth rate, microscopic aquatic phototrophs like algae have a potential to become industrial photochemical converters. Algae photosynthesis could enable the large scale production of clean and renewable liquid fuels and chemicals with major environmental, economic and societal benefits. Capital and operational costs are the main issues to address through optical, process and biochemical engineering improvements. In this perspective, a variety of photonic approaches have been proposed - we introduce them here and describe their potential, limitations and compatibility with separate biotechnology and engineering progresses. We show that only sunlight-based approaches are economically realistic. One of photonics' main goals in the algae field is to dilute light to overcome photosaturation effects that impact upon cultures exposed to full sunlight. Among other approaches, we introduce a widely-compatible broadband spectral adaptation technique called AlgoSun® that uses luminescence to optimize sunlight spectrum in view of the bioconverter's requirements.

  7. Photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  8. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  9. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH BOILER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH BOILER HOUSE IN CENTER GROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. 5. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  11. 1. EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF NABISCO CARTON FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF NABISCO CARTON FACTORY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ALONG MARSEILLES POWER CANAL - National Biscuit Company, Marseilles Factory, Off Main Street on Marseilles Power Canal, Marseilles, La Salle County, IL

  12. The Virtual Factory Teaching System (VFTS): Project Review and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazlauskas, E. J.; Boyd, E. F., III; Dessouky, M. M.

    This paper presents a review of the Virtual Factory Teaching (VFTS) project, a Web-based, multimedia collaborative learning network. The system allows students, working alone or in teams, to build factories, forecast demand for products, plan production, establish release rules for new work into the factory, and set scheduling rules for…

  13. 3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWOSTORY SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWO-STORY SECTION WITH BRICK PARAPET BUILT WITH FACTORY EXPANSION CA. 1948. GABLE ROOF SECTION IS PART OF ORIGINAL 1892 FACTORY. TO THE RIGHT IS AN ABANDONED (COMMONWEALTH EDISON) ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  14. 2. LOOKING NORTH ON COMMERCE ST. SHOWING HARMON MATTRESS FACTORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NORTH ON COMMERCE ST. SHOWING HARMON MATTRESS FACTORY. BRIDGE CONNECTS HARMON MATTRESS FACTORY WITH HARMON WAREHOUSE (SEE PHOTO HABS WA-165-15). BUILDING IN LEFT FOREGROUND IS LINDSTROM-BERG CABINET FACTORY (SEE PHOTO HABS WA-165-36). - Union Depot Area Study, F. S. Harmon Mattress Company, 1953 South C Street, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  15. Testing Factorial Invariance in Multilevel Data: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Sook; Kwok, Oi-man; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2012-01-01

    Testing factorial invariance has recently gained more attention in different social science disciplines. Nevertheless, when examining factorial invariance, it is generally assumed that the observations are independent of each other, which might not be always true. In this study, we examined the impact of testing factorial invariance in multilevel…

  16. Nanotechnology, bionanotechnology and microbial cell factories

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is increasingly using both materials and nano-objects synthesized by living beings, most of them produced by microbial cells. Emerging technologies and highly integrative approaches (such as 'omics and systems biology), that have been largely proven successful for the production of proteins and secondary metabolites are now expected to become fully adapted for the improved biological production of nanostructured materials with tailored properties. The so far underestimated potential of microbial cell factories in nanotechnology and nanomedicine is expected to emerge, in the next years, in the context of novel needs envisaged in the nanoscience universe. This should prompt a careful revisiting of the microbial cell factories as the most versatile biological platforms to supply functional materials for nanotechnological applications. PMID:20602780

  17. Pion Production for Neutrino Factory-challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Florian; Couedic, Clément Le; Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-01

    One of the key issues in the design of a Neutrino Factory target station is the determination of the optimum kinetic energy of the proton beam due to the large uncertainties in simulations of protons impinging on nuclear targets. In this paper we have developed a procedure to correct GEANT4 simulations for the HARP data, and we have determined the yield of muons expected at the front-end of a Neutrino Factory as a function of target material (Be, C, Al, Ta and Pb) and energy (3-12 GeV).The maximum muon yield is found between 5 and 8 GeV for high Z targets and 3 GeV for low Z targets.

  18. Pion Production for Neutrino Factory-challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, Florian; Le Couedic, Clement; Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    One of the key issues in the design of a Neutrino Factory target station is the determination of the optimum kinetic energy of the proton beam due to the large uncertainties in simulations of protons impinging on nuclear targets. In this paper we have developed a procedure to correct GEANT4 simulations for the HARP data, and we have determined the yield of muons expected at the front-end of a Neutrino Factory as a function of target material (Be, C, Al, Ta and Pb) and energy (3-12 GeV).The maximum muon yield is found between 5 and 8 GeV for high Z targets and 3 GeV for low Z targets.

  19. China's factory floors: an industrial hygienist's view.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett D

    2003-01-01

    Determinants of workplace health and safety in China, including work organization, composition of the workforce, production regimens, lack of independent worker representation, and the status of government regulatory enforcement, are described and analyzed. The findings of reports of nongovernmental organizations and media articles are summarized. Key markers of working conditions in export-sector factories, i.e., accident and safety program compliance rates, chemical and noise exposures, and machine guarding issues, are analyzed. Four factors for improving workplace health and safety are proposed: 1) employer commitment and implementation of effective health and safety programs on a plant level; 2) Chinese government enforcement of regulations; 3) meaningful involvement of workers in plant health and safety programs; and 4) continued involvement of international professionals and "civil society" both to pressure multinational corporations and the Chinese government and to provide technical assistance and resources for building the capacity of employers, workers, and government agencies to improve factory working conditions in the world's fastest growing economy.

  20. On near detectors at a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jian; Winter, Walter

    2010-03-30

    The geometric effects of the beam in near detectors at a neutrino factory are discussed. The refined systematics treatment, including cross section errors, flux errors and background uncertainties, is compared with the IDS-NF one. Different near detector setups are included. We also probe their effects both at the measurements of standard neutrino oscillation parameters and constraints of the non-standard neutrino interaction.

  1. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. T.; Stratakis, D.; Prior, G.; Gilardoni, S.; Neuffer, D.; Snopok, P.; Alekou, A.; Pasternak, J.

    2013-04-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    PubMed

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  3. New Physics Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-02-10

    We present a review of some recent experimental searches for new physics effects in precision flavour physics measurements performed at B factories. Recent results on selected leptonic, semi-leptonic and hadronic charm-less B decay channels studied by the BaBar and Belle collaborations will be presented and their implication within the framework of model extensions of the Standard Model will be discussed.

  4. Status of the Super B Factory Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-08-05

    Two proposals have been presented for the construction of super high luminosity B factories, the SuperB in Italy and SuperKEKB in Japan. We review the physics case for the construction of such facilities in the LHC era and highlight several topics of hadronic physics that can benefit from the high luminosity they will integrate. The present status of the accelerator and detector work toward the Technical Design Reports is also presented.

  5. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  6. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  7. Neutrino factory optimization for nonstandard interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Joachim; Ota, Toshihiko; Winter, Walter

    2008-09-01

    We study the optimization of a neutrino factory with respect to nonstandard neutral current neutrino interactions, and compare the results to those obtained without nonstandard interactions. We discuss the muon energy, baselines, and oscillation channels as degrees of freedom. Our conclusions are based on both analytical calculations and on a full numerical simulation of the neutrino factory setup proposed by the international design study (IDS-NF). We consider all possible nonstandard parameters, and include their complex phases. We identify the impact of the different parameters on the golden, silver, and disappearance channels. We come to the conclusion that, even in the presence of nonstandard interactions, the performance of the neutrino factory hardly profits from a silver channel detector, unless the muon energy is significantly increased compared to the IDS-NF setup. Apart from the dispensable silver channel detector, we demonstrate that the IDS-NF setup is close to optimal even if nonstandard interactions are considered. We find that one very long baseline is a key component in the search for nonstandard interactions, in particular, for |{epsilon}{sub {mu}}{sub {tau}}{sup m}| and |{epsilon}{sub {tau}}{sub {tau}}{sup m}|.

  8. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  9. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  10. Jets and Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Stephen D.; Roy, Tuhin S.; Scholtz, Jakub

    2013-03-01

    This Letter applies the concept of “jets,” as constructed from calorimeter cell four-vectors, to jets composed (primarily) of photons (or leptons). Thus jets become a superset of both traditional objects such as QCD jets, photons, and electrons, and more unconventional objects such as photon jets and electron jets, defined as collinear photons and electrons, respectively. Since standard objects such as single photons become a subset of jets in this approach, standard jet substructure techniques are incorporated into the photon finder toolbox. Using a (reasonably) realistic calorimeter model we demonstrate that, for a single photon identification efficiency of 80% or above, the use of jet substructure techniques reduces the number of QCD jets faking photons by factors of 2.5 to 4. Depending on the topology of the photon jets, the substructure variables reduce the number of photon jets faking single photons by factors of 10 to 103 at a single photon identification efficiency of 80%.

  11. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  13. Object classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Aragon, C.; Romano, R.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2008-03-01

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of non-supernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  14. Object Classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, Rollin C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2007-12-21

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of nonsupernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  15. Survey and Alignment of SLAC's B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryka, Matthew J.; Gaydosh, Michael L.; /SLAC

    2011-09-08

    The survey and alignment of SLAC's B-factory injector and high energy ring will be complete in March 1997. Modern digital electronic surveying tools are contributing to new, efficient alignment procedures. A laser tracker was used to fiducialize almost 300 quadrupole magnets. Digital levels were used to pre-set base plate elevations. Theodolites with very accurate co-axial distance meters were used for everything from layout to 3D magnet positioning to network surveys, all in free stationing mode. A number of procedures and measurement results are outlined.

  16. The Personal Software Process: Downscaling the factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the next wave of software process improvement (SPI) activities will be based on a people-centered paradigm. The most promising such paradigm, Watts Humphrey's personal software process (PSP), is summarized and its advantages are listed. The concepts of the PSP are shown also to fit a down-scaled version of Basili's experience factory. The author's data and lessons learned while practicing the PSP are presented along with personal experience, observations, and advice from the perspective of a consultant and teacher for the personal software process.

  17. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K. . High Energy Physics Div.); Strikman, M. AN SSSR, Leningrad . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-01-01

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 10{sup 9} B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 10{sup 9} B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  18. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  19. Parameters for a Super-Flavor-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Novokhatski, A.; Seryi, A.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati

    2006-06-27

    A Super Flavor Factory, an asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, can provide a sensitive probe of new physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. The success of the PEP-II and KEKB asymmetric colliders in producing unprecedented luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in a new parameter regime. Furthermore, the success of the SLAC Linear Collider and the subsequent work on the International Linear Collider allow a new Super-Flavor collider to also incorporate linear collider techniques. This note describes the parameters of an asymmetric Flavor-Factory collider at a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the Y(4S) resonance and about 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the {tau} production threshold. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the Y(4S) resonance. In the following note only the parameters relative to the Y(4S) resonance will be shown, the ones relative to the lower energy operations are still under study.

  20. Quarkonium States at B-Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Robutti, Enrico; /INFN, Genoa

    2011-11-21

    An overview is given on recent progress in the study of quarkonium spectroscopy at the B-factories. In particular, an updated status report is presented of the long list of 'charmonium-like' resonances newly discovered, whose assignment as true charmonium states is in most cases at least controversial. Also, new measurements on the decay properties of bottomonium states above open-B production thresholds are shown. Much of the progress attained in recent years in the study of the quarkonium spectra is owed to the measurements performed at B-factories. The impressive amount of data recorded by the BABAR and Belle experiments has made it possible to study rare decay chains and to look for as yet undiscovered resonances in the charmonium and bottomonium mass regions. Results presented here are based on different subsamples of the full datasets recorded up to now by the two experiments, corresponding to integrated luminosities of about 430 fb{sup -1}(BABAR - final) and about 850 fb{sup -1}(Belle). Significant contributions also come from the analysis of the various data samples recorded by the CLEO detector.

  1. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, P.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Oddone, P.; Ratcliff, B.; Roe, N.; Va'vra, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1991-09-01

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Carbonate factories: A conundrum in sedimentary geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, L.; Hallock, P.

    2008-03-01

    by the end-Permian extinctions, excess photosynthesis by phytoplankton and microbial assemblages in surface waters, induced by moderately high CO 2 and temperature during the Early Mesozoic, supported proliferation of non-tissular metazoans (e.g., sponges) and heterotrophic bacteria at the sea floor. Metabolic activity by those microbes, especially sulfate reduction, resulted in abundant biologically-induced geochemical carbonate precipitation on and within the sea floor. For example, with the opening of Tethyan seaways during the Triassic, massive sponge/microbe boundstones (the benthic automicrite factory) formed steep, massive and thick progradational slopes and, locally, mud-mounds. As tectonic processes created shallow epicontinental seas, photosynthesis drove lime-mud precipitation in the illuminated zone of the water column. The resulting neritic lime-mud component of the shallow-water carbonate factory became predominant during the Jurassic, paralleling the increase in atmospheric pCO 2, while the decreasing importance of the benthic automicrite factory parallels the diversification of calcifying metazoans, phytoplankton and zooplankton. With atmospheric pCO 2 declining through the Cretaceous, the potential habitats for neritic lime-mud precipitation declined. At the same time, peak oceanic Ca 2+ concentrations promoted biotically-controlled calcification by the skeletal factory. With changes produced by extinctions and turnovers at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, adaptations to decreasing Ca 2+ and pCO 2, coupled with increasing global temperature gradients (i.e., high-latitude and deep-water cooling), and strategies that efficiently linked photosynthesis and calcification, promoted successive changes of the dominant skeletal factory through the Cenozoic: larger benthic foraminifers (protist-protist symbiosis) during the Paleogene, red algae during the Miocene and modern coral reefs (metazoan-protist symbiosis) since Late Miocene.

  3. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  4. Asymptotic Normality Through Factorial Cumulants and Partition Identities

    PubMed Central

    Bobecka, Konstancja; Hitczenko, Paweł; López-Blázquez, Fernando; Rempała, Grzegorz; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we develop an approach to asymptotic normality through factorial cumulants. Factorial cumulants arise in the same manner from factorial moments as do (ordinary) cumulants from (ordinary) moments. Another tool we exploit is a new identity for ‘moments’ of partitions of numbers. The general limiting result is then used to (re-)derive asymptotic normality for several models including classical discrete distributions, occupancy problems in some generalized allocation schemes and two models related to negative multinomial distribution. PMID:24591773

  5. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2008-02-21

    The International Design Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS) established the physics case for a high-precision programme of long-baseline neutrino-oscillation measurements. The ISS also identified baseline specifications for the Neutrino Factory accelerator complex and the neutrino detector systems. This paper summarises the objectives of the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF). The IDS-NF will build on the work of the ISS to deliver a Reference Design Report for the Neutrino Factory by 2012/13 and an Interim Design Report by 2010/11.

  6. RR photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, Pablo G.; Ibáñez, Luis E.; Marchesano, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Type II string compactifications to 4d generically contain massless Ramond-Ramond U(1) gauge symmetries. However there is no massless matter charged under these U(1)'s, which makes a priori difficult to measure any physical consequences of their existence. There is however a window of opportunity if these RR U(1)'s mix with the hypercharge U(1) Y (hence with the photon). In this paper we study in detail different avenues by which U(1) RR bosons may mix with D-brane U(1)'s. We concentrate on Type IIA orientifolds and their M-theory lift, and provide geometric criteria for the existence of such mixing, which may occur either via standard kinetic mixing or via the mass terms induced by Stückelberg couplings. The latter case is particularly interesting, and appears whenever D-branes wrap torsional p-cycles in the compactification manifold. We also show that in the presence of torsional cycles discrete gauge symmetries and Aharanov-Bohm strings and particles appear in the 4d effective action, and that type IIA Stückelberg couplings can be understood in terms of torsional (co)homology in M-theory. We provide examples of Type IIA Calabi-Yau orientifolds in which the required torsional cycles exist and kinetic mixing induced by mass mixing is present. We discuss some phenomenological consequences of our findings. In particular, we find that mass mixing may induce corrections relevant for hypercharge gauge coupling unification in F-theory SU(5) GUT's.

  7. Photon-Photon Collisions -- Past and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2005-12-02

    I give a brief review of the history of photon-photon physics and a survey of its potential at future electron-positron colliders. Exclusive hadron production processes in photon-photon and electron-photon collisions provide important tests of QCD at the amplitude level, particularly as measures of hadron distribution amplitudes. There are also important high energy {gamma}{gamma} and e{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, including the production of jets in photon-photon collisions, deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, and leading-twist single-spin asymmetries for a photon polarized normal to a production plane. Since photons couple directly to all fundamental fields carrying the electromagnetic current including leptons, quarks, W's and supersymmetric particles, high energy {gamma}{gamma} collisions will provide a comprehensive laboratory for Higgs production and exploring virtually every aspect of the Standard Model and its extensions. High energy back-scattered laser beams will thus greatly extend the range of physics of the International Linear Collider.

  8. Design Concept of a Gamma-gamma Higgs Factory Driven by Thin Laser Targets and Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong

    2013-06-01

    A gamma-gamma collider has long been considered an option for a Higgs Factory. Such photon colliders usually rely on Compton back-scattering for generating high energy gamma photons and further Higgs bosons through gamma-gamma collisions. The presently existing proposals or design concepts all have chosen a very thick laser target (i.e., high laser photon intensity) for Compton scatterings. In this paper, we present a new design concept of a gamma-gamma collider utilizing a thin laser target (i.e., relatively low photon density), thus leading to a low electron to gamma photon conversion rate. This new concept eliminates most useless and harmful low energy soft gamma photons from multiple Compton scattering so the detector background is improved. It also greatly relaxes the requirement of the high peak power of the laser, a significant technical challenge. A high luminosity for such a gamma-gamma collider can be achieved through an increase of the bunch repetition rate and current of the driven electron beam. Further, multi-pass recirculating linac could greatly reduce the linac cost and energy recovery is required to reduce the needed RF power.

  9. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Goto, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m−2 s−1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

  10. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  11. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  12. Aplastic anemia in a petrochemical factory worker.

    PubMed Central

    Baak, Y M; Ahn, B Y; Chang, H S; Kim, J H; Kim, K A; Lim, Y

    1999-01-01

    A petrochemical worker with aplastic anemia was referred to our hospital. He worked in a petroleum resin-producing factory and had been exposed to low-level benzene while packaging the powder resin and pouring lime into a deactivation tank. According to the yearly environmental survey of the working area, the airborne benzene level was approximately 0.28 ppm. Exposure to benzene, a common chemical used widely in industry, may progressively lead to pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. The hematotoxicity of benzene is related to the amount and duration of exposure. Most risk predictions for benzene exposures have been based on rubber workers who were exposed to high concentrations. In the petroleum industry, the concentration of benzene is relatively low, and there are disputes over the toxicity of low-level benzene because of a lack of evidence. In this paper we report the case of aplastic anemia induced by low-level benzene exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504154

  13. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  14. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  15. Parametric study of a target factory for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, J.W.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-10-08

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the derivation of production rate equations has provided the basis for a parametric study. Rate equations describing the production of laser fusion targets have been developed for the purpose of identifying key parameters, attractive production techniques and cost scaling relationships for a commercial target factory.

  16. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THIS SECTION OF THE FACTORY WAS USED FOR STORAGE; TO THE LEFT IS AN ELECTRIC MOTOR SUSPENDED FROM A COLLAR BEAM. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  17. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THIS SECTION OF THE FACTORY WAS USED FOR STORAGE; THE STAIRWAY LEADS DOWN TO THE SECOND FLOOR WHICH WAS THE LOCATION OF THE COMPANY OFFICE AND EMPLOYEE CHANGE ROOM. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  18. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THIS SECTION OF THE FACTORY WAS USED FOR STORAGE; CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING EXTENDS ALONG THE CENTER ROW OF COLUMNS. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  19. 37. NORTH TO BINS ALONG NORTH WALL OF FACTORY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. NORTH TO BINS ALONG NORTH WALL OF FACTORY BUILDING WHICH REMAIN FILLED WITH NEW OLD STOCK AND USED PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. THE ROPE AT THE LOWER FOREGROUND WAS USED IN ERECTING WINDMILLS AND TOWERS FOR CUSTOMERS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  20. Muon Front-End for the Neutrino Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernow, R. C.

    2006-05-01

    The front end at a neutrino factory includes all the systems necessary for capturing the pion beam produced at the target and for preparing the transverse and longitudinal phase space of the resulting muon beam for subsequent acceleration to high energies. We compare front end configurations for a number of neutrino factory designs.

  1. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other businesses within... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of...

  2. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other businesses within... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of...

  3. Students Tackle Academics in Practical Context at Skateboard Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    High school student Nick Robertson came to Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF) from a suburban Toronto district. He was surfing the web when he spotted a reference to Oasis Skateboard Factory, an alternative program in the Toronto District School Board. He says his first reaction was "Skateboards in school? It didn't seem possible." He applied, was…

  4. Perspective view. Fivestory reinforced concrete factory building reveals the structural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. Five-story reinforced concrete factory building reveals the structural frame on the exterior of the facade. Twelve bay facade facing onto Clay Avenue (north facade) has first floor openings bricked up. Mix of typical factory windows and glass block windows fill the majority of the openings on the rest of building - Russell Industrial Center, 1600 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  5. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

  6. Factorial Invariance of a Pan-Hispanic Familism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Ricardo; Blozis, Shelley A.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the validity and factorial invariance of an attitudinal measure of familism. Using a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. Hispanics, the validity and factorial invariance of the measure was tested across country of origin (United States, Mexico, and Latin America) and the language in which the survey was conducted…

  7. 1. Aerial photograph of the Quaker Oats Cereal Factory looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial photograph of the Quaker Oats Cereal Factory looking east to west. Structures included in this complex situated on the east side of Broadway Street between Bowery Street and Mill Street range in date of original use from 1886 to 1940. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  8. 2. Aerial photograph of the Quaker Oats Cereal Factory looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial photograph of the Quaker Oats Cereal Factory looking west to east. Structures included in this complex situated on the east side of Broadway Street between Bowery Street and Mill Street range in date of original use from 1886 to 1940. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  9. National photonics skills standards for technicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Darrell M.

    1995-10-01

    Photonics is defined as the generation, manipulation, transport, detection, and use of light information and energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The range of applications of phonics extends from energy generation to detection to communication and information processing. Photonics is at the heart of today's communication systems, from the laser that generates the digital information transported along a fiber- optic cable to the detector that decodes the information. Whether the transmitted information is a phone call from across the street or across the globe, photonics brings it to you. Where your health is concerned, photonics allows physicians to do minimally invasive surgery using fiber-optic endoscopes and lasers. Researches using spectroscopy and microscopy are pushing the frontiers of biotechnology in activities as widespread as diagnosing disease and probing the mysteries of the genetic code. Advanced sensing and imaging techniques monitor the environment, gathering data on crops and forests, analyzing the ocean's currents and contents, and probing the atmosphere of pollutants. Transportation needs are being impacted by photonic sensors and laser rangefinders that will soon monitor and control the traffic on our nation's highways. In our factories, photonics provides machine vision systems that give a level of quality control human inspectors could never achieve. In manufacturing, lasers are replacing a variety of cutting, welding, and marking techniques, while imaging systems teamed with neural networks are producing intelligent robots. In short, photonics is paving our way into the new millennium. The skill standard is intended to define the knowledge and capabilities - the skills - that workers in the phonics industry need. Phonics will be one of the primary battlefields of the world economic conflict, and it is imperative that U.S. photonics technicians be skilled enough to allow the United States to remain competitive in a global marketplace. The

  10. Controllable photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszetzky, Dániel; Nagy, Attila; Czitrovszky, Aladár

    2006-10-01

    We have developed our pervious experimental setup using correlated photon pairs (to the calibration of photo detectors) to realize a controllable photon source. For the generation of such photon pairs we use the non-linear process of parametric down conversion. When a photon of the pump beam is incident to a nonlinear crystal with phase matching condition, a pair of photons (signal and idler) is created at the same time with certain probability. We detect the photons in the signal beam with a single photon counting module (SPCM), while delaying those in the idler beam. Recently we have developed a fast electronic unit to control an optical shutter (a Pockels cell) placed to the optical output of the idler beam. When we detect a signal photon with the controlling electronic unit we are also able to open or close the fast optical shutter. Thus we can control which idler photons can propagate through the Pockels cell. So with this photon source we are able to program the number of photons in a certain time window. This controllable photon source that is able to generate a known number of photons with specified wavelength, direction, and polarization could be useful for applications in high-accuracy optical characterisation of photometric devices at the ultra-low intensities. This light source can also serve as a standard in testing of optical image intensifiers, night vision devices, and in the accurate measurement of spectral distribution of transmission and absorption in optical materials.

  11. The Experience Factory: Strategy and Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi

    1995-01-01

    The quality movement, that has had in recent years a dramatic impact on all industrial sectors, has recently reached the system and software industry. Although some concepts of quality management, originally developed for other product types, can be applied to software, its specificity as a product which is developed and not produced requires a special approach. This paper introduces a quality paradigm specifically tailored on the problem of the systems and software industry. Reuse of products, processes and experiences originating from the system life cycle is seen today as a feasible solution to the problem of developing higher quality systems at a lower cost. In fact, quality improvement is very often achieved by defining and developing an appropriate set of strategic capabilities and core competencies to support them. A strategic capability is, in this context, a corporate goal defined by the business position of the organization and implemented by key business processes. Strategic capabilities are supported by core competencies, which are aggregate technologies tailored to the specific needs of the organization in performing the needed business processes. Core competencies are non-transitional, have a consistent evolution, and are typically fueled by multiple technologies. Their selection and development requires commitment, investment and leadership. The paradigm introduced in this paper for developing core competencies is the Quality Improvement Paradigm which consists of six steps: (1) Characterize the environment, (2) Set the goals, (3) Choose the process, (4) Execute the process, (5) Analyze the process data, and (6) Package experience. The process must be supported by a goal oriented approach to measurement and control, and an organizational infrastructure, called Experience Factory. The Experience Factory is a logical and physical organization distinct from the project organizations it supports. Its goal is development and support of core competencies

  12. Neutrino Factory Targets and the MICE Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Walaron, Kenneth Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The future of particle physics in the next 30 years must include detailed study of neutrinos. The first proof of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics is evident in results from recent neutrino experiments which imply that neutrinos have mass and flavour mixing. The Neutrino Factory is the leading contender to measure precisely the neutrino mixing parameters to probe beyond the Standard Model physics. Significantly, one must look to measure the mixing angle θ13 and investigate the possibility of leptonic CP violation. If found this may provide a key insight into the origins of the matter/anti- matter asymmetry seen in the universe, through the mechanism of leptogenesis. The Neutrino Factory will be a large international multi-billion dollar experiment combining novel new accelerator and long-baseline detector technology. Arguably the most important and costly features of this facility are the proton driver and cooling channel. This thesis will present simulation work focused on determining the optimal proton driver energy to maximise pion production and also simulation of the transport of this pion °ux through some candidate transport lattices. Bench-marking of pion cross- sections calculated by MARS and GEANT4 codes to measured data from the HARP experiment is also presented. The cooling channel aims to reduce the phase-space volume of the decayed muon beam to a level that can be e±ciently injected into the accelerator system. The Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) hosted by the Rutherford Appleton laboratory, UK is a proof-of-principle experiment aimed at measuring ionisation cooling. The experiment will run parasitically to the ISIS accelerator and will produce muons from pion decay. The MICE beamline provides muon beams of variable emittance and momentum to the MICE experiment to enable measurement of cooling over a wide range of beam conditions. Simulation work in the design of this beamline is presented in this thesis as

  13. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  14. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  15. VLBA Reveals Dust-Enshrouded "Supernova Factory"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope, astronomers have discovered a newly-exploded star, or supernova, hidden deep in a dust-enshrouded "supernova factory" in a galaxy some 140 million light-years from Earth. "This supernova is likely to be part of a group of super star clusters that produce one such stellar explosion every two years," said James Ulvestad, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "We're extremely excited by the tremendous insights into star formation and the early Universe that we may gain by observing this 'supernova factory,'" he added. Ulvestad worked with Susan Neff of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, and Stacy Teng, a graduate student at the University of Maryland, on the project. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Nashville, TN. "These super star clusters likely are forming in much the same way that globular clusters formed in the early Universe, and thus provide us with a unique opportunity to learn about how some of the first stars formed billions of years ago," Neff said. The cluster is in an object called Arp 299, a pair of colliding galaxies, where regions of vigorous star formation have been found in past observations. Since 1990, four other supernova explosions have been seen optically in Arp 299. Observations with the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) earlier showed a region near the nucleus of one of the colliding galaxies which had all the earmarks of prolific star formation. The astronomers focused on this region, prosaically dubbed "Source A," with the VLBA and the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in 2002, and found four objects in this dusty cloud that are likely young supernova remnants. When they observed the region again in February 2003, there was a new, fifth, object located only 7 light-years from one of the previously detected objects. More observations on April 30-May

  16. Agile manufacturing: The factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loibl, Joseph M.; Bossieux, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The factory of the future will require an operating methodology which effectively utilizes all of the elements of product design, manufacturing and delivery. The process must respond rapidly to changes in product demand, product mix, design changes or changes in the raw materials. To achieve agility in a manufacturing operation, the design and development of the manufacturing processes must focus on customer satisfaction. Achieving greatest results requires that the manufacturing process be considered from product concept through sales. This provides the best opportunity to build a quality product for the customer at a reasonable rate. The primary elements of a manufacturing system include people, equipment, materials, methods and the environment. The most significant and most agile element in any process is the human resource. Only with a highly trained, knowledgeable work force can the proper methods be applied to efficiently process materials with machinery which is predictable, reliable and flexible. This paper discusses the affect of each element on the development of agile manufacturing systems.

  17. Future Accelerators, Muon Colliders, and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A Carrigan, Jr.

    2001-12-19

    Particle physics is driven by five great topics. Neutrino oscillations and masses are now at the fore. The standard model with extensions to supersymmetry and a Higgs to generate mass explains much of the field. The origins of CP violation are not understood. The possibility of extra dimensions has raised tantalizing new questions. A fifth topic lurking in the background is the possibility of something totally different. Many of the questions raised by these topics require powerful new accelerators. It is not an overstatement to say that for some of the issues, the accelerator is almost the experiment. Indeed some of the questions require machines beyond our present capability. As this volume attests, there are parts of the particle physics program that have been significantly advanced without the use of accelerators such as the subject of neutrino oscillations and many aspects of the particle-cosmology interface. At this stage in the development of physics, both approaches are needed and important. This chapter first reviews the status of the great accelerator facilities now in operation or coming on within the decade. Next, midrange possibilities are discussed including linear colliders with the adjunct possibility of gamma-gamma colliders, muon colliders, with precursor neutrino factories, and very large hadron colliders. Finally visionary possibilities are considered including plasma and laser accelerators.

  18. Lidar/DIAL detection of bomb factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorani, Luca; Puiu, Adriana; Rosa, Olga; Palucci, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    One of the aims of the project BONAS (BOmb factory detection by Networks of Advanced Sensors) is to develop a lidar/DIAL (differential absorption lidar) to detect precursors employed in the manufacturing of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). At first, a spectroscopic study has been carried out: the infrared (IR) gas phase spectrum of acetone, one of the more important IED precursors, has been procured from available databases and checked with cell measurements. Then, the feasibility of a lidar/DIAL for the detection of acetone vapors has been shown in laboratory, simulating the experimental conditions of a field campaign. Eventually, having in mind measurements in a real scenario, an interferent study has been performed, looking for all known compounds that share with acetone IR absorption in the spectral band selected for its detection. Possible interfering species were investigated, simulating both urban and industrial atmospheres and limits of acetone detection in both environments were identified. This study confirmed that a lidar/DIAL can detect low concentration of acetone at considerable distances.

  19. Factory daughters, the family, and nuptiality in Java.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D L

    1990-01-01

    The commercialization of agriculture, increasing landlessness, and an expanding labor class in rural areas of Java are all the result of industrialization. This work discusses the effect of female employment on marriage patterns of women working in rural factories. The central point is that employment has not only increased the financial autonomy of these women, but also increased the level of control they have over the choice of marriage partners. The data set used for analysis consisted of the observations of all factory workers and all non-factory females age 15-24 located in an agricultural village. The observations were make over a 15 month period between 1981-83. A follow up visit was made in 1986 and the following conclusions were then made: 1) the village study gave detailed data, but the data set was not large enough, thus a follow up study that encompasses more people is called for; 2) young rural female factory workers are more likely to chose their marriage partners than those engaged in traditional village labor. Of those that married and worked in factories, their fertility rate was significantly lower, compared to non-factory workers. Factory workers also had different family structures, because they spent less time living in extended families because of a larger income for the couple. This study indicates that increased economic control results in increased life decision control. This changed the daughter's economic relationship with her family and gives her more control in marriage decisions.

  20. Factorial Experiments: Efficient Tools for Evaluation of Intervention Components

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Linda M.; Dziak, John J.; Kugler, Kari C.; Trail, Jessica B.

    2014-01-01

    Background An understanding of the individual and combined effects of a set of intervention components is important for moving the science of preventive medicine interventions forward. This understanding can often be achieved in an efficient and economical way via a factorial experiment, in which two or more independent variables are manipulated. The factorial experiment is a complement to the randomized controlled trial (RCT); the two designs address different research questions. Purpose This article offers an introduction to factorial experiments aimed at investigators trained primarily in the RCT. Method The factorial experiment is compared and contrasted with other experimental designs used commonly in intervention science to highlight where each is most efficient and appropriate. Results Several points are made: factorial experiments make very efficient use of experimental subjects when the data are properly analyzed; a factorial experiment can have excellent statistical power even if it has relatively few subjects per experimental condition; and when conducting research to select components for inclusion in a multicomponent intervention, interactions should be studied rather than avoided. Conclusions Investigators in preventive medicine and related areas should begin considering factorial experiments alongside other approaches. Experimental designs should be chosen from a resource management perspective, which states that the best experimental design is the one that provides the greatest scientific benefit without exceeding available resources. PMID:25092122

  1. Laser-cooled radioactive francium factory at CYRIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, T.; Sato, T.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A factory of laser-cooled francium (Fr) atoms is being developed to search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron. The factory has achieved the production of Fr ions of 9 × 105 particles/s and transport with a transmission efficiency of 2%. In pilot experiments, the magneto-optical trapping of rubidium (Rb) has been performed using a new ion-to-atom converter. To achieve the Fr trap, the development and design of each of the factory's components are in progress.

  2. Energy conservation through recycling of factory asphalt roofing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, P.B.; Powers, T.J. . Manville Technical Center); Hardy, J.; Maloof, R.; Patenaude, C.; Zilfi, J. )

    1989-12-31

    Prior DOE laboratory research showed that it was possible to recover the energy resource represented in factory shingle waste. This waste could be processed and recycled into the asphalt composition used to make new shingles. This bench-scale research concluded that factory experiments were all that were needed to provide a basis for commercial implementation. The project reported here completed that full scale research. Factory fiber glass shingle waste was processed to a form suitable for recycling. The processed waste was then mixed into the asphalt used to make new shingles. Process parameters and shingle quality were measured to provide a basis for commercial implementation.

  3. Design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Photon Factory.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Y; Inami, N; Suga, H; Miyamoto, C; Ueno, T; Mase, K; Takahashi, Y; Ono, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a new compact instrument designed for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. It has piezo-driven linear stages, making it small and light. Optical components from the virtual source point to the detector are located on a single optical table, resulting in a portable instrument that can be operated at a general-purpose spectroscopy beamline without requiring any major reconstruction. Careful consideration has been given to solving the vibration problem common to high-resolution microscopy, so as not to affect the spatial resolution determined by the Fresnel zone plate. Results on bacteriogenic iron oxides, single particle aerosols, and rare-earth permanent magnets are presented as examples of its performance under diverse applications. PMID:26827325

  4. Design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Photon Factory.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Y; Inami, N; Suga, H; Miyamoto, C; Ueno, T; Mase, K; Takahashi, Y; Ono, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a new compact instrument designed for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. It has piezo-driven linear stages, making it small and light. Optical components from the virtual source point to the detector are located on a single optical table, resulting in a portable instrument that can be operated at a general-purpose spectroscopy beamline without requiring any major reconstruction. Careful consideration has been given to solving the vibration problem common to high-resolution microscopy, so as not to affect the spatial resolution determined by the Fresnel zone plate. Results on bacteriogenic iron oxides, single particle aerosols, and rare-earth permanent magnets are presented as examples of its performance under diverse applications.

  5. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sochat, Vanessa V; Eisenberg, Ian W; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  6. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-07-29

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 {angstrom} for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the low-redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and follow-up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based follow-up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of follow-up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager.

  7. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sochat, Vanessa V.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  8. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sochat, Vanessa V; Eisenberg, Ian W; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  9. Make your company a talent factory.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A; Conger, Jay A

    2007-06-01

    Despite the great sums of money companies dedicate to talent management systems, many still struggle to fill key positions - limiting their potential for growth in the process. Virtually all the human resource executives in the authors' 2005 survey of 40 companies around the world said that their pipeline of high-potential employees was insufficient to fill strategic management roles. The survey revealed two primary reasons for this. First, the formal procedures for identifying and developing next-generation leaders have fallen out of sync with what companies need to grow or expand into new markets. To save money, for example, some firms have eliminated positions that would expose high-potential employees to a broad range of problems, thus sacrificing future development opportunities that would far outweigh any initial savings from the job cuts. Second, HR executives often have trouble keeping top leaders' attention on talent issues, despite those leaders' vigorous assertions that obtaining and keeping the best people is a major priority. If passion for that objective doesn't start at the top and infuse the culture, say the authors, talent management can easily deteriorate into the management of bureaucratic routines. Yet there are companies that can face the future with confidence. These firms don't just manage talent, they build talent factories. The authors describe the experiences of two such corporations - consumer products icon Procter & Gamble and financial services giant HSBC Group -that figured out how to develop and retain key employees and fill positions quickly to meet evolving business needs. Though each company approached talent management from a different direction, they both maintained a twin focus on functionality (rigorous talent processes that support strategic and cultural objectives) and vitality (management's emotional commitment, which is reflected in daily actions).

  10. Make your company a talent factory.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A; Conger, Jay A

    2007-06-01

    Despite the great sums of money companies dedicate to talent management systems, many still struggle to fill key positions - limiting their potential for growth in the process. Virtually all the human resource executives in the authors' 2005 survey of 40 companies around the world said that their pipeline of high-potential employees was insufficient to fill strategic management roles. The survey revealed two primary reasons for this. First, the formal procedures for identifying and developing next-generation leaders have fallen out of sync with what companies need to grow or expand into new markets. To save money, for example, some firms have eliminated positions that would expose high-potential employees to a broad range of problems, thus sacrificing future development opportunities that would far outweigh any initial savings from the job cuts. Second, HR executives often have trouble keeping top leaders' attention on talent issues, despite those leaders' vigorous assertions that obtaining and keeping the best people is a major priority. If passion for that objective doesn't start at the top and infuse the culture, say the authors, talent management can easily deteriorate into the management of bureaucratic routines. Yet there are companies that can face the future with confidence. These firms don't just manage talent, they build talent factories. The authors describe the experiences of two such corporations - consumer products icon Procter & Gamble and financial services giant HSBC Group -that figured out how to develop and retain key employees and fill positions quickly to meet evolving business needs. Though each company approached talent management from a different direction, they both maintained a twin focus on functionality (rigorous talent processes that support strategic and cultural objectives) and vitality (management's emotional commitment, which is reflected in daily actions). PMID:17580649

  11. Factorial kriging analysis applied to geological data from petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquet, O.

    1989-10-01

    A regionalized variable, thickness of the reservoir layer, from a gas field is decomposed by factorial kriging analysis. Maps of the obtained components may be associated with depositional environments that are favorable for petroleum exploration.

  12. Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Juan; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Tzeng, Wen-Ping; Frey, Teryl K.; Fernandez, Jose J.; Risco, Cristina

    2010-09-30

    Viral factories are complex structures in the infected cell where viruses compartmentalize their life cycle. Rubella virus (RUBV) assembles factories by recruitment of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), mitochondria and Golgi around modified lysosomes known as cytopathic vacuoles or CPVs. These organelles contain active replication complexes that transfer replicated RNA to assembly sites in Golgi membranes. We have studied the structure of RUBV factory in three dimensions by electron tomography and freeze-fracture. CPVs contain stacked membranes, rigid sheets, small vesicles and large vacuoles. These membranes are interconnected and in communication with the endocytic pathway since they incorporate endocytosed BSA-gold. RER and CPVs are coupled through protein bridges and closely apposed membranes. Golgi vesicles attach to the CPVs but no tight contacts with mitochondria were detected. Immunogold labelling confirmed that the mitochondrial protein p32 is an abundant component around and inside CPVs where it could play important roles in factory activities.

  13. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWOSTORY SECTION BUILT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWO-STORY SECTION BUILT IN 1892 AND PARTIALLY DESTROYED PARAPET SECTION BUILT CA. 1948. BRICK CHIMNEY ALSO BUILT CA. 1948. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  14. Reliability and Factorial Validity of the Student Development Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lorraine Morlock; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Student Development Inventory and its seven subscales were administered to 163 college students to determine its reliability and factorial validity. Results suggested that it is a reliable and convenient attitudinal inventory. (Sample items are included.) (Author/GDC)

  15. Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Guidman, K.K.; Strait, J.B.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Optimization of pion and muon production/collection for neutrino factories and muon colliders is described along with recent developments of the MARS15 code event generators and effects influencing the choice of the optimal beam energy.

  16. RIKEN Radio Isotope Beam Factory: Japanese Flagship for Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En'yo, Hideto

    2015-11-01

    Recent activities at the RIKEN Radio Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) are reported together with its history and future prospects. RIBF is the Japanese flagship for nuclear science, and at this moment is the world flagship machine.

  17. 19. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, view of second floor's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, view of second floor's permutit room, view looking east showing water treatment tanks - North Star Woolen Mill, 109 Portland Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  18. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT PARTIAL EAST ELEVATION OF FACTORY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT PARTIAL EAST ELEVATION OF FACTORY, SHOWING FORMER OHIO & ERIE CANAL PRISM IN FOREGROUND THAT WAS USED AS WATER RESERVOIR (500,000 GALLON) - Jaite Paper Mill, 1200 West Highland Road, Sagamore Hills, Summit County, OH

  19. 12. SOUTH INSIDE FACTORY ALONG EAST WALL TO PARTS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTH INSIDE FACTORY ALONG EAST WALL TO PARTS STORAGE SHELVES AND BINS OUTSIDE PARTITION WALL OF OFFICE. THE SOUTH PARTITION WALL IN THIS AREA IS FITTED WITH SHELVES COVERED WITH BOXES CONTAINING MANUSCRIPT COMPANY RECORDS. THE BENCH IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND WAS USED FOR ATTACHING WROUGHT IRON CONNECTIONS TO THE ENDS OF WOODEN SUCKER RODS; THE WOODEN RODS WERE STORED ON THE RACKS ALONG THE EAST WALL OF THIS AREA. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  20. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  1. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  2. 9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY PAST THE GLASS-ENCLOSED OFFICE TOWARD SHOP AREA. BESIDE THE VERTICAL POST ROOF SUPPORT IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SCALE AND DRAFTING TABLE. BESIDE THE OFFICE WALL ON THE RIGHT IS A SMALL SHOP REPAIR BENCH, WHILE ABOVE THE OFFICE WINDOWS ARE BOXES OF COMPANY MANUSCRIPT BUSINESS RECORDS. THE WELDED METAL PIPE RACK IS A MODERN INTRUSION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  3. The role of specialized transcription factories in chromosome pairing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Cook, Peter R

    2008-11-01

    Homologous chromosomes can pair in somatic and germ line cells, and many mechanisms have been proposed to explain how they do so. One popular class of models involves base-pairing between DNA strands catalyzed by recombination proteins, but pairing still occurs in mutants lacking the relevant functional proteins. We discuss an alternative based on two observations: transcription occurs in factories that specialize in transcribing specific gene sub-sets, and chromosomes only pair when transcribed. Each chromosome in the haploid set has a unique array of transcription units strung along its length; we suggest each is organized into clouds of loops tethered to specialized factories. Only homologs share similar strings of clouds and factories. Pairing begins when a promoter on one chromosome initiates in the homologous and specialized factory organized mainly by its homologous partner. This transiently ties the two homologs together, to increase the chances that adjacent promoters initiate in their homologous factories and that the two homologs will be zipped together. Then, interactions between promoters and RNA polymerases in the factories mediate pairing.

  4. Single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information.

  5. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Mu-In

    2015-12-01

    There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc / G) 1 / 2 ∼10-5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as "spacetime foam", due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG /c3) 1 / 2 ∼10-33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called "Black Wormhole", consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2 > 1 / 2), a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2 < 1 / 2), the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2 = 1 / 2). This solution suggests the "Generalized Cosmic Censorship" by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by "negative" energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the recent " ER

  6. The Subduction Factory of Hydrocarbon Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleschev, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    THE SUBDUCTION FACTORY OF HYDROCARBON FORMATION K. A. Kleschev VNIGNI, Moscow, Russia balanyuk@sio.rssi.ru In the zones of collision of continental lithospheric plates, the subducting plates drive down great amounts of sediments formed at the former passive margins. This sedimentary layer, enclosed between two plates, contains significant quantities of hydrocarbons and occurs under the effect of strong shear deformations and special thermodynamic conditions. As the mass of the sediments passing through this zone is rather great, there are favorable conditions for occurrence of numerous hydrocarbon fields of industrial importance, including fields giants. Combined consideration of geodynamic and fluidodynamic aspects in a model of lithospheric plates collision enables to understand the influence of P T conditions and shear deformations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon generation and to look after their migration in the lithosphere up to the formation of deposits. Such model would allow one not only to describe and to explain these processes, but also to predict some features essential for the search and exploration of hydrocarbon fields in these regions and their classification. Enormous volumes of sediments accumulated over continental slopes and shelves are involved into the subduction zones in the course of overthrusting of island arcs onto continental margins. The weight of the overthrusting island arc substantially accelerates the subsiding of the continental margin. Crustal ground waters and hydrocarbons, capable to migration, begin to be squeezed out from the sedimentary material delivered to the waveguide zone under the island arc. The waters from the waveguide zone and the thermal water, released through dehydration of sediments and rocks of the former ocean crust and supplied from the deeper parts of the subduction zone, favor this process. Although the major portion of hydrocarbons is discharged and lost still in the body of the island arc itself

  7. Function photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bai-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals (PCs), whose refractive index is a function of space position. Conventional PCs structure grows from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants εA and εB. Based on Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we give the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals, and we find the following: (1) For the vertical and non-vertical incidence light of function photonic crystals, there are band gap structures, and for only the vertical incidence light, the conventional PCs have band gap structures. (2) By choosing various refractive index distribution functions n( z), we can obtain more wider or more narrower band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  8. First-photon imaging.

    PubMed

    Kirmani, Ahmed; Venkatraman, Dheera; Shin, Dongeek; Colaço, Andrea; Wong, Franco N C; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    Imagers that use their own illumination can capture three-dimensional (3D) structure and reflectivity information. With photon-counting detectors, images can be acquired at extremely low photon fluxes. To suppress the Poisson noise inherent in low-flux operation, such imagers typically require hundreds of detected photons per pixel for accurate range and reflectivity determination. We introduce a low-flux imaging technique, called first-photon imaging, which is a computational imager that exploits spatial correlations found in real-world scenes and the physics of low-flux measurements. Our technique recovers 3D structure and reflectivity from the first detected photon at each pixel. We demonstrate simultaneous acquisition of sub-pulse duration range and 4-bit reflectivity information in the presence of high background noise. First-photon imaging may be of considerable value to both microscopy and remote sensing.

  9. Two-photon physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1981-10-01

    A new experimental frontier has recently been opened to the study of two photon processes. The first results of many aspects of these reactions are being presented at this conference. In contrast, the theoretical development of research ito two photon processes has a much longer history. This talk reviews the many different theoretical ideas which provide a detailed framework for our understanding of two photon processes.

  10. Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2005-03-22

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  11. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, Scott; Krainak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  12. Photon simulated desorption revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, D.

    A promising new method for surface investigations is discussed: Photon stimulated desorption. The electronic excitations of adsorbate complexes on surfaces, either by electron impact or photon absorption, which can lead to repulsive states of the complex and therefore to expulsion of ions and neutrals are considered. Such processes are termed electron (or photon) stimulated desorption, ESD and PSD, respectively. Apart from the primary agent (electrons or photons), these processes are similar, and common label "desorption induced by electronic transitions" (acronym DIET) was proposed. Desorption effects, intrinsic photoneffects, and some of the advantages of PSD over ESD are discussed.

  13. A simple model for factory distribution: Historical effect in an industry city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Takashi; Sato, Kazunori; Morita, Satoru; Maeda, Yasunobu; Yoshimura, Jin; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2016-02-01

    The construction and discontinuance processes of factories are complicated problems in sociology. We focus on the spatial and temporal changes of factories at Hamamatsu city in Japan. Real data indicate that the clumping degree of factories decreases as the density of factory increases. To represent the spatial and temporal changes of factories, we apply "contact process" which is one of cellular automata. This model roughly explains the dynamics of factory distribution. We also find "historical effect" in spatial distribution. Namely, the recent factories have been dispersed due to the past distribution during the period of economic bubble. This effect may be related to heavy shock in Japanese stock market.

  14. Resonances in photon-photon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1984-11-01

    A quantity called stickiness is introduced which should be largest for J not equal to 0 glueballs and can be measured in two photon scattering and radiative J/psi decay. An argument is reviewed suggesting that light J = 0 glueballs may have large couplings to two photons. The analysis of radiative decays of eta and eta' is reviewed and a plea made to desist from false claims that they are related to GAMMA(..pi../sup 0/ ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..) by SU(3) symmetry. It is shown that two photon studies can refute the difficult-to-refute hypothesis that xi(2220) or zeta(8320) are Higgs bosons. A gallery of rogue resonances and resonance candidates is presented which would usefully be studied in ..gamma gamma.. scattering, including especially the low mass dipion. 34 references.

  15. Microbially induced and microbially catalysed precipitation: two different carbonate factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The landmark paper by Schlager (2003) has revealed three types of benthic carbonate production referred to as "carbonate factories", operative at different locations at different times in Earth history. The tropical or T-factory comprises the classical platforms and fringing reefs and is dominated by carbonate precipitation by autotrophic calcifying metazoans ("biotically controlled" precipitation). The cool or C-factory is also biotically controlled but via heterotrophic, calcifying metazoans in cold and deep waters at the continental margins. A further type is the mud-mound or M-factory, where carbonate precipitation is supported by microorganisms but not controlled by a specific enzymatic pathway ("biotically induced" precipitation). How exactly the microbes influence precipitation is still poorly understood. Based on recent experimental and field studies, the microbial influence on modern mud mound and microbialite growth includes two fundamentally different processes: (1) Metabolic activity of microbes may increase the saturation state with respect to a particular mineral phase, thereby indirectly driving the precipitation of the mineral phase: microbially induced precipitation. (2) In a situation, where a solution is already supersaturated but precipitation of the mineral is inhibited by a kinetic barrier, microbes may act as a catalyser, i.e. they lower the kinetic barrier: microbially catalysed precipitation. Such a catalytic effect can occur e.g. via secreted polymeric substances or specific chemical groups on the cell surface, at which the minerals nucleate or which facilitate mechanistically the bonding of new ions to the mineral surface. Based on these latest developments in microbialite formation, I propose to extend the scheme of benthic carbonate factories of Schlager et al. (2003) by introducing an additional branch distinguishing microbially induced from microbially catalysed precipitation. Although both mechanisms could be operative in a M-factory

  16. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Würthwein, F.; Andrews, W.; Dost, J. M.; MacNeill, I.; McCrea, A.; Sheripon, E.; Murphy, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  17. Kinetic models in industrial biotechnology - Improving cell factory performance.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Joachim; Cvijovic, Marija; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Nielsen, Jens; Jirstrand, Mats

    2014-07-01

    An increasing number of industrial bioprocesses capitalize on living cells by using them as cell factories that convert sugars into chemicals. These processes range from the production of bulk chemicals in yeasts and bacteria to the synthesis of therapeutic proteins in mammalian cell lines. One of the tools in the continuous search for improved performance of such production systems is the development and application of mathematical models. To be of value for industrial biotechnology, mathematical models should be able to assist in the rational design of cell factory properties or in the production processes in which they are utilized. Kinetic models are particularly suitable towards this end because they are capable of representing the complex biochemistry of cells in a more complete way compared to most other types of models. They can, at least in principle, be used to in detail understand, predict, and evaluate the effects of adding, removing, or modifying molecular components of a cell factory and for supporting the design of the bioreactor or fermentation process. However, several challenges still remain before kinetic modeling will reach the degree of maturity required for routine application in industry. Here we review the current status of kinetic cell factory modeling. Emphasis is on modeling methodology concepts, including model network structure, kinetic rate expressions, parameter estimation, optimization methods, identifiability analysis, model reduction, and model validation, but several applications of kinetic models for the improvement of cell factories are also discussed.

  18. Site environmental assessment to an old paint factory in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fucheng; Yan, Jichang; Wang, Yuehong; Chen, Dawei

    2008-04-01

    High ethyl-benzene and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were found in the soil samples and groundwater samples during a site environmental assessment for an old paint factory in the city Changchun, Jilin province of China. The target old paint plant had been in operation for near 30 years by manufacturing resin and house paint. Driving force for this study was to identify potential environmental contamination existing in this paint factory which is located next to a new resident area under construction. The assessment result would be used as baseline environmental data input for remediation plan when the factory site will be changed into potential resident area in near future. The analytical data from the soil samples from different area of the factory which had high exposure to operation showed that solid waster storage area was contaminated with high heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) and waster paint storage areas were contaminated with ethyl-benzene, xylene and C9-C30 aromatic hydrocarbon solvent. The analytical data from the groundwater samples from different area of the factory showed that resin plant area and waster paint storage areas were contaminated with high concentration of naphthalene, ethyl-benzene and xylene which exceed the reference standard. Remediation action is recommended.

  19. FFAGs: Front-end for neutrino factories and medical accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoshiharu

    The idea of Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator was originated by different people and groups in the early 1950s. It was independently introduced by Ohkawa [Ohkawa (1953)], Symon et al. [Symon et al. (1956)], and Kolomensky [Kolomensky and Lebedev (1966)] when the strong Alternate Gradient (AG) focusing and the phase stability schemes were applied to particle acceleration. The first FFAG electron model was developed in the MURA accelerator project led by Kerst and Cole in the late 1950s. Since then, they have fabricated several electron models in the early 1960s [Symon et al. (1956)]. However, the studies did not lead to a single practical FFAG accelerator for the following 50 years. Because of the difficulties of treating non-linear magnetic field and RF acceleration for non-relativistic particles, the proton FFAG, especially, was not accomplished until recently. In 2000, the FFAG concept was revived with the world's first proton FFAG (POP) which was developed at KEK [Aiba (2000); Mori (1999)]. Since then, in many places [Berg (2004); Johnstone et al. (2004); Mori (2011); Ruggiero (2004); Trbojevic (2004)], FFAGs have been developed and constructed...

  20. Photon mass from inflation.

    PubMed

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Törnkvist, Ola; Woodard, Richard

    2002-09-01

    We consider vacuum polarization from massless scalar electrodynamics in de Sitter inflation. The theory exhibits a 3+1 dimensional analog of the Schwinger mechanism in which a photon mass is dynamically generated. The mechanism is generic for light scalar fields that couple minimally to gravity. The nonvanishing of the photon mass during inflation may result in magnetic fields on cosmological scales.

  1. Photonic layered media

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2002-01-01

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  2. Spin-orbit photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardano, Filippo; Marrucci, Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Spin-orbit optical phenomena involve the interaction of the photon spin with the light wave propagation and spatial distribution, mediated by suitable optical media. Here we present a short overview of the emerging photonic applications that rely on such effects.

  3. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  4. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  5. Chirality in photonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solnyshkov, Dmitry; Malpuech, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    The optical modes of photonic structures are the so-called TE and TM modes that bring intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and chirality to these systems. This, combined with the unique flexibility of design of the photonic potential, and the possibility to mix photon states with excitonic resonances, sensitive to magnetic field and interactions, allows us to achieve many phenomena, often analogous to other solid-state systems. In this contribution, we review in a qualitative and comprehensive way several of these realizations, namely the optical spin Hall effect, the creation of spin currents protected by a non-trivial geometry, the Berry curvature for photons, and the photonic/polaritonic topological insulator.

  6. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  7. A novel photonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.

    1995-01-01

    We report a novel oscillator for photonic RF systems. This oscillator is capable of generating high-frequency signals up to 70 GHz in both electrical and optical domains and is a special voltage-controlled oscillator with an optical output port. It can be used to make a phase-locked loop (PLL) and perform all functions that a PLL is capable of for photonic systems. It can be synchronized to a reference source by means of optical injection locking, electrical injection locking, and PLL. It can also be self-phase locked and self-injection locked to generate a high-stability photonic RF reference. Its applications include high-frequency reference regeneration and distribution, high-gain frequency multiplication, comb-frequecy and square-wave generation, carrier recovery, and clock recovery. We anticipate that such photonic voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) will be as important to photonic RF systems as electrical VCOs are to electrical RF systems.

  8. Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.

    PubMed

    Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-12

    International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.

  9. Status of the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Kenneth

    2010-03-30

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) has been established by the Neutrino Factory community to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility by 2012. The baseline design for the facility, developed from that defined in the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS), will provide 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 25 GeV stored muon beams. The facility will serve two neutrino detectors; one situated at source-detector distance of between 3000-5000 km, the second at 7000-8000 km. The baseline design for the facility will be described and the status of the IDS-NF effort will be summarised.

  10. Prevalence of Acute Symptoms among Workers in Printing Factories

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify socioeconomic situation factors and behavioral factors associated with the prevalence of acute symptoms among 150 printing workers in 16 printing factories in Southern Thailand. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 150 printing workers in 16 printing factories in Southern Thailand. Results. Acute symptoms comprised dizziness, drowsiness, eye irritation, light-headedness, rhinitis, shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness, nausea/vomiting, exacerbation of asthma, allergic skin reaction, and visual disorder. The prevalence of symptoms was consistently higher among workers in the printing process than among other workers. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol were not associated with an increased prevalence of acute symptoms among these printing-factory workers. Conclusion. The significant associations were found between personal protective equipment and personal hygiene and prevalence of acute symptoms in printing workers. PMID:25386365

  11. On the Physics Case of a Super Flavour Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Browder, T.; Ciuchini, M.; Gershon, T.; Hazumi, M.; Hurth, T.; Okada, Y.; Stocchi, A.; /Hawaii U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Warwick U. /KEK, Tsukuba /CERN /SLAC /Tsukuba, Graduate U. Adv. Studies /Orsay, LAL /Orsay

    2007-11-07

    We summarize the physics case of a high-luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory collecting an integrated luminosity of 50 - 75 ab{sup -1}. Many New Physics sensitive measurements involving B and D mesons and {tau} leptons, unique to a Super Flavor Factory, can be performed with excellent sensitivity to new particles with masses up to {approx} 100 (or even {approx} 1000) TeV. Flavor- and CP-violating couplings of new particles that may be discovered at the LHC can be measured in most scenarios, even in unfavorable cases assuming minimal flavor violation. Together with the LHC, a Super Flavor Factory, following either the SuperKEKB or the SuperB proposal, could be soon starting the project of reconstructing the New Physics Lagrangian.

  12. Gearing up to the factory of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The features of factories and manufacturing techniques and tools of the near future are discussed. The spur to incorporate new technologies on the factory floor will originate in management, who must guide the interfacing of computer-enhanced equipment with traditional manpower, materials and machines. Electronic control with responsiveness and flexibility will be the key concept in an integrated approach to processing materials. Microprocessor controlled laser and fluid cutters add accuracy to cutting operations. Unattended operation will become feasible when automated inspection is added to a work station through developments in robot vision. Optimum shop management will be achieved through AI programming of parts manufacturing, optimized work flows, and cost accounting. The automation enhancements will allow designers to affect directly parts being produced on the factory floor.

  13. Analysis of Interpersonal Communication Processes in Digital Factory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Jens; Baum, Heiko; Laue, Martin; Müller, Egon

    The paper outlines the scope of influence of digital factory on the interpersonal communication process and the exemplary description of them. On the basis of a brief description about the theoretical basic concepts of the digital factory occurs the illustration of communicative features in digital factory. Practical coherences of interpersonal communication from a human oriented view were analyzed in Volkswagen AG in Wolfsburg in a pilot project. A modeling method was developed within the process analysis. This method makes it possible to visualize interpersonal communication and its human oriented attribute in a technically focused workflow. Due to the results of a developed inquiry about communication analysis and process models of modeling methods it was possible to build the processes in a suitable way for humans and to obtain a positive implication on the communication processes.

  14. Longitudinal Beam Stability in the SUPER B-FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati

    2009-07-06

    We give an overview of wake fields and impedances in a proposed Super B project, which is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large angle with a crab waist transformation. Understanding the effects that wake fields have on the beam is critical for a successful machine operation. We use our combined experience from the operation of the SLAC B-factory and DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-factory to eliminate strong HOM sources and minimize the chamber impedance in the Super B design. Based on a detailed study of the wake fields in this design we have developed a quasi-Green's function for the entire ring that is used to study bunch lengthening and beam stability. In particular, we check the stability threshold using numerical solutions of the Fokker-Plank equation. We also make a comparison of numerical simulations with the bunch lengthening data in the B- factory.

  15. Running medical image analysis on GridFactory desktop grid.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Frederik; Niinimaki, Marko; Zhou, Xin; Rosendahl, Peter; Müller, Henning; Waananen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    At the Geneva University Hospitals work is in progress to establish a computing facility for medical image analysis, potentially using several hundreds of desktop computers. Typically, hospitals do not have a computer infrastructure dedicated to research, nor can the data leave the hospital network for the reasons of privacy. For this purpose, a novel batch system called GridFactory has been tested along-side with the well-known batch system Condor. GridFactory's main benefits, compared to other batch systems, lie in its virtualization support and firewall friendliness. The tests involved running visual feature extraction from 50,000 anonymized medical images on a small local grid of 20 desktop computers. A comparisons with a Condor based batch system in the same computers is then presented. The performance of GridFactory is found satisfactory. PMID:19593040

  16. Quality of life among Thai workers in textile dyeing factories.

    PubMed

    Kittipichai, Wirin; Arsa, Rattanaporn; Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Singhakant, Chatchawal

    2014-11-30

    The purpose of a cross-sectional study was to investigate factors influencing the quality of life among Thai workers in textile dyeing factories. Samples included 205 Thai workers from five textile dyeing factories located in the suburban area of Bangkok in Thailand. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.70-0.91. The results revealed that the overall quality of life among workers was most likely between good and moderate levels, and the percentage-mean score was 74.77. The seven factors associated with the overall quality of life were co-worker relationships, safety at work in the dimension of accident prevention, job characteristics, supervisory relationships, welfares, marital status, and physical environment. Furthermore, co-worker relationships, accident prevention, and marital status were three considerable predictors accounted for 23% of the variance in the overall quality of life among workers in textile dyeing factories.

  17. Roadmap on silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, David; Zilkie, Aaron; Bowers, John E.; Komljenovic, Tin; Reed, Graham T.; Vivien, Laurent; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cassan, Eric; Virot, Léopold; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Boeuf, Frédéric; O'Brien, Peter; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon photonics research can be dated back to the 1980s. However, the previous decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the field. Silicon photonics is a disruptive technology that is poised to revolutionize a number of application areas, for example, data centers, high-performance computing and sensing. The key driving force behind silicon photonics is the ability to use CMOS-like fabrication resulting in high-volume production at low cost. This is a key enabling factor for bringing photonics to a range of technology areas where the costs of implementation using traditional photonic elements such as those used for the telecommunications industry would be prohibitive. Silicon does however have a number of shortcomings as a photonic material. In its basic form it is not an ideal material in which to produce light sources, optical modulators or photodetectors for example. A wealth of research effort from both academia and industry in recent years has fueled the demonstration of multiple solutions to these and other problems, and as time progresses new approaches are increasingly being conceived. It is clear that silicon photonics has a bright future. However, with a growing number of approaches available, what will the silicon photonic integrated circuit of the future look like? This roadmap on silicon photonics delves into the different technology and application areas of the field giving an insight into the state-of-the-art as well as current and future challenges faced by researchers worldwide. Contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide an overview and outlook for the silicon waveguide platform, optical sources, optical modulators, photodetectors, integration approaches, packaging, applications of silicon photonics and approaches required to satisfy applications at mid-infrared wavelengths. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced by the field in each of these areas are also addressed together with

  18. NEUTRINO FACTORY AND BETA BEAM EXPERIMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALBRIGHT, C.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.; GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; ET AL.

    2004-09-21

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here. There has been no corresponding activity in the U.S. on Beta Beam facility design and, given the very limited resources, there is little prospect of starting a significant U.S. Beta Beam R&D effort in the near future. However, the Beta Beam concept is interesting, and progress on its development in Europe should be followed. The Neutrino Factory R&D program has reached a critical stage in which support is required for two crucial international experiments and a third-generation international design study. If this support is forthcoming, a Neutrino Factory could be added to the Neutrino Community's road map in about a decade.

  19. Indistinguishability of independent single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F. W.; Wong, C. W.

    2009-01-01

    The indistinguishability of independent single photons is presented by decomposing the single photon pulse into the mixed state of different transform-limited pulses. The entanglement between single photons and outer environment or other photons induces the distribution of the center frequencies of those transform-limited pulses and makes photons distinguishable. Only the single photons with the same transform-limited form are indistinguishable. In details, the indistinguishability of single photons from the solid-state quantum emitter and spontaneous parametric down-conversion is examined with two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Moreover, experimental methods to enhance the indistinguishability are discussed, where the usage of spectral filter is highlighted.

  20. 40. NORTH ACROSS WOODWORKING AREA IN NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. NORTH ACROSS WOODWORKING AREA IN NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY ACROSS STACKED LUMBER ON SAWHORSES TOWARD CIRCA 1900 THICKNESS PLANER, SHOP-MADE BELT GUARD, AND BELOW THE SKYLIGHT OVERHEAD LINE SHAFT, BELTS, AND PULLEYS. BEYOND THE LUMBER ON A WHEELED WORK STATION ARE CIRCA 1900 ROLLS FOR BENDING PROPER CURVATURE IN STEEL WINDMILL BLADES AND CIRCA 1900 BEADING MACHINE FOR FORMING CREASES IN THE EDGES OF SHEET METAL PARTS SUCH AS WHEEL BLADES. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  1. n-Hexane polyneuropathy in a ball-manufacturing factory

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Shih, T.S.; Cheng, S.Y.; Chen, S.S.; Tchen, P.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Five overt and two occult cases of n-hexane polyneuropathy occurred in a ball-manufacturing factory in Taiwan. The severity of polyneuropathy was directly related to the index of n-hexane exposure that occurred during the processes of cement coating and nylon fiber winding in a poorly ventilated room. The n-hexane concentrations over eight hours of personal sampling of the air of the cement coating and nylon fiber winding areas were 109 ppm and 86 ppm, respectively. After installation of a new factory ventilation system, these seven patients recovered completely, and there were no new cases in the two-year follow-up.

  2. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2011-03-20

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in R&D towards a neutrino factory and muon collider. The U.S. Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has been formed recently to expedite the R&D efforts. This paper will review the U.S. MAP R&D programs for a neutrino factory and muon collider. Muon ionization cooling research is the key element of the program. The first muon ionization cooling demonstration experiment, MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment), is under construction now at RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) in the UK. The current status of MICE will be described.

  3. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2012-08-01

    In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Linear collider approach to a B anti B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper we consider the basic design expression and principal design constraints for a linear collider suitable for a B anti-B factory: Energy approx. =10 GeV, luminosity 10/sup 33/-10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/, energy resolution approx. =10/sup -2/. The design of room temperature linear colliders for a B factory is discussed. In such colliders, the rf energy stored in the linac structure is thrown away after each linac pulse. Linear colliders using superconducting rf cavities are considered. Some brief conclusions are presented.

  5. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration R and D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    2000-07-01

    The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) comprises some 140 scientists and engineers located at U.S. National Laboratories and Universities, and at a number of non-U.S. research institutions. In the past year, the MC R and D program has shifted its focus mainly toward the design issues related to the development of a Neutrino Factory based on a muon storage ring. In this paper the status of the various R and D activities is described, and future plans are outlined.

  6. Five practices of efficient factories applied to dental education.

    PubMed

    Nalliah, Romesh P

    2015-05-01

    Efficient factories, such as dental school clinics (DSC), are trying to improve the quality of their product by reducing inefficiencies, error rates, and wastage. Dental education is an expensive business for the student and the institution. Dental materials and equipment are costly, and students are novice providers who work slowly and inefficiently compared to an experienced dentist; this is not a good business model. The objective of this article was to present and apply five practices of efficient factories that could be applied to the DSC setting. I propose that this will lead to improved educational outcomes and improved patient outcomes in DSC. PMID:25891379

  7. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory.

    PubMed

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2012-08-01

    In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397918

  8. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  9. A cost-Effective Design for a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.S.; Bogacz, S.A.; Caspi, S.; Cobb, J.; Fernow, R.C.; Gallardo, J.C.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, R.; Paul, K.; Witte, H.; Zisman, M.

    2006-06-01

    There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a Neutrino Factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed Feasibility Study (FS2) for a Neutrino Factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as Study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  10. Cost-effective design for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Bogacz

    2006-01-01

    There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a neutrino factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high-energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed feasibility study (FS2) for a neutrino factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling, and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  11. Investigating photonic quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Casey Robert

    The use of photons as qubits is a promising implementation for quantum computation. The inability of photons to interact, especially with the environment, makes them an ideal physical candidate. However, this also makes them a difficult system to perform two qubit gates on. Recent breakthroughs in photonic quantum computing have shown methods around the requirement of direct photon-photon interaction. In this thesis we study three recently discovered schemes for optical quantum computation. We first investigate the so called linear optical quantum computing (LOQC) scheme, exploring a method to improve the original proposal by constructing a photon-number QND detector that succeeds with a high probability. In doing this we present a new type of LOQC teleporter, one that can detect the presence of a single photon in an arbitrary polarisation state when the input state is a sum of vacuum and multi-photon terms. This new type of teleporter is an improvement on the original scheme in that the entangled states required can be made offline with fewer entangling operations. We next investigate the so called quantum bus (qubus) scheme for photonic quantum computing. We show a scheme to measure the party of n qubit states by using a single qubus mode, controlled rotations and displacements. This allows for the syndrome measurements of any stabilizer quantum error correcting code. We extend these results to a fault tolerant scheme to measure an arbitrary Pauli operator of weight n, incorporating so called single bit teleportations. We investigate the construction of a Toffoli gate by using a single qubus mode, controlled rotations and displacements that works with a success probability of at least 25%. We also investigate the use of single bit teleportations to construct a universal set of gates on coherent state type logic and in the construction of cluster states. We finally investigate the optical Zeno gate, a gate that uses the Zeno effect in the form of two photon

  12. Direct Photons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor,D.

    2008-07-29

    Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum (p{sub T}) range. The p+p measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high p{sub T} direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring 'almost real' virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

  13. Wilson Prize Lecture: The Novosibirsk Tau/Charm Factory Project: prospect/status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrinsky, Alexander

    2002-04-01

    For a long time at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, we develop step-by-step our electron-electron and electron-positron colliders. Now, the VEPP-4M collider (total energy up to 11 GeV), with a special emphasis on Two-Photon hadron physics, is in operation. The new VEPP-2000 collider, as direct extension of our VEPP-2M collider (which finished its very productive life in 2000) to the energy up to 2 GeV total, should start its commissioning phase in 2002. But our main goal in the field (for quite a few years already) is development and construction of Tau/Charm Factory (VEPP-5 collider). There are 3 main modes of operation foreseen: Maximal luminosity - up to 1 \\cdot 10^34 cm-2 sec-1. For reaching of this ambitious goal we intend to use ``round beam'' approach. The approach will be used and studied at VEPP-2000. Longitudinally polarized collisions (proposed and proved theoretically in Novosibirsk still in 1969) with luminosity 1 \\cdot 10^33 cm-2 sec-1. High monochromaticity option (down to few 10 of keV). Now the new injector complex, which would produce intense low emittance bunches of positrons and electrons (for VEPP-5, VEPP-4M and VEPP-2000 efficient operation) is nearing completion. Fraction of the VEPP-5 tunnel is constructed. We hope, when the VEPP-5 collider would become closer to completion, to attract international collaborators to use unique features of our Tau/Charm Factory.

  14. Photon detector system

    DOEpatents

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

  15. Photonic Maxwell's Demon.

    PubMed

    Vidrighin, Mihai D; Dahlsten, Oscar; Barbieri, Marco; Kim, M S; Vedral, Vlatko; Walmsley, Ian A

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental realization of Maxwell's demon in a photonic setup. We show that a measurement at the few-photons level followed by a feed-forward operation allows the extraction of work from intense thermal light into an electric circuit. The interpretation of the experiment stimulates the derivation of an equality relating work extraction to information acquired by measurement. We derive a bound using this relation and show that it is in agreement with the experimental results. Our work puts forward photonic systems as a platform for experiments related to information in thermodynamics.

  16. Photonic structures in biology.

    PubMed

    Vukusic, Pete; Sambles, J Roy

    2003-08-14

    Millions of years before we began to manipulate the flow of light using synthetic structures, biological systems were using nanometre-scale architectures to produce striking optical effects. An astonishing variety of natural photonic structures exists: a species of Brittlestar uses photonic elements composed of calcite to collect light, Morpho butterflies use multiple layers of cuticle and air to produce their striking blue colour and some insects use arrays of elements, known as nipple arrays, to reduce reflectivity in their compound eyes. Natural photonic structures are providing inspiration for technological applications.

  17. Single photon quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-10-28

    We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.

  18. Photonic Maxwell's Demon.

    PubMed

    Vidrighin, Mihai D; Dahlsten, Oscar; Barbieri, Marco; Kim, M S; Vedral, Vlatko; Walmsley, Ian A

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental realization of Maxwell's demon in a photonic setup. We show that a measurement at the few-photons level followed by a feed-forward operation allows the extraction of work from intense thermal light into an electric circuit. The interpretation of the experiment stimulates the derivation of an equality relating work extraction to information acquired by measurement. We derive a bound using this relation and show that it is in agreement with the experimental results. Our work puts forward photonic systems as a platform for experiments related to information in thermodynamics. PMID:26894692

  19. Photonic Maxwell's Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidrighin, Mihai D.; Dahlsten, Oscar; Barbieri, Marco; Kim, M. S.; Vedral, Vlatko; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental realization of Maxwell's demon in a photonic setup. We show that a measurement at the few-photons level followed by a feed-forward operation allows the extraction of work from intense thermal light into an electric circuit. The interpretation of the experiment stimulates the derivation of an equality relating work extraction to information acquired by measurement. We derive a bound using this relation and show that it is in agreement with the experimental results. Our work puts forward photonic systems as a platform for experiments related to information in thermodynamics.

  20. Photon physics at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Skuja, A.; White, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two photon processes induced by heavy ion collisions have been considered. An approximate formalism for calculation is derived. The event rate is interesting at low-photon-photon mass but is limited by the form factor of the nuclei at high mass. The event rate is compared with that at LEP and found to be favorable at the mass of charm mesons but unfavorable at higher masses. It is further noted that two pomeron processes are similar in configuration and are prolific at low pomeron-pomeron masses. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Photonics: Technology project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics involves the use of light (photons) in conjunction with electronics for applications in communications, computing, control, and sensing. Components used in photonic systems include lasers, optical detectors, optical wave guide devices, fiber optics, and traditional electronic devices. The goal of this program is to develop hybrid optoelectronic devices and systems for sensing, information processing, communications, and control. It is hoped that these new devices will yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance over existing technology. The objective of the program is to conduct research and development in the following areas: (1) materials and devices; (2) networking and computing; (3) optical processing/advanced pattern recognition; and (4) sensing.

  2. The effect of entanglement in gravitational photon-photon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rätzel, Dennis; Wilkens, Martin; Menzel, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    The differential cross-section for gravitational photon-photon scattering calculated in perturbative quantum gravity is shown to depend on the degree of polarization entanglement of the two photons. The interaction between photons in the symmetric Bell state is stronger than between not entangled photons. In contrast, the interaction between photons in the anti-symmetric Bell state is weaker than between not entangled photons. The results are interpreted in terms of quantum interference, and it is shown how they fit into the idea of distance-dependent forces.

  3. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    SciTech Connect

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter E-mail: javier.redondo@desy.de

    2009-03-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} for hidden photon masses between 10{sup -14} eV and 10{sup -7} eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained.

  4. Cognitive Processes and Linguistic Forms of Factory Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    This paper examines language in a factory setting and focuses on: (1) identical terms which workers use in different contexts, (2) terms that are discarded or changed, (3) different terms that express opposite units in a conceptual category but are labels for identical objects, and (4) terms which represent finer discriminations within conceptual…

  5. West Virginia's Byrd Institute: Teaching Factory for New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1993-01-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Institute for Advanced Flexible Manufacturing Systems at Marshall University (Huntington, West Virginia) is part of a nationwide network of teaching factories where manufacturers can learn new, more competitive production technologies. The institute has helped several local manufacturing companies develop computer programs to…

  6. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  7. 7. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AT CENTER IS A DEEP-BRAWN, HEAVY PRESS MANUFACTURED BY E. W. BLISS CO., BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. PRESS #3-1/2-C PATENTED BY E. W. BLISS CO., 1893. MANUFACTURER'S PLATE INDICATES PRESS DATES FROM 1922. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  8. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF FACTORY ADDITION, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF FACTORY ADDITION, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. AT THE CENTER IS THE BUFFING MACHINE, MANUFACTURED BY THE ACME CO. OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN. IT WAS HERE THAT ALUMINUM WARES WERE BROUGHT FOR FINAL GRINDING AND BUFFING. THE HOSES REMOVED DUST AND DEBRIS. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  9. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. AT CENTER IS THE SAME PRESS AS SHOWN ABOVE (IL-25-7). TO LEFT IS PART OF THE OVERHEAD BELT GUARD. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  10. 10. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, LOOKING SOUTH. AT CENTER IS A SHALLOW-DRAWN PRESS (#3-1/2) MANUFACTURED BY E. W. BLISS OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  11. Parameters of a Super-B-Factory Design

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Fox, J.D.; Heifets, S.A.; Li, N.; McIntosh, P.A.; Novokhatski, A.; Sullivan, M.K.; Teytelman, D.; Wienands, U.; Biagini, M.E.; /Frascati

    2006-03-03

    Parameters are being studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity in the range of 7 to 10 x 10{sup 35}/cm{sup 2}/s. Particle physics studies dictate that a much higher luminosity collider than the present B-Factory accelerators will be needed to answer future new key physics questions. The success of the present B-Factories, PEP-II and KEKB, in producing unprecedented luminosity with very short commissioning times has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders in a new parameter regime. Such a collider could produce an integrated luminosity of 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year. A Super-B-Factory [1-8] with 30 to 50 times the performance of the present PEP-II accelerator would incorporate a higher frequency RF system, lower impedance vacuum chambers, higher power synchrotron radiation absorbers, and stronger bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The present injector based on the SLAC linac needs no improvements and is ready for the Super-B-Factory.

  12. Development in the Learning Factory: Training Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Harry; Delbridge, Rick

    2001-01-01

    A study of human resource practices in 18 automobile factories in the United States and Britain showed that manufacturing innovations are placing greater demands on line managers and workers. Training is being refocused to develop their interpersonal, team, and leadership skills. However, lack of time and suitable training facilities are barriers.…

  13. Replicating systems concepts: Self-replicating lunar factory and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Automation of lunar mining and manufacturing facility maintenance and repair is addressed. Designing the factory as an automated, multiproduct, remotely controlled, reprogrammable Lunar Manufacturing Facility capable of constructing duplicates of itself which would themselves be capable of further replication is proposed.

  14. Factory Acceptance Test Procedure Westinghouse 100 ton Hydraulic Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1994-11-16

    This Factory Acceptance Test Procedure (FAT) is for the Westinghouse 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer. The trailer will be used for the removal of the 101-SY pump. This procedure includes: safety check and safety procedures; pre-operation check out; startup; leveling trailer; functional/proofload test; proofload testing; and rolling load test.

  15. Perspective view. Threestory steel and brick building with factory windows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. Three-story steel and brick building with factory windows punctuating facades. East and west facades have tall brick piers capped with evenly spaced stone capitals. North facade (facing Milwaukee Ave. E.) has parapet element decorated with stone accent lines and large flagpole. Piers on north facade have raised stone base - New Center Stamping, 950 East Milwaukee Avenue, Detroit, MI

  16. 46 CFR 162.050-13 - Factory production and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factory production and inspection. 162.050-13 Section 162.050-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment §...

  17. Evaluation of Eight "Infinity Factory" Programs. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Francis A.; And Others

    "Infinity Factory" is a television series which presents mathematics in a common-sense way to help children understand the usefulness of mathematics in their own lives. The 52-programs in the series are for children ages 8 through 11, especially black and Latino children. While covering decimal systems, measurement, estimation, mapping and…

  18. PROTON BEAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY AND MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-11

    Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider place stringent demands on the proton beam used to generate the desired beam of muons. Here we discuss the advantages and challenges of muon accelerators and the rationale behind the requirements on proton beam energy, intensity, bunch length, and repetition rate. Example proton driver configurations that have been considered in recent years are also briefly indicated.

  19. Bioretention Systems: Partial Factorial Designs for Nitrate Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in nutrient loadings are monitored by introducing captured stormwater runoff into eight outdoor rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey scaled for residential and urban landscapes. The partial factorial design includes non-vegetated meso...

  20. No Child Left Behind: Factory Models and Business Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    Because No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is not based on educational research or research-based theory, it offers no new innovations nor does anything to improve the fundamental quality of education. NCLB is built on a rigid, outdated factory model in which students step onto a thirteen-year conveyor belt in kindergarten and progress slowly forward,…

  1. Error Rates of Multiple F Tests in Factorial ANOVA Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderson, Judith S.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate empirically the effect of multiple hypothesis testing on error rates in factorial ANOVA designs under a variety of controlled conditions. The per comparison, per experiment, and experimentwise error rates were investigated for three hypothesis testing procedures. The specific conditions…

  2. Search for Light New Physics at B Factories

    DOE PAGES

    Echenard, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model include the possibility of light new particles, such as light Higgs bosons or dark matter candidates. These scenarios can be probed using the large datasets collected by B factories, complementing measurements performed at the LHC. This paper summarizes recent searches for light new physics conducted by the BABAR and Belle experiments.

  3. Child Protection Decision Making: A Factorial Analysis Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Glen

    2012-01-01

    This study explored decision making by child protection social workers in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A factorial survey method was used in which case vignettes were constructed by randomly assigning a number of key characteristics associated with decision making in child protection. Child protection social workers (n = 118) assessed…

  4. Factorial Design: An Eight Factor Experiment Using Paper Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozma, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the analysis of the multi-factor experiment (factorial design) conducted in EG490, Junior Design at Loyola College in Maryland. The discussion of this paper concludes the experimental analysis and ties the individual class papers together.

  5. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: The Democratic Route

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery" passionately calls for educators to challenge the dominant market-led model of education and instead build a more democratic one, better able to face threats such as environmental damage; intensified global competition; corrosive social inequalities in and between nations in the world; and the need…

  6. The Use of Factorial Forecasting to Predict Public Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Policies that call for members of the public to change their behavior fail if people don't change; predictions of whether the requisite changes will take place are needed prior to implementation. I propose to solve the prediction problem with Factorial Forecasting, a version of functional measurement methodology that employs group designs. Aspects…

  7. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  8. 76. Hayman Krupp and Company Building (Justin Boot Factory), 222 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Hayman Krupp and Company Building (Justin Boot Factory), 222 South Santa Fe St., south and facade facades, building on northeast corner of Santa Fe and West Overland - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  9. Training Factory Workers: Three Case Studies. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschhorn, Larry D.

    Case studies examined the context and impact of training in three factories: a bakery, a circuit assembly plant, and a plant that produces microchips. Cookie-Foods, Inc. used Statistical Process Control (SPC) and a course on problem solving to increase the operators' productivity. Impact of the SPC program was limited, because workers who…

  10. Factorial Validity of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Marcia R.; And Others

    The factorial validity of four of the nine Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (FSMASs) was examined for use in measuring fifth graders' interaction with a subject. The following four scales were assessed: (1) the Confidence in Learning Mathematics Scale; (2) the Attitude Toward Success in Mathematics Scale (ATSMS); (3) the Mathematics…

  11. Photonic crystal beam splitters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chii-Chang; Chien, Hung-Da; Luan, Pi-Gang

    2004-11-20

    This work studies two-dimensional photonic crystal beam splitters with two input ports and two output ports. The beam splitter structure consists of two orthogonally crossed line defects and one point defect in square-lattice photonic crystals. The point defect is positioned at the intersection of the line defects to divide the input power into output ports. If the position and the size of the point defect are varied, the power of two output ports can be identical. The beam splitters can be used in photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers or switches. The simulation results show that a large bandwidth of the extinction ratio larger than 20 dB can be obtained while two beams are interfered in the beam splitters. This enables photonic crystal beam splitters to be used in fiber optic communication systems.

  12. Diamond nonlinear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, B. J. M.; Bulu, I.; Venkataraman, V.; Deotare, P.; Lončar, M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite progress towards integrated diamond photonics, studies of optical nonlinearities in diamond have been limited to Raman scattering in bulk samples. Diamond nonlinear photonics, however, could enable efficient, in situ frequency conversion of single photons emitted by diamond's colour centres, as well as stable and high-power frequency microcombs operating at new wavelengths. Both of these applications depend crucially on efficient four-wave mixing processes enabled by diamond's third-order nonlinearity. Here, we have realized a diamond nonlinear photonics platform by demonstrating optical parametric oscillation via four-wave mixing using single-crystal ultrahigh-quality-factor (1 × 106) diamond ring resonators operating at telecom wavelengths. Threshold powers as low as 20 mW are measured, and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser. We also report the first measurement of the nonlinear refractive index due to the third-order nonlinearity in diamond at telecom wavelengths.

  13. Biophotonics: Circadian photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Mark S.

    2011-05-01

    A growing body of medical evidence suggests that disrupting the body's biological clock can have adverse effects on health. Researchers are now creating the photonic tools to monitor, predict and influence the circadian rhythm.

  14. Photon counting: Avalanche inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milburn, Gerard

    2008-07-01

    The ability of a customized avalanche-photodiode detector to distinguish the exact number of photons that it receives will simplify the tools required to perform reliable experiments in quantum optics.

  15. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  16. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  17. Dispersion in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzens, Jeremy

    2005-11-01

    Investigations on the dispersive properties of photonic crystals, modified scattering in ring-resonators, monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and advanced data processing techniques for the finite-difference time-domain method are presented. Photonic crystals are periodic mesoscopic arrays of scatterers that modify the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in a similar way as "natural" crystals modify the properties of electrons in solid-state physics. In this thesis photonic crystals are implemented as planar photonic crystals, i.e., optically thin semiconductor films with periodic arrays of holes etched into them, with a hole-to-hole spacing of the order of the wavelength of light in the dielectric media. Photonic crystals can feature forbidden frequency ranges (the band-gaps) in which light cannot propagate. Even though most work on photonic crystals has focused on these band-gaps for application such as confinement and guiding of light, this thesis focuses on the allowed frequency regions (the photonic bands) and investigates how the propagation of light is modified by the crystal lattice. In particular the guiding of light in bulk photonic crystals in the absence of lattice defects (the self-collimation effect) and the angular steering of light in photonic crystals (the superprism effect) are investigated. The latter is used to design a planar lightwave circuit for frequency domain demultiplexion. Difficulties such as efficient insertion of light into the crystal are resolved and previously predicted limitations on the resolution are circumvented. The demultiplexer is also fabricated and characterized. Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by means of resonantly enhanced grating couplers is investigated. The grating coupler is designed to bend light through a ninety-degree angle and is characterized with the finite-difference time-domain method. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are

  18. Photonics Explorer: revolutionizing photonics in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Fischer, Robert; Vlekken, Johan; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-10-01

    The `Photonics Explorer' is a unique intra-curricular optics kit designed to engage, excite and educate secondary school students about the fascination of working with light - hands-on, in their own classrooms. Developed with a pan European collaboration of experts, the kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental material provided within a supporting didactic framework, distributed in conjunction with teacher training courses. The material has been specifically designed to integrate into European science curricula. Each kit contains robust and versatile components sufficient for a class of 25-30 students to work in groups of 2-3. The didactic content is based on guided inquiry-based learning (IBL) techniques with a strong emphasis on hands-on experiments, team work and relating abstract concepts to real world applications. The content has been developed in conjunction with over 30 teachers and experts in pedagogy to ensure high quality and ease of integration. It is currently available in 7 European languages. The Photonics Explorer allows students not only to hone their essential scientific skills but also to really work as scientists and engineers in the classroom. Thus, it aims to encourage more young people to pursue scientific careers and avert the imminent lack of scientific workforce in Europe. 50 Photonics Explorer kits have been successfully tested in 7 European countries with over 1500 secondary school students. The positive impact of the kit in the classroom has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. A non-profit organisation, EYESTvzw [Excite Youth for Engineering Science and Technology], is responsible for the large scale distribution of the Photonics Explorer.

  19. Happy centenary, photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Anton; Weihs, Gregor; Jennewein, Thomas; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2005-01-01

    One hundred years ago Albert Einstein introduced the concept of the photon. Although in the early years after 1905 the evidence for the quantum nature of light was not compelling, modern experiments - especially those using photon pairs - have beautifully confirmed its corpuscular character. Research on the quantum properties of light (quantum optics) triggered the evolution of the whole field of quantum information processing, which now promises new technology, such as quantum cryptography and even quantum computers.

  20. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, S

    2000-12-22

    Quantum cryptography offers the potential of totally secure transfer of information, but as Benjamin discusses in this Perspective, its practical implementation hinges on being able to generate single photons (rather than two or more) at a time. Michler et al. show how this condition can be met in a quantum dot microdisk structure. Single molecules were also recently shown to allow controlled single-photon emission.

  1. Ultrastable Multigigahertz Photonic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Novel photonic oscillator developed to serve as ultrastable source of microwave and millimeter-wave signals. In system, oscillations generated photonically, then converted to electronic form. Includes self-mode-locked semiconductor laser producing stream of pulses, detected and fed back to laser as input. System also includes fiber-optic-delay-line discriminator, which detects fluctuations of self-mode-locking frequency and generates error signal used in negative-feedback loop to stabilize pulse-repetition frequency.

  2. Photon structure function

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed.

  3. Photonic band structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1993-05-01

    We learned how to create 3-dimensionally periodic dielectric structures which are to photon waves, as semiconductor crystals are to electron waves. That is, these photonic crystals have a photonic bandgap, a band of frequencies in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, irrespective of propagation direction in space. Photonic bandgaps provide for spontaneous emission inhibition and allow for a new class of electromagnetic micro-cavities. If the perfect 3-dimensional periodicity is broken by a local defect, then local electromagnetic modes can occur within the forbidden bandgap. The addition of extra dielectric material locally, inside the photonic crystal, produces {open_quotes}donor{close_quotes} modes. Conversely, the local removal of dielectric material from the photonic crystal produces {open_quotes}acceptor{close_quotes} modes. Therefore, it will now be possible to make high-Q electromagnetic cavities of volume {approx_lt}1 cubic wavelength, for short wavelengths at which metallic cavities are useless. These new dielectric micro-resonators can cover the range all the way from millimeter waves, down to ultraviolet wavelengths.

  4. Photonic quantum technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Of the approaches to quantum computing, photons are appealing for their low-noise properties and ease of manipulation, and relevance to other quantum technologies, including communication, metrology and measurement. We report an integrated waveguide approach to photonic quantum circuits for high performance, miniaturization and scalability [6-10]. We address the challenges of scaling up quantum circuits using new insights into how controlled operations can be efficiently realised, demonstrating Shor's algorithm with consecutive CNOT gates and the iterative phase estimation algorithm. We have shown how quantum circuits can be reconfigured, using thermo-optic phase shifters to realise a highly reconfigurable quantum circuit, and electro-optic phase shifters in lithium niobate to rapidly manipulate the path and polarisation of telecomm wavelength single photons. We have addressed miniaturisation using multimode interference architectures to directly implement NxN Hadamard operations, and by using high refractive index contrast materials such as SiOxNy, in which we have implemented quantum walks of correlated photons, and Si, in which we have demonstrated generation of orbital angular momentum states of light. We have incorporated microfluidic channels for the delivery of samples to measure the concentration of a blood protein with entangled states of light. We have begun to address the integration of superconducting single photon detectors and diamond and non-linear single photon sources. Finally, we give an overview of recent work on fundamental aspects of quantum measurement, including a quantum version of Wheeler's delayed choice experiment.

  5. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    PubMed Central

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400

  6. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; de Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-11-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources.

  7. From gene to structure: The protein factory of the NBICS Centre of Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Boyko, K. M.; Lipkin, A. V.; Popov, V. O. Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-05-15

    The Protein Factory was established at the Centre for Nano, Bio, Info, Cognitive, and Social Sciences and Technologies (NBICS Centre) of the National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' in 2010. The Protein Factory, together with the Centre for Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology, promote research on structural biology. This paper presents the technology platforms developed at the Protein Factory and the facilities available for researchers. The main projects currently being performed at the Protein Factory are briefly described.

  8. Factorial Structure of the New Ecological Paradigm Scale in Two French Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane; Marcouyeux, Aurore; Renard, Elise; Roussiau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to test the factorial structure of the New Ecological Paradigm scale on a population of men and women residing in France. The tested model is a second-order factorial model. This factorial structure is evaluated on two separate samples to test the stability of the solution (a first sample of 253…

  9. Two-photon interference with non-identical photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbin; Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Li, Fu-li; Xu, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    Two-photon interference with non-identical photons is studied based on the superposition principle in Feynman's path integral theory. The second-order temporal interference pattern is observed by superposing laser and pseudothermal light beams with different spectra. The reason why there is two-photon interference for photons of different spectra is that non-identical photons can be indistinguishable for the detection system when Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is taken into account. These studies are helpful to understand the second-order interference of light in the language of photons.

  10. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chunle; Bell, Bryn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-09-01

    Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon) and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  11. EDITORIAL: Photonic Crystal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    2007-05-01

    The engineering of electromagnetic modes at optical frequencies in artificial dielectric structures with periodic and random variation of the refractive index, enabling control of the radiative properties of the materials and photon localization, was first proposed independently by Yablonovitch and John in 1987. It is possible to control the flow of light in the periodic dielectric structures, known as photonic crystals (PC). As light waves scatter within the photonic crystal, destructive interference cancels out light of certain wavelengths, thereby forming a photonic bandgap, similar to the energy bandgap for electron waves in a semiconductor. Photons whose energies lie within the gap cannot propagate through the periodic structure. This property can be used to make a low-loss cavity. If a point defect, such as one or more missing periods, is introduced into the periodic structure a region is obtained within which the otherwise forbidden wavelengths can be locally trapped. This property can be used to realize photonic microcavities. Similarly, a line of defects can serve as a waveguide. While the realization of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals received considerable attention initially, planar two-dimensional (2D) structures are currently favoured because of their relative ease of fabrication. 2D photonic crystal structures provide most of the functionality of 3D structures. These attributes have generated worldwide research and development of sub-μm and μm size active and passive photonic devices such as single-mode and non- classical light sources, guided wave devices, resonant cavity detection, and components for optical communication. More recently, photonic crystal guided wave devices are being investigated for application in microfludic and biochemical sensing. Photonic crystal devices have been realized with bulk, quantum well and quantum dot active regions. The Cluster of articles in this issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics provides a

  12. Photonic topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Khanikaev, Alexander B; Mousavi, S Hossein; Tse, Wang-Kong; Kargarian, Mehdi; MacDonald, Allan H; Shvets, Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in understanding the topological properties of condensed matter has led to the discovery of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators. A remarkable and useful property of these materials is that they support unidirectional spin-polarized propagation at their surfaces. Unfortunately topological insulators are rare among solid-state materials. Using suitably designed electromagnetic media (metamaterials) we theoretically demonstrate a photonic analogue of a topological insulator. We show that metacrystals-superlattices of metamaterials with judiciously designed properties-provide a platform for designing topologically non-trivial photonic states, similar to those that have been identified for condensed-matter topological insulators. The interfaces of the metacrystals support helical edge states that exhibit spin-polarized one-way propagation of photons, robust against disorder. Our results demonstrate the possibility of attaining one-way photon transport without application of external magnetic fields or breaking of time-reversal symmetry. Such spin-polarized one-way transport enables exotic spin-cloaked photon sources that do not obscure each other.

  13. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  14. Antigravity Acts on Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2002-04-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity assumes that photons don't change frequency as they move from Sun to Earth. This assumption is correct in classical physics. All experiments proving the general relativity are in the domain of classical physics. This include the tests by Pound et al. of the gravitational redshift of 14.4 keV photons; the rocket experiments by Vessot et al.; the Galileo solar redshift experiments by Krisher et al.; the gravitational deflection of light experiments by Riveros and Vucetich; and delay of echoes of radar signals passing close to Sun as observed by Shapiro et al. Bohr's correspondence principle assures that quantum mechanical theory of general relativity agrees with Einstein's classical theory when frequency and gravitational field gradient approach zero, or when photons cannot interact with the gravitational field. When we treat photons as quantum mechanical particles; we find that gravitational force on photons is reversed (antigravity). This modified theory contradicts the equivalence principle, but is consistent with all experiments. Solar lines and distant stars are redshifted in accordance with author's plasma redshift theory. These changes result in a beautiful consistent cosmology.

  15. Photonics for life.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics.

  16. Evolutionary algorithm for the neutrino factory front end design

    SciTech Connect

    Poklonskiy, Alexey A.; Neuffer, David; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is an important tool in the long-term neutrino physics program. Substantial effort is put internationally into designing this facility in order to achieve desired performance within the allotted budget. This accelerator is a secondary beam machine: neutrinos are produced by means of the decay of muons. Muons, in turn, are produced by the decay of pions, produced by hitting the target by a beam of accelerated protons suitable for acceleration. Due to the physics of this process, extra conditioning of the pion beam coming from the target is needed in order to effectively perform subsequent acceleration. The subsystem of the Neutrino Factory that performs this conditioning is called Front End, its main performance characteristic is the number of the produced muons.

  17. Optimal Staging of Acceleration and Cooling in a Neutrino Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.

    2005-12-01

    Schemes to produce intense sources of high-energy muons, Neutrino Factories, beta beams, and colliders, require collection, rf capture, and transport of particle beams with unprecedented emittances, both longitudinally and transversely. These large initial emittances must be reduced or cooled both in size and in energy spread before the muons can be efficiently accelerated to multi-GeV energies. The acceleration stage becomes critical in formulating and optimizing muon beams; individual stages are strongly interlinked and not independent as is the case in most conventional acceleration systems. Most importantly, the degree of cooling, or cooling channel, depends on the choice of acceleration. This work discusses two basic, but different approaches to a Neutrino Factory and how the optimal strategy depends on beam parameters and method of acceleration.

  18. SEARCH FOR NEW PHYSICS AT A SUPER-B FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWDER,T.E.; SONI,A.

    2004-01-05

    The importance of a Super-B Factory in the search for New Physics, in particular, due to CP-od phase(s) from physics beyond the Standard Model is surveyed. The first point to emphasize is that we know now how to directly measure all three angles of the unitarity triangle very cleanly, i. e. without theoretical assumptions with irreducible theory error {le} 1%; however this requires much more luminosity than is currently available at B-factories. Direct searches via penguin-dominated hadronic modes as well as radiative, pair-leptonic and semi-leptonic decays are also discussed. Null tests of the SM are stressed as these will play a crucial role especially if the effects of BSM phase(s) on B-physics are small.

  19. Smoking Intensity among Male Factory Workers in Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K-W; Tsoh, JY; Cui, W; Li, X; Kohrman, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the intensity of cigarette consumption and its correlates among male factory workers in China, who has benefitted little from recent public health efforts to reduce smoking rates. Methods Data was collected from men working in factories of Kunming city, Yunnan, China, who are current daily smokers (N = 490). A multinomial logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors in association with smoking intensity in light, moderate, and heavy level. Results Light smoking correlated with social smoking, smoking the first cigarette later in the day, self-reported health condition, and quit intention. Heavy smoking was associated with purchase of lower priced cigarettes, difficulty refraining from smoking, and pre-hypertensive blood pressure. Conclusion Analyses of the ways specific demographic groups consume cigarettes in smoking prevalent regions can help guide tobacco-control strategies. Findings support that the selection of tobacco-control strategies may take smoking intensity and its correlates of the targeted population into consideration. PMID:23572373

  20. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  1. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  2. On-line separators for the Dubna Superheavy Element Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popeko, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The main goal of creation of a Superheavy Element Factory at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) is to sufficiently improve the efficiency of studies on heavy and superheavy nuclei. The factory will be based on a high-current DC-280 cyclotron. The use of beams with the intensity up to 6 ×1013 s-1 (10 pμA) requires effective separators providing high suppression of unwanted reaction products. Following the analysis of the kinematic characteristics of several hundreds of reactions, a conclusion was drawn that it is necessary to construct three separators optimized for specific tasks: a universal gas-filled separator for synthesis and study of the properties of heavy isotopes, a velocity filter for spectroscopic investigations, and a pre-separator for further chemical separation and precise mass measurements.

  3. R&D Toward Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2003-06-24

    R&D aimed at the production, acceleration, and storage of intense muon beams is under way in the U.S., in Europe, and in Japan. Considerable progress has been made in the past few years toward the design of a ''Neutrino Factory'' in which a beam of 20-50 GeV mu- or mu+ is stored. Decay neutrinos from the beam illuminate a detector located roughly 3000 km from the ring. Here, we briefly describe the ingredients of a Neutrino Factory and then discuss the current R&D program and its results. A key concept in the design is ''ionization cooling,'' a process whereby the muon emittance is reduced by repeated interactions with an absorber material followed by reacceleration with high-gradient rf cavities. Plans to test this concept in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) are well along and are described briefly.

  4. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2009-04-29

    There is considerable interest in the use of muon beams to create either an intense source of decay neutrinos aimed at a detector located 3000-7500 km away (a Neutrino Factory), or a Muon Collider that produces high-luminosity collisions at the energy frontier. R&D aimed at producing these facilities has been under way for more than 10 years. This paper will review experimental results from MuCool, MERIT, and MICE and indicate the extent to which they will provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of the key technologies required for a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. Progress in constructing components for the MICE experiment will also be described.

  5. 6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT OF CA. 1948 FACTORY ADDITION, WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME AND FLOOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE TEE-BEAMS, LOOKING NORTH. AT LEFT IS DEEP DRAW, HEAVY PRESS MANUFACTURED BY E. W. BLISS CO., BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. PRESS #3-1/2 B, PATENTED BY E. W. BLISS CO., 1893. MANUFACTURERS PLATE INDICATES PRESS DATES FROM 1920. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  6. Feedback implementation options and issues for B factory accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.; Briggs, D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Coiro, O.; Ghigo, A.; Serio, M.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.

    1992-09-01

    The proposed B factory accelerator facilities will require active feedback systems to control multibunch instabilities. These feedback systems must operate in machines with thousands of circulating bunches and with short (2--4 ns) interbunch intervals. The functional requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback systems are presented. Several possible implementation options are discussed and system requirements developed. Conceptual designs are presented for the PEP II transverse and longitudinal feedback systems.

  7. A first generation factory for typing DNA polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.L.; Klug, D.; David, D.

    1994-09-01

    Although linkage mapping of fully penetrant, single-gene disorders can readily be accomplished using {open_quotes}manual{close_quotes} polymorphism genotyping methods, mapping of genes responsible for genetically more complex disorders such as asthma and schizophrenia will likely require more highly automated approaches. Routine clinical application of linkage analysis will also require reliable automated methods. To meet these needs we have initiated a first generation factory for analysis of short tandem repeat polymorphisms. The factory includes an eight-pronged pipetting robot for efficient PCR setup, amplification within high density microtiter plates, and a scanning fluorescence detection system for automatic sizing of amplification products. Initial throughput for the factory will be several hundred thousand genotypes per year. The heart of the factory is a new scanning fluorescence detection system for gel electrophoresis. The system employs an argon laser for excitation and has the capability of simultaneously detecting four different fluorescent dyes. The detector scans across the bottom of short, wide denaturing polyacrylamide gels which routinely contain 144 lanes. Emitted fluorescent light is collected with a high numerical aperture microscope objective and transmitted through a fiber optic cable, dichroic mirrors and band pass filters to a series of photomultiplier tubes. Amplified output from the photomultiplier tubes is digitized and fed into computers for further analysis. Software has been written for viewing the gel images, for lane finding and for allele identification. Rhodamine-labeled {lambda} DNA standard fragments ranging in size from 70 to 300 bases are utilized for lane identification and allele sizing. Each gel run takes 3 hours, and each gel can be loaded at least three times. Multiple markers can be amplified simultaneously and detected without prior concentration.

  8. A VERY FAST RAMPING MUON SYNCHROTRON FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    SUMMERS,D.J.BERG,J.S.PALMER,R.B.GARREN,A.A.

    2003-05-12

    A 4600 Hz fast ramping synchrotron is studied as an economical way of accelerating muons from 4 to 20 GeV/c for a neutrino factory. Eddy current losses are minimized by the low machine duty cycle plus thin grain oriented silicon steel laminations and thin copper wires. Combined function magnets with high gradients alternating within single magnets form the lattice. Muon survival is 83%.

  9. Physics of a high-luminosity Tau-Charm Factory

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper highlights the physics capabilities of a Tau-Charm Factory; i.e., high luminosity ({approximately}10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}) e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider operating in the center-of-mass energy range of 3-5 GeV, with a high-precision, general-purpose detector. Recent developments in {tau} and charm physics are emphasized.

  10. Algal omics: unlocking bioproduct diversity in algae cell factories.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Michael T; Pienkos, Philip T

    2015-03-01

    Rapid advances in "omic" technologies are helping to unlock the full potential of microalgae as multi-use feedstocks, with utility in an array of industrial biotechnology, biofuel, and biomedical applications. In turn, algae are emerging as highly attractive candidates for development as microbial cell factories. In this review, we examine the wide array of potential algal bioproducts, with a focus upon the role of omic technologies in driving bioproduct discovery and optimization in microalgal systems.

  11. ISIS as a Proton Driver for a Neutrino Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Christopher R.

    2004-10-01

    The paper describes plans to develop the ISIS accelerators into a high intensity, multi-megawatt, proton driver for a range of fixed-target studies. Possibilities include use in a Neutrino Factory and an advanced spallation neutron source. A phased upgrade would allow intermediate accelerator R&D on pressing problems such as nanosecond proton bunch compression, the pion target and the muon capture channel. A possible bunch compression experiment using the existing ISIS synchrotron is also outlined.

  12. Multiple-neutral-meson decays of the /tau/ lepton and electromagnetic calorimeter requirements at Tau-Charm Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, K.K.

    1989-08-01

    This is a study of the physics sensitivity to the multiple-neutral-meson decays of the /tau/ lepton at the Tau-Charm Factory. The sensitivity is compared for a moderate and an ultimate electromagnetic calorimeter. With the high luminosity of the Tau- Charm Factory, a very large sample of the decays /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ /pi//sup /minus//2/pi//sup 0//nu//sub /tau// and /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ /pi//sup /minus//3/pi//sup 0//nu//sub /tau// can be collected with both detectors. However, with the ultimate detector, 2/pi//sup 0/ and 3/pi//sup 0/ can be unambiguously reconstructed with very little background. For the suppressed decay /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ /pi//sup /minus///eta//pi//sup 0//nu//sub /tau//, only the ultimate detector has the sensitivity. The ultimate detector is also sensitive to the more suppressed decay /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ K/sup /minus///eta//nu//sub /tau// and the moderate detector may have the sensitivity if the hadronic background is not significantly larger than that predicted by Lund. In the case of the highly suppressed second-class-current decay /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ /pi//sup /minus///eta//nu//sub /tau//, only the ultimate detector has sensitivity. The sensitivity can be greatly enhanced with a small-angle photon veto. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    PubMed Central

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation. PMID:27683066

  14. Photon physics with PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.

    1995-07-15

    In this Paper the author discusses briefly the physics motivation for extending measurements of particle production with high granularity and particle id capabilities to neutrals in PHENIX. The author then discusses the technique of direct photon measurement in the presence of copious background photons from {pi}{sup o} decays. The experiment will measure relatively low p{sub t} photons near y=0 in the lab frame. This new experimental environment of high multiplicity and low {gamma} momenta will affect both the techniques used and the type of analysis which can be performed. The Phenix Electromagnetic calorimeter is described and its capabilities illustrated with results from simulation and beam tests of the first production array.

  15. Sensing individual terahertz photons.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Hideomi; Antonov, Vladimir; Kulik, Leonid; Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Komiyama, Susumu

    2010-04-23

    One of the promising ways to perform single-photon counting of terahertz radiation consists in sensitive probing of plasma excitation in the electron gas upon photon absorption. We demonstrate the ultimate sensor operating on this principle. It is assembled from a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, electron reservoir and superconducting single-electron transistor. The quantum dot is isolated from the surrounding electron reservoir in such a way that when the excited plasma wave decays, an electron could tunnel off the dot to the reservoir. The resulting charge polarization of the dot is detected with the single-electron transistor. Such a system forms an easy-to-use sensor enabling single-photon counting in a very obscure wavelength region.

  16. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  17. Options for Production Staging for a Low Energy Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Berg J. S.

    2011-10-26

    A low energy neutrino factory (LENF) is defined, for the purpose of this report, to accelerate a muon beam to a total energy in the range of 10-14 GeV, and store it in a decay ring directing a resulting neutrino beam to a detector 2200-2300 km distant. The machine should be ultimately capable of producing 10{sup 21} decays toward that detector per year of 10{sup 7} s. We consider such a neutrino factory to be the accelerator defined in the Interim Design Report (IDR) of the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF), modified to remove the final stage of acceleration, possibly modifying the remaining acceleration stages to adjust the final energy, and replacing the decay ring with one designed for the lower energy and shorter baseline. We discuss modifications to that design which would reduce the cost of the machine at the price of a reduction in neutrino production, down to as low as 10{sup 20} decays per year. These modifications will not preclude eventually upgrading the machine to the full production of 10{sup 21} decays per year. The eventual cost of a machine which achieves the full production through a series of lower-production stages should not exceed the cost of a machine which is immediately capable of the full production by more than a small fraction of the cost difference between the full production machine and the lowest production stage.

  18. Infinite Factorial Unbounded-State Hidden Markov Model.

    PubMed

    Valera, Isabel; Ruiz, Francisco J R; Perez-Cruz, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    There are many scenarios in artificial intelligence, signal processing or medicine, in which a temporal sequence consists of several unknown overlapping independent causes, and we are interested in accurately recovering those canonical causes. Factorial hidden Markov models (FHMMs) present the versatility to provide a good fit to these scenarios. However, in some scenarios, the number of causes or the number of states of the FHMM cannot be known or limited a priori. In this paper, we propose an infinite factorial unbounded-state hidden Markov model (IFUHMM), in which the number of parallel hidden Markovmodels (HMMs) and states in each HMM are potentially unbounded. We rely on a Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) prior over integer-valued matrices, in which the columns represent the Markov chains, the rows the time indexes, and the integers the state for each chain and time instant. First, we extend the existent infinite factorial binary-state HMM to allow for any number of states. Then, we modify this model to allow for an unbounded number of states and derive an MCMC-based inference algorithm that properly deals with the trade-off between the unbounded number of states and chains. We illustrate the performance of our proposed models in the power disaggregation problem. PMID:26571511

  19. Data Processing Factory for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Christopher; Adelman, Jennifer; Annis, James T.; Hendry, John; Inkmann, John; Jester, Sebastian; Kent, Steven M.; Kuropatkin, Nickolai; Lee, Brian; Lin, Huan; Peoples, John, Jr.; Sparks, Robert; Tucker, Douglas; Vanden Berk, Dan; Yanny, Brian; Yocum, Dan

    2002-12-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data handling presents two challenges: large data volume and timely production of spectroscopic plates from imaging data. A data processing factory, using technologies both old and new, handles this flow. Distribution to end users is via disk farms, to serve corrected images and calibrated spectra, and a database, to efficiently process catalog queries. For distribution of modest amounts of data from Apache Point Observatory to Fermilab, scripts use rsync to update files, while larger data transfers are accomplished by shipping magnetic tapes commercially. All data processing pipelines are wrapped in scripts to address consecutive phases: preparation, submission, checking, and quality control. We constructed the factory by chaining these pipelines together while using an operational database to hold processed imaging catalogs. The science database catalogs all imaging and spectroscopic object, with pointers to the various external files associated with them. Diverse computing systems address particular processing phases. UNIX computers handle tape reading and writing, as well as calibration steps that require access to a large amount of data with relatively modest computational demands. Commodity CPUs process steps that require access to a limited amount of data with more demanding computations requirements. Disk servers optimized for cost per Gbyte serve terabytes of processed data, while servers optimized for disk read speed run SQLServer software to process queries on the catalogs. This factory produced data for the SDSS Early Data Release in June 2001, and it is currently producing Data Release One, scheduled for January 2003.

  20. A Low energy neutrino factory for large theta(13)

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; Mena, Olga; Pascoli, Silvia; /Durham U., IPPP

    2007-01-01

    If the value of {theta}{sub 13} is within the reach of the upcoming generation of long-baseline experiments, T2K and NOvA, they show that a low-energy neutrino factory, with peak energy in the few GeV range, would provide a sensitive tool to explore CP-violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy. They consider baselines with typical length 1000-1500 km. The unique performance of the low energy neutrino factory is due to the rich neutrino oscillation pattern at energies between 1 and 4 GeV at baselines {Omicron}(1000) km. They perform both a semi-analytical study of the sensitivities and a numerical analysis to explore how well this setup can measure {theta}{sub 13}, CP-violation, and determine the type of mass hierarchy and the {theta}{sub 23} quadrant. A low energy neutrino factory provides a powerful tool to resolve ambiguities and make precise parameter determinations, for both large and fairly small values of the mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}.

  1. Quality of Life Among Thai Workers in Textile Dyeing Factories

    PubMed Central

    Kittipichai, Wirin; Arsa, Rattanaporn; Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Singhakant, Chatchawal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of a cross-sectional study was to investigate factors influencing the quality of life among Thai workers in textile dyeing factories. Samples included 205 Thai workers from five textile dyeing factories located in the suburban area of Bangkok in Thailand. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.70–0.91. The results revealed that the overall quality of life among workers was most likely between good and moderate levels, and the percentage-mean score was 74.77. The seven factors associated with the overall quality of life were co-worker relationships, safety at work in the dimension of accident prevention, job characteristics, supervisory relationships, welfares, marital status, and physical environment. Furthermore, co-worker relationships, accident prevention, and marital status were three considerable predictors accounted for 23% of the variance in the overall quality of life among workers in textile dyeing factories. PMID:25948458

  2. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection. PMID:22315811

  3. Photonic Floquet topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Rechtsman, Mikael C; Zeuner, Julia M; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Podolsky, Daniel; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-04-11

    Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on their surfaces. In two dimensions, electrons on the surface of a topological insulator are not scattered despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to that of superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wide-ranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Substantial effort has been directed towards realizing topological insulators for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. But because magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatter-free edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism-one that is free of magnetic fields. A number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward recently. One suggested temporal modulation of a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, in which temporal variations in solid-state systems induce topological edge states. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic topological insulator free of external fields and with scatter-free edge transport-a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate (z) acts as 'time'. Thus the helicity of the

  4. Photonic Floquet topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Rechtsman, Mikael C; Zeuner, Julia M; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Podolsky, Daniel; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-04-11

    Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on their surfaces. In two dimensions, electrons on the surface of a topological insulator are not scattered despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to that of superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wide-ranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Substantial effort has been directed towards realizing topological insulators for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. But because magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatter-free edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism-one that is free of magnetic fields. A number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward recently. One suggested temporal modulation of a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, in which temporal variations in solid-state systems induce topological edge states. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic topological insulator free of external fields and with scatter-free edge transport-a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate (z) acts as 'time'. Thus the helicity of the

  5. Photonic hydrogel sensors.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider; Volpatti, Lisa R; Pavlichenko, Ida; Humar, Matjaž; Kwok, Sheldon J J; Koo, Heebeom; Kim, Ki Su; Naydenova, Izabela; Khademhosseini, Ali; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Analyte-sensitive hydrogels that incorporate optical structures have emerged as sensing platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. The optical properties of the hydrogel sensors can be rationally designed and fabricated through self-assembly, microfabrication or laser writing. The advantages of photonic hydrogel sensors over conventional assay formats include label-free, quantitative, reusable, and continuous measurement capability that can be integrated with equipment-free text or image display. This Review explains the operation principles of photonic hydrogel sensors, presents syntheses of stimuli-responsive polymers, and provides an overview of qualitative and quantitative readout technologies. Applications in clinical samples are discussed, and potential future directions are identified. PMID:26485407

  6. Photonic hydrogel sensors.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider; Volpatti, Lisa R; Pavlichenko, Ida; Humar, Matjaž; Kwok, Sheldon J J; Koo, Heebeom; Kim, Ki Su; Naydenova, Izabela; Khademhosseini, Ali; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Analyte-sensitive hydrogels that incorporate optical structures have emerged as sensing platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. The optical properties of the hydrogel sensors can be rationally designed and fabricated through self-assembly, microfabrication or laser writing. The advantages of photonic hydrogel sensors over conventional assay formats include label-free, quantitative, reusable, and continuous measurement capability that can be integrated with equipment-free text or image display. This Review explains the operation principles of photonic hydrogel sensors, presents syntheses of stimuli-responsive polymers, and provides an overview of qualitative and quantitative readout technologies. Applications in clinical samples are discussed, and potential future directions are identified.

  7. Two-photon interference of temporally separated photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-10-01

    We present experimental demonstrations of two-photon interference involving temporally separated photons within two types of interferometers: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a polarization-based Michelson interferometer. The two-photon states are probabilistically prepared in a symmetrically superposed state within the two interferometer arms by introducing a large time delay between two input photons; this state is composed of two temporally separated photons, which are in two different or the same spatial modes. We then observe two-photon interference fringes involving both the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effect and the interference of path-entangled two-photon states simultaneously in a single interferometric setup. The observed two-photon interference fringes provide simultaneous observation of the interferometric properties of the single-photon and two-photon wavepackets. The observations can also facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the origins of the interference phenomena arising from spatially bunched/anti-bunched two-photon states comprised of two temporally separated photons within the interferometer arms.

  8. Two-photon interference of temporally separated photons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental demonstrations of two-photon interference involving temporally separated photons within two types of interferometers: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a polarization-based Michelson interferometer. The two-photon states are probabilistically prepared in a symmetrically superposed state within the two interferometer arms by introducing a large time delay between two input photons; this state is composed of two temporally separated photons, which are in two different or the same spatial modes. We then observe two-photon interference fringes involving both the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effect and the interference of path-entangled two-photon states simultaneously in a single interferometric setup. The observed two-photon interference fringes provide simultaneous observation of the interferometric properties of the single-photon and two-photon wavepackets. The observations can also facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the origins of the interference phenomena arising from spatially bunched/anti-bunched two-photon states comprised of two temporally separated photons within the interferometer arms. PMID:27708380

  9. Total fume and metal concentrations during welding in selected factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-07-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder's health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers' welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m(3) (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m(3) (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m(3) (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m(3)-0.477 mg/m(3), 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.080 mg/m(3) and 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.058 mg/m(3) respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems. PMID:20717553

  10. Total Fume and Metal Concentrations during Welding in Selected Factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder’s health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers’ welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m3 (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m3 (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m3 (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m3 (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m3 (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m3 (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m3–0.477 mg/m3, 0.001 mg/m3–0.080 mg/m3 and 0.001 mg/m3–0.058 mg/m3 respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems. PMID:20717553

  11. Total fume and metal concentrations during welding in selected factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-07-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder's health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers' welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m(3) (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m(3) (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m(3) (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m(3)-0.477 mg/m(3), 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.080 mg/m(3) and 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.058 mg/m(3) respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems.

  12. Photons and magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Magnets are often electrically activated, but recent research has demonstrated various schemes that can control magnetization using light and photocarriers. Nature Photonics spoke to Petr Němec and Tomas Jungwirth about their recent work on a polarization-independent optical-torque approach.

  13. Photon collider at TESLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Valery

    2001-10-01

    High energy photon colliders ( γγ, γe) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e +e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the γγ luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3) Le +e -. Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in γγ collisions are higher than those in e +e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in γγ collisions will be more than that in e +e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is "an optical storage ring (optical trap)" with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.

  14. Auxiliary Entanglement in Photon Pairs for Multi-Photon Entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, Warren P; Bennink, Ryan S; Evans, Philip G; Humble, Travis S; Schaake, Jason

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of experiments make use of multiple pairs of photons generated in the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We show that entanglement in unwanted degrees of freedom can adversely affect the results of these experiments. We also discuss techniques to reduce or eliminate spectral and spatial entanglement, and we present results from two-photon polarization-entangled source with almost no entanglement in these degrees of freedom. Finally, we present two methods for the generation of four-photon polarization- entangled states. In one of these methods, four-photon can be generated without the need for intermediate two-photon entanglement.

  15. Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons.

    PubMed

    Schlawin, Frank; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-12-28

    The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.

  16. Two-photon spectroscopy of excitons with entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Schlawin, Frank; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-12-28

    The utility of quantum light as a spectroscopic tool is demonstrated for frequency-dispersed pump-probe, integrated pump-probe, and two-photon fluorescence signals which show Ramsey fringes. Simulations of the frequency-dispersed transmission of a broadband pulse of entangled photons interacting with a three-level model of matter reveal how the non-classical time-bandwidth properties of entangled photons can be used to disentangle congested spectra, and reveal otherwise unresolved features. Quantum light effects are most pronounced at weak intensities when entangled photon pairs are well separated, and are gradually diminished at higher intensities when different photon pairs overlap.

  17. Full Quantum Analysis of Two-Photon Absorption Using Two-Photon Wave Function: Comparison of Two-Photon Absorption with One-Photon Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kitano, Masao

    2009-10-01

    For dissipation-free photon-photon interaction at the single photon level, we analyze one-photon and two-photon transitions induced by photon pairs in three-level atoms using two-photon wave functions. We show that two-photon absorption can be substantially enhanced by adjusting the time correlation of photon pairs. We study two typical cases: a Gaussian wave function and a rectangular wave function. In the latter, we find that under special conditions one-photon transition is completely suppressed, while two-photon transition is maintained with a high probability.

  18. Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-10-01

    The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.

  19. [Risk assessment and countermeasure of BTEX in pesticide factory].

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Wang, Tie-Yu; Du, Li-Yu; Tan, Bing; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Lu, Yong-Long

    2013-07-01

    BTEX are important environmental pollutants, harmful to human through respiratory inhalation, digestive tract and skin contact, and also have teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. BTEX were detected in multi-media to identify their distributions and assess their human health risk in a pesticide factory in Hebei province. Purge and trap GC-MS, adsorption/thermal desorption GC chromatography and the health risk assessment model were applied, and corresponding management measures were proposed. The results showed that BTEX existed in soil, dust, air, groundwater and wastewater. The concentration of BTEX in dust of the production area was 7.33 mg x kg(-1), in particular the concentration of toluene was 5.64 mg x kg(-1), exceeding the Canadian industrial land standard. Building three scenarios for working more than 10 years, 20 years and 30 years, the total non-carcinogens index was 4.19 x10(-3), 8.25 x 10(-3) and 1.22 x 10(-2), respectively, all lower than 1; the carcinogens index of benzene was 1.70 x 10(-7), 3.34 x 10(-7) and 4.92 x 10(-7), respectively, all lower than 10(-6). It indicated that there was no significant non-carcinogens and carcinogens hazard to workers inside the factory, but they might be exposed to more health risks if their work experience increase. Finally, recommendations for improving the environmental quality and personnel security in the factory were proposed based on the research results. PMID:24028020

  20. [Risk assessment and countermeasure of BTEX in pesticide factory].

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Wang, Tie-Yu; Du, Li-Yu; Tan, Bing; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Lu, Yong-Long

    2013-07-01

    BTEX are important environmental pollutants, harmful to human through respiratory inhalation, digestive tract and skin contact, and also have teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. BTEX were detected in multi-media to identify their distributions and assess their human health risk in a pesticide factory in Hebei province. Purge and trap GC-MS, adsorption/thermal desorption GC chromatography and the health risk assessment model were applied, and corresponding management measures were proposed. The results showed that BTEX existed in soil, dust, air, groundwater and wastewater. The concentration of BTEX in dust of the production area was 7.33 mg x kg(-1), in particular the concentration of toluene was 5.64 mg x kg(-1), exceeding the Canadian industrial land standard. Building three scenarios for working more than 10 years, 20 years and 30 years, the total non-carcinogens index was 4.19 x10(-3), 8.25 x 10(-3) and 1.22 x 10(-2), respectively, all lower than 1; the carcinogens index of benzene was 1.70 x 10(-7), 3.34 x 10(-7) and 4.92 x 10(-7), respectively, all lower than 10(-6). It indicated that there was no significant non-carcinogens and carcinogens hazard to workers inside the factory, but they might be exposed to more health risks if their work experience increase. Finally, recommendations for improving the environmental quality and personnel security in the factory were proposed based on the research results.

  1. Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-06-01

    Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise.

  2. Photonic band gap materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  3. Photon + jets at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Lars; /RWTH Aachen U.

    2009-06-01

    Photon plus jet production has been studied by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a centre of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Measurements of the inclusive photon, inclusive photon plus jet, photon plus heavy flavour jet cross sections and double parton interactions in photon plus three jet events are presented. They are based on integrated luminosities between 0.4 fb{sup -1} and 1.0 fb{sup -1}. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in various approximations.

  4. MUON EDM EXPERIMENT USING STAGE II OF THE NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.; GALLARDO,J.C.; MORSE,W.M.; SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.

    2002-07-01

    During the second stage of a future neutrino factory unprecedented numbers of bunched muons will become available. The cooled medium-energy muon beam could be used for a high sensitivity search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the muon with a sensitivity better than 10{sup -24}e {center_dot} cm. This will make the sensitivity of the EDM experiment to non-standard physics competitive and in many models more sensitive than the present limits on edms of the electron and nucleons. The experimental design exploits the strong motional electric field sensed by relativistic particles in a magnetic storage ring.

  5. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: MICE and Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemire, Ben

    2010-03-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an accelerator and particle physics experiment aimed at demonstrating the technique of ionization cooling on a beam of muons. Ionization cooling is the process by which muons are sent through an absorbing material, thereby losing energy and decreasing their normalized emittance. The muons are then reaccelerated in the appropriate direction with radio frequency (RF) cavities. This produces an overall reduction in transverse emittance of the muon beam. Ionization cooling could be a key technique in the design of a high intensity Neutrino Factory.

  6. R&D Topics for Neutrino Factory Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, J. Scott

    2008-02-01

    The muons in a neutrino factory must be accelerated from the energy of the capture, phase rotation, and cooling systems (around 120 MeV kinetic energy) to the energy of the storage ring (around 25 GeV). This is done with a sequence of accelerators of different types: a linac, one or more recirculating linear accelerators, and finally one or more fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAGs). I discuss the R&D that is needed to arrive at a complete system which we can have confidence will accelerate the beam and for which we can obtain a cost estimate.

  7. Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed. PMID:21526386

  8. Palomar Transient Factory Discovery of 5 New Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Matheson, T.; Nugent, P. E.; Gal-Yam, A.; Bloom, J. S.; Quimby, R M.

    2010-09-01

    We report the discovery and spectroscopic classification of 5 new supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; http://www.astro.caltech.edu/ptf). The supernovae were discovered and classified by Oarical, an autonomous software framework of the PTF collaboration, based on observations made with the Palomar 48-inch Oschin Schmidt telescope. Spectroscopy was undertaken with the R-C spectrograph mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the Mayall 4-m telescope at Kitt Peak Observatory on UT 2010 September 8 by Cenko, Kulkarni, and Matheson.

  9. The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) begins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.

    2013-02-01

    S. R. Kulkarni on behalf of the "intermediate Palomar Transient Factory" (iPTF) announces the start of this project. iPTF is a partnership led by the California Institute of Technology, US and includes the Infrared Processing & Astronomical Center, US; Los Alamos National Laboratory, US; University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, US; Oskar-Klein Center of the University of Stockholm, Sweden; Weizmann Institute of Sciences, Israel; University System of Taiwan, Taiwan; the Institute for Physics & Mathematics of the Universe, Japan; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US and the University of California, Berkeley.

  10. Interaction region considerations for a B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    DeStaebler, H.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of the project is to observe CP violation in the {bar B}B system. This machine is supposed to be a factory for high energy physics, not an R D project for accelerator physics. There are a number of interrelated design issues arising from the different desires of the detector and the machine, some of which are listed in this paper. A number of background and beampipe issues are mentioned. The emphasis is on calculations. Any satisfactory design will combine measurements on existing machines with calculations pertaining to the measurement conditions as well as to the proposed machine. 57 refs.

  11. Distributed Sensing and Control Architecture for Automotive Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ningxu; Brennan, Robert W.

    In this paper we propose an architecture for distributed intelligent sensing and control (DISC) for automotive factory automation. The architecture is based on a platform-based design approach that breaks the sensing and control problem into increasingly higher levels of abstraction from physical hardware to intelligent sensing and control. The focus of this paper is on the middleware layer that serves as an interface between an upper, agent-based control level and the wireless sensor network. This layer takes advantage the IEC 61499 model for distributed process measurement and control, and in particular, exploits its distributed, modular structure and its close match to wireless sensor systems.

  12. THE ROLE OF QUANTUM MECHANICS IN NEUTRINO FACTORIES.

    SciTech Connect

    GALLARDO,J.C.; SESSLER,A.M.; WURTELE,J.

    2000-12-06

    A compilation is made of the various ways in which quantum phenomena enter into the design and operation of a neutrino factory. They include production of pions, decay of pions into muons, ionization energy loss of muons in material, scattering and energy straggling of muons in material, polarization of muons, and the decay of muons into neutrinos, and the radiation effect of neutrinos. For each process formulas are presented which cover the basic mechanism. A discussion is presented of the areas of uncertainty and of the experiments, underway and proposed, which will reduce the uncertainty to an acceptable level.

  13. Charmonium Spectroscopy (X,Y,Z) at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kreps, Michal; /Karlsruhe U.

    2012-04-03

    Since 2003 several states in the charmonium mass region were discovered. While in the conventional c{bar c} spectrum some states are missing, the number of states observed up to now is larger than empty spaces in the c{bar c} spectrum. This, together with other difficulties to explain observed states as a c{bar c} mesons triggered discussions on a possible exotic interpretations. In this proceedings we present current experimental status from B-factories of the so called X, Y and Z states.

  14. Charmonium physics at a tau-charm factory

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T. |

    1993-11-01

    Since its discovery in 1974 the charmonium system has served hadron physics as an important arena for the investigation of many aspects of QCD and hadron spectroscopy. In this summary the author briefly reviews some of these and discusses several of the important outstanding issues in hadron spectroscopy and their relation to the spectrum and couplings of resonances in the charmonium system. The topics discussed are charmonium spectroscopy, electromagnetic couplings ({gamma}, {gamma}{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}), strong decays and unusual states (charm molecules and charmonium hybrids), and in each case the author notes areas in which experiments at a tau-charm factory could make valuable contributions.

  15. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, Stephen N; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C

    2014-06-24

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  16. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  17. Natural photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  18. PHOTON: A user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.

    1988-01-01

    PHOTON has proven very useful in the development of the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline. Its use has determined the shielding required from the wiggler device to the very end of the beamline in the hutches and angiography section. Doses calculated by this program have been compared with experimental results from conventional bending magnet beamline with great success. In each case the program consistently overestimated the dose by factors ranging from 2 to 10. The reason for this overestimation is understood and was not refined further in the program in order to maintain some level of safety in the shielding calculations. PHOTON should prove useful in the design of any beamline. Its ability to calculate power deposited and spectra transmitted through nearly arbitrary beamline configurations as well as the scattered radiation doses through shielding walls make it a very powerful tool.

  19. Photons in a ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    The electromagnetic field inside a spherical cavity of large radius R is considered in the presence of stationary charge and current densities. R provides infra-red regularisation while maintaining gauge invariance. The quantum ground state of physical photons forming the magnetic field is found to be a coherent state with a definite mean occupation number. The electric field, which is determined by the Gauss law constraint, is maintained by a minimum uncertainty coherent state, according to the projection operator approach to the quantisation of constrained systems. The mean occupation number of this state is proportional to the square of the total charge. The results confirm formulae obtained previously from a calculation with a finite photon mass for infra-red regularisation.

  20. Optics of photonic quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardeny, Z. Valy; Nahata, Ajay; Agrawal, Amit

    2013-03-01

    The physics of periodic systems are of fundamental importance and result in various phenomena that govern wave transport and interference. However, deviations from periodicity may result in higher complexity and give rise to a number of surprising effects. One such deviation can be found in the field of optics in the realization of photonic quasicrystals, a class of structures made from building blocks that are arranged using well-designed patterns but lack translational symmetry. Nevertheless, these structures, which lie between periodic and disordered structures, still show sharp diffraction patterns that confirm the existence of wave interference resulting from their long-range order. In this Review, we discuss the beautiful physics unravelled in photonic quasicrystals of one, two and three dimensions, and describe how they can influence optical transmission and reflectivity, photoluminescence, light transport, plasmonics and laser action.

  1. Surface nanoscale axial photonics.

    PubMed

    Sumetsky, M; Fini, J M

    2011-12-19

    Dense photonic integration promises to revolutionize optical computing and communications. However, efforts towards this goal face unacceptable attenuation of light caused by surface roughness in microscopic devices. Here we address this problem by introducing Surface Nanoscale Axial Photonics (SNAP). The SNAP platform is based on whispering gallery modes circulating around the optical fiber surface and undergoing slow axial propagation readily described by the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. These modes can be steered with dramatically small nanoscale variation of the fiber radius, which is quite simple to introduce in practice. Extremely low loss of SNAP devices is achieved due to the low surface roughness inherent in a drawn fiber surface. In excellent agreement with the developed theory, we experimentally demonstrate localization of light in quantum wells, halting light by a point source, tunneling through potential barriers, dark states, etc. This demonstration has intriguing potential applications in filtering, switching, slowing light, and sensing.

  2. Photon activation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, R G; Bond, V P

    1984-12-01

    It is suggested here that significant advantages should accrue from the use of 40 keV photons from implanted sources of 145Sm. These energies should stimulate Auger electron cascades from IdUrd, as well as produce non-repairable damage from radiosensitization. The use of low dose rates (approximately 10 rd/hr) should allow repair in normal tissues exposed to the activating photons. Utilization of this technique with brain tumors should minimize problems associated with radiosensitization of normal tissues, as CNS tissues do not synthesize DNA. The deposition of high LET radiations selectively in tumor cells provides unique advantages not available to either conventional therapy or other forms of particle therapy (fast neutrons, protons, pions, heavy ions). PMID:6515666

  3. Photonics for accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, A.

    1993-12-31

    Nonlinear optical effects in certain types of crystals have the capacity to improve the performance of sampling circuits by a large margin. The theory on nonlinear optics and the associated devices is rather straightforward. I will present some of the relevant ideas and illustrate how these principles can result in order of magnitude improvements in sampling circuits. As an example of the photonic technique, I will illustrate how to design a beam position monitor that uses a nonlinear crystal.

  4. Photon-neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dicus, D.A.; Repko, W.W.

    1997-12-01

    The cross sections for the processes {gamma}{nu} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {nu}{anti {nu}} are calculated with the aid of an effective Lagrangian derived from the Standard model. These cross sections are shown to be much larger than the elastic cross section {sigma}({gamma}{nu} {yields} {gamma}{nu}) for photon energies {omega} {ge} 1 keV. Possible astrophysical implications are discussed.

  5. Photonic crystal optical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  6. Photonics Explorer Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    The Photonics Explorer is an intra-curricular educational kit developed in a European project with a pan-European collaboration of over 35 teachers and science education professors. Unlike conventional educational outreach kits, the Photonics Explorer is specifically designed to integrate seamlessly in school curricula and enhance and complement the teaching and learning of science and optics in the classroom. The kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental components, provided within a supporting didactic framework and is designed for lower and upper secondary students (12-18 years). The kit is provided completely free of charge to teachers in conjunction with teacher training courses. The workshop will provide an overview of the Photonics Explorer intra-curricular kit and give teachers the opportunity to work hands-on with the material and didactic content of two modules, `Light Signals' (lower secondary) and `Diffraction and Interference'(upper secondary). We also aim to receive feedback regarding the content, components and didactic framework from teachers from non- European countries, to understand the relevance of the kit for their teaching and the ability for such a kit to integrate into non-EU curricula.

  7. Photon-activation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable /sup 127/I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors. (ERB)

  8. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  9. Slotted photonic crystal sensors.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Mark G; Krauss, Thomas F; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  10. Super Photon Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John

    1999-01-01

    The perfect photon detector would measure the arrival time, the energy, the polarization, and the position of every arriving quantum, but that is easier said than done. Two groups have now succeeded in doing time-resolved spectroscopy on the Crab Nebula pulsar, measuring everything but the polarization, with reports from Romani et al. at Stanford and from Perryman et al. at ESTEC. Both groups use superconducting detectors to gain the necessary speed and sensitivity. The photon can heat the electrons in a superconductor biased in the middle of its resistive transition, or break bound superconducting electron-hole pairs, which can then be collected. Three years ago, Peacock et al. reported that they had detected single optical photons with a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ), and Paresce wrote a News and Views article. A tunnel junction uses two pieces of conductive material, separated by a tiny gap of insulating material or even vacuum. If the gap is thin enough, electrons can tunnel across anyway, and if the conductors are superconductors, the junction displays very useful quantum mechanical properties and electrical nonlinearities. Amplifiers, detectors, oscillators, and computer circuits can all be made from them. Their special advantage is that they operate at very low temperatures, dissipate very little power, operate very fast, and are very small.

  11. Integrated photonic quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Lebugle, Maxime; Guzman-Silva, Diego; Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 20 years quantum walks (QWs) have gained increasing interest in the field of quantum information science and processing. In contrast to classical walkers, quantum objects exhibit intrinsic properties like non-locality and non-classical many-particle correlations, which renders QWs a versatile tool for quantum simulation and computation as well as for a deeper understanding of genuine quantum mechanics. Since they are highly controllable and hardly interact with their environment, photons seem to be ideally suited quantum walkers. In order to study and exploit photonic QWs, lattice structures that allow low loss coherent evolution of quantum states are demanded. Such requirements are perfectly met by integrated optical waveguide devices that additionally allow a substantial miniaturization of experimental settings. Moreover, by utilizing the femtosecond direct laser writing technique three-dimensional waveguide structures are capable of analyzing QWs also on higher dimensional geometries. In this context, advances and findings of photonic QWs are discussed in this review. Various concepts and experimental results are presented covering, such as different quantum transport regimes, the Boson sampling problem, and the discrete fractional quantum Fourier transform.

  12. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  13. Nonlocal Structures: Bilocal Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Roger E.

    1980-01-01

    As a starting point, it is postulated that all particles and fields are built from a single primitive field, which must then be a massless fermion with a σ spin of one-half. Two helicities are embodied in a τ spin of one-half. The vacuum is an open Fermi sea whose height is a wave number κ. Elementary particles are structures having the form of standing-wave systems floating on the vacuum sea, with the height κ providing both the scale of inner structural size and the mass unit for the elementary particle mass spectrum. A bilocal photon starts with a function describing two primitive quanta with parallel σ spin and opposite τ spin. A centroid-time wave equation then couples-in an infinite set of orthogonal functions. The introduction of an operator Q λ permits the reduction of the infinite secular determinant to a finite six-by-six determinant. Solutions (for the infinite expansion) are obtained describing photons with right-handed and left-handed polarizations. Superpositions of these give linearly polarized photons. Electric and magnetic field vectors, satisfying the vacuum Maxwell equations, are obtained from a bilocal Hertz vector given by п= (2/κ3 c)(∂/∂ t r)∇rΨ(1,2), where Ψ(1,2) is the bilocal wave function, and tr and r are the relative time and relative position variables.

  14. State of photonics-related industry in Japan: Digital economy is creating a deep integration in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, Kimio

    2013-12-01

    Future challenges and problems of Japanese photonics-related industries are discussed by analyzing the statistics of domestic photonics production trend in Japan from the aspects of offshoring and deep integration taking place in East Asia due to the growing of the global digital economy. Mobile phone, digital camera, semiconductor stepper, and fiber to the X. X is home, buildings, factories, shops, government (FTTX) are case studied, and the utilization of the information and communication technology (ICT), together with a free trade policy, is expected for the future challenges.

  15. DKIST enclosure modeling and verification during factory assembly and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrakoetxea, Ibon; McBride, William; Marshall, Heather K.; Murga, Gaizka

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) is unique as, apart from protecting the telescope and its instrumentation from the weather, it holds the entrance aperture stop and is required to position it with millimeter-level accuracy. The compliance of the Enclosure design with the requirements, as of Final Design Review in January 2012, was supported by mathematical models and other analyses which included structural and mechanical analyses (FEA), control models, ventilation analysis (CFD), thermal models, reliability analysis, etc. During the Enclosure Factory Assembly and Testing the compliance with the requirements has been verified using the real hardware and the models created during the design phase have been revisited. The tests performed during shutter mechanism subsystem (crawler test stand) functional and endurance testing (completed summer 2013) and two comprehensive system-level factory acceptance testing campaigns (FAT#1 in December 2013 and FAT#2 in March 2014) included functional and performance tests on all mechanisms, off-normal mode tests, mechanism wobble tests, creation of the Enclosure pointing map, control system tests, and vibration tests. The comparison of the assumptions used during the design phase with the properties measured during the test campaign provides an interesting reference for future projects.

  16. Staging acceleration and cooling in a Neutrino Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.

    2006-03-01

    All schemes to produce intense sources of high-energy muons—Neutrino factories, beta beams, Colliders—require collection, RF capture, and transport of particle beams with unprecedented emittances, both longitudinally and transversely. These large initial emittances must be reduced or "cooled" both in size and in energy spread before the muons can be efficiently accelerated to multi-GeV energies. The acceleration stage becomes critical in formulating and optimizing muon beams; individual stages are strongly interlinked and not independent as is the case in most conventional acceleration systems. Most importantly, the degree of cooling, or cooling channel, depends on the choice of acceleration. In the current US baseline scenario, the cooling required for acceleration is about a factor of 10 in transverse emittance per plane. Longitudinal cooling is also required. In the proposed Japanese scenario, using an alternative acceleration scheme, no cooling is presumed. This work discusses two basic, but different approaches to a Neutrino Factory and how the optimal strategy depends on beam parameters and method of acceleration.

  17. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  18. An artificial reality environment for remote factory control and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    Work has begun on the merger of two well known systems, VEOS (HITLab) and CLIPS (NASA). In the recent past, the University of Massachusetts Lowell developed a parallel version of NASA CLIPS, called P-CLIPS. This modification allows users to create smaller expert systems which are able to communicate with each other to jointly solve problems. With the merger of a VEOS message system, PCLIPS-V can now act as a group of entities working within VEOS. To display the 3D virtual world we have been using a graphics package called HOOPS, from Ithaca Software. The artificial reality environment we have set up contains actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. The environment allows us to view and control the objects within the virtual world. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS. A graphical renderer generates camera views on X-Windows devices; Head Mounted Devices are not required. This allows more people to make use of this technology. We are experimenting with different types of virtual vehicles to give the user a sense that he or she is actually moving around inside the factory looking ahead through windows and virtual monitors.

  19. EUVL reticle factory model and reticle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Shelden, G.; Troccolo, P.

    1996-05-22

    The key issues in reticle manufacturing are cost and delivery time, both of which are dependent upon the yield of the process line. To estimate the cost and delivery time for EUVL reticles in commercial manufacturing, we have developed the first model for an EUV reticle factory which includes all the tools required for a presumed EUVL reticle fabrication process. This model includes the building, support tools and sufficient ``in-line`` process tools for the manufacture of (more than) 2500 reticles per year. Industry specifications for the tool performance are used to determine the number of tools required per process step and the average number of reticles fabricated per year. Building and capital equipment depreciation costs, tool installation costs, tool maintenance costs, labor, clean room costs, process times and process yields are estimated and used to calculate the yearly operating cost of the reticle factory and the average reticle fabrication cost. We estimate the sales price of an EUV reticle to be $60K for non-critical levels and $120K for ``leading-edge.`` The average reticle fabrication time is calculated for three different process-line yields.

  20. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  1. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Gizele Cardoso; Fonseca Amaral, Priscilla Filomena; Nele, Marcio; Zarur Coelho, Maria Alice

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone) on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST) and emulsification index (EI). The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST) were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose) were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v) and glycerol (2% w/v), which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process. PMID:20368788

  2. Neutrino factory and muon collider collaboration R and D activities

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.; Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaborat

    2001-03-22

    The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) comprises about 140 U.S. and non-U.S. accelerator and particle physicists. The MC is carrying out an R and D program aimed at validating the critical design concepts required for the construction of such machines. We are committed to encouraging international cooperation and coordination of the R and D effort. Main activities of the MC include a Targetry program, a MUCOOL program, a component development program, and a theory and simulation effort. Moreover, the MC has participated in several feasibility studies for a complete Neutrino Factory facility, with the aim of identifying any additional R and D activities needed to prepare a Zeroth-order Design Report (ZDR) in about two years and a Conceptual Design report (CDR) about two years thereafter. In this paper, the R and D goals in each area will be indicated, and the present status and future plans of the R and D program will be described.

  3. Optimization of minoxidil microemulsions using fractional factorial design approach.

    PubMed

    Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply fractional factorial and multi-response optimization designs using desirability function approach for developing topical microemulsions. Minoxidil (MX) was used as a model drug. Limonene was used as an oil phase. Based on solubility, Tween 20 and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides were selected as surfactants, propylene glycol and ethanol were selected as co-solvent in aqueous phase. Experiments were performed according to a two-level fractional factorial design to evaluate the effects of independent variables: Tween 20 concentration in surfactant system (X1), surfactant concentration (X2), ethanol concentration in co-solvent system (X3), limonene concentration (X4) on MX solubility (Y1), permeation flux (Y2), lag time (Y3), deposition (Y4) of MX microemulsions. It was found that Y1 increased with increasing X3 and decreasing X2, X4; whereas Y2 increased with decreasing X1, X2 and increasing X3. While Y3 was not affected by these variables, Y4 increased with decreasing X1, X2. Three regression equations were obtained and calculated for predicted values of responses Y1, Y2 and Y4. The predicted values matched experimental values reasonably well with high determination coefficient. By using optimal desirability function, optimized microemulsion demonstrating the highest MX solubility, permeation flux and skin deposition was confirmed as low level of X1, X2 and X4 but high level of X3. PMID:25318551

  4. A Market-Based Approach to Multi-factory Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Rogers, Alex; MacBeth, Douglas K.; Dutta, Partha; Stranjak, Armin; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    In this paper, we report on the design of a novel market-based approach for decentralised scheduling across multiple factories. Specifically, because of the limitations of scheduling in a centralised manner - which requires a center to have complete and perfect information for optimality and the truthful revelation of potentially commercially private preferences to that center - we advocate an informationally decentralised approach that is both agile and dynamic. In particular, this work adopts a market-based approach for decentralised scheduling by considering the different stakeholders representing different factories as self-interested, profit-motivated economic agents that trade resources for the scheduling of jobs. The overall schedule of these jobs is then an emergent behaviour of the strategic interaction of these trading agents bidding for resources in a market based on limited information and their own preferences. Using a simple (zero-intelligence) bidding strategy, we empirically demonstrate that our market-based approach achieves a lower bound efficiency of 84%. This represents a trade-off between a reasonable level of efficiency (compared to a centralised approach) and the desirable benefits of a decentralised solution.

  5. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  6. Topological Photonic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Cheng; Lin, Liang; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    As exotic phenomena in optics, topological states in photonic crystals have drawn much attention due to their fundamental significance and great potential applications. Because of the broken time-reversal symmetry under the influence of an external magnetic field, the photonic crystals composed of magneto-optical materials will lead to the degeneracy lifting and show particular topological characters of energy bands. The upper and lower bulk bands have nonzero integer topological numbers. The gapless edge states can be realized to connect two bulk states. This topological photonic states originated from the topological property can be analogous to the integer quantum Hall effect in an electronic system. The gapless edge state only possesses a single sign of gradient in the whole Brillouin zone, and thus the group velocity is only in one direction leading to the one-way energy flow, which is robust to disorder and impurity due to the nontrivial topological nature of the corresponding electromagnetic states. Furthermore, this one-way edge state would cross the Brillouin center with nonzero group velocity, where the negative-zero-positive phase velocity can be used to realize some interesting phenomena such as tunneling and backward phase propagation. On the other hand, under the protection of time-reversal symmetry, a pair of gapless edge states can also be constructed by using magnetic-electric coupling meta-materials, exhibiting Fermion-like spin helix topological edge states, which can be regarded as an optical counterpart of topological insulator originating from the spin-orbit coupling. The aim of this article is to have a comprehensive review of recent research literatures published in this emerging field of photonic topological phenomena. Photonic topological states and their related phenomena are presented and analyzed, including the chiral edge states, polarization dependent transportation, unidirectional waveguide and nonreciprocal optical transmission, all

  7. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    PubMed

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  8. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  9. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen-Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  10. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    PubMed

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons. PMID:27281214

  11. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-05-31

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter {approx}200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  12. Tunable photonic Bloch oscillations in electrically modulated photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Huang, Ji Ping; Yu, Kin Wah

    2008-10-01

    We exploit theoretically the occurrence and tunability of photonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) containing nonlinear composites. Because of the enhanced third-order nonlinearity (Kerr-type nonlinearity) of composites, photons undergo oscillations inside tilted photonic bands, which are achieved by the application of graded external-pump electric fields on such PCs, varying along the direction perpendicular to the surface of layers. The tunability of PBOs (including amplitude and period) is readily achieved by changing the field gradient. With an appropriate graded pump ac or dc electric field, terahertz PBOs can appear and cover a terahertz band in an electromagnetic spectrum.

  13. Resonant photonic States in coupled heterostructure photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jd; Sabarinathan, J; Singh, Mr

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.

  14. Topological photonics: an observation of Landau levels for optical photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    Creating photonic materials with nontrivial topological characteristics has seen burgeoning interest in recent years; however, a major route to topology, a magnetic field for continuum photons, has remained elusive. We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We will discuss the conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids. This work was supported by DOE, DARPA, and AFOSR.

  15. Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaorong; Huang, Kun; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2012-01-30

    We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function g(2)(0) was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.

  16. Two-Photon Reactions Leading to Hadron Final States: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Whalley, M. R.

    This collection is a compilation of all experimental cross sections, published since 1994, on two-photon initiated reactions is presented. The author, M.R. Whalley, published this compilation in the Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics), volume 27, in 2001. It updates data published in 1994 by D. Morgan et al. Whalley’s abstract notes Processes with both quasi-real and virtual photons coming from e+e- collisions are encoded. The data encompass hadronic and leptonic structure functions, inclusive and exclusive hadronic cross sections, inclusive jet cross sections, heavy quark cross sections and total hadronic cross sections. Where appropriate, comparisons with theoretical curves are shown to aid the reader in comparing the different data sets. The data gathered from the relevant collaborations at DOEÆs SLAC are available, and so are data from related collaborations based at CERN, DESY, KEK, NOVO, ORSAY, and CORNELL University. The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also included in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  17. All-photonic quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories.

  18. Quantum simulation with interacting photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhancing optical nonlinearities so that they become appreciable on the single photon level and lead to nonclassical light fields has been a central objective in quantum optics for many years. After this has been achieved in individual micro-cavities representing an effectively zero-dimensional volume, this line of research has shifted its focus towards engineering devices where such strong optical nonlinearities simultaneously occur in extended volumes of multiple nodes of a network. Recent technological progress in several experimental platforms now opens the possibility to employ the systems of strongly interacting photons, these give rise to as quantum simulators. Here we review the recent development and current status of this research direction for theory and experiment. Addressing both, optical photons interacting with atoms and microwave photons in networks of superconducting circuits, we focus on analogue quantum simulations in scenarios where effective photon-photon interactions exceed dissipative processes in the considered platforms.

  19. Nonlinear interaction between single photons.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, T; Martin, A; Sanguinetti, B; Pelc, J S; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H; Sangouard, N; Thew, R T

    2014-10-24

    Harnessing nonlinearities strong enough to allow single photons to interact with one another is not only a fascinating challenge but also central to numerous advanced applications in quantum information science. Here we report the nonlinear interaction between two single photons. Each photon is generated in independent parametric down-conversion sources. They are subsequently combined in a nonlinear waveguide where they are converted into a single photon of higher energy by the process of sum-frequency generation. Our approach results in the direct generation of photon triplets. More generally, it highlights the potential for quantum nonlinear optics with integrated devices and, as the photons are at telecom wavelengths, it opens the way towards novel applications in quantum communication such as device-independent quantum key distribution.

  20. Single-photon quadratic optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128

  1. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  2. A Study of Radiative Bottomonium Transitions using Converted Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-15

    The authors use (111 {+-} 1) million {Upsilon}(3S) and (89 {+-} 1) million {Upsilon}(2S) events recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions betwen bottomonium states using photons that have been converted to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs by the detector material. They observe {Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {gamma}{chi}{sub b0,2}(1P) decay, make precise measurements of the branching fractions for {chi}{sub b1,2}(1P, 2P) {yields} {gamma}{Upsilon}(1S) and {chi}{sub b1,2}(2P) {yields} {gamma}{Upsilon}(2S) decays, and search for radiative decay to the {eta}{sub b}(1S) and {eta}{sub b}(2S) states.

  3. Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Silicon photonics is the guiding of light in a planar arrangement of silicon-based materials to perform various functions. We focus here on the use of silicon photonics to create transmitters and receivers for fiber-optic telecommunications. As the need to squeeze more transmission into a given bandwidth, a given footprint, and a given cost increases, silicon photonics makes more and more economic sense.

  4. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOEpatents

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  5. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  6. Robust Photon Locking

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, T.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Sarpe-Tudoran, C.; Baumert, T.

    2009-01-16

    We experimentally demonstrate a strong-field coherent control mechanism that combines the advantages of photon locking (PL) and rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). Unlike earlier implementations of PL and RAP by pulse sequences or chirped pulses, we use shaped pulses generated by phase modulation of the spectrum of a femtosecond laser pulse with a generalized phase discontinuity. The novel control scenario is characterized by a high degree of robustness achieved via adiabatic preparation of a state of maximum coherence. Subsequent phase control allows for efficient switching among different target states. We investigate both properties by photoelectron spectroscopy on potassium atoms interacting with the intense shaped light field.

  7. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-20

    We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions. PMID:26368763

  8. Silicon active photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  9. Photonic crystal fibers in biophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Skibina, Julia S.; Malinin, Anton V.

    2011-12-01

    We observed recent experimental results in area of photonic crystal fibers appliance. Possibility of creation of fiberbased broadband light sources for high resolution optical coherence tomography is discussed. Using of femtosecond pulse laser allows for generation of optical radiation with large spectral width in highly nonlinear solid core photonic crystal fibers. Concept of exploitation of hollow core photonic crystal fibers in optical sensing is demonstrated. The use of photonic crystal fibers as "smart cuvette" gives rise to efficiency of modern optical biomedical analysis methods.

  10. Phenomenology of photon-jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Stephen D.; Roy, Tuhin S.; Scholtz, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges of collider physics is to unambiguously associate detector-based objects with the corresponding elementary physics objects. A particular example is the association of calorimeter-based objects such as “jets,” identified with a standard (IR-safe) jet algorithm, with the underlying physics objects, which may be QCD-jets (arising from a scattered parton), electrons, photons or, as discussed here, photon-jets (a group of collinear photons). This separation is especially interesting in the context of Higgs search, where the signal includes events with two photons (in the Standard Model) as well as events with two photon-jets (in a variety of Beyond the Standard Model scenarios), while QCD provides ever-present background. Here we describe the implementation of techniques from the rapidly evolving area of jet substructure studies, not only to enhance the more familiar photon-QCD separation, but also to separately distinguish photon-jets, i.e., to separate usual jets into three categories: single photons, photon-jets and QCD-jets. The efficacy of these techniques for separation is illustrated through studies of simulated data.

  11. Hologram of a single photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Jachura, Michał; Banaszek, Konrad; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The spatial structure of single photons is becoming an extensively explored resource to facilitate free-space quantum communication and quantum computation as well as for benchmarking the limits of quantum entanglement generation with orbital angular momentum modes or reduction of the photon free-space propagation speed. Although accurate tailoring of the spatial structure of photons is now routinely performed using methods employed for shaping classical optical beams, the reciprocal problem of retrieving the spatial phase-amplitude structure of an unknown single photon cannot be solved using complementary classical holography techniques that are known for excellent interferometric precision. Here, we introduce a method to record a hologram of a single photon that is probed by another reference photon, on the basis of a different concept of the quantum interference between two-photon probability amplitudes. As for classical holograms, the hologram of a single photon encodes the full information about the photon's ‘shape’ (that is, its quantum wavefunction) whose local amplitude and phase are retrieved in the demonstrated experiment.

  12. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Creating photonic materials with nontrivial topological characteristics has seen burgeoning interest in recent years; however, a major route to topology, a magnetic field for continuum photons, has remained elusive. We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We will discuss the conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  13. [Implementation rate of periodic health checkup at manufacturing factories in Kawasaki].

    PubMed

    Tobe, T; Nakamura, K; Takano, T

    1992-03-01

    A questionnaire survey on periodic health checkup was conducted on 4,432 manufacturing factories in Kawasaki and the following results were obtained. 1) Implementation rate of periodic health checkup was 100% in factories with 100 workers or more. In smaller factories employing less than 100 workers, the implementation rate decreased with decrease in their total work force. The rate was 47.5% and 37.7% in factories with 9-4 and 3-1 workers, respectively. 2) The proportion of workers less than 30 years of age decreased and that of 60 or more years of age increased with decreasing size of the total work force. Distribution of both age groups was 12.6% and 12.9%, respectively in factories with less than 10 workers. The proportion of female workers increased from about 10% in factories with 300 workers or more to 26.8% in factories with less than 10 workers. 3) In large factories with 500 workers or more periodic health checkups were implemented mostly at their own or related medical facilities and in factories with 499-10 workers, almost 50% were implemented in independent health service facilities. In factories with less than 10 workers periodic health checkup were implemented mainly at health centers (33.1%) and at hospitals or clinics (26.9%). 4) The main reasons why small factories could not implement periodic health checkup were: (1) they could not afford the time for the implementation (50.0%) and (2) ignorance of the law of mandatory periodic health checkup for workers (23.6%).

  14. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  15. Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory: Realtime Image Subtraction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2016-11-01

    A fast-turnaround pipeline for realtime data reduction plays an essential role in discovering and permitting follow-up observations to young supernovae and fast-evolving transients in modern time-domain surveys. In this paper, we present the realtime image subtraction pipeline in the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. By using high-performance computing, efficient databases, and machine-learning algorithms, this pipeline manages to reliably deliver transient candidates within 10 minutes of images being taken. Our experience in using high-performance computing resources to process big data in astronomy serves as a trailblazer to dealing with data from large-scale time-domain facilities in the near future.

  16. Accelerator R&D toward Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, accelerate and collide high intensity beams of muons. At present, a high-luminosity multi-TeV muon collider presents a viable option for the next generation lepton-lepton collider, which is believed to be needed to fully explore high energy physics in the era following LHC discoveries. Such a collider can offer superb energy resolution, smaller size, and potentially cost and power consumption compared to multi-TeV e + e - linear colliders. This article briefly reviews the motivation, design and status of accelerator R&D for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory.

  17. Formulation of wax oxybenzone microparticles using a factorial approach.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Y A; Darwish, I A; Boraei, N A; El-Khordagui, L K

    2010-01-01

    Oxybenzone wax microparticles (MPs) were prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method. The formulation of oxybenzone-loaded MPs was optimized using a 2⁴ experimental design. Factorial analysis indicated that the main MP characteristics were influenced by initial drug loading, emulsification speed, emulsifier concentration and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. MPs were spherical with 50.5–88.1 μm size range, 17.8–38.9 drug content in mg/100 mg MPs and 33.1–87.2% oxybenzone release in 1 h. A wide range of sunscreen delivery systems suitable for different formulation purposes were generated which may contribute to the advanced formulation of sunscreen products with improved performance. PMID:20681744

  18. Actual curriculum development practices instrument: Testing for factorial validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati

    2014-09-01

    The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of [1]. Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.

  19. 313 new asteroid rotation periods from Palomar Transient Factory observations

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Yang, Ting-Chang; Waszczak, Adam; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Prince, Thomas A.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2014-06-10

    A new asteroid rotation period survey has been carried out by using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Twelve consecutive PTF fields, which covered an area of 87 deg{sup 2} in the ecliptic plane, were observed in the R band with a cadence of ∼20 minutes during 2013 February 15-18. We detected 2500 known asteroids with a diameter range of 0.5 km ≤D ≤ 200 km. Of these, 313 objects had highly reliable rotation periods and exhibited the 'spin barrier' at ∼2 hr. In contrast to the flat spin-rate distribution of the asteroids with 3 km ≤D ≤ 15 km shown by Pravec et al., our results deviated somewhat from a Maxwellian distribution and showed a decrease at the spin rate greater than 5 rev day{sup –1}. One superfast rotator candidate and two possible binary asteroids were also found in this work.

  20. Formulation of wax oxybenzone microparticles using a factorial approach.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Y A; Darwish, I A; Boraei, N A; El-Khordagui, L K

    2010-01-01

    Oxybenzone wax microparticles (MPs) were prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method. The formulation of oxybenzone-loaded MPs was optimized using a 2⁴ experimental design. Factorial analysis indicated that the main MP characteristics were influenced by initial drug loading, emulsification speed, emulsifier concentration and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. MPs were spherical with 50.5–88.1 μm size range, 17.8–38.9 drug content in mg/100 mg MPs and 33.1–87.2% oxybenzone release in 1 h. A wide range of sunscreen delivery systems suitable for different formulation purposes were generated which may contribute to the advanced formulation of sunscreen products with improved performance.

  1. Bronchodilators for treatment of mild bronchiolitis: a factorial randomised trial.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, E E; Milner, R; Allen, U; Maj, H

    1992-01-01

    A randomised double blind trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of inhaled bronchodilators, salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, compared with placebo in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Patients, who were 2 months to 2 years of age and without underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease, received drug 1 (salbutamol or saline placebo) followed one hour later by drug 2 (ipratropium bromide or placebo). Both agents were administered every four hours. The patients were allocated to one of four groups according to a factorial design. The four groups were similar in demographic characteristics, initial oxygenation, and clinical score. The change in oxygen saturation of recipients of both agents was significantly better than that of recipients of salbutamol alone or ipratropium bromide alone. This change, however, was not statistically different from that of the control group. No difference was observed in the clinical score or hospital duration. Inhaled bronchodilators did not improve the condition of hospitalised mild bronchiolitis. PMID:1533504

  2. Probing nonunitary mixing and CP violation at a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, Stefan; Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2009-08-01

    A low-energy nonunitary leptonic mixing matrix is a generic feature of many extensions of the standard model. In such a case, the task of future precision neutrino oscillation experiments is more ambitious than measuring the three mixing angles and the leptonic (Dirac) CP phase, i.e., the accessible parameters of a unitary leptonic mixing matrix. A nonunitary mixing matrix has 13 parameters that affect neutrino oscillations, out of which four are CP violating. In the scheme of minimal unitarity violation we analyze the potential of a neutrino factory for determining or constraining the parameters of the nonunitary leptonic mixing matrix, thereby testing the origin of CP violation in the lepton sector.

  3. Leptonic CP Violation measurement at the neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet Castell, J.; Mena, O.

    2003-05-01

    In this talk, based on the work [J. Burguet Castell, et al., Nucl. Phys. B 608 (2001) 301], we refine our previous analysis [A. Cervera, et al., Nucl. Phys. B 579 (2000) 17] of the sensitivity to leptonic CP violation and θ13 at a neutrino factory in the LMA-MSW scenario, by exploring the full range of these two parameters. We have discovered that there exist, at fixed neutrino energy, Eν, and baseline, L, degenerate solutions. Although the spectral analysis helps in disentangling fake from true solutions, a leftover product of this degeneracy remains for a realistic detector, which we analyse. Furthermore, we take into account the expected uncertainties on the solar and atmospheric oscillation parameters and in the average Earth matter density along the neutrino path. An intermediate baseline of O(3000) km is still the best option to tackle CP violation, although a combination of two baselines turns out to be very important in resolving degeneracies.

  4. The closure of a factory and its impact on health.

    PubMed

    Grayson, J P

    1985-01-01

    SKF, one of Sweden's foremost corporations, is the world's largest producer of bearings. In the seventies, largely as a consequence of Japanese competition, in order to maintain its preeminent position, SKF embarked on a program of global rationalization and automation. One of the consequences of these measures was a decrease in the size of the overall SKF workforce and the closure of factories in a number of countries. One of the casualties was the manufacturing operation of SKF Canada Ltd. The following article concentrates on the consequences of the shutdown for employees. It is seen that over five surveys conducted over a two and a half year period the impact of the shutdown on some dimensions was the same for former employees and their wives. On others, former employees responded differently than their wives. Overall, however, the closure of SKF Canada Ltd., in terms of stress, economic hardship, and ill-health, was devastating for both former employees and their wives.

  5. Characterizing imaging distortion for the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, David L.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank J.; Surace, Jason A.; Bellm, Eric Christopher; Miller, Adam; Ofek, Eran; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The advent of time-domain surveys has put a premium on accurate astrometry determined in near-real-time. The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) employs astrometric solvers from SCAMP in the Astromatic suite and from Astrometry.net. Distortion is computed by these solvers for each individual image and exposure. We present an analysis of the distortion solutions in iPTF data, and some approaches for improving astrometry for iPTF and the upcoming Zwicky Transient Facility. Additionally, Astrometry.net currently uses the SIP convention to represent distortion in FITS image headers, while the Astromatic suite uses the TPV convention. We describe a conversion between between these two conventions which has now been extended to 7th-order polynomials.

  6. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  7. Feasibility Study for an Asymmetric B Factory Based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Chattapadhyay, A.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Chin, Y.H.; Dell'Orco, D.; Forest, E.; Furman, M.; Garren, A.A.; Hoyer, E.; Kennedy, K.; Lambertson, G.; Lo, C.C.; Nishimura, H.; Oddone, P.; Ronan, M.; Sessler, A.; Taylor, B.; Taylor, C.; Zisman, M.; Barletta, W.; Allen, M.; Bloom, E.; Burke, D.; Cornacchia, M.; Davies-White, D.; Destaebler, H.; Donald, M.H.; Dorfan, J.; Feldman, G.; Rees, J.; Schsarz, H.; Sullivan, M.; Autin, B.; Tennyson, J.; Barbson, B.; Oide, K.

    1989-10-26

    This report addresses the feasibility of designing and constructing an asymmetric B-factory based on the PEP storage ring at SLAC that can ultimately reach a luminosity of 1 X 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Such a facility, operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, could be used to study mixing, rate decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} system, and could also study tau and charm physics. The essential accelerator physics, engineering, and technology issues that must be addressed to successfully build this exciting and challenging facility are identified, and possible solutions, or R and D that will reasonable lead to such solutions, are described.

  8. Accelerator R&D toward Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, accelerate and collide high intensity beams of muons. At present, a high-luminosity multi-TeV muon collider presents a viable option for the next generation lepton-lepton collider, which is believed to be needed to fully explore high energy physics in the era following LHC discoveries. Such a collider can offer superb energy resolution, smaller size, and potentially cost and power consumption compared to multi-TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders. This article briefly reviews the motivation, design and status of accelerator R&D for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory.

  9. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Martin; Droser, Mary; Mayer, Lawrence M; Pevear, David; Mrofka, David

    2006-03-10

    An enigmatic stepwise increase in oxygen in the late Precambrian is widely considered a prerequisite for the expansion of animal life. Accumulation of oxygen requires organic matter burial in sediments, which is largely controlled by the sheltering or preservational effects of detrital clay minerals in modern marine continental margin depocenters. Here, we show mineralogical and geochemical evidence for an increase in clay mineral deposition in the Neoproterozoic that immediately predated the first metazoans. Today most clay minerals originate in biologically active soils, so initial expansion of a primitive land biota would greatly enhance production of pedogenic clay minerals (the "clay mineral factory"), leading to increased marine burial of organic carbon via mineral surface preservation.

  10. Last Year of PEP-II B-Factory Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC (3.1 GeV e{sup +} x 9.0 GeV e{sup -}) operated from 1999 to 2008, delivering luminosity to the BaBar experiment. The design luminosity was reached after one and a half years of operation. In the end PEP-II surpassed by four times its design luminosity reaching 1.21 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. It also set stored beam current records of 2.1 A e{sup -} and 3.2 A e{sup +}. Continuous injection was implemented with BaBar taking data. The total delivered luminosity to the BaBar detector was 557.4 fb{sup -1} spanning five upsilon resonances. PEP-II was constructed by SLAC, LBNL, and LLNL with help from BINP, IHEP, the BaBar collaboration, and the US DOE OHEP.

  11. Rare B Decays in B-Factory Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Z.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2011-11-28

    Recent results of the charmless B decays from the two B-factories, BABAR and Belle, are presented. These include studies of B {yields} K{pi}, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{rho}{sup 0}, B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}K*{sup 0}, B {yields} K*l{sup +}l{sup -}, B {yields} {pi}l{sup +}l{sup -}, B{sup +} {yields} p{bar p}K{sup +}, B{sup +} {yields} p{bar p}{pi}{sup +} and B {yields} p{bar p}K*. Findings for the direct CP violation will be addressed.

  12. Assessment of Corrosion Behavior of Ductile Irons by Factorial Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surendranathan, A. O.; Narayan Prabhu, K.; Sudhaker Nayak, H. V.

    2009-12-01

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed and alloyed ductile irons (as cast, annealed, and cold worked) in sea water, dilute sulfuric acid, and dilute sodium hydroxide solutions was assessed. Specimen history had a significant effect on the corrosion potential except in ductile iron alloyed with Ni. When the specimens were subjected to different levels of cold working, the corrosion rate was influenced by both the history and the medium. Temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion rate except in the case of unalloyed ductile iron. Factorial experiments indicated that the cold-worked samples were more sensitive to the effect of temperature and composition on the corrosion rate as compared to annealed and as-cast samples. The medium had a significant effect on the corrosion rate in all the cases.

  13. Investigation of an Asymmetric B Factory in the PEP Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Chattapadhyay, A.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Chin, Y.H.; Dell'Orco, D.; Forest, E.; Furman, M.; Garren, A.A.; Hearty, C.; Jacob, A.; Kennedy, K.; Kim, K.; Lambertson, G.; Oddone, P.; Ronan, M.; Sessler, A.; Taylor, C.; Voelker, F.; Zisman, M.; Barletta, W.; Allen, M.; Bane, K.; Bloom, E.; Brenkus, F.; Brown, K.; Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Coupal, D.; Davies-White, W.; DeStaebler, H.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Hsu, I.; Hutton, A.; Jenkins, T.; Kozanecki, W.; Lisin, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.-L.; Raubenheimer, T.; Rees, J.; Ritson, D.; Ruth, R.; Saab, A.; Savage, W.; Schwarz, H.; Seeman, J.; Thompson, K.; Weidner, H.; Wilson, P.; Sullivan, M.; Jackson, G.; Hertzbach, S.; Tennyson, J.; Zholents, A.; Fitze, H.

    1990-03-01

    This report addresses the feasibility of designing and constructing an asymmetric B-factory based on the PEP storage ring at SLAC that can begin operation at a luminosity of 3 X 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and could ultimately reach even higher luminosity. Such a facility, operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, could be used to study mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} system, and could also study tau and charm physics. The essential accelerator physics, engineering and technology issues that must be addressed to successfully build this exciting and challenging facility are identified, and possible solutions, or R and D activities that will reasonable lead to such solutions, are described.

  14. Testing disinfectants in the food factory: phenol coefficient method.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of foods by the environment has direct public health and keeping quality significance. The food factory environment (with raw materials and processing) governs the numbers and types of microorganisms in finished products. Use of the appropriate sampling procedures permits us to discover the magnitude and type of contamination. Microbiological sampling allows objective evaluation of the disinfectants and the sanitation practices and procedures used in the food factory.Disinfectants are antimicrobial pesticides that are primarily used on inanimate surfaces (such as floors, walls, and countertops) to kill infectious bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Antimicrobial pesticides are substances used to kill or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms on inanimate objects and surfaces. Products intended for the control of microorganisms in or on people or animals are considered drugs, not pesticides, and are therefore regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Antimicrobial pesticides are divided into two broad use categories: 1. Non-public health products include those used to control the growth of algae, odor-causing bacteria, and microorganisms causing spoilage, deterioration, and fouling of materials. Examples include antimicrobials used in cooling towers, paints, and paper products. 2. Public health products are intended to control microorganisms infectious to people. Examples include sterilants, which are used to destroy or eliminate all forms of microbial life including fungi, viruses, and all forms of bacteria and their spores; disinfectants, which are used to destroy or irreversibly inactivate infectious fungi and bacteria, but not necessarily their spores; and sanitizers, which are used to reduce, but not necessarily eliminate microorganisms. Examples range from sterilants used to treat surgical instruments to disinfectants applied to hospital floors, walls, and bed linens and sanitizers used on carpets or in laundry additives. PMID

  15. Collection of reciprocal space maps using imaging plates at the Australian National Beamline Facility at the Photon Factory.

    PubMed

    Mudie, S T; Pavlov, K M; Morgan, M J; Hester, J R; Tabuchi, M; Takeda, Y

    2004-09-01

    Weissenberg screens and a translating cassette have been employed to allow an imaging plate to collect 30 scans per readout. In this configuration the imaging plate functions as a curved one-dimensional position-sensitive detector and, by changing the sample angle for each of the scans, two-dimensional images were produced in reciprocal space. This method of data collection leads to a reduction in scan time compared with methods based on a scintillation detector, particularly for asymmetric reflections. The data-collection method was tested using InGaN/GaN/AlN multilayers on sapphire substrates, since these exhibit broad features in reciprocal space. The geometry of the scans in reciprocal space required the data to be interpolated onto a Cartesian grid. Several interpolation schemes were investigated, with the results compared with the reciprocal space maps collected using a triple-axis scheme with a point detector. The quality of the interpolated reciprocal space maps depends upon the size and shape of the feature in reciprocal space, the interpolation method used, and the step size of the sample rotation. The method can be extended to three dimensions without an increase in data-collection time.

  16. Photon Molecules in Atomic Gases Trapped Near Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, James S.; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.

    2016-07-01

    Realizing systems that support robust, controlled interactions between individual photons is an exciting frontier of nonlinear optics. To this end, one approach that has emerged recently is to leverage atomic interactions to create strong and spatially nonlocal interactions between photons. In particular, effective photonic interactions have been successfully created via interactions between atoms excited to Rydberg levels. Here, we investigate an alternative approach, in which atomic interactions arise via their common coupling to photonic crystal waveguides. This technique takes advantage of the ability to separately tailor the strength and range of interactions via the dispersion engineering of the structure itself, which can lead to qualitatively new types of phenomena. For example, much of the work on photon-photon interactions relies on the linear optical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency, in combination with the use of interactions to shift optical pulses into or out of the associated transparency window. Here, we identify a large new class of "correlated transparency windows," in which photonic states of a certain number and shape selectively propagate through the system. Through this technique, we show that molecular bound states of photon pairs can be created.

  17. The ubiquitous photonic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Andrea; Banzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A circularly polarized electromagnetic plane wave carries an electric field that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise around the propagation direction of the wave. According to the handedness of this rotation, its longitudinal spin angular momentum (AM) density is either parallel or antiparallel to the propagation of light. However, there are also light waves that are not simply plane and carry an electric field that rotates around an axis perpendicular to the propagation direction, thus yielding transverse spin AM density. Electric field configurations of this kind have been suggestively dubbed ‘photonic wheels’. It has been recently shown that photonic wheels are commonplace in optics as they occur in electromagnetic fields confined by waveguides, in strongly focused beams, in plasmonic and evanescent waves. In this work we establish a general theory of electromagnetic waves propagating along a well defined direction, and carrying transverse spin AM density. We show that depending on the shape of these waves, the spin density may be either perpendicular to the mean linear momentum (globally transverse spin) or to the linear momentum density (locally transverse spin). We find that the latter case generically occurs only for non-diffracting beams, such as the Bessel beams. Moreover, we introduce the concept of meridional Stokes parameters to operationally quantify the transverse spin density. To illustrate our theory, we apply it to the exemplary cases of Bessel beams and evanescent waves. These results open a new and accessible route to the understanding, generation and manipulation of optical beams with transverse spin AM density.

  18. Smart photonic carbon brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Kuznetsov, Artem A.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Sakhabutdinov, Airat Z.; Faskhutdinov, Lenar M.; Artemev, Vadim I.

    2016-03-01

    Aspects of the paper relate to a wear monitoring system for smart photonic carbon brush. There are many applications in which regular inspection is not feasible because of a number of factors including, for example, time, labor, cost and disruptions due to down time. Thus, there is a need for a system that can monitor the wear of a component while the component is in operation or without having to remove the component from its operational position. We propose a new smart photonic method for characterization of carbon brush wear. It is based on the usage of advantages of the multiplicative response of FBG and LPFG sensors and its double-frequency probing. Additional measuring parameters are the wear rate, the brush temperature, the engine rotation speed, the hangs control, and rotor speed. Sensor is embedded in brush. Firstly the change of sensor length is used to measure wear value and its central wavelength shift for temperature ones. The results of modeling and experiments are presented.

  19. Ion photon emission microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P.; Doyle, B. L.; Banks, J. C.; Battistella, A.; Gennaro, G.; McDaniel, F. D.; Mellon, M.; Vittone, E.; Vizkelethy, G.; Wing, N. D.

    2003-09-01

    A new ion-induced emission microscopy has been invented and demonstrated, which is called ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM). It employs a low current, broad ion beam impinging on a sample, previously coated or simply covered with a few microns of a fast, highly efficient phosphor layer. The light produced at the single ion impact point is collected with an optical microscope and projected at high magnification onto a single photon position sensitive detector (PSD). This allows maps of the ion strike effects to be produced, effectively removing the need for a microbeam. Irradiation in air and even the use of alpha particle sources with no accelerator are possible. Potential applications include ion beam induced charge collection studies of semiconducting and insulating materials, single event upset studies on microchips and even biological cells in radiobiological effectiveness experiments. We describe the IPEM setup, including a 60× OM-40 microscope with a 1.5 mm hole for the beam transmission and a Quantar PSD with 60 μm pixel. Bicron plastic scintillator blades of 10 μm were chosen as a phosphor for their nanosecond time resolution, homogeneity, utility and commercial availability. The results given in this paper are for a prototype IPEM system. They indicate a resolution of ˜12 μm, the presence of a spatial halo and a He-ion efficiency of ˜20%. This marks the first time that nuclear microscopy has been performed with a radioactive source.

  20. Photonic Band Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabonovitch, Eli

    2001-09-01

    Scientists at UCLA, Caltech, and Polytechnic University have developed a new concept in Electromagnetics called "Photonic Bandgaps' that permits unprecedented control of Electromagnetic Waves, at both radio frequencies, and optical frequencies. This new paradigm of Electromagnetics is based on Nature's design for semiconductor crystals, but it is a crystal structure that is artificially engineered for electromagnetic waves rather than for electron waves. Beginning in 1996, new frontiers in the engineered control of electromagnetic waves have emerged from this design paradigm. For example, the very tiniest, most miniaturized electromagnetic cavity ever created was engineered, and demonstrated, under this MURI; trapping optical energy in the smallest volume ever achieved. This world's most tiny light trap was also made into the most miniaturized laser ever made, occupying a volume smaller than a cubic wavelength. At the same time this MURI advanced the electromagnetic bandgap concept into microwaves and radio waves that are so important for military systems. This required new concepts that permitted the bandgap structure to be much smaller than the electromagnetic wavelength. As in the optical version of photonic crystals, these electromagnetic bandgaps permit unprecedented control over radio frequency electromagnetic waves. For example new antenna structures have been invented that permit near field control over radio emissions from antennas, so that the hand-held radio transmitters can be more efficient.