I wonder what most people think when they hear of small children playing on computers in kindergarten. One can almost hear the responses: "Why should kindergarten children have to use computers?" Small children are using computers? It's much too earlyl" "At kindergarten children should be singing, playing games, and making mud pies!" A computer is the epitome of the artificial. If we really make a mess of things, humans will become slaves to computers. What can they be thinking, putting such things in kindergartens as a child's toy? Many people who think in this way have never touched a computer, and it often seems the case that these "emotional opponents" are opposed to them only because of their own preconceptions. There is still a preconception that" a computer = a square machine like a TV with lots of difficult-looking keys". Computers are now in virtually all of the electronic appliances we use every day, refrigerators, washing machines, vacuums and televisions, and we think nothing of it. We live each day using computers, but only the "square" computer invites such contempt. Why is this the case? On the other side, there are the "proactive endorsers", who think "Computers have spread thus far in society and schools, so we must let children become familiar with them from a very young age!" These people often seem to want to teach everyone everything. There is much to know about the image and use of computers. They seem to think that if adults don't teach them, children won't understand anything. On this point, they are at the same level as the "emotional opponents", in that they conceive of computers as being something out of the ordinary.
Protection Cardiovascular Research Breeding Endocrinology Agricultural Chemistry Hematology Nutrition and Food Science Metabolic Disorders Science of...Soil and Plant Nutrition Digestive Diseases Agricultural Product and Fermentation Psychiatry Science Radiology and Medical Electronics Engineering...graphite for- can be controlled by using diamond seed mation both lower the free energy of the crystals. system, but diamond can be formed if it can
After the Japan-England Friendship and Commercial Treaty of 1858 (Ansei 5), narcotic drugs have been strictly regulated by laws. The production of opium alkaloid analgesics, mainly morphine, became active in Japan after World War I (1918, Taisho 7). Having released the "Cancer Pain Relief" guideline by the WHO in 1986 (Showa 61) and the morphine sulfate controlled-release tablet "MS Contin" in 1989 (Heisei 1) in Japan, the demand for morphine in Japan expanded remarkably. Today, several more kinds of strong opioid analgesics are available for cancer pain treatment in Japan. An increase in the use of strong opioid analgesics is expected in the future.
Okubo, Ayako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Utsugi, Mitsuru; Kitada, Naoto; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Takeshi
On September 18, 2002, we conducted a high-resolution, low-altitude helicopter-borne aeromagnetic survey at two flight altitudes, using spiral trajectories for the first time, over Unzen Volcano in the framework of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP). This study obtained more detailed and new information than the previous aeromagnetic studies in Unzen volcano about the geological features, for understanding the history and eruption mechanism of the Unzen volcano. Therefore, we conducted a magnetization intensity mapping on the volcano, on the assumption that the magnetic anomalies are caused by the terrain magnetized in the same direction as the present Earth's magnetic field and the magnetization intensity varies only laterally. This map shows good agreement with the geologic features, especially the hydrothermal alteration zone and the collapsed pyroclastic deposits. In addition, even in the area covered by lavas, the magnetization intensities show various values corresponding to each eruption event. It may be considered that the differences in magnetic properties reflect different oxygen fugacity in rocks during their cooling time period. Local magnetization lows on Heisei-Shinzan suggest that the Heisei lava produced by the 1991-1995 eruption has not yet been cooled enough.
Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.
An emerging elementary particle imaging technique called muography has increasingly been used to resolve the internal structures of volcanoes with a spatial resolution of less than 100 m. However, land-based muography requires several days at least to acquire satisfactory image contrast and thus, it has not been a practical tool to diagnose the erupting volcano in a real time manner. To address this issue, airborne muography was implemented for the first time, targeting Heisei-Shinzan lava dome of Unzen volcano, Japan. Obtained in 2.5 hours, the resultant image clearly showed the density contrast inside the dome, which is essential information to predict the magnitude of the dome collapse. Since airborne muography is not restricted by topographic conditions for apparatus placements, we anticipate that the technique is applicable to creating images of this type of lava dome evolution from various angles in real time. PMID:28008978
Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.
An emerging elementary particle imaging technique called muography has increasingly been used to resolve the internal structures of volcanoes with a spatial resolution of less than 100 m. However, land-based muography requires several days at least to acquire satisfactory image contrast and thus, it has not been a practical tool to diagnose the erupting volcano in a real time manner. To address this issue, airborne muography was implemented for the first time, targeting Heisei-Shinzan lava dome of Unzen volcano, Japan. Obtained in 2.5 hours, the resultant image clearly showed the density contrast inside the dome, which is essential information to predict the magnitude of the dome collapse. Since airborne muography is not restricted by topographic conditions for apparatus placements, we anticipate that the technique is applicable to creating images of this type of lava dome evolution from various angles in real time.
Murphy, B. S.; de Silva, S. L.; Takarada, S.; Schmitt, A. K.
Crystal-rich (40-50 vol.-%) intermediate to silicic lava has been the primary eruptive product of several recent hazardous eruptions: Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines (1991), Soufriere Hills, Montserrat (1995-present), and Unzen, Japan (1990-1995). Despite this association with such devastating eruptions, the formation, timing, and evacuation of such magmas is not well understood: do such eruptions tap a long-lived, multi-cycle crystal mush, or, is it generated in a single magmatic cycle prior to eruption? We are exploring these questions at the Unzen Volcanic Complex, Nagasaki-ken, Japan where a 500 ka history of crystal-rich dacitic dome eruptions has built the Unzen Volcanic Complex. Previous studies (e.g. Nakamura, 1995) have demonstrated the role of mafic recharge in rejuvenating crystal mush a few months prior to the most recent eruptions, but the history of the mush is unknown. Preliminary U-Th/U-Pb in zircon geochronology from the most recent eruption (Heisei-Shinzan; 1990-1995) and the 1792 dome collapse lava (Tenguyama; erupted 4.1±0.8 ka) reveal a complex history of individual zircons. Unpolished rims from the 1990-1995 eruption range in age from ~24.6 to 180 ka, while interior ages (on polished grains) are older, ranging from 60 to 200 ka. Zircons from Tenguyama record unpolished rim model ages of ca. 21 to 90 ka and interior ages of 37 to 225 ka. Rim-interior age differences range from 24 to 122 ka and 6 to 180 ka for Heisei-Shinzan and Tenguyama, respectively. No model ages younger than 20 ka have so far been determined. This leads to the hypothesis that eruptions at Unzen are tapping a long-lived, multi-cycle mush of significant longevity. Acquisition of additional U-Th/U-Pb data, including trace elements from other Unzen domes ranging in age back to 440 ka, is underway to test this hypothesis and more tightly link volcanism with subsurface processes.
Do you remember an expert system? I think there are various impressions about the system. For example, some might say “It reminds me of old days”. On the other hand, some might say “It was really troublesome”. About 25 years ago, from late 1980s to the middle of 1990s, when the Showa era was about to change into the Heisei Era, artificial intelligence boomed. Research and development for an expert system which was equipped with expertise and worked as smart as expert, was advanced in various fields. Our company also picked up the system as the new system which covered weak point of conventional computer technology. We started research and development in 1984, and installed an expert system in a SCADA system, which started operating in March 1990 in the Fukuoka Integrated Control Center. In this essay, as an electric power engineer who involved in development at that time, I introduce the situation and travail story about developing an expert system which support restorative actions from the outage and overload condition of power networks.
Toda, Haruki; Nagano, Akinori; Luo, Zhiwei
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify whether walking speed affects acceleration variability of the head, lumbar, and lower extremity by simultaneously evaluating of acceleration. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty young individuals recruited from among the staff at Kurashiki Heisei Hospital participated in this study. Eight accelerometers were used to measure the head, lumbar and lower extremity accelerations. The participants were instructed to walk at five walking speeds prescribed by a metronome. Acceleration variability was assessed by a cross-correlation analysis normalized using z-transform in order to evaluate stride-to-stride variability. [Results] Vertical acceleration variability was the smallest in all body parts, and walking speed effect had laterality. Antero-posterior acceleration variability was significantly associated with walking speed at sites other than the head. Medio-lateral acceleration variability of the bilateral hip alone was smaller than the antero-posterior variability. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that the effect of walking speed changes on the stride-to-stride acceleration variability was individual for each body parts, and differs among directions. PMID:27390419
Nagasawa, M.; Lin, D. N. C.
We study the dynamical evolution of short-period extrasolar planets orbiting young host stars with other eccentric planets. During the fast stages of planet formation, the host-stars are in pre-main sequence stage and are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. As the host-stars evolve onto to the main sequence, the disks are depleted and the stellar radii and the speed of rotation change. All these effects influence the evolution of the orbits of short-period planets. In addition, when the short period planets whose period is less than 6 days have large eccentricities, the tidal dissipation of energy during the circularization would induce interior heating, inflation, Roche lobe overflow, and ultimately mass losses. We study the necessary conditions for the survival of hot Jupiters including the potential of the evolving disk, the potential due to the flattening of the star produced by the increasing stellar rotation, and the post-Newtonian potential of the host star. We find that the short-period planets orbiting around young stellar objects whose spin periods are longer than a few days may be highly vulnerable to the dissipation of the disk and evolution of the stars. Based on these results, we suggest that fast rotators have more short-period planets in multiple systems than slow rotating stars. This work was partly performed while MN held a JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship for Research Abroad (Heisei 14). This work is supported in part by NASA through grant NAG5-11779 to D. N. C. Lin.
Amano, Hodaka; Takada, Tadahiro; Isaji, Shuji; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Koichi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yamanouchi, Eigoro; Gabata, Toshifumi; Kadoya, Masumi; Hattori, Takayuki; Hirota, Masahiko; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Takeda, Kazunori; Wada, Keita; Sekimoto, Miho; Kiriyama, Seiki; Yokoe, Masamichi; Hirota, Morihisa; Arata, Shinju
The clinical course of acute pancreatitis varies from mild to severe. Assessment of severity and etiology of acute pancreatitis is important to determine the strategy of management for acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis is classified according to its morphology into edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis. Edematous pancreatitis accounts for 80-90% of acute pancreatitis and remission can be achieved in most of the patients without receiving any special treatment. Necrotizing pancreatitis occupies 10-20% of acute pancreatitis and the mortality rate is reported to be 14-25%. The mortality rate is particularly high (34-40%) for infected pancreatic necrosis that is accompanied by bacterial infection in the necrotic tissue of the pancreas (Widdison and Karanjia in Br J Surg 80:148-154, 1993; Ogawa et al. in Research of the actual situations of acute pancreatitis. Research Group for Specific Retractable Diseases, Specific Disease Measure Research Work Sponsored by Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. Heisei 12 Research Report, pp 17-33, 2001). On the other hand, the mortality rate is reported to be 0-11% for sterile pancreatic necrosis which is not accompanied by bacterial infection (Ogawa et al. 2001; Bradely and Allen in Am J Surg 161:19-24, 1991; Rattner et al. in Am J Surg 163:105-109, 1992). The Japanese (JPN) Guidelines were designed to provide recommendations regarding the management of acute pancreatitis in patients having a variety of clinical characteristics. This article describes the guidelines for the surgical management and interventional therapy of acute pancreatitis by incorporating the latest evidence for the management of acute pancreatitis in the Japanese-language version of JPN guidelines 2010. Eleven clinical questions (CQ) are proposed: (1) worsening clinical manifestations and hematological data, positive blood bacteria culture test, positive blood endotoxin test, and the presence of gas bubbles in and around the pancreas on CT