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  1. Keloids

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months after injury or surgery for an adults. Children may need up to 18 months of prevention. Imiquimod cream may help prevent keloids from forming after surgery. The cream also prevents keloids from returning from after they are removed.

  2. Keloid Skin Flap Retention and Resurfacing in Facial Keloid Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Liang, Weizhong; Song, Kexin; Wang, Youbin

    2018-02-01

    Facial keloids commonly occur in young patients. Multiple keloid masses often converge into a large lesion on the face, representing a significant obstacle to keloid mass excision and reconstruction. We describe a new surgical method that excises the keloid mass and resurfaces the wound by saving the keloid skin as a skin flap during facial keloid treatment. Forty-five patients with facial keloids were treated in our department between January 2013 and January 2016. Multiple incisions were made along the facial esthetic line on the keloid mass. The keloid skin was dissected and elevated as a skin flap with one or two pedicles. The scar tissue in the keloid was then removed through the incision. The wound was covered with the preserved keloid skin flap and closed without tension. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen were applied after surgery. Patients underwent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after surgery. Of the 45 total patients, 32 patients were cured and seven patients were partially cured. The efficacy rate was 88.9%, and 38 patients (84.4%) were satisfied with the esthetic result. We describe an efficacious and esthetically satisfactory surgical method for managing facial keloids by preserving the keloid skin as a skin flap. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  3. Keloid scar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue at the site of a healed skin injury. They often create a thick, puckered effect simulating a tumor. Keloids may be reduced in size by freezing (cryotherapy), external pressure, corticosteroid injections, laser treatments, radiation, or surgical removal.

  4. Advanced Management of Severe Keloids.

    PubMed

    Hagele, Thomas; Nyanda, Hoka; Patel, Nishit; Russell, Nicole; Cohen, George; Nelson, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Keloids negatively impact the health and quality of life of many affected dermatologic patients. Treating keloids is often difficult, and suboptimal responses are frequent. Fortunately, there are many treatment options available to the clinician that may lead to improved clinical outcomes. We present a review of currently available therapeutic options. Intralesional steroid injection remains the first-line treatment for keloids. Imiquimod, direct interferon therapy, or intralesional 5-flurouracil may alleviate the need for excessive corticosteroid therapy. Radiation and laser therapy are emerging therapeutic options that have demonstrated efficacy in reviewed studies. Given the unsatisfactory outcomes associated with pressure dressings, vitamin E, ablative laser, and surgical excision, these options should be avoided in keloid management. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy and recurrence associated with the reviewed therapeutics.

  5. Neck keloids: evaluation of risk factors and recommendation for keloid staging system.

    PubMed

    Tirgan, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Importance : Health care providers have long struggled with recurrent and hard to treat keloids. Advancing our understanding of natural history and risk factors for development of large, very large and massive neck keloids can lead to improved treatment outcomes. Clinical staging system for the categorization of keloid lesions, as well as grouping of keloid patients according to the extent of skin involvement is both fundamental for design and delivery of proper plan of care and an absolute necessity for methodical trial design and interpretation of the results thereof. Objective : To review clinical presentation and natural history of neck keloids; to explore risk factors for development of large, very large and massive neck keloids; and to propose a clinical staging system that allows for categorization of keloid lesions by their size and grouping of keloid patients by the extent of their skin involvement.  Setting:  This is a retrospective analysis of 82 consecutive patients with neck keloids who were seen by the author in his keloid specialty medical practice.    Intervention : Non-surgical treatment was offered to all patients.  Results : Neck-area keloids were found to have several unique characteristics. All 65 African Americans in this study had keloidal lesions elsewhere on their skin. Very large and massive neck keloids appear to be race-specific and almost exclusively seen among African Americans. Submandibular and submental skin was the most commonly involved area of the neck. Keloid removal surgery was found to be the main risk factor for development of very large and massive neck keloids.  Conclusions and relevance : Surgical removal of neck keloids results in wounding of the skin and triggering a pathological wound-healing response that often leads to formation of a much larger keloid.  Given the potential for greater harm from surgery, the author proposes non-surgical approach for treatment of all primary neck keloids. Author's attempts to

  6. [Keloid scars of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Beogo, R; Guiébré, Y M C; Sérémé, M; Ouoba, K; Zwetyenga, N

    2012-06-01

    A keloid scar is a benign proliferative lesion of dermic collagen. It is predominant in black skin patients. It is most commonly located on the head and neck. Skin trauma and a genetic predisposition may be responsible for the keloid scar. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of keloid scar is still unclear, and no currently available treatment is 100% effective. The authors had for aim to review the current data on keloid scar pathogenesis and treatment for an optimal management of this condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The keloid phenomenon: progress toward a solution.

    PubMed

    Louw, Louise

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, keloids have been an enigma and despite considerable research to unravel this phenomenon no universally accepted treatment protocol currently exists. Historically, the etiology of keloids has been hypothesized by multiple different theories; however, a more contemporary view postulates a multifactoral basis for this disorder involving nutritional, biochemical, immunological, and genetic factors that play a role in this abnormal wound healing. Critical to the process of preventing or managing keloids is the need to locally control fibroblasts and their activities at the wound site. In recent years, considerable evidence has accumulated demonstrating the importance of fatty acids and bioactive lipids in health and disease, especially those involving inflammatory disorders or immune dysfunction. If hypertrophic scarring and keloid formation can be argued to have significant inflammatory histories, then it is possible to postulate a role for lipids in their etiology and potentially in their treatment. This report briefly visits past views and theories on keloid formation and treatment, and offers a theoretical rationale for considering adjuvant fatty acid therapy for keloid management. Sufficient scientific evidence in support of fatty acid strategies for the prevention and treatment of keloids currently exists, which offer opportunities to bridge the gap between the laboratory and the clinic. The intent of this paper is to serve as a basic guideline for researchers, nutritionists, and clinicians interested in keloids and to propose new directions for keloid management.

  8. Pleiotrophin is downregulated in human keloids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Jin, Cheng Long; Kim, Yeji; Shin, Mi Hee; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Minji; Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Soyun

    2016-10-01

    Keloid is an abnormal hyperproliferative scarring process with involvement of complex genetic and triggering environmental factors. Previously published dysregulated gene expression profile of keloids includes genes involved in tumor formation. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted, heparin-binding growth factor which is involved in various biological functions such as cell growth, differentiation, and tumor progression. Although PTN expression was reported to be increased in hypertrophic scars, there is no study on PTN expression in keloids, and previous microarray results are controversial. To clarify differential expression of PTN in keloids, we investigated the expression of PTN and its interacting molecules in keloid and control fibroblasts, and performed immunohistochemical staining of PTN using tissue arrays. The expressions of PTN, its upstream regulator platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-B) and corresponding PDGF receptors were significantly downregulated in keloid fibroblasts compared to normal human fibroblasts, and the decreased PTN protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry as well as Western blot. Moreover, functional downstream receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase β/ζ was significantly upregulated in keloid fibroblasts, supporting overall downregulation of PTN signaling pathway. The lowered PTN expression in keloids suggests a different pathomechanism from that of hypertrophic scars.

  9. Algorithm of chest wall keloid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xiao; Zhang, Mingzi; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Ru; Wang, Youbin; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Keloids are common in the Asian population. Multiple or huge keloids can appear on the chest wall because of its tendency to develop acne, sebaceous cyst, etc. It is difficult to find an ideal treatment for keloids in this area due to the limit of local soft tissues and higher recurrence rate. This study aims at establishing an individualized protocol that could be easily applied according to the size and number of chest wall keloids. A total of 445 patients received various methods (4 protocols) of treatment in our department from September 2006 to September 2012 according to the size and number of their chest wall keloids. All of the patients received adjuvant radiotherapy in our hospital. Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was used to assess the treatment effect by both doctors and patients. With mean follow-up time of 13 months (range: 6–18 months), 362 patients participated in the assessment of POSAS with doctors. Both the doctors and the patients themselves used POSAS to evaluate the treatment effect. The recurrence rate was 0.83%. There was an obvious significant difference (P < 0.001) between the before-surgery score and the after-surgery score from both doctors and patients, indicating that both doctors and patients were satisfied with the treatment effect. Our preliminary clinical result indicates that good clinical results could be achieved by choosing the proper method in this algorithm for Chinese patients with chest wall keloids. This algorithm could play a guiding role for surgeons when dealing with chest wall keloid treatment. PMID:27583896

  10. Keloids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  11. [Establishment of a keloid model by transplanting human keloid onto the backs of nude mice].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Andrac-Meyer, L; Bruno, M; Magalon, G; Mordon, S

    2014-08-01

    Keloid scar is a proliferative healing dysfunction formed by an excessive build-up of collagen fibers on the dermis. It is responsible of aesthetic and functional disabilities. There is no ideal treatment and recurrence occurs very often. Keloid scars occur only to human, that's why animal model needs to be made to study this pathology and new treatments. Few models have been described using human keloid scars implanted into subcutaneous tissue of nude mice or rat. To allow study of topical and laser treatment we have developed a new animal model using human keloid scar fragment with epidermal and dermal tissue implanted into back of nude mice like a full thickness skin graft. Keloid fragments from five donors have been grafted onto 40 nudes mice. Macroscopic and microscopic studies have been made at day 28, 56, 84 and 112. We observed integration of the fragments in all cases. Hyalinized collagen bundles were observed in all implant biopsies confirming the stability of the keloid architecture within 112 days. This model is easily reproducible and allows the study of topical treatment and laser due to the accessibility of the keloid. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. [Establishment of immortal lymphoblastoid cell bank of keloids pedigree].

    PubMed

    Song, Mei; Gao, Jian-hua; Yan, Xin; Liu, Xiao-jun; Chen, Yang

    2006-11-01

    To provide perpetual research materials for long term studies by establishing immortal lymphoblastoid cell bank of keloids pedigree. The immortal lymphoblastoid cell lines of keloids pedigree were established by Epstein-Barr virus transformation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes. 27 immortal lymphoblastoid cell lines of keloids pedigree were obtained successfully, all of the immortal lymphoblastoid cell lines were successfully revivificated after been frozen in liquid nitrogen. It is important to establish immortal lymphoblastoid cell bank of keloids pedigree and provide long-term DNA materials for deep study of keloids in the future.

  13. Oxygen consumption of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Ando, Taichi; Shibata, Masahiro; Sekiya, Naomi; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    The oxygen consumption of keloids and hypertrophic scars has never been quantitatively presented, although abnormal metabolic conditions must be associated with their pathophysiology. We invented an original measurement system equipped with a Clark oxygen electrode for ex vivo samples. The measurement of a mouse wound-healing model revealed immature repairing tissues consumed more oxygen than mature tissues. This finding is in accord with the current thinking and supported the validity of our measurement system. The analysis of fresh human samples clearly demonstrated the high oxygen consumption rate of keloid hypertrophic scars and the comparatively low consumption of mature scars. A high oxygen consuming potential, as well as insufficient oxygen diffusion, may possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  14. A case of congenital corneal keloid.

    PubMed

    Song, Jong-Suk; Kwon, Sangwon; Shyn, Kyung-Hwan

    2005-06-01

    To describe a case of unilateral comeal keloid and present the clinical and histopathological findings and the management. A 23-year-old Asian male patient was examined for a white spot on the left cornea that had been present since birth. On biomicroscopic examination, a well-demarcated vascularized comeal mass was found located nasal to the center. The pupil was displaced superiorly, and gonioscopic examination showed peripheral iridocomeal adhesion at 12 o'clock. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty. Histopathologic study showed a variously thickened epithelial layer, an absence of Bowman's layer, subepithelial fibrovascular hyperplasia, and an absence of dermal elements. These histopathologic findings suggested a congenital comeal keloid. The central graft comea remained clear at 18 months after surgery and the patient was satisfied with the result. Penetrating keratoplasty may be an effective surgical option for congenital keloids in young adult patients.

  15. Postoperative radiotherapy in the management of keloids.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Claudia C; Ibarra, Carla M; Arbulo, Douglas L; Russo, Moisés N; Solé, Claudio P

    2016-01-01

    The high recurrence rate following keloid resection has generated interest in adjuvant treatments for this disease. This study assesses keloid recurrence when treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Retrospective analysis of resected keloids in patients referred to a Chilean radiation oncology centre between 2006 and 2013. Local recurrence was defined as new tissue growth on the surgical scar margin. Around103 keloids were analysed in 63 patients treated with 15 Gy in three fraction radiotherapy which was initiated on the same day as the surgery (75% of cases). The median keloid diameter was 6 cm; the most common site was thoracic (22%); the most common cause was prior surgery (35%); 37% caused symptoms, and several (47%) had received prior treatment with corticosteroids (32%), or surgery (30%). The median follow-up was three years, and 94% of recurrences occurred during the first year following treatment. Uni and multivariate analyses showed that an absence of symptoms was a protective factor for recurrence (OR: 0.24), while the time interval from onset to treatment with surgery plus radiotherapy >4.2 years was a risk factor (OR: 2.23). The first year recurrence rate was 32% and stabilised at 32% by the second year with no recurrences after 15 months. The combination of surgery and radiotherapy proved to be a good therapeutic alternative in the management of keloids. Our results are similar to those described in the literature for a dose of 15 Gy. Given these results, our centre will implement a new dose escalation protocol to improve future outcomes.

  16. Unfolded protein response regulation in keloid cells.

    PubMed

    Butler, Paris D; Wang, Zhen; Ly, Daphne P; Longaker, Michael T; Koong, Albert C; Yang, George P

    2011-05-01

    Keloids are a common form of pathologic wound healing characterized by excessive production of extracellular matrix. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular response to hypoxia, a component of the wound microenvironment, capable of protecting cells from the effects of over-accumulation of misfolded proteins. Since keloids have hypersecretion of extracellular matrix, we hypothesized that keloid fibroblasts (KFs) may have enhanced activation of the UPR compared with normal fibroblasts (NFs). KFs and NFs were placed in a hypoxia chamber for 0, 24, and 48h. We also used tunicamycin to specifically up-regulate the UPR. UPR activation was assayed by PCR for xbp-1 splicing and by immunoblotting with specific antibodies for the three UPR transducers. Nuclear localization of XBP-1 protein in KFs was confirmed by immunofluorescence. There is increased activation of XBP-1 protein in KFs compared with NFs following exposure to hypoxia. Pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) and ATF-6, two other pathways activated by the UPR, show comparable activation between KFs and NFs. We confirmed that there is enhanced activation of XBP-1 by demonstrating increased nuclear localization of XBP-1 using immunofluorescence. In contrast to our initial hypothesis that keloids would have broad activation of the UPR, we demonstrate here that there is a specific up-regulation of one facet of the UPR response. This may represent a specific molecular defect in KFs compared with NFs, and also suggests modulation of the UPR can be used in wound healing therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of triamcinolone in keloids morphological changes and cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, João Márcio Prazeres; de Souza, Cláudio; de Vasconcelos, Anílton César; Nunes, Tarcizo Afonso

    2015-06-01

    to assess the effects of injectable triamcinolone on keloid scars length, height and thickness, and on the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. This study consists in a prospective, controlled, randomized, single-blinded clinical trial, conducted with fifteen patients with ear keloids divided into two groups: group 1 - seven patients undergoing keloid excisions, and group 2 - eight patients undergoing keloid excisions after three sessions of infiltration with one ml of Triamcinolone hexacetonide (20mg/ml) with three week intervals between them and between the last session and surgery. The two groups were homogeneous regarding age, gender and evolution of the keloid scar. The keloid scars of patients in group 2 were measured for the length, height and thickness before triamcinolone injection and before surgery. A blinded observer performed morphological detailing and quantification of cells in hematoxylin-eosin-stained surgical specimens. An apoptotic index was created. The apoptotic index in group 1 was 56.82, and in group 2, 68.55, showing no significant difference as for apoptosis (p=0.0971). The reduction in keloid dimensions in Group 2 was 10.12% in length (p=0.6598), 11.94% in height (p=0.4981) and 15.62% in thickness (p=0.4027). This study concluded that the infiltration of triamcinolone in keloid scars did not increase the number of apoptosit and did not reduce keloids' size, length, height or thickness.

  18. Treatment of earlobe keloids using the cobalt 60 teletherapy unit.

    PubMed

    Malaker, Kamal; Zaidi, Mustafa; Franka, Mohamad Rida

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an easily accessible technique for the delivery of postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of earlobe keloids. Forty-seven earlobe keloids were given postoperative radiation using the smallest achievable half field Telecobalt technique. Results showed 41 (87.2%) of treated patients' postoperative scars remained free from recurrent keloid formation. Acute reactions were minimal and patient compliance was excellent. In conclusion, the technique described in this study for the delivery of postoperative radiation to earlobe keloids should be readily available in areas of high prevalence. Results are comparable to previously used radiotherapy techniques.

  19. Plantar keloids: diagnostic and therapeutic issues in six patients.

    PubMed

    Vanhaecke, C; Hickman, G; Cavelier-Balloy, B; Masson, V; Duron, J-B; Gorj, M; May, P; Schneider, P; Vilmer, C; Bagot, M; Battistella, M; Petit, A

    2015-07-01

    Keloids are benign fibro-proliferative skin lesions that very rarely occur on the soles. Because of their rarity, the diagnosis of plantar keloids can be difficult. We describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics of eight plantar keloids. All patients presenting with plantar keloids between 2005 and 2012 in our Dermatology unit were retrospectively included. Diagnosis was definitely established by re-reading of pathological slides in all cases. Clinical characteristics, histopathological features, treatments given and their results were collected. Six patients were included. Five patients had a single plantar keloid and one had three lesions. They all were of African descent. Only one patient remembered of a previous injury at the site of the keloid. Three patients presented with associated extra-plantar keloids. In four patients, the diagnosis of keloid was not initially suspected clinically or histologically. Re-reading of the clinical photographs showed that the eight plantar keloids shared common morphological features, leading to a distinctive clinical picture, defined by a hardened lesion of rounded or polycyclic shape, with a pink surface crossed by keratotic furrows and the presence of a hyperkeratotic rim. Concerning pathological features, typical hyalinized collagen can be missing and deep fibrosis should not rule out the diagnosis of keloid. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide and orthopaedic shoes were useful. All patients who had surgical excision presented recurrence. The knowledge of the clinical features of plantar keloids is helpful to the diagnosis. There is no well-established treatment, but supportive measures are important. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Healed corneal ulcer with keloid formation.

    PubMed

    Alkatan, Hind M; Al-Arfaj, Khalid M; Hantera, Mohammed; Al-Kharashi, Soliman

    2012-04-01

    We are reporting a 34-year-old Arabic white female patient who presented with a white mass covering her left cornea following multiple ocular surgeries and healed corneal ulcer. The lesion obscured further view of the iris, pupil and lens. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and the histopathologic study of the left corneal button showed epithelial hyperplasia, absent Bowman's layer and subepithelial fibrovascular proliferation. The histopathologic appearance was suggestive of a corneal keloid which was supported by further ultrastructural study. The corneal graft remained clear 6 months after surgery and the patient was satisfied with the visual outcome. Penetrating keratoplasty may be an effective surgical option for corneal keloids in young adult patients.

  1. Upregulation of proinflammatory genes in skin lesions may be the cause of keloid formation (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DONG, XIANGLIN; MAO, SHAOLIN; WEN, HAO

    2013-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that the main cause behind keloid formation may be keloid fibroblast abnormalities, which are closely associated with the microenvironment of the keloid lesion. The post-traumatic and chronic inflammation of the keloid lesion area suggest that inflammatory mediators play an important role in the keloid microenvironment and are crucial for keloid fibroblast abnormalities. In this study, we hypothesized that the mechanism underlying keloid formation may involve the continuous upregulation of proinflammatory gene expression in keloid lesions. This hypothesis may explain the inflammatory response, invasive growth and recurrence following resection of keloids, as well as the selective localization of keloids in specific parts of a patient’s body and the differences in localization among different patients. PMID:24649037

  2. Chondroitinase injection improves keloid pathology by reorganizing the extracellular matrix with regenerated elastic fibers.

    PubMed

    Ishiko, Toshihiro; Naitoh, Motoko; Kubota, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Satoko; Ikeda, Mika; Yoshikawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Kurahashi, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2013-05-01

    Keloids are a proliferative fibrotic disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix in the dermis. Keloid lesions lack skin plasticity due to deficiencies in elastic fiber formation in the extracellular matrix. The loss of elastic fiber is caused by excessive accumulation of chondroitin sulfate (CS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan. However, there is no radical cure for keloids. Using a model system, we show herein that treatment of keloid tissues with chondroitinase ABC, an enzyme that specifically digests CS, improves clinical features of keloids. Keloid tissues obtained from patients were grafted on nude mice, and chondroitinase ABC was injected into the grafted keloid tissues. Chondroitinase ABC treatment significantly reduced the volume of keloid implants concomitant with recovery of elastic fiber formation. These results suggest that chondroitinase ABC injection is an effective therapy for keloid. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. [Keloid scars of the external ear: a non solved problem].

    PubMed

    Bejarano Serrano, M; Parri Ferrandis, F J; García Smith, N I; Martínez-Herrada, S; Manzanares Quintela, A; Albert Cazalla, A

    2014-01-01

    The external ear is a location with high risk of keloid scar formation. Its incidence is growing since general use of piercings and performance of plastic surgery of the external ear. The external ear keloid can be a devasting process for adolescent population which is worried about their appearance. Our aim is to attract attention about the risk of keloid scars of the external ear, reviewing our experience. After dismissing radiotherapy, corticoid infiltration and surgical removal are the most used options, with a high recurrence risk. We have reviewed traumatic, surgical and piercing wounds of the external ear, with a subsequent keloid formation treated in our outpatient clinic, collecting data about wound etiology, treatment and results. During the last 10 years we have found 11 keloid scars, 2 of them improved with topical corticosteroid. Treatment has been surgical in 9 cases, 4 of them with skin graft: 5 recovered and 4 recurred; 2 of them were reoperated. 2 of them were treated with intralesional corticosteroid solely, one recovered and the other one had improved. Treatment management of keloid scars is complex and there isn't a procedure with superior results than the others. Risk of complication must be explained within adolescent population.

  4. Application of mitomycin-C for head and neck keloids.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Charles E; Kim, John Y

    2006-12-01

    Keloids of the head and neck are a relatively common entity in darker-skinned races, occurring in 5%-15% of skin wounds. Keloids are fibrotic lesions that are a result of an abnormal wound-healing process that lacks control of the mechanisms that regulate tissue repair and regeneration. The proliferation of normal tissue-healing processes results in scarring that enlarges well beyond the original wound margins. Many treatment modalities for keloids have been tried with variable amounts of success. Surgical excision, compressive therapy, silicon dressings, corticosteroid injections, radiation, cryotherapy, interferon therapy, and laser therapy have all been used alone or in combination. Despite this wide range of available treatments, recurrence rates typically remain in the 50%-70% range. In this study, we present our results in a series of 10 patients who were treated with surgical excision of head and neck keloids and the application of topical mitomycin-C. Mitomycin-C is a chemotherapeutic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis and fibroblast proliferation. It has been used in ophthalmologic procedures and airway surgery to decrease scar formation. In these 10 patients, we combined surgical excision of keloids with the application of topical mitomycin-C. The patients were then followed postoperatively for recurrence (range, 7-14 months). We have found topical application of mitomycin-C to be an effective therapy for prevention of keloid recurrence in the head and neck, with a success rate of 90% as reported in this series.

  5. Clitoral keloids after female genital mutilation/cutting.

    PubMed

    Birge, Özer; Akbaş, Murat; Özbey, Ertuğrul Gazi; Adıyeke, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to describe the presentation of long-term complications of female genital mutilation/cutting and the surgical management of clitoral keloids secondary to female genital mutilation/cutting. Twenty-seven women who underwent surgery because of clitoral keloid between May 2014 and September 2015 in Sudan Nyala Turkish Hospital were evaluated in this retrospective descriptive case series study. The prevalence of type 1, type 2, and type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting were 3.7%, 22.2%, and 74.1%, respectively (type 1: 1/27, type 2: 6/27, and type 3: 20/27). All patients had long-term health problems (dysuria, chronic pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, and chronic pruritus) and sexual dysfunction. Keloids were removed by surgical excision. There were no postoperative complications in any patient. Although clitoral keloid lesions can be seen after any type of female genital mutilation/cutting, they usually develop after type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting. Most of these keloids were noticed after menarche. Keloids can be removed by surgical excision and this procedure can alleviate some long-term morbidities of female genital mutilation/cutting.

  6. Clitoral keloids after female genital mutilation/cutting

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Özer; Akbaş, Murat; Özbey, Ertuğrul Gazi; Adıyeke, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the presentation of long-term complications of female genital mutilation/cutting and the surgical management of clitoral keloids secondary to female genital mutilation/cutting. Twenty-seven women who underwent surgery because of clitoral keloid between May 2014 and September 2015 in Sudan Nyala Turkish Hospital were evaluated in this retrospective descriptive case series study. The prevalence of type 1, type 2, and type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting were 3.7%, 22.2%, and 74.1%, respectively (type 1: 1/27, type 2: 6/27, and type 3: 20/27). All patients had long-term health problems (dysuria, chronic pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, and chronic pruritus) and sexual dysfunction. Keloids were removed by surgical excision. There were no postoperative complications in any patient. Although clitoral keloid lesions can be seen after any type of female genital mutilation/cutting, they usually develop after type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting. Most of these keloids were noticed after menarche. Keloids can be removed by surgical excision and this procedure can alleviate some long-term morbidities of female genital mutilation/cutting. PMID:28913112

  7. Recent Developments in the Use of Intralesional Injections Keloid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trisliana Perdanasari, Aurelia; Lazzeri, Davide; Su, Weijie; Xi, Wenjing; Zheng, Zhang; Ke, Li; Min, Peiru; Feng, Shaoqing; Persichetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Keloid scars are often considered aesthetically unattractive and frustrating problems that occur following injuries. They cause functional and cosmetic deformities, displeasure, itching, pain, and psychological stress and possibly affect joint movement. The combination of these factors ultimately results in a compromised quality of life and diminished functional performance. Various methods have been implemented to improve keloid scars using both surgical and non-surgical approaches. However, it has proven to be a challenge to identify a universal treatment that can deliver optimal results for all types of scars. Through a PubMed search, we explored most of the literature that is available about the intralesional injection treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids and highlights both current (corticosteroid, 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin, interferon, cryotherapy and verapamil) and future treatments (interleukin-10 and botulinum toxin type A). The reference lists of retrieved articles were also analysed. Information was gathered about the mechanism of each injection treatment, its benefits and associated adverse reactions, and possible strategies to address adverse reactions to provide reliable guidelines for determining the optimal treatment for particular types of keloid scars. This article will benefit practitioners by outlining evidence-based treatment strategies using intralesional injections for patients with hypertrophic scars and keloids. PMID:25396172

  8. Is There an Association between Keloids and Blood Groups?

    PubMed

    Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Saka, Bayaki; Kombaté, Koussaké; Akakpo, Sefako; Egbohou, Palakiyem; Tchangaï-Walla, Kissem; Pitche, Palokinam

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible associations between the blood groups ABO and Rhesus systems and the presence of keloids in patients with black skin. Method. This case-control study was conducted between September 2007 and August 2011 comparing dermatologic outpatients with keloids to matched controls recruited in preanesthetic consultation at Tokoin Teaching Hospital of Lomé (Togo). Results. The distribution of different ABO blood groups and Rhesus blood groups in both groups (cases versus controls) was not significantly different. This distribution of different blood groups was superimposed on the general population of blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Center of Lomé. Univariate analysis between each blood group and the presence of keloid does not yield any statistically significant association between blood groups and presence of keloids in the subjects. Conclusion. The study shows no significant association between blood groups and the presence of keloids in our patients. Further investigation needs to be conducted to elucidate this hypothesis further by conducting multicenter studies of several ethnic groups.

  9. Noninvasive treatment of keloid using customized Re-188 skin patch.

    PubMed

    Bhusari, Priya; Shukla, Jaya; Kumar, Munish; Vatsa, Rakhee; Chhabra, Anupriya; Palarwar, Kanchan; Rathore, Yogesh; De, Dipanker; Kumaran, Sendhil; Handa, Sanjeev; Mittal, B R

    2017-09-01

    Keloids are developed as fibrotic scar at the site of surgery or trauma and often enlarge beyond the original scar margins. Re-188 colloid coated customized patch was superficially fixed onto the lesion for 3 hrs. The same patch was reapplied on the lesion on third day for 3 hrs. The patients were followed up at 1, 3,6 and 12 months post treatment. The size and elevation of the keloid lesion was reduced after treatment. The total radiation dose from the patch (day-1 and day-3) was 100 Gy/mCi of Re-188. The radioactive patch treatment of keloids is noninvasive, painless and safe with prolonged outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Keloid in the gray reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.; Hartley, F.K.

    1976-04-01

    A gray reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, was captured at Enewetak Atoll, the Marshall Islands, in 1972. Near the right pectoral fin was a large fungating tumor. Microscopically, no evidence of microorganisms or definite malignant transformation was observed, and inflammation and necrosis were minimal. However, the tumor appeared to be a keloid, the first to be reported in sharks.

  11. Vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma with keloidal differentiation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2011-09-01

    A 6-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with a history of subcutaneous mass of the lateral left hind limb. The subcutaneous mass developed over a period of approximately 16 months subsequent to administration of Feline leukemia virus vaccines. Based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, the subcutaneous mass was diagnosed as vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma with keloidal differentiation.

  12. Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, S.B.; Trupin, K.M.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.

    Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloidmore » fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ..beta... Whereas transforming growth factor ..beta.. reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated.« less

  13. Piercing Ear Keloid: Excision Using Loupe Magnification and Topical Liquid Silicone Gel as Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Bellam A.; Mohan, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Keloid is an abnormal growth of scar at the site of skin injury, which usually does not regress. It proliferates beyond the original scar. The ear keloid usually develops after piercing injury to wear ornaments. A patient usually asks for removal of keloid, as it is aesthetically unpleasant. Patient may sometimes complain of itching and pain. Aim: The study was conducted to analyze results following excision of keloid with its tract and topical silicone gel as the postsurgical adjuvant. Materials and Methods: Ear keloids measuring less than 0.5cm or more than 5cm in maximum dimension were excluded from the study. Nonpiercing causes such as burns, trauma, and recurrent keloid were excluded from the study. The study was carried out on 22 patients who had keloid because of piercing injury, including 4 cases with both ear keloids. Of 26 ear keloids, 19 had the tract or connecting tissue. The lesion was excised under anesthesia using magnification. For all the operated cases, topical liquid silicone gel was used as postsurgical adjuvant therapy. The method of application of topical silicone gel was taught to each patient and was considered significant. Result: The magnification helped in identification of tract in 73% of the cases in this study. Twenty patients had successfully responded to proposed treatment, and two patients developed recurrence while using topical silicone gel as the adjuvant. These two patients were managed with conventional triamcinolone injection. Conclusion: The topical silicone gel as postsurgical adjuvant therapy avoided the use of painful postsurgical injection or radiotherapy for the 1–3cm primary ear keloids. The advantages of magnification were better clearance of keloid tissue, easier identification of tract and removal of keloid pseudopods, meticulous suturing, and comfortable elevation of a small local flap. PMID:29731586

  14. Recent Understandings of Biology, Prophylaxis and Treatment Strategies for Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Ju

    2018-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids are fibroproliferative disorders that may arise after any deep cutaneous injury caused by trauma, burns, surgery, etc. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are cosmetically problematic, and in combination with functional problems such as contractures and subjective symptoms including pruritus, these significantly affect patients’ quality of life. There have been many studies on hypertrophic scars and keloids; but the mechanisms underlying scar formation have not yet been well established, and prophylactic and treatment strategies remain unsatisfactory. In this review, the authors introduce and summarize classical concepts surrounding wound healing and review recent understandings of the biology, prevention and treatment strategies for hypertrophic scars and keloids. PMID:29498630

  15. Keloid scar harbouring malignant blue naevus emphasises the need for excision biopsy and routine histology.

    PubMed

    Theopold, C; Pritchard, S; McGrouther, D A; Bayat, A

    2009-01-01

    We report the finding of a malignant blue naevus of 14.3 mm Breslow thickness in association with a keloid scar on the earlobe of an Afrocaribbean gentleman. Malignant blue naevus is extremely rare and to date it has not been reported in association with keloid scars. We recommend routine histopathological examination of all excised keloid scars. Where histopathological services are limited, examination should certainly be carried out for keloids with unusual characteristics. Excision should be complete, rather than intralesional, in order to avoid leaving behind areas of potential neoplasia.

  16. Clinical implications of single- versus multiple-site keloid disorder: a retrospective study in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Hwan; Park, Ji Hae; Tirgan, Michael H; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Chang, Choong Hyun

    2015-02-01

    There is strong evidence of genetic susceptibility in individuals with keloid disorder. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the clinical relevance of our proposed variables on the multiplicity of keloids by further investigating the presence of other keloids and a family history. This was a retrospective review, using institutional review board-approved questionnaires, of patients with keloids who were seen at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between December 2002 and February 2010. Eight hundred sixty-eight patients were included in our study. Comparisons between the 2 groups were made using Mann-Whitney tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables. In our patient group, younger age of onset and the presence of family history were significantly associated with the occurrence of keloids at multiple sites. The locations of extra-auricular keloids, in order of frequency, included the shoulder; anterior chest, including the breasts; deltoid; trunk and pubic area; upper extremities; lower extremities; and other sites. As compared to secondary keloids, primary keloids were significantly associated with both a lower degree of recurrence and the presence of other keloids. The presence or absence of family history was significantly associated with the presence or absence of other keloids and primary or secondary keloids. Keloid disorder is one of the most frustrating problems in wound healing and advances in our understanding of the differences of occurrence at a single site versus multiple sites might help in understanding pathogenesis and improving treatment.

  17. Intralesional cryotherapy for hypertrophic scars and keloids: a review

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Ciaran P; Shayan-Arani, Holleh; Hamada, Maha Wagdy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertrophic and keloid scarring remain notoriously troublesome for patients to tolerate and frustratingly difficult for clinicians to treat. Many different treatment modalities exist, signifying the failure of any method to achieve consistently excellent results. Intralesional cryotherapy is a relatively recent development that uses a double lumen needle, placed through the core of a keloid or hypertrophic scar, to deliver nitrogen vapour, which freezes the scar from its core, outwards. Methods: This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature on intralesional cryotherapy for hypertrophic scars and keloids. A systematic review or meta-analysis was not possible, since the existing articles did not permit this. Results: A search of English language, peer-reviewed literature was carried out. The evidence base was found to be low (level 4). In addition, much of the published evidence comes from a very few groups. Despite this, consistent findings from case series suggest that the technique is safe and achieves good scar reduction with very few treatments. Adverse effects include depigmentation, recurrence and pain. Pain and recurrence appear to be uncommon and depigmentation may be temporary. Discussion: Well-constructed, prospectively recruited comparative trials are absent from the literature. These are strongly encouraged, in order to strengthen general confidence in this technique and in the repeatability of outcomes reported thus far. PMID:29799581

  18. Psychological stress as a risk factor for postoperative keloid recurrence.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabianne; Hochman, Bernardo; Farber, Paulo Luiz; Muller, Marisa Campio; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2012-04-01

    To investigate psychological stress on the prognosis of the postoperative recurrence of keloids. Patients with keloids (n=25), candidates for surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy, had their psychological stress evaluated on the day before the surgical procedure. The parameters evaluated were pain and itching (Visual Numerical Scale), quality of life (Questionnaire QualiFibro/Cirurgia Plástica-UNIFESP), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale), salivary cortisol and minimum and maximum galvanic skin responses (GSR) at rest and under stress (i.e., while the questionnaires were being filled out). Patients were evaluated during the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th months of postoperative care. During each return visit, two experts classified the lesions as non-recurrent and recurrent. The recurrence group presented the greatest values in GSR during a stressful situation. The chance of recurrence increased by 34% at each increase of 1000 arbitrary units in maximum GSR during stress. Psychological stress influenced the recurrence of keloids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of mitomycin C on keloid fibroblasts: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Simman, Richard; Alani, Hashim; Williams, Frances

    2003-01-01

    Keloids are the result of aberrant wound healing of human skin after dermal injury. Therapeutic options include excision followed by radiation therapy, steroid injection, and compression with silicone sheets among others. Local invasion and recurrence after excision has provoked interest in treating keloids as neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mitomycin C (MMC) on keloid fibroblasts. Keloid fibroblasts obtained from five different patients were exposed to MMC. A control group of normal and keloid cells was treated with phosphate buffered saline only. Contrast microscopy showed a decrease of fibroblast density during the 3 weeks after exposure for normal and keloid fibroblasts relative to untreated fibroblasts. This was confirmed by total cell counts ( = 0.1) and measurement of DNA synthesis. By the third week, there was a recovery in DNA synthesis and increased cell count for some of the treated fibroblasts. We concluded that at an appropriate concentration, MMC shows proliferation of keloid fibroblasts in vitro for a period of 3 weeks. This agent may be considered in clinical trials after surgical excision of keloids.

  20. Lipid nano-bubble combined with ultrasound for anti-keloids therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Qing; Li, Zhou-Na; Wang, Qi-Ming; Jin, Hong-Yan; Gao, Zhonggao; Jin, Zhe-Hu

    2018-03-01

    Keloids were characterized by excessive growth of fibrous tissues, and shared several pathological characteristics with cancer. They did put physical and emotional stress on patients in that keloids could badly change appearance of patients. N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR) showed cytotoxic activity on a wide variety of invasive-growth cells. Our work was aim to prepare N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide-loaded lipid microbubbles (4HPR-LM) combined with ultrasound for anti-keloid therapy. 4HPR-loaded liposomes (4HPR-L) were first prepared by film evaporation method, and then 4HPR-LM were manufactured by mixing 4HPR-L and perfluoropentane (PFP) with ultrasonic cavitation method. The mean particle size and entrapment efficiency 4HPR-LM were 113 nm and 95%, respectively. The anti-keloids activity of 4HPR-LM was assessed with BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous xenograft keloids model. 4HPR-LM, combined with ultrasound, could significantly induce apoptosis of keloid fibroblasts in vitro and inhibited growth of keloids in vivo. Thus, 4HPR-LM could be considered as a promising agent for anti-keloids therapy.

  1. A Radiobiological Analysis of Multicenter Data for Postoperative Keloid Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, John C., E-mail: flickingerjc@upmc.ed

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To identify factors significantly affecting recurrence rates after postoperative external beam radiotherapy (XRT) of keloids, and to delineate any radiation dose response and effects of radiation dose per fraction. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive literature review was performed to compile a database of 2,515 resected keloids (36.9% earlobe). Postoperative XRT was 45- to 100-kV X-rays in 27.0% or 120- to 250-kV X-rays in 11.1%, Co-60 in 1.9%, Sr-90 in 4.7%, 1.5- to 9-MeV electrons in 26.5%, and no XRT in 28.8%. In the 1,791 irradiated patients, the median radiation parameters were as follows: total dose, 15 Gy (range, 6-30more » Gy); dose per fraction, 5.0 Gy (range, 2-15 Gy); fractions, 3 (range, 1-10); and time, 7 days (range, 0-33 days). Results: Multivariate stepwise logistic regression correlated decreased keloid recurrence with earlobe location (p = 1.98E-10; odds ratio, 0.34), biologically effective dose (p = 1.01E-27), and treatment with electron beam or Co-60 vs. other techniques (p = 0.0014; odds ratio, 0.72). Different radiobiological models calculated values of {alpha}/{beta} = 1.12 to 2.86 (mean, 2.08) and time (repopulation) correction factors for biologically effective dose from 0.98 to 2.13 Gy per day (mean, 1.34) starting 10 days after surgery. Different models (with {alpha}/{beta} = 2.08) predicted that doses needed for 90% and 95% control with 3 fractions of postoperative electron beam were 16.0 to 16.2 Gy and 18.3 to 19.2 Gy, respectively, in less than 10 days for earlobe keloids and 21.5 to 22.2 Gy and 23.4 to 24.8 Gy, respectively, in less than 10 days for other sites. Conclusions: Postoperative keloid radiotherapy requires moderately high doses and optimal technique to be effective. The relatively low {alpha}/{beta} ratio indicates that radiotherapy with a limited number of fractions and high doses per fraction is the best strategy.« less

  2. Involvement of upper torso stress amplification, tissue compression and distortion in the pathogenesis of keloids.

    PubMed

    Bux, Shamin; Madaree, Anil

    2012-03-01

    Keloids are benign tumours composed of fibrous tissue produced during excessive tissue repair triggered by minor injury, trauma or surgical incision. Although it is recognized that keloids have a propensity to form in the upper torso of the body, the predisposing factors responsible for this have not been investigated. It is crucial that the aetiopathoical factors implicated in keloid formation be established to provide guidelines for well-informed more successful treatment. We compared keloid-prone and keloid-protected skin, identified pertinent morphological differences and explored how inherent structural characteristics and intrinsic factors may promote keloid formation. It was determined that keloid prone areas were covered with high tension skin that had low stretch and a low elastic modulus when compared with skin in keloid protected areas where the skin was lax with a high elastic modulus and low pre-stress level. Factors contributing to elevated internal stress in keloid susceptible skin were the protrusion of hard connective tissue such as bony prominences or cartilage into the dermis of skin as well as inherent skin characteristics such as the bundled arrangement of collagen in the reticular dermis, the existent high tension, the low elastic modulus, low stretch ability, contractile forces exerted by wound healing fibroblastic cells and external forces. Stress promotes keloid formation by causing dermal distortion and compression which subsequently stimulate proliferation and enhanced protein synthesis in wound healing fibroblastic cells. The strain caused by stress also compresses and occludes microvessels causing ischaemic effects and reperfusion injury which stimulate growth when blood rich in growth factors returns to the tissue. The growth promoting effects of increased internal stress, primarily, and growth factors released by reperfusing blood, manifest in keloid formation. Other inherent skin characteristics promoting keloid growth during the

  3. Lysine acetylsalicylate decreases proliferation and extracellular matrix gene expression rate in keloid fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Petri, Jean-Bernhard; Haustein, Uwe-Frithjof

    2002-01-01

    In genetically predisposed individuals keloids are formed as benign collagenous tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the proliferation and matrix gene expression of keloid fibroblasts is differently influenced by the anti-inflammatory active drug lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) when compared to normal skin fibroblasts in vitro. Normal skin and keloid fibroblasts derived from human donors were compared. Excessive scarring and the formation of keloids are (at least in part) due to an overproduction of collagen types I and III. The results show a significant dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect of lysine acetylsalicylate. At the level of gene expression we observed a pronounced inhibitory effect of LAS on procollagen I and III mRNA synthesis, whereas matrix metalloproteinase 1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 were not altered. Further clinical studies are planned to evaluate these effects of a high-dose treatment of keloids with LAS.

  4. The pivotal role of inflammation in scar/keloid formation after acne

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chao; Zhu, Jianyu; Yang, Degang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most keloids are clinically observed as solid nodules or claw-like extensions. However, they appear hypoechoic on ultrasound images and are therefore easily confused with liquid features such as blood or vessels. The pathological manifestations of typical keloids also include prominent, thick blood vessels. The existing classification of scars fails to reflect the natural history of keloids. The outer characteristics of a typical keloid include bright red hyperplasia with abundant vessels, suggesting the importance of vascular components in the process of scar formation and prompting consideration of the role of inflammation in the development of granular hyperplasia. Additionally, we further considered the potential effectiveness of oral isotretinoin for severe keloids secondary to severe acne. We also explored different principles and applications related to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), pulsed dye laser (PDL), and CO2 laser treatments for scars. PMID:29707102

  5. Treatment of keloid scars with a 1210-nm diode laser in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, Cécile; Bertrand, Baptiste; Andrac-Meyer, Lucile; Magalon, Guy; Casanova, Dominique; Kerfant, Nathalie; Mordon, Serge

    2015-12-01

    A temperature increase can improve wound healing by activation of heat shock protein 70 and stimulation of fibroblasts. Since keloids are a dysfunction of collagen fiber synthesis and organization, this study aimed to evaluate if a 1,210 nm diode laser could have effects in a new animal model of keloid scars. A total of 39 nude mice were used for this study. Phototypes IV and V human keloids were grafted into their backs and after 1 month of healing, the mice were divided into four groups: Control, Laser, Resection, Resection/Laser. In the Laser group, the keloids were treated with a 1,210-nm diode-laser with the following parameters: 4 W; 10 seconds; fluence: 51 J/cm(2) ; spot: 18.9 × 3.7 mm(2) . In the Resection group, surgical intra-lesional excision was performed. In the Resection/Laser group, keloids were treated with the 1,210-nm laser-diode after surgical intra-lesional excision. Temperature measurements were made during the laser treatment. Clinical examination and histological study were performed on the day of treatment and 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months later. Mean temperature measurement was of 44.8°C (42-48°) in the Laser groups. No healing complications or keloid proliferation was observed in any group. Keloid histologic characters were confirmed in all grafts. No histologic particularity was observed in the laser groups in comparison with the Control and Resection groups. First, this keloid animal model appears to be adapted for laser study. Secondly, the 1,210-nm diode laser does not induce keloid thermal damage in vivo. Further studies with different 1,210-nm laser diode parameters should be performed in order to observe significant effects on keloids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Early postoperative magnet application combined with hydrocolloid dressing for the treatment of earlobe keloids.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Hwan; Chang, Choong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    To prevent the recurrence of earlobe keloids after surgical removal, a reliable and safe postoperative treatment method is critical. To the authors' knowledge, no studies have elucidated the most effective postoperative dressing method for preventing the recurrence of earlobe keloids. This study aimed to compare keloid recurrence rates in patients whose keloids were dressed using conventional methods (plain gauze or a polyvinyl alcohol sponge) with those of a matched cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using magnets combined with hydrocolloid materials. This observational case-control study compared a retrospective cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using conventional methods with a matched prospective cohort of patients whose keloids were dressed using magnets combined with hydrocolloid materials. The study included patients with pathologically confirmed earlobe keloids that were surgically excised with primary closure. Patients 8 years of age or older underwent adjuvant pressure therapy with magnets at the study hospital. Patients were excluded from the study if they were unavailable for follow-up evaluation, if they had received additional adjuvant therapy during treatment, or if histologic confirmation of a keloid was not obtained. Matched-pair analysis was performed using the McNemar test. Treatment outcome was evaluated as recurrence or nonrecurrence. Overall, 9 (11.2%) of the 80 study patients experienced recurrence. The recurrence rate was significantly lower in the matched case group (2 of 40, 5%) than in the matched control group (7 of 40, 17.5%) during the follow-up period of 18 months (p=0.0253). The authors' novel dressing of magnets and hydrocolloid materials appears to be effective in reducing earlobe keloid recurrence. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to

  7. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor Decreases Collagen Synthesis of Keloid Fibroblasts and Attenuates the Extracellular Matrix on the Keloid Spheroid Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jai; Lee, Ju Hee; Ahn, Hyo Min; Song, Seung Yong; Kim, Yong Oock; Lew, Dae Hyun; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-09-01

    The 90-kDa heat-shock protein (heat-shock protein 90) is an abundant cytosolic chaperone, and inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 by 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) compromises transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-mediated transcriptional responses by enhancing TGF-β receptor I and II degradation, thus preventing Smad2/3 activation. In this study, the authors evaluated whether heat-shock protein 90 regulates TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis and treatment of keloids. Keloid fibroblasts were treated with 17-AAG (10 μM), and mRNA levels of collagen types I and III were determined by real-time reverse- transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Also, secreted TGF-β1 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of 17-AAG on protein levels of Smad2/3 complex was determined by Western blot analysis. In addition, in 17-AAG-treated keloid spheroids, the collagen deposition and expression of major extracellular matrix proteins were investigated by means of Masson trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry. The authors found that heat-shock protein 90 is overexpressed in human keloid tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue, and 17-AAG decreased mRNA levels of type I collagen, secreted TGF-ß1, and Smad2/3 complex protein expression in keloid fibroblasts. Masson trichrome staining revealed that collagen deposition was decreased in 17-AAG-treated keloid spheroids, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of collagen types I and III, elastin, and fibronectin was markedly decreased in 17-AAG-treated keloid spheroids. These results suggest that the antifibrotic action of heat-shock protein 90 inhibitors such as 17-AAG may have therapeutic effects on keloids.

  8. Descriptive Study of Patients Receiving Excision and Radiotherapy for Keloids

    SciTech Connect

    Speranza, Giovanna; Sultanem, Khalil M.D.; Muanza, Thierry

    Purpose: To review and describe our institution's outcomes in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy after keloid excision. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study. Patients who received radiotherapy between July 1994 and January 2004 after keloid excision were identified. A questionnaire was mailed regarding sociodemographic factors, early and late radiation toxicities, the need for additional therapy, and satisfaction level. All patients had received a total of 15 Gy in three daily 5-Gy fractions. Treatment started within 24 h after surgery and was delivered on a Siemens orthovoltage machine. The data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package. Results:more » A total of 234 patients were approached. The response rate was 41%, and 75% were female. The mean age was 36.5 years (range, 16-69 years). The patients were mainly of European (53.1%) or African (19.8%) descent. For early toxicity outcomes, 54.2% reported skin redness and 24% reported skin peeling. For late toxicity outcomes, 27% reported telangiectasia and 62% reported permanent skin color changes. No association was found with gender, skin color, or age for the late toxicity outcomes. Of the patients responding, 14.6% required adjuvant treatment. On a visual scale of 1-10 for the satisfaction level, 60% reported a satisfaction level of {>=}8. Telangiectasia was the most significant predictor of a low satisfaction level ({<=}3, p < 0.005). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that orthovoltage-based radiotherapy after surgical excision for keloids is a good method for the prevention of relapse. It is well tolerated, causes little toxicity, and leads to a high patient satisfaction level.« less

  9. Serum miRNAs Signature Plays an Important Role in Keloid Disease.

    PubMed

    Luan, Y; Liu, Y; Liu, C; Lin, Q; He, F; Dong, X; Xiao, Z

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of keloid is largely unknown. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small regulatory RNA that has emerged as a group of posttranscriptional gene repressors, participating in diverse pathophysiological processes of skin diseases. We investigated the expression profiles of miRNAs in the sera of patients to decipher the complicated factors involved in the development of keloid disease. MiRNA expression profiling in the sera from 9 keloid patients and 7 normal controls were characterized using a miRNA microarray containing established human mature and precursor miRNA sequences. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to confirm the expression of miRNAs. The putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were functionally annotated by bioinformatics. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 37 differentially expressed miRNAs (17 upregulated and 20 downregulated) in keloid patients, compared to the healthy controls. Functional annotations revealed that the targets of those differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched in signaling pathways essential for scar formation and wound healing. The expression profiling of miRNAs is altered in the keloid, providing a clue for the molecular mechanisms underlying its initiation and progression. MiRNAs may partly contribute to the etiology of keloids by affecting the critical signaling pathways relevant to keloid pathogenesis.

  10. Protein-protein interaction network of gene expression in the hydrocortisone-treated keloid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Zhiliang; Xue, Zhujia; Wang, Lin; Fu, Mingang; Lu, Yi; Bai, Ling; Zhang, Ping; Fan, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the molecular mechanism of hydrocortisone in keloid tissue, the gene expression profiles of keloid samples treated with hydrocortisone were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Firstly, the gene expression profiles (GSE7890) of five samples of keloid treated with hydrocortisone and five untreated keloid samples were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Secondly, data were preprocessed using packages in R language and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using a significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) protocol. Thirdly, the DEGs were subjected to gene ontology (GO) function and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, the interactions of DEGs in samples of keloid treated with hydrocortisone were explored in a human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and sub-modules of the DEGs interaction network were analyzed using Cytoscape software. Based on the analysis, 572 DEGs in the hydrocortisone-treated samples were screened; most of these were involved in the signal transduction and cell cycle. Furthermore, three critical genes in the module, including COL1A1, NID1, and PRELP, were screened in the PPI network analysis. These findings enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of the keloid and provide references for keloid therapy. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Efficacy of custom-made pressure clips for ear keloid treatment after surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Tanaydin, V; Beugels, J; Piatkowski, A; Colla, C; van den Kerckhove, E; Hugenholtz, G C G; van der Hulst, R R

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical pressure is increasingly applied as a means to prevent or treat keloid scars. The aim of this study is to analyze the long-term efficacy of our custom-molded pressure-adjustable earclips to prevent keloid recurrence after surgical excision. Using our custom-molded earclip, 88 patients who had undergone ear surgery for keloid scars were treated for 12 h a day for 6-18 months. The mean follow-up was 6.5 years. The primary outcome was the recurrence of keloids with patient satisfaction being the secondary outcome as assessed by Patient and Observer Scale (POSAS). Keloid scars did not recur in 70.5% of treated patients. The Fitzpatrick scale, which classifies human skin by type, was significantly different between the recurrence and nonrecurrence group. Differences in other patient characteristics were not found between both groups. All parameters mentioned in the POSAS patient scale drastically improved after therapy. There were no severe side effects observed after the therapy. Our pressure-adjustable earclip model is an effective tool in the prevention of ear keloid recurrence and is associated with high patient satisfaction. Its benefits should prompt further studies on its value as an adjuvant therapy to surgery in keloid treatment. Level III on the Evidence Rating Scale for Therapeutic Studies. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression Profile of Long Noncoding RNAs in Human Earlobe Keloids: A Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Kai; Yan, Hongbo; Feng, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in a wide range of biological processes and their deregulation results in human disease, including keloids. Earlobe keloid is a type of pathological skin scar, and the molecular pathogenesis of this disease remains largely unknown. Methods. In this study, microarray analysis was used to determine the expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs between 3 pairs of earlobe keloid and normal specimens. Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed to identify the main functions of the differentially expressed genes and earlobe keloid-related pathways. Results. A total of 2068 lncRNAs and 1511 mRNAs were differentially expressed between earlobe keloid and normal tissues. Among them, 1290 lncRNAs and 1092 mRNAs were upregulated, and 778 lncRNAs and 419 mRNAs were downregulated. Pathway analysis revealed that 24 pathways were correlated to the upregulated transcripts, while 11 pathways were associated with the downregulated transcripts. Conclusion. We characterized the expression profiles of lncRNA and mRNA in earlobe keloids and suggest that lncRNAs may serve as diagnostic biomarkers for the therapy of earlobe keloid. PMID:28101509

  13. Postoperative Strontium-90 Brachytherapy in the Prevention of Keloids: Results and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo A.; Stefano, Eduardo J.; Afonso, Sergio L.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of keloidectomy and strontium 90 brachytherapy in the prevention of keloid recurrence following excision and to identify outcome and the prognostic factors that predict keloid recurrence after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Data of 612 patients with 892 keloids treated between 1992 and 2006 were evaluated retrospectively. Brachytherapy was performed using a Sr-90Y surface applicator. Total dose was 20 Gy in 10 fractions. Results: With a median follow-up of 61 months, the overall recurrence-free response rate for all keloids was 87.6%. Multivariate analysis revealed the following prognostic factors for recurrence:more » keloid size > 5 cm (p < 0.0001), burn scars as the keloid etiology (p < 0.0001), and previous treatment (p < 0.0001). Outcome was not found to be significantly related to the interval between surgery and radiotherapy, sex, or age. Pruritus and skin reddening were the most common symptoms of keloids, but all signs and symptoms abated with time after treatment. Cosmetic results from the keloid treatment were considered good or excellent in 70.6% of the patients. Conclusion: Our study findings show that excision plus Sr-90 brachytherapy is effective in the eradication of keloids. Sr-90 radiotherapy (20 Gy in 10 fractions) achieved a similar local control rate, as have higher doses per fraction in other series. It also resulted in a good cosmetic rate and relief of symptoms. Our data further suggest that the initiation of postoperative irradiation within hours of surgical excision is not important to therapeutic outcome.« less

  14. Postoperative strontium-90 brachytherapy in the prevention of keloids: results and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Viani, Gustavo A; Stefano, Eduardo J; Afonso, Sergio L; De Fendi, Ligia I

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of keloidectomy and strontium 90 brachytherapy in the prevention of keloid recurrence following excision and to identify outcome and the prognostic factors that predict keloid recurrence after irradiation. Data of 612 patients with 892 keloids treated between 1992 and 2006 were evaluated retrospectively. Brachytherapy was performed using a Sr-90Y surface applicator. Total dose was 20 Gy in 10 fractions. With a median follow-up of 61 months, the overall recurrence-free response rate for all keloids was 87.6%. Multivariate analysis revealed the following prognostic factors for recurrence: keloid size > 5 cm (p < 0.0001), burn scars as the keloid etiology (p < 0.0001), and previous treatment (p < 0.0001). Outcome was not found to be significantly related to the interval between surgery and radiotherapy, sex, or age. Pruritus and skin reddening were the most common symptoms of keloids, but all signs and symptoms abated with time after treatment. Cosmetic results from the keloid treatment were considered good or excellent in 70.6% of the patients. Our study findings show that excision plus Sr-90 brachytherapy is effective in the eradication of keloids. Sr-90 radiotherapy (20 Gy in 10 fractions) achieved a similar local control rate, as have higher doses per fraction in other series. It also resulted in a good cosmetic rate and relief of symptoms. Our data further suggest that the initiation of postoperative irradiation within hours of surgical excision is not important to therapeutic outcome.

  15. Causal network analysis of head and neck keloid tissue identifies potential master regulators.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Laura; Jones, Lamont; Chen, Kang Mei; Datta, Indrani; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J

    2016-10-01

    To generate novel insights and hypotheses in keloid development from potential master regulators. Prospective cohort. Six fresh keloid and six normal skin samples from 12 anonymous donors were used in a prospective cohort study. Genome-wide profiling was done previously on the cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The 190 statistically significant CpG islands between keloid and normal tissue mapped to 152 genes (P < .05). The top 10 statistically significant genes (VAMP5, ACTR3C, GALNT3, KCNAB2, LRRC61, SCML4, SYNGR1, TNS1, PLEKHG5, PPP1R13-α, false discovery rate <.015) were uploaded into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software's Causal Network Analysis (QIAGEN, Redwood City, CA). To reflect expected gene expression direction in the context of methylation changes, the inverse of the methylation ratio from keloid versus normal tissue was used for the analysis. Causal Network Analysis identified disease-specific master regulator molecules based on downstream differentially expressed keloid-specific genes and expected directionality of expression (hypermethylated vs. hypomethylated). Causal Network Analysis software identified four hierarchical networks that included four master regulators (pyroxamide, tributyrin, PRKG2, and PENK) and 19 intermediate regulators. Causal Network Analysis of differentiated methylated gene data of keloid versus normal skin demonstrated four causal networks with four master regulators. These hierarchical networks suggest potential driver roles for their downstream keloid gene targets in the pathogenesis of the keloid phenotype, likely triggered due to perturbation/injury to normal tissue. NA Laryngoscope, 126:E319-E324, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Electrochemotherapy treatment of a recalcitrant earlobe keloid scar with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia infiltration.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, D C G; Allison, K P; Muir, T

    2010-10-01

    Electrochemotherapy, a tumour ablation modality, which facilitates intracellular delivery of poorly-permeable cytotoxic drugs, such as bleomycin, has shown promising results in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous melanomatous and non-melanomatous metastases. We report the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian gentleman with a keloid scar to his left earlobe that developed following a piercing. Despite multiple intralesional steroidal injections, five intralesional excisions and a course of superficial radiotherapy the keloid scar remained over nine years later. For 15 years the patient had also suffered chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with no nodal disease or systemic involvement. However, histological analysis of the final surgical excision specimen showed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia infiltration of the keloid scar. Further surgical excision seemed unwise considering the recalcitrance of the keloid scar. Additionally, no systemic chemotherapy treatment options were feasible. Electrochemotherapy was performed under local anaesthesia with the aim of eradicating the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia deposit within the keloid lesion. Four sessions of electrochemotherapy using bleomycin were deployed over 11 months. A deep core biopsy of the treated keloid performed three months following the last electrochemotherapy session showed no evidence of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Serendipitously, following the initial electrochemotherapy treatment no further growth of the keloid scar was observed. Furthermore, subsequent electrochemotherapy led to a substantial reduction in size of the keloid sustained for 14 months at last follow-up. This report highlights the exciting potential of electrochemotherapy and bleomycin in the treatment of recalcitrant scars. Larger, well-designed clinical and in-vitro studies are required to further elucidate the exact role, mechanism and cost-effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in this area. Copyright 2010 British Association of Plastic

  17. Histomorphometric analysis of collagen architecture of auricular keloids in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yosep; Park, Tae Hwan; Seo, Sang won; Chang, Choong Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Keloids are a pathologic condition of the reparative process, which present as excessive scar formation that involves various cells and cytokines. Many studies focusing on the histologic feature of keloids, however, have shown discordant results without consideration of architectural aspect of collagen structure. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a schematic illustration of collagen architecture of keloids, specifically auricular keloids, and to analyze each part on the histomorphologic and morphometric basis. Thirty-nine surgically excised auricular keloids were retrieved from the file of Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. After exhaustive histomorphologic analysis, 3 distinctive structural parts, keloidal collagen, organizing collagen, and proliferating core collagen, were identified and mapped in every case. Cellularity of fibroblasts, blood vessel density, degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, and mast cells counts using Masson trichrome stain, Van Gieson stain, toluidine blue stain, and immunohistochemical stains for CD31 and smooth muscle actin were analyzed in each part of each case. Morphometric analysis on these parameters using ImageJ software was performed using 3 representative images of each part. Three parts were histomorphologically distinct by shape and array of collagen bundles, fibroblasts cellularity, blood vessel density, degree of inflammatory cells, and mast cell infiltration. Morphometric analysis revealed statistically significant difference between each part in fibroblasts cellularity, blood vessel density, degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, and mast cells count. All parameters were exceedingly high in whorling hypercellular fibrous nodules in proliferating core collagen showing simultaneous changes in other parts. Morphologically and morphometrically, 3 distinctive parts were identified in auricular keloids. Mast cell infiltrations, blood vessel density, and fibroblast cellularity are simultaneously increased or decreased

  18. Antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of tualang honey on human keloid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Keloid is a type of scar which extends beyond the boundaries of the original wound. It can spread to the surrounding skin by invasion. The use of Tualang honey is a possible approach for keloid treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of Tualang honey to primary human keloid fibroblasts and to identify the volatile compounds in methanol extraction of Tualang honey. Methods Crude Tualang honey was extracted with methanol and then dried using rota vapor to remove remaining methanol from honey. Normal and keloid fibroblasts were verified and treated with the extracted honey. Cell proliferation was tested with [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yi)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt] (MTS) assay. Extraction of Tualang honey using methanol was carried out and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The result was analysed using SPSS and tested with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Methanolic extraction of honey has positive anti proliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of fatty acids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and octadecanoic acid may contribute to the anti-proliferative effect in keloid fibroblasts. Conclusions The methanolic honey extraction has an antiproliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts and a range of volatile compounds has been identified from Tualang honey. The antiproliferative effect of keloid fibroblasts towards Tualang honey may involve cell signaling pathway. Identifying other volatile compounds from different organic solvents should be carried out in future. PMID:21943200

  19. Inhibitory Activities of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Traditional African Remedies on Keloid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Olaitan, Peter B.; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E.C.; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M.; Reichenberger, Ernst J.

    2012-01-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies—boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter—leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world. PMID:24489452

  20. Inhibitory activities of omega-3 Fatty acids and traditional african remedies on keloid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, Peter B; Chen, I-Ping; Norris, James E C; Feinn, Richard; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    Keloids develop when scar tissue responds to skin trauma with proliferative fibrous growths that extend beyond the boundaries of the original wound and progress for several months or years. Keloids most frequently occur in individuals of indigenous sub-Saharan African origin. The etiology for keloids is still unknown and treatment can be problematic as patients respond differently to various treatment modalities. Keloids have a high rate of recurrence following surgical excision. Some West African patients claim to have had successful outcomes with traditional African remedies-boa constrictor oil (BCO) and shea butter-leading the authors to investigate their effects on cultured fibroblasts. The effects of emulsions of BCO, fish oil, isolated omega-3 fatty acids, and shea butter were tested in comparison to triamcinolone regarding inhibition of cell growth in keloid and control fibroblast cultures. In a series of controlled studies, it was observed that fish oil and BCO were more effective than triamcinolone, and that cis-5, 8, 11, 14, 17-eicosapentaenoic acid was more effective than -linolenic acid. While cell counts in control cultures continuously decreased over a period of 5 days, cell counts in keloid cultures consistently declined between day 1 and day 3, and then increased between day 3 and day 5 for all tested reagents except for fish oil. These results suggest that oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be effective in reducing actively proliferating keloid fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to investigate whether oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids offer effective and affordable treatment for some keloid patients, especially in the developing world.

  1. Differential and exclusive diagnosis of diseases that resemble keloids and hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Rei; Akaishi, Satoshi; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2009-06-01

    Previous articles suggested the presence of various kinds of malignant tumors that resemble keloid or hypertrophic scar, including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, trichilemmal carcinoma, and keloidal basal cell carcinoma. Thus, we studied our cases that were diagnosed with diseases other than keloid or hypertrophic scar. From April 2003 to March 2007, we examined 378 patients self diagnosed with keloid or hypertrophic scar.We detected 4 other diseases (1.06%) in the group of patients. All tumors were benign: apocrine cystadenoma, adult-onset juvenile xanthogranuloma, mixed tumor, and chronic folliculitis. Our study led us to the conclusion that differential or exclusive diagnosis of diseases similar to keloid and hypertrophic scar is important. We found the following considerations important in the examination of keloid or hypertrophic scar: (1) biopsy should be conducted in anomalous cases because malignant disease may be the original or secondary problem, (2) steroid injection should be performed only after careful consideration because malignancy or infections may be present, (3) careful differential diagnosis is particularly challenging in African-Americans because skin and tumor color are often similar, and (4) the presence of bacterial or fungal infection should be investigated.

  2. Dose-Effect Relationships for Recurrence of Keloid and Pterygium After Surgery and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kal, Henk B.; Veen, Ronald E.; Juergenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To show radiation dose-response relationships for recurrence of keloid and pterygium after radiotherapy following surgery. Methods and Materials: Using PubMed, we performed a retrospective review of articles reporting incidences and/or dose-response relationships for recurrence of keloid and pterygium after radiotherapy following surgery. The irradiation regimens identified were normalized by use of the linear-quadratic model; biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. Results: For keloid recurrence after radiotherapy following keloid removal, with either teletherapy or brachytherapy, the recurrence rate after having delivered a BED greater than 30 Gy is less than 10%. For pterygium recurrence after bare sclera surgery and {supmore » 90}Sr {beta}-irradiation, a BED of about 30 Gy seems to be sufficient also to reduce the recurrence rate to less than 10%. Conclusions: Most of the doses in the radiotherapy schemes used for prevention of keloid recurrence after surgery are too low. In contrast, the doses applied in most regimens to prevent pterygium recurrence are too high. A scheme with a BED of 30 to 40 Gy seems to be sufficient to prevent recurrences of keloid as well as pterygium.« less

  3. Treatment of retroauricular keloids: Revision of cases treated at the ENT service of HC/UFPR.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bettina; Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Ribeiro, Talita Beithum; Cavichiolo, Juliana Benthien; Ballin, Carlos Roberto; Mocellin, Marcos

    2012-04-01

    Keloids are benign tumors arising from abnormal healing of the skin, and there are several procedures available for their treatment.  The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing treatment of keloids after ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeries at our service center.  We conducted thorough, retrospective and prospective analysis of records of patients undergoing treatment of retroauricular keloids at our center.  Nine patients were evaluated, and 6 underwent resection and adjuvant beta-therapy, 2 underwent resection with local application of corticosteroids, and only 1 underwent resection without adjuvant therapy. There was no recurrence of keloids in patients that were treated with beta-therapy in the early postoperative period. One patient had relapsed despite corticosteroid administration and late beta-therapy.  Several techniques have been used for the treatment of retroauricular keloids, and beta-therapy is thought to yield the best results, followed by the use of intralesional corticosteroids.  Treatment of retroauricular keloids remains a challenge. While new techniques are being developed, resection followed by early beta-therapy is still the best treatment option.

  4. Treatment of retroauricular keloids: Revision of cases treated at the ENT service of HC/UFPR

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Ribeiro, Talita Beithum; Cavichiolo, Juliana Benthien; Ballin, Carlos Roberto; Mocellin, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Keloids are benign tumors arising from abnormal healing of the skin, and there are several procedures available for their treatment. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing treatment of keloids after ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeries at our service center. Method: We conducted thorough, retrospective and prospective analysis of records of patients undergoing treatment of retroauricular keloids at our center. Results: Nine patients were evaluated, and 6 underwent resection and adjuvant beta-therapy, 2 underwent resection with local application of corticosteroids, and only 1 underwent resection without adjuvant therapy. There was no recurrence of keloids in patients that were treated with beta-therapy in the early postoperative period. One patient had relapsed despite corticosteroid administration and late beta-therapy. Discussion: Several techniques have been used for the treatment of retroauricular keloids, and beta-therapy is thought to yield the best results, followed by the use of intralesional corticosteroids. Conclusion: Treatment of retroauricular keloids remains a challenge. While new techniques are being developed, resection followed by early beta-therapy is still the best treatment option. PMID:25991935

  5. Intralesional excision with topical intralesional cryotherapy improves the treatment of keloid scarring in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Reissis, D; Tickunas, T; Agha, R A; Greig, Avh

    2017-11-01

    Recurrent keloid scarring has a significant impact on quality of life. Management is complex, particularly for scars resistant to conventional treatments and in paediatric cases where radiotherapy is not a suitable adjunct to surgical excision. We present the case of a nine-year-old African Caribbean girl with multiple large and recurrent keloid scars on both ears and bilateral sensorineural deafness. Following repeated intralesional excisions, corticosteroid and botulinum toxin injections, she continued to experience rapid recurrence of her keloids, worsening pain and pruritus. She was no longer able to wear her hearing aids because of the large size of the keloids. We employed a novel technique using topical intralesional cryotherapy, applying liquid nitrogen intraoperatively to the inside of the skin flaps immediately post-intralesional keloid excision and before wound closure. At 26-month follow-up a good aesthetic and symptomatic result was achieved, with minimal hypopigmentation, significantly reduced scar volume and significantly slowed recurrence. We discuss this case and review the current literature on the use of topical intralesional cryotherapy for keloid scarring.

  6. Hypertrophic scars and keloids in surgery: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Song, Colin

    2014-09-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids remain a challenge in surgery. We appreciate that our understanding of the process at cellular and molecular level, profound as it is, when it comes to the clinical evidence much is left to be desired. Although the bench to bedside conundrum remains, the science of translational research calls for an even higher level of cooperation between the scientist and the clinician for the impetus to succeed.The clinicians alerted us to the possible theories in the pathogenesis of keloid formation, inter alia, the ischemia theory, mast cell theory, immune theory, transforming growth factor β interaction, mechanical theory, and the melanocyte stimulating hormone theory. All of the above presupposed a stimulus that would result in an uncontrolled upregulation of collagen and extracellular matrix expression in the pathogenesis of the keloid. This bedside to bench initiative, as in true science, realized more ponderables than possibilities.By the same token, research into the epidermal-mesenchymal signaling, molecular biology, genomics, and stem cell research holds much promise in the bench top arena. To assess efficacy, many scar assessment scores exist in the literature. The clinical measurement of scar maturity can aid in determining end points for therapeutics. Tissue oxygen tension and color assessment of scars by standardized photography proved to be useful.In surgery, the use of dermal substitutes holds some promise as we surmise that quality scars that arise from dermal elements, molecular and enzyme behavior, and balance. Although a systematic review shows some benefit for earlier closure and healing of wounds, no such review exists at this point in time for the use of dermal substitutes in scars.Adipose-derived stem cell, as it pertains to scars, will hopefully realize the potential of skin regeneration rather than by repair in which we are familiar with as well as the undesirable scarring as a result of healing through the inflammatory

  7. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars Are the Result of Chronic Inflammation in the Reticular Dermis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Rei

    2017-03-10

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are caused by cutaneous injury and irritation, including trauma, insect bite, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, acne, folliculitis, chicken pox, and herpes zoster infection. Notably, superficial injuries that do not reach the reticular dermis never cause keloidal and hypertrophic scarring. This suggests that these pathological scars are due to injury to this skin layer and the subsequent aberrant wound healing therein. The latter is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. As a result, the reticular layer of keloids and hypertrophic scars contains inflammatory cells, increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, and collagen deposits. Moreover, proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are upregulated in keloid tissues, which suggests that, in patients with keloids, proinflammatory genes in the skin are sensitive to trauma. This may promote chronic inflammation, which in turn may cause the invasive growth of keloids. In addition, the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in pathological scars suggests that, rather than being skin tumors, keloids and hypertrophic scars are inflammatory disorders of skin, specifically inflammatory disorders of the reticular dermis. Various external and internal post-wounding stimuli may promote reticular inflammation. The nature of these stimuli most likely shapes the characteristics, quantity, and course of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Specifically, it is likely that the intensity, frequency, and duration of these stimuli determine how quickly the scars appear, the direction and speed of growth, and the intensity of symptoms. These proinflammatory stimuli include a variety of local, systemic, and genetic factors. These observations together suggest that the clinical differences between keloids and hypertrophic scars merely reflect differences in the intensity, frequency, and duration of

  8. A new treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars with combined triamcinolone and verapamil: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kant, S B; van den Kerckhove, E; Colla, C; Tuinder, S; van der Hulst, R R W J; Piatkowski de Grzymala, A A

    2018-01-01

    Since the management of keloid and hypertrophic scars still remains a difficult clinical problem, there is need for adequate, effective therapy. In this study, we explored for the first time the efficacy and the potential synergetic effect of combined triamcinolone and verapamil for the treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars. The objective was to assess the efficacy of combined intralesional triamcinolone and verapamil therapy for hypertrophic and keloid scars. Fifty-eight patients with hypertrophic scars ( n  = 31) and keloid scars ( n  = 27) were included. A specific injection therapy scheme was applied. Five follow-up moments were chosen, with a maximum follow-up of nearly 2 years. The effects of combination therapy on scar pliability, thickness, relief, vascularization, surface area, pain, and pruritus were examined by means of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). Our results reveal a fast and abiding improvement of both keloid and hypertrophic scars after treatment with the combination therapy. All POSAS components showed a reduction in scar score, while scar relief, pain, itchiness, and surface area improved significantly ( P  < 0.05) in keloids. Significant improvement in hypertrophic scars was found in scar pigmentation, vascularization, pliability, thickness, pain, and surface area. Overall POSAS scores revealed statistically significant decreases between baseline and 3-4 months, 4-6 months, and >12 months after start of therapy in both keloids and hypertrophic scars. This study reveals that combined therapy of triamcinolone and verapamil results in overall significant scar improvement with a long-term stable result.Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.

  9. Different properties of skin of different body sites: The root of keloid formation?

    PubMed

    Butzelaar, Liselotte; Niessen, Frank B; Talhout, Wendy; Schooneman, Dennis P M; Ulrich, Magda M; Beelen, Robert H J; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine extracellular matrix composition, vascularization, and immune cell population of skin sites prone to keloid formation. Keloids remain a complex problem, posing esthetical as well as functional difficulties for those affected. These scars tend to develop at anatomic sites of preference. Mechanical properties of skin vary with anatomic location and depend largely on extracellular matrix composition. These differences in extracellular matrix composition, but also vascularization and resident immune cell populations might play a role in the mechanism of keloid formation. To examine this hypothesis, skin samples of several anatomic locations were taken from 24 human donors within zero to 36 hours after they had deceased. Collagen content and cross-links were determined through high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of several genes, involved in extracellular matrix production and degradation, was measured by means of real-time PCR. (Immuno)histochemistry was performed to detect fibroblasts, collagen, elastin, blood vessels, Langerhans cells, and macrophages. Properties of skin of keloid predilections sites were compared to properties of skin from other locations (nonpredilection sites [NPS]). The results indicated that there are site specific variations in extracellular matrix properties (collagen and cross-links) as well as macrophage numbers. Moreover, predilection sites (PS) for keloid formation contain larger amounts of collagen compared to NPS, but decreased numbers of macrophages, in particular classically activated CD40 positive macrophages. In conclusion, the altered (histological, protein, and genetic) properties of skin of keloid PS may cause a predisposition for and contribute to keloid formation. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  10. Laser and Light-based Treatment of Keloids – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mamalis, A.D.; Lev-Tov, H.; Nguyen, D.H.; Jagdeo, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Keloids are an overgrowth of fibrotic tissue outside the original boundaries of an injury and occur secondary to defective wound healing. Keloids often have a functional, aesthetic, or psychosocial impact on patients as highlighted by quality-of-life studies. Our goal is to provide clinicians and scientists an overview of the data available on laser and light-based therapies for treatment of keloids, and highlight emerging light-based therapeutic technologies and the evidence available to support their use. We employed the following search strategy to identify the clinical evidence reported in the biomedical literature: in November 2012, we searched PubMed.gov, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Reviews (1980-present) for published randomized clinical trials, clinical studies, case series, and case reports related to the treatment of keloids. The search terms we utilized were ‘keloid(s)’ AND ‘laser’ OR ‘light-emitting diode’ OR ‘photodynamic therapy’ OR ‘intense pulsed light’ OR ‘low level light’ OR ‘phototherapy.’ Our search yielded 347 unique articles. Of these, 33 articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We qualitatively conclude that laser and light-based treatment modalities may achieve favorable patient outcomes. Clinical studies using CO2 laser are more prevalent in current literature and a combination regimen may be an adequate ablative approach. Adding light-based treatments, such as LED phototherapy or photodynamic therapy, to laser treatment regimens may enhance patient outcomes. Lasers and other light-based technology have introduced new ways to manage keloids that may result in improved aesthetic and symptomatic outcomes and decreased keloid recurrence. PMID:24033440

  11. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 Suppresses Collagen Synthesis in Cultured Keloid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Dohi, Teruyuki; Aoki, Masayo; Ogawa, Rei; Akaishi, Satoshi; Shimada, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Keloids are defined as a kind of dermal fibroproliferative disorder resulting from the accumulation of collagen. In the remodeling of extracellular matrix, the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) is as critical as the proper production of extracellular matrix. We investigate the role of TIMPs and MMPs in the pathogenesis of keloids and examine the therapeutic potential of TIMP-2. Methods: The expression of TIMPs and MMPs in most inflamed parts of cultured keloid fibroblasts (KFs) and peripheral normal skin fibroblasts (PNFs) in the same individuals and the reactivity of KFs to cyclic mechanical stretch were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 7). To evaluate the effect of treating KFs with TIMP-2, collagen synthesis was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and microscopic analysis was used to examine the treatment effects of TIMP-2 on ex vivo cultures of keloid tissue (n = 6). Results: TIMP-2 was downregulated in cultured KFs compared with PNFs in the same individuals, and the reduction in TIMP-2 was exacerbated by cyclic mechanical stretch. Administration of TIMP-2 (200 or 300 ng/mL) significantly suppressed expression of Col1A2 and Col3A1 mRNA and collagen type I protein in KFs. TIMP-2 also significantly reduced the skin dermal and collagen bundle thickness in ex vivo cultures of keloid tissue. Conclusion: These results indicated that downregulation of TIMP-2 in KFs is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of keloids, and the TIMP-2 would be a promising candidate for the treatment of keloids. PMID:26495233

  12. Use of silicone gel sheets for prevention of keloid scars after median sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Motoki; Takahashi, Nobumasa; Akahoshi, Taku; Miyasaka, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Kenji

    2011-04-01

    A keloid scar often appears at the incision site of patients after median sternotomy. Use of silicone gel to treat hypertrophic burn scars and fresh incisions has yielded encouraging results. In this study, we report our experience with the preventive use of silicone gel sheets for keloid scars after median sternotomy. Nine patients who underwent a median sternotomy were studied. A silicone gel sheet was kept directly on the surgical incision for 24 h starting 2 weeks after surgery. The treatment was repeated with a new sheet every 4 weeks for 24 weeks, at which times the subjective symptoms and the changes in keloid scars were determined. None of the patients experienced an aggravation of any subjective symptoms during the 24-week study. After 24 weeks, all patients were free of a keloid scar that showed a rise and contraction of skin and causes discomfort. No adverse events were reported by any of the patients. A silicone gel sheet is safe and effective for the preventing the formation of keloid scars after median sternotomy.

  13. Positive response of a recurrent keloid scar to topical methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhuxiang; Bayat, Ardeshir; Behzad, Farhad; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2010-12-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian female of Iranian origin presented with a persistently raised dermal lesion under her chin, confirmed histologically to be a keloid scar. There was a 4-year history of a negative response to a range of conventional treatments including topical silicone gel sheets, steroid creams, steroid injections and surgical excision. In view of treatment failure and an in vitro study indicating a positive effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT)on keloid fibroblasts, we treated our patient's lesion with five sessions of methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) over a period of 5 months. Following this treatment regime, her keloid scar had considerably reduced in size and become flattened.The surface of the keloid also became smooth, with attenuation in erythema at the margin as well as an improvement in the colour of the scar, which was better matched to the surrounding skin. There was no recurrence at 1-year follow-up and this treatment resulted in an overall acceptable cosmetic outcome. This case report presents PDT as a potential treatment option for persistent keloid lesions unresponsive to conventional scar modulation therapies and suggests a need for further research in this area.

  14. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in keloid tissues and TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Wang, Lianzhao; Liu, Yuanbo; Pan, Bo; Yin, Yanhua; Lv, Xiaoyan; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, Xuejian; Xiao, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Keloid is a skin fibrotic disease with the characteristics of recurrence and invasion, its pathogenesis still remains unrevealed. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for wound healing, fibrosis, recurrence, and invasion of cancer. We sought to investigate the EMT in keloid and the mechanism through which the EMT regulates keloid formation. In keloid tissues, the expressions of EMT-associated markers and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad3 signaling were examined by immunohistochemistry. In the keloid epidermis and dermal tissue, the expressions of genes related to the regulation of skin homeostasis, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and p63, were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that accompanying the loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the gain of the mesenchymal markers fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin in epithelial cells from epidermis and skin appendages, and in endothelial cells from dermal microvessels, enhanced TGF-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation were noted in keloid tissues. Moreover, alternative splicing of the FGFR2 gene switched the predominantly expressed isoform from FGFR2-IIIb to -IIIc, concomitant with the decreased expression of ΔNp63 and TAp63, which changes might partially account for abnormal epidermis and appendages in keloids. In addition, we found that TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs) and normal skin epithelial cells underwent EMT in vitro with ORSKs exhibiting more obvious EMT changes and more similar expression profiles for EMT-associated and skin homeostasis-related genes as in keloid tissues, suggesting that ORSKs might play crucial roles in the EMT in keloids. Our study provided insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating the EMT pathogenesis of keloids. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Chest wall abscesses due to continuous application of silicone gel sheets for keloid management

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hon-Lok; Lau, Keith K; Sam, Ramin; Ing, Todd S

    2015-01-01

    A patient with three episodes of chest wall abscesses as a result of 6 years of round-the-clock, uninterrupted (except during bathing) application of silicone gel sheets to a chest wall keloid is described. Two of the episodes occurred during hot weather. It is suggested that, in the space beneath the silicone sheet, the higher humidity and temperature, both generated as a result of prolonged sheeting, especially during hot weather, might have caused the keloid and its neighbouring skin to become soggy. This sogginess might have facilitated bacterial invasion. It is suggested that some sheeting-free time during a 24 h period might be indicated so that a keloid and its adjacent skin have the time to recover from their sheeting-induced sogginess. A sheeting-free period might especially be needed in the face of sweat accumulation beneath the silicone sheet. PMID:25920733

  16. Chest wall abscesses due to continuous application of silicone gel sheets for keloid management.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hon-Lok; Lau, Keith K; Sam, Ramin; Ing, Todd S

    2015-04-28

    A patient with three episodes of chest wall abscesses as a result of 6 years of round-the-clock, uninterrupted (except during bathing) application of silicone gel sheets to a chest wall keloid is described. Two of the episodes occurred during hot weather. It is suggested that, in the space beneath the silicone sheet, the higher humidity and temperature, both generated as a result of prolonged sheeting, especially during hot weather, might have caused the keloid and its neighbouring skin to become soggy. This sogginess might have facilitated bacterial invasion. It is suggested that some sheeting-free time during a 24 h period might be indicated so that a keloid and its adjacent skin have the time to recover from their sheeting-induced sogginess. A sheeting-free period might especially be needed in the face of sweat accumulation beneath the silicone sheet. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Comparative effect and safety of verapamil in keloid and hypertrophic scar treatment: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouna; Jin, Zhehu

    2016-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are the most common types of pathological scarring. Traditionally, keloids have been considered as a result of aberrant wound healing, involving excessive fibroblast participation that is characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. However, the usefulness of this characterization has been questioned. In recent years, studies have reported the appropriate use of verapamil for keloids and hypertrophic scars. Searches were conducted on the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 2006 to July 2016. State12.0 was used for literature review, data extraction, and meta-analysis. Treatment groups were divided into verapamil and nonverapamil group. Nonverapamil group includes steroids and intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy. Total effective rates include cure rate and effective rate. Cure: skin lesions were completely flattened, became soft and symptoms disappeared. Efficacy: skin lesions subsided, patient significantly reduced symptoms. Inefficient definition of skin was progression free or became worse. Random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Six studies that included 331 patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars were analyzed. Analysis of the total effective rate of skin healing was performed. The total effective rates in the two groups were 54.07% (verapamil) and 53.18% (nonverapamil), respectively. The meta-analysis showed that there was no difference between the two groups. We also compared the adverse reactions between the verapamil treatment group and the steroids treatment group in two studies, and the result indicated that the verapamil group showed less adverse reactions. There were no differences between the application of verapamil and nonverapamil group in keloids and hypertrophic scars treatment. Verapamil could act as an effective alternative modality in the prevention and treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars. A larger number of studies are required to

  18. Comparative effect and safety of verapamil in keloid and hypertrophic scar treatment: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhouna; Jin, Zhehu

    2016-01-01

    Background Keloids and hypertrophic scars are the most common types of pathological scarring. Traditionally, keloids have been considered as a result of aberrant wound healing, involving excessive fibroblast participation that is characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. However, the usefulness of this characterization has been questioned. In recent years, studies have reported the appropriate use of verapamil for keloids and hypertrophic scars. Methods Searches were conducted on the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 2006 to July 2016. State12.0 was used for literature review, data extraction, and meta-analysis. Treatment groups were divided into verapamil and nonverapamil group. Nonverapamil group includes steroids and intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy. Total effective rates include cure rate and effective rate. Cure: skin lesions were completely flattened, became soft and symptoms disappeared. Efficacy: skin lesions subsided, patient significantly reduced symptoms. Inefficient definition of skin was progression free or became worse. Random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Results Six studies that included 331 patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars were analyzed. Analysis of the total effective rate of skin healing was performed. The total effective rates in the two groups were 54.07% (verapamil) and 53.18% (nonverapamil), respectively. The meta-analysis showed that there was no difference between the two groups. We also compared the adverse reactions between the verapamil treatment group and the steroids treatment group in two studies, and the result indicated that the verapamil group showed less adverse reactions. Conclusion There were no differences between the application of verapamil and nonverapamil group in keloids and hypertrophic scars treatment. Verapamil could act as an effective alternative modality in the prevention and treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars. A

  19. Upregulation of autophagy and glycolysis markers in keloid hypoxic-zone fibroblasts: Morphological characteristics and implications.

    PubMed

    Ryoko, Okuno; Ito, Yuko; Eid, Nabil; Otsuki, Yoshinori; Kondo, Yoichi; Ueda, Koichi

    2018-05-29

    Keloid is a fibro-proliferative skin disorder with tumor-like behavior and dependence on anaerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), but its exact pathogenesis is unknown. Although autophagy is widely accepted as a lysosomal pathway for cell survival and cellular homeostasis (specifically upon exposure to stressors such as hypoxia), very few studies have investigated the involvement of autophagy and related glycolytic effectors in keloidogenesis. Here the authors examined the expression and cellular localization of autophagy proteins (LC3, pan-cathepsin), glycolytic markers (LDH, MCT1, MCT4) and the transcription factor HIF isoforms in human keloid samples using immunohistochemical analysis and double-labeling immunofluorescence methods. Based on H&E staining and expression of CD31, keloids were compartmentalized into hypoxic central and normoxic marginal zones. Vimentin-expressing fibroblasts in the central zone exhibited greater autophagy than their marginal-zone counterparts, as evidenced by increased LC3 puncta formation and co-localization with lysosomal pan-cathepsin. LDH (a lactate stimulator), MCT4 (a lactate exporter) and HIF-1 α expression levels were also higher in central-zone fibroblasts. Conversely, HIF-2 α expression was upregulated in fibroblasts and endothelial cells of the peripheral zone, while MCT1 was expressed in both zones. Taken together, these observations suggest that upregulation of autophagy and glycolysis markers in keloid hypoxic-zone fibroblasts may indicate a prosurvival mechanism allowing the extrusion of lactate to marginal-zone fibroblasts via metabolic coupling. The authors believe this is the first report on differential expression of autophagic and glycolytic markers in keloid-zone fibroblasts. The study results indicate that autophagy inhibitors and MCT4 blockers may have therapeutic implications in keloid treatment.

  20. Techniques for Optimizing Surgical Scars, Part 2: Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kathryn; Konda, Sailesh; Ren, Vicky Zhen; Wang, Apphia Lihan; Srinivasan, Aditya; Chilukuri, Suneel

    2017-01-01

    Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 2 focuses on scar revision for hypertrophic and keloids scars. Scar revision options for hypertrophic and keloid scars include corticosteroids, bleomycin, fluorouracil, verapamil, avotermin, hydrogel scaffold, nonablative fractional lasers, ablative and fractional ablative lasers, pulsed dye laser (PDL), flurandrenolide tape, imiquimod, onion extract, silicone, and scar massage.

  1. Radiotherapy in the management of keloids. Clinical experience with electron beam irradiation and comparison with X-ray therapy.

    PubMed

    Maarouf, Mohammad; Schleicher, Ursula; Schmachtenberg, Axel; Ammon, Jürgen

    2002-06-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of electron beam irradiation compared to kilovoltage X-ray therapy in the treatment of keloids. Furthermore, the risk of developing malignancy following keloid radiotherapy was assessed. An automatic water phantom was used to evaluate the dose distribution in tissue. Furthermore, a series of measurements was done on the patients using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) to estimate the doses absorbed by the organs at risk. We also report our clinical experience with electron beam radiation of 134 keloids following surgical excision. Electron beam irradiation offers a high control rate (84%) with minimal side effects for keloids. Electron irradiation provides better dose distribution in tissue, and therefore less radiation burden to the organs at risk. After a mean follow-up period of 7.2 years, no severe side effects or malignancies were observed after keloid radiotherapy. Electron radiation therapy is superior to kilovoltage irradiation for treating keloids due to better dose distribution in tissue. In agreement with the literature, no cases of malignancy were observed after keloid irradiation.

  2. Surgical excision and immediate postoperative radiotherapy versus cryotherapy and intralesional steroids in the management of keloids: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Emad, Maryam; Omidvari, Shapour; Dastgheib, Ladan; Mortazavi, Afshin; Ghaem, Haleh

    2010-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of surgical excision and radiotherapy with those of cryotherapy and intralesional steroid treatment of keloids. Twenty-six patients with a total of 76 keloids were enrolled in this study. Nineteen patients with 44 keloids underwent surgical excision combined with immediate 12-Gy irradiation (group A) while the remaining 9 patients with 32 keloids received multiple sessions of intralesional steroid treatment after cryotherapy which continued until flattening of lesion(s) occurred (group B). Two patients were included in both treatment groups. All patients were followed up at regular intervals for at least 1 year. In both treatment groups, keloids responded well without any major side effect. While patients of group A were all satisfied, those of group B (with a mean number of treatment sessions of 5.84 +/- 2.51) experienced more side effects, a more prolonged course, a higher recurrence rate and less satisfaction. This study showed that surgery plus immediate postoperative irradiation was an effective and relatively safe choice for treatment of keloids. Although cryotherapy combined with intralesional steroids was associated with more side effects and higher relapse rates, it could be a good choice for small and newly formed keloids. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Serum-free keloid fibroblast cell culture: an in vitro model for the study of aberrant wound healing.

    PubMed

    Koch, R J; Goode, R L; Simpson, G T

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro serum-free keloid fibroblast model. Keloid formation remains a problem for every surgeon. Prior evaluations of fibroblast characteristics in vitro, especially those of growth factor measurement, have been confounded by the presence of serum-containing tissue culture media. The serum itself contains growth factors, yet has been a "necessary evil" to sustain cell growth. The design of this study is laboratory-based and uses keloid fibroblasts obtained from five patients undergoing facial (ear lobule) keloid removal in a university-affiliated clinic. Keloid fibroblasts were established in primary cell culture and then propagated in a serum-free environment. The main outcome measures included sustained keloid fibroblast growth and viability, which was comparable to serum-based models. The keloid fibroblast cell cultures exhibited logarithmic growth, sustained a high cellular viability, maintained a monolayer, and displayed contact inhibition. Demonstrating model consistency, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean cell counts of the five keloid fibroblast cell lines at each experimental time point. The in vitro growth of keloid fibroblasts in a serum-free model has not been done previous to this study. The results of this study indicate that the proliferative characteristics described are comparable to those of serum-based models. The described model will facilitate the evaluation of potential wound healing modulators, and cellular effects and collagen modifications of laser resurfacing techniques, and may serve as a harvest source for contaminant-free fibroblast autoimplants. Perhaps its greatest utility will be in the evaluation of endogenous and exogenous growth factors.

  4. Experience of silicone gel sheets for patients with keloid scars after median sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Motoki; Takahashi, Nobumasa; Akahoshi, Taku; Miyasaka, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Kenji

    2010-09-01

    It is often difficult to control hypertrophic scars and keloids with drug therapy, steroid injection, surgery, radiation therapy, laser, or wound pressing. Use of silicone gel to treat hypertrophic burn scars and fresh incisions has yielded encouraging results. We report our experience of silicone gel sheets for patients with keloids following median sternotomy. Nine patients underwent a median sternotomy and received other therapies before participating in this treatment. A silicone gel sheet was placed directly on the keloid scar and maintained at all times. Sheets were replaced every 4 weeks for a total treatment duration of 24 weeks. The scar area was measured, and subjective symptoms were determined prior to therapy and after completion of therapy. There were three men and six women, with a mean age of 45.2 years (range 22-69 years). Progression of protuberance and rub was seen in one patient. Scar redness and cramping were either diminished or unchanged in all patients. Itching progressed in two patients. After 6 months, the area of the scar relative to its initial area was 0.98 (range 0.78-1.27). Harmful events did not occur. A silicone gel sheet is effective for treating keloid scars following median sternotomy. Silicone gel sheets are safe and easy to use and do not aggravate any subjective symptoms.

  5. Blue light-irradiated human keloid fibroblasts: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magni, Giada; Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Coppi, Elisabetta; Cherchi, Federica; Fusco, Irene; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pedata, Felicita; Fraccalvieri, Marco; Gasperini, Stefano; Pavone, Francesco S.; Tripodi, Cristina; Alfieri, Domenico; Targetti, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Blue LED light irradiation is currently under investigation because of its effect in wound healing improvement. In this context, several mechanisms of action are likely to occur at the same time, consistently with the presence of different light absorbers within the skin. In our previous studies we observed the wound healing in superficial abrasions in an in vivo murine model. The results evidenced that both inflammatory infiltrate and myofibroblasts activity increase after irradiation. In this study we focused on evaluating the consequences of light absorption in fibroblasts from human cells culture: they play a key role in wound healing, both in physiological conditions and in pathological ones, such as keloid scarring. In particular we used keloids fibroblasts as a new target in order to investigate a possible metabolic or cellular mechanism correlation. Human keloid tissues were excised during standard surgery and immediately underwent primary cell culture extraction. Fibroblasts were allowed to grow in the appropriate conditions and then exposed to blue light. A metabolic colorimetric test (WST-8) was then performed. The tests evidenced an effect in mitochondrial activity, which could be modulated by the duration of the treatment. Electrophysiology pointed out a different behavior of irradiated fibroblasts. In conclusion, the Blue LED light affects the metabolic activity of fibroblasts and thus the cellular proliferation rate. No specific effect was found on keloid fibroblasts, thus indicating a very basic intracellular component, such as cytochromes, being the target of the treatment.

  6. Vibration Anesthesia for Pain Reduction During Intralesional Steroid Injection for Keloid Treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Kui Young; Lee, Yohan; Hong, Ji Yeon; Chung, Won Soon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon

    2017-05-01

    Patients suffer significant pain during intralesional steroid injection treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars. Vibration anesthesia has been shown to effectively and safely alleviate pain sensations, likely by reducing pain transmission from peripheral receptors to the brain. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction associated with vibration anesthesia for reducing pain during intralesional corticosteroid injection. The authors recruited 40 patients with 58 keloids who were scheduled to undergo intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injections. Half of each keloid was injected with concomitant vibration anesthesia, whereas the other half was injected without vibration anesthesia. Pain experienced by patients during both procedures was assessed according to visual analog scale (VAS) score. The authors also assessed procedure safety. The mean VAS score during intralesional TA injection therapy without vibration was 5.88 ± 2.34. By contrast, the same patients yielded a mean VAS score during intralesional TA injection therapy with vibration of 3.28 ± 1.85; the difference between the mean scores was significant (p < .05). Thirty-nine (97.5%) patients tolerated this therapy well. Vibration anesthesia is a promising option for reducing pain during keloid treatment with intralesional steroid injection.

  7. Ear-lobe keloids: treatment by a protocol of surgical excision and immediate postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ragoowansi, R; Cornes, P G; Glees, J P; Powell, B W; Moss, A L

    2001-09-01

    There is no universally agreed policy for treating keloid scars of the ear lobe following piercing. We treated 35 patients (34 women) for high-risk ear-lobe keloids; the average age was 24 years (range: 16-44 years). All had failed to respond to prior treatment with massage and silicone, and corticosteroid injection. The keloids were excised extralesionally and the defects were closed with interrupted prolene sutures. The operative scar was covered with topical 2% lignocaine-0.25% chlorhexidine sterile lubricant gel under a transparent adhesive dressing. Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy of 10 Gy, applied as 100 kV photons (4 mm high-voltage therapy (HVT) Al), was given within 24 h of surgery. All keloid scars were controlled at 4 weeks' follow-up. At 1 year, three out of 34 cases followed up had relapsed (probability of control: 91.2%). At 5 years, a further four out of the remaining 31 patients had relapsed (cumulative probability of control at 5 years: 79.4%). There were no cases of serious toxicity. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  8. Laser-assisted topical corticosteroid delivery for the treatment of keloids.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hye; Chun, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Hee

    2017-04-01

    Laser-assisted drug delivery has generated intense interest. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the clinical benefit of laser-assisted corticosteroid delivery and to compare this technique to corticosteroid intralesional injection, a standard treatment for keloids. Patients with keloids on the left shoulder after BCG vaccination were enrolled in this study. The entire lesion was first treated with an ablative fractional erbium-YAG laser. After this treatment, the lesion was divided into two halves. The first half received an intralesional injection of corticosteroid, whereas the second half received topical application of corticosteroids that were occluded for 3 hours. Four treatment sessions were conducted, with treatments occurring once every 6 weeks. Treatment outcomes were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Pain was self-assessed by the patient during the procedure. The mean keloid VSS score before treatment was 8.59 ± 1.23 for the corticosteroid injection site and 8.31 ± 2.09 for the topical site. After treatment, the mean keloid VSS score was decreased on both sides (4.56 ± 1.09 vs 5.02 ± 0.87, respectively, P > 0.05). Patients rated their satisfaction level as "moderate" on both sides. However, the mean pain score was 1.1 out of 10 on the topical side versus 6.1 on the corticosteroid injection site. The combination of ablative fractional laser treatment and topical corticosteroid application is a promising modality for the treatment of keloids. Moreover, this procedure was not associated with any serious adverse reactions or unbearable pain.

  9. Application of topical mitomycin C to the base of shave-removed keloid scars to prevent their recurrence.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J N R; Waite, A E; Clayton, W J; Rustin, M H A

    2007-04-01

    Keloid scars are formed by over-activity of fibroblasts producing collagen and they cause significant morbidity both from their appearance and from their symptoms. Existing treatments are often unsatisfactory. Topical mitomycin C is known to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. To determine whether application of mitomycin C to the base of shave-removed keloids would prevent their recurrence. Ten patients had all or part of their keloid shave-removed. After haemostasis topical mitomycin C 1 mg mL(-1) was applied for 3 min. This application was repeated after 3 weeks. The keloids were photographed before treatment and the patients were reviewed every 2 months for a total of 6 months when a final photograph of the keloid site was taken. The patients and the Clinical Trials Unit staff scored the outcome on a linear analogue scale of 0-10, where 0 = disappointed and 10 = delighted. The pretreatment and 6-month post-treatment photographs were also assessed by two dermatologists who were not involved in the clinical trial. Four of the 10 patients were delighted with the outcome of treatment and only one was disappointed. On average there was an 80% satisfied outcome. This new treatment of keloids has been shown to be effective in the majority of patients but further studies are required to confirm this benefit.

  10. Low-Level Light Therapy with 410 nm Light Emitting Diode Suppresses Collagen Synthesis in Human Keloid Fibroblasts: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Sue Kyung; Kim, You-Sun; Sohn, Seonghyang; Kim, You Chan

    2017-04-01

    Keloids are characterized by excessive collagen deposition in the dermis, in which transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays an important role. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is reported as effective in preventing keloids in clinical reports, recently. To date, studies investigating the effect of LLLT on keloid fibroblasts are extremely rare. We investigated the effect of LLLT with blue (410 nm), red (630 nm), and infrared (830 nm) light on the collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts. Keloid fibroblasts were isolated from keloid-revision surgery samples and irradiated using 410-, 630-, 830-nm light emitting diode twice, with a 24-hour interval at 10 J/cm 2 . After irradiation, cells were incubated for 24 and 48 hours and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Western blot analysis was also performed in 48 hours after last irradiation. The genes and proteins of collagen type I, TGF-β1, Smad3, and Smad7 were analyzed. We observed no statistically significant change in the viability of keloid fibroblasts after irradiation. Collagen type I was the only gene whose expression significantly decreased after irradiation at 410 nm when compared to the non-irradiated control. Western blot analysis showed that LLLT at 410 nm lowered the protein levels of collagen type I compared to the control. LLLT at 410 nm decreased the expression of collagen type I in keloid fibroblasts and might be effective in preventing keloid formation in their initial stage.

  11. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    PubMed

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  12. Comparison of different laser systems in the treatment of hypertrophic and atrophic scars and keloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1997-12-01

    Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.

  13. Bethlem myopathy: An autosomal dominant myopathy with flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis.

    PubMed

    Saroja, Aralikatte Onkarappa; Naik, Karkal Ravishankar; Nalini, Atcharayam; Gayathri, Narayanappa

    2013-10-01

    Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy form a spectrum of collagenopathies caused by genetic mutations encoding for any of the three subunits of collagen VI. Bethlem phenotype is relatively benign and is characterized by proximal dominant myopathy, keloids, contractures, distal hyperextensibility, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Three patients from a single family were diagnosed to have Bethlem myopathy based on European Neuromuscular Centre Bethlem Consortium criteria. Affected father and his both sons had slowly progressive proximal dominant weakness and recurrent falls from the first decade. Both children aged 18 and 20 years were ambulant at presentation. All had flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis without muscle hypertrophy. Creatinine kinase was mildly elevated and electromyography revealed myopathic features. Muscle imaging revealed severe involvement of glutei and vasti with "central shadow" in rectus femoris. Muscle biopsy in the father showed dystrophic changes with normal immmunostaining for collagen VI, sarcoglycans, and dysferlin.

  14. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: A useful guide

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna I.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Barret, Juan P.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:24767715

  15. Reduced Dermatopontin Expression Is a Molecular Link Between Uterine Leiomyomas and Keloids

    PubMed Central

    Catherino, William H.; Leppert, Phyllis C.; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Payson, Mark; Potlog-Nahari, Clariss; Nieman, Lynnette K.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are prevalent estrogen-responsive clonal tumors, but the specific genetic alterations that contribute to their development have not been elucidated. To identify genes involved in the formation of leiomyomas, we used global expression profiling to compare clonal tumors with normal myometrium. Contrary to expectation, genes involved in estrogen action were not differentially expressed between leiomyoma and normal myometrium. Genes encoding extracellular-matrix proteins were prominently featured, suggesting their involvement in formation of a myofibroblast phenotype. Analysis of the extracellular matrix in the leiomyomas revealed a disordered collagen fibril orientation. Expression of the collagen-binding protein dermatopontin was found to be consistently decreased in leiomyoma by both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR (mean underexpression = 9.41-fold) regardless of leiomyoma size, leiomyoma location, patient race, and patient age. This expression pattern was observed in 11 subjects and a total of 23 leiomyoma: myometrium pairs. Decreased expression of dermatopontin was also associated with keloid formation, a fibrotic disease that shares epidemiologic similarities with leiomyoma. Immunohistochemical studies of leiomyomas and keloids demonstrated reduced levels of dermatopontin in both tissues. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed that the orientation of the collagen fibrils in the keloid tissues strongly resembled that in the leiomyomas. Reduction in dermatopontin was associated with an increase in transforming growth factor–β3 (TGFB3) mRNA levels in leiomyomas, whereas other genes involved in dermatopontin signaling were not differentially expressed. These findings suggest that leiomyoma development involves a myofibroblast cell phenotype characterized by dysregulation of genes encoding extracellular-matrix proteins. In particular, decreased expression of dermatopontin represents a

  16. A new argon gas-based device for the treatment of keloid scars with the use of intralesional cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Michiel C E; Bulstra, Anne-Eva J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Niessen, Frank B

    2014-12-01

    Intralesional (IL) cryotherapy is a new promising technique for the treatment of keloid scars, in which the scar is frozen from inside. Multiple devices are available, mostly based on a simple liquid nitrogen Dewar system, which have a limited freezing capacity. Argon gas-based systems ensure accurate and highly controlled freezing and have shown to be effective within the field of oncologic surgery. However, this technique has never been used for the treatment of keloid scars. This prospective study evaluates an argon gas-based system for the treatment of keloids in a patient population including all Fitzpatrick skin types with a 1-year follow-up. Twenty-five patients with 30 keloid scars were included and treated with a device called Seednet (Galil Medical, Yokneam, Israel). Scar quality and possible scar recurrence were assessed before treatment and post treatment (6 and 12 months) with objective devices determining scar color, scar elasticity, scar volume, and patient's skin type. In addition, scars were evaluated using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. After 12 months, a significant volume reduction of 62% was obtained, p = 0.05. Moreover, complaints of pain and itching were alleviated and scar quality had improved according to the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Scar pigmentation recovered in 62% of all keloid scars within 12 months. Five out of 30 (17%) scars recurred within 12 months, three of which had previously been treated with liquid nitrogen-based IL cryotherapy. Both recurrent and persistent hypopigmentation were mainly seen in Afro-American patients. IL cryotherapy with the use of an argon gas-based system proves to be effective in the treatment of keloid scars, yielding volume reduction and low recurrence rates. Although hypopigmentation recovered in most cases, it is strongly related to non-Caucasian patients. Finally, additional treatment of keloid scars previously unresponsive to IL cryotherapy is predisposed to a high

  17. Topical Silicone Sheet Application in the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids.

    PubMed

    Westra, Iris; Pham, Hth; Niessen, Frank B

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Since the early 1980s, topical silicone sheets have been used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids.This study aimed to determine the optimal duration and application of these sheets. Design: multi-centered therapeutic study. Setting and participants: A total of 224 patients were included in this study; 205 patients with hypertrophic scars and 19 patients with keloids. Patients received treatment with a topical silicone sheet. Treated scars varied in age, ranging from two weeks to 62 years and treatment time ranged from one month to 16 months. Assessment of the scars was performed by the use of standardized study forms and digital photography. Measurements: Skin therapists objectively assessed the scars on its color, thickness, and elasticity. Patients themselves subjectively assessed their perception of their scar and their experience with the usage of the topical silicone sheet. Results: After applying the topical silicone sheet, all scars, regardless of type of scar and maturity, improved significantly in color, thickness, and elasticity. Conclusion: In this study, treatment with the topical silicone sheet showed significant improvement on both hypertrophic scars and keloids. Best results were reached when the silicone sheet was applied at least four hours per day.

  18. Comparison of Intralesional Triamcinolone Acetonide, 5-Fluorouracil, and Their Combination for the Treatment of Keloids

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sunil; Patil, Aditya Nanasaheb; Prakash, Chaitra; Kumari, Hiranmayi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Despite the myriad options available, there is no universally accepted treatment for keloids. Our objective was to compare three regimens and establish superiority in terms of objective and subjective outcomes. Approach: In this randomized parallel group study, 60 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated to three groups. Patients received intralesional injections of triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) in Group TAC, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in Group 5FU, and a combination in Group T + F every 3 weeks till 24 weeks or till the keloid resolved. Results: There was a reduction in all parameters at every successive assessment in all three groups. Improvement in terms of height, vascularity, and pliability was fastest with 5FU, TAC, and T + F group, respectively, which was statistically significant. Decrease in pigmentation was significantly faster with T+F. Reduction in pruritus, however, was significantly faster with 5FU than the other groups, but the difference in reduction of pain among the three groups was not significant. Telangiectasias and skin atrophy were seen most commonly in TAC group, while skin ulceration was a common problem in 5FU group. Conclusion: TAC, 5FU, and their combination are all effective in keloid scars. A combination of TAC +5FU seems to offer the balanced benefit of faster and more efficacious response with lesser adverse effects when compared to individual drugs. PMID:29098115

  19. Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids using intense pulsed light (IPL).

    PubMed

    Erol, O Onur; Gurlek, Ali; Agaoglu, Galip; Topcuoglu, Ela; Oz, Hayat

    2008-11-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are extremely disturbing to patients, both physically and psychologically. This study prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL) on scars originating from burns, trauma, surgery, and acne. Hypertrophic scars in 109 patients, originating from surgical incisions (n = 55), traumatic cuts (traffic accidents) (n = 24), acne scars (n = 6), keloids (n = 5), and burns (n = 19), were treated using an IPL Quantum device. Treatment was administered at 2-4-week intervals, and patients received an average of 8 treatments (range = 6-24). Using digital photographs, Changes in scar appearance were assessed by two physicians who were blinded to the study patients and treatments. The photographs were graded on a scale of 0 to 4 (none, minimal, moderate, good, excellent) for improvement in overall clinical appearance and reduction in height, erythema, and hardness. An overall clinical improvement in the appearance of scars and reductions in height, erythema, and hardness were seen in the majority of the patients (92.5%). Improvement was excellent in 31.2% of the patients, good in 25.7%, moderate in 34%, and minimal in 9.1%. Over half the patients had good or excellent improvement. In the preventive IPL treatment group, 65% had good to excellent improvement in clinical appearance. Patient satisfaction was very high. This study suggests that IPL is effective not only in improving the appearance of hypertrophic scars and keloids regardless of their origin, but also in reducing the height, redness, and hardness of scars.

  20. [Umbilical endometriosis mimicking a keloid in a young black woman: A case report].

    PubMed

    Kourouma, H-S; Ecra, E-J; Allou, A-S; Kouyaté, M; Kouassi, Y-I; Kaloga, M; Kouassi, K-A; Kassi, K; Kouamé, K; Ahogo, C; Gbery, I-P; Sangaré, A

    2017-10-01

    Most umbilical tumors are diagnosed as benign tumors, umbilical metastases of abdominal and pelvic tumors, or Sister Marie Joseph nodule. Herein, we report a case of cutaneous umbilical endometriosis mistaken for a keloid. A young black woman aged 26 consulted for a painful umbilical tumefaction. She had noted the appearance of a nodule of the umbilicus 10 months ago with bleeding during her menstrual periods. Skin examination revealed a firm and painful umbilical nodule 2.5cm in diameter. She was treated with corticosteroid injections for one month for umbilical keloid. Given that the symptoms recurred regularly at the time of menstruation, we suspected umbilical endometriosis. This diagnosis was finally confirmed by histopathological examination and hormone therapy was instituted on gynecological advice before scheduled surgical excision. In a setting of an umbilical tumor simulating a keloid associated with cyclical symptoms in a black woman, the diagnosis of umbilical endometriosis should not be overlooked by the dermatologist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Postoperative Intralesional Corticosteroids in the Prevention of Recurrent Earlobe Keloids: A Multispecialty Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    Gold, Daniel A; Sheinin, Renee; Jacobsen, Gordon; Jones, Lamont R; Ozog, David M

    2018-06-01

    Effective treatment of keloids is challenging because the recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Data on the best treatment practices are lacking. To investigate the recurrence rate after surgical excision of earlobe keloids based on a postoperative intralesional corticosteroid injection protocol. Retrospective chart review was performed from January 1, 2005, to March 31, 2016, of patients who had excision of ear keloids within the departments of dermatology, otorhinolaryngology, and plastic surgery. The number of postoperative injections was recorded, recurrence was reported by the patient, and the efficacy of an injection protocol was evaluated. There were 277 charts reviewed. Appropriate data were available for 184 patients. A statistically significant difference was found with recurrence associated with a lower number of injections (p < .001). Keloids were more likely to recur if they were not treated with a planned serial injection protocol (p < .001) or if they were treated outside the department of dermatology (p < .001). Intralesional corticosteroid injection after surgical excision of earlobe keloids statistically minimizes the risk of recurrence.

  2. The influence of genistein on free radicals in normal dermal fibroblasts and keloid fibroblasts examined by EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jurzak, Magdalena; Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Normal and keloid fibroblasts were examined using X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The effect of genistein on the concentration of free radicals in both normal dermal and keloid fibroblasts after ultraviolet irradiation was investigated. The highest concentration of free radicals was seen in keloid fibroblasts, with normal fibroblasts containing a lower concentration. The concentration of free radicals in both normal and keloid fibroblasts was altered in a concentration-dependent manner by the presence of genistein. The change in intra-cellular free radical concentration after the ultraviolet irradiation of both normal and keloid fibroblasts is also discussed. The antioxidant properties of genistein, using its 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity as a model, were tested, and the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on its interaction with free radicals was examined. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of DPPH showed quenching by genistein. The interaction of genistein with DPPH free radicals in the absence of ultraviolet irradiation was shown to be slow, but this interaction was much faster under ultraviolet irradiation. Ultraviolet irradiation enhanced the free radical-scavenging activity of genistein.

  3. Variations in gap junctional intercellular communication and connexin expression in fibroblasts derived from keloid and hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Gao, JianHua; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2007-03-01

    Expression of connexins and other constituent proteins of gap junctions along with gap junctional intercellular communication are involved in cellular development and differentiation processes. In addition, an increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be linked to connexins. Therefore, in this report, the authors studied in vitro gap junctional intercellular communication function and connexin expression in fibroblasts derived from keloid and hypertrophic scar patients. Fibroblasts harvested from each of six keloid and hypertrophic scar patients were used for this study. Gap junctional intercellular communication function was investigated using the gap fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method, and expression of connexin proteins was studied using quantitative confocal microscopic analyses. Compared with normal skin, a decreased level of gap junctional intercellular communication was seen in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar tissue, whereas an extremely low gap junctional intercellular communication level was detected in fibroblasts derived from keloid tissue. We also detected little connexin 43 (Cx43) protein localized in fibroblasts derived from keloids. Moreover, Cx43 protein levels were much lower in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scars than in those derived from normal skin. The authors' data suggest that the loss of gap junctional intercellular communication and connexin expression may affect intercellular recognition and thus break the proliferation and apoptosis balance in fibroblasts derived from keloid and hypertrophic scar tissue.

  4. Association of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G promoter polymorphism with risk of keloid in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Long, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yang

    2014-10-28

    A keloid is pathological scar caused by aberrant response to skin injuries, characterized by excessive accumulation of histological extracellular matrix, and occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of keloid. We investigated the association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with keloid risk. A total of 242 Chinese keloid patients and 207 controls were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction technique was used to determine PAI-1 promoter polymorphism (-675 4G/5G and -844 A/G) distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism between keloid patients and healthy controls. 4G/4G carriers were more likely to develop keloid. In contrast, the -844 A/G polymorphism distribution did not vary significantly between keloid patients and controls. The keloid patients group had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group. In the -675 4G/4G carrier population, the plasma PAI-1 levels were significant higher in keloid patients compared with controls. Our study provides evidence that PAI-1 promoter polymorphism -675 4G/5G and plasma PAI-1 level are associated with keloid risk. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may be an important hereditary factor responsible for keloid development in the Chinese Han population.

  5. Association of the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G Promoter Polymorphism with Risk of Keloid in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjie; Long, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Background A keloid is pathological scar caused by aberrant response to skin injuries, characterized by excessive accumulation of histological extracellular matrix, and occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of keloid. We investigated the association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with keloid risk. Material/Methods A total of 242 Chinese keloid patients and 207 controls were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction technique was used to determine PAI-1 promoter polymorphism (-675 4G/5G and -844 A/G) distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism between keloid patients and healthy controls. 4G/4G carriers were more likely to develop keloid. In contrast, the -844 A/G polymorphism distribution did not vary significantly between keloid patients and controls. The keloid patients group had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group. In the -675 4G/4G carrier population, the plasma PAI-1 levels were significant higher in keloid patients compared with controls. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that PAI-1 promoter polymorphism -675 4G/5G and plasma PAI-1 level are associated with keloid risk. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may be an important hereditary factor responsible for keloid development in the Chinese Han population. PMID:25350781

  6. Bilateral congenital corneal keloids and anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis in a case of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, Srinivas K; Fan, Dorothy S P; Pang, C P; Li, Winnie W Y; Ng, Joan S K; Good, William V; Lam, Dennis S C

    2002-01-01

    To report the unusual association of bilateral corneal keloids and anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis in a child with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Case report of a 2-year-old boy. Excision of the epicorneal mass in the right eye was followed by recurrence of the lesion. Multiple penetrating keratoplasties were unsuccessful in reconstructing the anterior segment because of recurrent corneal epithelial breakdown, suggesting limbal stem cell insufficiency. Histopathology and electron microscopy of the excised mass lesion showed features typical of a corneal keloid: thickened keratinized epithelium, absent Bowman's layer, and fibrovascular hyperplasia, with haphazard orientation of the collagen lamellae. Ultrasound biomicroscopy and intraoperative findings suggested a diagnosis of Peter anomaly, but genetic analysis did not show a PAX6 mutation. The findings in our patient add to the spectrum of ocular changes described in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and confirm earlier reports of poor ocular prognosis in corneal keloids and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

  7. Bilateral breast keloids in an elderly woman associated with bilateral breast cancers and high concentration of serum tumor growth factor-β.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masanobu; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Fukuda, Kaori; Kozaru, Takeshi; Ban, Masao; Oka, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    We report a case of bilateral annular breast keloids in a 72-year-old woman who had been suffering from bilateral breast cancers. Histopathologically, the keloids showed unique distribution of α-SMA+, CD34- myofibroblasts and α-SMA-, CD34+ fibroblasts depending on the region. High serum levels of tumor growth factor-β were detected at 6 months after the development of the breast keloids, but not at 10 months. CD163-positive cells were abundantly detected in the skin of the elevated portion of the keloids. In contrast, these cells were considerably less numerous in the skin of the central healing portion compared with the skin of the elevated expanding portion. One interesting idea based on these results is that high levels of tumor growth factor-β released from CD163-positive cells played a crucial role in the formation of breast keloids through active induction of fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts. The present case strongly supports the previously proposed idea that keloids can form as a paraneoplastic phenomenon in breast cancer patients with keloid constitution. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Successful Treatment of Keloid With Fractionated Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser and Laser-Assisted Drug Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide Ointment in an African-American Man.

    PubMed

    Kraeva, Ekaterina; Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2017-09-01

    Keloids are fibrous growths that occur as a result of abnormal response to dermal injury. Keloids are cosmetically disfiguring and may impair function, often resulting in decreased patient quality-of-life. Treatment of keloids remains challenging, and rate of recurrence is high. We present a case of a 39-year-old African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI) with a 10-year history of keloid, who was successfully treated with eight sessions of fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser immediately followed by laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) of topical triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) ointment and review the medical literature on fractionated CO2 laser treatment of keloids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of a keloid using combination therapy of fractionated CO2 laser and LADD with topical TAC ointment in an African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI) with excellent cosmetic results sustained at 22 months post-treatment. We believe that this combination treatment modality may be safe and efficacious for keloids in skin of color (Fitzpatrick IV-VI) and other patients. This case highlights the ability of laser surgeons to safely use fractionated CO2 lasers in patients of all skin colors.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):925-927.

    .

  9. Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars with dermojet injections of bleomycin: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Saray, Yasemin; Güleç, A Tülin

    2005-09-01

    Numerous treatment modalities have been used to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars, but the optimal treatment has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of intralesional jet injection of bleomycin as therapy for keloids and hypertrophic scars that are unresponsive to intralesional steroid injection. The study included 14 patients with 15 keloids or hypertrophic scars that had not responded to a minimum of three intralesional injections of triamcinolone acetonide. Multiple jet injections of 0.1 ml of bleomycin (1.5 IU/ml) were administered to each lesion, with injection sites spaced 0.5 mm apart. Injections were repeated each month. Scar height was measured, and scar pliability and erythema were scored at baseline and then monthly during the treatment and follow-up periods. Patients' self-assessments of subjective symptoms (pruritus and pain) were also scored. Clinical improvement was defined primarily on the basis of scar height reduction (percentage reduction from baseline), and was classified using the following scale: complete flattening (100%), highly significant flattening (> 90%), significant flattening (75-90%), moderate flattening (50-75%), and minimal flattening (< 50%). Pre- and post-treatment mean values for scar height, scar pliability, erythema, pruritus and pain were statistically compared. The number of sessions required to successfully treat the lesions ranged from two to six. Eleven lesions (73.3%) showed complete flattening, one (6.7%) showed highly significant flattening, two (13.3%) showed significant flattening, and one scar (6.7%) showed moderate flattening. The mean scar height was significantly lower, and the mean scores for scar pliability and erythema were significantly better at the end of treatment (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The mean scores for pruritus and pain also improved significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.01, respectively). The observed side-effects were

  10. Lasers and ancillary treatments for scar management Part 2: Keloid, hypertrophic, pigmented and acne scars

    PubMed Central

    McGoldrick, Rory Boyd; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Azzopardi, Ernest Anthony; Murison, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    The formation of a wide range of excessive scars following various skin injuries is a natural consequence of healing. Scars resulting from surgery or trauma affect approximately 100 million people per annum in the developed world and can have profound physical, aesthetic, psychological and social consequences. Thus, scar treatment is a priority for patient and physician alike. Laser treatment plays an important role in scar management with additional support from ancillary modalities. Subsequent to part 1: Burns scars, part 2 focuses on our strategies and literature review of treatment of keloid, hypertrophic, pigmented and acne scars where lasers are used in conjunction with other measures, and illustrated with case studies. PMID:29799579

  11. Low-Level Light Therapy with 410 nm Light Emitting Diode Suppresses Collagen Synthesis in Human Keloid Fibroblasts: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Sue Kyung; Kim, You-Sun; Sohn, Seonghyang

    2017-01-01

    Background Keloids are characterized by excessive collagen deposition in the dermis, in which transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays an important role. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is reported as effective in preventing keloids in clinical reports, recently. To date, studies investigating the effect of LLLT on keloid fibroblasts are extremely rare. Objective We investigated the effect of LLLT with blue (410 nm), red (630 nm), and infrared (830 nm) light on the collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts. Methods Keloid fibroblasts were isolated from keloid-revision surgery samples and irradiated using 410-, 630-, 830-nm light emitting diode twice, with a 24-hour interval at 10 J/cm2. After irradiation, cells were incubated for 24 and 48 hours and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Western blot analysis was also performed in 48 hours after last irradiation. The genes and proteins of collagen type I, TGF-β1, Smad3, and Smad7 were analyzed. Results We observed no statistically significant change in the viability of keloid fibroblasts after irradiation. Collagen type I was the only gene whose expression significantly decreased after irradiation at 410 nm when compared to the non-irradiated control. Western blot analysis showed that LLLT at 410 nm lowered the protein levels of collagen type I compared to the control. Conclusion LLLT at 410 nm decreased the expression of collagen type I in keloid fibroblasts and might be effective in preventing keloid formation in their initial stage. PMID:28392641

  12. Asiaticoside hinders the invasive growth of keloid fibroblasts through inhibition of the GDF-9/MAPK/Smad pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Bian, Difei; Dou, Yannong; Gong, Zhunan; Tan, Qian; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2017-08-01

    Higher expression of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) in keloids compared with hypertrophic scars and normal skin tissues has been reported recently. The present study was performed to investigate the role of GDF-9 in keloid pathogenesis, and to elucidate its implication for asiaticoside in the keloid management. The data showed that GDF-9 could enhance the proliferation, migration, and invasion of keloid fibroblasts (KFs), while it only slightly elevated collagen expression, indicating that the effect of GDF-9 was opposite to that of TGF-β1. The bioactivity difference between GDF-9 and TGF-β1 could be explained by the different phosphorylated sites on the downstream Smad2/3. Moreover, asiaticoside could inhibit GDF-9-induced activation of MAPKs and Smad pathway in KFs. In conclusion, GDF-9 enhanced the invasive growth of KFs, which was achieved by phosphorylation of Smad 2/3 at the linker region through activation of MAPKs pathway. Asiaticoside hindered the invasive growth of KFs by inhibiting the GDF-9/MAPK/Smad pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Perioperative Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Keloids: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ping, E-mail: ping.jiang@uksh.de; Baumann, René; Dunst, Juergen

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of therapy-resistant keloids and report first results, with emphasis on feasibility and early treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: From 2009 to 2014, 24 patients with 32 recurrent keloids were treated with immediate perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy; 3 patients had been previously treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy and presented with recurrences in the pretreated areas. Two or more different treatment modalities had been tried in all patients and had failed to achieve remission. After (re-)excision of the keloids, a single brachytherapy tube was placed subcutaneously before closing the wound. The target volumemore » covered the scar in total length. Brachytherapy was given in 3 fractions with a single dose of 6 Gy in 5 mm tissue depth. The first fraction was given within 6 hours after surgery, the other 2 fractions on the first postoperative day. Thus, a total dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions was administered within 36 hours after the resection. Results: The treatment was feasible in all patients. No procedure-related complications (eg, secondary infections) occurred. Nineteen patients had keloid-related symptoms before treatment like pain and pruritus; disappearance of symptoms was noticed in all patients after treatment. After a median follow-up of 29.4 months (range, 7.9-72.4 months), 2 keloid recurrences and 2 mildly hypertrophied scars were observed. The local control rate was 94%. Pigmentary abnormalities were detected in 3 patients, and an additional 6 patients had a mild delay in the wound-healing process. Conclusions: The early results of this study prove the feasibility and the efficacy of brachytherapy for the prevention of keloids. The results also suggest that brachytherapy may be advantageous in the management of high-risk keloids or as salvage treatment for failure after external beam therapy.« less

  14. Self-adhesive silicone gel sheet: a treatment for hypertrophic scars and keloids.

    PubMed

    Chuangsuwanich, A; Osathalert, V; Muangsombut, S

    2000-04-01

    An open clinical trial was conducted to assess the effect of self-adhesive silicone gel sheet (SASGS) for the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids in Thai people. Patients were instructed to apply the SASGS to the scars as long as possible, but not less than 12 hours per day for at least 8 weeks. The subjective results of the treatment were evaluated by the patients. The scars were evaluated for color, height, weight before and after treatment at 4 and 8 weeks. Eighteen patients with 18 hypertrophic scars or keloids were recruited into the study. Their ages ranged from 6 to 33 years (mean 21 years). The average duration of the scars was 5.7 years. Twelve patients (66.67%) stated good results. All of the 18 patients wanted to continue the treatment with SASGS. Heights of the scars were reduced in 12 lesions (66.67%) after treatment for 8 weeks (P = 0.058). Weights of the lesions were decreased in 10 lesions (55.55%) but were not statistically different (P = 0.090). Seven lesions (36.84%) were improved in color. Two patients (11.11%) developed erythematous rash around the lesions which subsided after withdrawal of the treatment. The long term follow-up for the recurrence and the mechanism of action of this treatment should be studied further.

  15. Studying intense pulsed light method along with corticosteroid injection in treating keloid scars.

    PubMed

    Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Rezazadeh, Azadeh; Ekhlasi, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Results of various studies suggest that the hypertrophic and keloid scars are highly prevalent in the general population and are irritating both physically and mentally. Considering the variety of existing therapies, intense pulsed light (IPL) method along with corticosteroid injection was evaluated in treating these scars. 86 subjects were included in this clinical trial. Eight sessions of therapeutic intervention were done with IPL along with corticosteroid intralesional injection using 450 to 1200 NM filter, Fluence 30-40 J/cm2, pulse duration of 2.1-10 ms and palsed delay 10-40 ms with an interval of three weeks. To specify the recovery consequences and complication rate and to determine features of the lesion, the criteria specified in the study of Eroll and Vancouver scar scale were used. The level of clinical improvement, color improvement and scar height was 89.1%, 88.8% and 89.1% respectively. The incidence of complications (1 telangiectasia case, 7 hyperpigmentation cases and 2 atrophy cases) following treatment with IPL was 11.6%. Moreover, the participants' satisfaction with IPL method was 88.8%. This study revealed that a combined therapy (intralesional corticosteroid injection + IPL) increases the recovery level of hypertrophic and keloid scars. It was also demonstrated that this method had no significant side effect and patients were highly satisfied with this method.

  16. Studying Intense Pulsed Light Method Along With Corticosteroid Injection in Treating Keloid Scars

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi Meymandi, Simin; Rezazadeh, Azadeh; Ekhlasi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Results of various studies suggest that the hypertrophic and keloid scars are highly prevalent in the general population and are irritating both physically and mentally. Objective: Considering the variety of existing therapies, intense pulsed light (IPL) method along with corticosteroid injection was evaluated in treating these scars. Materials and Methods: 86 subjects were included in this clinical trial. Eight sessions of therapeutic intervention were done with IPL along with corticosteroid intralesional injection using 450 to 1200 NM filter, Fluence 30-40 J/cm2, pulse duration of 2.1-10 ms and palsed delay 10-40 ms with an interval of three weeks. To specify the recovery consequences and complication rate and to determine features of the lesion, the criteria specified in the study of Eroll and Vancouver scar scale were used. Results: The level of clinical improvement, color improvement and scar height was 89.1%, 88.8% and 89.1% respectively. The incidence of complications (1 telangiectasia case, 7 hyperpigmentation cases and 2 atrophy cases) following treatment with IPL was 11.6%. Moreover, the participants’ satisfaction with IPL method was 88.8%. Conclusions: This study revealed that a combined therapy (intralesional corticosteroid injection + IPL) increases the recovery level of hypertrophic and keloid scars. It was also demonstrated that this method had no significant side effect and patients were highly satisfied with this method. PMID:24719725

  17. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: a useful guide.

    PubMed

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-11-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Intralesional cryotherapy versus excision and corticosteroids or brachytherapy for keloid treatment: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Keloids are a burden for patients due to physical, aesthetic and social complaints and treatment remains a challenge because of therapy resistance and high recurrence rates. The main goal of treatment is to improve the quality of life (QoL); this implies that, apart from surgical outcomes, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) need to be taken into account. Decision making in keloid treatment is difficult due to heterogeneity of the condition and the lack of comparative studies. Methods/Design This is a multicentre, randomised controlled open trial that compares 1) intralesional cryotherapy versus excision and corticosteroids for primary keloids, and 2) intralesional cryotherapy versus excision and brachytherapy for therapy-resistant keloids. The primary outcome is the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), a 12-item scale (with score 12 indicating the best and 120 indicating the worst scar imaginable). A difference of six points on the total score is considered to be of clinical importance. Secondary outcomes are recurrence rates, volume reduction, Skindex-29 scores, SF-36 scores and complication rates. Primary and secondary outcome measurements are taken at baseline, and at 2, 12, 26 and 52 weeks postoperatively. For analysis, a linear mixed model is used. A total of 176 patients will be included over a period of 2.5 years. The protocol is approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam and follows good clinical practice guidelines. Discussion The outcomes of this study will improve evidence-based decision making for the treatment of keloids, as well as patient education. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR4151. PMID:24354714

  19. Could −79 °C Spray-Type Cryotherapy Be an Effective Monotherapy for the Treatment of Keloid?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Hwan; Cho, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Jang Won; Kim, Chan Woo; Chong, Yosep; Chang, Choong Hyun; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Cryotherapy has been regarded as an effective modality for the treatment of keloids, and the spray-type device is one of the novel cryotherapeutic units. However, the biological mechanisms and therapeutic effects of this technique are incompletely studied. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of our cryotherapy protocol with molecular and pathologic evidence for the treatment of keloids. We evenly split each of ten keloid lesions into a non-treated (C−) and treated (C+) area; the C+ area was subjected to two freeze-thaw cycles of spray-type cryotherapy using −79 °C spray-type CryoPen™. This treatment was repeated after an interval of two weeks. The proliferation and migration abilities of the fibroblasts isolated from the dermis under the cryotherapy-treated or untreated keloid tissues (at least 5 mm deep) were compared and pathologic findings of the full layer were evaluated. Molecular analysis revealed that the number of dermal fibroblasts was significantly higher in C+ group as compared with C− group. The dermal fibroblasts from C+ group showed more than two-fold increase in the migration ability as compared with the fibroblasts from C− group. The expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 was increased by more than two-fold and a significant increase in transforming growth factor beta 1 expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation level was observed in C+ group. C+ group showed more extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with thicker fibrosis and occasional “proliferating core collagen” as compared with C− group. Thus, −79 °C spray-type cryotherapy is ineffective as a monotherapy and should be used in combination with intralesional corticosteroids or botulinum toxin A for favourable outcomes in the treatment of thick keloids. PMID:29186868

  20. Noninvasive evaluation of collagen and hemoglobin contents and scattering property of in vivo keloid scars and normal skin using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Sheng-Hao; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Yu-Yun Lee, Julia; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chen, Wan-Rung; Liaw, Yu-Kai

    2012-07-01

    Collagen is a rich component in skin that provides skin structure integrity; however, its contribution to the absorption and scattering properties of various types of skin has not been extensively studied. We considered the contribution of the collagen to the absorption spectrum of in vivo normal skin and keloids of 12 subjects derived from our diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system in the wavelength range from 550 to 860 nm. It was found that the collagen concentration, the hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and the reduced scattering coefficient of keloids were remarkably different from that of normal skin. Our results suggest that our DRS system could assist clinicians in understanding the functional and structural condition of keloid scars. In the future, we will evaluate the accuracy of our system in the keloid diagnosis and investigate the applicability of our system for other skin-collagen-related studies.

  1. Ex vivo evaluation of antifibrotic compounds in skin scarring: EGCG and silencing of PAI-1 independently inhibit growth and induce keloid shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhatullah; Bagabir, Rania A; Paus, Ralf; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-08-01

    Keloid disease (KD) is a common fibroproliferative disorder of unknown etiopathogenesis. Its unique occurrence in human skin and lack of animal models pose challenges for KD research. The lack of a suitable model in KD and over-reliance on cell culture has hampered the progress in developing new treatments. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of two promising candidate antifibrotic therapies: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) silencing in a long-term human keloid organ culture (OC). Four millimeters of air-liquid interface (ALI) keloid explants on collagen gel matrix in serum-free medium (n=8 cases) were treated with different modalities (EGCG treatment; PAI-1 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA) and application of dexamethasone (DEX) as control). Normal skin (n=6) was used as control (only for D0 keloid-untreated comparison). Besides routine histology and quantitative (immuno-) histomorphometry, the key phenotypic and growth parameters of KD were assessed. Results demonstrated that EGCG reduced keloid volume significantly (40% by week 4), increased apoptosis (≥40% from weeks 1 to 4), and decreased proliferation (≤17% in week 2). EGCG induced epidermal shrinkage, reduced collagen-I and -III at mRNA and protein levels, depleted 98% of keloid-associated mast cells, and reduced the percentage of both cellularity and blood vessel count by week 4. Knockdown of PAI-1 significantly reduced keloid volume by 28% in week 4, respectively, and reduced collagen-I and -III at both mRNA and protein levels. As expected, DEX increased keloid apoptosis, decreased keloid proliferation, and collagen synthesis, but induced connective tissue growth factor overexpression. In conclusion, using keloid OC model, we provide the first functional evidence for testing candidate antifibrotic compounds in KD. We show that EGCG and PAI-1 silencing effectively inhibits growth and induces shrinkage of human keloid tissue in situ. Therefore

  2. Ear keloids as a primary candidate for the application of mitomycin C after shave excision: in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chi, Seong Geun; Kim, Jun Young; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Sohn, Mi Yeung; Kim, Gun Wook; Kim, Moon Bum; Kim, Byung Soo

    2011-02-01

    Although many methods have been developed to treat ear keloids, new therapeutic options are still needed. To determine the effects of topical mitomycin C (MC) on shave-removed wounds and fibroblasts of ear keloids. Fourteen ear keloids in 12 patients were shaved, and MC (1 mg/mL) was applied to the resected bed for 5 minutes. The application was repeated 3 weeks later. All patients were assessed 2, 4, and 6 months after the procedure to evaluate the cosmetic results, recurrence, and postsurgical complications. An in vitro study to determine the effects of MC on fibroblasts of the excised keloids was conducted using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, the measurement of total cell counts, and immunoassay of DNA synthesis. Only one recurrence occurred (on the ear helix), and the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic outcomes. The results of the MTT assay, total cell counts, and DNA synthesis immunoassay confirmed the suppressive effects of MC on the keloid fibroblasts. The application of topical MC to the resected bed of shave-removed ear keloids was successful in preventing recurrences and providing an acceptable cosmetic outcome. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  3. Noninvasive laser therapy in the treatment of keloid scar after injury caused by a jellyfish: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kymplova, Jaroslava; Navratil, Leos; Skopek, Jiri

    2001-10-01

    Keloid scars trouble the patients particularly for aesthetical reasons. They also frequency result in various functional disturbances, they are painful and the patient suffers for dysesthesia on touch. Low level laser is able to provide three principal effects: biostimulating, analgesic and antiinflammatory. Particularly thanks to the first two effects we are able, when adhering to the proper therapeutic procedure, to moderate or even remove the above mentioned problems. We complement the low level laser treatment by applications of ointments, cremes or silicone strips. Our communication is aimed at a case report concerning the treatment of keloid scars resulting from an injury by a jellyfish with the aim to familiarize the reader with wide therapeutic possibilities of non-invasive laser, even in indications which are not frequently encountered in central Europe.

  4. Tumor-Like Stem Cells Derived from Human Keloid Are Governed by the Inflammatory Niche Driven by IL-17/IL-6 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qunzhou; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Kelly, A. Paul; Shi, Shihong; Wang, Songlin; Brown, Jimmy; Wang, Lina; French, Samuel W.; Shi, Songtao; Le, Anh D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the stem cell niche are likely to contribute to tumorigenesis; however, the concept of niche promoted benign tumor growth remains to be explored. Here we use keloid, an exuberant fibroproliferative dermal growth unique to human skin, as a model to characterize benign tumor-like stem cells and delineate the role of their “pathological” niche in the development of the benign tumor. Methods and Findings Subclonal assay, flow cytometric and multipotent differentiation analyses demonstrate that keloid contains a new population of stem cells, named keloid derived precursor cells (KPCs), which exhibit clonogenicity, self-renewal, distinct embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, and multipotent differentiation. KPCs display elevated telomerase activity and an inherently upregulated proliferation capability as compared to their peripheral normal skin counterparts. A robust elevation of IL-6 and IL-17 expression in keloid is confirmed by cytokine array, western blot and ELISA analyses. The altered biological functions are tightly regulated by the inflammatory niche mediated by an autocrine/paracrine cytokine IL-17/IL-6 axis. Utilizing KPCs transplanted subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice we generate for the first time a human keloid-like tumor model that is driven by the in vivo inflammatory niche and allows testing of the anti-tumor therapeutic effect of antibodies targeting distinct niche components, specifically IL-6 and IL-17. Conclusions/Significance These findings support our hypothesis that the altered niche in keloids, predominantly inflammatory, contributes to the acquirement of a benign tumor-like stem cell phenotype of KPCs characterized by the uncontrolled self-renewal and increased proliferation, supporting the rationale for in vivo modification of the “pathological” stem cell niche as a novel therapy for keloid and other mesenchymal benign tumors. PMID:19907660

  5. Unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and subluxated lens: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Vanathi, M; Sen, Seema; Panda, Anita; Dada, Tanuj; Behera, Geeta; Khokhar, Sudharshan

    2007-01-01

    To report the unusual association of unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior-segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and bilateral subluxated lens. A 20-year old man presented with a mass lesion involving the left cornea. The corneal lesion had been present since birth. On biomicroscopic examination, a well-defined vascularized, grayish-white mass occupying the whole of the left cornea was seen. The right eye showed multiple peripheral corneal opacities with iridocorneal adhesions, a poorly defined supranasal limbus, and a subluxated lens. Excision biopsy of the mass was done for histopathologic examination. Histopathologic examination of the excised corneal mass showed features consistent with that of a corneal keloid: thickened keratinized epithelium, absent Bowman membrane layer, and fibrovascular hyperplasia composed of hyalinized collagen fibers with irregular orientation of the collagen lamellae. During penetrating keratoplasty of the left eye, an anomalous iris pattern with poorly defined angle and a supranasal subluxated lens was also observed. Extraction of the subluxated lens was also done. The graft failed subsequent to a nonhealing persistent epithelial defect. Our case report highlights the rare association of a unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior-segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and bilateral subluxated lens.

  6. Comparative effect of topical silicone gel and topical tretinoin cream for the prevention of hypertrophic scar and keloid formation and the improvement of scars.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S Y; Park, S D; Park, K

    2014-08-01

    Numerous modalities have been used to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars; however, optimal treatment has not yet been established. Therefore, prevention is the mainstay. Recently, silicone gel and tretinoin cream have been shown to be useful for the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids. However, there has been no comparative study of the two topical agents thus far. To determine and compare the effectiveness of silicone gel and tretinoin cream for the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids resulting from postoperative wounds and for scar improvement. This study included 26 patients with 44 different wounds. The postoperative wounds were divided into two treatment groups and one control group. The patients in the first and second treatment group applied silicone gel and tretinoin cream, respectively, twice a day on their wounds after their stitches were removed. In contrast, the control group patients did not apply anything. We used the Modified Vancouver Scar Scale to quantitatively examine the effectiveness of silicone gel and tretinoin cream just after stitches removal, and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after removal of the stitches. The silicone gel and tretinoin cream effectively prevented hypertrophic scars and keloids and improved scar effects in the two treatment groups compared with those in the control group. However, no significant difference was noted between the two treatment groups. To prevent hypertrophic scars and keloids and improve scars after surgery, application of a silicone gel or a tretinoin cream to the wounds is needed. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. Recruitment of Yoruba families from Nigeria for genetic research: experience from a multisite keloid study.

    PubMed

    Olaitan, Peter B; Odesina, Victoria; Ademola, Samuel; Fadiora, Solomon O; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2014-09-02

    More involvement of sub-Saharan African countries in biomedical studies, specifically in genetic research, is needed to advance individualized medicine that will benefit non-European populations. Missing infrastructure, cultural and religious beliefs as well as lack of understanding of research benefits can pose a challenge to recruitment. Here we describe recruitment efforts for a large genetic study requiring three-generation pedigrees within the Yoruba homelands of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify genes responsible for keloids, a wound healing disorder. We also discuss ethical and logistical considerations that we encountered in preparation for this research endeavor. Protocols for this bi-national intercultural study were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the US and the ethics committees of the Nigerian institutions for consideration of cultural differences. Principles of community based participatory research were employed throughout the recruitment process. Keloid patients (patient advisors), community leaders, kings/chiefs and medical directors were engaged to assist the research teams with recruitment strategies. Community meetings, church forums, and media outlets (study flyers, radio and TV announcements) were utilized to promote the study in Nigeria. Recruitment of research participants was conducted by trained staff from the local communities. Pedigree structures were re-analyzed on a regular basis as new family members were recruited and recruitment challenges were documented. Total recruitment surpassed 4200 study participants over a 7-year period including 79 families with complete three-generation pedigrees. In 9 families more than 20 family members participated, however, in 5 of these families, we encountered issues with pedigree structure as members from different branches presented inconsistent family histories. These issues were due to the traditional open family structure amongst the Yoruba and by beliefs in

  8. Recruitment of Yoruba families from Nigeria for genetic research: experience from a multisite keloid study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More involvement of sub-Saharan African countries in biomedical studies, specifically in genetic research, is needed to advance individualized medicine that will benefit non-European populations. Missing infrastructure, cultural and religious beliefs as well as lack of understanding of research benefits can pose a challenge to recruitment. Here we describe recruitment efforts for a large genetic study requiring three-generation pedigrees within the Yoruba homelands of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify genes responsible for keloids, a wound healing disorder. We also discuss ethical and logistical considerations that we encountered in preparation for this research endeavor. Methods Protocols for this bi-national intercultural study were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the US and the ethics committees of the Nigerian institutions for consideration of cultural differences. Principles of community based participatory research were employed throughout the recruitment process. Keloid patients (patient advisors), community leaders, kings/chiefs and medical directors were engaged to assist the research teams with recruitment strategies. Community meetings, church forums, and media outlets (study flyers, radio and TV announcements) were utilized to promote the study in Nigeria. Recruitment of research participants was conducted by trained staff from the local communities. Pedigree structures were re-analyzed on a regular basis as new family members were recruited and recruitment challenges were documented. Results Total recruitment surpassed 4200 study participants over a 7-year period including 79 families with complete three-generation pedigrees. In 9 families more than 20 family members participated, however, in 5 of these families, we encountered issues with pedigree structure as members from different branches presented inconsistent family histories. These issues were due to the traditional open family structure amongst the

  9. Comparative efficacy of intralesional verapamil hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide in hypertrophic scars and keloids.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Chatterjee, Pallab

    2014-06-01

    There is not much level 1 evidence based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars and keloids despite an array of therapeutic modalities at disposal. Intralesional (i/l) triamcinolone injections have remained a gold standard in non surgical management. Sporadic reports on use of i/l verapamil suggest its efficacy. Since verapamil has not found sufficient mention as an effective alternative modality, it was decided to undertake a randomized study which could also address some additional clinical parameters. A randomized, parallel group and observer blinded comparison with 40 patients (48 scars) was carried out to compare the effects of i/l triamcinolone (T) (22 scars) and verapamil injections (V) (26 scars). 1.5 ml was the maximum indicative volume decided in the study protocol for both the drugs (triamcinolone @40 mg/ml and verapamil @ 2.5 mg/ml). Patients included were aged between 15-60 years with scars ranging between 0.5-5 cm (but total area roughly <6 cm(2)), and scars under 2 years duration. Patients with keloidal diathesis were excluded. Injections were scheduled every three weeks until complete flattening of the scar or eight sessions, which ever came earlier. No concomitant therapies like massage, silicone gel or pressure garments were used. Scar evaluation at each stage was done by serial photographic records as well as by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Comparative survival analysis between the two drugs was done using Kaplan Meier curves, and VSS scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and log rank test. Mean zero VSS scores were achieved with treatments in respect of scar height (T-12 weeks, V-21 weeks), vascularity (T-15 weeks, V-18 weeks) and pliability (T-15 weeks, V-21 weeks). The improvement in scar vascularity and pliability kept pace with decrease in scar height, in both the groups. There was not much difference in the rate of change of scar pigmentation with either drug but almost 60% patients in both the groups regained normal

  10. Delayed allergic dermatitis presenting as a keloid-like reaction caused by sting from an Indo-Pacific Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia utriculus).

    PubMed

    Guevara, B E K; Dayrit, J F; Haddad, V

    2017-03-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are common occurrences in the tropics that can affect holidaymakers. The cutaneous reactions are classified as immediate or delayed types. Delayed allergic reactions are persistently recurring dermatitis, which can occur within 1-4 weeks from the initial sting, and may last for several months. Hypertrophic scar-like or keloid-like reactions are rare, and are believed to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to sequestered antigens from stinging filaments. We report an unusual case of delayed allergic dermatitis with keloid-like presentation caused by Physalia utriculus. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Superior effect of combination vs. single steroid therapy in keloid disease: a comparative in vitro analysis of glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhatullah; Singh, Subir; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Keloid disease (KD) is a fibroproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. Current use of corticosteroid injection is partially beneficial with 80% recurrence rate. Additionally, the efficacy of different steroids, alone or in combination as opposed to monotherapy, in treating KD remains unclear. Here, we compared the single and combined efficacy of glucocorticoids-dexamethasone (Dex), triamcinolone (TAC), and methylprednisolone (Medrol)-on primary keloid fibroblasts (KFs) (n = 27) and normal skin (n = 19) fibroblasts at cellular, protein, and messenger RNA levels in vitro. Our results demonstrated that cytotoxicity to steroids was dose dependent. Cell spreading, attachment, and proliferation were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by Medrol and TAC. Migration and invasion properties of KF were inhibited significantly (p < 0.05) by Medrol and TAC compared with Dex. At both protein and messenger RNA levels, keloid-associated fibrotic markers were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by Medrol and TAC compared with Dex. However, vascular endothelial growth factor expression was significantly (p = 0.01) decreased by Dex compared with TAC and Medrol. Medrol and TAC caused significant (p < 0.04) apoptosis, whereas Dex inhibited the UV-induced apoptosis and up-regulated survivin. Blocking of glucocorticoid receptor by RU486 inhibited cytoprotective property of Dex and apoptotic properties of TAC and Medrol. Double treatment with Dex + TAC and Dex + Medrol significantly (p < 0.05) induced apoptosis. In conclusion, this is the first study to report the efficacy of three well-known steroids on KF and suggest that combination may be superior than using a single steroid in treating KD. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Wound-healing and potential anti-keloidal properties of the latex of Calotropis procera (Aiton) Asclepiadaceae in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aderounmu, A O; Omonisi, A E; Akingbasote, J A; Makanjuola, M; Bejide, R A; Orafidiya, L O; Adelusola, K A

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis Procera (CP) has been used in the management of toothache, fresh skin burns, gum bleeding as well as others to make it qualify as a medicinal plant. This study was designed to assess its wound-healing property in rabbits and its potentials for anti keloidal activity.Fresh latex of Calotropis were obtained and evaluated phytochemically. Fifteen male rabbits were used and four excisional wounds were created on each rabbit. The rabbits were divided into five groups of three each. Group 1 was the negative control and received no treatment. The wounds of group 2 animals were treated with 2mL of Calotropis latex; group 3 with 2mL honey; and group 4 with a mixture of 1ml honey and 1 mL of the latex. The animals in group 5 were given 2mg triamcinolone intramuscularly. All the groups had their wounds treated daily for 21 days. The wounds' diameters were measured on the day of wound creation, thereafter on days 7, 14 and 21 post wound creation. Biopsies of the wounds were taken on days 3 and 21 and viewed histologically. Phytochemical study of the latex revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins and alkaloids. The wounds were found to be significantly (p<0.05) reduced in groups treated with 50% latex in honey and triamcinolone, respectively, on day 7 post wound creation while there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in wound surface area in all treated groups on days 14 and 21 post wound creation. Histological findings in untreated group showed thick bundle of collagen fibres some of which had broad based configurations, reminiscent of keloid. The group treated with 2mL of Calotropis latex revealed the presence of florid granulation tissues on day 3 while there was a marked reduction in quantity and size of collagen fibres on day 21 post wound creation which was comparable with what was seen for the triamcinolone-treated group.The general effect of Calotropis latex on wound-healing was noted. Likewise it's similarity to that of triamcinolone, an anti-keloidal

  13. Strategic management of keloid disease in ethnic skin: a structured approach supported by the emerging literature.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, S; Bayat, A

    2013-10-01

    Keloid disease (KD) is a common, benign, dermal fibroproliferative growth of unknown aetiology. Lesions tend to grow over time; they often recur following therapy and do not regress spontaneously. KD causes considerable discomfort due to pain, pruritus and inflammation, and a significant psychosocial impact with reduced quality of life. It is unique to humans and occurrence is higher in individuals with dark, pigmented, ethnic skin. There is a strong familial heritability, with a high ethnic predisposition in individuals of African, Asian and Hispanic descent. High recurrence rates and unknown resolution rates present a major problem for both the patient and clinician. Many treatment modalities exist; however, there is no single advocated therapy. Therefore, the aim of this review was to explore the most current literature regarding the range of treatment options for KD and to offer a structured approach in the management of KD, based on evidence and experience, to aid clinicians in their current practice. A focused history involving careful evaluation of the patient's symptoms, signs, quality of life and psychosocial well-being should direct targeted therapy, complemented with regular follow-up and re-evaluation. Many treatment modalities, such as intralesional steroid injection, silicone gel application, cryotherapy, lasers, 5-fluorouracil and, relatively recently, photodynamic therapy, are currently being used in clinical practice for the management of KD. Combination therapies have also been shown to be beneficial. However, there is a lack of robust, randomized, level-one, evidence-controlled trials evaluating these treatment options. Management of KD in ethnic pigmented skin remains a clinical challenge. Thus, a strategic approach with structured assessment, targeted therapy and focus on prevention of recurrence is highly recommended. Quality evidence is essential in order to tailor treatment effectively for the ethnic patient presenting with KD. © 2013 The

  14. Adiponectin Is Involved in Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Induced Proliferation, Migration and Overproduction of the Extracellular Matrix in Keloid Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Limin; Li, Jun; Liu, Han; Jian, Xiaoqing; Zou, Qianlei; Zhao, Qing; Le, Qu; Chen, Hongdou; Gao, Xinghua; He, Chundi

    2017-05-12

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, exerts pleiotropic biological effects on metabolism, inflammation, vascular homeostasis, apoptosis and immunity. Recently, adiponectin has been suggested to attenuate the progression of human dermal fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is induced in keloids and is thought to be participated in the formation of keloid fibrosis. However, the roles played by adiponectin in keloids remain unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of adiponectin on CTGF-induced cell proliferation, migration and the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and their associated intracellular signalling pathways in keloid fibroblasts (KFs). We also explored possible mechanisms of keloid pathogenesis. Primary fibroblast cultures were established from foreskin biopsies and skin biopsies from patients with keloids. The expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (adipoRs) was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and immunohistochemical analysis. Next, KFs and normal dermal fibroblasts (NFs) were treated with CTGF in the presence or absence of adiponectin. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and the Transwell assay were used to examine cell proliferation and migration. The level of the collagen I, fibronectin (FN) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNAs and proteins were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The effects of RNA interference (RNAi) targeting the adipoR genes were detected. Phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase (PI3K-Akt) were examined by western blotting to further investigate the signalling pathways. Furthermore, inhibitors of signal transduction pathways were investigated. The expression levels of adiponectin and adipoRs were significantly decreased in keloids compared with those

  15. Comparison of single intra operative versus an intra operative and two post operative injections of the triamcinolone after wedge excision of keloids of helix.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Muhammad Mustehsan; Ahmad, Hazqeel; Yousaf, Nadeem; Khan, Farid Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    To compare single intra-operative versus an intra-operative and two post-operative injections of triamcinolone after wedge excision of keloids of helix. The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from January, 2011, to March, 2014, and comprised female patients over 14 years of age presenting with post-piercing keloids of helix not treated previously by any means and amenable to wedge excision. The subjects were divided into Group A who were given a single intra-operative injection of triamcinolone, and Group B who had an intra-operative and two post-operative injections of triamcinolone. Extra-lesional wedge excision of keloids was done, followed by infiltration of flaps and wound base with 0.5-1cc of triamcinolone 40mg/cc. Group B patients were given additional injections of triamcinolone at 1st and 2nd monthly visits. Both groups were observed for the evidence of hypertrophy or complications. Development of hypertrophy within one year of completion of treatment was considered recurrence. The 70 patients in the study were divided into two equal groups of 35(50%) each. The mean age of Group A was 22.34±4.95 years and that of Group B was 22.88±4.22 years (p=0.624). The Mean size of the keloids was 2.54±0.516 cm(2) in Group A and 2.61±0.569 cm(2) in Group B (p=0.613). Recurrence rate in Group A was 3(8.5%) and 2(5.7%) in Group B (p= 0.64). The complication rate was 3(8.5%) in Group A and 8(22.8%) in Group B (p=0.10). Single injection of triamcinolone was as effective as three in reducing recurrence with less complication rate.

  16. Prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids by the prophylactic use of topical silicone gel sheets following a surgical procedure in an office setting.

    PubMed

    Gold, M H; Foster, T D; Adair, M A; Burlison, K; Lewis, T

    2001-07-01

    Topical silicone gel sheeting has been used for more than 20 years to help reduce the size of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Its clinical efficacy and safety is well established. To determine whether topical silicone gel sheeting can be used to prevent hypertrophic scars and keloids from forming following dermatologic skin surgery. Patients undergoing skin surgery were stratified into two groups: those with no history of abnormal scarring (low-risk group) and those with a history of abnormal scarring (high-risk group). Following the procedure, patients within each group were randomized to receive either routine postoperative care or topical silicone gel sheeting (48 hours after surgery). Patients were followed for 6 months. In the low-risk group, there were no statistical differences between individuals using routine postoperative care or using topical silicone gel sheets. In the high-risk group, there was a statistical difference (39% versus 71%) between patients who did not develop abnormal scars and used topical silicone gel sheeting and patients who developed abnormal scars after routine postoperative treatment. Those individuals having a scar revision procedure also showed a statistical difference if topical silicone gel sheeting was used following surgery. Topical silicone gel sheeting, with a 20-year history of satisfaction in dermatology, now appears to be useful in the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids in patients undergoing scar revision.

  17. Can single use negative pressure wound therapy be an alternative method to manage keloid scarring? A preliminary report of a clinical and ultrasound/colour-power-doppler study.

    PubMed

    Fraccalvieri, Marco; Sarno, Antonino; Gasperini, Stefano; Zingarelli, Enrico; Fava, Raffaella; Salomone, Marco; Bruschi, Stefano

    2013-06-01

    Keloid scarring represents a pathological healing where primary healing phenomenon is deviated from normal. Pico is a single use negative pressure wound therapy system originally introduced to manage open or just closed wounds. Pico dressing is made of silicone, and distributes an 80 mmHg negative pressure across wound bed. Combination of silicon layer and continuous compression could be a valid method to manage keloid scarring. Since November 2011, three patients were enrolled and evaluated before negative pressure treatment, at end of treatment (1 month) and 2 months later, through Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and a scoring system for itching. Ultrasound (US) and colour-power-doppler (CPD) examination was performed to evaluate thickness and vascularisation of the scar. One patient was discharged from study after 1 week. In last two patients, VSS, VAS and itching significantly improved after 1 month therapy and the results were stable after 2 months without any therapy. At end of therapy, the 'appearance of palisade vessels' disappeared in both cases at CPD exam; US showed a thickness reduction (average 43·8%). We propose a well-tolerated, non invasive treatment to manage keloid scarring. Prospective studies are necessary to investigate whether these preliminary observations are confirmed. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  18. Combined effects of long-pulsed neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, diprospan and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of keloid scars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-E; Liu, Juan; Bin Jameel, Afzaal Ahmed; Valeska, Maya; Zhang, Jia-An; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing-Wu; Zhou, Hong; Luo, Dan; Zhou, Bing-Rong

    2017-06-01

    Keloids are benign tumors that originate from scar tissues, but they usually overgrow beyond the original wounds. In a three-month single-center clinical trial, 69 patients were randomly divided into three groups. Patients in group 1 were treated with intralesional injection of diprospan (2 mg betamethasone disodium phosphate and 5 mg betamethasone dipropionate in 1 ml) with one-month intervals for three months. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were injected with a combination of 0.5 ml 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 25 mg/ml) and diprospan as above for three months also. Prior to each injection, the keloids of patients in group 3 were additionally irradiated by a 1,064-nm neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser with a single pulse at an energy density of 90-100 J/cm 2 and a pulse width of 12 msec. Clinical responses were evaluated by patient self-assessment and overall assessment by an observer according to the clinical signs of erythema, pruritus and pliability. A total of sixty-two patients completed the tests of the present study. At 2 and 3 months, the patients in all treatment groups showed an acceptable improvement in nearly all measurements. At the end of the study, the erythema and toughness score was significantly reduced and itch reduction was significantly greater in the diprospan + 5-FU + Nd:YAG group when compared to those in the other groups (P<0.05 for all indexes). The acceptable responses (good to excellent improvements) reported by blinded observers were as follows: 12% in the diprospan group, 48% in the diprospan + 5-FU group and 69% in the diprospan + 5-FU + Nd:YAG group. All of the results indicated that the combination of diprospan + 5-FU + Nd:YAG was the most efficacious therapy for keloid scars.

  19. Combined effects of long-pulsed neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, diprospan and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of keloid scars

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-E; Liu, Juan; Bin Jameel, Afzaal Ahmed; Valeska, Maya; Zhang, Jia-An; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing-Wu; Zhou, Hong; Luo, Dan; Zhou, Bing-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Keloids are benign tumors that originate from scar tissues, but they usually overgrow beyond the original wounds. In a three-month single-center clinical trial, 69 patients were randomly divided into three groups. Patients in group 1 were treated with intralesional injection of diprospan (2 mg betamethasone disodium phosphate and 5 mg betamethasone dipropionate in 1 ml) with one-month intervals for three months. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were injected with a combination of 0.5 ml 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 25 mg/ml) and diprospan as above for three months also. Prior to each injection, the keloids of patients in group 3 were additionally irradiated by a 1,064-nm neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser with a single pulse at an energy density of 90–100 J/cm2 and a pulse width of 12 msec. Clinical responses were evaluated by patient self-assessment and overall assessment by an observer according to the clinical signs of erythema, pruritus and pliability. A total of sixty-two patients completed the tests of the present study. At 2 and 3 months, the patients in all treatment groups showed an acceptable improvement in nearly all measurements. At the end of the study, the erythema and toughness score was significantly reduced and itch reduction was significantly greater in the diprospan + 5-FU + Nd:YAG group when compared to those in the other groups (P<0.05 for all indexes). The acceptable responses (good to excellent improvements) reported by blinded observers were as follows: 12% in the diprospan group, 48% in the diprospan + 5-FU group and 69% in the diprospan + 5-FU + Nd:YAG group. All of the results indicated that the combination of diprospan + 5-FU + Nd:YAG was the most efficacious therapy for keloid scars. PMID:28588688

  20. High-Mobility Group Box 1 Mediates Fibroblast Activity via RAGE-MAPK and NF-κB Signaling in Keloid Scar Formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihee; Park, Jong-Chul; Lee, Mi Hee; Yang, Chae Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Lee, Won Jai

    2017-12-28

    Emerging studies have revealed the involvement of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in systemic fibrotic diseases, yet its role in the cutaneous scarring process has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that HMGB1 may promote fibroblast activity to cause abnormal cutaneous scarring. In vitro wound healing assay with normal and keloid fibroblasts demonstrated that HMGB1 administration promoted the migration of both fibroblasts with increased speed and a greater traveling distance. Treatment of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA) showed an opposing effect on both activities. To analyze the downstream mechanism, the protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, protein kinase B (AKT), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were measured by western blot analysis. HMGB1 increased the expression levels of ERK1/2, AKT, and NF-κB compared to the control, which was suppressed by GA. HMGB1 promoted both normal and keloid fibroblasts migration to a degree equivalent to that achieved with TGF-β. We concluded that HMGB1 activates fibroblasts via the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE)-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and NF-κB interaction signaling pathways. Further knowledge of the relationship of HMGB1 with skin fibrosis may lead to a promising clinical approach to manage abnormal scarring.

  1. Comparing Two Methods of Cryotherapy and Intense Pulsed Light with Triamcinolone Injection in the Treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Meymandi, Simin Shamsi; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Rezazadeh, Azadeh

    2016-10-01

    Keloid and hypertrophic scars are abnormal manifestations of wounds that occur following skin injuries in the form of local proliferation of fibroblasts and increased production of collagen. There are several ways to cure these scars; treatment must be selected based on the nature of the scars. In this clinical trial, two methods-cryotherapy and intense pulsed light (IPL)-are compared in the treatment of scars, and the results are presented in terms of improvement level, complications, and patient satisfaction. This clinical trial was conducted in southeastern Iran. The intervention group included scars that underwent the IPL method and the control group, which consisted of scars that were subjected to cryotherapy. In both methods, intralesional corticosteroid injection was administered. To select samples, the easy sampling method was used. To determine the expected outcomes, the criteria determined in the Vancouver scar scale were used. Data were analyzed using the Mix Model, chi-square test, and t test. In this study, 166 samples of keloid and hypertrophic scars were cured using two methods (Cryotherapy, 83; IPL, 83). The recovery rate was higher in the Cryotherapy group than in the IPL group ( p  > 0.05), and the incidence of complications was also higher in the Cryotherapy group (14.5% vs. 12%). Moreover, patients were more satisfied, although not significantly so, with the cryotherapy method ( p  = 0.09). Both methods were highly successful in curing scars; participants were totally satisfied with both methods.

  2. Evaluation of genistein ability to modulate CTGF mRNA/protein expression, genes expression of TGFβ isoforms and expression of selected genes regulating cell cycle in keloid fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jurzak, Magdalena; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Antończak, Paweł; Garncarczyk, Agnieszka; Kuśmierz, Dariusz; Latocha, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Keloids are characterized by overgrowth of connective tissue in the skin that arises as a consequence of abnormal wound healing. Normal wound healing is regulated by a complex set of interactions within a network of profibrotic and antifibrotic cytokines that regulate new extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. These proteins include transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) isoforms and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). TGFβ1 stimulates fibroblasts to synthesize and contract ECM and acts as a central mediator of profibrotic response. CTGF is induced by TGFβ1 and is considered a downstream mediator of TGFβ1action in fibroblasts. CTGF plays a crucial role in keloid pathogenesis by promoting prolonged collagen synthesis and deposition and as a consequence sustained fibrotic response. During keloids formation, besides imbalanced ECM synthesis and degradation, fibroblast proliferation and it's resistance to apoptosis is observed. Key genes that may play a role in keloid formation and growth involve: suppressor gene p53.,cyclin-depend- ent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21) and BCL2 family genes: antiapoptotic BCL-2 and proapoptotic BAX. Genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) exhibits multidirectional biological action. The concentration of genistein is relatively high in soybean. Genistein has been shown as effective antioxidant and chemopreventive agent. Genistein can bind to estrogen receptors (ERs) and modulate estrogen action due to its structure similarity to human estrogens. Genistein also inhibits transcription factors NFκB. Akt and AP-l signaling pathways, that are important for cytokines expression and cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate genistein as a potential inhibitor of CTGF and TGFβ1, β2 and β3 isoforms expression and a potential regulator of p53. CDKN1A(p21), BAX and BCL-2 expression in normal fibroblasts and fibroblasts derived from keloids cultured in vitro. Real time

  3. Efficacy of IPL device combined with intralesional corticosteroid injection for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars with regards to the recovery of skin barrier function: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Park, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun

    2015-10-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent and psychologically distressful dermatologic conditions. Various treatment modalities have been tried but without complete success by any one method. We evaluated the efficacy of a combination of intense pulsed light (IPL) device and intralesional corticosteroid injection for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars with respect to the recovery of skin barrier function. Totally 52 Korean patients were treated by the combined treatment at 4-8-week intervals. Using digital photographs, changes in scar appearance were assessed with modified Vancouver Scar Scale (MVSS), physicians' global assessment (PGA) and patient's satisfaction score. In 12 patients, the stratum corneum (SC) barrier function was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SC capacitance. Most scars demonstrated significant clinical improvement in MVSS, PGA and patient's satisfaction score after the combined therapy. A significant decrease of TEWL and elevation of SC capacitance were also documented after the treatment. The combination therapy (IPL + corticosteroid injection) not only improves the appearance of keloids and hypertrophic scars but also increases the recovery level of skin hydration status in terms of the skin barrier function.

  4. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Board Certification Grand Rounds Resident Awards AOCD Residency Leadership Award A.P. Ulbrich Resident Research Award Daniel Koprince Award Resident Research Paper Award Sponsors Corporate Members Exhibitors Information for Corporate ...

  5. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest Policy Meeting Minutes Archive History Mission Statement Membership AOCD Membership Life Membership Membership Applications and Renewals Membership Benefits Fellows ...

  6. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the skin both skin cells and connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) begin multiplying to repair the damage. A scar is made up of 'connective tissue', gristle-like fibers deposited in the skin by ...

  7. A distinct X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, large optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones results from a filamin A (FLNA) mutation.

    PubMed

    Lah, Melissa; Niranjan, Tejasvi; Srikanth, Sujata; Holloway, Lynda; Schwartz, Charles E; Wang, Tao; Weaver, David D

    2016-04-01

    We further evaluated a previously reported family with an apparently undescribed X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, an increased optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones to elucidate the genetic cause. To do this, we obtained medical histories and performed physical examination on 14 individuals in the family, five of whom are affected males and three are obligate carrier females. Linkage analysis was performed on all but one individual and chromosome X-exome sequencing was done on two affected males. The analysis localized the putative gene to Xq27-qter and chromosome X-exome sequencing revealed a mutation in exon 28 (c.4726G>A) of the filamin A (FLNA) gene, predicting that a conserved glycine had been replaced by arginine at amino acid 1576 (p.G1576R). Segregation analysis demonstrated that all known carrier females tested were heterozygous (G/A), all affected males were hemizygous for the mutation (A allele) and all normal males were hemizygous for the normal G allele. The data and the bioinformatic analysis indicate that the G1576R mutation in the FLNA gene is very likely pathogenic in this family. The syndrome affecting the family shares phenotypic overlap with other syndromes caused by FLNA mutations, but appears to be a distinct phenotype, likely representing a unique genetic syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. NdYag Laser for Acne Keloidalis Nuchae

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-27

    Acne Keloidalis Nuchae; NdYag Laser; AKN; Acne Keloidalis; AK; Dermatitis Papillaris Capillitii; Folliculitis Keloidalis Nuchae; Sycosis Nuchae; Acne Keloid; Keloidal Folliculitis; Lichen Keloidalis Nuchae; Folliculitis Nuchae Scleroticans; Sycosis Framboesiformis

  9. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Leptin Expression in Wound Healing: A Clue to Exuberant Scar Formation.

    PubMed

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola A; Samaka, Rehab M; Tawfik, Amira S

    2016-04-01

    Leptin has been recognized as an important factor for promoting normal cutaneous wound healing. The aim of this work was to explore leptin expression in keloid and hypertrophic scars (HS) compared with surgical scars and normal skin. The relationship of this expression with clinicopathologic parameters of studied cases was also evaluated. Using immunohistochemical techniques, leptin was analyzed in skin biopsies of 60 nonobese subjects without metabolic syndrome who presented with keloids (20), HS (20), and surgical scars (20). Twenty normal skin samples, from age-matched, sex-matched, and body mass index-matched subjects, were enrolled as a control group. Leptin showed positive immunoreactivity in epidermis in all cases of surgical scars and keloids and in 75% of HS cases. Dermal expression in fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and endothelial cells was positive in all cases of surgical scars and keloids and in 70% of HS cases. Leptin was overexpressed in keloids and HS compared with normal skin in epidermis (P<0.001 for both) and dermis (P<0.001 for both) and to surgical scars both in epidermis (P=0.0006, P=0.01, respectively) and dermis (P=0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). Higher leptin H score was significantly associated with older age (P=0.02) and positive family history (P=0.002) in keloid cases and with axial site in keloid and HS cases (P=0.001, P=0.02, respectively). Significant positive correlation was noted between epidermal and dermal leptin H scores in keloids (r=+0.37, P=0.04) and HS (r=+0.39, P=0.02). This may be due to epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in scar pathogenesis. In conclusion, in situ leptin overexpression may increase the possibility of keloid and HS occurrence through altered cytokine production and prolonged healing phases with excessive deposition and delayed collagen degradation. This may open an avenue for research for new therapeutic modalities based on its inhibition.

  10. Folliculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the groin area. This condition may leave dark raised scars (keloids). Pityrosporum (pit-ih-ROS-puh- ... furunculosis) Permanent skin damage, such as scarring or dark spots Destruction of hair follicles and permanent hair ...

  11. Decoy Wnt receptor (sLRP6E1E2)-expressing adenovirus induces anti-fibrotic effect via inhibition of Wnt and TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jai; Lee, Jung-Sun; Ahn, Hyo Min; Na, Youjin; Yang, Chae Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Hong, JinWoo; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2017-11-08

    Aberrant activation of the canonical Wingless type (Wnt) signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of hypertrophic scars and keloids, and this aberrant activation of Wnt pathway can be a potential target for the development of novel anti-fibrotic agents. In this study, we evaluated the anti-fibrotic potential of a soluble Wnt decoy receptor (sLRP6E1E2)-expressing non-replicating adenovirus (Ad; dE1-k35/sLRP6E1E2) on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), keloid fibroblasts (KFs), and keloid tissue explants. Higher Wnt3a and β-catenin expression was observed in the keloid region compared to the adjacent normal tissues. The activity of β-catenin and mRNA expression of type-I and -III collagen were significantly decreased following treatment with dE1-k35/sLRP6E1E2 in HDFs and KFs. The expression of LRP6, β-catenin, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, Smad 2/3 complex, and TGF-β1 were decreased in Wnt3a- or TGF-β1-activated HDFs, following administration of dE1-k35/sLRP6E1E2. Moreover, dE1-k35/sLRP6E1E2 markedly inhibited nuclear translocation of both β-catenin and Smad 2/3 complex. The expression levels of type-I and -III collagen, fibronectin, and elastin were also significantly reduced in keloid tissue explants after treatment with dE1-k35/sLRP6E1E2. These results indicate that Wnt decoy receptor-expressing Ad can degrade extracellular matrix in HDFs, KFs, and primary keloid tissue explants, and thus it may be beneficial for treatment of keloids.

  12. Mast cells and angiogenesis in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Mohamed A; Seliet, Iman A; Ehsan, Nermin A; Megahed, Mohamed A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the role of mast cells and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a mediator of angiogenesis to promote wound healing in surgical and pathological scars. The study was carried out on 40 patients who presented with active scar lesions. They were subdivided into 4 groups. They included granulation tissue (10 cases), surgical scar (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (10 cases), and keloid scar (10 cases). Also 10 healthy volunteers of the same age and sex were selected as a control group. Skin biopsies were taken from the patients and the control group. Skin biopsies from clinically assessed studied groups were processed for routine histology and embedded in paraffin. Four sections were prepared from each paraffin block. The first section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological evaluation. The second and third sections were processed for immunostaining of mast cells that contain chymase (MCCs) and mast cells that contain tryptase (MCTs). The fourth section was processed for immunostaining of VEGF. MCCs exhibited mild expression in normal tissue, granulation tissue, and surgical, hypertrophic and keloid scars. MCTs exhibited mild expression in normal tissue, granulation tissue and keloid, whereas moderate expression was exhibited in hypertrophic and surgical scars. VEGF expression was absent in normal tissue, mild in keloid, surgical and hypertrophic scars, and moderate in keloids and granulation tissue. Mast cell expression variation among different scar types signals the pathological evolution of the lesion, and hence may guide the need for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Biological agents for controlling excessive scarring.

    PubMed

    Berman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The potential of various biological agents to reduce or prevent excessive scar formation has now been evaluated in numerous in-vitro studies, experimental animal models and preliminary clinical trials, in some cases with particularly promising results. Perhaps prominent among this group of biological agents, and, to some degree, possibly representing marketed compounds already being used 'off label' to manage excessive scarring, are the tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist etanercept, and immune-response modifiers such as IFNalpha2b and imiquimod. Additional assessment of these novel agents is now justified with a view to reducing or preventing hypertrophic scars, keloid scars and the recurrence of post-excision keloid lesions.

  14. NEW MOLECULAR MEDICINE-BASED SCAR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent disabling conditions with still suboptimal treatments. Basic science and molecular-based medicine research has contributed to unravel new bench-to-bedside scar therapies, and to dissect the complex signaling pathways involved. Peptides such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, with SMADs, Ski, SnoN, Fussels, endoglin, DS-Sily, Cav-1p, AZX100, thymosin-β4 and other related molecules may emerge as targets to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. The aim of this review is to describe the basic complexity of these new molecular scar management strategies, and point out new fibrosis research lines. PMID:24438742

  15. Management of Unilateral Masseter Hypertrophy and Hypertrophic Scar—A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Naresh; Malaviya, Rajanikanth K.; Gupta, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Masseter muscle hypertrophy is a rare condition of idiopathic cause. It clinically presents as an enlargement of one or both masseter muscles. Most patients complain of facial asymmetry; however, symptoms such as trismus, protrusion, and bruxism may also occur. Several treatment options reported for masseter hypertrophy are present, which range from simple pharmacotherapy to more invasive surgical reduction. Keloid scar with unilateral masseter hypertrophy is a rarely seen in clinical practice. This paper reports a case of unilateral masseter hypertrophy with keloid scar in the angle of the mandible for which surgical treatment was rendered to the patient by using a single approach. PMID:22844620

  16. Lobomycosis: a therapeutic challenge*

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Marcelo Grossi; Cirilo, Nathalie Silva; dos Santos, Soraya Neves Marques Barbosa; Aguilar, Claudemir Roberto; Guedes, Antonio Carlos Martins

    2018-01-01

    Lobomycosis or lacaziosis is a chronic granulomatous fungal infection caused by Lacazia loboi. Most cases are restricted to tropical regions. Transmission is believed to occur through traumatic inoculation in the skin, mainly in exposed areas. It is characterized by keloid-like nodules. There are only a few hundred cases reported. The differential diagnoses include many skin conditions, and treatment is difficult. The reported case, initially diagnosed as keloid, proved to be refractory to surgical treatment alone. It was subsequently approached with extensive surgery, cryotherapy every three months and a combination of itraconazole and clofazimine for two years. No signs of clinical and histopathological activity were detected during follow-up. PMID:29723380

  17. [Physical therapy for scars].

    PubMed

    Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.

  18. Cutaneous applications of lasers.

    PubMed

    Ries, W R; Speyer, M T

    1996-12-01

    The cutaneous application of lasers today includes more selective and less damaging devices. Carbon dioxide, neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet, potassium titanyl phosphate, argon, and yellow lasers are most prevalent in treating cutaneous lesions. Specific techniques in skin resurfacing, keloid excision, rhinophyma, actinic cheilitis ablation, and excision of superficial cutaneous tumors are discussed. Proper management of cutaneous vascular lesions is also presented.

  19. Extracellular Matrix Reorganization During Wound Healing and Its Impact on Abnormal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: When a cutaneous injury occurs, the wound heals via a dynamic series of physiological events, including coagulation, granulation tissue formation, re-epithelialization, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The final stage can take many months, yet the new ECM forms a scar that never achieves the flexibility or strength of the original tissue. In certain circumstances, the normal scar is replaced by pathological fibrotic tissue, which results in hypertrophic or keloid scars. These scars cause significant morbidity through physical dysfunction and psychological stress. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: The cutaneous ECM comprises a complex assortment of proteins that was traditionally thought to simply provide structural integrity and scaffolding characteristics. However, recent findings show that the ECM has multiple functions, including, storage and delivery of growth factors and cytokines, tissue repair and various physiological functions. Abnormal ECM reconstruction during wound healing contributes to the formation of hypertrophic and keloid scars. Whereas adult wounds heal with scarring, the developing foetus has the ability to heal wounds in a scarless fashion by regenerating skin and restoring the normal ECM architecture, strength, and function. Recent studies show that the lack of inflammation in fetal wounds contributes to this perfect healing. Future Directions: Better understanding of the exact roles of ECM components in scarring will allow us to produce therapeutic agents to prevent hypertrophic and keloid scars. This review will focus on the components of the ECM and their role in both physiological and pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) cutaneous scar formation. PMID:25785236

  20. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117

  1. Correction of the lobule.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Ralf

    2004-11-01

    Many techniques have been described for the correction of protruding ears. Most of them concentrate on correcting the form and position of auricular cartilage. The lobule is a soft tissue structure. Skin resections of its posterior surface have been propagated for the correction of its position; however, these cause tension on the wound and might increase the already relatively high risk for the development of keloids. We have modified the technique for correcting the protruding lobule for its exact positioning and minimizing the risk for relapse and keloids. Starting from the incision performed for the anthelix plasty, a subcutaneous pocket is prepared between the anterior and posterior sides of the lobule. Afterwards, the subcutaneous layer of the postlobular skin is adjusted and fixed to the cartilage of the conchal cavum with a special mattress suture. This technique is a refinement of otoplasty for bat ears. It is indicated for precise modification of form and position of protruding lobules.

  2. [Scar prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Rødgaard, Jes Christian

    2015-10-12

    Scarring is an expected result of trauma to the skin. Scars are a heterogenic group varying from small white non elevated scars to hypertrophic scars and keloids. Many different algorithms for scar prophylaxis and treatment have been presented in the literature. We discuss different types of scar formation and recently published evidence-based guidelines in regards to prophylaxis and treatment of scars written by 24 experts on scar management.

  3. The dermatology life quality index as a means to assess life quality in patients with different scar types.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, M; Poetschke, J; Schwaiger, H; Epple, A; Ruzicka, T; Gauglitz, G G

    2015-11-01

    Measuring quality of life through questionnaires is a common method to evaluate the impact of different afflictions on the patient's well-being, especially in the field of dermatology where appearance changing afflictions are common. A variety of questionnaires has been used to distinguish different skin conditions like psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and scars. Using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), we investigated different scar types regarding their impact on quality of life. We assessed the quality of life in 130 patients presenting to our outpatient scar clinic for the first time using the DLQI. Scars were analysed according to their clinical appearance (physiological scars, keloids, hypertrophic scars, atrophic scars, self-harm scars). Physiological scars were established as a baseline for further comparison between groups. Patients in the physiological scar group scored a mean DLQI score of 2.07 ± 3.56, patients in the keloid-, hypertrophic scar-, atrophic scar- and self-harm scar group scored values of 6.06 ± 4.00, 2.53 ± 2.48, 7.26 ± 6.72 and 12.00 ± 3.85 respectively. When compared to the baseline group the difference in the overall score for keloids was +3.99 (P < 0.001), hypertrophic scars scored +0.45 (ns), atrophic scars +5.19 (P < 0.01) and self-harm scars +9.93 (P < 0.001). Using the DLQI, we could demonstrate that different subsets of pathological scars do affect patients in a different magnitude. The DLQI provides a promising adjunct for quantifying the quality of life in patients suffering from keloids, atrophic- and self-harm scars and may constitute an interesting additional tool for monitoring the progress of scar treatments. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Hyperplastic corneal pannus: an immunohistochemical analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Stacy, Rebecca C; Mendoza, Pia R; Chodosh, James

    2014-01-01

    An exuberant corneal pannus usually develops in adults with a history of surgery or trauma in the anterior central stroma and appears as a glistening, vascularized, moderately elevated, well circumscribed white nodule. We describe a 78-year-old woman with such a pannus, which in the past has typically been referred to as keloidal or hypertrophic. The involved eye had only light perception, and she underwent a penetrating keratoplasty that improved her vision to 20/100. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of a the specimen disclosed a reactive spindle cell stromal proliferation of myofibroblasts that were smooth muscle actin positive with a low Ki67 proliferation index. Desmin, caldesmon, and calponin were negative, in keeping with the incomplete myofilamentary differentiation of a myofibroblast. There was a generous admixture of CD68/163-positive histiocytes and dispersed C3/5-positive T-lymphocytes. An absence of CD138- and IgG4-positive plasma cells ruled out an IgG4-related disease. For a lesion to be keloidal, the collagen must have a thick hyaline character, sharp edges, and a sparsity of intervening cells and vessels. A hypertrophic pannus would be composed of large swollen cells not necessarily increased in number. We therefore recommend adoption of the term hyperplastic for lesions like that described here because of the obvious increase in cellularity from proliferating myofibroblasts and the lack of true keloidal collagen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Chemokines in Fibrotic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Main dermal forms of fibroproliferative disorders are hypertrophic scars (HTS) and keloids. They often occur after cutaneous wound healing after skin injury, or keloids even form spontaneously in the absence of any known injury. HTS and keloids are different in clinical performance, morphology, and histology, but they all lead to physical and psychological problems for survivors. Recent Advances: Although the mechanism of wound healing at cellular and tissue levels has been well described, the molecular pathways involved in wound healing, especially fibrotic healing, is incompletely understood. Critical Issues: Abnormal scars not only lead to increased health-care costs but also cause significant psychological problems for survivors. A plethora of therapeutic strategies have been used to prevent or attenuate excessive scar formation; however, most therapeutic approaches remain clinically unsatisfactory. Future Directions: Effective care depends on an improved understanding of the mechanisms that cause abnormal scars in patients. A thorough understanding of the roles of chemokines in cutaneous wound healing and abnormal scar formation will help provide more effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for dermal fibrosis as well as for other proliferative disorders. PMID:26543681

  6. Evidence-Based Scar Management: How to Improve Results with Technique and Technology.

    PubMed

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Harrison, Bridget; Janis, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Scars represent the visible sequelae of trauma, injury, burn, or surgery. They may induce distress in the patient because of their aesthetically unpleasant appearance, especially if they are excessively raised, depressed, wide, or erythematous. They may also cause the patient symptoms of pain, tightness, and pruritus. Numerous products are marketed for scar prevention or improvement, but their efficacy is unclear. A literature review of high-level studies analyzing methods to prevent or improve hypertrophic scars, keloids, and striae distensae was performed. The evidence from these articles was analyzed to generate recommendations. Each intervention's effectiveness at preventing or reducing scars was rated as none, low, or high, depending on the strength of the evidence for that intervention. For the prevention of hypertrophic scars, silicone, tension reduction, and wound edge eversion seem to have high efficacy, whereas onion extract, pulsed-dye laser, pressure garments, and scar massage have low efficacy. For the treatment of existing hypertrophic scars, silicone, pulsed-dye laser, CO2 laser, corticosteroids, 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin, and scar massage have high efficacy, whereas onion extract and fat grafting seem to have low efficacy. For keloid scars, effective adjuncts to excision include corticosteroids, mitomycin C, bleomycin, and radiation therapy. No intervention seems to have significant efficacy in the prevention or treatment of striae distensae. Although scars can never be completely eliminated in an adult, this article presents the most commonly used, evidence-based methods to improve the quality and symptoms of hypertrophic scars, as well as keloid scars and striae distensae.

  7. [Collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone: a new therapeutic option for treatment of sequelae after radical mastectomy in women with breast cancer. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Eng, Rafael; Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro; de la Rosa-Pérez, Raúl; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Zamudio-Huerta, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 30% of women who undergo mastectomy without reconstructive treatment due to breast cancer present sequelae. These include paresthesias, keloid healing, hypoesthesia, lymphedema and limitation of the function of the ipsilateral upper extremity. We undertook this study to present the results using collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone (Clg- Pvp) as treatment for posmastectomy sequelae in women with breast cancer. We conducted a unicentric, longitudinal and prospective clinical trial between August 1, 2007 and July 31, 2008. Included variables were age, lymphedema, limitation of the function of the ipsilateral upper extremity, collapse of the wound, keloid healing, paresthesias, and appearance of the surgical area. The appearance of the surgical area (aesthetic aspect) was evaluated before and 6 months after treatment was initiated. Clg-Pvp was administered weekly for a 6-month period. Seven women were included with a median age of 49 years (range: 40-72 years). One patient (14.28%) presented lymphedema, two patients (28.57%) presented collapse of the wound, two patients (28.57%) had keloid healing, three patients (42.85%) experienced paresthesias, five patients (71.4%) reported pain, and five patients (71.4%) reported limitation of the function of the ipsilateral upper extremity. At the completion of the treatment, aesthetic improvement was statistically significant (p = 0.0020, Mann-Whitney U test). Clinical and aesthetic results are good after application of Clg-Pvp for treating sequelae in women with breast cancer who underwent mastectomy without reconstructive surgery.

  8. Acne keloidalis nuchae: prevalence, impact, and management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbiyi, Adebola

    2016-01-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) also known as folliculitis keloidalis nuchae (FKN) is a chronic form of scarring folliculitis seen mostly in men of African descent. The term AKN is commonly used even though the condition is not a keloid, and the affected individuals do not have a tendency to develop keloids in other areas of the body. It is seen in post pubertal men and is rare after the age of 55 years. A few cases have been reported in females. which has been classified as a primary cicatricial alopecia since the exact cause of acne keloidalis (AK) remains unknown. However, a few inciting agents have been suggested which include androgens, inflammation, infection, trauma, genetics, and ingrowing hairs. AK shares some similar features with other forms of cicatricial alopecia and may occur together. Papules, pustules, and sometimes tumorous masses in the nuchal or occipital regions of the scalp hence the name “bumps” evolved in the environment. Despite its common occurrence, only a few seek help in hospital when lesions start to unsightly affect the individual’s quality of life. The presences of the keloidal lesions are more stressful compared to the resulting alopecia. Various attempts to reduce the bumps with corrosives, acids, and car engine oils lead to larger lesions or unsightly scars. Active lesions produce bleeding during haircuts. This is worrisome as a couple of individuals with active AK share shaving instruments at the barber shop and are at risk of acquiring or transmitting blood-borne infections. There is an urgent need to encourage safe shaving habits and treatment of lesions at onset so as to prevent unsightly lesions. PMID:28008278

  9. Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

    2012-03-01

    Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 μm) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

  10. Primary and secondary management of pediatric soft tissue injuries.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Nicholas J V

    2012-08-01

    Injury is the most common cause of death in pediatric patients, with a large proportion related to head injury. The craniofacial region in children develops rapidly and at an early age, making the area more prominent compared with the remainder of the body, increasing the likelihood of injury. This article reviews the primary management of pediatric soft tissue injuries, including assessment, cleansing, surgical technique, anesthesia, and considerations for special wounds. The secondary management of pediatric facial injury is also discussed, including scar revision, management of scar hypertrophy/keloids, and staged surgical correction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Histological variants of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Wayne; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2008-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the broad clinicopathologic spectrum of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions. Variants discussed include: usual KS lesions associated with disease progression (i.e. patch, plaque and nodular stage); morphologic subtypes alluded to in the older literature such as anaplastic and telangiectatic KS, as well as several lymphedematous variants; and numerous recently described variants including hyperkeratotic, keloidal, micronodular, pyogenic granuloma-like, ecchymotic, and intravascular KS. Involuting lesions as a result of treatment related regression are also presented. PMID:18655700

  12. [Evaluation of Cepan Cream after 15 years of treatment of burn scars].

    PubMed

    Stozkowska, Wiesława

    2002-01-01

    Cepan Cream is used for the topical treatment of scars and keloids resulting from burns, post-operative scars, and contractures. Cepan Cream makes scars more elastic, softer and paler. Plant extracts, heparin and allantoin in Cepan act on the biochemical processes in the developing connective tissue, preventing the formation of hyperplastic scars. These active ingredients enhance swelling, softening and loosening of connective tissue. It exerts softening and smoothing action on indurated and hyperplastic scar tissue, improving collagen structure. It promotes tissue regeneration and reduces exuberant granulation. Cepan is well tolerated.

  13. Long term post PrePex male circumcision outcomes in an urban population in Uganda: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Galukande, M; Nakaggwa, F; Busisa, E; Sekavuga Bbaale, D; Nagaddya, T; Coutinho, A

    2017-10-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the long term adverse events profile at least a year after safe male circumcision. A cohort study, investigating patients who had undergone a non surgical circumcision procedure called Prepex. The study variables included scar appearance and sexual experiences. Clients were contacted for a phone interview and data were collected using a questionnaire, for some, a physical examination was done. We obtained ethical committee approval. Data from 304 out of a possible 625 men were analyzed, the rest was lost to follow up. The follow up period was 12-24 months. The mean age was 28 years. Up to 97% were satisfied with the penile scar appearance and the absence of pain. There was no keloids formation, though one developed a hypertrophic scar. Participants reported improved sexual intercourse enjoyment (post circumcision). Up to 17% resumed sexual intercourse before the 6-week long mandatory abstinence period. The average self-reported healing time was 4.7 weeks. There was a high level of scar appearance satisfaction, there was no keloids formation. There was a perceived improvement of sexual enjoyment after circumcision. Trial registration ClinicalTrials. Gov Identifier: NCT02245126 (Date of registration: September 19, 2014).

  14. Dichloro-tetrafluoro-ethane as a Freezing Agent

    PubMed Central

    Luikart, Ralph; Ayres, Samuel; Wilson, J. Walter

    1956-01-01

    Surgical skin planing is, in the hands of an experienced operator, a safe and highly effective procedure for treating a number of cutaneous defects, most notably pitted acne scars. The operation is facilitated by the use of a new instrument (jet-spray handpiece) which allows the operator to freeze the skin and plane it almost simultaneously, and by a new freezing agent, dichlorotetrafluoro-ethane, which adds to the safety by eliminating the old hazards of inflammability, explosion, and the toxic inhalation of ethyl chloride. The ability to sharply differentiate between keloid and hypertrophic scar is fundamental to surgical skin planing. A hypertrophic scar results from the removal or destruction of the cutaneous appendages (hair follicles, oil and sweat glands and ducts); whereas a keloid is an idiosyncratic response without regard to damage of the appendages. Properly performed surgical planing does not entirely remove these appendages and therefore healing occurs without scarring. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13304667

  15. Scar modification. Techniques for revision and camouflage.

    PubMed

    Horswell, B B

    1998-09-01

    The surgery and management of scars is a protracted and staged process that includes preparation of the skin through hygienic measures, scar softening (if indicated) with steroids, massage and pressure dressings, skilled execution of the surgical plan, and thorough postoperative wound care. This process generally covers a 1-year period for the various stages mentioned. Many general host and local skin factors will directly affect the final revision result. The two most important indirect factors that the surgeon must endeavor to control are optimal patient preparation and cutaneous health, and patient compliance with, and an ability to carry out, those wound care measures that the surgeon prescribes. Keloid and burn contracture scars represent two entities that are complicated and challenging to treat owing to their abnormal morphophysiologic features. Management of these scars is prolonged, and the patient must understand that the ultimate result will usually be a compromise. New grafting techniques, such as cultured autodermal grafts, offer improved initial management of burn wounds that may subsequently optimize scar revision in these patients. Keloids, and to a lesser extent hypertrophic scars, require steroid injections, pressure treatment, careful surgery, and protracted wound support and pressure treatment (exceeding 6 months) after surgery.

  16. The tension biology of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Harn, Hans I-Chen; Ogawa, Rei; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Hughes, Michael W; Tang, Ming-Jer; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2017-11-04

    Following skin wounding, the healing outcome can be: regeneration, repair with normal scar tissue, repair with hypertrophic scar tissue or the formation of keloids. The role of chemical factors in wound healing has been extensively explored, and while there is evidence suggesting the role of mechanical forces, its influence is much less well defined. Here, we provide a brief review on the recent progress of the role of mechanical force in skin wound healing by comparing laboratory mice, African spiny mice, fetal wound healing and adult scar keloid formation. A comparison across different species may provide insight into key regulators. Interestingly, some findings suggest tension can induce an immune response, and this provides a new link between mechanical and chemical forces. Clinically, manipulating skin tension has been demonstrated to be effective for scar prevention and treatment, but not for tissue regeneration. Utilising this knowledge, specialists may modulate regulatory factors and develop therapeutic strategies to reduce scar formation and promote regeneration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Use of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in radiation therapy (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, F.H.

    1973-01-01

    The present clinical examinstion deals with the possible use of DMSO in rsdiation therapy. DMSO was applied to 30 patients, 8 times in radiogenic subcutaneous fibroses, 13 times in contracted scars and keloids, 3 times in cases of induratio penis plastica, and 6 times as vehicle substsnce for tamor cell sensitization with vitamin A in the radiation therapy of skin metastases sfter mamma carcinoma. The results confirm the value of a DMSO treatment of subcutaneous fibroses following highly dosed percutaneous radiation therapy, especially in cases with a radiological ulcer. In keloids of scars a clear effect could be achieved withoutmore » exceptions also in those csses showing only insufficient regression tendency to a preceded rsdiation therapy. The results of irradiation in cases with I.p.p., however, did not show any convincing improvement by a DMSO treatment. A new field of application is opened for the indiation therapy of recurrences and metastases in the area of the skin by sensitization of these cutaneous tumor infiltrates by vitamin A in connection with DMSO as vehicle substance so that a curative regression can be locally obtained by relatively low radiation doses. (auth)« less

  18. Centella asiatica in cosmetology.

    PubMed

    Bylka, Wiesława; Znajdek-Awiżeń, Paulina; Studzińska-Sroka, Elżbieta; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2013-02-01

    Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae.

  19. Centella asiatica in cosmetology

    PubMed Central

    Znajdek-Awiżeń, Paulina; Studzińska-Sroka, Elżbieta; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae. PMID:24278045

  20. Silicone gel sheet dressing for sclerodermatous type chronic graftversus- host-disease (cGVHD).

    PubMed

    Dinçer, Süleyman L; Kargı, Eksal; Dinçer, Sibel; Fitoz, Filiz; Akan, Hamdi

    2004-06-05

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by endothelial cell injury, fibroblast activation and immunological aberrations. Generalized form of the disease involves skin and other organs. Progressive sclerodermatous type cGVHD is the difficult type to treat. Immunosuppressors are the most commonly used treatment regimens. Topical silicone gel sheet (SGS) were first used in the treatment of burn wound and following their initial successes have begun to be used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. To best of our knowledge, this is the first patient with extensive sclerodermatous type cGVHD in whom SGS was applied on to the skin of the antecubital region. After a six months application of SGS, the skin of this region was remarkably soft and thick compared to other regions of the arm. The result indicate that SGS may be an useful tool for the treatment of extensive sclerodermatous type cGVHD.

  1. Evolution of silicone therapy and mechanism of action in scar management.

    PubMed

    Mustoe, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Silicone-based products are widely used in the management of hypertrophic scarring and keloids. This review discusses the range of products available and the clinical evidence of their efficacy in preventing excessive scarring and improving established scars. Silicone gel sheeting has been used successfully for more than 20 years in scar management. A new formulation of silicone gel applied from a tube forms a thin flexible sheet over the newly epithelialized wound or more mature scar. Results from clinical trials and clinical experience suggest that silicone gel is equivalent in efficacy to traditional silicone gel sheeting but easier to use. The mechanism of action of silicone therapy has not been completely determined but is likely to involve occlusion and hydration of the stratum corneum with subsequent cytokine-mediated signaling from keratinocytes to dermal fibroblasts.

  2. Snake oil for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bigby, M

    1998-12-01

    Dermatology has been associated with quackery for at least a century. The dictionary defines a quack as "a pretender to medical knowledge or skill; ignorantly or falsely pretending to cure." The term quack is derived from quacksalver, or one who quacks like a duck in promoting his salves. Quacksalvers hacked many potions, including snake oil, with claims that it cured everything from dermatitis to rheumatism. With the current promulgation of skin "products" and their promotion and even sale by dermatologists, and the use of treatments of no proven efficacy, this association between dermatology and quackery is set to continue well into the 21st century. The list of offending treatments includes silicone gel sheets and onion extract cream (Mederma) for keloids, alpha-hydroxy acid creams and peels, topical ascorbic acid and phytonadione, "laser resurfacing," and cimetidine for warts, to name only a few.

  3. Common threads in cardiac fibrosis, infarct scar formation, and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Czubryt, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    Wound healing, cardiac fibrosis, and infarct scar development, while possessing distinct features, share a number of key functional similarities, including extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that are common to these processes may suggest novel therapeutic approaches for pathologic situations such as fibrosis, or defective wound healing such as hypertrophic scarring or keloid formation. This manuscript will briefly review the major steps of wound healing, and will contrast this process with how cardiac infarct scar formation or interstitial fibrosis occurs. The feasibility of targeting common pro-fibrotic growth factor signaling pathways will be discussed. Finally, the potential exploitation of novel regulators of wound healing and fibrosis (ski and scleraxis), will be examined.

  4. Garlic in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far. PMID:25386259

  5. Fillers in the skin of color population.

    PubMed

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C

    2011-05-01

    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  6. Traditional surgeons in sub-Saharan Africa: images from south Sudan.

    PubMed

    Miles, Steven H; Ololo, Henry

    2003-08-01

    Itinerant traditional surgeons work throughout sub-Saharan Africa and perform many procedures including: tooth extraction, abortion, injections, incising and draining abscesses, uvulectomy, circumcision, inguinal hernia surgery, non-invasive cataract luxation, and surgery on closed and open fractures. Cutting and injection equipment are not cleaned and are used on a rapid succession of up to 10 patients in a single clinic session. These procedures cause haemorrhage, septicaemia, tetanus, gangrene, contractures, abscesses, airway obstruction, keloids, iatrogenic fistulae, lacerations of vital organs, loss of limbs, and death. Recent work suggesting that many cases of HIV infection may be caused by medical exposure lend a new urgency to researching the work of traditional surgeons. Collaborative programmes for re-training and re-shaping the work of these practitioners is more likely to be effective in reducing the morbidity than attempts to suppress their work.

  7. [Cutaneous cicatrix: natural course, anomalies and prevention].

    PubMed

    Bardot, J

    1994-09-01

    Improving scar quality has become a major concern for surgeons. Although good skin suturing is of primordial important, the healing process varies greatly from one patient to another and the risk of hypertrophic or keloid scar evolution is currently unpredictable. Local massage and above all post-operative compression using compressive garments and sheets of silicon are an efficient methods of counteracting the proliferative phase which occurs during the first few months. In severe cases, particularly in burn patients, high-pressure springwater hydrotherapy to reduce scar contracture has proved to be effective. The current trend is to decrease the risk of bad scars in the immediate post-traumatic, post-operative stage in order to obtain the best possible scar initially and thus avoid revision surgery.

  8. Regeneration of fat cells from myofibroblasts during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F; Ito, Mayumi; Li, Yun Rose; Dedhia, Priya H; Zheng, Ying; Shao, Mengle; Gay, Denise L; Ramos, Raul; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Oh, Ji Won; Wang, Xiaojie; Ramirez, Amanda; Konopelski, Sara E; Elzein, Arijh; Wang, Anne; Supapannachart, Rarinthip June; Lee, Hye-Lim; Lim, Chae Ho; Nace, Arben; Guo, Amy; Treffeisen, Elsa; Andl, Thomas; Ramirez, Ricardo N; Murad, Rabi; Offermanns, Stefan; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Widgerow, Alan D; Tuan, Tai-Lan; Mortazavi, Ali; Gupta, Rana K; Hamilton, Bruce A; Millar, Sarah E; Seale, Patrick; Pear, Warren S; Lazar, Mitchell A; Cotsarelis, George

    2017-02-17

    Although regeneration through the reprogramming of one cell lineage to another occurs in fish and amphibians, it has not been observed in mammals. We discovered in the mouse that during wound healing, adipocytes regenerate from myofibroblasts, a cell type thought to be differentiated and nonadipogenic. Myofibroblast reprogramming required neogenic hair follicles, which triggered bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and then activation of adipocyte transcription factors expressed during development. Overexpression of the BMP antagonist Noggin in hair follicles or deletion of the BMP receptor in myofibroblasts prevented adipocyte formation. Adipocytes formed from human keloid fibroblasts either when treated with BMP or when placed with human hair follicles in vitro . Thus, we identify the myofibroblast as a plastic cell type that may be manipulated to treat scars in humans. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. [Mitomycin C in head and neck surgical procedures].

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, M O; Riechelmann, H

    2007-05-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is frequently used in combination chemotherapy. Its metabolites bind to DNA-molecules and causes DNA crosslinking, which interferes with the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins. MMC is thus able to reduce fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, MMC particularly inhibits the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins including fibronectin and various collagens. These properties have been demonstrated in several experimental studies. Beside its merits in treatment of malignancies, MMC may thus be useful to prevent hypertrophic scars and keloids, adhesions and ostial restenosis following head and neck surgical procedures. Clinically, MMC has been applied to prevent scarring after ophthalmologic surgery. Recent experimental and clinical trials investigating the effects of MMC on wound healing following head and neck surgical procedures are reviewed.

  10. Silicon entering through silicon utilizing organisms has biological effects in human beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shraddhamayananda, S.

    2012-12-01

    Except in the lungs, there is no evidence that silicon can do any harm in our body and Silicon is as essential as magnesium and calcium for us. It helps in proper activities of the bone tissues and all of the components in the human skeletal system. It can prevent osteoporosis in bones and also helps in lowering of blood pressure. Silicon can also inhibit fungal disease by physically inhibiting fungal germ tube penetration of the epidermis. Many of our foods which are associated with silicon utilizing organisms like rice, vegetables, wheat etc, contain plenty silicon, however, during processing most silicon get lost. In alternative medicine silicon is used to promote expulsion of foreign bodies from tissue, in formation of suppuration and finally expulsion of pus from abscesses. Silicon is also used to remove fibrotic lesions and scar tissue and in this way it can prevent formation of keloids. Sometimes it is also used to treat chronic otitis media, and chronic fistula,

  11. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.

  12. [Contribution of botulinum toxin to maxillo-facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Batifol, D; de Boutray, M; Goudot, P; Lorenzo, S

    2013-04-01

    Botulinum toxin has a wide range of use in maxillo-facial surgery due to its action on muscles, on the glandular system, and against pain. It already has been given several market authorizations as indicated for: blepharospasm, spasmodic stiff neck, and glabellar lines. Furthermore, several studies are ongoing to prove its effectiveness and usefulness for many other pathologies: treatment of pain following cervical spine surgery; action on salivary glands after trauma, hypertrophy, or hyper-salivation; analgesic action (acknowledged but still being experimented) on neuralgia, articular pain, and keloids scars due to its anti-inflammatory properties. Botulinum toxin injections in the cervico-facial area are more and more used and should be to be correctly assessed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Adrianna

    2014-02-01

    Chemical peels are a method of resurfacing with a long-standing history of safety in the treatment of various skin conditions. This article reviews the classification of different chemical agents based on their depth of injury. The level of injury facilitates cell turnover, epidermal thickening, skin lightening, and new collagen formation. Preprocedural, periprocedural, and postprocedural skin care are briefly discussed. To select the appropriate chemical peel, the provider should evaluate the patient's expectations, medical history, skin type, and possible complications to determine the best chemical peel to achieve the desired results. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI have increased risk of dyspigmentation, hypertrophic, and keloid scarring. These individuals respond well to superficial and medium-depth chemical peels. Advances in the use of combination peels allow greater options for skin rejuvenation with less risk of complications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. New-generation radiofrequency technology.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Nils; Sadick, Neil S

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) technology has become a standard treatment in aesthetic medicine with many indications due to its versatility, efficacy, and safety. It is used worldwide for cellulite reduction; acne scar revision; and treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids, rosacea, and inflammatory acne in all skin types. However, the most common indication for RF technology is the nonablative tightening of tissue to improve skin laxity and reduce wrinkles. Radiofrequency devices are classified as unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar depending on the number of electrodes used. Additional modalities include fractional RF; sublative RF; phase-controlled RF; and combination RF therapies that apply light, massage, or pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). This article reviews studies and case series on these devices. Radiofrequency technology for aesthetic medicine has seen rapid advancements since it was used for skin tightening in 2003. Future developments will continue to keep RF technology at the forefront of the dermatologist's armamentarium for skin tightening and rejuvenation.

  15. Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giler, Shamai

    1997-12-01

    CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

  16. Pulmonary hyalinising granuloma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Suggit, R I; Kazzi, J C

    2000-11-01

    This is a case of a rare lung disease known as pulmonary hyalinising granuloma, which is usually discovered incidentally on chest radiographs and poses diagnostic difficulties but has an excellent prognosis. In this case a 75-year-old man had a 6-year history of undiagnosed, enlarging, bilateral dense apical infiltrates. The patient died from his tobacco smoke-related emphysema, which led to diagnosis of the lesion. At autopsy both lungs showed well-defined apical, hard, grey-white masses covered by a rind of thickened adherent pleura. Histologically, the lesion was composed of dense, haphazard lamellar, keloid-like collagen concentrically arranged around blood vessels with extension into the pleura and perivascular collections of lymphocytes and plasma cells.

  17. Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor β1, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor by Silicone Gel Sheeting in Early-Stage Scarring.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehoon; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Hak

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids are associated with abnormal levels of growth factors. Silicone gel sheets are effective in treating and preventing hypertrophic scars and keloids. There has been no report on the change in growth factors in the scar tissue following the use of silicone gel sheeting for scar prevention. A prospective controlled trial was performed to evaluate whether growth factors are altered by the application of a silicone gel sheet on a fresh surgical scar. Four of seven enrolled patients completed the study. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were investigated immunohistochemically in biopsies taken from five scars at 4 months following surgery. In both the epidermis and the dermis, the expression of TGF-β1 (P=0.042 and P=0.042) and PDGF (P=0.043 and P=0.042) was significantly lower in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars. The expression of bFGF in the dermis was significantly higher in the case of silicone gel sheet-treated scars than in the case of untreated scars (P=0.042), but in the epidermis, the expression of bFGF showed no significant difference between the groups (P=0.655). The levels of TGF-β1, PDGF, and bFGF are altered by the silicone gel sheet treatment, which might be one of the mechanisms of action in scar prevention.

  18. Management of scars: updated practical guidelines and use of silicones.

    PubMed

    Meaume, Sylvie; Le Pillouer-Prost, Anne; Richert, Bertrand; Roseeuw, Diane; Vadoud, Javid

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids resulting from surgery, burns, trauma and infection can be associated with substantial physical and psychological distress. Various non-invasive and invasive options are currently available for the prevention and treatment of these scars. Recently, an international multidisciplinary group of 24 experts on scar management (dermatologists; plastic and reconstructive surgeons; general surgeons; physical medicine, rehabilitation and burns specialists; psychosocial and behavioural researchers; epidemiologists; beauticians) convened to update a set of practical guidelines for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars on the basis of the latest published clinical evidence on existing scar management options. Silicone-based products such as sheets and gels are recommended as the gold standard, first-line, non-invasive option for both the prevention and treatment of scars. Other general scar preventative measures include avoiding sun exposure, compression therapy, taping and the use of moisturisers. Invasive treatment options include intralesional injections of corticosteroids and/or 5-fluorouracil, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, laser therapy and surgical excision. All of these options may be used alone or as part of combination therapy. Of utmost importance is the regular re-evaluation of patients every four to eight weeks to evaluate whether additional treatment is warranted. The amount of scar management measures that are applied to each wound depends on the patient's risk of developing a scar and their level of concern about the scar's appearance. The practical advice presented in the current guidelines should be combined with clinical judgement when deciding on the most appropriate scar management measures for an individual patient.

  19. A useful method to overcome the difficulties of applying silicone gel sheet on irregular surfaces.

    PubMed

    Grella, Roberto; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; D'Ari, Antonio; Romanucci, Vincenza; Santoro, Mariangela; D'Andrea, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    To date, silicone gel and silicone occlusive plates are the most useful and effective treatment options for hypertrophic scars (surgical and traumatic). Use of silicone sheeting has also been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of minor keloids in association with corticosteroid intralesional infiltration. In our practice, we encountered four problems: maceration, rashes, pruritus and infection. Not all patients are able to tolerate the cushion, especially children, and certain anatomical regions as the face and the upper chest are not easy to dress for obvious social, psychological and aesthetic reasons. In other anatomical regions, it is also difficult to obtain adequate compression and occlusion of the scar. To overcome such problems of applying silicone gel sheeting, we tested the use of liquid silicone gel (LSG) in the treatment of 18 linear hypertrophic scars (HS group) and 12 minor keloids (KS group) as an alternative to silicone gel sheeting or cushion. Objective parameters (volume, thickness and colour) and subjective symptoms such as pain and pruritus were examined. Evaluations were made when the therapy started and after 30, 90 and 180 days of follow-up. After 90 days of treatment with silicone gel alone (two applications daily), HS group showed a significant improvement in terms of volume decrease, reduced inflammation and redness and improved elasticity. In conclusion, on the basis of our clinical data, we find LSG to be a useful method to overcome the difficulties of applying silicone gel sheeting on irregular surface. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Robotic surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Karagkounis, Georgios; Uzun, Duygu Derya; Mason, David P; Murthy, Sudish C; Berber, Eren

    2014-09-01

    Open cervical parathyroidectomy is the standard of care for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). However, in patients with a history of keloid or hypertrophic scar formation, the cosmetic result may sometimes be unsatisfactory. Furthermore, in the presence of mediastinal glands, a more morbid approach is sometimes necessary, involving a sternal split or thoracotomy. Robotic parathyroidectomy, either transaxillary or transthoracic, could be an alternative in both settings. Between 2008 and 2013, 14 patients with PHP and a well-localized single adenoma underwent robotic transaxillary cervical (TAC) (n = 8) or transthoracic mediastinal (TTM) (n = 6) parathyroidectomy at an academic tertiary medical center and their outcomes were analyzed. All 14 operations were completed successfully as planned. For TAC and TTM parathyroidectomies, mean operative time was 184 and 168 min, respectively. With the exception of one TTM patient, intraoperative PTH determination indicated a >50 % drop in all patients 10 min after excision and no patients presented with recurrent disease on follow-up. Average length of hospital stay was 1 day after TAC parathyroidectomy and 2.2 days after TTM. On a visual analog pain scale (0-10), average pain scores after TAC were 6/10 on postoperative day 1 and 1/10 on day 14, compared to 7.7/10 and 1.5/10, respectively, after TTM. Complications included development of seroma in 1 patient in the TAC group and pericardial and pleural effusion in 1 patient in the TTM cohort. This initial study shows that robotic TAC and TTM parathyroidectomy are feasible in selected PHP patients with preoperatively well-localized disease. Although the TAC approach offers a potential cosmetic benefit in patients with a history of keloid or hypertrophic scar formation, a more generalized use cannot be recommended based on current evidence. The robotic TTM approach presents a minimally invasive alternative to resections previously performed through

  1. Lasers for vascular lesions: standard guidelines of care.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, C R; Kumaresan, M

    2011-01-01

    Lasers are a good therapeutic tool for congenital and acquired vascular lesions. Technological advances in lasers have reduced the adverse effects and increased the efficacy. MACHINES: Among the various lasers used for treating vascular lesions, pulsed dye laser (PDL) has the best efficacy and safety data. The other machines that are widely available are Nd:YAG laser and intense pulse light (IPL). RATIONALE AND SCOPE OF GUIDELINE: Much variation exists in different machines and techniques, and therefore, establishing standard guidelines has limitations. The guidelines recommended here indicate minimum standards of care for lasers on vascular lesions based on current evidence. Laser may be administered by a dermatologist, who has received adequate background training in lasers during post-graduation or later at a center that provides education and training in lasers, or in focused workshops, which provide such trainings. He/she should have adequate knowledge of the lesions being treated, machines, parameters, cooling systems, and aftercare. The procedure may be performed in the physician's minor procedure room with adequate laser safety measures. PWS, hemangioma, facial telangiectasia, rosacea, spider angioma, pyogenic granuloma, venous lakes, leg veins. Absolute: Active local infection, photo-aggravated skin diseases, and medical conditions. Relative: Unstable vitiligo, psoriasis, keloid and keloidal tendencies, patient on isotretinoin, patient who is not cooperative or has unrealistic expectation. Patient selection should be done after detailed counseling with respect to the course of lesions, different treatment options, possible results, cost, need for multiple treatments, and possible postoperative complications. TREATMENT SESSIONS: The number of treatments per lesion varies from 2 to 12 or more at 6-8 week intervals. All lesions may not clear completely even after multiple sessions in many cases. Hence, a realistic expectation and proper counseling is very

  2. Critical Role of Transforming Growth Factor Beta in Different Phases of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Pakyari, Mohammadreza; Farrokhi, Ali; Maharlooei, Mohsen Khosravi; Ghahary, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Significance This review highlights the critical role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1–3 within different phases of wound healing, in particular, late-stage wound healing. It is also very important to identify the TGF-β1–controlling factors involved in slowing down the healing process upon wound epithelialization. Recent Advances TGF-β1, as a growth factor, is a known proponent of dermal fibrosis. Several strategies to modulate or regulate TGF's actions have been thoroughly investigated in an effort to create successful therapies. This study reviews current discourse regarding the many roles of TGF-β1 in wound healing by modulating infiltrated immune cells and the extracellular matrix. Critical Issues It is well established that TGF-β1 functions as a wound-healing promoting factor, and thereby if in excess it may lead to overhealing outcomes, such as hypertrophic scarring and keloid. Thus, the regulation of TGF-β1 in the later stages of the healing process remains as critical issue of which to better understand. Future Directions One hypothesis is that cell communication is the key to regulate later stages of wound healing. To elucidate the role of keratinocyte/fibroblast cross talk in controlling the later stages of wound healing we need to: (1) identify those keratinocyte-released factors which would function as wound-healing stop signals, (2) evaluate the functionality of these factors in controlling the outcome of the healing process, and (3) formulate topical vehicles for these antifibrogenic factors to improve or even prevent the development of hypertrophic scarring and keloids as a result of deep trauma, burn injuries, and any type of surgical incision. PMID:24527344

  3. Effects of silicone gel sheet on the stratum corneum hydration.

    PubMed

    Suetak, T; Sasai, S; Zhen, Y X; Tagami, H

    2000-09-01

    Various groups have reported the efficacy of treatment with topical silicone gel sheet (SGS) for keloids and hypertrophic scars. Because its hydrating effect on the stratum corneum (SC) has been suggested as a mechanism underlying its therapeutic effectiveness, we evaluated it by comparing it with simple plastic film occlusion. With biophysical instruments we assessed the water content of the skin surface as well as its water evaporation on the flexor aspects of bilateral forearms of 10 healthy volunteers for 30min after removal of dressings of SGS or a plastic film that were applied either for 1 day or for 7 days. Occlusion with SGS or plastic film induced hydration of the skin surface, which was followed by an initial quick and later slow process of dehydration when the skin was exposed to the ambient atmosphere. The magnitude of the increase in hydration induced by SGS was always smaller than that of the plastic film occlusion and, unlike the latter treatment, hydration became less with repetition of SGS treatment. On day 7, the SC hydration quickly reduced to the level of non-treated control skin after removal of the dressings. An in vivo test demonstrated that the water-holding capacity of the SC normalised after 7 days of SGS treatment. SGS probably produces a favourable condition for the skin by protecting it from various environmental stimuli, while keeping the SC in an adequately but not over-hydrated condition.

  4. The State of Ethnic Dermatology in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji; Miller-Monthrope, Yvette

    Approximately 30% of Canadians will be members of a visible minority by 2031. When dermatology became an independent medical discipline in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, most residents of Canada and the United States were of Northern European descent. Morphology and descriptions of dermatoses are based on patients with light skin. Skin of colour dermatology refers to a unique field in dermatology dedicated to the diagnosis and management of disorders that are more prevalent in patients with moderately to richly pigmented skin. Important differences in the presentation of common dermatoses such as seborrheic dermatitis and acne exist in patients with darker skin types. The effect of traditional treatments for common and uncommon dermatoses is also an important consideration in managing patients with skin of colour. Such treatments may result in adverse effects such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation or keloid scarring at a higher rate. Most respondents from a 2013 UK study of dermatology residents and consultants agreed that individuals with 'ethnic skin' had specific and unique dermatological problems. The Royal College of Physician and Surgeons of Canada's Objectives of Training in Dermatology states that residents must demonstrate the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes for effective patient-centred care and service to a diverse population. Future steps include creating a national society of dermatologists interested in clinical and academic aspects of ethnic dermatology. As well, presentations on skin of colour dermatology could be encouraged at major Canadian dermatology meetings.

  5. Case Report: Molecular Confirmation of Lobomycosis in an Italian Traveler Acquired in the Amazon Region of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Anna; Danesi, Patrizia; Farina, Claudio; Orza, Pierantonio; Perandin, Francesca; Zanardello, Claudia; Rodari, Paola; Staffolani, Silvia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2017-12-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic skin mycosis endemic in Amazon regions characterized by chronic nodular or keloidal lesions caused by Lacazia loboi , an uncultivable fungus. Imported cases in nonendemic countries are rare and diagnosed after years. We describe a case of lobomycosis in a healthy 55-year-old Italian traveler who had acquired the infection during 5-day-honeymoon in the Amazon region of Venezuela in 1999. Several weeks after return, he recalled pruritus and papular skin lesions on the left lower limb, subsequently evolving to a plaque-like lesion. Blastomycosis and cryptococcosis were hypothesized based on microscopic morphology of yeast-like bodies found in three consecutive biopsies, although fungal cultures were always negative. In 2016, exfoliative cytology and a biopsy specimen examination showed round yeast-like organisms (6-12 μm), isolated or in a chain, connected by short tubular projections fulfilling the morphologic diagnostic criteria of Lacazia spp. The microscopic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular identification.

  6. Disintegration of collagen fibrils by Glucono-δ-lactone: An implied lead for disintegration of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jayamani, Jayaraman; Ravikanth Reddy, R; Madhan, Balaraman; Shanmugam, Ganesh

    2018-02-01

    Excess accumulation of collagen (fibrosis) undergoes self-aggregation, which leads to fibrillar collagen, on the extracellular matrix is the hallmark of a number of diseases such as keloids, hypertrophic scars, and systemic scleroderma. Direct inhibition or disintegration of collagen fibrils by small molecules offer a therapeutic approach to prevent or treat the diseases related to fibrosis. Herein, the anti-fibrotic property of Glucono-δ-lactone (GdL), known as acidifier, on the fibrillation and its disintegration of collagen was investigated. As collagen fibrillation is pH dependent, the pH modulation property of GdL is attractive to inhibit self-association of collagen. Optical density and microscopic data indicate that GdL elicits concentration-dependent fibril inhibition and also disintegrates pre-formed collagen fibrils. The simultaneous pH analysis showed that the modulation(lowering) of pH by GdL is the primary cause for its anti-fibrotic activity. The intact triple helical structure of collagen upon treatment of GdL suggests that collagen fibril disintegration can be achieved without affecting the native structure of collagen which is essential for any anti-fibrotic agents. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR result reveals that GdL is in proximity to collagen. The present results thus suggest that GdL provides a lead to design novel anti-fibrotic agents for the pathologies related to collagen deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photodynamic activity of natural anthraquinones on fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmer, Jesica; Ramos Silva, Camila; Núñez Montoya, Susana C.; Cabrera, José Luis; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2018-02-01

    Natural anthraquinones (AQs) isolated from Heterophyllaea lycioides (Rusby) Sandwith (Rubiaceae) demonstrated to have photodynamic properties: soranjididol (Sor), 5-Chlorosoranjidiol (5-ClSor), bisoranjidiol (Bisor), 7-Chlorobisoranjidiol (7-ClBisor) and lycionine (Lyc). Sor, 5-ClSor and Bisor exhibited photodynamic inactivation on bacteria and parasites. As they could be used in topical application, the aim of this work was to study their photodynamic activity on fibroblasts. AQs were tested at 2.5 μM in darkness and under irradiation conditions. They were photoactivated with violet-blue LED (λ = 410 +/- 10 nm; fluence rate =50 mW/cm2) and exposure time corresponded to a fluence of 27 J/cm2. Negative and positive control (-C and +C, respectively) were included. Mitochondrial activity was determined by using MTT assay that is a measure of the cell viability and it was expressed as a percentage respect to -C (% CV). Results showed that AQs in darkness conditions showed similar metabolic activity as -C, except for 5-ClSor (about 75% CV). Under irradiation, AQs exhibited dissimilar results. Sor and 7-ClBisor maintained cell viability at approximately 100%, Bisor and Lyc around 70%, whereas 5-ClSor reduced cell viability by 90%. Taken together, our results suggest that Sor could mediate photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cutaneous infections since no toxicity was observed in fibroblasts. On the other hand, 5-ClSor could be used for topical PDT of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  8. Lysine hydroxylation of collagen in a fibroblast cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Yeowell, Heather N.; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Tanzawa, Hideki; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    The lysine (Lys) hydroxylation pattern of type I collagen produced by human fibroblasts in culture was analyzed and compared. Fibroblasts were cultured from normal human skin (NSF), keloid (KDF), fetal skin (FDF), and skin tissues of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA and VIB patients (EDS-VIA and -VIB). The type I collagen alpha chains with or without non-helical telopeptides were purified from the insoluble matrix and analyzed. In comparison with NSFs, KDF and FDF showed significantly higher Lys hydroxylation, particularly in the telopeptide domains of both alpha chains. Both EDS-VIA and -VIB showed markedly lower Lys hydroxylation in the helical domains of both alpha chains whereas that in the telopeptides was comparable with those of NSFs. A similar profile was observed in the tissue sample of the EDS-VIB patient. These results demonstrate that the Lys hydroxylation pattern is domain-specific within the collagen molecule and that this method is useful to characterize the cell phenotypes in normal/pathological connective tissues.

  9. Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    PubMed Central

    Francesconi, Valeska Albuquerque; Klein, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Paula Botelho Gualda; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Francesconi, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    Lobomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis of chronic evolution caused by the Lacazia loboi fungus. Its distribution is almost exclusive in the Americas, and it has a particularly high prevalence in the Amazon basin. Cases of lobomycosis have been reported only in dolphins and humans. Its prevalence is higher among men who are active in the forest, such as rubber tappers, bushmen, miners, and Indian men. It is recognized that the traumatic implantation of the fungus on the skin is the route by which humans acquire this infection. The lesions affect mainly exposed areas such as the auricles and upper and lower limbs and are typically presented as keloid-like lesions. Currently, surgical removal is the therapeutic procedure of choice in initial cases. Despite the existing data and studies to date, the active immune mechanisms in this infection and its involvement in the control or development of lacaziosis have not been fully clarified. In recent years, little progress has been made in the appraisal of the epidemiologic aspects of the disease. So far, we have neither a population-based study nor any evaluation directed to the forest workers. PMID:25328400

  10. Development of a plastic surgical teaching service in a women's correctional institution.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J C; Powers, W E; Tuerk, D B; Edgerton, M T

    1975-03-01

    A plastic surgical teaching service has been organized at a women's correctional institution to provide a previously unrecognized medical need and to serve a valuable educational function for our residents in training. A total of 177 surgical candidates demonstrating a wide range of reconstructive problems including tattoos, scars, keloids, neoplasms of the skin and hands, deformities of the face and breasts, and numerous disabilities of the hands were identified among 241 inmates requesting examination. Thus far, 116 operative procedures have been performed on 101 patients. Patient acceptance has been high, and the support of prison authorities has been enthusiastic. Persistent efforts to convince legislators of the wisdom of supporting this program financially have only been partially successful and will require further accumulation of sociologic data bearing on the rehabilitative potential of the detained patient with a correctable deformity. Meanwhile, residents in training gain maturity as they provide a very "private" type of service for what has traditionally been considered a very "public" population of patients.

  11. S100A8 and S100A9 Are Induced by Decreased Hydration in the Epidermis and Promote Fibroblast Activation and Fibrosis in the Dermis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Aimei; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Jingling; Xie, Ping; Jia, Shengxian; Sun, Jiaming; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A; Hong, Seok J

    2016-01-01

    The most critical function of the epidermis is to prevent water loss and maintain skin homeostasis. Disruption of the functional skin barrier causes delayed wound healing, hypertrophic scarring, and many skin diseases. Herein, we show that reduced hydration increases the expression of S100 protein family members, S100A8/S100A9, in stratified keratinocyte culture and human ex vivo skin culture. Immunohistological analyses show that S100A8/A9 are highly expressed in the epidermis of human hypertrophic scar and keloid tissues. Reduced hydration demonstrates activation of fibroblasts in the keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. In contrast, knockdown of S100A8 or S100A9 by RNA interference in keratinocytes failed to activate fibroblasts. Pretreatment with pharmacological blockers of S100A8/A9 receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products, inhibits fibroblast activation induced by recombinant S100A8/A9 proteins. Moreover, we observe that local delivery of S100A8 protein results in a marked increase in hypertrophic scarring in the in vivo rabbit ear scar model. Our results indicate that hydration status promotes fibroblast activation and fibrosis by directly affecting the expression of inflammatory signaling in keratinocytes, thereby strongly suggesting S100A8/A9 to be novel targets in preventing scarring. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae with erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gamil, Hend D; Khater, Elsayed M; Khattab, Fathia M; Khalil, Mona A

    2018-05-14

    Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving hair follicles of the neck. It is a form of keloidal scarring alopecia that is often refractory to medical or surgical management. To evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser in the treatment of AKN as compared to long pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This study was conducted on 30 male patients with AKN. Their ages ranged from 19 to 47 years with a mean age of 36.87 ± 7.8 years. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 15 patients, each receiving six sessions of either Er:YAG or long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser therapy. A statistically significant decrease in the number of papules was detected at the end of therapy in both groups, with a mean of 91.8% improvement in the Er:YAG group versus 88% in the Nd:YAG group. A significant decrease in plaques count was detected only in the Er: YAG group while a significant decrease in plaques size and consistency was recorded in both groups. The Er: YAG laser proved to be a potentially effective and safe modality both in the early and late AKN lesions.

  13. Double layer adhesive silicone dressing as a potential dermal drug delivery film in scar treatment.

    PubMed

    Mojsiewicz-Pieńkowska, Krystyna; Jamrógiewicz, Marzena; Żebrowska, Maria; Mikolaszek, Barbara; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-15

    The present studies focused on the evaluation of design of an adhesive silicone film intended for scar treatment. Developed silicone double layer film was examined in terms of its future relevance to therapy and applicability on the human skin considering properties which included in vitro permeability of water vapor and oxygen. In order to adapt the patches for medical use in the future there were tested such properties as in vitro adhesion and occlusion related to in vivo hydration. From the silicone rubbers double layer silicone film was prepared: a non-adhesive elastomer as a drug carrier (the matrix for active substances - enoxaparin sodium - low molecular weight heparin) and an adhesive elastomer, applied on the surface of the matrix. The novel adhesive silicone film was found to possess optimal properties in comparison to commercially available silicone dressing: adhesion in vivo, adhesion in vitro - 11.79N, occlusion F=85% and water vapor permeability in vitro - WVP=105g/m(2)/24h, hydration of stratum corneum in vivoH=61-89 (RSD=1.6-0.9%), oxygen permeation in vitro - 119-391 cm(3)/m(2)/24 (RSD=0.17%). In vitro release studies indicated sufficient LMWH release rate from silicone matrix. Developed novel adhesive silicone films were considered an effective treatment of scars and keloids and a potential drug carrier able to improve the effectiveness of therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Otoplasty by percutaneous anterior scoring. Another twist to the story: a long-term study of 114 patients.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, N W; Huang, S; Martin, D L

    2003-03-01

    A large number of techniques have been described for the correction of prominent ears to improve the cosmetic outcome and reduce the complication rates. The procedure favoured by the senior author brings together a number of refinements, notably, percutaneous anterior scoring using a modified green needle, control over the degree of fold created and a simple but effective dressing. 114 consecutive patients underwent the correction of 214 ears, with a mean follow up of 3 years and 11 months (9 months to 9 years and 6 months). The senior author performed 100 of these procedures and supervised a senior trainee for the remainder. The mean patient age was 18 years 3 months (3 to 66 years). 57 males and 57 females. 56 general anaesthetic and 58 local anaesthetic. Post-operative complications were; haemorrhage, one ear (required a dressing change); infection, four ears (treated with antibiotics); hypertrophic scarring, two ears which settled (no keloid); recurrence one ear (repeated surgery); continued prominence six ears (two had repeated surgery). No prominent sutures, no anterior skin necrosis, no visible irregularity of the anterior surface of the cartilage and no haematoma occurred. We feel that the low complication rate is due to maximising the advantages and minimising the disadvantages of the different techniques and refinements. We recommend this technique for the routine correction of prominent ears due to a poorly formed antihelical fold or deep conchal bowl.

  15. Overview of surgical scar prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram

    2014-06-01

    Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by the choice of incision design. Traditional incisions most often follow relaxed skin tension lines, but no such lines exist in high surface tension areas. If such incisions are unavoidable, the patient must be informed of this ahead of time. The management of a surgical incision does not end when the sutures are removed. Surgical scar care should be continued for one year. Patient participation is paramount in obtaining the optimal outcome. Postoperative visits should screen for signs of scar hypertrophy and has a dual purpose of continued patient education and reinforcement of proper care. Early intervention is a key to control hyperplastic response. Hypertrophic scars that do not improve by 6 months are keloids and should be managed aggressively with intralesional steroid injections and alternate modalities.

  16. Nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars: evidence-based therapies, standard practices, and emerging methods.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S

    2007-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars, resulting from alterations in the normal processes of cutaneous wound healing, are characterized by proliferation of dermal tissue with excessive deposition of fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix proteins, especially collagen, over long periods, and by persistent inflammation and fibrosis. Hypertrophic scars are among the most common and frustrating problems after injury. As current aesthetic surgical techniques become more standardized and results more predictable, a fine scar may be the demarcating line between acceptable and unacceptable aesthetic results. However, hypertrophic scars remain notoriously difficult to eradicate because of the high recurrence rates and the incidence of side effects associated with available treatment methods. This review explores the various treatment methods for hypertrophic scarring described in the literature including evidence-based therapies, standard practices, and emerging methods, attempting to distinguish those with clearly proven efficiency from anecdotal reports about therapies of doubtful benefits while trying to differentiate between prophylactic measures and actual treatment methods. Unfortunately, the distinction between hypertrophic scar treatments and keloid treatments is not obvious in most reports, making it difficult to assess the efficacy of hypertrophic scar treatment.

  17. The role of massage in scar management: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Shin, Thuzar M; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2012-03-01

    Many surgeons recommend postoperative scar massage to improve aesthetic outcome, although scar massage regimens vary greatly. To review the regimens and efficacy of scar massage. PubMed was searched using the following key words: "massage" in combination with "scar," or "linear," "hypertrophic," "keloid," "diasta*," "atrophic." Information on study type, scar type, number of patients, scar location, time to onset of massage therapy, treatment protocol, treatment duration, outcomes measured, and response to treatment was tabulated. Ten publications including 144 patients who received scar massage were examined in this review. Time to treatment onset ranged from after suture removal to longer than 2 years. Treatment protocols ranged from 10 minutes twice daily to 30 minutes twice weekly. Treatment duration varied from one treatment to 6 months. Overall, 65 patients (45.7%) experienced clinical improvement based on Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale score, Vancouver Scar Scale score, range of motion, pruritus, pain, mood, depression, or anxiety. Of 30 surgical scars treated with massage, 27 (90%) had improved appearance or Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale score. The evidence for the use of scar massage is weak, regimens used are varied, and outcomes measured are neither standardized nor reliably objective, although its efficacy appears to be greater in postsurgical scars than traumatic or postburn scars. Although scar massage is anecdotally effective, there is scarce scientific data in the literature to support it. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Idiopathic tracheal stenosis: a clinicopathologic study of 63 cases and comparison of the pathology with chondromalacia.

    PubMed

    Mark, Eugene J; Meng, Fanqing; Kradin, Richard L; Mathisen, Douglas J; Matsubara, Osamu

    2008-08-01

    Tracheal stenosis in adults usually is the result of mechanical injuries either from direct trauma or intubation. Rarely do cases develop in patients without such a precedent history, and there are few reports of the pathology of idiopathic tracheal stenosis (ITS). We reviewed clinicopathologically, 63 tracheal resections for tracheal stenosis in patients who had no antecedent explanation for their stenosis. We contrasted these 63 cases with 34 cases of tracheal stenosis owing to chondromalacia (CM) after mechanical injury. All 63 cases occurred in females, with a mean age of 49 years. The most common symptom was dyspnea on exertion. The average duration of symptoms was greater than 2 years. One-third of the patients gave a history of gastroesophageal reflux. All but one of the cases occurred in the subglottic region and/or upper one-third of the trachea. Pathologically, most cases showed extensive keloidal fibrosis and dilation of mucus glands, a finding that was not obvious in most cases of CM. ITS has relatively normal cartilage with smooth inner and outer perichondrium, whereas CM has extensive degeneration of cartilage with irregular border of inner perichondrium observable at shirt sleeve magnification. Immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor was positive in fibroblasts cells in most cases. ITS is a rare disease and restricted to females. It may represent some form of fibromatosis. ITS can be distinguished histologically from CM in tracheal resection specimens in most cases.

  19. A Supernumerary Nipple-Like Clinical Presentation of Lymphangioma Circumscriptum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Dustin; Kash, Natalie; Silapunt, Sirunya

    2018-01-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum is a superficially localized variant of lymphangioma. The characteristic clinical presentation is a "frogspawn" grouping of vesicles or papulovesicles on the proximal limb or limb girdle areas. Though most lymphangiomas develop congenitally, the lymphangioma circumscriptum subtype is known to present in adults. We report a case of lymphangioma circumscriptum on the left inframammary area of an African American female with an unusual supernumerary nipple-like clinical presentation. Our patient presented with a firm, smooth, hypopigmented papule, and the clinical diagnosis of keloid was made initially. However, she returned reporting growth of the lesion and was noted to have a firm, exophytic, lobulated, pink to skin-colored nodule. Histopathological examination demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels, consistent with the diagnosis of lymphangioma. The presentation as a firm, hypopigmented papule and later exophytic, lobulated, skin-colored nodule in our case represents a clinical presentation of lymphangioma circumscriptum not previously described in the literature. Correct diagnosis in lymphangioma circumscriptum is vital, as recurrence following surgical resection and secondary development of lymphangiosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma following treatment with radiation have been reported. Thus, it is important to consider lymphangioma circumscriptum in the differential of similar lesions in the future to allow appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

  20. Therapeutic potential of fibroblast growth factor-2 for hypertrophic scars: upregulation of MMP-1 and HGF expression.

    PubMed

    Eto, Hitomi; Suga, Hirotaka; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kuno, Shinichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2012-02-01

    Although hypertrophic scars (HTSs) and keloids are challenging problems, their pathogenesis is not well understood, making therapy difficult. We showed that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression was downregulated in HTS compared with normal skin from the same patients, whereas type 1 and 3 collagen and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were upregulated. These differences, however, were not seen in cultured fibroblasts, suggesting the involvement of microenvironmental factors in the pathogenesis of HTS. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) highly upregulated the expression of MMP-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in both HTS-derived and control fibroblasts; the upregulation was reversed by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. An animal study using human HTS tissue implanted into nude mice indicated that controlled-release FGF-2 resulted in significantly less weight and decreased hydroxyproline content in HTS. Degradation of collagen fibers in FGF-2-treated HTS was also confirmed histologically. Western blotting showed that FGF-2-treated HTS expressed significantly higher MMP-1 protein than control. Decreased MMP-1 expression may be an important transcriptional change in HTS, and its reversal as well as upregulation of HGF by FGF-2 could be a new therapeutic approach for HTS.

  1. Current options for the treatment of pathological scarring.

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-01

    Scarring is the consequence of surgery, trauma or different skin diseases. Apart from fresh, immature scars,that transform into mature scars over the course of would healing and that do not require further treatment,linear hypertrophic scars, widespread hypertrophic scars, keloids and atrophic scars exist. Symptoms like pruritusand pain, stigmatization as well as functional and aesthetic impairments that are very disturbing for the affected patients can bethe basis for the desire for treatment. Today, a multitude of options for the treatment and prevention of scars exists. Topical agents based on silicone or onion extract, intralesional injections of cristalline glucocorticoids (oftentimes in combinationwith cryotherapy) or 5-Fluorouracil as well as ablative and nonablative laser treatment are used. Current guidelines summarize the multitude of available treatment options and the currently available datafor the treating physicians, allowing them to make clear therapy recommendations for every single scar type. Relieving patients of their discomfort and doing their aesthetic demands justice is thus possible. Apart from scar prevention becoming more and more important, the increased use of modernlaser treatment options constitutes a key point in clinical scar treatment. At the same time the attention is turned to evaluating current therapeutic options with the help of contemporary study designs so as to graduallyimprove the level of evidence in scar treatment. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Unconventional Use of Intense Pulsed Light

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, D.; Di Marcantonio, D.; Crisman, G.; Cannarozzo, G.; Sannino, M.; Chiricozzi, A.; Chimenti, S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL) represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne), due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases), port-wine stain (PWS) (10 cases), disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases), pilonidal cyst (3 cases), seborrheic keratosis (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (5 cases) and keloid scar (5 cases), Becker's nevus (2 cases), hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases), and sarcoidosis (1 case). Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator's experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre). Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness. PMID:25276803

  3. Unconventional use of intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, D; Di Marcantonio, D; Crisman, G; Cannarozzo, G; Sannino, M; Chiricozzi, A; Chimenti, S

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL) represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne), due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases), port-wine stain (PWS) (10 cases), disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases), pilonidal cyst (3 cases), seborrheic keratosis (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (5 cases) and keloid scar (5 cases), Becker's nevus (2 cases), hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases), and sarcoidosis (1 case). Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator's experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre). Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness.

  4. Skin collagen can be accurately quantified through noninvasive optical method: Validation on a swine study.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, S-Y; Kuo, T-Y; Hu, S-B; Chen, Y-W; Lin, Y-L; Chu, K-Y; Tseng, S-H

    2018-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a noninvasive optical technology characterized by relatively low system cost and high efficiency. In our previous study, we quantified the relative concentration of collagen for the individual keloid patient. However, no actual value of collagen concentration can prove the reliability of collagen detection by our DRS system. Skin-mimicking phantoms were prepared using different collagen and coffee concentrations, and their chromophore concentrations were quantified using the DRS system to analyze the influence of collagen and other chromophores. Moreover, we used the animal study to compare the DRS system with the collagen evaluation of biopsy section by second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy at four different skin parts. In the phantom study, the result showed that coffee chromophore did not severely interfere with collagen concentration recovery. In the animal study, a positive correlation (r=.902) between the DRS system and collagen evaluation with SHG microscopy was found. We have demonstrated that the DRS system can quantify the actual values of collagen concentration and excluded the interference of other chromophores in skin-mimicking phantoms. Furthermore, a high positive correlation was found in the animal study with SHG microscopy. We consider that the DRS is a potential technique and can evaluate skin condition objectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Portable handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system for clinical evaluation of skin: a pilot study in psoriasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Guo, Jean-Yan; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Huang, Hung Ji; Chou, Shih-Jie; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been utilized to study biological tissues for a variety of applications. However, many DRS systems are not designed for handheld use and/or relatively expensive which limit the extensive clinical use of this technique. In this paper, we report a handheld, low-cost DRS system consisting of a light source, optical switch, and a spectrometer, that can precisely quantify the optical properties of tissue samples in the clinical setting. The handheld DRS system was employed to determine the skin chromophore concentrations, absorption and scattering properties of 11 patients with psoriasis. The measurement results were compared to the clinical severity of psoriasis as evaluated by dermatologist using PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) scores. Our statistical analyses indicated that the handheld DRS system could be a useful non-invasive tool for objective evaluation of the severity of psoriasis. It is expected that the handheld system can be used for the objective evaluation and monitoring of various skin diseases such as keloid and psoriasis. PMID:26977366

  6. Nocardia yamanashiensis in an immunocompromised patient presenting as an indurated nodule on the dorsal hand.

    PubMed

    Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous, aerobic, gram-positive actinomycetes. Nocardiosis typically occurs in immunocompromised patients, although immunocompetent individuals can also be affected. The purpose of this case study is to review the clinical characteristics and treatments of a unique form of cutaneous nocardiosis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching the terms cutaneous, host, immunocompromised, Nocardia, primary, yamanashiensis. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed and the salient features are presented. Cutaneous nocardiosis typically presents as pustular nodules and the lesions may progress to become abscesses, cellulitis, granulomas or keloid-like tumors. N. brasiliensis is the predominant species involved in primary cutaneous nocardiosis; other common Nocardia species involved in human disease are N. farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica, and N. nova. Only two individuals (including the patient presented here) with primary cutaneous infection by N. yamanashiensis have been described in the literature; a third clinical isolate was recovered from a lung biopsy. Nocardia yamanashiensis is a rare clinical form of primary cutaneous nocardiosis. 16S ribosomal gene sequencing, as well as Gram stain and modified Fite acid-fast stain, play a vital role in identifying this clinical variant.

  7. Technology of an adhesive silicone film as drug carrier in transdermal therapy. I: Analytical methods used for characterization and design of the universal elastomer layers.

    PubMed

    Mojsiewicz-Pieńkowska, Krystyna; Jamrógiewicz, Marzena; Zebrowska, Maria; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Centkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-08-25

    Silicone polymers possess unique properties, which make them suitable for many different applications, for example in the pharmaceutical and medical industry. To create an adhesive silicone film, the appropriate silicone components have to be chosen first. From these components two layers were made: an adhesive elastomer applied on the skin, and a non-adhesive elastomer on the other side of the film. The aim of this study was to identify a set of analytical methods that can be used for detailed characterization of the elastomer layers, as needed when designing new silicone films. More specifically, the following methods were combined to detailed identification of the silicone components: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) and size exclusion chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector (SEC-ELSD). It was demonstrated that these methods together with a rheological analysis are suitable for controlling the cross-linking reaction, thus obtaining the desired properties of the silicone film. Adhesive silicone films can be used as universal materials for medical use, particularly for effective treatment of scars and keloids or as drug carriers in transdermal therapy.

  8. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-05

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiologic study on carcinoma of the breast following irradiation for benign conditions in infancy and childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Oviedo, M.A.; Chmiel, J.S.; Curb, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of irradiation during infancy and childhood to the subsequent development of carcinoma of the breast, 996 eligible patients were studied at Evanston Hospital, Evanston, Illinois, and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago. This was a case-control study, with those in the control group being selected from concurrent hospital admissions for nonmalignant surgical conditions. A second group consisting of those with benign biopsy results was also studied. The Mantel-Haenszel method of analysis, controlling for age and race, was used to estimate the approximate relative risk of carcinoma of the breast in the irradiated group compared with that for themore » nonirradiated group. The type of radiation history included radiotherapy for mastitis or enlarged thymus (nine patients), irradiation of the head and neck (69 patients), diagnostic fluoroscopies (ten patients) and miscellaneous irradiation (52 patients) for bursitis, eczema or keloid. Based upon the data obtained from the results of this study and its analysis, we conclude that there is little evidence of increased risk of carcinoma of the breast after irradiation about the head, neck and chest areas for benign conditions in the population being studied herein. Such a risk, if indeed it exists at all for this population, is estimated to be about 10 per cent.« less

  10. [Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Assmann, Walter; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike; Bader, Markus; Clemente, Lucas; Reinhardt, Sabine; Schäfer, Claus; Schirra, Jörg; Uschold, Stephanie; Welzmüller, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting (32)P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of (32)P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the (32)P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of (32)P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated (32)P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Cellular and molecular pathology of HTS: basis for treatment.

    PubMed

    Armour, Alexis; Scott, Paul G; Tredget, Edward E

    2007-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar and keloids are fibroproliferative disorders of the skin which occur often unpredictably, following trauma and inflammation that compromise cosmesis and function and commonly recur following surgical attempts for improvement. Despite decades of research in these fibrotic conditions, current non-surgical methods of treatment are slow, inconvenient and often only partially effective. Fibroblasts from these conditions are activated to produce extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen I and III, proteoglycans such as versican and biglycan and growth factors, including transforming growth factor-beta and insulin like growth factor I. However, more consistently these cells produce less remodeling enzymes including collagenase and other matrix metalloproteinases, as well as the small proteoglycan decorin which is important for normal collagen fibrillogenesis. Recently, the systemic response to injury appears to influence the local healing process whereby increases in Th2 and possibly Th3 cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 and TGF-beta are present in the circulating lymphocytes in these fibrotic conditions. Finally, unique bone marrow derived cells including mesenchymal and endothelial stem cells as well as fibrocytes appear to traffic into healing wounds and influence the healing tissue. On this background, clinicians are faced with patients who require treatment and the pathophysiologic basis as currently understood is reviewed for a number of emerging modalities.

  12. Highlights of Thirty-Year Experience of CO2 Laser Use at the Florence (Italy) Department of Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Campolmi, Piero; Bonan, Paolo; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Bassi, Andrea; Bruscino, Nicola; Arunachalam, Meena; Troiano, Michela; Lotti, Torello; Moretti, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The CO2 laser has been used extensively in dermatological surgery over the past 30 years and is now recognised as the gold standard for soft tissue vaporization. Considering that the continuous wave CO2 laser delivery system and the newer “superpulsed” and scanned CO2 systems have progressively changed our practice and patient satisfaction, a long range documentation can be useful. Our experience has demonstrated that the use of CO2 laser involves a reduced healing time, an infrequent need for anaesthesia, reduced thermal damage, less bleeding, less inflammation, the possibility of intra-operative histologic and/or cytologic examination, and easy access to anatomically difficult areas. Immediate side effects have been pain, erythema, edema, typically see with older methods, using higher power. The percentage of after-treatment keloids and hypertrophic scars observed was very low (~1%) especially upon the usage of lower parameters. The recurrence of viral lesions (condylomas and warts) have been not more frequent than those due to other techniques. Tumor recurrence is minor compared with radiotherapy or surgery. This method is a valid alternative to surgery and/or diathermocoagulation for microsurgery of soft tissues. Our results are at times not consistent with those published in the literature, stressing the concept that multicentric studies that harmonization methodology and the patient selection are vital. PMID:22593693

  13. Potential advantages of treatment of transplanted saphenous vein aorto-coronary artery bypass grafts with beta irradiation to prevent graft occlusion.

    PubMed

    Smith, R G

    1997-01-01

    Intimal proliferation or Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) is a vascular lesion that often arises in arteries after balloon angioplasty or other vessel wall injuries. FIH is a vascular lesion that develops in autologous saphenous vein grafts (SVG) after transplantation into the aorto-coronary circulation or the peripheral vascular circulation. FIH shares elements of smooth muscle migration, proliferation and fibrous tissue deposition in common with nibrointimal proliferation (NIH). Either NIH of a coronary artery or FIH of a SVG obstruct the vascular lumen and result in myocardial dysfunction. Local radiotherapy has been used for several decades to reduce the post-operative recurrence of the fibrovascular proliferations of pterygia and keloids. Similarly, in animal and human experiments, endovascular radiotherapy has been shown to reduce arterial smooth muscle proliferation. Consideration of the similarities of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in NIH and FIH leads one to suggest that endovascular beta irradiation can reduce FIH as well as it reduces NIH. The goal of such treatment is to achieve a clinically significant decrease in the morbidity and mortality resulting from SVG occlusions. The potential for large reduction of the consequences of SVG occlusion, the very large number of patients at risk, and the simplicity of the proposed intervention encourages prompt scientific evaluation of this technique.

  14. Basics of Radiation Biology When Treating Hyperproliferative Benign Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Franz; Fournier, Claudia; Wiedemann, Julia; Merz, Felicitas; Gaipl, Udo S; Frey, Benjamin; Keilholz, Ludwig; Seegenschmiedt, M Heinrich; Rödel, Claus; Hehlgans, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    For decades, low- and moderate-dose radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to exert a beneficial therapeutic effect in a multitude of non-malignant conditions including painful degenerative muscoloskeletal and hyperproliferative disorders. Dupuytren and Ledderhose diseases are benign fibroproliferative diseases of the hand/foot with fibrotic nodules and fascial cords, which determine debilitating contractures and deformities of fingers/toes, while keloids are exuberant scar formations following burn damage, surgery, and trauma. Although RT has become an established and effective option in the management of these diseases, experimental studies to illustrate cellular composites and factors involved remain to be elucidated. More recent findings, however, indicate the involvement of radiation-sensitive targets like mitotic fibroblasts/myofibroblasts as well as inflammatory cells. Radiation-related molecular mechanisms affecting these target cells include the production of free radicals to hamper proliferative activity and interference with growth factors and cytokines. Moreover, an impairment of activated immune cells involved in both myofibroblast proliferative and inflammatory processes may further contribute to the clinical effects. We here aim at briefly describing mechanisms contributing to a modulation of proliferative and inflammatory processes and to summarize current concepts of treating hyperproliferative diseases by low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation.

  15. Wound healing, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and collagen-containing products: a case study.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Charles P; Romeo, CarolAnn

    2014-01-01

    The effects of multiple medications may impair or enhance wound healing. A review of the literature for drug side effects identified cell culture and case studies of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) impairing collagen deposition in cutaneous wounds; these medications have also been used to prevent or minimize keloid formation. A 71-year-old male patient presented with a venous leg ulcer (VLU), having incurred a crushing injury and fracture requiring surgical repair 16 years earlier. The patient's history was significant for obesity, smoking 1 cigar daily, hypertension, and lower extremity venous insufficiency; medications included amlodipine and lisinopril. The wound initially responded well to advanced wound products and compression, but wound healing subsequently stalled. A collagen-containing alginate dressing was added to the treatment regimen and the wound closed within 2 weeks. We postulate that lisinopril may have contributed to the observed delayed healing and targeted this potential impediment to wound healing with a readily available topical collagen-containing product resulting in a rapid wound closure after a significant delay in progress toward wound healing.

  16. Release and skin distribution of silicone-related compound(s) from a silicone gel sheet in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shigeki, S; Nobuoka, N; Murakami, T; Ikuta, Y

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of topical silicone gel sheeting in prevention and/or reduction of keloids and hypertrophic scars is well recognized. In the present study, we reexamined the possible release of silicone-related compound(s) from a commercially available silicone gel sheet (Cica-Care, Smith and Nephew, Hull, England) in aqueous media in vitro. The silicone gel sheet was also applied on the excised skin surface to examine the possible distribution of silicone-related compounds into the skin in vitro. Silicone-related compounds were measured as silicon by an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometer. When a piece of silicone gel sheet was placed in phosphate buffer solution (pH 3-9) at 37 degrees C for 7 days, the concentration of silicon in the medium increased with time, depending on the pH of the medium. This indicates that the released silicone-related compounds are water-soluble. When Cica-Care was applied on the surface of excised rat skin, human axilla skin and hypertrophic scars under hydrated conditions in vitro, silicon was detected in all skin samples. Greater distribution was observed in rat skin than in human axilla skin and hypertrophic scars. The release of silicone-related compounds from a silicone gel sheet (Cica-Care) and their distribution into the skin were demonstrated in vitro. Silicone-related compounds distributed into the skin may have pharmacological effects on the skin. Further investigation will be necessary to investigate in detail the action of silicone-related compounds on the proliferation of fibroblasts and excessive production of collagen.

  17. Aesthetic effect of silicone gel on surgical scars in Asians.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Suk-Hyun; Koh, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Won; Park, Beyoung-Yun; Kim, Yong-Oock

    2010-05-01

    Scars on exposed areas are a major concern among Asian populations because of their conspicuousness. Size, color, or whether the scar is hypopigmented or hyperpigmented matters little. Silicone gel is well known for the prevention and induction of better maturation of hypertrophic and keloid scars. However, its aesthetic effect on normal surgical scars has not been considered. Clinical evaluation of scars was performed in 40 patients. All the 40 patients underwent clean and minor surgery of the exposed area, such as scar revision, by 1 plastic surgeon. Twenty of the 40 patients did not apply any adjunctive material for scar management and were grouped as the control. The other 20 patients applied a silicone gel sheet for 12 hours a day for 3 months. Three assessment criteria, pigmentation, vascularity, and height, were evaluated by photographic assessment of the scars at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively and scored by 3 plastic surgeons. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to verify any significant differences in the previously mentioned 3 parameters between the 2 groups and parameter scores at each follow-up period. Two patients were excluded from the study because of the development of rashes on the areas covered by the silicone gel sheet. There was no statistical significance between the groups at postoperative 2 weeks and 1 month in pigmentation and redness. For evaluation of height, there was statistical significance (P = 0.024) at postoperative 1 month. However, there were statistically significant differences in all the assessment criteria at postoperative 3 months between the groups: pigmentation, P = 0.0002; vascularity, P = 0.0002; and height, P < 0.0001. The silicone gel sheet has a favorable aesthetical effect for normally created surgical scars in the Asians. Its application can reduce the conspicuousness of scars more rapidly than without.

  18. Cushing's syndrome after intralesional triamcinolone acetonide: a systematic review of the literature and multinational survey.

    PubMed

    Fredman, Rafi; Tenenhaus, Mayer

    2013-06-01

    Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) is a well-established treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars. The present text provides a systematic review of all previously reported cases of Cushing's syndrome resulting from intralesional TAC in an effort to discover whether an association exists between dosage or frequency of injection and the subsequent development of Cushing's syndrome. Data collected from a multinational survey of plastic surgeons is presented and discussed to understand current trends in the use of TAC. Recommendations for early recognition of Cushing's syndrome, TAC dosages in children, and follow up guidelines are presented. A systematic review of the literature from 1950 to 2012 was performed to evaluate outcomes following intralesional TAC used for the treatment of scars. A confidential survey was sent to 4125 plastic surgeons, 102 responses from 9 countries were received. A total of 18 cases of Cushing's syndrome after intralesional TAC have been reported in the English world literature. Survey data reveals that at least 30% (25/84) of plastic surgeons exceed the recommended dosage of TAC and 47% (46/97) are not aware of Cushing's syndrome as a possible complication of intralesional TAC. Cushing's syndrome resulting from intralesional TAC has been reported multiple times in the literature. Published literature suggests that TAC administered within the most recent recommendations does not appear to place adult patients at increased risk for developing Cushing's syndrome. Children appear to be most at risk for developing Cushing's syndrome and yet insufficient recommendations currently exist with regard to their safe dosage. Intralesional dosage should not exceed 30 mg per month in children while noting that at least one reported case of Cushing's syndrome resulted from a smaller dose. Diligent follow up and patient education is advised for any patient treated with TAC so that complications can be recognized and addressed promptly

  19. Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation Reduces Both Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell Migration via a cAMP-Dependent Mechanism and Wound Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Andrew P; Fox, James M; Pullar, Christine E

    2015-02-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process during tissue regeneration; however, the amount of angiogenesis directly correlates with the level of wound scarring. Angiogenesis is lower in scar-free foetal wounds while angiogenesis is raised and abnormal in pathophysiological scarring such as hypertrophic scars and keloids. Delineating the mechanisms that modulate angiogenesis and could reduce scarring would be clinically useful. Beta-adrenoceptors (β-AR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on all skin cell-types. They play a role in wound repair but their specific role in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, a range of in vitro assays (single cell migration, scratch wound healing, ELISAs for angiogenic growth factors and tubule formation) were performed with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) to investigate and dissect mechanisms underpinning β-AR-mediated modulation of angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) and murine excisional skin wounds. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC migration via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent and protein kinase A (PKA)-independent mechanisms as demonstrated through use of an EPAC agonist that auto-inhibited the cAMP-mediated β-AR transduced reduction in HDMEC motility; a PKA inhibitor was, conversely, ineffective. ELISA studies demonstrated that β-AR activation reduced pro-angiogenic growth factor secretion from HDMECs (fibroblast growth factor 2) and keratinocytes (vascular endothelial growth factor A) revealing possible β-AR-mediated autocrine and paracrine anti-angiogenic mechanisms. In more complex environments, β-AR activation delayed HDMEC tubule formation and decreased angiogenesis both in the CAM assay and in murine excisional skin wounds in vivo. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC function in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo; therefore, β-AR agonists could be promising anti-angiogenic modulators in skin. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by

  20. Hidradenitis suppurativa: A practical review of possible medical treatments based on over 350 hidradenitis patients.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2013-04-15

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a pathological follicular disease, impacts patients' lives profoundly. HS most commonly involves cutaneous intertriginous areas, such as the axilla, inner thighs, groin and buttocks, and pendulous breasts, but can appear on any follicular skin. Protean, HS manifests with variations of abscesses, folliculitis, pyogenic granulomas, scars (oval honeycombed), comedones, tracts, fistulas, and keloids. The pathophysiology might involve both defects of the innate follicular immunity and overreaction to coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Treatment depends on the morphology, extent, severity, and duration. Topical clindamycin and dapsone are often adequate for treating mild HS. For Stage 1 and 2 HS, first line treatment combines rifampin with either oral clindamycin or minocycline. Other HS treatments include: fluoroquinolones with metronidazole and rifampin, oral dapsone, zinc, acitretin, hormone blockers (oral contraceptive pills, spironolactone, finasteride, and dutasteride), and oral prednisone. For severe HS, cyclosporine, adalimumab, or infliximab (used at double psoriatic doses) and intravenous carbapenems or cephalosporins are often required. Isotretinoin, etanercept, isoniazid, lymecycline, sulfasalazine, methotrexate, metformin, colchicine, clarithromycin, IVIG, and thalidomide are less favored treatments. The role of botulinum toxin is uncertain. The most important life style modification is weight loss. De-roofing fluctuant nodules and injection of intralesional corticosteroids ameliorates the disease and perhaps, if done at regular intervals, improves HS more permanently. Surgical excision and CO2 laser ablation are more definitive treatments. The 1064 nm laser for hair removal aids in the treatment of HS. This article centers on medical therapies and will only passingly mention surgical and laser treatments. This article summarizes my treatment experience with over 350 HS patients.

  1. Comparision of clinical and histopathological results of hyalomatrix usage in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Erbatur, Serkan; Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Aydın, Engin Nasuhi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological results of the hyaluronic acid skin substitute treatment of the patients who admitted to Inonu University Medical Faculty Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery clinic between january 2011 and march 2012 were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. HA were used for treatment of Hypertrophic scar (HS) or Keloid (K) in 10 patients of the first group. Skin biopsies obtained at peroperative and postoperative 3rd month were subjected to histopathologic examination in this group. In the second group, 10 patients with full thickness soft tissue loss secondary to burns, trauma or excisional reasons were also treated with HA application. Vancouver scar scale were used to determine the scar quality in both groups. Mean age was 25. 2 ± 10.2 and mean follow-up duration was 6.3±3.6 months in group 1. Preoperative and postoperative VSS scores in group 1 were 10.7±1.16 and 6.2±0.91, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0,005). No HS or K development was seen in any patient in group 2 during the following period. Collagenisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly higher than postoperative scores (p<0,0001).Vascularisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly lower than postoperative scores (p<0,00001). The use of HA skin substitute in adults for treatment of HS or K provided the desired clinical healing in the 6 months' follow-up periods. At the same time, HA application as an alternative to other treatment modalities led to a durable skin coverage in full thickness tissue loss in adult patients.

  2. The downregulation of microRNA let-7a contributes to the excessive expression of type I collagen in systemic and localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Makino, Katsunari; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Hirano, Ayaka; Yamane, Keitaro; Eto, Mitsuhiko; Kusano, Takamitsu; Honda, Noritoshi; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Sakai, Keisuke; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-04-15

    Systemic and localized scleroderma (SSc and LSc) is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen and tissue fibrosis in the skin. Although they have fundamental common characteristics including autoimmunity, little is known about the exact mechanism that mediates the excessive collagen expression in these disorders. In the current study, we tried to evaluate the possibility that microRNAs (miRNAs) play some roles in the pathogenesis of fibrosis seen in these diseases. miRNA expression patterns were evaluated by miRNA array analysis, real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization. The function of miRNAs in dermal fibroblasts was assessed using miRNA inhibitors, precursors, or protectors. In the mouse model of bleomycin-induced dermal sclerosis, the overexpression of miRNAs was performed by i.p. miRNA injection. We demonstrated let-7a expression was downregulated in SSc and LSc skin both in vivo and in vitro, compared with normal or keloid skin. The inhibition or overexpression of let-7a in human or mouse skin fibroblasts affected the protein expression of type I collagen or luciferase activity of collagen 3'-untranslated region. Also, we found let-7a was detectable and quantitative in the serum and investigated serum let-7a levels in patients with SSc or LSc. let-7a concentration was significantly decreased in these patients, especially in LSc patients. Moreover, we revealed that the intermittent overexpression of let-7a in the skin by i.p. miRNA injection improved the skin fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice. Investigation of more detailed mechanisms of miRNA-mediated regulation of collagen expression may lead to new therapeutic approaches against SSc and LSc.

  3. microRNA-7 down-regulation mediates excessive collagen expression in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Etoh, Mitsuhiko; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Makino, Katsunari; Yamane, Keitaro; Nakayama, Wakana; Aoi, Jun; Honda, Noritoshi; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LSc), a connective tissue disorder restricted to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, is characterized by skin fibrosis due to an excessive deposition of types I collagen. The mechanism of such fibrosis is still unknown, but epigenetics may play some roles in the excessive collagen expression. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of fibrosis seen in LSc, focusing on microRNA (miRNA). miRNA expression was determined by PCR array, real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization. The function of miRNA was evaluated using specific inhibitor. Immunoblotting was performed to detect α2(I) collagen protein. PCR array analysis using tissue miRNA demonstrated miR-7 level was significantly decreased in LSc skin as well as keloid tissue compared to normal skin in vivo. In situ hybridization also showed miR-7 expression in dermal fibroblasts was decreased in LSc dermis. The transfection of specific inhibitor for miR-7 into cultured normal dermal fibroblasts resulted in the up-regulation of α2(I) collagen protein in vitro. Also, the serum levels of miR-7 were significantly decreased in LSc patients compared with healthy controls, but serum miR-29a levels not. Systemic or local down-regulation of miR-7 may contribute to the pathogenesis of LSc via the overexpression of α2(I) collagen, and serum miR-7 may be useful as a disease marker. Investigation of the regulatory mechanisms of LSc by miRNA may lead to new treatments by the transfection into the lesional skin of this disease.

  4. Sirtuins in dermatology: applications for future research and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Serravallo, Melissa; Jagdeo, Jared; Glick, Sharon A; Siegel, Daniel M; Brody, Neil I

    2013-05-01

    Sirtuins are a family of seven proteins in humans (SIRT1-SIRT7) that are involved in multiple cellular processes relevant to dermatology. The role of sirtuins in other organ systems is established. However, the importance of these proteins in dermatology is less defined. Recently, sirtuins gained international attention because of their role as "longevity proteins" that may extend and enhance human life. Sirtuins function in the cell via histone deacetylase and/or adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase enzymatic activity that target histone and non-histone substrates, including transcription regulators, tumor suppressors, structural proteins, DNA repair proteins, cell signaling proteins, transport proteins, and enzymes. Sirtuins are involved in cellular pathways related to skin structure and function, including aging, ultraviolet-induced photoaging, inflammation, epigenetics, cancer, and a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle, DNA repair and proliferation. This review highlights sirtuin-related cellular pathways, therapeutics and pharmacological targets in atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatoses, collagen vascular disorders, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypertrophic and keloid scars, cutaneous infections, and non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer. Also discussed is the role of sirtuins in the following genodermatoses: ataxia telangiectasia, Cowden's syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, Rubenstein-Taybi, Werner syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The pathophysiology of these inherited diseases is not well understood, and sirtuin-related processes represent potential therapeutic targets for diseases lacking suitable alternative treatments. The goal of this review is to bring attention to the dermatology community, physicians, and scientists, the importance of sirtuins in dermatology and provide a foundation and impetus for future discussion, research and pharmacologic discovery.

  5. Cross-sectional analysis of BioBank Japan clinical data: A large cohort of 200,000 patients with 47 common diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Makoto; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nagai, Akiko; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Muto, Kaori; Mushiroda, Taisei; Murakami, Yoshinori; Yuji, Koichiro; Furukawa, Yoichi; Zembutsu, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ohnishi, Yozo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    To implement personalized medicine, we established a large-scale patient cohort, BioBank Japan, in 2003. BioBank Japan contains DNA, serum, and clinical information derived from approximately 200,000 patients with 47 diseases. Serum and clinical information were collected annually until 2012. We analyzed clinical information of participants at enrollment, including age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and smoking and drinking status, across 47 diseases, and compared the results with the Japanese database on Patient Survey and National Health and Nutrition Survey. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and age, to assess the association between family history and disease development. Distribution of age at enrollment reflected the typical age of disease onset. Analysis of the clinical information revealed strong associations between smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drinking and esophageal cancer, high body mass index and metabolic disease, and hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with a family history of keloid exhibited a higher odds ratio than those without a family history, highlighting the strong impact of host genetic factor(s) on disease onset. Cross-sectional analysis of the clinical information of participants at enrollment revealed characteristics of the present cohort. Analysis of family history revealed the impact of host genetic factors on each disease. BioBank Japan, by publicly distributing DNA, serum, and clinical information, could be a fundamental infrastructure for the implementation of personalized medicine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New Uses of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Joel; Gilbert, Erin; Cohen, Joel L; Kaufman, Joely

    2017-05-01

    BotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) is now widely established for the main approved indication of reducing glabellar lines, and is also widely used off-label to improve the appearance of wrinkles and lines in other parts of the face. The number of aesthetic procedures continues to increase as the patient population becomes more diverse, in particular with increasing numbers of people of color and men. Further developments in treatment may continue to expand the audience for BoNT-A by making procedures more comfortable and by delivering a more natural, less static appearance. These may be achieved through use of combinations of BoNT-A with other aesthetic procedures, tailoring the dose of toxin to the patient's muscle mass or by using novel injection and application techniques. Beyond amelioration of facial lines, encouraging results have been seen with the use of BoNT-A to improve the appearance of hypertrophic and keloid scars and even to prevent them. Studies have been conducted with scars in various parts of the body and further research is ongoing. Dermatological and other medical uses for BoNT-A are also active areas of research. Injections of BoNT-A have been shown to reduce signs and symptoms of acne, rosacea, and psoriasis, to reduce neuromuscular pain, and to bring about significant improvements in a number of rare diseases that are caused or exacerbated by hyperhidrosis. This paper reviews these new uses for BoNT-A, looking at the rationale for their use and discussing the results of published case studies and clinical trials. These areas have shown great promise to date, but more and larger clinical studies will be required before these treatments become a clinical reality. To this end details are also provided of clinical trials currently listed in the main clinical trials database to highlight research areas of particular interest. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  7. Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments for Surgical and Traumatic Scars: A Systematic Review of their Development, Content, and Psychometric Validation.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Lily R; Miller, H Catherine; Klassen, Anne F; Cano, Stefan J; Pusic, Andrea L

    2016-10-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are of growing importance in research and clinical care and may be used as primary outcomes or as compliments to traditional surgical outcomes. In assessing the impact of surgical and traumatic scars, PROs are often the most meaningful. To assess outcomes from the patient perspective, rigorously developed and validated PRO instruments are essential. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify PRO instruments developed and/or validated for patients with surgical and/or non-burn traumatic scars. Identified instruments were assessed for content, development process, and validation under recommended guidelines for PRO instrument development. The systematic review identified 6534 articles. After review, we identified four PRO instruments meeting inclusion criteria: patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS), bock quality of life questionnaire for patients with keloid and hypertrophic scarring (Bock), patient scar assessment questionnaire (PSAQ), and patient-reported impact of scars measure (PRISM). Common concepts measured were symptoms and psychosocial well-being. Only PSAQ had a dedicated appearance domain. Qualitative data were used to inform content for the PSAQ and PRISM, and a modern psychometric approach (Rasch Measurement Theory) was used to develop PRISM and to test POSAS. Overall, PRISM demonstrated the most rigorous design and validation process, however, was limited by the lack of a dedicated appearance domain. PRO instruments to evaluate outcomes in scars exist but vary in terms of concepts measured and psychometric soundness. This review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of existing instruments, highlighting the need for future scar-focused PRO instrument development. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  8. Effects of Topical Tamoxifen on Wound Healing of Burned Skin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehrvarz, Shaban; Ebrahimi, Ali; Sahraei, Hedayat; Bagheri, Mohammad Hasan; Fazili, Sima; Manoochehry, Shahram; Rasouli, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the effects of the topical application of tamoxifen on wound healing of burned skin in Wistar rats by evaluating 3 healing characteristics: fibrotic tissue thickness (FTT), scar surface area (SSA), and angiogenesis in the healed scar tissue. Methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were used in this study. A third-degree burn wound was made on the shaved animals’ back, measuring 2×2×2 cm. In the first group, a 2% tamoxifen ointment was applied to the wound twice daily for 8 weeks. The second group received a placebo ointment during the same period. The third group did not receive any treatment and served as the control group. Results The median (interquartile range=[Q1, Q3]) FTT was 1.35 (1.15, 1.62) mm, 1.00 (0.95, 1.02) mm, and 1.25 (0.8, 1.5) mm in the control, tamoxifen, and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.069). However, the FTT in the tamoxifen group was less than in the placebo and control groups. The median angiogenesis was 3.5 (3.00, 6.25), 8.00 (6.75, 9.25), and 7.00 (5.50, 8.25) vessels per high-power field for the control, tamoxifen, and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.067). However, the median angiogenesis was higher in the tamoxifen group than in the control group. No significant difference was observed in the mean SSA between the tamoxifen group and the control group (P=0.990). Conclusions Local application of tamoxifen increased angiogenesis and decreased the FTT, with no change in the SSA in burned skin areas. These effects are expected to expedite the wound healing process, reducing contracture and preventing hypertrophic scar and keloid formation. PMID:28946718

  9. Evaluating an outreach service for paediatric burns follow up.

    PubMed

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Chesney, Amy; Brown, Liz; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2015-09-01

    Complications following paediatric burns are well documented and care needs to be taken to ensure the appropriate follow up of these patients. Historically this has meant follow up into adulthood however this is often not necessary. The centralisation of burns services in the UK means that patients and their parents may have to travel significant distances to receive this follow up care. To optimise our burns service we have introduced a burns outreach service to enable the patients to be treated closer to home. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the introduction of the burns outreach service and within this environment define the optimum length of time needed to follow up these patients. A retrospective analysis was carried out of 100 consecutive paediatric burns patients who underwent surgical management of their burn. During the follow up period there were 43 complications in 32 patients (32%). These included adverse scarring (either hypertrophic or keloid), delayed healing (taking >1 month to heal) and contractures (utilising either splinting or surgical correction). Fifty-nine percent of these complications occurred within 6 months of injury and all occurred within 18 months. Size of burn was directly correlated to the risk of developing a complication. The outreach service reduced the distance the patient needs to travel for follow up by more than 50%. There was also a significant financial benefit for the service as the follow up clinics were on average 50% cheaper with burns outreach than burns physician. Burns outreach is a feasible service that not only benefits the patients but also is cheaper for the burns service. The optimum length of follow up for paediatric burns in 18 months, after which if there have not been any complications they can be discharged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Target-Specific Delivery of an Antibody That Blocks the Formation of Collagen Deposits in Skin and Lung.

    PubMed

    Fertala, Jolanta; Romero, Freddy; Summer, Ross; Fertala, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Regardless of the cause of organ fibrosis, its main unwanted consequence is the formation of collagen fibril-rich deposits that hamper the structure and function of affected tissues. Although many strategies have been proposed for the treatment of fibrotic diseases, no therapy has been developed, which can effectively block the formation of collagen fibril deposits. With this in mind, we recently developed an antibody-based therapy to block key interactions that drive collagen molecules into fibrils. In this study, we analyzed target specificity, which is a main parameter that defines the safe use of all antibody-based therapies in humans. We hypothesized that, regardless of the route of administration, our antibody would preferentially bind to free collagen molecules synthesized at the sites of fibrosis and have minimal off-target interactions when applied in various tissues. To test this hypothesis, we used two experimental models of organ fibrosis: (1) a keloid model, in which antibody constructs were directly implanted under the skin of nude mice and (2) an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis, in which our antibody was administered systemically by intravenous injection. Following administration, we studied the distribution of our antibody within target and off-target sites as well as analyzed its effects on fibrotic tissue formation. We found that local and systemic application of our antibody had high specificity for targeting collagen fibrillogenesis and also appeared safe and therapeutically effective. In summary, this study provides the basis for further testing our antifibrotic antibody in a broad range of disease conditions and suggests that this treatment approach will be effective if delivered by local or systemic administration.

  11. Body piercing: complications and prevention of health risks.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Laumann, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Body and earlobe piercing are common practices in the USA today. Minor complications including infection and bleeding occur frequently and, although rare, major complications have been reported. Healthcare professionals should be cognizant of the medical consequences of body piercing. Complications vary depending on the body-piercing site, materials used, experience of the practitioner, hygiene regimens, and aftercare by the recipient. Localized infections are common. Systemic infections such as viral hepatitis and toxic shock syndrome and distant infections such as endocarditis and brain abscesses have been reported. Other general complications include allergic contact dermatitis (e.g. from nickel or latex), bleeding, scarring and keloid formation, nerve damage, and interference with medical procedures such as intubation and blood/organ donation. Site-specific complications have been reported. Oral piercings may lead to difficulty speaking and eating, excessive salivation, and dental problems. Oral and nasal piercings may be aspirated or become embedded, requiring surgical removal. Piercing tracts in the ear, nipple, and navel are prone to tearing. Galactorrhea may be caused by stimulation from a nipple piercing. Genital piercings may lead to infertility secondary to infection, and obstruction of the urethra secondary to scar formation. In men, priapism and fistula formation may occur. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and have a piercing or are considering obtaining one need to be aware of the rare complications that may affect them or their child. Though not a 'complication' per se, many studies have reported body piercing as a marker for high-risk behavior, psychopathologic symptoms, and anti-social personality traits. When it comes to piercing complications, prevention is the key. Body piercers should take a complete medical and social history to identify conditions that may predispose an individual to complications, and candidates should choose a

  12. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SURGICAL SKIN PLANING

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Samuel; Wilson, J. Walter; Luikart, Ralph

    1958-01-01

    In surgical skin planing steel wire brushes have been largely replaced by the less hazardous diamond chip burs or “fraises” and serrated steel wheels. In addition to acne pits and wrinkling, multiple actinic (senile) keratoses are an important indication for planing. Planing provides a nonscarring method for the treatment of existing keratoses, as well as a prophylaxis against skin cancer by replacing the sun-damaged, precancerous epidermis with new epidermal cells derived from the cutaneous adnexa (pilosebaceous and sweat gland units). There are clinical landmarks indicating the depth of planing which can serve as a guide to the operator and can be correlated with microscopic findings. The results of experiments on the comparative effects of refrigerants on animal and human skin indicate that human facial skin can tolerate considerable freezing with ethyl chloride or dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon 114) but that mixtures containing large proportions of the much colder dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) may be undesirable. Refreezing an area of the skin in order to perform a more adequate planing is not considered hazardous. The regeneration of the skin following planing has three components: Epidermal, adnexal and dermal. The cells of the epidermis and the adnexa are equipotential. A knowledge of the anatomy of the acne pit enables the operator to decide which pits can be benefited by planing and which should be excised before planing. The successful treatment of acne pits of the face by planing in patients having keloids elsewhere on the body is reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:13500217

  13. Fibrosing connective tissue disorders of the skin: molecular similarities and distinctions.

    PubMed

    Canady, Johanna; Karrer, Sigrid; Fleck, Martin; Bosserhoff, Anja K

    2013-06-01

    A variety of fibrosing connective tissue disorders of the skin have been described. They all share a characteristic activation of fibroblasts resulting in excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix whereas their etiologies, incidence rates and clinical appearances differ dramatically in part. As effective treatment options are still not on hand, the understanding of cutaneous fibrogenesis needs to be improved. This review focuses on the molecular differences and similarities of the major fibrosing skin disorders namely systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, keloid and hypertrophic scars, Eosinophilic fasciitis, Lichen sclerosus and graft-versus-host-disease. Abnormalities in ECM turnover and the impact of matrix-metalloproteases were closely examined. It could be concluded, that besides increased collagen synthesis, modified ECM degradation is an as important factor in cutaneous fibrogenesis. The influence of immune components such as HLA haplotypes and the production of auto-antibodies is crucial for some of the diseases, but not decisive for skin fibrosis in general. A great number of cytokines was reported to be differentially regulated in the respective disorders among whom the components of the gp130/STAT3 signaling pathway seem to be of pivotal importance. Furthermore, the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of fibrosing connective tissue diseases of the skin was analyzed according to the current state of knowledge. In summary, this review gives an explicit overview of the various molecular mechanisms leading to fibrosis in the skin and the underlying connective tissue and reveals the most promising targets for future therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New Uses of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Erin; Cohen, Joel L.; Kaufman, Joely

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) is now widely established for the main approved indication of reducing glabellar lines, and is also widely used off-label to improve the appearance of wrinkles and lines in other parts of the face. The number of aesthetic procedures continues to increase as the patient population becomes more diverse, in particular with increasing numbers of people of color and men. Further developments in treatment may continue to expand the audience for BoNT-A by making procedures more comfortable and by delivering a more natural, less static appearance. These may be achieved through use of combinations of BoNT-A with other aesthetic procedures, tailoring the dose of toxin to the patient’s muscle mass or by using novel injection and application techniques. Beyond amelioration of facial lines, encouraging results have been seen with the use of BoNT-A to improve the appearance of hypertrophic and keloid scars and even to prevent them. Studies have been conducted with scars in various parts of the body and further research is ongoing. Dermatological and other medical uses for BoNT-A are also active areas of research. Injections of BoNT-A have been shown to reduce signs and symptoms of acne, rosacea, and psoriasis, to reduce neuromuscular pain, and to bring about significant improvements in a number of rare diseases that are caused or exacerbated by hyperhidrosis. This paper reviews these new uses for BoNT-A, looking at the rationale for their use and discussing the results of published case studies and clinical trials. These areas have shown great promise to date, but more and larger clinical studies will be required before these treatments become a clinical reality. To this end details are also provided of clinical trials currently listed in the main clinical trials database to highlight research areas of particular interest. PMID:28388720

  15. Detection of substrate binding of a collagen-specific molecular chaperone HSP47 in solution using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Akira; Ishida, Yoshihito; Kubota, Hiroshi; Pack, Chan-Gi; Homma, Takayuki; Ito, Shinya; Araki, Kazutaka; Kinjo, Masataka; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-26

    Heat shock protein 47 kDa (HSP47), an ER-resident and collagen-specific molecular chaperone, recognizes collagenous hydrophobic amino acid sequences (Gly-Pro-Hyp) and assists in secretion of correctly folded collagen. Elevated collagen production is correlated with HSP47 expression in various diseases, including fibrosis and keloid. HSP47 knockdown ameliorates liver fibrosis by inhibiting collagen secretion, and inhibition of the interaction of HSP47 with procollagen also prevents collagen secretion. Therefore, a high-throughput system for screening of drugs capable of inhibiting the interaction between HSP47 and collagen would aid the development of novel therapies for fibrotic diseases. In this study, we established a straightforward method for rapidly and quantitatively measuring the interaction between HSP47 and collagen in solution using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The diffusion rate of HSP47 labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 (HSP47-AF), a green fluorescent dye, decreased upon addition of type I or III collagen, whereas that of dye-labeled protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not, indicating that specific binding of HSP47 to collagen could be detected using FCS. Using this method, we calculated the dissociation constant of the interaction between HSP47 and collagen. The binding ratio between HSP47-AF and collagen did not change in the presence of sodium chloride, confirming that the interaction was hydrophobic in nature. In addition, we observed dissociation of collagen from HSP47 at low pH and re-association after recovery to neutral pH. These observations indicate that this system is appropriate for detecting the interaction between HSP47 and collagen, and could be applied to high-throughput screening for drugs capable of suppressing and/or curing fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Safety and Efficacy of the 1540nm Non-Ablative Fractional XD Probe of Star Lux 500 Device in the Treatment of Striae Alba: Before-After Study.

    PubMed

    Malekzad, Farhad; Shakoei, Safoura; Ayatollahi, Azin; Hejazi, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Striae distensae (SD) are a frequent skin condition for which treatment remains a challenge. The 1540-nm non-ablative fractional laser (Star Lux 500) has been shown to improve atrophic scars by increasing the amount of dermal collagen. To assess the safety and efficacy of the Star Lux 500 laser in the treatment of mature hypopigmented striae in Persian people (Striae Alba). Ten women aged 26-50 years with SD and Fitzpatrick skin types III-V were enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were a history of keloids, photosensitivity and collagen, elastin disorders as well as history of other striae treatment within one year. The lesions were treated with non-ablative fractional laser 1540nm, and a total of four treatments were given at 4-week intervals. Clinical standard photographs were taken before each treatment. Also, patients were followed up at 3 months after the last treatment. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing baseline and post-treatment photographs by two independent blinded physicians using grading scale. Treatment efficacy analysis was performed via the comparison between the images taken before and after each treatment session. There was a clinically appreciable improvement in striae ranging from 1 to 24%. A significant improvement in striae between the 16-week treatment and the 4-week treatment was identified (P<0.0001). Three months after the final treatment, patients showed noticeable improvement in the striae, compared with baseline (P<0.048). Mild post inflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed in one patient after the 8-week treatment and mild to moderate acne occurred in another patient after 4 weeks of treatment. Therapy with Star lux 500 laser had clinically and statistically striae improvement with no adverse events. This may be a safe and an effective treatment modality for Striae Alba lesions.

  17. Effect of Topical Estrogen in the Mangement of Traumatic Facial Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Seyed Amirhosein; Barati, Behrooz; Mohammadi, Hosein; Saeidi, Masumeh; Bahreini, Abbas; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acute skin wound healing is a complicated process comprising various phases. Recent animal studies have shown that steroid sex hormones such as estrogen maybe helpful in the regulation of several pathophysiologic stages that are involved in wound healing. In this study we examined the effects of topical estrogen in the treatment of traumatic facial wounds. Materials and Methods: Patients referred to Luqman Hospital, Tehran with traumatic wounds were enrolled in this case-control study into two groups of equal size. From the second week of the study, topical estrogen (0.625 mg conjugated topical estrogen ointment) was administered in the case group, while the control group received a Eucerin dressing only. The two groups were then compared in terms of wound healing rate on Day 7,14, and 30. Results: Thirty patients with mean age of 16.02+36.23 years were compared in the control and estrogen-treated groups. After treatment, no scars or keloids were observed in either group. The wound area in the estrogen group was lower than that in the control group on Day 14 and 30, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Healing rates in the control group on Day 14 (7.1+42.3 vs.50.3+4.9 mm2) and Day 30 (1.9+93.5 vs. + 97.3+0.6 mm2) (were lower than those in the estrogen group, but the differences were not significant (P>0.05). Findings show that the required time for wound healing in the estrogen-treated group was lower than that in the control group, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on this study, topical estrogen has no effect on the rate of wound healing or the rate of wound area. PMID:26878003

  18. Effect of Topical Estrogen in the Mangement of Traumatic Facial Wounds.

    PubMed

    Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Seyed Amirhosein; Barati, Behrooz; Mohammadi, Hosein; Saeidi, Masumeh; Bahreini, Abbas; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Acute skin wound healing is a complicated process comprising various phases. Recent animal studies have shown that steroid sex hormones such as estrogen maybe helpful in the regulation of several pathophysiologic stages that are involved in wound healing. In this study we examined the effects of topical estrogen in the treatment of traumatic facial wounds. Patients referred to Luqman Hospital, Tehran with traumatic wounds were enrolled in this case-control study into two groups of equal size. From the second week of the study, topical estrogen (0.625 mg conjugated topical estrogen ointment) was administered in the case group, while the control group received a Eucerin dressing only. The two groups were then compared in terms of wound healing rate on Day 7,14, and 30. Thirty patients with mean age of 16.02+36.23 years were compared in the control and estrogen-treated groups. After treatment, no scars or keloids were observed in either group. The wound area in the estrogen group was lower than that in the control group on Day 14 and 30, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Healing rates in the control group on Day 14 (7.1+42.3 vs.50.3+4.9 mm2) and Day 30 (1.9+93.5 vs. + 97.3+0.6 mm2) (were lower than those in the estrogen group, but the differences were not significant (P>0.05). Findings show that the required time for wound healing in the estrogen-treated group was lower than that in the control group, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Based on this study, topical estrogen has no effect on the rate of wound healing or the rate of wound area.

  19. Standard Guidelines of Care: Performing Procedures in Patients on or Recently Administered with Isotretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Venkataram; Mahadevappa, Omprakash H.; Barua, Shyamanta; Majid, Imran; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Bhat, Ramesh M.; Talwar, Suresh; Thurakkal, Salim; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J.; Chatterjee, Manas; Ganjoo, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently, the standard protocol regarding the performance of procedures on patients receiving or having recently received isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) states that the procedures should not be performed. The recommendations in standard books and drug insert require discontinuation of isotretinoin for 6 months before performing cosmetic procedures, including waxing, dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser procedures, or incisional and excisional cold-steel surgery. These recommendations have been followed for over two decades despite little evidence for the stated increased risk of scarring. Objective: The Association of Cutaneous Surgeons (I) constituted a task force to review the evidence and to recommend consensus guidelines regarding the safety of skin procedures, including resurfacing, energy-device treatments, and dermatosurgical procedures in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration. Materials and Methods: Data were extracted from the literature through a PubMed search using the keywords “isotretinoin,” “safety,” “scarring,” “keloids,” “hypertrophic scarring,” and “pigmentation.” The evidence was then labeled and circulated to all members of task force for review. Results: The task force is of the opinion that there is insufficient evidence to support the current protocol of avoiding and delaying treatments in the patient group under consideration and recommends that the current practice should be discontinued. The task force concludes that performing procedures such as laser hair removal, fractional lasers for aging and acne scarring, lasers for pigmented skin lesions, fractional radio-frequency microneedling, superficial and medium-depth peels, microdermabrasion, dermaroller, biopsies, radio-frequency ablation, and superficial excisions is safe in patients with concurrent or recent isotretinoin administration. PMID:29491653

  20. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. Bilateral Forearm Transplantation in Mexico: 2-Year Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Martin; Butron, Patricia; Moran-Romero, Mario; Cruz-Reyes, Angel; Alberu-Gomez, Josefina; Leal-Villalpando, Paulino; Bautista-Zamudio, Jorge; Ramirez-Berumen, Maria; Lara-Hinojosa, Euridice; Espinosa-Cruz, Veronica; Gaytan-Cervantes, Rocio; Bravo-Ruiz, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Rojas, Elizabeth; Ramos-Peek, Jaime; Garcia-Alvarez, Miriam; Vega-Boada, Felipe; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Judith; Contreras-Barbosa, Sarai; Navarro-Lara, Africa; Vazquez-Lamadrid, Jorge; Guzman-Gonzalez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with proximal forearm and arm transplantation have obtained and/or maintained function of the elbow joint and full active range of motion of the extrinsic muscles of the hand, but with diminished protective sensibility and a lack of good function of the intrinsic muscles. These patients have improved function, as measured by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who suffered a high-voltage electrical burn requiring amputation of his upper limbs. He underwent bilateral proximal forearm transplantation in Mexico City in May 2012. At 2-year follow-up, immunosuppressive treatment has not led to metabolic, oncologic, or infectious complications. Keloid scars developed at the graft-recipient interface. There have been 4 acute rejections: the fourth was treated with methylprednisolone, rituximab, and immunoglobulin. Chronic rejection has not been detected. The extrinsic muscles of the wrist and digits have good function. Although the intrinsic muscles demonstrated electrical activity 15 months postoperatively, clinically, they are nonuseful. After 2 years, hand function is sufficient to allow the patient to grasp lightweight and medium-sized objects. The patient's Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire score improved from 50.00 points to 30.83 points, and his Hand Transplantation Score System rating is good, at 69/73 (right/left) of 100. The patient and his family are very satisfied with the functional and aesthetic outcomes. Upper arm or proximal forearm transplantation is a reconstructive option for patients who have experienced amputation because of trauma.

  2. Mechanobiological dysregulation of the epidermis and dermis in skin disorders and in degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei; Hsu, Chao-Kai

    2013-01-01

    During growth and development, the skin expands to cover the growing skeleton and soft tissues by constantly responding to the intrinsic forces of underlying skeletal growth as well as to the extrinsic mechanical forces from body movements and external supports. Mechanical forces can be perceived by two types of skin receptors: (1) cellular mechanoreceptors/mechanosensors, such as the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules and mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels, and (2) sensory nerve fibres that produce the somatic sensation of mechanical force. Skin disorders in which there is an abnormality of collagen [e.g. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS)] or elastic (e.g. cutis laxa) fibres or a malfunction of cutaneous nerve fibres (e.g. neurofibroma, leprosy and diabetes mellitus) are also characterized to some extent by deficiencies in mechanobiological processes. Recent studies have shown that mechanotransduction is crucial for skin development, especially hemidesmosome maturation, which implies that the pathogenesis of skin disorders such as bullous pemphigoid is related to skin mechanobiology. Similarly, autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma and mixed connective tissue disease, and pathological scarring in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars would seem to be clearly associated with the mechanobiological dysfunction of the skin. Finally, skin ageing can also be considered as a degenerative process associated with mechanobiological dysfunction. Clinically, a therapeutic strategy involving mechanoreceptors or MS nociceptor inhibition or acceleration together with a reduction or augmentation in the relevant mechanical forces is likely to be successful. The development of novel approaches such as these will allow the treatment of a broad range of cutaneous diseases. PMID:23672502

  3. A modern method of treatment: The role of silver dressings in promoting healing and preventing pathological scarring in patients with burn wounds

    PubMed Central

    Munteanu, A; Florescu, IP; Nitescu, C

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds are a global public health problem, which affects all countries, no matter the development stage and occurs in all age groups, from toddlers to elderly. In spite of burns being the cause of numerous household and work accidents, there are still no clear stated unanimous rules for their treatment. Every day new products appear on the market, each of them trying to prove more effective. Since ancient times, silver has been known for its antimicrobial properties, so it has been used for a long time in the treatment of burns and other types of wounds. One of the relatively modern methods of treatment is applying silver sheets on the scald lesions. In this paper, which was part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis), concerning prevention and treatment of the post-burn pathological scars, the cases of some patients with burns, who were treated by using the above mentioned method were presented and analyzed. The results obtained by applying silver sheets were then commented and interpreted, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages compared to silver sulfadiazine creams and ointments, which have already been used at a large scale. The prevention and treatment of post-burn pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) scars is a field in which still little is known and in which there are also no clearly set therapy plans. We hope that through this research and the following ones we will manage to establish some major guidelines concerning the prevention of pathological scars, which are not only disabling, but also a major aesthetic issue for any patient, in order to obtain better outcomes. PMID:27974941

  4. The treatment effect of the burn wound healing by electrolytic-reduction ion water lotion combination therapy. Part 2: Two degree burn of forearm to the dorsum of the hand.

    PubMed

    Shu, Tetsuo; Okajima, Masahiro; Wada, Yuko; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2010-10-01

    Patient 1: A 1-year-and-3-month-old boy suffered a burn injury extending from the left forearm to hand due to boiling water. An extensive skin defect from the left forearm to the dorsum of the hand was observed, and an IIb-III degree burn was diagnosed. Treatment of the burn was started with the application of electrolytic-reduction ion water (ERI) lotion, antibiotic/steroid combination ointment, and vitamin A/E ointment with wrap therapy. Two days after the initiation of therapy, redness and swelling were still observed despite a slight decrease in swelling. After 21 days, skin redness decreased, and there was no functional impairment. After 74 days, the skin color was almost normal, and no functional impairment was observed, showing a favorable course. Patient 2: An 8.5-month-old girl suffered a burn injury extending from the fingers to dorsum of the right hand and right wrist due to boiling water. There was an extensive skin defect accompanied by bulla formation extending from the fingers and dorsum of the right hand. An II-degree burn was diagnosed. Treatment of the burn was started treatment similar to the Patient 1. Bulla decreased, but redness and swelling were still present 2-8 days after the initiation of therapy. After 16-25 days, both skin redness and swelling decreased. After 30 days, the epithelialization of the dorsum of the hand had almost completed. After 60 days, the skin color was nearly normal, and there was no functional impairment, showing a favorable course. In these patients, burn wounds completely healed without hypertrophic or keloid scar formation or pigmentation. These results suggest that extensive II-III burns can be adequately treated by this topical therapy.

  5. Comparison of cosmetic outcomes of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures in pediatric facial lacerations.

    PubMed

    Luck, Raemma; Tredway, Trevor; Gerard, James; Eyal, Dalit; Krug, Lauren; Flood, Robert

    2013-06-01

    We sought to compare cosmetic outcomes, complication rates, and patient/caregiver satisfaction of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures in children. Healthy patients, 1 to 18 years old, with facial lacerations 1 to 5 cm, were randomized to repair with fast-absorbing catgut (FAC) or nylon (NYL) sutures. Patients returned in 4 to 7 days and in 3 to 4 months, at which time photographs and caregiver surveys were completed. Unlike part I, all FAC sutures were permitted to absorb rather than be removed. Using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS), a noninferiority (NI) design was applied, with a difference of less than 15 mm considered clinically equivalent. Caregivers and 3 blinded physicians independently rated the scars via photographs. Ninety-eight patients were enrolled, 76 caregiver surveys were completed, and 61 (29 FAC, 32 NYL) had photographs scored by physicians. The mean physician VAS scores for FAC and NYL were 57.6 and 67.6, respectively (difference, -10.0; 95% confidence interval, -19.1 to -0.4); thus, NI could not be established. The mean caregiver VAS scores for the FAC and NYL groups were 93.8 and 86.6, respectively (difference, 7.2; 95% confidence interval, -4.9 to 13.9); thus, NI of FAC was established. There were no significant differences in rates of infection, wound dehiscence, or keloid formation. In terms of future preference, caregivers favored FAC (33/33) over NYL (26/36) (P < 0.01). Caregiver VAS scores showed NI of FAC, which were also preferred by the caregivers. However, NI for FAC could not be demonstrated by blinded physicians with respect to cosmetic outcomes.

  6. A modern method of treatment: The role of silver dressings in promoting healing and preventing pathological scarring in patients with burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, A; Florescu, I P; Nitescu, C

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds are a global public health problem, which affects all countries, no matter the development stage and occurs in all age groups, from toddlers to elderly. In spite of burns being the cause of numerous household and work accidents, there are still no clear stated unanimous rules for their treatment. Every day new products appear on the market, each of them trying to prove more effective. Since ancient times, silver has been known for its antimicrobial properties, so it has been used for a long time in the treatment of burns and other types of wounds. One of the relatively modern methods of treatment is applying silver sheets on the scald lesions. In this paper, which was part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis), concerning prevention and treatment of the post-burn pathological scars, the cases of some patients with burns, who were treated by using the above mentioned method were presented and analyzed. The results obtained by applying silver sheets were then commented and interpreted, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages compared to silver sulfadiazine creams and ointments, which have already been used at a large scale. The prevention and treatment of post-burn pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) scars is a field in which still little is known and in which there are also no clearly set therapy plans. We hope that through this research and the following ones we will manage to establish some major guidelines concerning the prevention of pathological scars, which are not only disabling, but also a major aesthetic issue for any patient, in order to obtain better outcomes.

  7. Radiotherapy for benign disease; assessing the risk of radiation-induced cancer following exposure to intermediate dose radiation

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Paul; Prestwich, Robin JD; Shaffer, Richard E; Taylor, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Most radiotherapy (RT) involves the use of high doses (>50 Gy) to treat malignant disease. However, low to intermediate doses (approximately 3–50 Gy) can provide effective control of a number of benign conditions, ranging from inflammatory/proliferative disorders (e.g. Dupuytren's disease, heterotopic ossification, keloid scarring, pigmented villonodular synovitis) to benign tumours (e.g. glomus tumours or juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas). Current use in UK RT departments is very variable. This review identifies those benign diseases for which RT provides good control of symptoms with, for the most part, minimal side effects. However, exposure to radiation has the potential to cause a radiation-induced cancer (RIC) many years after treatment. The evidence for the magnitude of this risk comes from many disparate sources and is constrained by the small number of long-term studies in relevant clinical cohorts. This review considers the types of evidence available, i.e. theoretical models, phantom studies, epidemiological studies, long-term follow-up of cancer patients and those treated for benign disease, although many of the latter data pertain to treatments that are no longer used. Informative studies are summarized and considered in relation to the potential for development of a RIC in a range of key tissues (skin, brain etc.). Overall, the evidence suggests that the risks of cancer following RT for benign disease for currently advised protocols are small, especially in older patients. However, the balance of risk vs benefit needs to be considered in younger adults and especially if RT is being considered in adolescents or children. PMID:26462717

  8. Safety and effectiveness of hyaluronic acid fillers in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Pearl E; Thomas, Jane A; Murphy, Diane K

    2009-09-01

    To assess the safety and effectiveness of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers in skin of color. Two prospective studies followed up subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes of IV, V, or VI for 24 weeks after dermal filler injections. In a double-blind, randomized study, subjects were injected with one of three high concentration (24 mg/mL) HA fillers (Juvéderm Ultra, Ultra Plus, and 30) in one nasolabial fold and Zyplast collagen in the other. In an open-label, randomized study, subjects received one of three low concentration (5.5 mg/mL) HA fillers (Hylaform, Hylaform Plus, and Captique) in both nasolabial folds. A total of 160 subjects (a subset of 439 study subjects) were randomized and treated with one of the three high concentration fillers, and 119 subjects were randomized and treated with one of the three low concentration fillers. For subjects treated with the high concentration fillers there were no occurrences of hypersensitivity or hypertrophic scarring, and no increased incidence of hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation in non-Caucasian vs. Caucasian subjects. For subjects treated with the low concentration fillers there were no occurrences of keloid formation, hypertrophic scarring, hypopigmentation, hypersensitivity, and three instances of mild hyperpigmentation. For all of the fillers the majority of subjects maintained >/=1 point improvement in nasolabial fold severity scores through 24 weeks. All of the HA fillers were well tolerated in individuals with skin of color and demonstrated effectiveness throughout the 24 week period. Furthermore, the fillers provided smooth, natural-looking wrinkle correction in darker skin types.

  9. Reactive fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferation of the vulva (Cyclist's Nodule): A hitherto poorly described vulval lesion occurring in cyclists.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; Smith, John H F

    2011-01-01

    Perineal nodules occurring in male cyclists are reported in the literature, although the histologic features are not extensively documented. There has been little description of similar lesions in the female population. We describe 4 cases in which a vulval nodule or swelling developed in competitive female cyclists aged 15 to 45 years. The lesions were unilateral and occurred on the right or left labium majus (2 cases each). The histologic features were similar in all cases and consisted of a haphazard admixture of adipose tissue, variably cellular hyalinized tissue containing bland spindle-shaped fibroblasts, blood vessels, and nerve fibers. In some areas, thick cords of fibrous tissue imparted a keloid-like appearance. Other histologic features included plump mesenchymal cells with round or ovoid nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm resulting in an epithelioid, plasmacytoid, or ganglion-like appearance (2 cases), a lymphocytic infiltrate around blood vessels (3 cases), foci of fat necrosis (1 case), and collections of elastic fibers (2 cases). One case recurred, the histologic features of the recurrent lesion being identical to the original. The overall morphologic appearances, especially in the cases with plump mesenchymal cells, bore some resemblance to proliferative fasciitis. Immunohistochemically, the cells were estrogen receptor positive and the plump mesenchymal cells were smooth muscle actin positive, in keeping with myofibroblasts. Desmin, S100, CD34, and HMGA2 were negative. Pathologists should be aware of this pseudoneoplastic lesion occurring on the vulva, which arises in a specific clinical setting and has the potential to be misdiagnosed as a variety of other mesenchymal lesions. We term this lesion as reactive fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferation of the vulva or "cyclist's nodule."

  10. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: A report on 5 limbs in 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Daisuke; Suzue, Naoto; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Radioulnar length discrepancy causes pain and decreases function of the wrist, forearm, and elbow. Limb lengthening, which has been used in the treatment of various deformities of the forearm, is necessary to restore balance between the ulna and radius. We treated 5 limbs in 3 patients (2 boys, 1 girl; mean age 9.3 years old) with radioulnar length discrepancy by distraction osteogenesis of either the ulna or radius using external fixators. We dissected the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius in 3 limbs in 2 cases and did not do so in 2 limbs of 1 case. These cases include 2 cases with hereditary multiple exostoses, and 1 case with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. The results were investigated and evaluated in this study, using appropriate clinical and radiographic parameters, noting the state of the interosseous membrane, which has an important role in forearm stability. The mean fixation period was 113 days. The mean distraction distance was 22.8 mm. The mean follow-up period was 637.7 days. The mean ulnar shortening and radial articular angle respectively improved from 7.4 mm and 30.2° preoperatively to -0.1 mm and 34.8° postoperatively. Balance between the ulna and radius was restored, and the results showed significant improvements in range of motion of the joints. However, 2 unintended radial head subluxations occurred in 2 limbs without dissection of the interosseous membrane. In addition, a keloid remained in 1 limb due to pin site infection. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was useful in our cases. It is important to recognize the function of the interosseous membrane when lengthening is performed by osteotomy of the proximal ulna by gradual distraction with an external fixator.

  11. Surgical Outcome in Patients Taking Concomitant or Recent Intake of Oral Isotretinoin: A Multicentric Study-ISO-AIMS Study.

    PubMed

    Mahadevappa, Omprakash Heggadahalli; Mysore, Venkataram; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Thurakkal, Salim; Majid, Imran; Talwar, Suresh; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J; Chatterjee, Manas; Bhat, M Ramesh; Barua, Shyamanta; Ganjoo, Anil

    2016-01-01

    The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included[1] 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels;[2] 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2 laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery;[3] 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction;[4] 1 session of electrosurgery. No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised.

  12. Effectiveness and Safety of an Overnight Patch Containing Allium cepa Extract and Allantoin for Post-Dermatologic Surgery Scars.

    PubMed

    Prager, Welf; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2018-06-14

    An occlusive overnight intensive patch medical device (OIP) containing onion extract and allantoin has been developed for preventing and treating dermatologic scars and keloids. Here, we examined the efficacy and safety of the OIP for post-dermatologic surgery scars. This was an intra-individual randomized, observer-blind, controlled study in adults with post-dermatologic surgery scars. Two scars per subject were randomized to no treatment or overnight treatment with the OIP for 12-24 weeks. Scar quality was assessed using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and a Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. A total of 125 subjects were included. The decrease in observer-assessed POSAS from baseline was significantly greater for treated than untreated scars at week 6 (p < 0.001) and 24 (p = 0.001). The decrease in patient-assessed POSAS was significantly greater for the treated scar than the untreated scar at week 12 (p = 0.017) and 24 (p = 0.014). Subject- and investigator-evaluated Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores were higher for the treated than the untreated scar at all visits. All subjects considered the global comfort of the OIP to be good or very good, and no safety concerns were identified. This study confirmed that the OIP safely promotes scar healing after minor dermatologic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. [External periareolar incision for subdermal mastectomy in men with gynecomastia].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; Ramos-Alvarez, Gloria; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Tinajero-Esquivel, Magdalena; Ruiz-León, Betzabé

    2007-01-01

    Gynecomastia describes a benign increase of the mammary gland in men. When medical treatment fails, symptoms and psychological alterations persist. Subdermal mastectomy is the definitive treatment and can be achieved by different incisions, each with potential complications. We undertook this study to present clinical characteristics of 11 patients with gynecomastia and the results obtained with subdermal mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision. A descriptive cohort study in male patients with gynecomastia was carried out in a third-level medical care hospital. Patients were treated with subdermal mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision. There were 11 male patients with an average age of 19 years (range: 11-60 years), 3 patients (27.2%) with bilateral gynecomastia and 8 patients (72.7%) with unilateral gynecomastia. Average time of evolution was 22 months (range: 16-48 months), 9 patients (81.8%) reported pain, 11 patients (100%) reported psychological alterations with cutaneous alteration, 11 patients (100%) had normal secondary sexual characteristics, 1 patient (9%) had supernumerary nipple development, and 11 patients (100%) had well-defined lesions. According to Simon's classification: seven patients (63.6%) were classified as grade 1, three patients (27.2%) as grade 2 and one patient (9.09%) as grade 3. Each patient had a subdermal mastectomy with external periareolar incision, 11 patients (100%) had a histopathological report of gynecomastia; 1 patient (9.09%) displayed keloid healing and none displayed complications inherent to the surgical procedure. Mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision is useful in the treatment of gynecomastia.

  14. The Gift Box Open Achilles Tendon Repair Method: A Retrospective Clinical Series.

    PubMed

    Labib, Sameh A; Hoffler, C Edward; Shah, Jay N; Rolf, Robert H; Tingan, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Previous biomechanical studies have shown that the gift box technique for open Achilles tendon repair is twice as strong as a Krackow repair. The technique incorporates a paramedian skin incision with a midline paratenon incision, and a modification of the Krackow stitch is used to reinforce the repair. The wound is closed in layers such that the paratenon repair is offset from paramedian skin incision, further protecting the repair. The present study retrospectively reviews the clinical results for a series of patients who underwent the gift box technique for treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures from March 2002 to April 2007. The patients completed the Foot Function Index and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale. The tendon width and calf circumference were measured bilaterally and compared using paired t tests with a 5% α level. A total of 44 subjects, mean age 37.5 ± 8.6 years, underwent surgery approximately 10.8 ± 6.5 days after injury. The response rate was 35 (79.54%) patients for the questionnaire and 20 (45.45%) for the examination. The mean follow-up period was 35.7 ± 20.1 months. The complications included one stitch abscess, persistent pain, and keloid formation. One (2.86%) respondent reported significant weakness. Five (14.29%) respondents indicated persistent peri-incisional numbness. The range of motion was full or adequate. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale score was 93.2 ± 6.8) and the mean Foot Function Index score was 7.0 ± 10.5. The calf girth and tendon width differences were statistically significantly between the limbs. The patients reported no repeat ruptures, sural nerve injuries, dehiscence, or infections. We present the outcomes data from patients who had undergone this alternative technique for Achilles tendon repair. The technique is reproducible, with good patient satisfaction and return to activity. The results compared well with the historical

  15. Common pediatric and adolescent skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Angela M; Barrio, Victoria; Kulp-Shorten, Carol; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2003-10-01

    Skin lesions are encountered in all areas of medicine, and it is therefore important for physicians to understand the fundamentals of explaining and diagnosing common skin conditions. This article begins with a discussion of description and documentation of skin lesions based on color, size, morphology, and distribution. Pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo are depicted. Cutaneous growths that are found in the pediatric and adolescent population include acrochordons, dermatofibromas, keloids, milia, neurofibromas, and pyogenic granulomas. Treatment of these growths usually involves observation or curettage with electrodessication.Psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, poison ivy, and eczema are comprised of scaling patches and plaques; poison ivy and atopic dermatitis may also present with bullous and vesicular changes. Therapy typically consists of topical emollients and corticosteroids; phototherapy is reserved for refractory cases. Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease of the pediatric and adolescent population. This condition can be psychologically debilitating and, therefore, proper treatment is of paramount importance. Therapeutic options include topical as well as oral antibiotics and retinoids. Extreme caution must be used when prescribing retinoids to post-pubescent females, as these agents are teratogenic. Vascular anomalies are most commonly exemplified as port wine stains and hemangiomas. Port wine stains may be treated with pulsed dye laser or may be observed if they are not of concern to the patient or physician. Hemangiomas typically spontaneously regress by age ten; however, there has been recent concern that certain cases may need to be treated. Dermal rashes may be localized or generalized. Treatment of generalized drug eruptions involves elimination of the inciting agent, topical antipruritics, and systemic corticosteroids for severe reactions. Infectious etiologic agents of skin disease include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Many sexually

  16. The spectrum of skin diseases in a rural setting in Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa).

    PubMed

    Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Tabah, Earnest Njih; Kouotou, Emmanuel; Sini, Victor; Yepnjio, Faustin N; Nditanchou, Rogers; Nchufor, Roland N; Defo, Defo; Dema, Fidèle; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2012-06-21

    Skin disorders are generally considered to be more prevalent in the rural areas of Cameroon. This study was carried out to verify this assumption by describing the spectrum of skin disorders in a rural setting of Cameroon. We carried out a community-based clinical skin examination of 400 consenting subjects from 4 villages of Cameroon: Nyamanga (27%), Yebekolo (24%), Mbangassina (23%) and Bilomo (26%). The overall prevalence of skin diseases in our sample was 62% {95% CI: 57.2%, 66.8%} (248/400). The commonest skin disorders were: fungal infections (25.4%), parasitic infestations (21.4%), atrophic skin disorders (11.7%), hypertrophic skin disorders (9.7%), disorders of skin appendages {acne} (8.9%), benign neoplasm (6.5%), bacterial skin infections (5.2%), pigmentation disorders (4.8%), and dermatitis/eczema (4.0%). Skin infections and infestations constituted 52.82% of all skin disorders. The overall prevalence of infectious and parasitic infestation was 32.75% {95%CI: 28.17%, 37.59%} (131/400) as against 29.25% {95%CI: 24.83%, 33.98%} (117/400) for non-infectious disorders.Among people with skin infections/parasitic infestations, those with fungal infections and onchocercal skin lesions were the most prevalent, accounting for 48.1% (63/131) and 35.1% (46/131); and an overall prevalence of 15.75% {95%CI: 12.3%, 19.7%} (63/400) and 11.5% {95%CI: 8.5%, 15.0%} (46/400) respectively.There was secondary bacterial infection in 12.1% {95%CI: 8.31%, 16.82%} (30/248) of subjects with skin diseases. Hypertrophic and atrophic disorders of the skin were mainly keloids (9.68%), scarification marks (6.05%) and burn scars (5.65%). Skin diseases like dermatitis and eczema (4.03%), malignant tumours and pigmentation disorders were rare in our sample.The proportion of subjects diagnosed with skin disorders after examination (62.8%) was significantly higher than the proportion of 40.8% that declared having skin diseases (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of skin diseases in the rural

  17. Comparison of endoscopic and external dacryocystorhinostomy for treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pei-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EN-DCR) and external DCR (EX-DCR) for the treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANLDO). DESIGN: This was a retrospective, comparative, nonrandomized clinical study. METHODS: Reviewed medical records of PANLDO underwent DCR at Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital from May 2011 to June 2017. Data regarding the lacrimal passage system, comorbidities, surgical outcomes, and postoperative complications were analyzed. Anatomical success was defined as patency confirmed by intranasal endoscopic inspection of the ostium and successful lacrimal irrigation; functional success was defined as complete resolution of epiphora and positive fluorescein dye disappearance test, which were assessed at postoperative 6th months. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy patients (37 males, 133 females, mean age 57 years) underwent 178 DCR surgeries for PANLDO. The overall anatomical success rate was 94.4% (93.5% in EN-DCR vs. 95.8% in EX-DCR, P = 0.511) and functional success rate was 90.4% (90.7% in EN-DCR and 90.1% in EX-DCR, P = 0.909). Surgical outcomes were comparable between two groups. Complication rate was low in both groups, including 11 cases of early canalicular stent dislodge (7 in EN-DCR, 4 in EX-DCR), one case of postoperative nasal bleeding in EN-DCR, and two skin wound dehiscence and three cutaneous keloid formation in EX-DCR. None of these cases were concluded into surgical failure at the final visit. The time to symptoms relief was statistical significantly shorter in EN-DCR group (1.7 vs. 3.7 weeks in EX-DCR, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Success rate of DCR for PANLDO in our study was high, and complication rate was low for both endoscopic and external approaches. There was no statistically significant difference between them. EN-DCR provided higher satisfaction due to quicker recovery and lack of external incision. Endoscopic DCR should be considered

  18. Can thermal lasers promote skin wound healing?

    PubMed

    Capon, Alexandre; Mordon, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Lasers are now widely used for treating numerous cutaneous lesions, for scar revision (hypertrophic and keloid scars), for tissue welding, and for skin resurfacing and remodeling (wrinkle removal). In these procedures lasers are used to generate heat. The modulation of the effect (volatilization, coagulation, hyperthermia) of the laser is obtained by using different wavelengths and laser parameters. The heat source obtained by conversion of light into heat can be very superficial, yet intense, if the laser light is well absorbed (far-infrared:CO(2) or Erbium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet [Er:YAG] lasers), or it can be much deeper and less intense if the laser light is less absorbed by the skin (visible or near-infrared). Lasers transfer energy, in the form of heat, to surrounding tissues and, regardless of the laser used, a 45-50 degrees C temperature gradient will be obtained in the surrounding skin. If a wound healing process exists, it is a result of live cells reacting to this low temperature increase. The generated supraphysiologic level of heat is able to induce a heat shock response (HSR), which can be defined as the temporary changes in cellular metabolism. These changes are rapid and transient, and are characterized by the production of a small family of proteins termed the heat shock proteins (HSP). Recent experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that HSP 70, which is over-expressed following laser irradiation, could play a role with a coordinated expression of other growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. TGF-beta is known to be a key element in the inflammatory response and the fibrogenic process. In this process, the fibroblasts are the key cells since they produce collagen and extracellular matrix. In conclusion, the analysis of the literature, and the fundamental considerations concerning the healing process when using thermal lasers, are in favor of a modification of the growth factors synthesis after laser irradiation, induced

  19. [PERSONALIZED APPROACH TO PATIENT WITH CHRONIC WOUND IN FAMILY MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Sinožić, T; Katić, M; Kovačević, J

    2016-01-01

    It can be said that the occurrence and development of wounds, healing, delayed healing, and the notion of chronic wound are some of the basic characteristics of all living beings. When it comes to people, there are a number of processes that take place during wound healing, and even under ideal circumstances, they create a functionally less valuable skin tissue, along with structural and functional changes. Fibrosis in the form of hypertrophic scars and keloids, contractures and adhesions are examples of excessive healing. Microcirculation is significantly different from healthy skin circulation with consequential formation of local hypoxia and stagnation in lymph flow with edema. Poor functionality of the scar tissue, particularly in the areas exposed to stronger forces, can cause forming of wounds. Such wounds are hard to heal despite the inexistence of other possible reasons for delayed healing, precisely because of their poor functionality and placement. The presence of wound requiring long-term treatment affects all areas of patient life and leads to decline in the quality of life. Exemplified by case presentation of a patient with post-traumatic wound in the scar area, in our office we showed a model of care based on the principle of overall personalized care with the biopsychosocial approach. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures included wound assessment, biofilm and lymphedema detection, assessment of the patient’s psychosocial status, risk factors for wound healing, vascular ultrasound diagnostics, carboxytherapy as specialized adjuvant therapy, use of modern wound dressings, and compression therapy. Supportive psychotherapy was conducted in positive communication environment during treatment. In this way, in an atmosphere of cooperation with the patient, it was possible not only to influence the process of wound healing as the primary objective, but also to improve the quality of the patient’s life, as well as to influence our professional

  20. Comparative study of wound healing in rat skin following incision with a novel picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) and different surgical modalities

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Kruber, Sebastian; Münscher, Adrian; Gliese, Alexandra; Hansen, Nils‐Owe; Uschold, Stephanie; Eggert, Dennis; Robertson, Wesley D.; Gosau, Tobias; Sehner, Susanne; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut; Schumacher, Udo; Knecht, Rainald; Miller, R.J. Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    significant (P < 0.083). Conclusions The hypothesis that PIRL results in minimal scar formation with improved cosmetic outcomes was positively verified. In particular the resection of skin tumors or pathological scars, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids, are promising future fields of PIRL application. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:385–391, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26941063

  1. Standard guidelines of care: CO2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Krupashankar, D S

    2008-01-01

    Resurfacing is a treatment to remove acne and chicken pox scars, and changes in the skin due to ageing. MACHINES: Both ablative and nonablative lasers are available for use. CO 2 laser is the gold standard in ablative lasers. Detailed knowledge of the machines is essential. INDICATIONS FOR CO 2 LASER: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses. CO 2 laser is not recommended for the removal of tattoos. AESTHETIC INDICATIONS: Resurfacing for acne, chicken pox and surgical scars, periorbital and perioral wrinkles, photo ageing changes, facial resurfacing. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Any qualified dermatologist (DVD or MD) may practice CO 2 laser. The dermatologist should possess postgraduate qualification in dermatology and should have had specific hands-on training in lasers either during postgraduation or later at a facility which routinely performs laser procedures under a competent dermatologist/plastic surgeon, who has experience and training in using lasers. For the use of CO 2 lasers for benign growths, a full day workshop is adequate. As parameters may vary in different machines, specific training with the available machine at either the manufacturer's facility or at another centre using the machine is recommended. CO 2 lasers can be used in the dermatologist's minor procedure room for the above indications. However, when used for full-face resurfacing, the hospital operation theatre or day care facility with immediate access to emergency medical care is essential. Smoke evacuator is mandatory. Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, possible postoperative complications, should be discussed with the patient. The patient should be provided brochures to study and

  2. Comparison of two incisionless otoplasty techniques for prominent ears in children.

    PubMed

    Haytoglu, Suheyl; Haytoglu, Tahir Gokhan; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Kuran, Gokhan; Arikan, Osman Kursat

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we applied two incisionless suture techniques for otoplasty: Haytoglu et al.'s modification of incisionless otoplasty technique and Fritsch's incisionless otoplasty technique for correction of prominent ears. In this prospective study, 60 patients with prominent ears were included in the study. In Group 1, 55 ears of 30 patients (25 bilateral and 5 unilateral) were operated with Haytoglu et al.'s modification of incisionless otoplasty technique. In Group 2, 57 ears of 30 patients (27 bilateral and 3 unilateral) were operated with Fritsch's incisionless otoplasty technique. For comparison of two methods, auriculocephalic distances were measured at three levels which were level 1 (the most superior point of the auricle), level 2 (the midpoint of the auricle) and level 3 (level of the lobule) pre-operatively (preop); and measurements were repeated at the end of the surgery (PO(0-day)), 1st month (PO(1-Mo)) and 6th month (PO(6-Mo)) after the surgery, in both groups. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Moreover, Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) was rated by an independent, non-participating plastic surgeon at 6 months after the surgery. Operation time was 15.9±5.6min in Group 1 (Haytoglu et al.'s) and 19±4.7min in Group 2 (Fritsch). Hematoma, infection, bleeding, keloid scar formation, sharp edges or irregularities of the cartilage were not observed in any group. Suture extrusion was detected in 14.03% of Group 1 and 16.1% of Group 2. No statistically significant difference was observed between auriculocephalic distances at levels 1-3 of groups at preop, PO(0-day), PO(1-Mo) and PO(6-Mo) separately. Similarly, difference in auriculocephalic distances (preop values-PO(6-Mo) values) was not detected as statistically significant in Groups 1 and 2 at three levels. In both techniques, No statistically significant difference was observed in patient satisfaction at 6th months after the operation which was

  3. [Early hypertrophic scar after surgery on the nasal region: value of long-acting corticosteroid injections].

    PubMed

    Amici, J-M

    2014-01-01

    "Pincushioning" is a complication of post-surgical scarring following use of transposition flaps particularly when surgery is performed on the nasal region. The transposition flap technique is very useful for the repair of certain defects of the tip of the nose, the medial canthus or of the ala nasi. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics of this scarring dystrophy, which we propose to call "early hypertrophy scarring", to clarify the nature thereof and to assess the efficacy of intralesional injection of corticosteroids at the first signs of hypertrophy. A prospective, open, non-comparative, single-centre study examined the clinical and histological characteristics of early hypertrophy scarring and the effectiveness of therapy with one or two injections of corticosteroids performed on the 15th day post-operatively and optionally repeated at D45 depending on the outcome. From January 2011 to January 2013, 12 consecutive patients with early hypertrophy scarring were included (ten men and two women - mean age: 64 years). All had undergone surgery for basal cell carcinoma under local anaesthesia with one-stage repair by means of a rhombic flap or a bilobed flap located in the nasal area. Scars were injected strictly intra-lesionally with triamcinolone acetate (40 mg/1 mL) until whitening occurred. A single injection was performed in three cases of rhombic flap while a second injection was given at D45 in the remaining nine cases. Complete regression of the early hypertrophy scarring was obtained in ten of the 12 patients by D90. Incomplete regression was observed but with a marked improvement in the other two patients. Early hypertrophy scarring is distinguished by its clinical characteristics of hypertrophic or keloid scars. Biopsy performed in two cases showed the fibrous but non-fatty nature of early hypertrophy scarring. Biomechanical factors particular to the nasal region and the transposition flap technique could account for the early

  4. Cosmetic outcomes of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures in pediatric facial lacerations.

    PubMed

    Luck, Raemma P; Flood, Robert; Eyal, Dalit; Saludades, John; Hayes, Ciana; Gaughan, John

    2008-03-01

    We sought to compare the long-term cosmetic outcomes of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures for facial lacerations in children and to compare the complication rates and parental satisfaction in the 2 groups. Healthy patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department with facial lacerations were randomized to repair using fast-absorbing catgut or nylon suture. Patients were followed up at 5 to 7 days and at 3 months. Three blinded observers, using a previously validated 100-mm cosmesis visual analogue scale (VAS) as the primary instrument, rated photographs of the wound taken at 3 months. For this noninferiority study, a VAS score of 15 mm or greater was considered to be the minimal clinically important difference. Parents also rated the wound using the VAS and completed a satisfaction survey. Of the 88 patients initially enrolled, 47 patients completed the study: 23 in the catgut group and 24 in the nylon group. There were no significant differences in age, race, sex, wound length, number of sutures, and layered repair rates in the 2 groups. The observers' mean VAS for the catgut group was 92.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1-95.4) and that for the nylon group was 93.7 (95% CI, 91.4-96.0), with a difference of the means of 1.4 (95% CI, -5.31 to 8.15), which was less than the minimal clinically important difference of 15 mm (power, >90%). The mean parental VAS score for the catgut group was 86.3 (95% CI, 78.4-94.1) and that for the nylon group was 91.2 (95% CI, 86.9-95.4), with a difference of the means of 4.9 (95% CI, 2.41-7.41), also less than 15 mm. There were no significant differences in the rates of infection, wound dehiscence, keloid formation, and parental satisfaction. The use of fast-absorbing catgut suture is a viable alternative to nonabsorbable suture in the repair of facial lacerations in children.

  5. Clinical outcomes of totally implantable venous access port placement via the axillary vein in patients with head and neck malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun; Seo, Tae-Seok; Song, Myung Gyu; Seol, Hae-Young; Suh, Sang Il; Ryoo, In-Seon

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes and complications of totally implantable venous access port implantation via the axillary vein in patients with head and neck malignancy. A total of 176 totally implantable venous access ports were placed via the axillary vein in 171 patients with head and neck malignancy between May 2012 and June 2015. The patients included 133 men and 38 women, and the mean age was 58.8 years (range: 19-84 years). Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. This study included a total of 93,237 totally implantable venous access port catheter-days (median 478 catheter-days, range: 13-1380 catheter-days). Of the 176 implanted totally implantable venous access port, complications developed in nine cases (5.1%), with the overall incidence of 0.097 events/1000 catheter-days. The complications were three central line-associated blood-stream infection cases, one case of keloid scar at the needling access site, and five cases of central vein stenosis or thrombosis on neck computed tomography images. The 133 cases for which neck computed tomography images were available had a total of 59,777 totally implantable venous access port catheter-days (median 399 catheter-days, range: 38-1207 catheter-days). On neck computed tomography evaluation, the incidence of central vein stenosis or thrombosis was 0.083 events/1000 catheter-days. Thrombosis developed in four cases, yielding an incidence of 0.067 events/1000 catheter-days. All four patients presented with thrombus in the axillary or subclavian vein. Stenosis occurred in one case yielding an incidence of 0.017 events/1000 catheter-days. One case was catheter-related brachiocephalic vein stenosis, and the other case was subclavian vein stenosis due to extrinsic compression by tumor progression. Of the nine complication cases, six underwent port removal. These data indicate that totally implantable venous access port implantation via the axillary vein in patients with head and neck malignancy is safe and

  6. Endometrial stromal sarcoma involving the urinary bladder: a study of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Latour, Mathieu; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2014-07-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) involving the urinary bladder is very rare, with no prior series reported. We identified 6 cases of low-grade ESS involving the bladder at our institution (1998 to 2013), 5 of them consults. The median age at bladder involvement was 60 years (range, 44 to 77 y). One patient presented with bladder involvement at initial diagnosis of ESS. The remaining 5 cases with bladder involvement presented 7 to 30 years (mean 18 y) after a known diagnosis of ESS (n=2) or after a remote history of hysterectomy with an uncertain diagnosis (n=3). The location of bladder involvement included dome (n=1), trigone (n=2), diffuse (n=1), and unknown (n=2). Two cases demonstrated worm-like infiltrating tumor nests classic of low-grade ESS with little stromal reaction with retraction artifact mimicking vascular invasion. One case originating from the ovary showed focal glandular differentiation in the bladder, resembling endometriosis. Two cases had abundant keloidal collagen formation, arranged haphazardly or in a sunburst pattern. One case showed primitive cells infiltrating entirely hyalinized stroma, after chemotherapy given for a misdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma. CD31 was negative in all cases, except for 1 case with obvious large vessel invasion. The differential diagnosis included a large nested variant of urothelial carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, synovial sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and endometriosis. CD10 was strongly positive in 5 cases, and 1 case had very focal, moderate staining. Estrogen receptor showed strong and diffuse staining in all 6 cases. Progesterone receptor showed moderate to strong staining in 5 cases and focal staining in 1 case. One case showed PAX8 expression, and 2 cases showed p16 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression. CD56 showed weak to strong staining in 4 cases. Two cases had diffuse synaptophysin, and 1 case had focal p63 positivity. GATA-3, CD34, and CD99 were negative

  7. A Comparison of Gene Expression of Decorin and MMP13 in Hypertrophic Scars Treated With Calcium Channel Blocker, Steroid, and Interferon: A Human-Scar-Carrying Animal Model Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Yi; Yang, Jui-Yung; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh

    2017-01-01

    The formation of hypertrophic scaring (HSc) is an abnormal wound-healing response. In a previous study, an animal model with human scar tissue implanted into nude mice (BALB/c) has been successfully established. The effects of verapamil as well as combination therapy with verapamil and kenacort have been studied and compared. To treat persistent hypertrophic scars, local injection of drugs composed of steroids, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and interferon might be a good method. What is the best dose of the regimen and what are the mechanisms are also a worthwhile study. Scar specimens were harvested from patients with HSc or Keloid resulting from burn injury, and then implanted to BALB/c-nu nude mice for 4 weeks. Before implantation, the specimen was either injected with or without drugs such as steroids (kenacort), CCBs (verapamil), and interferons (INFα2b), respectively. After the removal of implants, quantitative gene expressions of decorin and collagenase (MMP13) were measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect their mRNAs. Two way-ANOVA and Post Hoc were used for statistical analysis using the software SPSS 15.0. All drug-treated groups increased the expressions of decorin and MMP13 in comparison with those in noninjected group (p < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing equal amounts of individual drugs, gene expression of decorin was increased with increasing injection amount, and the best result in low amount of injection (0.02 mL of each) was shown in the group injected with INFα2b followed by kenacort and verapamil. However, the results were changed while injection amount was up to 0.04 mL and the strongest decorin gene expression was found in kenacort injection. Regarding MMP-13 expression, low-amount injection (0.02 mL) of INFα2b has strongest gene expression followed by kenacort and verapamil, but in the large-amount regimes (0.04 mL), verapamil had strongest gene expression followed by INFα2b and kenacort. This study

  8. Basic components of connective tissues and extracellular matrix: elastin, fibrillin, fibulins, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, tenascins and thrombospondins.

    PubMed

    Halper, Jaroslava; Kjaer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    -elastic extracellular matrixes, and interact closely with tropoelastin and integrins. Not only do microfibrils provide structural integrity of specific organ systems, but they also provide a scaffold for elastogenesis in elastic tissues. Fibrillin is important for the assembly of elastin into elastic fibers. Mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene are closely associated with Marfan syndrome. Fibulins are tightly connected with basement membranes, elastic fibers and other components of extracellular matrix and participate in formation of elastic fibers. Tenascins are ECM polymorphic glycoproteins found in many connective tissues in the body. Their expression is regulated by mechanical stress both during development and in adulthood. Tenascins mediate both inflammatory and fibrotic processes to enable effective tissue repair and play roles in pathogenesis of Ehlers-Danlos, heart disease, and regeneration and recovery of musculo-tendinous tissue. One of the roles of thrombospondin 1 is activation of TGFβ. Increased expression of thrombospondin and TGFβ activity was observed in fibrotic skin disorders such as keloids and scleroderma. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) or thrombospondin-5 is primarily present in the cartilage. High levels of COMP are present in fibrotic scars and systemic sclerosis of the skin, and in tendon, especially with physical activity, loading and post-injury. It plays a role in vascular wall remodeling and has been found in atherosclerotic plaques as well.

  9. Differential response of human dermal fibroblast subpopulations to visible and near-infrared light: Potential of photobiomodulation for addressing cutaneous conditions.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Charles; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E; Castellano-Pellicena, Irene; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2018-04-17

    accompanied by a dose-dependent release of ROS that was localized in the perinuclear area close to mitochondria, which was attenuated by an antioxidant. Overall, reticular DFs exhibited a greater sensitivity to light treatment at the level of gene expression than did papillary DFs, with more genes significantly up- or down- regulated. At the intra-cellular signaling pathway level, the up- or down- regulation of vital pathways was observed only for reticular DF, after treatment with 30 J/cm 2 of blue light. At the cellular level, short visible wavelengths exerted a greater inhibitory effect on reticular DF. Several genes involved in the TGF-β signaling pathway were also affected. In addition, procollagen I production was inhibited. By contrast, 850 nm near-infrared (NIR) light (20 J/cm 2 ) exerted a stimulatory metabolic effect in these cells, with no detectable intracellular ROS formation. Here too, reticular DF were more responsive than papillary DF. This stimulatory effect was only observed under in vivo-like low oxygen conditions, corresponding to normal dermal tissue oxygen levels (approximately 2%). This study highlights a differential impact of light on human skin cells with upregulation of metabolic activity with NIR light, and inhibition of pro-collagen production and proliferation in response to blue light. These findings open-up new avenues for developing therapies for different cutaneous conditions (e.g., treatment of keloids and fibrosis) or differential therapy at distinct stages of wound healing. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Glycerin-Based Hydrogel for Infection Control.

    PubMed

    Stout, Edward I; McKessor, Angie

    2012-02-01

    concentration will be cytotoxic to all cells that have been tested if they are exposed long enough. These properties of glycerin have been recognized by the European Skin Bank, where they use 85% glycerin solutions to store cadaver skin at ∼42F, and can be used for potential wound coverings. The cadaver skin that has been prepared by this method has been available since 1994. 6 The concern for safety resulted in a three-day international synmposium 7 with emphasis on glycerin-preserved cadaver skin providing healthy environment for the preserved skin to be successfully accepted without rejection, having no complications of infection and providing excellent healing outcomes and minimal scaring. Additional research by Dr. David P. Mackie of the Red Cross Hospital, The Netherlands, reported that using 85% glycerin solutions had slow bactericidal effects and also showed virocidal activity on several types of viruses. 8 Dr. Hoekstra has observed that within 2 hours after application of Elasto-Gel™, the inflammatory reaction is reduced. 9 Vandeputte, Belgium, showed that wounds covered with Elasto-Gel™ had fewer myofibroblasts than those covered with hydrocolloid. 10 It has been proposed that myofibroblasts in high concentrations contribute to the formation of hypertrophic and keloid scars. As noted earlier, there is less scar formation when glycerin-based gel sheets are used. The data sited here have shown that glycerin and glycerin-based products are effective antimicrobial agents with less side effects. Many verbal reports along with personal communications have indicated that applying glycerin-based gel sheets to stalled wounds, some 15-20-year-old chronic wounds, resulted in healing in 1-20 weeks (data/case studies on file). Elasto-Gel™ has been approved for all types of wounds, that is, pressure ulcers, acute and chronic wounds, diabetic wounds, traumatic wounds, dermatology wounds, cancer tumors, and first- and second-degree burns, to name a few. Because of the

  11. Tissue adhesives for simple traumatic lacerations.

    PubMed

    Beam, Joel W

    2008-01-01

    Farion K, Osmond MH, Hartling L, et al. Tissue adhesives for traumatic lacerations in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001(4);CD003326. What is the clinical evidence base for tissue adhesives in the management of simple traumatic lacerations? Studies were identified by searches of the following databases: Cochrane Wounds Group Specialized Trials Register (September 2003), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (CDROM 2003, issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2003, week 1), EMBASE (1988 to 2003, week 36), Web of Science Science Citation Index (1975 to September 13, 2003) and various clinical trials registers (September 2003). Investigators and product manufacturers were contacted to identify additional eligible studies. The search terms included wounds and injuries, laceration, face injury, nose injury, tissue adhesives, and acrylates. Each study fulfilled the following criteria: (1) The study was a randomized controlled trial that compared tissue adhesives with standard wound closure (SWC) (sutures, staples, adhesive strips) or tissue adhesive with tissue adhesive. (2) The wounds were acute, linear lacerations less than 12 hours old, resulting from blunt or sharp trauma. (3) The wound length, width, and depth allowed for approximation of the edges with minimal tension after deep sutures were placed, if required. Studies were included with no language or publication status restriction, with participants of any age recruited in an emergency department, outpatient clinic, walk-in clinic, or other primary care setting. Studies were excluded if the wounds were stellate lacerations, puncture wounds, mammalian bites, infected, heavily contaminated or devitalized, crossing joints or mucocutaneous junctions, in hair-bearing areas, or in patients with keloid formation or chronic illness. The characteristics of the study and participants, interventions, outcome measures, and findings were extracted by one author and verified by a second