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Sample records for kenkyu kaihatsu dai

  1. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Documentation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    maintaining the DAIS library, (2) generating certain specifications, plans, drawings and/or test reports, (3) performing configuration audits per MIL- STD ...1521, (4) assuring that DAIS documents conformed to MIL- STD -490 and 483, (5) technical editing and DO I’FAN 7 1473 EDITION OF I NOV LIIS OBSOLETE...programs on how to properly document their efforts in MIL- STD format.,/’ , lI UNCLASS IFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICAION OF THIS PAOR(VPMS 0Di Ent1m0

  2. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    Designed to identify and quantify the potential impacts of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) on weapon system personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC), this study postulated a typical close-air-support (CAS) mission avionics suite to serve as a basis for comparing present day and DAIS configuration specifications. The purpose…

  3. DAI-CLIPS: Distributed, Asynchronous, Interacting CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagne, Denis; Garant, Alain

    1994-01-01

    DAI-CLIPS is a distributed computational environment within which each CLIPS is an active independent computational entity with the ability to communicate freely with other CLIPS. Furthermore, new CLIPS can be created, others can be deleted or modify their expertise, all dynamically in an asynchronous and independent fashion during execution. The participating CLIPS are distributed over a network of heterogeneous processors taking full advantage of the available processing power. We present the general framework encompassing DAI-CLIPS and discuss some of its advantages and potential applications.

  4. Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 (DAI Inc 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 ( DAI Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED DAI Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS Programs...Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics DAI Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3 Mr

  5. Midwifery practices of village dais in Mahbubnagar Taluk.

    PubMed

    Jesudason, V

    1977-09-01

    A study of 233 dais (77.9%) in the 116 villages in Mahbubnagar Taluk found that all were illiterate. 19 castes were represented in the group. The dai performs vaginal examination to know about the stage of labor and whether or not the baby is in proper position for delivery. The woman is often made to lie on her back while the dai delivers the baby. 70% recommended the squatting position for delivery instead of the lying down position. 94% of the dais used a sickle to cut the umbilical cord. Dais also give advice in raising a child, which is especially useful for those women exeriencing their first birth. 73%-78% dais give advice about diet for the mother and child. 19% of dais reported they gave advice regarding tonics for the mother. Tonics are prepared by commercial companies and sold through shops. Gripe Water is prescribed to mothers by a few dais although it is intended for babies. 48% of the dais were over age 60; 70% were widows. About 55% perform vaginal examination; only one half wash their hands before the examination. The preferred position for the woman to be in before delivery is squatting on the floor, leaning against a wall for support. Dietary advice should be given to new mothers even when they deliver in hospitals.

  6. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Training Requirements Analysis Model (TRAMOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The training requirements analysis model (TRAMOD) described in this report represents an important portion of the larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. TRAMOD is the second of three models that comprise an LCC impact modeling system for use in the early stages of system development. As…

  7. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost--Supplement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    This supplement to a technical report providing the results of a preliminary investigation of the potential impact of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept on system support personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC) includes: (1) additional details of the cost comparison of a hypothetical application of a conceptual…

  8. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Development and Demonstration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    of twoa ,w-r both -ne J/3/ 1 and trie 2𔄁" ver-s i s of fri-:- a[)4,, i ,r L~ *Vt - ,Ner-. assessod. The j Sse’[;;k ’r ~fj*; 0 compliance of the...118) Core ElerienL hardware: DAIS Proce2 ,ors (): Master. 4emote and Poei-f ": BCIU/BCI J R T s Simvulated floss :Mawiory Conitrols aric Display-, P T

  9. Dai-Freed theorem and topological phases of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    We describe a physics derivation of theorems due to Dai and Freed about the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer eta-invariant which is important for anomalies and topological phases of matter. This is done by studying a massive fermion. The key role is played by the wave function of the ground state in the Hilbert space of the fermion in the large mass limit. The ground state takes values in the determinant line bundle and has nontrivial Berry phases which characterize the low energy topological phases.

  10. UCA{trademark}/DAIS{trademark} demonstration project by Kansas City Power and Light Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Kansas City Power and Light (KCPL) demonstrated the use of EPRI`s Utility Communication Architecture (UCA{trademark}) and Database Access Integrated Services (DAIS{trademark}) to provide KCPL employees seamless and transparent access to corporate data resources from their desktops. The major components of the KCPL project are client workstations with a Graphical User Interface which builds the necessary Structured Query Language (SQL) requests from the user`s data directory selections and provides a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) interface and programmer Application Program Interface (API). DAIS Directory Services provided data browsing and search capability and allows users to select data items for analysis. DAIS Servers provided database-related functions to both relational databases (customer data in Oracle) and non-relational data sources (PMAX performance monitoring system and PI historical database). The DAIS client software was provided by Automation Technology, Inc. (ATI); and the DAIS directory services software was provided by UNISYS. The Oracle DAIS server was provided by ATI, the PMAX non-relational DAIS server was developed by Black and Veatch, and the PI DAIS server was developed by ATI. The project was deemed a success as the corporate data was made available at the employee`s desktop for search and analysis, with the look and feel of a relational database, regardless of the source of the data.

  11. Finding a New Vision of Gifted Education: An Interview with David Yun Dai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Zijiang lecture professor of education and psychology at East China Normal University. Dr. Dai has published seven books and over 70 journal articles, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, and book and…

  12. Finding a New Vision of Gifted Education: An Interview with David Yun Dai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Zijiang lecture professor of education and psychology at East China Normal University. Dr. Dai has published seven books and over 70 journal articles, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, and book and…

  13. HySens-DAIS/ROSIS Imaging Spectrometers at DLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas A.; Hausold, Andrea; Strobl, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectroscopy has undergone a rapid development over the last decade. The number of research groups making use of this technology has increased by an order of a magnitude. Starting from the late 1980s at the DLR research center 'Oberpfaffenhofen' spectroscopic earth observation facilities have been continuously improved in order to be able to provide reliable imaging spectrometer data to the scientific community. At the current stage the integrated hyperspectral facilities at DLR Cluster for Applied Remote Sensing consists of the two imaging spectrometers DAIS 7915 and ROSIS, a laboratory calibration facility and the respective processing and archiving facilities. As an additional important factor in airborne remote sensing access to a DLR-own fleet of research aircraft (Dornier Do228, Cessna 208B Grand-Caravan, FALCON 20 E5 jet) is granted. Numerous imaging spectrometer campaigns have been carried out during the last years with flight activities all over Europe. Currently the two airborne imaging sensors are identified by the European Commission as a mayor research infrastructure and supported in a 3 year project. In the frame of this project hyperspectral data sets will be acquired over different test areas proposed by international research teams. In this paper the installation of the facility in an European research environment, the technical components as well as the currently ongoing research activities will be described. A list of already acquired data sets and the corresponding thematic applications is shown. An outlook to future improvements including new sensor initiatives is given.

  14. The significance of large variations in oil properties of the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Behrenbruch, P.; Du, P.Q.

    1995-10-01

    The Dai Hung Oil field, offshore Vietnam, is comprised of a complex subsurface structure containing stacked reservoir sequences typically found in many other Southeast Asian fields. Combined with areal fault compartmentalization, this situation has led to the observed, large variations in oil properties. Furthermore, the depositional environment in terms of burial history has created a unique overpressure situation which also had an affect, particularly on the crude saturation conditions of individual reservoirs. For commercial and technical reasons, this situation required a detailed analysis, both in terms of variation in crude assay and live oil properties. For whole crude properties: gravity, K factor, wax content and pour point-graphs were drawn up using a large data base of worldwide crudes against which the Dai Hung data could be validated. In case of PVT properties (bubble point and formation volume factor) existing industry correlations were examined. It could be concluded that the sweet, medium gravity and moderately waxy Dai Hung crude has whole crude properties which are comparable to other, similar crudes. The general framework of crude properties established is suitable to type other crudes, even if limited information is available. Of the existing PVT correlations tested, it was found that Standing`s correlation for the oil formation volume factor and the Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt correlation for the bubble point fitted the Dai Hung crude data the best. For the lower shrinkage Dai Hung crudes the Malaysian oil formation volume factor correlation by Omar-Todd gave the best data fit.

  15. Inhibitory Control in Speech Comprehension among Dai-Han Bilingual Children.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yun; Liu, Zhi; Tempel, Tobias; Chen, Rui; Ma, Xie; Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yan; Qu, Yongxia

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate differences in inhibitory control ability between proficient and non-proficient Dai-Han bilinguals. Two experiments used a combined stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response compatibility paradigm for this purpose. Participants were Dai-Han bilingual primary-school students selected from a Dai-speaking town in Yunnan province, China. In Dai language interference condition, participants were asked to complete a picture category task. Results showed that the effect of attentional control for non-proficient bilinguals (NPBs) was significantly greater than that for proficient bilinguals (PBs), while the effect of response inhibition was not. This implied that a difference in inhibitory control between PBs and NPBs appeared at the attention control stage when interference by the Dai lexicon emerged. In Han language interference condition, however, participants were also asked to complete the same task. Results showed that the effect of response inhibition for NPBs was significantly greater than that for PBs, but the effect of attentional control was not. This demonstrated that a difference in inhibitory control emerged at the response inhibition stage when interference by the Han lexicon emerged. This pattern of results is opposite to previous researches, which indicated that the difference between PBs and NPBs occurred at the response inhibition stage under first language condition, whereas at the attentional control stage under second language (L2) condition. Based on these, this study suggests that Dai-Han bilinguals showed a remarkable L2 advantage. In addition, results showed that response times (RTs) of PBs were faster than RTs of NPBs while confounding variables (e.g., intelligence, etc.) were under control. This indicates that the inhibitory control ability of the PBs is superior to that of NPBs in this study.

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI).

    PubMed

    Xie, Lilan; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Cai, Kaimei; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-03-01

    The DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) is a recently identified DNA sensor for intracellular DNA that triggers a signal for the production of type I IFN. Here we report the cloning and characterization of porcine DAI (poDAI). The full-length of poDAI encodes 439 amino acids, contains two N-terminal DNA-binding domains and shows similarity to mouse, rat, dog, monkey, human, horse and cattle counterparts ranging from 44% to 67%. poDAI mRNA expression was mainly detected in spleen, lung, kidney and small intestine. Over-expression of poDAI activated transcription factors IRF3 and NF-kappaB and induced IFN-beta in different porcine cell lines, but to varying degrees. Deletion mutant analysis revealed that both the DNA-binding domains and the C-terminus are required for full activation of IFN-beta. siRNA targeting poDAI significantly decreased poly(dAT:dAT)- or Pseudorabies virus (PRV)-induced IFN-beta activation. These results indicate that DAI is an important immuno-regulator of the porcine innate immune system.

  17. Interactions between double-stranded RNA regulators and the protein kinase DAI.

    PubMed Central

    Manche, L; Green, S R; Schmedt, C; Mathews, M B

    1992-01-01

    The interferon-induced protein kinase DAI, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated inhibitor of translation, plays a key role in regulating protein synthesis in higher cells. Once activated, in a process that involves autophosphorylation, it phosphorylates the initiation factor eIF-2, leading to inhibition of polypeptide chain initiation. The activity of DAI is controlled by RNA regulators, including dsRNA activators and highly structured single-stranded RNAs which block activation by dsRNA. To elucidate the mechanism of activation, we studied the interaction of DAI with RNA duplexes of discrete sizes. Molecules shorter than 30 bp fail to bind stably and do not activate the enzyme, but at high concentrations they prevent activation by long dsRNA. Molecules longer than 30 bp bind and activate the enzyme, with an efficiency that increases with increasing chain length, reaching a maximum at about 85 bp. These dsRNAs fail to activate at high concentrations and also prevent activation by long dsRNA. Analysis of complexes between dsRNA and DAI suggests that at maximal packing the enzyme interacts with as little as a single helical turn of dsRNA (11 bp) but under conditions that allow activation the binding site protects about 80 bp of duplex. When the RNA-binding site is fully occupied with an RNA activator, the complex appears to undergo a conformational change. Images PMID:1357546

  18. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The reliability and maintainability (R&M) model described in this report represents an important portion of a larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. The R&M model is the first of three models that comprise a modeling system for use in LCC analysis of avionics systems. The total…

  19. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Mid-1980's Maintenance Task Analysis. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The fundamental objective of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study is to provide the Air Force with an enhanced in-house capability to incorporate LCC considerations during all stages of the system acquisition process. The purpose of this report is to describe the technical approach, results, and conclusions…

  20. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Mid-1980's Maintenance Task Analysis. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The fundamental objective of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study is to provide the Air Force with an enhanced in-house capability to incorporate LCC considerations during all stages of the system acquisition process. The purpose of this report is to describe the technical approach, results, and conclusions…

  1. Contesting modernity: Tobacco use and romanticism among older Dai farmers in Xishuangbanna, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Davey, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    The majority of research about tobacco use in China focuses on Han Chinese, the main ethnic group comprising over 90 per cent of the population, and a paucity of research exists on ethnic minorities. The present study elucidates tobacco use among the Dai people, an ethnic group in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The study design consisted of interviews and grounded theory methodology in a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework. The categories of the grounded theory revealed tobacco consumption was weaved in a complex web of meanings: social practices, perceptions of health, and work lives as agriculturalists, situated in Dai cultural and social milieu. An important finding was the stage-managing of tobacco as a symbol of 'tradition' versus 'modernity': Through a process of contested modernity, the older men championed long-standing tobacco customs as representative of Dai heritage and thus their own tobacco use as upholding traditions amid encroaching cultural and societal change in China. These findings are important because little is known about Dai people's tobacco use and how they are responding to social change. There are also implications for the development of culturally-appropriate tobacco control strategies.

  2. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  3. Dental caries status of Dai preschool children in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dai people, one of the ethnic minorities in China, have a population of 1,260,000. They have the same origin as one of the main ethnic groups of Laos and Thailand. Most of the Dai live in Yunnan province, which is located in the less-developed southwestern part of China. This study aimed to describe the oral health status of Dai preschool children in China and the factors that influence their oral health status. Methods An oral health survey was performed between 2011 and 2012 to select Dai five-year-old children using multi-stage stratified sampling in Yunnan. Their dental caries experience was measured using the “dmft” index, and severe caries was assessed using the “pa” index, which is modified from the “pufa” index. Oral hygiene status was assessed using the visual plaque index (VPI). A questionnaire to study the children’s socio-demographic background and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children’s parents. Results A total of 833 children were examined. Their caries prevalence was 89% and 49% of the children had carious tooth with pulp involvement. The mean (SD) dmft score was 7.0 (5.3). Higher dmft scores were found among children who were girls, were currently bottle-fed, took daily sweet snacks, had higher VPI scores, and had visited a dentist within the last year. Conclusions The caries prevalence and experience of the five-year-old Dai children in Yunnan, China was high, and almost half had severe caries. The caries experience was associated with gender, snack habits, dental visit habits, and oral hygiene status. PMID:24279504

  4. DAI (DLM-1/ZBP1) as a genetic adjuvant for DNA vaccines that promotes effective antitumor CTL immunity.

    PubMed

    Lladser, Alvaro; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Tufvesson, Helena; Ligtenberg, Maarten A; Quest, Andrew Fg; Kiessling, Rolf; Ljungberg, Karl

    2011-03-01

    DNA vaccination is an attractive approach to induce antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs), which can mediate protective antitumor immunity. The potency of DNA vaccines encoding weakly immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be enhanced by codelivering gene-encoded adjuvants. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense intracellular DNA could potentially be used to harness intrinsic immune-stimulating properties of plasmid DNA vaccines. Consequently, the cytosolic DNA sensor, DNA-dependent activator of interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (DAI), was used as a genetic adjuvant. In vivo electroporation (EP) of mice with a DAI-encoding plasmid (pDAI) promoted transcription of genes encoding type I IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and costimulatory molecules. Coimmunization with pDAI and antigen-encoding plasmids enhanced in vivo antigen-specific proliferation, and induction of effector and memory CTLs. Moreover, codelivery of pDAI effectively promoted CTL and CD4(+) Th1 responses to the TAA survivin. The DAI-enhanced CTL induction required nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and type I IFN signaling, but did not involve the IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Codelivery of pDAI also increased CTL responses to the melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP2), enhanced tumor rejection and conferred long-term protection against B16 melanoma challenge. This study constitutes "proof-of-principle" validating the use of intracellular PRRs as genetic adjuvants to enhance DNA vaccine potency.

  5. Relationship between dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and antioxidants level in plasma of Kraków inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Zając, Joanna; Morawiecka-Baranek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Some literature data indicate that antioxidant-rich food may significantly increase antioxidants in serum and decrease the oxidative stress but results are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of food intake among the inhabitants of Kraków, Poland on the basis of dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and evaluation the relation between DAI and the level of antioxidants in plasma. Examination included 70 (37 women and 33 men) non-smoking inhabitants of Krakow aged 46.4 ± 13.7 years. DAI was investigated on the basis of Food Frequency Questionnaire including 145 food items. DAI was measured using the method by Benzi and expressed as FRAP (mMol/L). In plasma samples total antioxidant status (TAS) expressed as FRAP and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as a marker of lipids peroxidation were measured. The mean value of DAI of all examined persons was 46.74 ± 25.5 mMol/L (in female group: 54.13 ± 27.7 mMol/L; in male group: 37.83 ± 19.5 mMol/L; p < 0.05). The highest contribution in total DWA value had fruits (48.7%) opposite to vegetables (9.3%). Statistically significant positive correlations between DAI and FRAP in plasma was found in all: r = 0.42 and in female: r = 0.54 groups (not significant in men group: r = 0.20). Statistically significant negative correlation of DAI with MDA (malonylaldehyde) in female (-0.49) and male (-0.51) groups. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that the intake of antioxidants in daily diet (measured as DAI) might increase antioxidants defense (measured by TAC as FRAP) and decrease oxidative stress (measured by MDA concentration in plasma). The dietary modification towards higher consumption of antioxidants (especially in men) should be highlighted in prevention of diseases in which oxidative stress play considerable role.

  6. Effects of pirenzepine on Dai-kenchu-to-induced elevation of the plasma neuropeptide levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuhki; Inoue, Shin; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Dai-kenchu-to has been used for the treatment of abdominal obstructions, including bowel obstructions and a feeling of coldness in the abdomen. We reported that Dai-kenchu-to increases plasma neuropeptide [motilin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P]-like immunoreactive substances (IS) levels and that its pharmacologic effects on the gastrointestine are due to changes in gastrointestinal mucosa-regulatory peptide levels. We examined the effects of the selective M(1) muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Dai-kenchu-to-induced plasma neuropeptide (gastrin, motilin, somatostatin, VIP, CGRP, substance P)-IS levels in human volunteers and the area under the plasma neuropeptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240 min (AUC(0-->240 min)), which were calculated from the plasma neuropeptide concentration-time curves from each volunteers. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine reduced the Dai-kenchu-to-induced elevation of plasma motilin and VIP-IS levels and AUC(0-->240 min). Combined treatment with Dai-kenchu-to and pirenzepine increased plasma somatostatin-IS levels and decreased plasma gastrin-IS levels and had no effects on plasma CGRP- and substance P-IS levels and AUC(0-->240 min) compared with administration of Dai-kenchu-to alone. Dai-kenchu-to appeared to induce the release of motilin and VIP into plasma mainly through the activation of M(1) muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Dai-kenchu-to by elevation of plasma motilin and VIP levels.

  7. Energy cost system applying UCA{trademark}/DAIS{trademark} concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, C.; Gallagher, M.K.; Satkowski, E.G.

    1997-12-01

    This document provides an overview of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Utility Communications Architecture (UCA{trademark}) and Database Access Integration Services (DAIS{trademark}) project, co-funded by Electric Power Research Institute and Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE and G). This project has been carried out as a demonstration of EPRI`s Integrated Utility Communications (IUC) architecture. In addition to a technical discussion of the work completed, this document also provides some insight into PSE and G`s experiences during the project. Included in this report are technical details of the implementation, a review of the project from a management perspective, and a business case. This report can also be used as reference for utility companies wishing to apply the UCA/DAIS concepts to gain uniform data access across various operational and financial systems within their organization.

  8. C21 steroid derivatives from the Dai herbal medicine Dai-Bai-Jie, the dried roots of Marsdenia tenacissima, and their screening for anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Kang, Li-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Yu, He-Shui; Han, Li-Feng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Li-Xia; Yu, Li-Yan; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2017-09-15

    Twenty-three new C21 steroidal glycosides, marstenacissides C1-C10 (1-10), D1-D7 (11-17) and E1-E6 (18-23), and four new C21 steroids, 11α,12β-O-ditigloyl-tenacigenin C (24), 11α-O-benzoyl-12β-O-tigloyl-tenacigenin C (25), 11α-O-tigloyl-12β-O-benzoyl-tenacigenin C (26) and 11α-O-tigloyl-12β-O-benzoyl-marsdenin (27), were isolated from the Dai herbal medicine Dai-Bai-Jie, derived from the roots of Marsdenia tenacissima. The chemical structures of all compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques, including high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, as well as by comparison with reported spectral data. The anti-HIV activities of these compounds were screened, and the compounds obtained displayed inhibitory effects against HIV-1 with inhibition rates of 36.4-81.3% at 30 μM.

  9. [Study on microscopic observation and TLC identification of Dai medicine "Guomaguo" (Spondias pinnata)].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ran; Liu, Xue-qun; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Ying-hong; Wan, Ding-rong

    2009-01-01

    To study identification methods of Dai medicine" Guomaguo", the fruit of Spondias pinnata. Characteristic, microscopic observation and TLC idertification were used to authenticate this crude drug. The characters of the cross section, powder and TLC of the drug were reported, and the relevant drawings of the tissue, powder and TLC of this ethnomedicine were drawn. These results can supply evidences for the identification of the ethnomedicine in its exploitation and utilization.

  10. An analysis of reproducibility of DAI and IOTN indexes in a Brazilian scene.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rejane Bezerra de; Paiva, Angela Cristina Pinto de; Farias, Arthur Costa Rodrigues; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the indexes DAI and IOTN in predicting the need of orthodontic treatment based in one property: reproducibility. The index DAI was developed in USA in 1989 and can identify 10 occlusal alterations that result, mathematically, in scores, with weights based in its relative importance according with the judgment of laypeople. The IOTN was developed in England also in 1989 and incorporates an aesthetic component AC and a component of dental health DHC. The AC component consists on a scale illustrated with 10 photos which had been divided in bands of degrees in accordance with a hierarchic scale and classifies the patients in degrees of treatment needed. The instruments of collection of the data were: plastic rule of DHC component and an aesthetic visual scale of component AC praised for the IOTN and one periodontal OMS probe praised for DAI. The sample was composite by 60 patients. The results indicated that both indexes were highly reproducible in accordance with Pearson and Spearman coefficients, which were strengthened by t-tests of Student and Wilcoxon, respectively. The correlation results between the examiners had varied between r=0.85 and r=1.00.

  11. [Gene Mutation Spectrum of β-Thalassemia in Dai Ethinic Population of Two Border Region in Chinese Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; He, Jing; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Su, Jie; Chen, Hong; Xu, Yong-Mei; Pu, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the gene mutation spectrum of β-thalassemia in Dai ethnic population of 2 border region in Chinese Yunnan Province. The patients with β-thalassemia in Dai ethnic population of Dehong and Xishuangbanna autonamic prefecture were screened by using blood routine detection and capillary electrophoresis. The β-globin gene mutation in patients with β-thalassemia were detected by using PCR reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-RDB), the constitutive rate of gene mutation in patients with β-thalassemia of Dai ethnic population in two border regions was analyzed and compared. A total of 186 patients with gene mutation of β-thalassemia were confirmed. Among them, 10 gene mutation were found, and the 5 main gene mutations were CD26 (62.56%), CD41-42 (18.97%), CD17 (14.36%), CD71-72 (2.05%) and IVS-II-654 (1.54%). Among Dai ethinic population in Dehong region, 4 gene mutations were found including CD26 (80.31%), CD17 (11.02%), CD41-42 (6.30%) and CD71-72 (2.36%). Among Dai ethinic population in Xishuangbanna region, 6 gene mutations were found, out of them the more common gene mutations were CD41-42 (42.64%), CD26 (29.41%) and CD17 (20.59%). The gene mutations of β-thalassemia in Dai ethinic population of Yunnan province has been confirmed to be more genetic heterogenicity, the spectrums of β-thalassemia mutations in Dai ethinic population of different regions were significant different.

  12. Next-generation sequencing improves thalassemia carrier screening among premarital adults in a high prevalence population: the Dai nationality, China.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Song, Wenhui; Yang, Jinlong; Lu, Sen; Yuan, Yuan; Guo, Junfu; Zhang, Jie; Ye, Kai; Yang, Fan; Long, Fangfang; Peng, Zhiyu; Yu, Haijing; Cheng, Le; Zhu, Baosheng

    2017-09-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common monogenic diseases in southwestern China, especially among the Dai ethnic group. Here, we explore the feasibility of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) screening method specifically for the Dai people. Blood samples were obtained from Dai people for premarital screening. Double-blind, parallel hemoglobinopathy screening was conducted using both traditional hematological methods (red cell indexes and hemoglobin electrophoresis, then DNA sequencing) and an NGS approach. Among 951 tested individuals, we found a thalassemia carrier rate of 49.5% (471/951) using the NGS screen, in contrast to 22.0% (209/951) found using traditional methods. Almost 74.8% (217/290) of α-thalassemia carriers and 30.5% (25/82) of composite α- and β-thalassemia carriers were missed by traditional screens. The proportion of such α- and β-thalassemia carriers among the Dai people is 8.6% (82/951). For β-thalassemia carriers, the high ratio (66/99) of CD26 mutations may suggest a correlation between CD26 and the environmental adaption of the Dai people. Methodological comparisons demonstrate the superiority of NGS for both sensitivity and specificity, provide a comprehensive assessment of thalassemia screening strategies, and indicate that NGS is a competitive screening method, especially among populations with a high prevalence of disease.Genet Med advance online publication 26 January 2017.

  13. Inhibiting HMGB1 with Glycyrrhizic Acid Protects Brain Injury after DAI via Its Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Honggang; Huang, Tinqin; Li, Dandong; Zhao, Yonglin; Ma, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein that has endogenous cytokine-like activity, is involved in several neurological diseases by mediating inflammatory response. In this study, a lateral head rotation device was used to establish a rat diffuse axonal injury (DAI) model. The dynamic expression of HMGB1, apoptosis-associated proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines were detected by Western blot, and neuronal apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining. The extracellular release of HMGB1 and the accumulation of β-APP were observed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The brain injury was indicated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS), brain water content (BWC), and the extravasation of Evans blue. We showed that HMGB1 level obviously decreased within 48 h after DAI, accompanied by neuronal apoptosis, the activation of caspases 3 and 9, and the phosphorylation of BCL-2. Inhibiting HMGB1 with glycyrrhizic acid (GL) can suppress the activation of apoptosis-associated proteins and inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which ameliorated motor and cognitive deficits, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and protected the integrity of blood brain barrier (BBB) and axonal injury after experimental DAI in rats. Thus, HMGB1 may be involved in the inflammatory response after DAI, and inhibition of HMGB1 release with GL can notably alleviate the brain injury after DAI. PMID:27041825

  14. Inhibiting HMGB1 with Glycyrrhizic Acid Protects Brain Injury after DAI via Its Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    PubMed

    Pang, Honggang; Huang, Tinqin; Song, Jinning; Li, Dandong; Zhao, Yonglin; Ma, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein that has endogenous cytokine-like activity, is involved in several neurological diseases by mediating inflammatory response. In this study, a lateral head rotation device was used to establish a rat diffuse axonal injury (DAI) model. The dynamic expression of HMGB1, apoptosis-associated proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines were detected by Western blot, and neuronal apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining. The extracellular release of HMGB1 and the accumulation of β-APP were observed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The brain injury was indicated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS), brain water content (BWC), and the extravasation of Evans blue. We showed that HMGB1 level obviously decreased within 48 h after DAI, accompanied by neuronal apoptosis, the activation of caspases 3 and 9, and the phosphorylation of BCL-2. Inhibiting HMGB1 with glycyrrhizic acid (GL) can suppress the activation of apoptosis-associated proteins and inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which ameliorated motor and cognitive deficits, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and protected the integrity of blood brain barrier (BBB) and axonal injury after experimental DAI in rats. Thus, HMGB1 may be involved in the inflammatory response after DAI, and inhibition of HMGB1 release with GL can notably alleviate the brain injury after DAI.

  15. Service Infrastructure for Cross-Matching Distributed Datasets Using OGSA-DAI and TAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliman, M.; Alemu, T.; Hume, A.; van Hemert, J.; Mann, R. G.; Noddle, K.; Valkonen, L.

    2011-07-01

    One of the most powerful and important goals for VO developers has been to enable cross-match queries between disparate datasets for end users. This has only been achieved within the VO using the early SkyNode infrastructure and has not been reproduced using current IVOA standards. To remedy that situation, the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU) has worked with the Edinburgh Parallel Computing Center (EPCC) in leveraging the OGSA-DAI grid middleware to enable cross catalog queries on distributed VO services. We have achieved this goal by building a three layer service stack that places the OGSA-DAI software above multiple individual services implementing the IVOA's new Table Access Protocol (TAP), and then a single TAP service is placed above this and presented to the end users. Users can then execute ADQL queries that cross-match between the disparate datasets as though they were in the same database with acceptable performance rates on the resulting data flow. The OGSA-DAI software is able to interrogate any compliant TAP service to acquire the necessary metadata for insertion into the single federated TAP service used for cross-match queries. We are currently testing this distributed infrastructure using the TAP services provided by WFAU for the UKIDSS DR3 and SDSS DR7 datasets in combination with the TAP service available from the Canadian Astronomy Data Center (this last without requiring any action from CADC staff). This forms the basis for a large-scale distributed data mining workflow and similar activities can be readily implemented as more TAP services come online. Future work will involve releasing this infrastructure to the greater astronomical community as an IVOA compliant service for users.

  16. Radioiodine in the atmosphere after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Luke S; Dickson, Raymond S; Glowa, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    About 160 PBq of (131)I was released into the atmosphere during the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The chemistry of radioiodine is complicated, and it can be released in several different forms. In addition, the different physical forms, like molecular iodine, aerosol-form iodine, or organic iodine, would have all behaved differently once in the atmosphere, and would have been removed at different rates. These releases were detected by monitoring stations throughout Japan, and from these measurements, key insights can be made about the different chemical forms that were released, as well as the persistence of each in the environment.

  17. Detection of radioxenon in Darwin, Australia following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Orr, Blake; Schöppner, Michael; Tinker, Rick; Plastino, Wolfango

    2013-12-01

    A series of (133)Xe detections in April 2011 made at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System noble gas station in Darwin, Australia, were analysed to determine the most likely source location. Forward and backwards atmospheric transport modelling simulations using FLEXPART were conducted. It was shown that the most likely source location was the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Other potential sources in the southern hemisphere were analysed, including the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical facility, but it was shown that sources originating from these locations were highly unlikely to be the source of the observed (133)Xe Darwin detections.

  18. Linked spaces of vulnerability: HIV risk amongst migrant Dai women and their left-behind husbands in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Rui; Lyttleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In one county of Southwest China bordering Myanmar, large numbers of minority Dai women leave to work in southern Thailand. Many are married and they leave behind husbands and children, sending remittances and returning home intermittently. These women commonly establish relations with Chinese/Malaysian men in their worksites--massage parlours in the tourist sites near the Malaysian border. These men become second husbands just as the Dai women become second wives. This paper examines the complicated set of HIV risks and assumptions that emerge from the circular Dai exodus to Thailand and the manner in which transnational employment networks impact on domestic and sexual relationships for women and their non-migrant husbands back home.

  19. Identification of a high frequency transposon induced by tissue culture, nDaiZ, a member of the hAT family in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Kewei; Shen, Yi; Huang, Zejun; Li, Ming; Tang, Ding; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2009-03-01

    Recent completion of rice genome sequencing has revealed that more than 40% of its genome consists of repetitive sequences, and most of them are related to inactive transposable elements. In the present study, a transposable element, nDaiZ0, which is induced by tissue culture with high frequency, was identified by sequence analysis of an allelic line of the golden hull and internode 2 (gh2) mutant, which was integrated into the forth exon of GH2. The 528-bp nDaiZ0 has 14-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), and generates an 8-bp duplication of its target sites (TSD) during its mobilization. nDaiZs are non-autonomous transposons and have no coding capacity. Bioinformatics analysis and southern blot hybridization showed that at least 16 copies of nDaiZ elements exist in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare genome and 11 copies in the indica cultivar 93-11 genome. During tissue culture, only one copy, nDaiZ9, located on chromosome 5 in the genome of Nipponbare can be activated with its transposable frequency reaching 30%. However, nDaiZ9 was not present in the 93-11 genome. The larger elements, DaiZs, were further identified by database searching using nDaiZ0 as a query because they share similar TIRs and subterminal sequences. DaiZ can also generate an 8-bp TSD. DaiZ elements contain a conserved region with a high similarity to the hAT dimerization motif, suggesting that the nDaiZ-DaiZ transposon system probably belongs to the hAT superfamily of class II transposons. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is a new type of plant hAT-like transposon. Although nDaiZ is activated by tissue culture, the high transposable frequency indicates that it could become a useful gene tagging system for rice functional genomic studies. In addition, the mechanism of the high transposable ability of nDaiZ9 is discussed.

  20. Isograde mapping and mineral identification on the island of Naxos, Greece, using DAIS 7915 hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtler, Helmut; Segl, Karl; Dickerhof, Corinna; Chabrillat, Sabine; Kaufmann, Hermann J.

    2003-03-01

    The ESF-LSF 1997 flight campaign conducted by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) recorded several transects across the island of Naxos using the airborne hyperspectral scanner DAIS. The geological targets cover all major litho-tectonic units of a metamorphic dome with the transition of metamorphic zonations from the outer meta-sedimentary greenschist envelope to the gneissic amphibolite facies and migmatitic core. Mineral identification of alternating marble-dolomite sequences and interlayered schists bearing muscovite and biotite has been accomplished using the airborne hyperspectral DAIS 7915 sensor. Data have been noise filtered based on maximum noise fraction (MNF) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) and converted from radiance to reflectance. For mineral identification, constrained linear spectral unmixing and spectral angle mapper (SAM) algorithms were tested. Due to their unsatisfying results a new approach was developed which consists of a linear mixture modeling and spectral feature fitting. This approach provides more detailed and accurate information. Results are discussed in comparison with detailed geological mapping and additional information. Calcites are clearly separated from dolomites as well as the mica-schist sequences by a good resolution of the mineral muscovite. Thereon an outstanding result represents the very good resolution of the chlorite/mica (muscovite, biotite)-transition defining a metamorphic isograde.

  1. 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting Tsunami on March 11, 2011, serious accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been occurred. Huge amounts of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. Japanese prefectural governments have carried out environmental radioactivity monitoring; external dose rate, radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and others. Since March 18, 2011, daily and monthly deposition samples were collected in 45 stations covering Japanese Islands and radionuclides in the deposition samples were determined. We summarize radioactive deposition data reported by Japanese Government and study the depositional behaviors of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results revealed that Fukushima-derived radioactive cloud dominantly affected in the central and eastern part of Honshu-Island, although it affected all of Japanese land area and also western North Pacific. The temporal change of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs revealed that the apparent atmospheric residence time of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in sites within 300 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPis about 10 d. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model Users Guide. Final Report, May 1975-July 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    This report provides a complete guide to the stand alone mode operation of the reliability and maintenance (R&M) model, which was developed to facilitate the performance of design versus cost trade-offs within the digital avionics information system (DAIS) acquisition process. The features and structure of the model, its input data…

  3. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3–3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9–14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5–2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7–7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China. PMID:26932265

  4. The Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident and its implications for the safety of nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William

    2016-05-01

    Five years ago the dramatic events in Fukushima that followed the massive earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck Japan on March 11, 2011 sharpened the focus of scientists, engineers and general public on the broad range of technical, environmental and societal issues involved in assuring the safety of the world's nuclear power complex. They also called into question the potential of nuclear power to provide a growing, sustainable resource of CO2-free energy. The issues raised by Fukushima Dai-ichi have provoked urgent concern, not only because of the potential harm that could result from severe accidents or from intentional damage to nuclear reactors or to facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, but also because of the extensive economic impact of those accidents and of the measures taken to avoid them.

  5. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv. PMID:23591638

  6. Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations of TEPCO--outline & lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The severe accident that broke out at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations on March 11, 2011, caused seemingly infinite damage to the daily life of residents. Serious and wide-spread contamination of the environment occurred due to radioactive materials discharged from nuclear power stations (NPSs). At the same time, many issues were highlighted concerning countermeasures to severe nuclear accidents. The accident is outlined, and lessons learned are extracted with respect to the safety of NPSs, as well as radiation protection of residents under the emergency involving the accident. The materials of the current paper are those released by governmental agencies, academic societies, interim reports of committees under the government, and others.

  7. An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, P D; Jones, B; Maher, M M

    2012-09-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Richter scale 0.9-magnitude Tokohu earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, resulting in widespread injury and loss of life. Compounding this tragic loss of life, a series of equipment and structural failures at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNP) resulted in the release of many volatile radioisotopes into the atmosphere. In this update, we detail currently available evidence about the nature of immediate radioactive exposure to FDNP workers and the general population. We contrast the nature of the radioactive exposure at FDNP with that which occurred at the Chernobyl power plant 25 years previously. Prediction of the exact health effects related to the FDNP release is difficult at present and this disaster provides the scientific community with a challenge to help those involved and to continue research that will improve our understanding of the potential complications of radionuclide fallout.

  8. Malnutrition improvement for infants under 18 months old of Dai minority in Luxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hotta, Masanaka; Shi, Anping; Li, Zhi; Yin, Jianzhing; Guo, Guangping; Kawata, Kimiko; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2007-04-01

    Child malnutrition and thiamine deficiency remain a matter of public concern in Dai children under 5 years old in Southwest areas of China. The aim of the present study was to understand the status and correlates of malnutrition and thiamine deficiency in Dai children under 18 months old in Yunnan, China, and to explore an effective intervention for improving their nutritional status and decreasing the prevalence of malnutrition and thiamine deficiency in Dai children. Well-trained investigators completed a baseline evaluation survey, including questionnaire survey by maternal interviews, child physical measurements, lab examination of thiamine, and group discussions in a cross-sectional study. An intervention plan was constructed by a group consisting of the city governor, government officers, maternal and child health workers, community leaders, and villagers etc. A comprehensive community-based intervention was carried out for 352 children born after July 2001 and their mothers or caregivers in half of the baseline survey villages by the end of 2003. The intervention included participatory intervention, community nutrition education, child growth monitoring and distributing thiamine to new mothers just before or after delivery. The baseline evaluation survey in 2000 indicated that the prevalence of moderate and severe protein-energy malnutrition was 19.5% for underweight, 16.4% for stunting, and 6.7% for wasting, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence increased, peaking at 12-15 months. The prevalence of underweight in girls was higher than in boys. A total of 10.5% of children suffered from thiamine deficiency, and 5.7% of the children were insufficient in thiamine supply. Low Kaup target (<25%) was significantly associated with lack of guidance by doctors, lack of nutrition knowledge, lack of knowledge of causes of malnutrition and local culture food taboos. The status of child nutrition has been improved significantly since the intervention measure

  9. The counter effects of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kenta

    2017-01-01

    The counter effects of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station are discussed in this paper. Though decommission and remediation have been conducted in the facility and surrounding area, ninety thousand residences near the facility are still under the evacuation order. Four nuclear power units have already restarted under the new regulatory framework, but two of them in Fukui prefecture stop the operation due to the provisional disposition declared by Ohtsu district court in Shiga prefecture. Reinforcement of the latter layer of the defense in depth has been improved in many ways. The improvement of decision-making process is very important in latter layers of the defense in depth, in contrast the plant behaviors are automatically decided based on their design in the prior layers.

  10. An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Mclaughlin, P D; Jones, B; Maher, M M

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Richter scale 0.9-magnitude Tokohu earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, resulting in widespread injury and loss of life. Compounding this tragic loss of life, a series of equipment and structural failures at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNP) resulted in the release of many volatile radioisotopes into the atmosphere. In this update, we detail currently available evidence about the nature of immediate radioactive exposure to FDNP workers and the general population. We contrast the nature of the radioactive exposure at FDNP with that which occurred at the Chernobyl power plant 25 years previously. Prediction of the exact health effects related to the FDNP release is difficult at present and this disaster provides the scientific community with a challenge to help those involved and to continue research that will improve our understanding of the potential complications of radionuclide fallout. PMID:22919005

  11. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  12. Concentration of (3)H in plants around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Yamada, Masatoshi; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Noda, Kaori; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) following the damage caused by the tsunami due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Although many radionuclides in various environmental samples around the FDNPS have been measured, (3)H in the terrestrial environment has not yet been reported. We present here the first survey results of (3)H concentrations in plant samples collected around the FDNPS in 2011 from shortly after the accident. The free-water (3)H concentrations in herbaceous plant shoots and evergreen tree leaves were considerably higher than the previous background concentration, and diminished with distance from the FDNPS. Although reconstruction of atmospheric (3)H concentrations after the accident is difficult, a rough estimate of the radiation dose due to (3)H inhalation about 20 km from the FDNPS is on the order of a few microsieverts (μSv).

  13. [Indices of treatment needs in orthodontics: the applicability of the DAI (Dental Aesthetic Index)].

    PubMed

    Monaco, A; Boccuni, M; Marci, M C

    1997-05-01

    The objective assessment of esthetic impairment and relative psychosocial handicap for unacceptable dental aspect (useful for characterizing the need of treatment), could be satisfied by an index that measures each individual's occlusal trait and the psychological impact of the same. An index with these characteristics was suggested by Cons and Jenny, already since 1985. This is an index (DAI: Dental Aesthetic Index) designed specifically to measure dental esthetics, based on esthetic standards socially defined and focused through an extensive and finalized search. Therefore this index assesses the social acceptability of the dental appearance based on the public perception of dental esthetics. The authors, in this work, indicate as measuring the objective traits of occlusion and arriving to final score trough simple calculation. This score provides severity levels of esthetic, psychologic and functional impairment relative to dental aspect in examination.

  14. Aerial radiation monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using an unmanned helicopter.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 generated a series of large tsunami that seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To provide further details regarding the distribution of air dose rate and the distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) deposition on the ground within a radius of approximately 5 km from the nuclear power plant, we carried out measurements using an unmanned helicopter equipped with a radiation detection system. The distribution of the air dose rate at a height of 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground was calculated. Accordingly, the footprint of radioactive plumes that extended from the FDNPP was illustrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NARAC Modeling During the Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Probanz, B; Foster, K T; Simpson, M; Vogt, P; Aluzzi, F; Dillon, M; Homann, S

    2012-02-14

    This paper summarizes the activities of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis. NARAC provided a wide range of products and analyses as part of its support including: (1) Daily Japanese weather forecasts and hypothetical release (generic source term) dispersion predictions to provide situational awareness and inform planning for U.S. measurement data collection and field operations; (2) Estimates of potential dose in Japan for hypothetical scenarios developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to inform federal government considerations of possible actions that might be needed to protect U.S. citizens in Japan; (3) Estimates of possible plume arrival times and dose for U.S. locations; and (4) Plume model refinement and source estimation based on meteorological analyses and available field data. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) deployed personnel to Japan and stood up 'home team' assets across the DOE complex to aid in assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The DOE Nuclear Incident Team (NIT) coordinated response activities, while DOE personnel provided predictive modeling, air and ground monitoring, sample collection, laboratory analysis, and data assessment and interpretation. DOE deployed the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) personnel, and the Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to Japan. DOE/NNSA home team assets included the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT); National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS); and Radiological Triage. NARAC was activated by the DOE/NNSA on March 11, shortly after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred. The center remained on active operations through late May when DOE ended its deployment to Japan. Over 32 NARAC staff members

  16. Immunoregulatory effects of the traditional Dai prescription Yajieshaba on food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangyuan; Duan, Xiaohua; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Pu; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The Dai prescription Yajieshaba is widely used in Traditional Dai Medicine to treat food allergies and intolerance. However, information on the active chemical ingredients, effects and mechanisms of action of Yajieshaba is limited. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanisms of Yajieshaba in the treatment of food allergies. Liquid chromatography with a diode array detector was used to measure the levels of palmatine and berberine, the active ingredients of Yajieshaba. A food allergy model was established in female BALB/c mice by three injections of ovalbumin (OVA) at 0, 48, and 96 h. OVA-sensitized mice recieved no treatments (control), Yajieshaba, loratadine, palmatine or berberine. The scratching frequency, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, IL-21, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were assessed at 50 and 98 h. The percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was evaluated by flow cytometry at 98 h. The scratching frequency induced by OVA was significantly suppressed in mice treated with loratadine, palmatine, berberine or 3.50 and 4.70 g/kg Yajieshaba. The frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg in the spleen increased from 6.80% in mice in the control group to 12.50% in mice treated with 4.70 g/kg body weight Yajieshaba. Mice treated with palmatine or 4.70 g/kg body weight Yajieshaba had increased forkhead box p3 expression compared with those in the control group. Treatment with Yajieshaba decreased the scratching frequency and increased CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg frequency in the spleen. This indicated that symptoms of allergic reaction were alleviated following Yajieshaba treatment. Palmatine was identified as one of the major active components of Yajieshaba. The present study identified the possible mechanism through which Yajieshaba treatment may alleviate food allergy symptoms.

  17. Bicoloratum Dai and Li, a new synonym of the leafhopper genus Scaphoideus Uhler (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae),
    with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangying; Dai, Wu

    2015-07-10

    Bicoloratum Dai and Li, 2011 is considered to be a junior synonym of Scaphoideus Uhler, 1889 based on study of specimens of two new species, one of which is morphologically very similar to the type species of Bicoloratum, B. pintungisis Dai and Li 2011. Three valid species now included within the genus Scaphoideus are: S. dinghuensis sp. nov., S. taishanensis sp. nov. and S. pingtungisis (Dai and Li, 2011) n. comb. The detailed morphology of the two new species is described, and photographs of their external habitus and male and female genitalia are also given.

  18. Taking Care, Bringing Life: A Post-structuralist Feminist Analysis of Maternal Discourses of Mothers and Dais in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2017-02-03

    My post-structuralist feminist reading of the antenatal and birthing practices of women (N = 25) living in a basti in India makes visible how the meanings of maternal experiences constituted as our ways open discursive spaces for the mothers and dais as procreators to: challenge (i.e., question the authority of), co-opt (i.e., conditionally adopt), and judge (i.e., employ sanctioned criteria to regulate) competing knowledge production forms. In critiquing maternal knowledge as feminist discourse, the women's strategies contribute theoretically to an integrative construction of care by reclaiming displaced knowledge discourses and diversity in meaning production. Pragmatically, consciousness-raising collectives comprising the mothers and dais can cocreate narratives of our ways of maternal experiences articulated in public discourse to sustain equitability of knowledge traditions in migrant urban Third World contexts.

  19. New Standards in Liquid Waste Treatment at Fukushima Dai-ichi - 13134

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, Paul; Milner, Tim; Ruffing, Jennifer; Poole, Scott; Townson, Paul; Jensen, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    The earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 severely damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant leading to the most severe nuclear incident since Chernobyl. Ongoing operations to cool the damaged reactors at the site have led to the generation of highly radioactive coolant water. This is currently mainly treated to remove Cs-137 and Cs-134 and passed through a reverse osmosis (RO) unit to reduce the salinity before being cycled back to the reactors. Because only the Cs isotopes are removed, the RO reject water still contains many radioactive isotopes and this has led to the accumulation of over 200,000 cubic meters (52 million gallons) of extremely contaminated water which is currently stored on site in tanks. EnergySolutions, in partnership with Toshiba, were contracted to develop a system to reduce 62 isotopes in this waste down to allowable levels. This was a significant technical challenge given the high background salt content of the wastewater, the variation in aqueous chemistry of the radioactive isotopes and the presence of non-active competing ions (e.g. Ca and Mg) which inhibit the removal of isotopes such as Sr-89 and Sr-90. Extensive testing was performed to design a suitable system that could meet the required decontamination goals. These tests were performed over a 6 month period at facilities available in the nearby Fukushima Dai-ni laboratory using actual waste samples. This data was then utilized to design a Multi Radioactive Nuclides Removal System (MRRS) for Fukushima which is a modified version of EnergySolutions' proprietary Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS)'. The stored tank waste is fed into a preliminary precipitation system where iron flocculation is performed to remove a number of isotopes, including Sb-125, Ru-106, Mn-54 and Co-60. The supernatant is then fed into a second precipitation tank where the pH is adjusted and the bulk of the Mg, Ca and Sr precipitated out as carbonates and hydroxides. After passing through a cross

  20. Drug abuse, HIV/AIDS and stigmatisation in a Dai community in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Rui; Li, Jianghong; Sringernyuang, Luechai; Zhang, Kaining

    2007-04-01

    The latest data indicate that between 540,000 and 760,000 people are infected with HIV in China. Although minority nationalities represent 8.1% of China's total population, they account for more than 30% of the reported HIV/AIDS cases. This study examined stigma and discrimination against drug abusers and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in a Dai minority nationality community in Yunnan, China. The study used qualitative research methods, which included participatory observations, in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions, transect walking and community mapping. A combination of different sampling strategies was used to maximise diversity of the initially selected sample. The data revealed deeply entrenched stigma and overt discrimination against drug abusers and PLHA that manifested in familial, work, civil and institutional contexts. The stigma reflected pre-existing cultural, religious sanctions against "deviant behaviours". Intervention programmes that were insensitive to the local culture and religion may have also contributed in part to the stigmatisation of drug abusers and PLHA. The major impact of stigma was that it created a vicious cycle of social isolation, marginalisation and thus addiction relapse. This in turn reinforced the stigmatisation and discrimination against drug abusers and thus hindered efforts towards prevention and control of HIV/AIDS.

  1. Radiocesium Transfer in Forest Insect Communities after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Seiji; Takamura, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    To understand radiocesium transfer in the forest insect food web, we investigated the activity concentrations of radiocesium in forest insects in the Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures approximately 1.5–2.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We analyzed 34 species of insects sampled from 4 orders and 4 feeding functional groups (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detritivore) from three sites in each prefecture. 137Cs activity concentrations were lowest in herbivorous species and were especially high in detritivorous and omnivorous species that feed on forest litter and fungi. Radiocesium activity concentrations in any given species reflected the degree of contamination of that species’ primary food sources since radiocesium activity concentrations were found to be the lowest in leaves and grass and the highest in litter, bark, and fungi. This study confirmed that litter and other highly contaminated forest components such as fungi, decaying wood, bryophytes, and lichens serve as sources of 137Cs transfer into the forest insect community. PMID:28125745

  2. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Long, N Q; Truong, Y; Hien, P D; Binh, N T; Sieu, L N; Giap, T V; Phan, N T

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33, and 37 μBq m(-3) for (131)I, (13)(4)Cs, and (13)(7)Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 d over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima.

  3. Modeling of Radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident to Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Yun, J. Y.

    2016-12-01

    FLEXPART Lagrangian model and NCEP/GFS meteorological data were employed and transport of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant toward Korean Peninsula was simulated for three key artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, I-131, and Xe-133). By simulating horizontal distributions and tracking the trajectories of the radionuclides for the period of 10 March 2011 to 20 April 2011, the following three distinctive different arrival pathways were detected; 1) intercontinental scale - plume released since mid-March 2011 and transported to the North to arrive Korea on 23 March 2011, 2) global(hemispherical) scale - plume traveling over the whole northern hemisphere passing through the Pacific Ocean/Europe to reach the Korean Peninsula with relatively low concentrations in late March 2011 and, 3) regional scale - plume released on early April 2011 arrived at the Korean Peninsula via southwest sea of Japan influenced directly by veering mesoscale wind circulations. Our identification of these transport routes at three different scales of meteorological circulations suggests the feasibility of a multi-scale approach for more accurate prediction of radionuclide transport in the study area. In light of the fact that the observed arrival/duration time of peaks were explained well by the FLEXPART model coupled with NCEP/GFS input data, our approach can be used meaningfully as a decision support model for radiation emergency situations

  4. Sensing of viral and endogenous RNA by ZBP1/DAI induces necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Maelfait, Jonathan; Liverpool, Layal; Bridgeman, Anne; Ragan, Katherine B; Upton, Jason W; Rehwinkel, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Nucleic acids are potent triggers for innate immunity. Double-stranded DNA and RNA adopt different helical conformations, including the unusual Z-conformation. Z-DNA/RNA is recognised by Z-binding domains (ZBDs), which are present in proteins implicated in antiviral immunity. These include ZBP1 (also known as DAI or DLM-1), which induces necroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death. Using reconstitution and knock-in models, we report that mutation of key amino acids involved in Z-DNA/RNA binding in ZBP1's ZBDs prevented necroptosis upon infection with mouse cytomegalovirus. Induction of cell death was cell autonomous and required RNA synthesis but not viral DNA replication. Accordingly, ZBP1 directly bound to RNA via its ZBDs. Intact ZBP1-ZBDs were also required for necroptosis triggered by ectopic expression of ZBP1 and caspase blockade, and ZBP1 cross-linked to endogenous RNA These observations show that Z-RNA may constitute a molecular pattern that induces inflammatory cell death upon sensing by ZBP1. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  5. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident on Spanish environmental radioactivity levels.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Rodríguez, A; Galván, J; García-Tenorio, R; Manjón, G; Mantero, J; Vioque, I; Arnold, D; Grossi, C; Serrano, I; Vallés, I; Vargas, A

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of the effect of the atmospheric radioactive release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station at three sites belonging to the Spanish environmental monitoring system. Measured values varied depending on the locations of the sites in Spain and their respective climatic characteristics. (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, and (132)Te activity concentrations in filter samples were studied and associated levels of (131)I fallout were estimated from wet and dry deposition. Particulate aerosol activity concentrations ranges, in μBq/m(3), were 1.63-3080 ((131)I), 2.8-690 ((137)Cs), 1.3-620 ((134)Cs) and 3.6-330 ((132)Te), while the associated (131)I fallout was roughly estimated to be less than 20 Bq/m(2), Gaseous (131)I was also detected and the (131)I-gaseous/(131)I-total ratio increased at the three stations from approximately 0.75 at the end of March to 0.85-0.9 during the first few days of April. Finally, the presence of (131)I in some crucial parts of the food chain was also studied. (131)I was detected in samples from goat's and cow's milk (maximum levels of 1.11 Bq/L) and in broadleaf plants (maximum level 1.42 Bq/kg).

  6. Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Shozugawa, Katsumi; Nogawa, Norio; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2012-04-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged reactor cooling systems at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The subsequent venting operation and hydrogen explosion resulted in a large radioactive nuclide emission from reactor containers into the environment. Here, we collected environmental samples such as soil, plant species, and water on April 10, 2011, in front of the power plant main gate as well as 35 km away in Iitate village, and observed gamma-rays with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. We observed activation products ((239)Np and (59)Fe) and fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs ((133)Cs), (137)Cs, (110m)Ag ((109)Ag), (132)Te, (132)I, (140)Ba, (140)La, (91)Sr, (91)Y, (95)Zr, and (95)Nb). (239)Np is the parent nuclide of (239)Pu; (59)Fe are presumably activation products of (58)Fe obtained by corrosion of cooling pipes. The results show that these activation and fission products, diffused within a month of the accident.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MIR-selected quasar parameters (Dai+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y. S.; Elvis, M.; Bergeron, J.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Wilkes, B. J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Omont, A.; Papovich, C.

    2017-03-01

    The combined MIR 24 um and optical selection for this survey was designed to detect objects with luminous torus/nucleus and not biased against dusty hosts. The MIR selection allows for the detection of hot dust (a few hundred Kelvin) at the redshifts z ~ 1.5; while optical follow-up spectroscopically identified the BEL objects, confirming their unobscured (type 1) quasar nature. This MIR selection also allows for a far-infrared (FIR) cross-match to look for cool dust for SMBH-host studies, as demonstrated in Dai et al. (2012ApJ...753...33D). We select Spitzer MIPS (Rieke et al. 2004ApJS..154...25R) 24 um sources from the SWIRE survey in the ~22 deg2 LHS field centered at RA=10:46:48, DE=57:54:00 (Lonsdale et al. 2003PASP..115..897L). The SDSS imaging also covers the LHS region to r = 22.2 at 95% detection repeatability, but can go as deep as r = 23. All magnitudes are taken from the SDSS photoObj catalog in DR7, which are already corrected for Galactic extinction according to Schlegel et al. (1998ApJ...500..525S). (6 data files).

  8. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident: additional lessons from a radiological emergency assistance mission.

    PubMed

    Becker, Steven M

    2013-11-01

    In response to the March 2011 earthquake-tsunami disaster and the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, a special nongovernmental Radiological Emergency Assistance Mission flew to Japan from the United States. Invited by one of Japan's largest hospital and healthcare groups and facilitated by a New York-based international disaster relief organization, the mission included an emergency physician, a health physicist, and a disaster management specialist. During the 10 d mission, team members conducted fieldwork in areas affected by the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident; went to cities and towns in the 20-30 km Emergency Evacuation Preparation Zone around the damaged nuclear plant; visited other communities affected by the nuclear accident; went to evacuation shelters; met with mayors and other local officials; met with central government officials; exchanged observations, experiences, and information with Japanese medical, emergency response, and disaster management colleagues; and provided radiological information and training to more than 1,100 Japanese hospital and healthcare personnel and first responders. The mission produced many insights with potential relevance for radiological/nuclear emergency preparedness and response. The first "lessons learned" were published in December 2011. Since that time, additional broad insights from the mission and mission followup have been identified. Five of these new lessons, which focus primarily on community impacts and responses and public communication issues, are presented and discussed in this article.

  9. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  10. Tracking of airborne radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors by European networks.

    PubMed

    Masson, O; Baeza, A; Bieringer, J; Brudecki, K; Bucci, S; Cappai, M; Carvalho, F P; Connan, O; Cosma, C; Dalheimer, A; Didier, D; Depuydt, G; De Geer, L E; De Vismes, A; Gini, L; Groppi, F; Gudnason, K; Gurriaran, R; Hainz, D; Halldórsson, Ó; Hammond, D; Hanley, O; Holeý, K; Homoki, Zs; Ioannidou, A; Isajenko, K; Jankovic, M; Katzlberger, C; Kettunen, M; Kierepko, R; Kontro, R; Kwakman, P J M; Lecomte, M; Leon Vintro, L; Leppänen, A-P; Lind, B; Lujaniene, G; Mc Ginnity, P; Mc Mahon, C; Malá, H; Manenti, S; Manolopoulou, M; Mattila, A; Mauring, A; Mietelski, J W; Møller, B; Nielsen, S P; Nikolic, J; Overwater, R M W; Pálsson, S E; Papastefanou, C; Penev, I; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P; Ramebäck, H; Reis, M C; Ringer, W; Rodriguez, A; Rulík, P; Saey, P R J; Samsonov, V; Schlosser, C; Sgorbati, G; Silobritiene, B V; Söderström, C; Sogni, R; Solier, L; Sonck, M; Steinhauser, G; Steinkopff, T; Steinmann, P; Stoulos, S; Sýkora, I; Todorovic, D; Tooloutalaie, N; Tositti, L; Tschiersch, J; Ugron, A; Vagena, E; Vargas, A; Wershofen, H; Zhukova, O

    2011-09-15

    Radioactive emissions into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine-131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific toward the North American continent and reached Europe despite dispersion and washout along the route of the contaminated air masses. In Europe, the first signs of the releases were detected 7 days later while the first peak of activity level was observed between March 28th and March 30th. Time variations over a 20-day period and spatial variations across more than 150 sampling locations in Europe made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. After the Chernobyl accident, only a few measurements of the gaseous (131)I fraction were conducted compared to the number of measurements for the particulate fraction. Several studies had already pointed out the importance of the gaseous (131)I and the large underestimation of the total (131)I airborne activity level, and subsequent calculations of inhalation dose, if neglected. The measurements made across Europe following the releases from the Fukushima NPP reactors have provided a significant amount of new data on the ratio of the gaseous (131)I fraction to total (131)I, both on a spatial scale and its temporal variation. It can be pointed out that during the Fukushima event, the (134)Cs to (137)Cs ratio proved to be different from that observed after the Chernobyl accident. The data set provided in this paper is the most comprehensive survey of the main relevant airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima reactors, measured across Europe. A rough estimate of the total (131)I inventory that has passed over Europe during this period was <1% of the released amount. According to the measurements, airborne activity levels remain of no concern for public health in Europe.

  11. Bingham Dai, Adolf Storfer, and the tentative beginnings of psychoanalytic culture in China, 1935-1941.

    PubMed

    Blowers, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the work of two figures who, while marginal to theoretical developments within the history of psychoanalysis, each briefly played an important role in the dissemination of analytical ideas in China, contributing to an early psychoanalytic culture there. Bingham Dai, a native of China, while studying for a PhD in sociology at Chicago, received instruction from Harry Stack Sullivan and a psychoanalytic training under Karen Horney's supervision. However, the neo-Freudian outlook with which this experience imbued him had its roots in an earlier encounter with his experiments in personality education first conducted on students in a Tientsin high school, and later in Shantung under the direction of the conservative Confucian scholar and reformer, Liang Shu Ming. These experiences convinced him that a less orthodox psychoanalytic perspective was what Chinese patients with psychological problems required. He returned in 1935 to teach medical psychology to doctors at Peking Union Medical College, taking a few into analysis and treating some patients. However, the Sino-Japanese war brought these activities to a close and he left in 1939, just a few months after the former Freud publisher and Viennese émigré, Adolf Storfer, arrived. Storfer set about publishing "Gelbe Post," a German language periodical replete with articles on psychoanalysis, linguistics and Chinese culture. But limited finances, severe competition from a rival publisher, plus his own ill health, forced him to abandon this in spite of the support offered him through the many contributors in the international psychoanalytic community whose articles he published. The paper concludes by considering the relative historiographic fate of the men upon whom subsequent scholarship has been very unevenly focused.

  12. Estimation of marine source-term following Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Bailly du Bois, P; Laguionie, P; Boust, D; Korsakissok, I; Didier, D; Fiévet, B

    2012-12-01

    Contamination of the marine environment following the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant represented the most important artificial radioactive release flux into the sea ever known. The radioactive marine pollution came from atmospheric fallout onto the ocean, direct release of contaminated water from the plant and transport of radioactive pollution from leaching through contaminated soil. In the immediate vicinity of the plant (less than 500 m), the seawater concentrations reached 68,000 Bq.L(-1) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and exceeded 100,000 Bq.L(-1) for (131)I in early April. Due to the accidental context of the releases, it is difficult to estimate the total amount of radionuclides introduced into seawater from data obtained in the plant. An evaluation is proposed here, based on measurements performed in seawater for monitoring purposes. Quantities of (137)Cs in seawater in a 50-km area around the plant were calculated from interpolation of seawater measurements. The environmental halftime of seawater in this area is deduced from the time-evolution of these quantities. This halftime appeared constant at about 7 days for (137)Cs. These data allowed estimation of the amount of principal marine inputs and their evolution in time: a total of 27 PBq (12 PBq-41 PBq) of (137)Cs was estimated up to July 18. Even though this main release may be followed by residual inputs from the plant, river runoff and leakage from deposited sediments, it represents the principal source-term that must be accounted for future studies of the consequences of the accident on marine systems. The (137)Cs from Fukushima will remain detectable for several years throughout the North Pacific, and (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio will be a tracer for future studies.

  13. Radiocesium dynamics in irrigation ponds in the proximity of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, I. T.; Johnson, T.; Tsukada, H.; Wakiyama, Y.; Konoplev, A.; Hinton, T.; Takase, T.

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this research is to better understand the dynamics of radiocesium in irrigation ponds located within the 10 km deposition zone surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident site in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Four ponds were selected for sampling. Three types of samples were collected from each pond and 30 - 50 cm sediment cores were taken with PVC tubes. Grab samples of the surface sediment layer were taken at each location. Water samples were also taken to determine ion components and radiocesium concentration in the ponds. The water samples were filtered through a 0.45µm pore-size membrane filter to determine the concentration of ammonium in the pond water. Water samples were also counted for radiocesium on a high purity germanium counter (HPGe). The grab samples were dried and packaged for HPGe counting and used for sequential extractions. The sequential extractions are used to determine the fractions of radiocesium in the sediments. Two extractions were completed on the grab samples; the exchangeable fraction was extracted with 1 M ammonium acetate and bound-to-organic matter fraction was extracted with 0.8 M ammonium acetate with 20% nitric acid solution after decomposed with hydrogen peroxide. The sediment cores were cut into sections and dried. Once the water was removed, the sediments were packaged for counting on the HPGe. Data will provide a profile of the quantity of radiocesium in the sediments by depth. Ideal results would demonstrate the migration of radiocesium species in the fractions of sediments and their exchange between sediments and the water column. The role of sediment resuspension in water column contamination will be analyzed. The data can provide insights into the mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in the ponds and provide feedback to potential modeling of the ecosystem. There are 3,700 ponds in Fukushima Prefecture and results that validate a model can support estimation of radiocesium dynamics in

  14. Fenofibrate, HDL, and cardiovascular disease in Type-2 diabetes: The DAIS trial.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Fumiyoshi; Asztalos, Ivor B; Horvath, Katalin V; Steiner, George; Schaefer, Ernst J; Asztalos, Bela F

    2016-04-01

    There are conflicting reports on the role of fibrates in CVD-risk. Several studies indicate beneficial effects of fibrates on CVD risk in type-2 diabetic patients. We tested how fenofibrate changes lipoprotein subfractions and glucose homeostasis in type-2 diabetic patients. Selected markers of lipid and glucose homeostasis and inflammation were measured in 204 diabetic patients who participated in the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study (DAIS) and were randomly assigned to 200 mg fenofibrate or placebo. Percent changes from baseline until a minimum of 3 years (average 39.6 months) on therapy (end of study) were calculated for all study parameters. The concentrations of total LDL-C and small dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) did not change on fenofibrate compared to placebo. Compared to placebo, fenofibrate significantly decreased concentrations of triglyceride and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and activity of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), while significantly increased concentrations of HDL-C. In contrast to other lipid-modifying drugs (e.g. statins) which increase HDL-C by increasing large (α-1) HDL particles, fenofibrate increased HDL-C by increasing the smaller, less antiatherogenic HDL-C particles, α-3 and α-4. Furthermore, despite lowering TG levels by 20%, fenofibrate failed to decrease pre-β1 levels. On fenofibrate, glycated serum-protein levels increased moderately, while insulin and adiponectin levels did not change. On fenofibrate, lipid homeostasis improved and Lp-PLA2 activity decreased while there was no improvement in glucose homeostasis. Despite increasing HDL-C and decreasing triglyceride levels, fenofibrate failed to improve the antiatherogenic properties of the HDL subpopulation profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dai-Kenchu-To, a Herbal Medicine, Attenuates Colorectal Distention-induced Visceromotor Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Kumi; Nagura, Yohko; Hasegawa, Ryoko; Ito, Hitomi; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is known to increase gastrointestinal motility and improve ileal function. We tested our hypotheses that (1) pretreatment with DKT would block the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor response in rats, and (2) pretreatment with DKT would attenuate colorectal distention-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release and anxiety-related behavior. Methods Rats were pretreated with vehicle or DKT (300 mg/kg/5 mL, per os). Visceromotor responses were analyzed using electromyography in response to colorectal distention (10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg for 20 seconds at 3-minutes intervals). Anxiety-related behavior was measured during exposure to an elevated-plus maze after colorectal distention. Plasma ACTH and serum corticosterone levels were measured after exposure to the elevated-plus maze. Results Colorectal distention produced robust contractions of the abdominal musculature, graded according to stimulus intensity, in vehicle-treated rats. At 40, 60, and 80 mmHg of colorectal distention, the visceromotor responses of DKT-treated rats was significantly lower than that of vehicle-treated rats. At 80 mmHg, the amplitude was suppressed to approximately one-third in DKT-treated rats, compared with that in vehicle-treated rats. Smooth muscle compliance and the velocity of accommodation to 60 mmHg of stretching did not significantly differ between the vehicle-treated and DKT-treated rats. Similarly, the DKT did not influence colorectal distention-induced ACTH release, corticosterone levels, or anxiety-related behavior in rats. Conclusions Our results suggest that DKT attenuates the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor responses, without increasing smooth muscle compliance, ACTH release or anxiety-related behavior in rats. PMID:27095743

  16. [Gene Analysis of Thalassemia in Han and Dai Ethnic Childbearing-aged Population of Chinese Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Yong-Mei; Pu, Jian; Zhou, Feng-Zhen; Jin, Chan-Chan; Su, Jie; Zhang, Jin-Man; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Sun-Yun; Zhang, Yin-Hong; Zhu, Bao-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the common mutation spectrum of α- and β-thalassemia in Yunnan childbearing-aged population. The common mutation types of α- or β-globin genes were detected by multiple Gap-PCR and the PCR-reversed dot blotting, and the unknown mutation types were determined by DNA sequencing in DNA samples of hypochromic microcytic anemia patients and carriers who were confirmed to be positive by serologic screaning, then the mutation types of globin in Yunnan population were analyzed statistically. A total of 40 kinds of mutation types were detected in 685 detected persons, among them the 3 commonest mutation types of α-globin genes were --(SEA)/αα (49.09%), -α(3.7)/αα (36.67%) and α(CS)α/αα (8.79%), the 3 commonest genetypes of β-globin gene were CD26(GAG>AAG)/N (43.78%), CD41-42(-CTTT)/N (20.1%) and CD17(AAG>TAG)/N (18.9%). There were 348 Han and 212 Dai ethnic persons in 685 cases, but their mutation of globin genes were different between these 2 ethnic groups. The results also showed that the gene mutation types were mostly concentrated in Dai ethnic individuals, since 28 of 38 detected α-β-thalassemia cases were Dai ethnic individuals. The mutation spectrums of α- and β-globin genes in Yunnan childbearing-aged population are diverse and different from that in other areas of China.

  17. Tracking Radioactive Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident in Arctic Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Thompson, J.; Landis, J.; Albert, M. R.; Campbell, S. W.; Hawley, R. L.; Virginia, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake produced a tsunami that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and led to the accidental release of radioactive 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, and 137Cs to the atmosphere. The Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission estimates that 12,000 TBq of 137Cs were released to the atmosphere during the incident, which represents ~14% of the total estimated 137Cs emission from the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. Measurements of airborne radiation collected at the Fukushima plant illustrate that >50% of the total emitted radiation was released on March 15 and 16 associated with explosions and fires at reactor units 1, 2, and 4, and 70% was emitted in the first 5 days of the event. The source of the radiation is thus well constrained in time and space, providing an opportunity to better understand long-range atmospheric transport processes from Asia to the Arctic, while also assessing the magnitude of the fallout in the Arctic. Here we describe the 137Cs and 134Cs fallout flux near Thule, Greenland (1700 m a.s.l.), at Summit (3200 m a.s.l.), Greenland, and within Denali National Park, Alaska (2400-3900 m a.s.l.) based on series of large-volume (5-15 l) snow pit samples collected in June and July, 2011. In addition to assessing the spatial variability of Fukushima fallout in the Arctic, the elevation range of samples allows for an analysis of any vertical heterogeneity in fallout transport and deposition. Major ion concentrations and stable water isotope ratios are used to confirm the seasonal timing of the Fukushima fallout horizon in the snowpack. Radiocesium was concentrated and isolated from the snow pit meltwater using the well-established ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) adsorption method, and 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations were measured using gamma spectrometry with a Canberra 3523 well-type intrinsic Ge-detector at the Dartmouth College Short-Lived Isotope Laboratory. NOAA HYPLIT atmospheric forward

  18. Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Heterochelamon Türkay & Dai, 1997 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Tohru; Zhu, Chunchao; Zhou, Xianmin

    2013-01-01

    Heterochelamon tessellatum n. sp. and H. castanea n. sp. are described trom the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. Heterochelamon tessellatum n. sp. and H. castanea n. sp. are morphologically most similar to H. yangshuoense Türkay & Dai, 1997, and H. guangxiense Türkay & Dai, 1997, respectively. The new species can be differentiated from these allied species by differences in the shape of external orbital tooth, epibranchial tooth, and male first gonopod. The present study brings the number of Heterochelamon species to five. A key to species of the genus Heterochelamon is provided.

  19. Combined behavioral and EEG power analysis in DAI improve accuracy in the assessment of sustained attention deficit.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Erika; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Butti, Michele; Reni, Gianluigi; Zucca, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    In clinical routine, the evaluation of sustained attention is often performed by analyzing the behavioral data collected during specific tests. Such analyses are rarely accompanied by a detailed examination of the subject's simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and particularly its frequency content. In this study, a group of healthy volunteers and a group of patients affected by diffuse axonal injury (DAI) were tested while performing a modified version of the Conners' continuous performance test. A comparative study was carried out between the behavioral and neuropsychological data obtained during the task, to investigate neural activation. Spectral power was calculated for each of the recorded EEG signals, taking account of the frequency bands traditionally considered in literature. Then a compressed spectral array sequence of spectra was plotted to put into evidence the temporal modifications in the signal power spectral density, and, finally, the analysis of the rhythm variability was carried out. Evaluation of the results thus obtained shows that the two groups registered very different cerebral activation dynamics during the ongoing attentional task. Moreover, DAI patients showed mild cortical activation in the prefrontal region, spread equally throughout both brain hemispheres, while controls showed strong predominant activation of the right prefrontal area. Our findings encourage further investigations of the combined employment of tests and EEG recordings during the clinical assessment of sustained attention performance.

  20. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on environmental radioactivity in Aomori Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kudo, S; Igarashi, K; Kimura, H

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclides with a short half-life, such as (131)I and (134)Cs, were detected in environmental samples collected in Aomori Prefecture after the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. In addition, the observed (137)Cs concentration was increased over the background level. The gaseous (131)I concentration in air observed in April was higher than that observed in March immediately after the accident. Using a backward trajectory analysis, the authors found that the air mass had passed the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant when the gaseous (131)I concentration in air was increasing. Maximum (131)I and radioactive Cs concentrations in daily fallout samples collected in Aomori city were observed on 28 April, when (131)I was also detected in air. (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentration ratios in pine needles and pasture grass were nearly equal to 1, which indicates that the source of these radionuclides was the nuclear power plant accident. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Overview of insoluble radioactive cesium particles emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko

    2017-04-01

    In the early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) accident, number of spot type contamination has been observed in computed autoradiography (Kashimura 2013, Shibata 2013, Satou 2014). It's means presence of radioactive particles, however, insoluble cesium particle was overlooked because cesium, which is dominant radioactive element in the accident, becomes ionized in the environment. Adachi et al. (2013) showed presence of cesium (Cs)-bearing particles within air dust sample collected at Tsukuba, 170 km south from the Fukushima site, in midnight of 14 to morning of 15 March 2011. These particles were micrometer order small particles and Cs was could be detectable as element using an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). However, other radioactive elements such as Co-60, Ru-103 and uranium, which were dominant element of radioactive particles delivered from Chernobyl accident, could not detected. Abe et al. (2014) employed a synchrotron radiation (SR)-micro(μ)-X-ray analysis to the Cs-bearing particles, and they were concluded that (1) contained elements derived from nuclear fission processes and from nuclear reactor and fuel materials; (2) were amorphous; (3) were highly oxidized; and (4) consisted of glassy spherules formed from a molten mixture of nuclear fuel and reactor material. In addition, Satou et al. (2016) and Yamaguchi et al. (2016) disclosed that silicate is main component of Cs-bearing particles. Satou et al. (2015) discovered two types of radioactive particles from soil samples collected in the vicinity of the F1NPS. These particles were remained in the natural environment more than four years, silicate is main component in common of each group particles. Group A particles were very similar to Cs-bearing particles reported by Adachi et al. except particle shape. On the other hand, group B is big particles found in north area from the F1NPS, and the strongest particles contained 20 kBq of Cs-137 within a particle

  2. Environmental Remediation Activities in Japan Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Incident - 12603

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, J.W.; Kelley, J.L.; Marcial, M.R.; Yashio, Shoko; Kuriu, Nobou; Kamijo, Hiroaki; Jotatsu, Kato

    2012-07-01

    In March 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor power plant was crippled by the Great Pacific earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Much of the focus in the news was on the reactor site itself as the utility company (TEPCO), the Japanese government, and experts from around the world worked to bring the damaged plants into a safe shutdown condition and stem the release of radioactivity to the environment. Most of the radioactivity released was carried out to sea with the prevailing winds. Still, as weather patterns changed and winds shifted, a significant plume of radioactive materials released from the plant deposited in the environment surrounding the plant, contaminating large land areas of the Fukushima Prefecture. The magnitude of the radiological impact to the surrounding environmental is so large that the Japanese government has had to reevaluate the meaning of 'acceptably clean'. In many respects, 'acceptably clean' cannot be a one-size-fits-all standard. The economics costs of such an approach would make impossible what is already an enormous and costly environmental response and remediation task. Thus, the Japanese government has embarked upon an approach that is both situation-specific and reasonably achievable. For example, the determination of acceptably clean for a nursery school or kindergarten play yard may be different from that for a parking lot. The acceptably clean level of residual radioactivity in the surface soil of a rice paddy is different from that in a forested area. The recognized exposure situation (scenario) thus plays a large role in the decision process. While sometimes complicated to grasp or implement, such an approach does prioritize national resources to address environment remediation based upon immediate and significant risks. In addition, the Japanese government is testing means and methods, including advanced or promising technologies, that could be proven to be effective in reducing the amount of radioactivity in the environment

  3. RIG-I is required for VSV-induced cytokine production by murine glia and acts in combination with DAI to initiate responses to HSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Crill, Emma K.; Furr-Rogers, Samantha R.; Marriott, Ian

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of viral central nervous system (CNS) infection is the rapid onset of severe neuroinflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying glial responses to replicative neurotropic viruses are only now becoming apparent with the discovery of a number of cytosolic sensors for viral nucleic acids. We have described the expression by murine and human glial cells of two disparate pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factors (DAI), receptors for viral RNA and DNA moieties, respectively. In the present study, we demonstrate the functional significance of RIG-I expression in primary murine microglia and astrocytes. Our data indicate that murine glial immune responses to a model neurotropic RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, are RIG-I dependent and independent of levels of DAI expression or RNA polymerase III activity. In contrast, maximal glial inflammatory and antiviral responses to the DNA virus herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) are dependent on the expression of both RIG-I and DAI, and require RNA polymerase III activity. These findings indicate that the RNA sensor, RIG-I, acts in parallel with DAI in an RNA polymerase III-dependent manner to initiate glial responses to HSV-1. We therefore suggest that RIG-I plays a significant role in the detection of both RNA and DNA pathogens by microglia and astrocytes. PMID:26146945

  4. RIG-I is required for VSV-induced cytokine production by murine glia and acts in combination with DAI to initiate responses to HSV-1.

    PubMed

    Crill, Emma K; Furr-Rogers, Samantha R; Marriott, Ian

    2015-12-01

    A defining feature of viral central nervous system (CNS) infection is the rapid onset of severe neuroinflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying glial responses to replicative neurotropic viruses are only now becoming apparent with the discovery of a number of cytosolic sensors for viral nucleic acids. We have described the expression by murine and human glial cells of two disparate pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factors (DAI), receptors for viral RNA and DNA moieties, respectively. In the present study, we demonstrate the functional significance of RIG-I expression in primary murine microglia and astrocytes. Our data indicate that murine glial immune responses to a model neurotropic RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, are RIG-I dependent and independent of levels of DAI expression or RNA polymerase III activity. In contrast, maximal glial inflammatory and antiviral responses to the DNA virus herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) are dependent on the expression of both RIG-I and DAI, and require RNA polymerase III activity. These findings indicate that the RNA sensor, RIG-I, acts in parallel with DAI in an RNA polymerase III-dependent manner to initiate glial responses to HSV-1. We therefore suggest that RIG-I plays a significant role in the detection of both RNA and DNA pathogens by microglia and astrocytes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM)--Description. Users Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    The Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) described in this report is an interactive mathematical model with a built-in sensitivity analysis capability. It is a major component of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Model (LCCIM), which was developed as part of the DAIS advanced development program to be used to assess the potential impacts…

  6. Multi-Phased, Post-Accident Support of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant - 12246

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, Arnaud; Gillet, Philippe; Ytournel, Bertrand; Varet, Thierry; David, Laurent; Prevost, Thierry; Redonnet, Carol; Piot, Gregoire; Jouaville, Stephane; Pagis, Georges

    2012-07-01

    In the wake of the March 11 earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent flooding of several of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactors, Japan and the Japanese utility TEPCO faced a crisis situation with incredible challenges: substantial amounts of radioactive mixed seawater and freshwater accumulated in the basements of four reactor and other buildings on the site. This water held varying levels of contamination due to the fact that it had been in contact with damaged fuel elements in the cores and with other contaminated components. The overall water inventory was estimated at around 110,000 tons of water with contamination levels up to the order of 1 Ci/l. Time was of the essence to avoid overflow of this accumulated water into the ocean. AREVA proposed, designed and implemented a water treatment solution using a proven chemical coprecipitation process with ppFeNi reagent, which is currently in use for effluent treatment on several nuclear sites including AREVA sites. In addition to the extremely short schedule the other challenge was to adapt the chemical treatment process to the expected composition of the Fukushima water and, in particular, to evaluate the impact of salinity on process performance. It was also necessary to define operating conditions for the VEOLIA equipment that had been selected for implementation of the process in the future facility. The operation phase began on June 17, and by the end of July more than 30,000 tons of highly radioactive saltwater had been decontaminated - the Decontamination Factor (DF) for Cesium was ∼10{sup 4}. It allowed recycling the contaminated water to cool the reactors while protecting workers and the environment. This paper focuses on the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad water treatment unit project that was part of the TEPCO general water treatment scheme. It presents a detailed look at the principles of the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad, related on-the-fly R and D, an explanation of system implementation challenges, and a brief summary of

  7. Measurement of Airborne Fission Products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Kukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Accident

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Henning, R.; Holmes, R.; Vorren, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products 131I and 137Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 0.6 mBq/m3 and 0.42 0.07 mBq/m3 respectively. Additional activity from 131,132I, 134,136,137Cs and 132Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  8. Atmospheric radionuclides transported to Fukuoka, Japan remote from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power complex following the nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Momoshima, N; Sugihara, S; Ichikawa, R; Yokoyama, H

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides were detected from the Fukushima nuclear accident at Fukuoka, Japan, 1000 km west of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power complex. Iodine-131 was first detected 3 d after the accident, indicating that it was probably transported dispersively because of local meteorological conditions, and not global air circulation. The maximum concentrations, 5.07 mBq m(-3) for (131)I, 4.04 mBq m(-3) for (134)Cs, and 4.12 mBq m(-3) for (137)Cs, were recorded in particles collected on April 6, 2011. However, these concentration levels decreased below the detection limit by April 26, 2011. Gaseous (131)I accounted for 30%-67% of the total (131)I content. The increase in dose by inhalation was negligible at Fukuoka. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of nurses in a nuclear disaster: experience in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Noto, Y; Kitamiya, C; Itaki, C; Urushizaka, M; Kidachi, R; Yamabe, H

    2013-06-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Japan on 11 March 2011. The giant tsunami devastated many coastal communities in eastern Japan and caused the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant incident. The Japanese government conducted a large-scale survey of residents affected by the nuclear and natural disasters in Fukushima prefecture and in response to the government's request, H University dispatched a Radiation Exposure Research Team to Fukushima. This article explains the activities of the Radiation Exposure Research Team and the role of nurses in a nuclear disaster. As a nurse in the field of radiation medicine, our role is to protect the health of those affected and to reduce their anxiety. In addition, as the persons responsible for implementing these projects, it is also necessary that we educate and foster the development of medical care personnel with the appropriate knowledge and skills to carry out the measures required. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  10. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

    2013-04-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).

  11. Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Stations of TEPCO —Outline & lessons learned—

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Shun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The severe accident that broke out at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations on March 11, 2011, caused seemingly infinite damage to the daily life of residents. Serious and wide-spread contamination of the environment occurred due to radioactive materials discharged from nuclear power stations (NPSs). At the same time, many issues were highlighted concerning countermeasures to severe nuclear accidents. The accident is outlined, and lessons learned are extracted with respect to the safety of NPSs, as well as radiation protection of residents under the emergency involving the accident. The materials of the current paper are those released by governmental agencies, academic societies, interim reports of committees under the government, and others. PMID:23138450

  12. Atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides released after the Fukushima Dai-chi accident and resulting effective dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzo, Giuseppe A.

    2014-09-01

    On 11 March 2011 an earthquake off the Pacific coast of the Fukushima prefecture generated a tsunami that hit Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Da-ini Nuclear Power Plants. From 12 March a significant amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere and dispersed worldwide. Among the most abundant radioactive species released were iodine and cesium isotopes. By means of an atmospheric dispersion Lagrangian code and publicly available meteorological data, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs have been simulated for three months after the event with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° globally. The simulation has been validated by comparison to publicly available measurements collected in 206 locations worldwide. Sensitivity analysis shows that release height of the radionuclides, wet deposition velocity, and source term are the parameters with the most impact on the simulation results. The simulation shows that the radioactive plume, consisting of about 200 PBq by adding contributions from 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, has been transported over the entire northern hemisphere depositing up to 1.2 MBq m-2 nearby the NPPs to less than 20 Bq m-2 in Europe. The consequent effective dose to the population over a 50-year period, calculated by considering both external and internal pathways of exposure, is found to be about 40 mSv in the surroundings of Fukushima Dai-ichi, while other countries in the northern hemisphere experienced doses several orders of magnitude lower suggesting a small impact on the population health elsewhere.

  13. MELCOR Model of the Spent Fuel Pool of Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 4

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Unit 4 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered a hydrogen explosion at 6:00 am on March 15, 2011, exactly 3.64 days after the earthquake hit the plant and the off-site power was lost. The earthquake occurred on March 11 at 2:47 pm. Since the reactor of this Unit 4 was defueled on November 29, 2010, and all its fuel was stored in the spent fuel pool (SFP4), it was first believed that the explosion was caused by hydrogen generated by the spent fuel, in particular, by the recently discharged core. The hypothetical scenario was: power was lost, cooling to the SFP4 water was lost, pool water heated/boiled, water level decreased, fuel was uncovered, hot Zircaloy reacted with steam, hydrogen was generated and accumulated above the pool, and the explosion occurred. Recent analyses of the radioisotopes present in the water of the SFP4 and underwater video indicated that this scenario did not occur - the fuel in this pool was not damaged and was never uncovered the hydrogen of the explosion was apparently generated in Unit 3 and transported through exhaust ducts that shared the same chimney with Unit 4. This paper will try to answer the following questions: Could that hypothetical scenario in the SFP4 had occurred? Could the spent fuel in the SPF4 generate enough hydrogen to produce the explosion that occurred 3.64 days after the earthquake? Given the magnitude of the explosion, it was estimated that at least 150 kg of hydrogen had to be generated. As part of the investigations of this accident, MELCOR models of the SFP4 were prepared and a series of calculations were completed. The latest version of MELCOR, version 2.1 (Ref. 1), was employed in these calculations. The spent fuel pool option for BWR fuel was selected in MELCOR. The MELCOR model of the SFP4 consists of a total of 1535 fuel assemblies out of which 548 assemblies are from the core defueled on Nov. 29, 2010, 783 assemblies are older assemblies, and 204 are new/fresh assemblies. The total decay

  14. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Steven R.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Keillor, Martin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morin, Marc P.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of 131I reached levels of 3.0 * 10*2 Bqm*3 in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas 133Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm*3. While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  15. Temporal changes in radiocesium deposition in various forest stands following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Hisadome, Keigo; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The (137)Cs content of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantations of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous mixed broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine) from July 2011 to December 2012. The forest floor of cedar stands had received higher levels of additional (137)Cs deposition compared with the mixed broad-leaved stand during the sampling period. The cumulative (137)Cs deposition during the study period was 119 kBq m(-2) for the mature cedar stand, 105 kBq m(-2) for the young cedar stand, and 41.5 kBq m(-2) for the broad-leaved stand. The deposition of (137)Cs to the forest floor occurred mainly in throughfall during the first rainy season, from July to September 2011 (<200 d after the initial fallout); thereafter, the transfer of (137)Cs from the canopy to forest floor occurred mainly through litterfall. A double exponential field-loss model, which was used to simulate the removal of (137)Cs from canopies, was the best fit for the temporal changes in the canopy (137)Cs inventory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical reconstruction of high dose rate zones due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Katata, Genki; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi

    2012-09-01

    To understand how the high dose rate zones were created during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident on March 2011, the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during the period from 15 to 17 March was reproduced by using a computer-based nuclear emergency response system, WSPEEDI-II. With use of limited environmental monitoring data, prediction accuracy of meteorological and radiological fields by the system was improved to obtain best estimates of release rates, radiation dose maps, and plume movements. A large part of current high dose rate zones in Fukushima was explained by simulated surface deposition of radionuclides due to major releases of radionuclides on 15 March. In the simulation, the highest dose rate zones to the northwest of FNPP1 were created by a significant deposition of radionuclides discharged from FNPP1 during the afternoon. The results indicate that two environmental factors, i.e., rainfall and topography, strongly affected the spatial patterns of surface deposition of radionuclides. The wet deposition due to rainfall particularly played an important role in the formation of wide and heterogeneous distributions of high dose rate zones. The simulation also demonstrated that the radioactive plume flowed along the valleys to its leeward, which can expand the areas of a large amount of surface deposition in complex topography.

  17. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko

    2014-02-01

    The large amount of (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile (137)Cs. To investigate (137)Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of (137)Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of (137)Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of (137)Cs, and only 2% of (137)Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total (137)Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of (137)Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total (137)Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable (137)Cs exists in forest surface soil.

  18. Numerical simulation of propagation of radioactive pollution in the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Budyansky, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    Numerical simulation of the large-scale horizontal mixing and transport of radioactive water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) (141°02' E, 37°27' N, east coast of Honshu Island, Japan) and the use of the satellite altimetric velocity field in the northwestern Pacific allowed us to obtain the following results. The patch of radioactive water dumped from the NPP propagated eastwards as jets of an extension of the Kuroshio Current. The discovered phenomenon of trapping the radionuclides by stable and unstable manifolds of local synoptic eddies may be harmful for living organisms. If one assumes that pollution of considerable areas of coastal waters near Honshu Island took place due to fallout of radioactive precipitation with rain, then a part of the radioactive water may be subjected to north-bound advection and is mixing under the impact of stable and unstable manifolds of the triple-eddy system to the north of the NPP. No radionuclide flux from the Tsugaru strait into the Sea of Japan has been found in the surface layer. Nevertheless, there is a small likelihood of their penetration there with a deep counter current and/or due to wind drift.

  19. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  20. ZBP1/DAI is an innate sensor of influenza virus triggering the NLRP3 inflammasome and programmed cell death pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Teneema; Man, Si Ming; Malireddi, R.K. Subbarao; Karki, Rajendra; Kesavardhana, Sannula; Place, David E.; Neale, Geoffrey; Vogel, Peter; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-01-01

    The interferon-inducible protein Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also known as DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) and DLM-1) was identified as a dsDNA sensor, which instigates innate immune responses. However, this classification has been disputed and whether ZBP1 functions as a pathogen sensor during an infection has remained unknown. Herein, we demonstrated ZBP1-mediated sensing of the influenza A virus (IAV) proteins NP and PB1, triggering cell death and inflammatory responses via the RIPK1–RIPK3–Caspase-8 axis. ZBP1 regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as induction of apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis in IAV-infected cells. Importantly, ZBP1 deficiency protected mice from mortality during IAV infection owing to reduced inflammatory responses and epithelial damage. Overall, these findings indicate that ZBP1 is an innate immune sensor of IAV and highlight its importance in the pathogenesis of IAV infection. PMID:27917412

  1. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-02-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a large inhabited land area was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m-2. We also estimated the inhalation and 50-year dose by 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I to which the people in Japan are exposed.

  2. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-09-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Stohl et al. (2012) and Chino et al. (2011); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a land area of 34 000 km2 around the reactors, inhabited by nearly 10 million people, was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m-2. We also estimated the inhalation and 50-yr dose by 137Cs and 131I to which the people in Japan have been exposed.

  3. Distribution of local 137Cs anomalies on the seafloor near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Blair; Ohnishi, Seiki; Ura, Tamaki; Odano, Naoteru; Sasaki, Shun; Fujita, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Tomowo; Nakata, Kaoru; Ono, Tsuneo; Ambe, Daisuke

    2013-09-15

    An estimated 3.5±0.7×10(15) Bq of (137)Cs is thought to have been discharged into the ocean following the melt down at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP). While efforts have been made to monitor seafloor radiation levels, the sampling techniques used cannot capture the continuous distribution of radionuclides. In this work, we apply in situ measurement techniques using a towed gamma ray spectrometer to map the continuous distribution of (137)Cs on the seafloor within 20 km of the F1NPP. The results reveal the existence of local (137)Cs anomalies, with levels of (137)Cs an order of magnitude higher than the surrounding seafloors. The sizes of the anomalies mapped in this work range from a few meters to a few hundreds of meters in length, and it is demonstrated that the distribution of these anomalies is strongly influenced by meter scale features of the terrain. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Wet deposition of fission-product isotopes to North America from the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident, March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Gay, David A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Nilles, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the infrastructure of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), numerous measurements of radionuclide wet deposition over North America were made for 167 NADP sites before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident of March 12, 2011. For the period from March 8 through April 5, 2011, wet-only precipitation samples were collected by NADP and analyzed for fission-product isotopes within whole-water and filterable solid samples by the United States Geological Survey using gamma spectrometry. Variable amounts of 131I, 134Cs, or 137Cs were measured at approximately 21% of sampled NADP sites distributed widely across the contiguous United States and Alaska. Calculated 1- to 2-week individual radionuclide deposition fluxes ranged from 0.47 to 5100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period. Wet deposition activity was small compared to measured activity already present in U.S. soil. NADP networks responded to this complex disaster, and provided scientifically valid measurements that are comparable and complementary to other networks in North America and Europe.

  5. Chromosomal Aberrations in Large Japanese Field Mice (Apodemus speciosus) Captured near Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Shiomi, Naoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Mizoguchi, Masahiko; Yamada, Fumio; Tomozawa, Morihiko; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa

    2017-04-07

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiation effects on nonhuman biota in the contaminated areas have been a major concern. Here, we analyzed the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (translocations and dicentrics) in the splenic lymphocytes of large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) inhabiting Fukushima Prefecture. A. speciosus chromosomes 1, 2, and 5 were flow-sorted in order to develop A. speciosus chromosome-specific painting probes, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) was performed using these painting probes to detect the translocations and dicentrics. The average frequency of the translocations and dicentrics per cell in the heavily contaminated area was significantly higher than the frequencies in the case of the noncontaminated control area and the slightly and moderately contaminated areas, and this aberration frequency in individual mice tended to roughly increase with the estimated dose rates and accumulated doses. In all four sampling areas, the proportion of aberrations occurring in chromosome 2 was approximately >3 times higher than that in chromosomes 1 and 5, which suggests that A. speciosus chromosome 2 harbors a fragile site that is highly sensitive to chromosome breaks induced by cellular stress such as DNA replication. The elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations in A. speciosus potentially resulting from the presence of a fragile site in chromosome 2 might make it challenging to observe the mild effect of chronic low-dose-rate irradiation on the induction of chromosomal aberrations in A. speciosus inhabiting the contaminated areas of Fukushima.

  6. Artificial radionuclides in surface air in Finland following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Mattila, Aleksi; Kettunen, Markku; Kontro, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    We present observations of radionuclides released during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in ambient air and in deposition made in Finland during March-May 2011. The first observed fission product was (131)I, which arrived in Finland 8-9 days after the accident. Detections of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were made 2-3 days after the first (131)I observations. The highest concentrations of fission products in Finland were observed during March 31st and April 1st. The highest observed concentrations of the following isotopes were: (131)I (10.6 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3)), (134)Cs (0.397 ± 0.020 mBq/m(3)), (137)Cs (0.405 ± 0.017 mBq/m(3)), (136)Cs (28 ± 2 μBq/m(3)), (129)Te (129 ± 9 μBq/m(3)), (129m)Te (234 ± 20 μBq/m(3)), (132)Te (51 ± 3 μBq/m(3)) and (132)I (54 ± 3 μBq/m(3)). Generally, higher concentrations of fission product were observed in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland. The variations in the (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentration data suggest that three separate plumes passed over Finland with decreasing concentrations. The first plume, with highest cesium concentrations, passed over Finland during March 31st - April 2nd, the second plume during April 4th - 6th and the third and smallest one during April 10th - April 11th. Both aerosol and gaseous iodine fractions were sampled simultaneously and thus an accurate view of the behaviour of aerosol and gaseous fractions was obtained. Large variations between different fractions were observed with the gaseous fraction representing 65-98% of the total (131)I. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio was determined to be 0.99 ± 0.10, which indicates a fuel burnup of approximately 30 MWd/t. The (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(132)Te ratios were used to estimate the time lapse after the accident. The differences between true time lapse and the ones deduced from the isotope ratios were from the correct time lapse to 0-3 days for (136)Cs/(137)Cs and 5 days for (129m)Te/(132)Te, respectively. Radionuclides from

  7. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in soils of the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Yoschenko, V. I.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Presented are results of the study of radiocesium vertical distribution in the soils of the irrigation pond catchments in the near field 0.25 to 8 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, on sections of the Niida River floodplain, and in a forest ecosystem typical of the territory contaminated after the accident. It is shown that the vertical migration of radiocesium in undisturbed forest and grassland soils in the zone affected by the Fukushima accident is faster than it was in the soils of the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for a similar time interval after the accident. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils are several times higher than those for the Chernobyl soils. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone. In the forest soils the radiocesium dispersion is faster as compared to grassland soils, both in the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones. The study and analysis of the vertical distribution of the Fukushima origin radiocesium in the Niida gawa floodplain soils has made it possible to identify areas of contaminated sediment accumulation on the floodplain. The average accumulation rate for sediments at the study locations on the Niida gawa floodplain varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. Taking into account the sediments accumulation leading to an increase in the radiocesium inventory in alluvial soils is key for predicting redistribution of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima accident on the river catchments, as well as for decision-making on contaminated territories remediation and clean-up. Clean-up of alluvial soils does not seem to be worthwhile because of the following accumulation of contaminated sediments originating from more contaminated areas, including the exclusion zone.

  8. Radiological impact of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on invertebrates in the coastal benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Sohtome, Tadahiro; Wada, Toshihiro; Mizuno, Takuji; Nemoto, Yoshiharu; Igarashi, Satoshi; Nishimune, Atsushi; Aono, Tatsuo; Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) concentrations in invertebrates of benthic food web (10 taxonomic classes with 46 identified families) collected from wide areas off Fukushima Prefecture (3-500 m depth) were inspected from July 2011, four months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, to August 2013 to elucidate time-series trends among taxa and areas. Cesium-137 was detected in seven classes (77% of 592 specimens). Higher (137)Cs concentrations within detected data were often found in areas near or south of the FDNPP, which is consistent with the reported spatial distribution of (137)Cs concentrations in highly contaminated seawater and sediments after the FDNPP accident. Overall (137)Cs concentrations in invertebrates, the maxima of which (290 Bq kg(-1)-wet in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis) were lower than in many demersal fishes, had decreased exponentially with time, and exhibited taxon-specific decreasing trends. Concentrations in Bivalvia and Gastropoda decreased clearly with respective ecological half-lives of 188 d and 102 d. In contrast, decreasing trends in Malacostraca and Polychaeta were more gradual, with longer respective ecological half-lives of 208 d and 487 d. Echinoidea showed no consistent trend, presumably because of effects of contaminated sediments taken into their digestive tract. Comparison of (137)Cs concentrations in the invertebrates and those in seawater and sediments suggest that contaminated sediments are the major source of continuing contamination in benthic invertebrates, especially in Malacostraca and Polychaeta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. (14)C levels in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant prior to the 2011 accident.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T; Cresswell, Alan J; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hastie, Helen; Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsson, Piotr; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David C W; Tripney, Brian G; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) from Okuma, ∼1 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was cored and each annual ring was analysed for (14)C. The (14)C specific activity values varied from 330.4 Bq kg(-1) C in the tree ring formed in 1971 to 231.2 Bq kg(-1) C in the 2014 ring. During the periods 1971-1976 and 2011-2014, the (14)C specific activities are indistinguishable from the ambient background values. However, compared with the ambient atmospheric levels, the (14)C specific activities between 1977 and 2010 are significantly elevated, clearly indicating (14)C discharges from the reactors during their normal operations. In addition, the specific activities are positively correlated with the annual electricity generation values. The excess (14)C specific activities were <36 Bq kg(-1) C, corresponding to an additional annual effective dose of <2 μSv via the food ingestion pathway in the study location. The primary wind direction is east-southeast/southeast with a frequency of ∼30%, in comparison to ∼20% frequency for the direction of the site under study (north-northeast/northeast). This would tend to indicate a similar magnitude of additional effective dose and consequently no significant radiological impact of atmospheric (14)C discharges from the FDNPP during the entire period of normal operations. Additionally, no (14)C pulse in activity can be observed in the year 2011 ring. This might be caused by a limited (14)C release from the damaged reactors during the accident or that the prevailing wind during the short period of release (11th-25th March 2011) was not in the direction of Okuma.

  10. Fluvial discharges of radiocaesium from watersheds contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-04-01

    A large amount of radiocaesium, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, was released to the atmosphere and Pacific Ocean from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that was damaged by the tsunami caused by the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011. Radiocaesium deposited on the ground is now the most important consideration in assessing the risk to people in the vicinity of the FDNPP and remediating the contaminated area. Transfer of radiocaesium from the ground through rivers is an important factor in the downstream contamination of irrigation waters, paddy fields, lakes, and the sea. We estimated the transport of radiocaesium through two small rivers, the Hiso River and Wariki River, that traverse mountainous areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Areal depositions of radiocaesium in their watersheds (catchments) were high (1-3 MBq m(-2)). Water samples were collected from the rivers twice during each of two baseflow and two flood stages in 2011 and analysed for radiocaesium in particulate and dissolved forms. The radiocaesium concentrations depended strongly on the rates of water discharge. Maximum activities of radiocaesium in the samples from the Hiso River and Wariki River when there was precipitation or flooding (July and September) were 25 ± 0.31 and 35 ± 0.25 Bq L(-1), respectively. Particulate radiocaesium during periods of flooding contributed over 90% of the total radiocaesium activity in the samples. The discharge of radiocaesium from the catchments during 2011 was estimated to be 0.5% and 0.3% of the total amount of radiocaesium deposited on the catchments of the Hiso River and Wariki River, respectively. It is considered that the most of the radiocaesium deposited in the catchment remains on the soil surface.

  11. Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited on forests following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    Radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant to the atmosphere contaminated a large area of Japan's land surface, the majority of which is covered by forest. Here we simulated the dynamics of radiocesium deposited on Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed for tracking radionuclides in forest ecosystems after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The fate of the radiocesium was simulated using the initial conditions observed following the Fukushima accident. In addition, the simulation results were incorporated with a spatial distribution map of deposited radionuclides that was based on an air-borne survey. The simulation demonstrated that in the first two years after initial deposition radiocesium is retained primarily in the soil surface organic layer. Over a period of five to ten years radiocesium is predicted to move from the surface organic soil to the deeper mineral soil, which will eventually become the largest reservoir of radiocesium within forest ecosystems. Spatial analysis clearly shows the reduction in the extent of contaminated areas which will occur as a result of natural decay of radiocesium, as well as the spatial distribution of radiocesium in each forest component. Considering the heavier rainfall and warmer conditions in Japan than in the countries contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, migration of radiocesium from organic to mineral soil may be faster than predicted. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be taken into account, they provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident.

  12. Posttraumatic stress in professional firefighters in Japan: rescue efforts after the Great East Japan Earthquake (Higashi Nihon Dai-Shinsai).

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Masahito

    2012-10-01

    Firefighters are often exposed to stressful duty-related events and may experience extreme trauma. Such work-related stress can result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is therefore important to understand the traumatic stress experienced by firefighters in the course of their work and to promote appropriate intervention when necessary. Data were collected from 118 workers (all males) in the Fire Department of Akita City, Japan who had participated in the Great East Japan Earthquake (Higashi Nihon Dai-Shinsai) rescue effort from March 11 through March 31, 2011. Study participants completed self-report surveys at three time intervals: shortly after return from the rescue effort, approximately two weeks after return from the rescue effort, and approximately one month after return from the rescue effort. The surveys included questions of demographics, physical complaints, medical history, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) Japanese version, in which a cut-off point of 24/25 was set to screen for PTSD. A total of 117 participants undertook the initial survey with a range of 0-36 points obtained on the IES-R score. For the initial survey, two of 117 participants scored ≥25 points. For the intermediate survey phase, a range of 0-19 was obtained for 116 participants and for the final survey phase, a range of 0-11 points was obtained for 114 participants. Contrary to expectations, the survey results showed no participant was judged to require prompt consultation for PTSD. The firefighters who participated in this study were in good mental health. However, more detailed study is required to ascertain whether these findings adequately and clearly reflect the mental health status of these participants.

  13. Isotopic Pu, Am and Cm signatures in environmental samples contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Sakaguchi, A; Ochiai, S; Takada, T; Hamataka, K; Murakami, T; Nagao, S

    2014-06-01

    Dust samples from the sides of roads (black substances) have been collected together with litter and soil samples at more than 100 sites contaminated heavily in the 20-km exclusion zones around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) (Minamisoma City, and Namie, Futaba and Okuma Towns), in Iitate Village located from 25 to 45 km northwest of the plant and in southern areas from the plant. Isotopes of Pu, Am and Cm have been measured in the samples to evaluate their total releases into the environment from the FDNPP and to get the isotopic compositions among these nuclides. For black substances and litter samples, in addition to Pu isotopes, (241)Am, (242)Cm and (243,244)Cm were determined for most of samples examined, while for soil samples, only Pu isotopes were determined. The results provided a coherent data set on (239,240)Pu inventories and isotopic composition among these transuranic nuclides. When these activity ratios were compared with those for fuel core inventories in the FDNPP accident estimated by a group at JAEA, except (239,240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios, fairly good agreements were found, indicating that transuranic nuclides, probably in the forms of fine particles, were released into the environment without their large fractionations. The obtained data may lead to more accurate information about the on-site situation (e.g., burn-up, conditions of fuel during the release phase, etc.), which would be difficult to get otherwise, and more detailed information on the dispersion and deposition processes of transuranic nuclides and the behavior of these nuclides in the environment.

  14. Radioactive Cs-137 discharge from Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, S.; Onda, Y.; Tsujimura, M.; Sakakibara, K.; Konuma, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter such as leaf and branch were monitored. Discharge amount of stream water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured to investigate the discharge amount of radiocesium and composition of radiocesium discharge form through the headwater stream. Observation were conducted at stream site in four headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ~35 km north west of FDNPP from June 2011 (suspended sediment and coarse organic matter: August 2012) to December 2014.The Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water was around 1Bq/l at June 2011. Then declined to 0.1 Bq/l at December 2011. And in December 2014, it declined to 0.01 Bq/l order. Declining trend of Cs-137 concentration in dissolved water was expressed in double exponential model. Also temporary increase was observed in dissolved Cs-137 during the rainfall event. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 170-49000 Bq/kg and 350-14000 Bq/kg respectably. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment showed good correlation with average deposition density of catchment. The effect of decontamination works appeared in declining of Cs-137 concentration in suspended sediment. Contribution rate of Cs-137 discharge by suspended sediment was 96-99% during a year. Total annual Cs-137 discharge from the catchment were 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  15. Feasibility study on phyto-remediation techniques for soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Yuu Ishimori; Akihiro Sakoda; Mina Yamada; Yuko Makino; Satoshi Yamada; Hideyasu Fujiyama

    2013-07-01

    Tottori University and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency carried out jointly the feasibility study on phyto-remediation techniques, which apply to soil contaminated by the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident. This paper illustrates the results from experimental investigations. Experimental investigations include both water-culture tests and field tests. Several plants, mainly halophytes that can specifically absorb more Na than K, and others like sunflower demonstrated for other domestic large-scale tests, were water-cultured and examined for screening. Easily cultivated and harvested plants without harmful effects on subsequent cultivation were also considered. New Zealand spinach was selected as a candidate for demonstrations in fields. The field tests were carried out at two sites of different agricultural types in Minami-soma, Fukushima prefecture. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in soil is about 4.5 Bq/g-dry as the average of 10 cm depth. The aims of the field tests are to confirm absorption ability and environmental adaptation of the test plants and to document the cost and performance of projects. In conclusion, the absorption of {sup 137}Cs activity per unit area (Bq/m{sup 2}) by New Zealand spinach could be approximately 0.5%. To achieve an effective result in removal of {sup 137}Cs from soil in around a decade, it is required to find the plant which has ten or more times higher absorption capacity than New Zealand spinach. From the consistency of both results in water-culture and field tests, the water-culture test can be valid for screening. In addition, applicable sites will be limited to fields which are too steep or too narrow to use mechanical diggers, and which are free from any restrictions to enter. (authors)

  16. Dispersion and fate of ⁹⁰Sr in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Maderich, V; Jung, K T; Bezhenar, R; de With, G; Qiao, F; Casacuberta, N; Masque, P; Kim, Y H

    2014-10-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of (90)Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of (90)Sr due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident for the period 2011-2040. The contamination due to runoff of (90)Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken into account using a generic predictive model. A dynamical food-chain model describes the transfer of (90)Sr to phytoplankton, zooplankton, molluscs, crustaceans, piscivorous and non-piscivorous fishes. Results of the simulations were compared with observation data on (90)Sr for the period 1955-2010 and the budget of (90)Sr activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of the ocean influx and it was important only locally. Calculated concentrations of (90)Sr in water, bottom sediment and marine organisms before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. The concentration of (90)Sr in seawater would return to the background levels within one year after leakages were stopped. The model predicts that the concentration of (90)Sr in fish after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident shall return to the background concentrations only 2 years later due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of (90)Sr. The contribution of (90)Sr to the maximal dose rate due to the FDNPP accident was three orders of magnitude less than that due to (137)Cs, and thus well below the maximum effective dose limits for the public.

  17. Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model.

    PubMed

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured (137)Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68 kBq L(-1) (6.8 × 10(4)Bq L(-1)) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the accident site to the ocean existed: direct release of high radioactive liquid wastes to the ocean and the deposition of airborne radioactivity to the ocean surface. By analysis of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio, we determined that direct release from the site contributed more to the measured (137)Cs concentration than atmospheric deposition did. We then used a regional ocean model to simulate the (137)Cs concentrations resulting from the direct release to the ocean off Fukushima and found that from March 26 to the end of May the total amount of (137)Cs directly released was 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq ((3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(15)Bq). The simulated temporal change in (137)Cs concentrations near the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant site agreed well with observations. Our simulation results showed that (1) the released (137)Cs advected southward along the coast during the simulation period; (2) the eastward-flowing Kuroshio and its extension transported (137)C during May 2011; and (3) (137)Cs concentrations decreased to less than 10 BqL(-1) by the end of May 2011 in the whole simulation domain as a result of oceanic advection and diffusion. We compared the total amount and concentration of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors to the ocean with the (137)Cs released to the ocean by global fallout. Even though the measured (137)Cs concentration from the Fukushima accident was the highest recorded, the total released amount of (137)Cs was not very large. Therefore, the effect of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors on concentration in the whole North

  18. Southward transport of radiocesium discharged directly from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants across the Kuroshio Extension Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi; Aoyama, Michio

    2013-04-01

    The massive Tohoku earthquake and consequent giant tsunami of March 11, 2011 resulted in global releases of radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants (FNPPs). In the North Pacific Ocean, a large portion of Fukushima-derived radiocesium has been settled both through atmospheric deposition and direct discharge. Evaluation of Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes in the ocean is necessary to address risks to marine ecosystem and public health. Meanwhile the contaminants are potentially ideal tracers for material cycles and seawater circulation in the ocean. We present here Fukushima-derived radiocesium in seawaters at stations in the northwestern Pacific Ocean hundreds km away from FNPPs in February 2012. Surface and deeper samples (25-800 m) were collected into 20-L cubitainers using a bucket and a conductivity-temperature-depth rosette with water samplers, respectively. The sample were filtrated and acidified by nitric acid on board. Radiocesium in the seawater sample was concentrated onto ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP). The radiocesium in the AMP/Cs compound was measured using a gamma-spectrometry with well-type Ge detectors. Fukushima-derived radiocesium was found at all the stations from 20°N to 42°N about one year after the disaster. Concentration of radiocesium in the surface mixed layer (0 ~ 150-m depth approximately) was highest in the transition area between the subarctic and subtropical regions (~ 20 Bq/m3) because of the direct discharge of radiocesium from FNPPs into the transition area. The surface concentrations in the subarctic and subtropical regions were less than 5 and 1 Bq/m3, respectively, most of which were probably derived from the atmospheric deposition of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Below the surface mixed layer the Fukushima-derived radiocesium decreases sharply and was not detected below 400-m depth at stations in the subarctic region and transition area. However at stations just

  19. Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific Ocean before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Zheng, J.; Aono, T.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides such as Pu-239 (half-life: 24100 yr), Pu-240 (half-life: 6560 yr) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 yr) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. In the North Pacific Ocean, two distinct sources of Pu isotopes can be identified; i.e., the global stratospheric fallout and close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater and marine sediment samples collected in the western North Pacific before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station will provide useful background data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The atom ratios of Pu-240/Pu-239 in water columns from the Yamato and Tsushima Basins in the Japan Sea were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18; however, there were no temporal variation of atom ratios during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the Japan Sea. The total Pu-239+240 inventories in the whole water columns were approximately doubled during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the two basins. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 in surface water from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific Ocean, was 0.224 and showed no notable variation from the surface to the bottom with the mean atom ratio being 0.234. The atom ratios for the Pacific coast, near the Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, were approximately the same as the 0.224 ratio obtained from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific margin. The atom ratios in the surficial sediments from Sagami Bay ranged from 0.229 to 0.247. The mean atom ratio in the sediment columns in the East China Sea ranged from 0.248 for the Changjiang estuary to 0.268 for the shelf edge. The observed atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean

  20. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of the earthquake and tsunami on the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity into the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluating the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr (n = 57) and 89Sr (n = 19) throughout waters 30-600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m-3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m-3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m-3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidence a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us to establish a 90Sr / 137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e., 0.63) and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  1. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-02-01

    The impact of the earthquake and tsunami in the east coast of Japan in 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity to the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr and 89Sr throughout waters 30-600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m-3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m-3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m-3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidences a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us establishing a 90Sr/137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e. 0.63) and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  2. Radioactive materials deposition in Iwate prefecture, northeast japan, due to the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideyuki

    2013-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011, and additional tsunami gave the big damage along the pacific coastline of the northeast Japan. Tsunami also caused the accident of Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), released of massive amount of radioactive materials to all over the northeast to central Japan. Ministry of Education, cultural, sports, science and technology (MEXT), Japan, carried out the airborne monitoring survey on several times, however, it is impossible to know the deposition of low level radiation under 0.1μSv/h. On the other hand, radioactive material was detected in Iwate by farm and livestock products, and it was necessary to understand an accurate contamination status in Iwate prefecture. Behavior of radioactive material is very similar to the ashfall by the volcanic eruption. Therefore, it is possible to apply the knowledge of volcanology to evaluation of the natural radiation dose. The author carried out the detailed contamination mapping across the Iwate prefecture. To γ-ray measurement, using scintillation counter A2700 of the clearpulse, measured on 1m grass field above ground, for one minute. The total measurement point became more than 800 point whole in Iwate. Field survey were carried out from April to November, 2011, therefore, it is necessary to consider to the half - life of the radioactive element of the cesium 134 and 137. In this study, the author reconstructed a deposition of April, 2011, just after the accident. In addition, the author also carried out the revision of the natural radiation dose included in the granite and so on. From the result, Concentration of radioactive materials depend on the topography, it tend to high concentrate in the basin or along the valley. The feeble deposition 0.01-0.2μsv/h with the radioactive material was recognized in whole prefecture. High contamination area distributed over the E-W directions widely in the southern part of the prefecture, and it also existence of the

  3. Behavior of (137)Cs in ponds in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Konoplev, Alexei; Wada, Toshihiro; Takase, Tsugiko; Byrnes, Ian; Carradine, Matthew; Nanba, Kenji

    2017-08-08

    (137)Cs activity concentration in the water of four ponds, Suzuuchi (SU), Funasawa (FS), Inkyozaka (IZ), and Kashiramori (KM), that are within 10 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were observed from April 2015 to August 2016. (137)Cs inventories in soils surrounding SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 6.4, 2.9, 2.1, and 0.9 MBq m(-2), respectively. (137)Cs inventories in the bottom sediments of SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 13, 8.9, 1.6, and 1.1 MBq m(-2), respectively. Higher (137)Cs inventories in bottom sediment than those of soil in SU and FS suggest that (137)Cs was delivered to and accumulated in these ponds. Mean total (137)Cs activity concentrations in SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 41, 13, 9.5, and 1.4 Bq L(-1), respectively. Particulate (137)Cs concentration accounted for 71-90% of total (137)Cs in the water samples, on average. The mean distribution coefficient, Kd, in SU, FS, IZ, and KM was 1.3 × 10(5), 2.1 × 10(5), 1.7 × 10(5), and 6.2 × 10(5) L kg(-1), respectively. These Kd values were higher than the Kd values observed in the Chernobyl area by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Although no significant decreasing trends were found, dissolved (137)Cs activity concentration tended to be low during winter in all four ponds. Dissolved (137)Cs activity concentrations were proportional to K(+) and DOC concentrations in all the ponds. The results from principal component analysis performed for (137)Cs activity concentration and water chemistry data sets suggested that there were different mechanisms behind variability of dissolved (137)Cs activity concentrations for each pond. Continuous monitoring is required to reveal temporal trends in (137)Cs activity concentrations of these waters and controlling factors of such in closed water systems in Fukushima. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in parmelioid lichens within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Terumi; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Kashiwadani, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Kenso; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Iijima, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    Radiocaesium activity concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured in parmelioid lichens collected within the Fukushima Prefecture approximately 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A total of 44 samples consisting of nine species were collected at 16 points within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The activity concentration of (134)Cs ranged from 4.6 to 1000 kBq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs ranged from 7.6 to 1740 kBq kg(-1). A significant positive correlation was found between the (137)Cs activity concentration in lichens and the (137)Cs deposition density on soil (n = 44), based on the calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficients as r = 0.90 (P < 0.01). The two dominant species, Flavoparmelia caperata (n = 12) and Parmotrema clavuliferum (n = 11), showed strong positive correlations, for which the r values were calculated as 0.92 (P < 0.01) and 0.90 (P < 0.01) respectively. Therefore, Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema clavuliferum are suggested as biomonitoring species for levels of radiocaesium fallout within the Fukushima Prefecture.

  5. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  6. The Time-Dependent Transfer Factor of Radiocesium from Soil to Game Animals in Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Howard, Brenda J; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-09-06

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, monitoring of tissues from hunted game animals ensures compliance with the standard food limits for radionuclides in Japan. We quantified the transfer of (137)Cs from contaminated land to game animals using the Aggregated transfer factor (Tag = activity concentration in meat [Bq kg(-1) fw]/amount in soil [Bq m(-2)]) of (137)Cs for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer, green pheasant, copper pheasant and wild duck, collected between 2011 and 2015. Open data sources were used from Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures. Our initially compiled data showed that the maximum reported (137)Cs activity concentration in wild boar after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident were lower than those reported after the Chernobyl accident. The geometric mean Tag values (m(2)kg(-1) fw) of (137)Cs in 2015 for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer and copper pheasant were similar (1.9-5.1) × 10(-3) while those for green pheasant and wild duck were about 1 order of magnitude lower at (1.0-2.2) × 10(-4). Effective half-lives were 1.2-6.9 y except for sika deer and copper pheasant where no decreases were found. In contrast to the Chernobyl accident, no seasonal change occurred in the meat (137)Cs activity concentrations of the wild animals during the study period.

  7. Reply to Comment by Cole-dai Et Al. on "Climatic Impact of the Long-lasting Laki Eruption: Inapplicability of Mass-independent Sulfur Isotope Composition Measurements"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Oman, Luke D.; Robock, Alan; Self, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Here we respond to the comments by Cole-Dai et al. [2014] on our article Schmidt et al. [2012]. Specifically, in response to section 2 of their reply, we argued in Schmidt et al. [2012] that based on previously published estimates of the volatile release height during the 1783-1784 C.E. Laki eruption, the lack of a sulfur massindependent fractionation (MIF) anomaly is expected. In other words, no previous study on Laki ever argued that this eruption emitted SO2 into altitudes >13-15 km. In section 2.3, Cole-Dai et al. [2014] argue that the nonzero ?33S value of their Laki sample 1 may be explained by a short-lived explosive phase at Laki during which volatiles reached the stratosphere. In Schmidt et al. [2012] in section 2, we argued in agreement with Cole-Dai et al. [2014] (section 3.1) that for a MIF anomaly to be preserved, the Laki volatiles would have had to be emitted in >20 km altitude. Our main point is that eruption column heights >20 km are unlikely based on the historical accounts and plume-rise modeling for the Laki eruption [Stothers et al., 1986; Woods, 1993; Thordarson and Self, 2003]. In Schmidt et al. [2012], we argued that to deduce a short-lived climatic impact of the Laki eruption based on the lack of a MIF anomaly and the length of the sulfate deposition in Greenland ice cores may be misleading because the climatic impact will outlast the radiative forcing of the Laki aerosol cloud. Cole-Dai et al. [2014] acknowledge the latter in their reply in section 4.2. We agreewith Cole-Dai et al. [2014] in that themagnitude and length of the climatic impact during the winter of 1783-1784 depends on the altitude of the volatile release during the eruption (sections 2.3 and 4.2). However, even if we assumed that during Laki all sulfur dioxide (SO2) would have been released in the troposphere, then the aerosol cloud would still be present in the upper troposphere during March 1784, as is evident from independent model simulations of this "tropospheric

  8. Radiocesium wash-off associated with soil erosion from various land uses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Onda, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kato, Hiroaki; Konoplev, Alexei; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is the initial process which drives radiocesium into the aquatic systems and therefore the quantification of radiocesium wash-off associated with soil erosion is indispensable for mitigating the risks. This study presents two year's observation of soil erosion and radiocesium wash-off to quantify differences in radiocesium behavior in various land uses. Seven runoff plots were established in four landscapes; uncultivated farmland (Farmland A1, Farmland B1), cultivated farmland (Farmland A2, Farmland B2), grassland (Grassland A, Grassland B) and Japanese cedar forest (Forest) in Kawamata town, an area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The discharged sediments were collected approximately every two weeks. In laboratories, collected sediments were dried and weighed for calculating soil erosion rates (kg m-2) and served for measurements of radiocesium concentration (Bq kg-1) with HPGe detectors. The erosivity factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (R-factor: MJ mm ha-1 hr-1 yr-1) was calculated based on the data of precipitation. Standardized soil erosion rates (kg m-2 MJ-1 mm-1 ha hr yr), observed soil erosion rates divided by R-factor, was 1.8 × 10-4 in Farmland A1, 6.0 × 10-4 in Farmland A2, 1.5 × 10-3 in Farmland B1, 8.3 × 10-4 in Farmland B2, 9.6 × 10-6 in Grassland A, 5.9 × 10-6 in Grassland B and 2.3 × 10-6 in Forest. These erosion rates were basically proportional to their vegetation cover of soil surfaces except for cultivated farmlands. Concentrations of Cs-137 in eroded sediments basically depended on the local deposition of Cs-137 and varied enormously with ranging several orders of magnitude in all the landscapes. For the observation period of time decreasing trends in concentrations of Cs-137 in eroded sediments were not obvious. To compare these results with those of Chernobyl, we calculated normalized 'solid' wash-off coefficient (m2 g-1) with dividing the mean total concentration of Cs-137 in

  9. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil using a scraper plate over a wide area surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Takahashi, Junko; Nakano, Masakazu; Shimada, Kiyotaka; Uno, Kiichiro; Hagiwara, Shigetomo; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, radioactive cesium was released in the environment and deposited on the soils. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in contaminated soils provide useful information not only for radiation protection and decontamination operations but also for geoscience and radioecology studies. Soil samples were collected using a scraper plate three times between December 2011 and December 2012 at 84 or 85 locations within a 100-km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. In most of the obtained radioactive cesium depth profiles, it was possible to fit the concentration to a function of mass depth as either an exponential or hyperbolic secant function. By using those functions, following three parameters were estimated: (i) relaxation mass depth β (g cm(-2)), (ii) effective relaxation mass depth βeff (g cm(-2)), which is defined for a hyperbolic secant function as the relaxation mass depth of an equivalent exponential function giving the same air kerma rate at 1 m above the ground as the inventory, and (iii) 1/10 depth L1/10 (cm), at which the soil contains 90% of the inventory. The average β value (wet weight) including ones by hyperbolic secant function in December 2012, was 1.29 times higher than that in December 2011. In fact, it was observed that depth profiles at some study sites deviated from the typical exponential distributions over time. These results indicate the gradual downward migration of radioactive cesium in the soils. The L1/10 values in December 2012 were summarized and presented on a map surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, and the average value of L1/10 was 3.01 cm (n = 82) at this time. It was found that radioactive cesium remained within 5 cm of the ground surface at most study sites (71 sites). The sech function can also be used to estimate the downward migration rate V (kg m(-2) y(-1)). The V values in December 2012 (n = 25) were in good agreement with those found by a

  10. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Maderich, V; Bezhenar, R; Heling, R; de With, G; Jung, K T; Myoung, J G; Cho, Y-K; Qiao, F; Robertson, L

    2014-05-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from (137)Cs data for the period 1945-2010. Calculated concentrations of (137)Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y(-1) is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of (137)Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y(-1). Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  11. Case Study: On a Deep-tow Piggy Back system, DAI-PACK - Pertinent information is coordinates, but tool is even more important -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisimoto, K.; Joshima, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2006-12-01

    Deep submergence vehicles bring us closer to the target we want to see in better resolution. It is difficult to obtain very detailed scale seafloor or sub-bottom structure profiling by a conventional surface-towed survey system, in which the horizontal spatial resolution in data obtained is poor because of the great distance between the sensors and the targets (seafloor/sub-bottom). To improve this horizontal resolution of the profiling, we have been developing and using deep-tow profiling systems for more than two decades at the Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. In our presentation we show our latest tool for the deep-sea mapping, named DAI-PACK (Deep-sea Acoustic Imaging Package) system, which has been tested and used in fields for more than four years now. It is not easy, however, to bring the tool deep and to maneuver and keep the towing altitude sufficiently close to the seafloor. To overcome this problem, we made the system work stand-alone and also made it portable in size and weight to be accommodated to ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicle) or manned submersibles. We have chosen two sensors to be installed in the system, i.e. (1) deep-sea side-scan sonar and (2) deep-sea sub-bottom profiler. All components except sensors are packaged in an aluminum pressure sphere, which can be installed as a piggy back payload on many vehicles available today. From our recent experiments using the DAI-PACK on several vehicles, e.g. ROVs (the Hyper Dolphin in '03~'06, the ROPOS in '04, the Kaiko7000II in '06), and HOV (Shinkai6500 in '04, '05), we have learned several pros and cons regarding the use of the DSVs. We can discuss on the topics, such as (1) noise problem of the vehicles; ROVs were more noisy than Shinkai6500, (2) importance and need of good positioning of the vehicles;any DSVs we have used have not been installed a navigation system good enough to be collocated with the imagery data of the DAI-PACK, and (3) usefulness of sub-bottom profiling, based on real good

  12. Source term estimation of radioxenon released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, P W; Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Cooper, M W; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Korpach, E; Yi, J; Miley, H S; Rishel, J P; Ungar, K; White, B; Woods, V T

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout across the northern hemisphere resulting from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Sampling data from multiple International Modeling System locations are combined with atmospheric transport modeling to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of releases of (133)Xe. Modeled dilution factors at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of (133)Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This analysis suggests that 92% of the 1.24 × 10(19) Bq of (133)Xe present in the three operating reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a 3 d period. An uncertainty analysis bounds the release estimates to 54-129% of available (133)Xe inventory.

  13. 134Cs and 137Cs activities in coastal seawater along Northern Sanriku and Tsugaru Strait, northeastern Japan, after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Hamajima, Y; Nagao, S; Yoshida, K; Yamamoto, M

    2012-09-01

    A total of 37 seawater samples were collected at 10 sites along the coastline of the Northern Sanriku and Tsugaru Strait, 250-450 km north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in April-December 2009 and May-June 2011, and analyzed for (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities using low-background γ-spectrometry. The (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities measured in these samples in May 2011 were found to be 2-3 mBq/L and 2.5-4 mBq/L, respectively. By June, these values had decreased by 25-45%/month and 5-30%/month, respectively. These results can be plausibly explained by surface infusion of these isotopes into the sea by atmospheric transport from Fukushima and their subsequent reduction by water migration to off-shore and deeper regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of (137)Cs on components in urban area four years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, K; Saito, K; Fujiwara, K

    2017-08-01

    Distribution of (137)Cs on components in urban areas such as roofs and roads is crucial for evaluating the behavior of radiocesium and ambient dose rates in the area. This study evaluated relative (137)Cs inventories, which are defined as the relative values of (137)Cs inventory on each component to that on a nearby permeable plane field, for 11 buildings in the evacuation zone about four years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The average relative inventory of paved ground accounted for 0.18 of that on permeable plane fields. Other components showed small average values of less than 0.1, indicating rapid removal of radiocesium from urban areas even without decontamination. The differences in the relative inventories on roads and roofs with those in the case of Europe suggest that human activity and component materials largely affect the reduction of radiocesium in urban area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Time series changes in radiocaesium distribution in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.)) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    Radiocaesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) release following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, belonging to the Tokyo Electric Power Company caused severe contamination of new tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.)) shoots by radiocaesium in many prefectures in eastern Japan. Because tea plants are perennial crops, there is the fear that the contamination might last for a long time. The objectives of this study were to reveal time series changes in the distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants after radioactive fallout and to evaluate the effect of pruning on reduction of radiocaesium concentrations in new shoots growing next year. The experimental tea field was located in Shizuoka, Japan, approximately 400 km away from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in a southwest direction. Time series changes in radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea, a tea product primarily produced for making Japanese green tea, from May 2011 to June 2013 and distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants from May 2011 to May 2012 were monitored. The radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea exponentially decreased; the effective half-lives for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.30 and 0.36 y during the first 2 y after the accident, respectively. With time, the highest concentrations of (137)Cs moved from the upper to the lower parts of plants. Medium pruning 2-3 months after the accident reduced the concentration of (137)Cs in new shoots harvested in the first crop season of the following year by 56% compared with unpruned tea plants; thus, pruning is an effective measure for reducing radiocaesium concentration in tea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An interactive diary for diet management (DAI): a new telemedicine system able to promote body weight reduction, nutritional education, and consumption of fresh local produce.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Maria Chiara; Perozzi, Cinzia; Consorti, Carla; Almonti, Teresa; Foglini, Paolo; Giostra, Nena; Nanni, Paola; Talevi, Susanna; Bartolomei, Dante; Vespasiani, Giacomo

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this multicenter, longitudinal, single-arm, pre-post comparison was to test a telemedicine system able to promote body weight reduction, nutritional education, and consumption of fresh local produce. DAI (MeTeDa srl, San Benedetto del Tronto, Italy) is a software for mobile phones to support patients following a specific dietetic program. It facilitates the communication between the patient and dietician via short text messages. Overall, three specialized dieticians enrolled 140 consecutive patients with body mass index (BMI) >or=25 kg/m(2) who voluntered to follow a specific diet program to be managed with DAI. At baseline and after 20 weeks, data on body weight, waist circumference, BMI, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, food habits, and physical activity were collected and compared by the Wilcoxon test or the McNemar test. Overall, 115 individuals (82.1%) completed the follow-up. The mean (95% confidence interval) reduction in body weight was -2.5 (-3.2; -1.8) kg, whereas the reduction in waist circumference was -3.7 (-4.6; -2.9) cm, and that in BMI was 1.0 (-0.7; -1.2) kg/m(2). The software was useful as an educational tool: participants achieving the Mediterranean diet targets increased from 14.4% to 69.8% after 20 weeks. On average, each patient recognized and chose fresh local vegetables eight times per week during the follow-up. Participants regularly communicated with dieticians through short text messages. This study allowed the documentation of the efficacy of a new telemedicine system in supporting people who need to lose body weight. The tool was also suitable for a more articulated initiative of "nutritional education" aiming to promote the healthy properties of the Mediterranean diet and the consumption of local produce.

  17. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  18. Discovery of non-spherical heterogeneous radiocesium-bearing particles not derived from Unit 1 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, in residences five years after the accident.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Shogo; Kurihara, Yuichi; Yoshida, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yoshio; Shinohara, Naohide

    2017-10-01

    Non-spherical heterogeneous radiocesium-bearing particles were found on masks worn during cleaning work in residences near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), from which residents had evacuated. Three slightly larger (6.6-12 μm) non-spherical radiocesium-bearing particles were found in a residence in Futaba Town, a straight distance of 2.11 km west-northwest from the FDNPP. These were collected on October 25, 2016, 5 years and 7 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster and were presumed to originate from the Plant's Unit 2 based on the measured radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs. The main elemental composition was similar to particles already reported in other studies. However, this is the first time that such particles had a clearly heterogeneous distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Delivery mechanism of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in seawater off the Sanriku Coast, Japan, following the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Fujimoto, K; Furusawa, Y; Yoshida, K; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Minakawa, M

    2014-11-01

    To assess the delivery mechanism of radiocesium emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we examined vertical profiles of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (228)Ra concentrations and the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio in the water columns off the Sanriku Coast in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, in July 2012, along with their surface lateral variations in July 2009. Radiocesium concentrations exhibited maximum peaks (3-5 mBq/L for (134)Cs) at depths of 100-200 m, accompanied by high (228)Ra concentrations (0.6-0.8 mBq/L) in comparison with shallower depths (∼0.4 mBq/L). Taking the circulation patterns of currents in the area into account, it was inferred that radioactive depositions were supplied to the (228)Ra-rich Tsugaru Warm Current Water (TWCW) in the offshore area of the Sanriku Coast following the FDNPP accident, and that after the spring of 2011, this water (∼26.5σθ) was covered by lower density surface water, which helped intrude its way to depths of 100-200 m.

  20. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation.

  1. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  2. INITIAL AND PRESENT SITUATION OF FOOD CONTAMINATION IN JAPAN AFTER THE ACCIDENT AT THE FUKUSHIMA DAI-ICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT.

    PubMed

    Aono, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in March 2011 affected not only the terrestrial environment of Fukushima prefecture and the surrounding area, but also the marine area facing the NPP. Our present study is focused on the concentrations of radionuclides in agricultural products of Fukushima and sea-foods collected off Fukushima after the accident. The regulation value for radiocesium in vegetables, meat and fish was revised from 500 Bq/kg-wet to 100 Bq/kg-wet on 1 April 2012. The overall activity of radiocesium in these products was found to be within the limit of tolerance in respect to Japanese and also international regulations, but there is still radiocesium found at activities greater than this level in edible wild plants, wild mushrooms and game such as boar meat. Although the activities of radionuclides exceeding the regulatory limits were not detected in marine products collected off Fukushima after April 2015, the commercial marine fishery has not received approval in the affected areas except for certain species. We learned from the Fukushima accident that long-term kinetic studies of radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environments is extremely important for prevention of internal contamination, since contamination with radionuclides occurs via the food chain in the environment. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  3. Sensitivity of the modelled deposition of Caesium-137 from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant to the wet deposition parameterisation in NAME.

    PubMed

    Leadbetter, Susan J; Hort, Matthew C; Jones, Andrew R; Webster, Helen N; Draxler, Roland R

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the impact of different meteorological data sets and different wet scavenging coefficients on the model predictions of radionuclide deposits following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Three separate operational meteorological data sets, the UK Met Office global meteorology, the ECMWF global meteorology and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) mesoscale meteorology as well as radar rainfall analyses from JMA were all used as inputs to the UK Met Office's dispersion model NAME (the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment). The model predictions of Caesium-137 deposits based on these meteorological models all showed good agreement with observations of deposits made in eastern Japan with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.44 to 0.80. Unexpectedly the NAME run using radar rainfall data had a lower correlation coefficient (R = 0.66), when compared to observations, than the run using the JMA mesoscale model rainfall (R = 0.76) or the run using ECMWF met data (R = 0.80). Additionally the impact of modifying the wet scavenging coefficients used in the parameterisation of wet deposition was investigated. The results showed that modifying the scavenging parameters had a similar impact to modifying the driving meteorology on the rank calculated from comparing the modelled and observed deposition.

  4. Input and output budgets of radiocesium concerning the forest floor in the mountain forest of Fukushima released from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Watanabe, Takayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Estimations of radiocesium input and output concerning the forest floor within a mountain forest region have been conducted in the north and central part of the Abukuma Mountains of Fukushima, northeast Japan, after a 2-3 year period following the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The radiocesium input and output associated with surface washoff, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall processes at experimental plots installed on the forest floor of evergreen Japanese cedars and deciduous Konara oaks have been monitored. Despite the high output potential in the mountainous forest of Fukushima, the results at both monitoring locations show the radiocesium input to be 4-50 times higher than the output during the summer monsoon in Fukushima. These results indicate that the radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios (0.05%-0.19%). Thus, the associated fluxes throughout the circulation process are key issues for the projecting the environmental fate of the radiocesium levels, along with the subsequent reconstruction of life emphasized within the setting. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovery of radioactive silver (110mAg) in spiders and other fauna in the terrestrial environment after the meltdown of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    PubMed Central

    NAKANISHI, Hiromi; MORI, Atsushi; TAKEDA, Kouki; TANAKA, Houdo; KOBAYASHI, Natsuko; TANOI, Keitaro; YAMAKAWA, Takashi; MORI, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Six months after the explosion of TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, radioactive silver (110mAg), was detected in concentrations of 3754 Bq/kg in Nephila clavata (the orb-web spider; Joro-gumo in Japanese) collected at Nimaibashi, Iitate village in Fukushima Prefecture, whereas 110mAg in the soil was 43.1 Bq/kg. A survey of 35 faunal species in the terrestrial environment during the 3.5 years after the accident showed that most of Anthropoda had two orders higher 110mAg in their tissues than soils, although silver is not an essential element for their life. However, tracing of the activity of 110mAg detected in spider Atypus karschi collected regularly at a fixed location showed that it declined much faster than the physical half-life. These results suggest that 110mAg was at once biologically concentrated by faunal species, especially Arthropoda, through food chain. The factors affecting the subsequent rapid decline of 110mAg concentration in faunal species are discussed. PMID:25864469

  6. Interpreting the deposition and vertical migration characteristics of (137)Cs in forest soil after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seongjoo; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Satta, Naoya; Fujita, Yasutaka; Shin, In Hwan

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the deposition and depth distributions of radiocesium in the Takizawa Research Forest, Iwate Prefecture, in order to understand the behavior of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The deposition distribution and vertical depth distribution of radiocesium in the soil were compared between topographically distinct parts of the forest where two different tree species grow. The results for all investigated locations show that almost 85% of the radiocesium has accumulated in the region of soil from the topmost organic layer to a soil depth of 0-4 cm. However, no activity was detected at depths greater than 20 cm. Analysis of the radiocesium deposition patterns in forest locations dominated by either coniferous or deciduous tree species suggests that radiocesium was sequestered and retained in higher concentrations in coniferous areas. The deposition data showed large spatial variability, reflecting the differences in tree species and topography. The variations in the measured (137)Cs concentrations reflected the variability in the characteristics of the forest floor environment and the heterogeneity of the initial ground-deposition of the Fukushima fallout. Sequential extraction experiments showed that most of the (137)Cs was present in an un-exchangeable form with weak mobility. Nevertheless, the post-vertical distribution of (137)Cs is expected to be governed by the percentage of exchangeable (137)Cs in the organic layer and the organic-rich upper soil horizons.

  7. The air dose rate around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant: its spatial characteristics and temporal changes until December 2012.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Satoshi; Maeyama, Takeshi; Hoshide, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Shoji; Okuda, Naotoshi; Sato, Tetsuro; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Distribution maps of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were constructed using the results of measurement obtained from approximately 6500 locations (at most) per measurement period. The measurements were conducted 1 m above the ground using survey meters in flat and spatially open locations. Spatial distribution and temporal change of the air dose rate in the area were revealed by examining the resultant distribution maps. The observed reduction rate of the air dose rate over the 18 months between June 2011 and December 2012 was greater than that calculated from radioactive decay of radiocesium by 10% in relative percentage except decontaminated sites. This 10% difference in the reduction of the air dose rate can be explained by the mobility of radiocesium in the depth direction. In the region where the air dose rate was lower than 0.25 μSv h(-1) on June 2011, the reduction of the air dose rate was observed to be smaller than that of the other dose rate regions, and it was in fact smaller than the reduction rate caused by radioactive decay alone. In contrast, the reduction rate was larger in regions with higher air dose rates. In flat and spatially open locations, no significant difference in the reduction tendency of air dose rates was observed among different land use classifications (rice fields, farmland, forests, and building sites).

  8. Lateral variation of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in surface seawater in and around the Japan Sea after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Yoshida, K; Fujimoto, K; Takada, T; Isoda, Y

    2012-07-01

    A total of 82 surface seawater samples was collected in the Japan Sea and the southwestern Okhotsk Sea before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Analysis of (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations using low-background γ-spectrometry revealed that the (137)Cs concentration of the samples collected in June 2011 was 1.5-2.8mBq/L, which is approximately 1-2 times higher than the pre-accident (137)Cs level, while the (134)Cs concentration was less than detectable to 1mBq/L. In addition to (134)Cs being clearly detected (∼1mBq/L), (137)Cs concentration in water samples from the northeastern Japan Sea (2-2.8mBq/L) was also higher than that from the coast in the southwestern Japan Sea (∼1.5mBq/L). These higher concentrations in the northeastern Japan Sea could be ascribed to the atmospheric transport of nuclides from the FDNPP as aerosols and subsequent transport and dilution after delivery to the sea surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and (131)I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here.

  10. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery of radioactive silver ((110m)Ag) in spiders and other fauna in the terrestrial environment after the meltdown of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Mori, Atsushi; Takeda, Kouki; Tanaka, Houdo; Kobayashi, Natsuko; Tanoi, Keitaro; Yamakawa, Takashi; Mori, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Six months after the explosion of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, radioactive silver ((110m)Ag), was detected in concentrations of 3754 Bq/kg in Nephila clavata (the orb-web spider; Joro-gumo in Japanese) collected at Nimaibashi, Iitate village in Fukushima Prefecture, whereas (110m)Ag in the soil was 43.1 Bq/kg. A survey of 35 faunal species in the terrestrial environment during the 3.5 years after the accident showed that most of Anthropoda had two orders higher (110m)Ag in their tissues than soils, although silver is not an essential element for their life. However, tracing of the activity of (110m)Ag detected in spider Atypus karschi collected regularly at a fixed location showed that it declined much faster than the physical half-life. These results suggest that (110m)Ag was at once biologically concentrated by faunal species, especially Arthropoda, through food chain. The factors affecting the subsequent rapid decline of (110m)Ag concentration in faunal species are discussed.

  12. Spatial assessment of radiocaesium in the largest lagoon in Fukushima after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    PubMed

    Kambayashi, Shota; Zhang, Jing; Narita, Hisashi

    2017-09-15

    Radionuclides deposited on land by global fallouts and nuclear power station accidents spread over coastal environments through estuarine areas connecting land to ocean. In this study, we monitored activity concentration of radiocaesium in surface sediment and re-suspended particles in Matsukawa-ura lagoon, the largest lagoon in Fukushima, after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Radiocaesium distribution in surface sediment varied spatiotemporally and irregularly due to the effect of tidal waves. The effective half-life was significantly shorter than physical half-life, suggesting some system of radiocaesium discharge in the lagoon. Sediment trap observation revealed re-suspended particles from sediment were transported to the ocean. For these reasons, it is suggested that re-suspension of particles in the lagoon and their transportation to the ocean by the seawater exchange process are important processes of radiocaesium discharge. Moreover, our results show that seawater exchange process contributes to the dispersion of radiocaesium in the ocean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in beach sand samples in Songkhla province, Thailand after Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessaratikoon, P.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Choosiri, N.; Daoh, M.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2017-06-01

    According to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 210 beach sand samples which were collected from Maharat, Sai Kaew, Samila, Chalatat, Na Thab, Sakom and Soi Sawan beaches in Songkhla Province along the eastern coast of Thailand, have been studied and evaluated. The specific activity levels of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in the area were found in the range 110.13 - 4574.12, 6.99 - 451.87, 3.75 - 665.76 and 0.58- 9.91 Bq/Kg, respectively. Furthermore, the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were calculated and compared with other research data in Thailand as well as global measurements and evaluations. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the studied area were also assessed by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th.

  14. Modeling of long range transport pathways for radionuclides to Korea during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident and their association with meteorological circulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hong; Yun, Ju-Yong; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-10-01

    The Lagrangian FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Global Forecast System (NCEP/GFS) meteorological data were used to simulate the long range transport pathways of three artificial radionuclides: (131)I, (137)Cs, and (133)Xe, coming into Korean Peninsula during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Using emission rates of these radionuclides estimated from previous studies, three distinctive transport routes of these radionuclides toward the Korean Peninsula for a period from 10 March to 20 April 2011 were exploited by three spatial scales: 1) intercontinental scale - plume released since mid-March 2011 and transported to the North to arrive Korea on 23 March 2011, 2) global (hemispherical) scale - plume traveling over the whole northern hemisphere passing through the Pacific Ocean/Europe to reach the Korean Peninsula with relatively low concentrations in late March 2011 and, 3) regional scale - plume released on early April 2011 arrived at the Korean Peninsula via southwest sea of Japan influenced directly by veering mesoscale wind circulations. Our identification of these transport routes at three different scales of meteorological circulations suggests the feasibility of a multi-scale approach for more accurate prediction of radionuclide transport in the study area. In light of the fact that the observed arrival/duration time of peaks were explained well by the FLEXPART model coupled with NCEP/GFS input data, our approach can be used meaningfully as a decision support model for radiation emergency situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Southwest intrusion of 134Cs and 137Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in the Western North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shimizu, Yugo; Ambe, Daisuke; Masujima, Masachika; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Ono, Tsuneo; Nishiuchi, Kou; Taneda, Takeshi; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Setou, Takashi; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Ichikawa, Tadafumi; Hidaka, Kiyotaka; Hiroe, Yutaka; Kusaka, Akira; Kodama, Taketoshi; Kuriyama, Mikiko; Morita, Hiroshi; Nakata, Kaoru; Morinaga, Kenji; Morita, Takami; Watanabe, Tomowo

    2014-03-18

    Enormous quantities of radionuclides were released into the ocean via both atmospheric deposition and direct release as a result of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. This study discusses the southward dispersion of FNPP-derived radioactive cesium (Cs) in subsurface waters. The southernmost point where we found the FNPP-derived (134)Cs (1.5-6.8 Bq m(-3)) was 18 °N, 135 °E, in September 2012. The potential density at the subsurface peaks of (134)Cs (100-500 m) and the increased water column inventories of (137)Cs between 0 and 500 m after the winter of 2011-2012 suggested that the main water mass containing FNPP-derived radioactive Cs was the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW), formed as a result of winter convection. We estimated the amount of (134)Cs in core waters of the western part of the NPSTMW to be 0.99 PBq (decay-corrected on 11 March 2011). This accounts for 9.0% of the (134)Cs released from the FNPP, with our estimation revealing that a considerable amount of FNPP-derived radioactive Cs has been transported to the subtropical region by the formation and circulation of the mode water.

  16. Depth distribution of 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I in soil profile after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Teramage, Mengistu

    2012-09-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011. However, there is no field measurement data on the depth distributions of radiocaesium and (131)I concentrations in soil profile. In this study, the depth distribution of the deposited radionuclides in the cultivated soil profile was investigated in one of the most contaminated area after FDNPP accident. The result of this study demonstrated that greater than 86% of total radiocaesium and 79% of total (131)I were absorbed in the upper 2.0 cm in the soil profile. The relaxation mass depth (h(0)) derived from the depth distribution of radiocaesium and (131)I in the soil profile at the study site were 9.1 kg m(-2) and 10.4 kg m(-2), respectively. The h(0) of (137)Cs in the studied soil profile was greater than those for the cultivated soils nearby the Chernobyl NPP. The positive relationship was found between clay content of topsoil and the h(0) of (137)Cs. However, further analysis is required to clarify the effect of clay content on the initial penetration depth of deposited (137)Cs in soil profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial distributions of radionuclides deposited onto ground soil around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and their temporal change until December 2012.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Satoshi; Maeyama, Takeshi; Hoshide, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Shoji; Okuda, Naotoshi; Demongeot, Stéphanie; Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Kato, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Sato, Tetsuro; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Spatial distributions and temporal changes of radioactive fallout released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident have been investigated by two campaigns with three measurement schedules. The inventories (activities per unit area) of the radionuclides deposited onto ground soil were measured using portable gamma-ray spectrometers at nearly 1000 locations (at most) per measurement campaign. Distribution maps of the inventories of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (110m)Ag as of March, September, and December 2012 were constructed. No apparent temporal change of the radionuclide inventories was observed from March to December 2012. Weathering effects (e.g., horizontal mobility) were not noticeable during this period. Spatial dependence in the ratios of (134)Cs/(137)Cs and (110m)Ag/(137)Cs were observed in the Tohoku and Kanto regions. The detailed maps of (134)Cs and (137)Cs as of September 2012 and December 2012 were constructed using the relationship between the air dose rate and the inventory. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiocaesium contamination and dose rate estimation of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife in the exclusion zone of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Osamu; Sato, Youji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aono, Tatsuo; Soeda, Haruhi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    To characterise the radioactive contamination of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, biological samples, namely, fungi, mosses, plants, amphibians, reptiles, insects, molluscs, and earthworms, were collected mainly from the forests of the exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture from 2011 to 2012. Caesium-134 and (137)Cs were detected by gamma spectrometry in almost all the samples. Fungi, ferns, and mosses accumulated high amounts of radiocaesium, as they did in Chernobyl, with (134)Cs + (137)Cs activity concentrations of 10(4)-10(6) Bq kg(-1) fresh mass (FM). Earthworms, amphibians, and the soft tissue of the garden snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana, also had levels as high as 10(4)-10(5) Bq kg(-1) FM of (134)Cs + (137)Cs. Most of the estimated total (internal + external) dose rates to herbaceous plants, amphibians, insects, and earthworms were below the corresponding derived consideration reference levels (DCRLs) recommended by the ICRP. This suggests that, in most cases, there was little chance of deleterious effects of ionising radiation on these organisms in the exclusion zone for the first year after the accident, though the dose rates were underestimated mainly due to the lack of consideration of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Contribution of Sources to the Sustained Elevated Inventory of (137)Cs in Offshore Waters East of Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident.

    PubMed

    Takata, Hyoe; Kusakabe, Masashi; Inatomi, Naohiko; Ikenoue, Takahito; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-05

    We have evaluated the contribution of sources of (137)Cs to the inventory of radiocesium in waters (surface area: 6160 km(2), water volume: 753 km(3)) off Fukushima Prefecture and neighboring prefectures from May 2011 to February 2015. A time-series of the inventory of (137)Cs in the offshore waters revealed a clearly decreasing trend from May 2011 (283.4 TBq) to February 2015 (1.89 TBq). The (137)Cs inventory about four years after the accident was approximately twice the background inventory of 1.1 TBq. The magnitudes of the (137)Cs influxes from sources into offshore waters for periods of 182-183 days were estimated from the first period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2012: 15.3 TBq) to the last period (1 October 2014 to 31 March 2015: 0.41 TBq). We assumed that three sources contributed (137)Cs: continuous direct discharge from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS) even after the massive discharge in late March 2011, desorption/dissolution from sediments, and fluvial input. Quantification of these sources indicated that the direct discharge from the FNPS is the principal source of (137)Cs to maintain the relatively high inventory in the offshore area.

  20. A new comparison of marine dispersion model performances for Fukushima Dai-ichi releases in the frame of IAEA MODARIA program.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, Raúl; Brovchenko, Igor; Duffa, Celine; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Kobayashi, Takuya; Lamego, Fernando; Maderich, Vladimir; Min, Byung-Il; Nies, Hartmut; Osvath, Iolanda; Psaltaki, Maria; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-12-01

    A detailed intercomparison of marine dispersion models applied to the releases from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant was carried out in the frame of MODARIA program, of the IAEA. Models were compared in such a way that the reasons of the discrepancies between them can be assessed (i.e., if they are due to the hydrodynamic part, the dispersion part, and the ultimate reasons). A sequential chain of dispersion exercises was carried out with this purpose. The overall idea is to harmonize models, making them run with the same forcing in a step-by-step procedure, in such a way that the main agent in producing discrepancy between models can be found. It was found that the main reason of discrepancies between models is due to the description of the hydrodynamics. However, once this has been suppressed, some variability between model outputs remains due to intrinsic differences between models (as numerical schemes). The numerical experiments were carried out for a perfectly conservative radionuclide and for (137)Cs (including water/sediment interactions). Model outputs for this radionuclide were also compared with measurements in water and sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas.

  2. Characteristics of radio-cesium transport and discharge between different basins near to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after heavy rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Akihiro; Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Machida, Masahiko; Mori, Koji; Tada, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Takamaru; Tawara, Yasuhiro; Tosaka, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes watershed modeling of catchments surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant to understand radio-cesium redistribution by water flows and sediment transport. We extended our previously developed three-dimensional hydrogeological model of the catchments to calculate the migration of radio-cesium in both sediment-sorbed and dissolved forms. The simulations cover the entirety of 2013, including nine heavy rainfall events, as well as Typhoon Roke in September 2011. Typhoons Man-yi and Wipha were the strongest typhoons in 2013 and had the largest bearing on radio-cesium redistribution. The simulated (137)Cs discharge quantities over the nine events in 2013 are in good agreement with field monitoring observations. Deposition mainly occurs on flood plains and points where the river beds broaden in the lower basins, and within dam reservoirs along the rivers. Differences in (137)Cs discharge ratios between the five basins are explained by differences in the initial fallout distribution within the basins, the presence of dam reservoirs, and the input supply to watercourses. It is possible to use these simulation results to evaluate future radioactive material distributions in order to support remediation planning.

  3. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential Releases of (129)I, (236)U, and Pu Isotopes from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants to the Ocean from 2013 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Casacuberta, Núria; Christl, Marcus; Buesseler, Ken O; Lau, YikSze; Vockenhuber, Christof; Castrillejo, Maxi; Synal, Hans-Arno; Masqué, Pere

    2017-09-05

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, many efforts were put into the determination of the presence of (137)Cs, (134)Cs, (131)I, and other gamma-emitting radionuclides in the ocean, but minor work was done regarding the monitoring of less volatile radionuclides, pure beta-ray emitters or simply radionuclides with very long half-lives. In this study we document the temporal evolution of (129)I, (236)U, and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in seawater sampled during four different cruises performed 2, 3, and 4 years after the accident, and we compare the results to (137)Cs collected at the same stations and depths. Our results show that concentrations of (129)I are systematically above the nuclear weapon test levels at stations located close to the FDNPP, with a maximum value of 790 × 10(7) at·kg(-1), that exceeds all previously reported (129)I concentrations in the Pacific Ocean. Yet, the total amount of (129)I released after the accident in the time 2011-2015 was calculated from the (129)I/(137)Cs ratio of the ongoing (137)Cs releases and estimated to be about 100 g (which adds to the 1 kg released during the accident in 2011). No clear evidence of Fukushima-derived (236)U and Pu isotopes has been found in this study, although further monitoring is encouraged to elucidate the origin of the highest (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio of 0.293 ± 0.028 we found close to FDNPP.

  5. Radiocesium contamination of the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida) 1.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in a large web spider, Nephila clavata L. Koch (Nephilidae: Arachnida), collected at three sites at different distances from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant about 1.5 y after the accident in March 2011. The radiocesium concentrations in spiders were highest in a streamside secondary forest 33 km northwest of the power plant: mean ± a standard deviation of 2.401 ± 1.197 Bq g(-1) dry for (134)Cs and 3.955 ± 1.756 Bq g(-1) dry for (137)Cs. In a hillside secondary forest 37 km northwest of the power plant, the mean concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.825 ± 0.247 Bq g(-1) dry and 1.470 ± 0.454 Bq g(-1) dry, respectively. In a pine forest 62 km west of the power plant, very low radiocesium concentrations were detected, but in only a few individuals. The concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in spiders collected at each site tended to be correlated with the air radiation dose rate at each site. Since spiders are key components of food webs in forests, the high concentrations in this species at contaminated sites suggested that the radiocesium from the accident has transferred through food chains and reached to higher trophic level of the food chains.

  6. Five-minute resolved spatial distribution of radiocesium in sea sediment derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Ambe, Daisuke; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Ono, Tsuneo; Sawada, Hideki; Saito, Hajime; Miki, Shizuho; Setou, Takashi; Morita, Takami; Watanabe, Tomowo

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distributions of radiocesium concentration in sea sediment to a core depth of 14 cm were investigated in the offshore region from the Fukushima Prefecture to the northern part of the Ibaraki Prefecture in February and July 2012, at a spatial resolution of 5 min of latitude and longitude. The concentrations in the area south of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) were generally higher than those in the area north of it. In the southern area, a band of especially high concentration with a width about 20 km was present in the region shallower than 100 m, and a narrow minimal concentration band was found along the 200-m isobaths. In more than half of all cases, the vertical core profiles of radiocesium concentration generally showed an exponential decreasing trend with depth. However, in the area north of the FDNPP, where the radiocesium concentrations tended to be very low, radiocesium concentrations that had similar or larger magnitude compared with those of the most-surface layer were often found in deeper layers. Relatively good correlations were found between radiocesium concentrations and grain sizes of the most-surface sediment. The vertical profile of radiocesium concentration also had a relationship with grain size. In other case, the radiocesium concentration in the sediment seems to have had a dependence on the radiocesium concentration in bottom seawater, suggesting that the quantity of radiocesium supplied and the grain size were major factors determining the spatial distribution pattern of the radiocesium concentration after the FDNPP accident. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Isotopic compositions of (236)U and Pu isotopes in "black substances" collected from roadsides in Fukushima prefecture: fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    Black-colored road dusts were collected in high-radiation areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Measurement of (236)U and Pu isotopes and (134,137)Cs in samples was performed to confirm whether refractory elements, such as U and Pu, from the fuel core were discharged and to ascertain the extent of fractionation between volatile and refractory elements. The concentrations of (134,137)Cs in all samples were exceptionally high, ranging from 0.43 to 17.7 MBq/kg, respectively. (239+240)Pu was detected at low levels, ranging from 0.15 to 1.14 Bq/kg, and with high (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios of 1.64-2.64. (236)U was successfully determined in the range of (0.28 to 6.74) × 10(-4) Bq/kg. The observed activity ratios for (236)U/(239+240)Pu were in reasonable agreement with those calculated for the fuel core inventories, indicating that trace amounts of U from the fuel cores were released together with Pu isotopes but without large fractionation. The quantities of U and (239+240)Pu emitted to the atmosphere were estimated as 3.9 × 10(6) Bq (150 g) and 2.3 × 10(9) Bq (580 mg), respectively. With regard to U, this is the first report to give a quantitative estimation of the amount discharged. Appreciable fractionation between volatile and refractory radionuclides associated with the dispersal/deposition processes with distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant was found.

  8. Reassessment of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in the Coast off Japan Derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Casacuberta, Núria; Breier, Crystaline F; Pike, Steven M; Masqué, Pere; Buesseler, Ken O

    2016-01-05

    The years following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, the distribution of (90)Sr in seawater in the coast off Japan has received limited attention. However, (90)Sr is a major contaminant in waters accumulated within the nuclear facility and in the storage tanks. Seawater samples collected off the FDNPP in September 2013 showed radioactive levels significantly higher than pre-Fukushima levels within 6 km off the FDNPP. These samples, with up to 8.9 ± 0.4 Bq·m(-3) for (90)Sr, 124 ± 3 Bq·m(-3) for (137)Cs, and 54 ± 1 Bq·m(-3) for (134)Cs, appear to be influenced by ongoing releases from the FDNPP, with a characteristic (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio of 3.5 ± 0.2. Beach surface water and groundwater collected in Sendai Bay had (137)Cs concentrations of up to 43 ± 1 Bq·m(-3), while (90)Sr was close to pre-Fukushima levels (1-2 Bq·m(-3)). These samples appear to be influenced by freshwater inputs carrying a (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio closer to that of the FDNPP fallout deposited on land in the spring of 2011. Ongoing inputs of (90)Sr from FDNPP releases would be on the order of 2.3-8.5 GBq·d(-1) in September 2013, likely exceeding river inputs by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These results strongly suggest that a continuous surveillance of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is still required.

  9. Impact of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived (134)Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived (137)Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess (137)Cs activity concentration relative to the (134)Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived (137)Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and the bomb-derived (137)Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m(-2), respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean.

  10. 90Sr dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Bezhenar, Roman; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli; Casacuberta, Nuria; Masque, Pere

    2014-05-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R (Maderich et al., 2013) was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of 90Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of 90Sr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi (FDNPP) accident (2011-2040). The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in marine sediments, and the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and the subsequent doses to the population due to the consumption of marine products. The contamination due to runoff of 90Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken in account using generic predictive model (Smith et al., 2004). A dynamical food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue (bones for 90Sr ). The model was compared with observation data on 90Sr for the period 1955-2010 and the budget of its activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of ocean influx only with local importance. Calculated concentrations of 90Sr in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal box around the FDNPP before and after the accident are in agreement with measurements from the Japanese databases (TEPCO, MEXT) and publications (Casacuberta et al., 2013; Oikawa et al., 2013). The dynamical food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of 90Sr, the concentration for piscivorous fishes return to background level only in 2015. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture (except FDNPP vicinity) due to consumption of fishery products is an order less than the maximal dose rate caused by nuclear weapon testing in 1960.

  11. Low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly in the north-northwest direction from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Shinomiya, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Oikawa, Masakazu; Miyaushiro, Norihiro; Takashima, Yoshio; Uchihori, Yukio

    2017-08-07

    A low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly in the north-northwest (NNW) direction from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) is identified by a new analysis of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio dataset which we had obtained in 2011-2015 by a series of car-borne surveys that employed a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. We found that the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio is slightly lower (0.95, decay-corrected to March 11, 2011) in an area with a length of about 15 km and a width of about 3 km in the NNW direction from the FDNPS than in other directions from the station. Furthermore, the area of this lower (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly corresponds to a narrow contamination band that runs NNW from the FDNPS and it is nearly parallel with the major and heaviest contamination band in the west-northwest. The plume trace with a low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio previously found by other researchers within the 3-km radius of the FDNPS is in a part of the area with the lower (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly that we found. Our result suggests that this lower (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly is the area which was contaminated before March 13, 2011 (UTC) in association with the hydrogen explosion of Unit 1 on March 12, 2011 at 06:36 (UTC) and it was less influenced by later subsequent plumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiocesium concentrations in the bark, sapwood and heartwood of three tree species collected at Fukushima forests half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kagawa, Akira; Tonosaki, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) distribution in tree stems of Japanese cedar (aged 40-56 y), red pine (42 y), and oak (42 y) grown in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated approximately half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Japanese cedar, red pine, and oak were selected from five sites, one site, and one site, respectively. Three trees at each site were felled, and bark, sapwood (the outer layer of wood in the stem), and heartwood (the inner layer of wood in the stem) separately collected to study radiocesium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiocesium deposition densities at the five sites were within the range of 16-1020 kBq m(-2). The radiocesium was distributed in bark, sapwood, and heartwood in three tree species, indicating that very rapid translocation of radiocesium into the wood. The concentration of radiocesium in oak (deciduous angiosperm) bark was higher than that in the bark of Japanese cedar and red pine (evergreen gymnosperms). Both sapwood and heartwood contained radiocesium, and the values were much lower than that in the bark samples. The results suggest that radiocesium contamination half a year after the accident was mainly attributable to the direct radioactive deposition. The radiocesium concentrations in the Japanese cedar samples taken from five sites rose with the density of radiocesium accumulation on the ground surface. To predict the future dynamics of radiocesium in tree stems, the present results taken half a year after the accident are important, and continuous study of radiocesium in tree stems is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of soil contamination by radionuclides due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and associated estimated cumulative external dose estimation.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Kimura, S; Takatsuji, T; Nanasawa, K; Imanaka, T; Shizuma, K

    2012-09-01

    Soil sampling was carried out at an early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Samples were taken from areas around FDNPP, at four locations northwest of FDNPP, at four schools and in four cities, including Fukushima City. Radioactive contaminants in soil samples were identified and measured by using a Ge detector and included (129 m)Te, (129)Te, (131)I, (132)Te, (132)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (140)Ba and (140)La. The highest soil depositions were measured to the northwest of FDNPP. From this soil deposition data, variations in dose rates over time and the cumulative external doses at the locations for 3 months and 1y after deposition were estimated. At locations northwest of FDNPP, the external dose rate at 3 months after deposition was 4.8-98 μSv/h and the cumulative dose for 1 y was 51 to 1.0 × 10(3)mSv; the highest values were at Futaba Yamada. At the four schools, which were used as evacuation shelters, and in the four urban cities, the external dose rate at 3 months after deposition ranged from 0.03 to 3.8μSv/h and the cumulative doses for 1 y ranged from 3 to 40 mSv. The cumulative dose at Fukushima Niihama Park was estimated as the highest in the four cities. The estimated external dose rates and cumulative doses show that careful countermeasures and remediation will be needed as a result of the accident, and detailed measurements of radionuclide deposition densities in soil will be important input data to conduct these activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emission, transport, deposition, and re-suspension of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in the atmosphere - Overview of 2-year investigations in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    Following a huge earthquake and tsunami in Eastern Japan on 11 March, 2011, the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) occurred to emit a large amount of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Soon after the FDNPP accident, many Japanese researchers, as well as researchers in other countries, started monitoring radionuclides in various environmental fields and/or model calculations to understand extent and magnitude of radioactive pollution. In this presentation, we overview these activities for the atmospheric radionuclides in Japan as followings: 1. Investigations to evaluate radionuclide emissions by explosions at FNDPP in March 2011 and to estimate the respiration dose of the radiation at this stage. 2. Investigations to evaluate atmospheric transport and deposition processes of atmospheric radionuclide to determine the extent of radionuclide pollution. -- Based on results of the regular and urgent monitoring results, as well as the mapping of the distribution of radionuclide s accumulated by the deposition to the ground, restoration of their time-dependent emission rates has been tried, and processes determining atmospheric concentration and deposition to the ground have been investigated by using the model calculations. 3. Monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of FNDPP accident. 4. Investigations to evaluate re-suspension of radionuclide from the ground, including the soil and the vegetation. -- Intensive monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations and deposition amount of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of the accident enable us to evaluate emission history from FNDPP, atmospheric transport and deposition processes, chemical and physical characteristics of atmospheric radionuclide especially of radio cesium, and re-suspension processes which has become dominant process to supply radio cesium to the atmosphere recently.

  15. Vertical distribution and temporal dynamics of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar

    2017-11-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwater forested areas to downstream rivers has been investigated in many studies since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, which was triggered by a catastrophic earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The accident resulted in the release of a huge amount of radioactivity and its subsequent deposition in the environment. A large part of the radiocesium released has been shown to remain in the forest. The dissolved (137)Cs concentration and its temporal dynamics in river water, stream water, and groundwater have been reported, but reports of dissolved (137)Cs concentration in soil water remain sparse. In this study, soil water was sampled, and the dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were measured at five locations with different land-use types (mature/young cedar forest, broadleaf forest, meadow land, and pasture land) in Yamakiya District, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from July 2011 to October 2012. Soil water samples were collected by suction lysimeters installed at three different depths at each site. Dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were analyzed using a germanium gamma ray detector. The dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water were high, with a maximum value of 2.5 Bq/L in July 2011, and declined to less than 0.32 Bq/L by 2012. The declining trend of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water was fitted to a two-component exponential model. The rate of decline in dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water (k1) showed a good correlation with the radiocesium interception potential (RIP) of topsoil (0-5 cm) at the same site. Accounting for the difference of (137)Cs deposition density, we found that normalized dissolved (137)Cs concentrations of soil water in forest (mature/young cedar forest and broadleaf forest) were higher than those in grassland (meadow land and pasture land). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  17. Inverse modeling of the (137)Cs source term of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident constrained by a deposition map monitored by aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yumimoto, Keiya; Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Tsuruta, Haruo; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-11-01

    The amount of (137)Cs released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of 11 March 2011 was inversely estimated by integrating an atmospheric dispersion model, an a priori source term, and map of deposition recorded by aircraft. An a posteriori source term refined finer (hourly) variations comparing with the a priori term, and estimated (137)Cs released 11 March to 2 April to be 8.12 PBq. Although time series of the a posteriori source term was generally similar to those of the a priori source term, notable modifications were found in the periods when the a posteriori source term was well-constrained by the observations. Spatial pattern of (137)Cs deposition with the a posteriori source term showed better agreement with the (137)Cs deposition monitored by aircraft. The a posteriori source term increased (137)Cs deposition in the Naka-dori region (the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) by 32.9%, and considerably improved the underestimated a priori (137)Cs deposition. Observed values of deposition measured at 16 stations and surface atmospheric concentrations collected on a filter tape of suspended particulate matter were used for validation of the a posteriori results. A great improvement was found in surface atmospheric concentration on 15 March; the a posteriori source term reduced root mean square error, normalized mean error, and normalized mean bias by 13.4, 22.3, and 92.0% for the hourly values, respectively. However, limited improvements were observed in some periods and areas due to the difficulty in simulating accurate wind fields and the lack of the observational constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal changes in radiocesium contamination derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in oceanic zooplankton in the western North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Minoru; Honda, Makio C; Hamajima, Yasunori; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Kawakami, Hajime; Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Mino, Yoshihisa

    2017-04-02

    We investigated temporal changes of the contamination of oceanic zooplankton with radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident one month to three years after the accident at subarctic and subtropical stations (1900 and 900-1000 km from the plant, respectively) in the western North Pacific. The maximum activity concentrations of (137)Cs in zooplankton were two orders of magnitude higher than the pre-accident level. In the first four months after the accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium in subtropical zooplankton decreased rapidly, but no similar change was observed at the subarctic station. The radiocesium derived from atmospheric deposition rapidly decreased as a result of seawater mixing. Thus, most of the subtropical zooplankton (with short lifespans) that had taken up radiocesium just after the accident were probably replaced by newly hatched zooplankton within four months of the accident, whereas subarctic zooplankton (with long lifespans) that were highly contaminated with radiocesium were still alive four months after the accident. By the end of the study, (137)Cs activity concentrations in subtropical zooplankton were still high, whereas the activity concentrations in subarctic zooplankton had decreased to nearly the pre-accident level. The former concentrations were probably influenced by a secondary supply of radiocesium via advection of subtropical mode water that was highly contaminated with Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Unexpectedly, at the subarctic station, the radiocesium activity concentrations in surface zooplankton were lower than those in subsurface zooplankton, whereas the opposite relationship was observed in surface and subsurface seawater. Because carnivores predominated in the subsurface zooplankton community, we hypothesize that the higher radiocesium activity concentrations in subsurface zooplankton were influenced by bioaccumulation. We conclude that radiocesium

  19. Effective half-lives of ¹³⁷Cs from persimmon tree tissue parts in Japan after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the radiocesium decreasing rates from persimmon trees during a period of about 3 y following the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we conducted measurements of tree tissue parts collected in 2011-2013. The sampling was carried out in Chiba, 220 km south of FDNPP; radioactive fallouts discharged from FDNPP had mainly been observed in March-April 2011 on the sampling site. We measured (137)Cs concentrations in the tree tissue parts, i.e., fruits (flesh, skin and seeds), leaves and newly emerged branches, and then the effective half-lives (T(eff)) of (137)Cs were calculated. Leaf samples were classified into two types by sampling months according to the growing stages, that is, immature (April-May) and mature (June-November) leaves. All these parts showed exponential declines in (137)Cs concentration with good adjusted contribution ratios of higher than ca. 0.7. The calculated T(eff) values from all tissue parts were similar with the average of 229 d (range: 216-243 d). From these results, we concluded that each tree tissue was representative for the calculation of Teff. For comparison to these observation results, open source food monitoring data from 2011 to 2013 including (137)Cs data for persimmon fruits collected in Fukushima Prefecture were used to calculate T(eff) for persimmon trees. Values of Teff were obtained for persimmon fruits grown in each local government area in Fukushima Prefecture and they ranged from 303 to 475 d.

  20. First stage zoeal morphology of four ghost crabs Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Chen; Liu, Hong-Chang; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-02-03

    Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the first zoeal stage of four ghost crabs, Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897. Finding diagnostic characters to distinguish between the four species proved difficult because their setal appendage patterns were identical. However the rectangular and pockmarked patterns on the ventral carapace are rather pronounced in O. ceratophthalmus and O. stimpsoni but weak in O. cordimanus and O. sinensis. The spinulation on the furca of the telson is less in O. cordimanus than in the other three species.

  1. Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Matuda, Hiromitu; Hinoki, Tomoya; Kato, Yuko

    2009-04-20

    Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), composed of zanthoxylum fruit, ginseng root, dried ginger rhizome and malt sugar, is clinically effective for postoperative ileus and chronic constipation. MMIHS and CIIP are severe motility disorder associated with high morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DKT on functional intestinal obstruction. DKT was clinically effective for gastrointestinal motility in a case with MMIHS, but not effective in one with CIIP. MMIHS and CIIP are speculated to have different pathogenesis regarding gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction based upon the effect of this drug.

  2. Temporal changes in dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in groundwater and stream water in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Nishino, Masataka; Konuma, Ryohei; Abe, Yutaka; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar; Sakaguchi, Aya; Kondo, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Miyata, Yoshiki; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in groundwater and stream water in the headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ∼35 km north west of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), was monitored from June 2011 to July 2013, after the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Groundwater and stream water were sampled at intervals of approximately 2 months at each site. Intensive sampling was also conducted during rainstorm events. Compared with previous data from the Chernobyl NPP accident, the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water was low. In the Iboishi-yama catchment, a trend was observed for the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water to decline, which could be divided into two phases by October 2011 (a fast flush of activity as a result of rapid washoff and a slow decline as a result of soil fixation and redistribution processes). The highest (137)Cs concentration recorded at Iboishi-yama was 1.2 Bq/L on August 6, 2011, which then declined to 0.021-0.049 Bq/L during 2013 (in stream water under normal water-flow conditions). During the rainfall events, the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water increased temporarily. The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in groundwater at a depth of 30 m at Iboishi-yama displayed a decreasing trend from 2011 to 2013, with a range from 0.039 Bq/L to 0.0025 Bq/L. The effective half-lives of stream water in the initial fast flush and secondary phases were 0.10-0.21 and 0.69-1.5 y, respectively in the three catchments. The effective half-life of groundwater was 0.46-0.58 y at Koutaishi-yama and 0.50-3.3 y at Iboishi-yama. The trend for the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs to decline in groundwater and stream water was similar throughout 2012-2013, and the concentrations recorded in deeper groundwater were closer to those in stream water. The declining trend of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in stream water was similar to that of the loss of canopy (137)Cs by throughfall, as

  3. Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

    2014-05-01

    Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates

  4. Vertical distribution and temporal changes of 137Cs in soil profiles under various land uses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Junko; Tamura, Kenji; Suda, Tomoya; Matsumura, Ryo; Onda, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in soil profiles under eight different land uses for the 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and discussed the temporal changes in the early-stage of the migration and the determinants of the initial distribution. The soil samples were collected for four surveys using a scraper plate at each study site, which consisted of three forests (mixed forest, mature cedar, and young cedar), two grasslands (pasture and meadow) and three abandoned agricultural fields (farm land, tobacco field, and paddy field). The land use patterns have a large influence on some soil properties and the migration processes of (137)Cs above ground, resulting in different distribution of (137)Cs in those soil profiles. Specifically, the secondary deposition of (137)Cs from the coniferous canopy, retention of (137)Cs by litter layer, and the homogenization of (137)Cs concentrations in surface soil by natural soil mixing such as the disturbance by cattle grazing, roots growing and the formation of needle ice were important to cause redistribution of the deposited (137)Cs. Only in the paddy field, the (137)Cs inventory in subsurface soils (5-10 cm) gradually increased and comprised 26% of the total (137)Cs in 2 y, showing the downward migration of (137)Cs to subsurface soil. In the other sites, it was considered that (137)Cs were strongly adsorbed by soil particles and rarely migrated downward as soluble form. Vertical distributions during the first survey were able to be used as the initial distributions and were well fitted to the exponential equation. The distribution parameters α (relaxation depth) and β (relaxation mass depth), calculated by the exponential equation were correlated with RIP (r = -0.806, p < 0.05), macro pore (r = 0.651, p = 0.11), and dispersible fine particle content (r = 0.856, p < 0.05). It indicated that the initial distribution would be influenced by the Cs fixation ability of

  5. The activity of radiocaesium in sediments around off Fukushima after the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Station.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Miho; Aono, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Naganuma, Sho; Kubo, Atsushi; Ito, Yukari; Ishimaru, Takashi; Kanda, Jota

    2014-05-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 have led to the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Station (FNPS) and large amount of radioactive material were discharged by the hydrogen explosion and leaked from FNPS to the ocean. About three years have passed after the accident, radiocaesium in seawater off Fukushima except for part of area is gradually decreasing to the level before the accident. However, because the decrease of radiocaesium in marine sediment is more slowly than that in seawater, it is worried to influence on marine biota dwelled around the seabed over the long term. The aim of this study was to elucidate the variation and behavior of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) activities in the marine environment. Sediment and seawater samples were collected from three sites in 5 km-20 km area from FNPS (NP2 site ; 37° 25 N, 141°06 E, water depth 30 m, AN6 site ; 37° 33 N, 141°07 E, water depth 30 m, and M01 site ; 37° 33 N, 141°20 E, water depth 60 m) in May and October 2013 during some cruise of Umitaka-maru and Shinyo-maru (Tokyo University of Marine and Technology) .Vertical changes of 134Cs concentration (Bq/kg-dry) in sediment ranged 17-28, 8.2-53, and 4.2-11 at NP2, AN6 and M01 sites as of May 2013, respectively. At NP2 site, 134Cs inventory (Bq/m2) in seawater in October was about four times higher than that of 134Cs inventory in May. At NP2 and M01 sites in May, 134Cs concentration was higher in the shallow layer (0 cm-1 cm). On the contrary, at AN6 site in May and NP2 site in October, 134Cs concentration was higher in the middle layer (4 cm-5 cm). Trend of organic content at all stations were consistent with that of vertical change of 134Cs concentration. These results suggest that highest radiocaesium layer in the shallow as well as in the middle depth was caused by increase of river input and resedimentation.

  6. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

    2013-08-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model

  7. Dissolution rates of subsoil limestone in a doline on the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau, Japan: An approach from a weathering experiment, hydrological observations, and electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Sanae; Hattanji, Tsuyoshi; Matsushi, Yuki; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at estimating the controlling factors for the denudation rates of limestone, which often forms solution dolines on karst tablelands. Our approaches include (1) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to reveal shallow subsurface structures and hydrological settings, (2) automated monitoring of volumetric water content in soil profiles and manual measurements of subsurface CO2 concentrations and soil water chemistry, and (3) a field weathering experiment using limestone tablets with the micro-weight loss technique for determining current denudation rates. The field experiment and monitoring were carried out over 768 days from 2009-2011 at four sites with varying topographic and hydrological conditions along the sideslope of a doline on the Akiyoshi-dai karst plateau in SW-Japan. The installation depths of the limestone tablets were 15 cm or 50 cm below the slope surface. The soil moisture conditions varied site by site. Water-saturated conditions continued for 40-50% of the whole experimental period at 50-cm depth of upper and middle sites, while only 0-10% of the experimental period was water-saturated at the other sites. Chemical analysis revealed that the soil water was chemically unsaturated with calcite for all the sites. Spatial differences in concentrations of CO2 in soil pore air were statistically less significant. The denudation rates of the buried limestone tablets were 17.7-21.9 mg cm- 2 a- 1 at the upper and middle slopes, where the soil was water-saturated for a long time after precipitation. The lowest denudation of 3.9 mg cm- 2 a- 1 was observed on lower slopes where soil was not capable of maintaining water at a near saturation level even after precipitation. Statistical analysis revealed that the denudation rates of the tablets were strongly controlled by the duration for which soil pores were saturated by water (the conditions defined here are degrees of water saturation greater than 97%). Electrical resistivity tomography

  8. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2-18.3) EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated 133Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h) into 133Xe. There is strong evidence that the 133Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 36.6 (20.1-53.1) PBq, or about 43% of the estimated

  9. DAIS Models Simulation System (DMSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, A. C.

    1981-05-01

    The DMSS software support effort enhanced the capabilities and value of DMSS by accomplishing the following four objectives: (1) Addition of VATS/Pave Tack and Maverick Missile models; (2) Enhancing the existing software; (3) Creating meaningful, up-to-date documentation; and (4) Providing comprehensive training. The new models were developed using top-down structuring techniques and were implemented in RATFOR (a structured FORTRAN preprocessor). The existing models were restructured using top-down structuring techniques, RATFOR, and meaningful comments. The documentation was updated to adhere to MIL-STD-483 and 490.

  10. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  11. Three-dimensional modeling of oceanic dispersal of land-derived multi-class suspended radionuclides after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Yamanishi, Takafumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    Several oceanic dispersal modeling have been conducted on dissolved radionuclides leaked from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) where the direct release of radionuclides from the FNPP and atmospheric deposition are major sources. In the present study, we view freshwater discharge from the rivers as a missing piece for the inventory of the radionuclides in the ocean. The land-derived input introduces a time lag behind the direct release through hydrological process because these radionuclides mostly are attached to suspended particles that are transported quite differently to the dissolved matter. We thus develop a multi-class, non-cohesive sediment transport model based on ROMS along with a wave-enhanced bed boundary layer model of Soulsby (1995) and a stratigraphy submodel proposed by Blaas et al. (2007). Suspended 137Cs attached to the sediment is evaluated with an empirical power law proposed by Onda et al. (2014) as a function of specific surface area of the suspended particles. A 128 x 256 km domain with the grid resolution of dx = 250 m centered at the FNPP is configured as a test bed nested in the existing double nested ROMS domain with dx = 1 km (Uchiyama et al., 2012, 2013). The wave field is computed with an operational wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) embedded in the JMA GVP-CWM wave reanalysis. A total of 20 rivers in the domain are configured as point sources of freshwater and sediments by exploiting a surface runoff model HYDREEMS (Toyoda et al., 2009) and an empirical discharge to sediment flux relation (Takekawa and Nihei, 2013). Fractions of three sediment classes, viz., fine sand, silt and clay, in the riverine discharge are determined empirically based on the outcome of a USLE-based river sediment modeling conducted by JAEA. The developed model successfully reproduces the dispersal of the land-derived sediments and their recirculation processes associated with resuspension and deposition in the Fukushima coast for 4 months

  12. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will show the results of a paper currently under review in ACPD and some additional new results, including more data and with an independent box modeling approach to support some of the findings of the ACPD paper. On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started early, before active venting was performed. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they

  13. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2011-10-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started very early, possibly immediately after the earthquake and the emergency shutdown on 11 March at 06:00 UTC. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they suddenly dropped by orders of magnitude exactly when spraying of water on the spent-fuel pool of unit 4 started. This indicates that emissions were not only coming from

  14. Predicting the long-term (137)Cs distribution in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: a parameter sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akihiro; Oda, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Yasuo

    2014-09-01

    Radioactive materials deposited on the land surface of Fukushima Prefecture from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant explosion is a crucial issue for a number of reasons, including external and internal radiation exposure and impacts on agricultural environments and aquatic biota. Predicting the future distribution of radioactive materials and their fates is therefore indispensable for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness of remediation options regarding human health and the environment. Cesium-137, the main radionuclide to be focused on, is well known to adsorb to clay-rich soils; therefore its primary transportation mechanism is in the form of soil erosion on the land surface and transport of sediment-sorbed contaminants in the water system. In this study, we applied the Soil and Cesium Transport model, which we have developed, to predict a long-term cesium distribution in the Fukushima area, based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and simple sediment discharge formulas. The model consists of calculation schemes of soil erosion, transportation and deposition, as well as cesium transport and its future distribution. Since not all the actual data on parameters is available, a number of sensitivity analyses were conducted here to find the range of the output results due to the uncertainties of parameters. The preliminary calculation indicated that a large amount of total soil loss remained in slope, and the residual sediment was transported to rivers, deposited in rivers and lakes, or transported farther downstream to the river mouths. Most of the sediment deposited in rivers and lakes consists of sand. On the other hand, most of the silt and clay portions transported to river were transported downstream to the river mouths. The rate of sediment deposition in the Abukuma River basin was three times as high as those of the other 13 river basins. This may be due to the larger catchment area and more moderate channel slope of the Abukuma River basin

  15. Ocean dynamic processes causing spatially heterogeneous distribution of sedimentary caesium-137 massively released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, H.; Morino, Y.; Furuichi, N.; Ohara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radiocaesium 137Cs that was released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011 are widely known to have extensively migrated to Pacific oceanic sediment off of east Japan. Several recent reports have stated that the sedimentary 137Cs is now stable with a remarkably heterogeneous distribution. The present study elucidates ocean dynamic processes causing this heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution in and around the shelf off Fukushima and adjacent prefectures. We performed a numerical simulation of oceanic 137Cs behaviour for about 10 months after the accident, using a comprehensive dynamic model involving advection-diffusion transport in seawater, adsorption and desorption to and from particulate matter, sedimentation and suspension on and from the bottom, and vertical diffusion transport in the sediment. A notable simulated result was that the sedimentary 137Cs significantly accumulated in a swath just offshore of the shelf break (along the 50-100 m isobath) as in recent observations, although the seabed in the entire simulation domain was assumed to have ideal properties such as identical bulk density, uniform porosity, and aggregation of particles with a single grain diameter. This result indicated that the heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution was not necessarily a result of the spatial distribution of 137Cs sediment adsorptivity. The present simulation suggests that the shape of the swath is mainly associated with spatiotemporal variation between bottom shear stress in the shallow shelf (< 50 m depths) and that offshore of the shelf break. In a large part of the shallow shelf, the simulation indicated that strong bottom friction suspending particulate matter from the seabed frequently occurred via a periodic spring tide about every 2 weeks and via occasional strong wind. The sedimentary 137Cs thereby could hardly stay on the surface of the seabed with the result that

  16. DAiSES: Dynamic Adaptivity in Support of Extreme Scale Department of Energy Project No. ER25622 Prime Contract No. DE-FG02-04ER25622 Final Report for September 15, 2004-September 14, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    PI: Patricia J. Teller, Ph.D. University of Texas-El Paso Department of Computer Science

    2009-05-05

    The DAiSES project [Te04] was focused on enabling conventional operating systems, in particular, those running on extreme scale systems, to dynamically customize system resource management in order to offer applications the best possible environment in which to execute. Such dynamic adaptation allows operating systems to modify the execution environment in response to changes in workload behavior and system state. The main challenges of this project included determination of what operating system (OS) algorithms, policies, and parameters should be adapted, when to adapt them, and how to adapt them. We addressed these challenges by using a combination of static analysis and runtime monitoring and adaptation to identify a priori profitable targets of adaptation and effective heuristics that can be used to dynamically trigger adaptation. Dynamic monitoring and adaptation of the OS was provided by either kernel modifications or the use of KernInst and Kperfmon [Wm04]. Since Linux, an open source OS, was our target OS, patches submitted by kernel developers and researchers often facilitated kernel modifications. KernInst operates on unmodified commodity operating systems, i.e., Solaris and Linux; it is fine-grained, thus, there were few constraints on how the underlying OS can be modified. Dynamically adaptive functionality of operating systems, both in terms of policies and parameters, is intended to deliver the maximum attainable performance of a computational environment and meet, as best as possible, the needs of high-performance applications running on extreme scale systems, while meeting system constraints. DAiSES research endeavored to reach this goal by developing methodologies for dynamic adaptation of OS parameters and policies to manage stateful and stateless resources [Te06] and pursuing the following two objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms to dynamically sense, analyze, and adjust common performance metrics, fluctuating workload situations, and

  17. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  18. An extensive study of the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in various river systems and their relationship with catchment inventory.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Matsuura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    An extensive investigation of particulate radiocaesium in suspended solids and dissolved radiocaesium in river water was undertaken at 30 sites in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures in December 2012, and their relationships with catchment inventory and the solid/liquid distribution coefficient (Kd) were evaluated. Rivers located in the coastal region on the north side of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant exhibited relatively higher particulate radiocaesium concentrations. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium and average catchment inventories, indicating that the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium could be approximated from the catchment inventory. Particulate radiocaesium concentration was significantly correlated with dissolved radiocaesium concentration (with the exception of concentrations measured in estuaries), and the geometric mean Kd was calculated as 3.6 × 10(5) with a 95% confidence interval of 2.6-5.1 × 10(5).

  19. Distributions of Pu isotopes in seawater and bottom sediments in the coast of the Japanese archipelago before and soon after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Takata, Hyoe

    2015-04-01

    A radioactivity measurement survey was carried out from 24 April 2008 to 3 June 2011 to determine the levels of plutonium isotopes and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the marine environments off the sites of commercial nuclear power stations around the Japanese islands; the sampling period extended to two months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In our previous study (Oikawa et al., 2015), data on Pu isotopes and (241)Am in sediments have already been reported. In this study, we report those on Pu isotopes in seawater as well as sediments, and the characteristics of sediments in addition (e.g., ignition loss and biogenic opals). Concentrations of (239+240)Pu in seawater and bottom sediments remained nearly constant at all sampling locations during the survey period. In addition, no regional differences were observed in the (239+240)Pu concentrations in surface waters. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were found in bottom waters at deeper sampling locations, but the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were nearly constant regardless of the water depth. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were also found in bottom sediments at deeper sampling locations, but vice versa for (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios as reported in the previous report. The sediments samples from deeper locations showed the higher percentage of ignition loss as well as the higher content of biogenic opal. There was likely to be some driving force participating in the transfer of Pu isotopes associated with biogenic substances to the deeper seabed. The present survey showed that the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station did not contribute much to the inventory of Pu isotopes in the adjacent sea area.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of Canarium lyi C.D. Dai & Yakovlev in RAW 264.7 macrophages and a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Shin, Na-Rae; Lee, Joongku; Park, Sang-Hong; Bach, Tran The; Hai, Do Van; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Han, Sang-Bae; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-05-01

    Canarium lyi C.D. Dai & Yakovlev (CL) is a member of the Anacardiaceae family. To the best of our knowledge, no studies on its anti-inflammatory effects have yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of CL on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice. CL attenuated the production of LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, CL suppressed phosphorylation of the inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as the translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit into the nucleus. For the in vivo efficacy, the effect of CL on a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury was assessed. CL treatment of the mice significantly inhibited the inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). CL-treated mice also showed a marked inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phosphorylation of IκB and p65. In addition, CL attenuated lung histopathological changes in LPS-induced ALI mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that CL is a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia.

  1. 228Ra/226Ra ratio and 7Be concentration in the Sea of Japan as indicators for water transport: comparison with migration pattern of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP-derived 134Cs and 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Furusawa, Y; Fujimoto, K; Minakawa, M; Kofuji, H; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Yoshida, K; Nakano, Y; Hayakawa, K; Oikawa, S; Misonoo, J; Isoda, Y

    2013-12-01

    To assess the migration patterns of radiocesium emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we analyzed (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios and (7)Be concentrations and compared them with (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in seawater samples collected within the Sea of Japan before and after the FDNPP accident (i.e., during the period 2007-2012) using low-background γ-spectrometry. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in surface waters exhibited lateral and seasonal variations, reflecting the flow patterns of surface water. This indicates the transport patterns of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium by surface water. Cosmogenic (7)Be (half-life: 53.3 d) exhibited markedly high concentrations (5-10 mBq/L) at depths shallower than 50 m, with concentrations decreasing steeply (0.2-2 mBq/L) at depths of 50-250 m. The distribution of (7)Be concentrations suggests that the downward delivery of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium to below 50 m depth was negligible for a few months prior to its removal from the Sea of Japan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Yi-Zhi-Fang-Dai Formula Protects against Aβ1–42 Oligomer Induced Cell Damage via Increasing Hsp70 and Grp78 Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lumei; Wan, Wenbin; Chen, Wenjing; Chan, Yuanjin; Shen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Yi-Zhi-Fang-Dai formula (YZFDF) is an experiential prescription used to cure dementia cases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, the main effective compounds of YZFDF have been identified from this formula, and the neuroprotective effect against Aβ1–42 oligomer of YZFDF has been tested in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that YZFDF could increase cell viability and could attenuate endothelial reticula- (ER-) mediated apoptosis. Evidence indicated that protein folding and endothelial reticula stress (ERS) played an important role in the AD pathological mechanism. We further explored the expression of Hsp70, an important molecular chaperon facilitating the folding of other proteins, and Grp78, the marker protein of ERS in SH-SY5Y cells. Data told us that YZFDF pretreatment could influence the mRNA and protein expression of these two proteins. At last, we also found that YZFDF pretreatment could activate Akt in SH-SY5Y cells. All these above indicate that YZFDF could be a potent therapeutic candidate for AD treatment. PMID:27829867

  3. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  4. Temporal variations in (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in seawater along the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast in northeastern Japan, one year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kofuji, Hisaki; Inoue, Mutsuo

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-six seawater samples were collected between May 2011 and March 2012 at 6 sites along the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast, 250-450 km north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Cesium-134 and (137)Cs concentrations were determined by low-background γ-spectrometry. During May-June 2011, (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in surface waters decreased from 1.0-2.8 to 0.7-1.5 mBq/L and from 2.1-3.9 to 1.9-3.0 mBq/L, respectively. These decreases were due to diffusion and advection in the ocean after atmospheric input of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides. However, in July-August 2011, the concentrations of both radionuclides in the water samples collected on the Pacific side of the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast exhibited 30-50-fold increases (∼40 mBq/L for (134)Cs and ∼50 mBq/L for (137)Cs) over concentrations observed at these sampling sites in June 2011 in contrast to the gradual decreases in the concentrations on the Tsugaru Strait side of the Shimokita Peninsula. These results suggest that radiocesium-contaminated waters offshore in the Pacific Ocean were transported to coastal regions along the Pacific side of the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast by ocean currents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of citicoline on level of consciousness, serum level of fetuin-A and matrix Gla-protein (MGP) in trauma patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and GCS≤8.

    PubMed

    Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Haghjoo, Amir Ghorbani; Sattarnezhad, Neda; Asghari, Mohammad; Sattarnezhad, Aida; Asghari, Ali; Pezeshki, Arastoo

    2014-11-01

    Citicoline, a neuroprotective drug, has been suggested to improve level of consciousness, mitigating secondary to brain damage and ectopic vascular calcification, following post-traumatic neurogenesis and angiogenesis, inducing calcification modulators, like fetuin-A and matrix Gla-protein (MGP). This study aimed to investigate effects of citicoline on levels of consciousness, serum levels of fetuin-A and MGP in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. This double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on patients with diagnosis of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and GCS≤8. The cases were treated with citicoline (500 mg every 6 hours) intravenously for fifteen days. Daily GCS assessment and intermittent blood sampling were done for both cases and controls. Fifty-eight patients were included in the study and during the study period, mean GCS levels improved in both groups; however, the difference was inconsiderable (p>0.05). Serum levels of fetuin-A, a negative phase reactant, increased in the group treated with citicoline (p=0.012), while these changes were insignificant for the controls (p=0.455). Serum levels of MGP, a calcification inhibitor, increased in the cases (p=0.046). The alterations were inconsequential in the control group (p=0.405). The findings of this study suggest neutral effects of citicoline on level of consciousness and GCS. Through increasing levels of fetuin-A and MGP, citicoline may have protective effects against inflammatory damage and vascular calcification secondary to head trauma.

  6. Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part II: verification of the source term and analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion.

    PubMed

    Terada, Hiroaki; Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-10-01

    Regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations were carried out to verify the source term of (131)I and (137)Cs estimated in our previous studies, and to analyze the atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The accuracy of the source term was evaluated by comparing the simulation results with measurements of daily and monthly surface depositions (fallout) over land in eastern Japan from March 12 to April 30, 2011. The source term was refined using observed air concentrations of radionuclides for periods when there were significant discrepancies between the calculated and measured daily surface deposition, and when environmental monitoring data, which had not been used in our previous studies, were now available. The daily surface deposition using the refined source term was predicted mostly to within a factor of 10, and without any apparent bias. Considering the errors in the model prediction, the estimated source term is reasonably accurate during the period when the plume flowed over land in Japan. The analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition suggests that the present distribution of a large amount of (137)Cs deposition in eastern Japan was produced primarily by four events that occurred on March 12, 15-16, 20, and 21-23. The ratio of wet deposition to the total varied widely depending on the influence by the particular event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Intake of Radiocesium by Residents Living Near the Tepco Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant After the Accident. Part 2: Relationship Between Internal Dose and Evacuation Behavior in Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kunishima, Naoaki; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nakano, Takashi; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Tani, Kotaro; Furuyama, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Shozo; Hachiya, Misao; Naoi, Yutaka; Akashi, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident exposed members of the public to radiation. This study analyses the relation between personal behavior data obtained from 112 out of 174 subjects who underwent whole-body measurements by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period from 27 June to 28 July 2011 and their committed effective doses (CEDs) from Cs and Cs. The whereabouts of the 112 persons living in municipalities near the FDNPP (mainly, Namie town) on several days in March 2011 are graphed on maps. It was confirmed that most subjects started evacuation promptly and had left the 20-km-radius of the FDNPP by the end of 12 March. The individual CEDs were poorly correlated with the person's distances from the FDNPP at any day in March. Meanwhile, the percentage of persons remaining within the 20-km radius of the FDNPP was 100% at 16:00 on 12 March and 42.9% at 0:00 on 15 March for those with CEDs > 0.1 mSv, whereas the corresponding values were much lower for those with CEDs ≤ 0.1 mSv. This suggests that the time of evacuation would be one of the crucial factors for the early intake; however, more personal behavior data are needed to be analyzed to clarify the relevance to the individual internal dose.

  8. Speciation analysis of I-127,129 in the crop field soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident with newly developed chemical separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Maki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takumi; Nagai, Hisao

    2014-05-01

    In previous study, we investigated the depth profile of the accident derived I-129 and downward migration speed in soils of near-field of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, including crop fields and man-made fields. I-129 in soil was measured by AMS and stable iodine (I-127) was measured by ICP-MS at MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University of Tokyo. It was found that I-129 was concentrated near surface but distributed deeper compared with Cs-137. It was also found that I-129 seems to move downward more quickly than Cs-137. To investigate the adsorption mechanism and the elemental process of migration of the accident derived I-129 in soil, it is important to know what kind of component the I-129 combines with. Recent studies on the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), especially near edge structure (XANES), reported that the stable iodine (I-127) in soil existed as an organic component. However, it had not yet been proved that it was also the case with the accident derived I-129 because it had been incorporated in the soil system only recently and the abundance of I-129 in soil was more than 8 orders of magnitude smaller than sub-ppm level stable iodine (I-127). In this study a progressive sequential extraction method including the dialysis and the dynamic headspace method was newly developed to obtain only the iodine sticking to the soil organic component. The stable iodine can be quantified by direct analysis of the fraction and I-129 can be quantified by AMS method of the fraction added with carrier. The fraction of the organic component for I-127 and I-129 can be evaluated respectively by comparing with the other fraction and/or with the total concentration obtained by the bulk analysis (e.g. by the pyrohydrolysis).

  9. Changes in radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms in relation to the organic layer 2.5 years after the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Kaneko, Shinji; Ikeda, Shigeto; Akama, Akio; Komatsu, Masabumi; Ito, Masamichi T

    2015-07-01

    We reported previously that radiocesium ((137)Cs) concentrations in earthworms increased with those in litter and/or soil in Fukushima Prefecture forests 0.5 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. This study provides further results for 1.5 and 2.5 y after the accident and discusses temporal changes in (137)Cs concentrations and transfer factors (TF) from litter to earthworms to better understand the mechanisms by which (137)Cs enters soil food webs. The concentration of (137)Cs in accumulated litter on the forest floor rapidly decreased, and the concentration in soil (0-5-cm depth) increased over time from 0.5 to 1.5 y, but changed only moderately from 1.5 to 2.5 y. The concentration of (137)Cs in earthworms consistently decreased during the study period; values 2.5 y after the accident were 18.8-68.5% of those 0.5 y after the accident. The TFs from accumulated litter to earthworms decreased over time: 0.24 ± 0.08 (mean ± SD) at 0.5 y and 0.16 ± 0.04 at 2.5 y. This decrease may be a result of decreases in the bioavailability of (137)Cs in litter and the surface soil layer. Changes in (137)Cs bioavailability should be continuously tracked to determine any changes in the relationship between radiocesium concentrations in earthworms and that in accumulated litter or soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contribution of radioactive (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction from a headwater catchment in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Abe, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwaters in forested areas provides important information, as the output from forest streams subsequently enters various land-use areas and downstream rivers. Thus, it is important to determine the composition of (137)Cs fluxes (dissolved fraction, suspended sediment, or coarse organic matter) that migrate through a headwater stream. In this study, the (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment and coarse organic matter from a forest headwater catchment was monitored. The (137)Cs concentrations in suspended sediment and coarse organic matter, such as leaves and branches, and the amounts of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured at stream sites in three headwater catchments in Yamakiya District, located ∼35 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) from August 2012 to September 2013, following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were sampled at intervals of approximately 1-2 months. The (137)Cs concentrations of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 2.4-49 kBq/kg and 0.85-14 kBq/kg, respectively. The (137)Cs concentrations of the suspended sediment were closely correlated with the average deposition density of the catchment. The annual proportions of contribution of (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction were 96-99%, 0.0092-0.069%, and 0.73-3.7%, respectively. The total annual (137)Cs discharge from the catchment was 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  11. Initial spread of 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant over the Japan continental shelf: a study using a high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Z.; Chen, C.; Beardsley, R.; Lin, H.; Ji, R.; Sasaki, J.; Lin, J.

    2013-08-01

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami triggered by the M9 and M7.9 earthquakes off the Tōhoku coast destroyed facilities at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) leading to a significant long-term flow of the radionuclide 137Cs into coastal waters. A high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model was first constructed to simulate the 11 March tsunami and coastal inundation. Based on the model's success in reproducing the observed tsunami and coastal inundation, model experiments were then conducted with differing grid resolution to assess the initial spread of 137Cs over the eastern shelf of Japan. The 137Cs was tracked as a conservative tracer (without radioactive decay) in the three-dimensional model flow field over the period of 26 March-31 August 2011. The results clearly show that for the same 137Cs discharge, the model-predicted spreading of 137Cs was sensitive not only to model resolution but also the FNPP seawall structure. A coarse-resolution (∼2 km) model simulation led to an overestimation of lateral diffusion and thus faster dispersion of 137Cs from the coast to the deep ocean, while advective processes played a more significant role when the model resolution at and around the FNPP was refined to ∼5 m. By resolving the pathways from the leaking source to the southern and northern discharge canals, the high-resolution model better predicted the 137Cs spreading in the inner shelf where in situ measurements were made at 30 km off the coast. The overestimation of 137Cs concentration near the coast is thought to be due to the omission of sedimentation and biogeochemical processes as well as uncertainties in the amount of 137Cs leaking from the source in the model. As a result, a biogeochemical module should be included in the model for more realistic simulations of the fate and spreading of 137Cs in the ocean.

  12. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Trends of Training Courses Conducted in the Human Resources Development Center of the National Institute for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology After the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuko; Iida, Haruzo; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2017-07-01

    Environmental contamination with radioactive materials caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 2011 raised a serious health concern among residents in Japan, and the demand for radiation experts who can handle the radiation-associated problems has increased. The Human Resources Development Center (HRDC) of the National Institute of for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology in Japan has offered a variety of training programs covering a wide range of technologies associated with radiation since 1959. In this study, the time-course change in the number and age of the applicants for training programs regularly scheduled at HRDC were analyzed to characterize the demand after the NPP accident. The results suggested that the demand for the training of industrial radiation experts elevated sharply after the NPP accident followed by a prompt decrease, and that young people were likely stimulated to learn the basics of radiation. The demand for the training of medical radiation experts was kept high regardless of the NPP accident. The demand for the training of radiation emergency experts fluctuated apparently with three components: a terminating demand after the criticality accident that occurred in 1999, an urgent demand for handling of the NPP accident, and a sustained demand from local governments that undertook reinforcement of their nuclear disaster prevention program. The demand for the training of school students appeared to be increasing after the NPP accident. It could be foreseen that the demand for training programs targeting young people and medical radiation experts would be elevated in future.

  14. Estimating the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration using the water balance model WAVE and fine spatial resolution airborne remote sensing images from the DAIS-sensor: Experimental set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Veroustraete, F.; Feyen, J.

    2003-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ET) of agricultural land and forestland surfaces play an important role in the redistribution of water on the Earth's surface. Any change in evapotranspiration, either through change in vegetation or climate change, directly effects the available water resources. For quantifying these effects physical models need to be constructed. Most hydrological models have to deal with a lack of good spatial resolution, despite their good temporal information. Remote sensing techniques on the contrary determine the spatial pattern of landscape features and hence are very useful on large scales. The main objective of this research is the combination of the spatial pattern of remote sensing (using visible and thermal infrared spectrum) with the temporal pattern of the water balance model WAVE (Vanclooster et al., 1994 and 1996). To realise this, the following objectives are formulated: (i) relate soil and vegetation surface temperatures to actual evapotranspiration of forest and crops simulated with the water balance model WAVE using remote sensing derived parameters. Three methods will be used and mutually compared. Both airborne and satellite imagery will be implemented; (1) compare the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration, as a result of the three methods, with the energy balance model SEBAL (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) and finally; (2) subject the up-scaled WAVE and SEBAL models to an uncertainty analysis using the GLUE-approach (Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimate) (Beven en Binley, 1992). To study the behaviour of the model beyond the field-scale (micro-scale), a meso-scale study was conducted at the test-site of DURAS (50°50'38"N, 5°08'50"W, Sint-Truiden). Airborne imagery from the DAIS/ROSIS sensor are available. For the determination of the spatial pattern of actual evapotranspiration the next two methods are considered: (1) relations between surface temperature, surface albedo and vegetation indices are linked with field

  15. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I during the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-05-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of AM aerosols originating from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

  16. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-11-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols

  17. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Mission Software.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    events can also be treated in these two fashions, but not always meaningfully. 78 x PC X to &0 do 0~ 06 C .. AA A V, b. C -8 45 0 **S a.’..~~~ 94 ~NS 4 340 ...of availability of the Flight Computer. A solution would be to have OFP valida- tion completed prior to Hot Bench Computer ( HBC ) testing. Checkout...system checkout before the HBC is used. This is required in order to assure correctness with respect to visual human factors (e.g., Bomb fall line

  18. Estimating the Duration of Public Concern After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident From the Occurrence of Radiation Exposure-Related Terms on Twitter: A Retrospective Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, a large number of comments, both positive and negative, were posted on social media. Objective The objective of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the trend in the number of tweets posted on Twitter, and to estimate how long public concern regarding the accident continued. We surveyed the attenuation period of the first term occurrence related to radiation exposure as a surrogate endpoint for the duration of concern. Methods We retrieved 18,891,284 tweets from Twitter data between March 11, 2011 and March 10, 2012, containing 143 variables in Japanese. We selected radiation, radioactive, Sievert (Sv), Becquerel (Bq), and gray (Gy) as keywords to estimate the attenuation period of public concern regarding radiation exposure. These data, formatted as comma-separated values, were transferred into a Statistical Analysis System (SAS) dataset for analysis, and survival analysis methodology was followed using the SAS LIFETEST procedure. This study was approved by the institutional review board of Hokkaido University and informed consent was waived. Results A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to show the rate of Twitter users posting a message after the accident that included one or more of the keywords. The term Sv occurred in tweets up to one year after the first tweet. Among the Twitter users studied, 75.32% (880,108/1,168,542) tweeted the word radioactive and 9.20% (107,522/1,168,542) tweeted the term Sv. The first reduction was observed within the first 7 days after March 11, 2011. The means and standard errors (SEs) of the duration from the first tweet on March 11, 2011 were 31.9 days (SE 0.096) for radioactive and 300.6 days (SE 0.181) for Sv. These keywords were still being used at the end of the study period. The mean attenuation period for radioactive was one month, and approximately one year for radiation and radiation units. The difference in mean duration

  19. Estimations of direct release rate of 137Cs and 90Sr to the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for five-and-a-half years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tateda, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. Additional release pathways by river input and runoff from 1F NPP site with precipitation and were also effective for coastal zone in the specific periods before starting direct release on March 26 2011. Direct release from 1F NPP site is dominant one year after the accident. We estimated the direct release rate of 137Cs and 90Sr for more than five-and-a-half years after the accident by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for five-and-a-half years after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the 1F NPP site(at 5,6 discharge and south discharge). Directly release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1014 Bq/day and decreased exponentially with time to be the order of magnitude of 109 Bq/day by the end of September 2016. Estimated direct release rate have exponentially reduced with constant rate since November 2011. Apparent half-life of direct release rate was estimated to be 346 days. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.7±0.7 PBq for five and a half years. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Simulated 137Cs activity affected off coast in the Fukushima prefecture. We used the measured 137Cs activities by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) for the estimation of direct release. The sea water samples were corrected from the coast. The averaged 137Cs activities from November 2013 to June 2016 were 391 and 383 Bq/m3 at 5,6 discharge and south discharge, respectively. The averaged 137Cs activities measured by the

  20. Estimating the Duration of Public Concern After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident From the Occurrence of Radiation Exposure-Related Terms on Twitter: A Retrospective Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Ota, Mizuki; Yagahara, Ayako; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-25

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, a large number of comments, both positive and negative, were posted on social media. The objective of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the trend in the number of tweets posted on Twitter, and to estimate how long public concern regarding the accident continued. We surveyed the attenuation period of the first term occurrence related to radiation exposure as a surrogate endpoint for the duration of concern. We retrieved 18,891,284 tweets from Twitter data between March 11, 2011 and March 10, 2012, containing 143 variables in Japanese. We selected radiation, radioactive, Sievert (Sv), Becquerel (Bq), and gray (Gy) as keywords to estimate the attenuation period of public concern regarding radiation exposure. These data, formatted as comma-separated values, were transferred into a Statistical Analysis System (SAS) dataset for analysis, and survival analysis methodology was followed using the SAS LIFETEST procedure. This study was approved by the institutional review board of Hokkaido University and informed consent was waived. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to show the rate of Twitter users posting a message after the accident that included one or more of the keywords. The term Sv occurred in tweets up to one year after the first tweet. Among the Twitter users studied, 75.32% (880,108/1,168,542) tweeted the word radioactive and 9.20% (107,522/1,168,542) tweeted the term Sv. The first reduction was observed within the first 7 days after March 11, 2011. The means and standard errors (SEs) of the duration from the first tweet on March 11, 2011 were 31.9 days (SE 0.096) for radioactive and 300.6 days (SE 0.181) for Sv. These keywords were still being used at the end of the study period. The mean attenuation period for radioactive was one month, and approximately one year for radiation and radiation units. The difference in mean duration between the keywords was attributed

  1. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS). Volume II. Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    44 N 14 4, a4l a LI - 1 1 45 -, -, U, Al 4* .NC48 a *~0C8N 0 SI US .~40@a0 4440a~ 3 U I .A4e-04~ a .~ NOOCO..SN , ~ A 4i*. a. it#o.,sooa I 4 N400 ...4 44 0 334 NA.9AN.400.A 044.4 -4, .9NE~60NA4 4.9 N@t. 4 9444 0 .624 ~0040949 4. *0NAN04404 44 ~4 4 4 - 4 444. 4 .6224.4 N40AN 40 .44.- N400 - IA 2424 S...0.40.a4a,01 6.6 3C 60144 04P.01N01 N400 .N00014040000140400..N01 6*~ 4.4601014 000104004 0N00140401.~0401N044040010.01 60. 46.46.6010.0 4010.44001

  2. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS). Volume I. Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    tarinq the dkevelolrm eni Nt hse. Language Translation Facilities " JOVIAL Compiler ( HBC or DEC-10) " FORTRAN Compiler • DEC-10 Assembler * HBC Assembler...1991 5,883,566 13.701,244 132.9 DP 1992 0 0 0 Total 244, 519, 732 297.320,325 21.3 56 460 420 390 -- 340 -- 260 CP.. E 4.2 -4.3% (37 -T . .4 140 6 10

  3. The Role of Community Studies in the Makiguchian Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two of the earlier works in the Makiguchi corpus, "Kyoju no togo chushin toshiteno kyodoka kenkyu" ("Research into Community Studies as the Integrating Focus of Instruction," 1912/1987; hereafter "Community Studies"), and "Chiri kyoju no hoho oyobi naiyo no kenkyu" ("Research…

  4. Technological Lessons from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    22 The Problem of Agriculture , Food...make this goal difficult. Furthermore, the local agricultural economy may suffer from stigmatism even after robust food testing, as both local and...full recovery of the local agricultural economy may prove a difficult and costly process, one that depends on public perceptions as well as technical

  5. Radioactivity analysis following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Xu, Cuihua; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Wenhong; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Su, Xu

    2013-08-01

    A total of 118 samples were analyzed using HPGe γ-spectrometry. (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (136)Cs were detected in aerosol air samples that were collected 22 days after the accident with values of 1720 µBq m(-)³, 247 µBq m(-)³, 289 µBq m(-)³ and 23 µBq m(-)³, respectively. (131)I was detected in rainwater and soil samples and was also measurable in vegetables collected between April 2 and 13, 2011, with values ranging from 0.55 Bq kg(-1) to 2.68 Bq kg(-1). No (131)I was detected in milk, drinking water, seawater or marine biota samples.

  6. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-02

    KANTO SHIBU KENKYU HAPPYOKAI, 4-5 Aug 88/ 26 Irradiation Characteristics of Tritium Breeding Materials /Kenji Noda, Hitsohi Watanabe; NIPPON...Characteristics of Tritium Breeding Materials 43067612 Tokyo NIPPON SERAMIKKUSU KY0KAI KANT0 SHIBU KENKYU HAPPYOKAI in Japanese 4-5 Aug 88 p 6 [Article by...Kenji Noda and Hitsohi Watanabe, JAERI] [Text] 1. Introduction Atomic fusion reactor tritium breeding materials are used to produce tritium for

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut John H. Glenn (at podium) presents former astronaut Robert "Hoot" Gibson (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (left), and former astronauts Sally K. Ride and Daniel Brandenstein (right), both inducted into the Hall of Fame today. Also being inducted is Space Shuttle astronaut Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut John H. Glenn (at podium) presents former astronaut Robert "Hoot" Gibson (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (left), and former astronauts Sally K. Ride and Daniel Brandenstein (right), both inducted into the Hall of Fame today. Also being inducted is Space Shuttle astronaut Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) applauds former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, and Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) applauds former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, and Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (right) presents former astronaut Sally K. Ride (standing center) at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais are, from left, former astronauts John H. Glenn, Gordon Cooper, Buzz Aldrin, and Walter Cunningham, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (right) presents former astronaut Sally K. Ride (standing center) at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais are, from left, former astronauts John H. Glenn, Gordon Cooper, Buzz Aldrin, and Walter Cunningham, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Daniel Brandenstein (standing right) is presented to the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts John H. Glenn and Gordon Cooper, both previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Brandenstein are Space Shuttle astronauts Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Daniel Brandenstein (standing right) is presented to the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts John H. Glenn and Gordon Cooper, both previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Brandenstein are Space Shuttle astronauts Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert "Hoot" Gibson (at podium) addresses the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen and former astronaut John H. Glenn. Also being inducted with Gibson are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert "Hoot" Gibson (at podium) addresses the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen and former astronaut John H. Glenn. Also being inducted with Gibson are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Daniel Brandenstein (standing center) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts John H. Glenn and Gordon Cooper, both previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Brandenstein are Space Shuttle astronauts Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Daniel Brandenstein (standing center) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts John H. Glenn and Gordon Cooper, both previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Brandenstein are Space Shuttle astronauts Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) greets former astronaut Story Musgrave (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also seated on the dais are, from left, former astronaut and Senator John H. Glenn, astronaut and Associate Director (Technical) of the Johnson Space Center John W. Young, and former astronaut Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Musgrave are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) greets former astronaut Story Musgrave (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also seated on the dais are, from left, former astronaut and Senator John H. Glenn, astronaut and Associate Director (Technical) of the Johnson Space Center John W. Young, and former astronaut Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Musgrave are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, Buzz Aldrin, Walter Cunningham, Edgar B. Mitchell, and Fred W. Haise, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, Buzz Aldrin, Walter Cunningham, Edgar B. Mitchell, and Fred W. Haise, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  15. Determination of chlorinated solvents in industrial water and wastewater by DAI-GC-ECD.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-04-01

    A very simple and quick analytical method, based on direct aqueous injection, for determination of halogenated solvents in refinery water and wastewater, is described. There is a need to determine halogenated solvents in refinery water streams, because they may originate from several processes. There is also a need to develop methods enabling VOX to be determined in samples containing oil fractions. The method described enables simultaneous determination of 26 compounds with low detection limits (sub-μg L(-1)) and excellent precision, especially for highly halogenated solvents. The matrix effects of four types of sample were evaluated--the method seemed to be relatively insensitive to variations in matrix composition. Deuterated 1,2-dichloroethane was used as internal standard and surrogate compound in quantitative analysis; application of isotopically labelled compounds is rarely reported when non-mass spectrometric detectors are used for analysis. Analysis of real samples showed that the most frequently detected compounds were dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane.

  16. Environmental radioactivity analyses in Italy following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, M; Conte, F; Delbono, I; Iurlaro, G; Battisti, P; Bortoluzzi, S; Lorenzelli, R; Salvi, S; Zicari, S; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    2012-12-01

    Following the Fukushima power plants accident on the 11th March 2011, the radioactivity monitoring programme at the Italian ENEA research centres was activated in order to detect the possible new input of radionuclides through atmospheric transport and precipitation. Measurements of (131)I and (134,137)Cs were carried out on atmospheric particulate, atmospheric deposition, seawater and mussels and sheep milk. In the daily samples of air particulate, (131)I was detectable between March 28 and April 12, with extremely low concentrations (<1 mBq m(-3); the detection limit for (131)I was ~0.2 mBq m(-3)) while Cs isotopes were always below the detection limit (<0.2 mBq m(-3)). The two main episodes of (131)I atmospheric deposition were registered in La Spezia research centre, around March 28 and April 15, reaching values of 17.8 ± 1.1 and 8.0 ± 2.5 Bq m(-2) respectively; maximum values of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.11 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2), respectively, detected in Brasimone research centre in April (reference date April 15). Mussels and seawater were collected in the Gulf of La Spezia: only mussels after the main (131)I deposition, on March 28, contained a measurable, although very small, amount of (131)I (0.18 ± 0.05 Bq kg(-1), detection limit (131)I = 0.03 Bq kg(-1) wet weight - soft parts). The (131)I was also detected in sheep milk in Rome (Casaccia research centre) until May 5, showing a maximum concentration of 4.9 ± 0.4 Bq L(-1). As for other European Countries for which data are available, activity levels remain of no concern for public health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Miao; Luo, Qing-Hua; Sun, Jin-Lu; Shi, Cun-Lian; Yin, Jia; Zhou, Yu-Ling; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Zhang; Chen, Meng

    2015-01-01

    To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM) in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients' homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  18. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Training Requirements Analysis Model Users Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    This user's guide describes the functions, logical operations and subroutines, input data requirements, and available outputs of the Training Requirements Analysis Model (TRAMOD), a computerized analytical life cycle cost modeling system for use in the early stages of system design. Operable in a stand-alone mode, TRAMOD can be used for the…

  19. 'Designing Ambient Interactions - Pervasive Ergonomic Interfaces for Ageing Well' (DAI'10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geven, Arjan; Prost, Sebastian; Tscheligi, Manfred; Soldatos, John; Gonzalez, Mari Feli

    The workshop will focus on novel computer based interaction mechanisms and interfaces, which boost natural interactivity and obviate the need for conventional tedious interfaces. Such interfaces are increasingly used in ambient intelligence environments and related applications, including application boosting elderly cognitive support, cognitive rehabilitation and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). The aim of the workshop is to provide insights on the technological underpinnings of such interfaces, along with tools and techniques for their design and evaluation.

  20. FDA Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Facility Incident

    MedlinePlus

    ... this section of the regulations. If I see web sites advertising potassium iodide or alternative cures, should ... iodine Don't be fooled by professional-looking Web sites. Avoid Web sites that fail to list ...

  1. Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd Medi·Ca CC for Enumeration of Coliform Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Mai; Suzuki, Takeo; Hamada, Chie; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Okochi, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Mamoru; Kyotani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for coliform count, the Medi·Ca CC method, was compared to the Violet Red Bile Agar method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 4, Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria, Section G) for nine raw foods from four food categories: raw ground pork, raw lamb, raw ground chicken, raw tuna fillet, raw salmon fillet, raw shrimp, fresh peeled banana, fresh cut pineapple, and fresh cut apple. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for seven matrixes from all four categories fell within the range of -0.50 to 0.50, and no statistical difference was observed at all three contamination levels for four matrixes from three categories. These results demonstrated that the Medi·Ca CC method is a reasonable alternative to the reference method for raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, and fresh fruits.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Eclipsing times of BE Cep (Dai+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, H.-F.; Yang, Y.-G.; Hu, S.-M.; Guo, D.-F.

    2012-03-01

    New CCD observations of BE Cep were carried out from 2008 to 2011, using the 1.0m Cassegrain telescope at the Weihai Astronomical Observatory (WHAO) of Shandong University, the 85cm telescope and the 60cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC), and the 1.56m telescope at the Sheshan Station of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO). (2 data files).

  3. An experiment on induction of triploidy in Eriocheir japonicus hepuensis Dai by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renhou; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiangyu; Yu, Hongjun

    1993-03-01

    Temperature treatment to inhibit extrusion of the polar body of the egg was first used on a lower crustacean, Artemia salina (Gross, 1932), and then was used for inducing triploids of amphibian (Frankhauser and Griffiths, 1939), fish (Svardson, 1945), and mammal (Beatly and Fishchberg, 1949). So far, induction of triploidy has been extensively used to obtain sterile or quick-growth individuals in fish (Swarup, 1956; Lincoln, and Scott, 1983 and Thorgaard, 1986) and mollusk (Stanley et al., 1984), but similar work has not been reported on crab, a higher crustancean.

  4. Ethnography for Teachers' Professional Development: Japanese Approach of Investigation on Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matoba, Masami; Sarkar Arani Mohammed Reza

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how journal and ethnography field notes in Jugyou Kenkyu (lesson study) help teachers to understand the diverse range of talents and abilities of their students. Especially, we focus on how ethnography field note and reflective papers (karate) help teachers to change their assumptions about student learning. The data…

  5. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  6. Radioactive contamination of the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant accident.

    PubMed

    El-Kameesy, S U; Salama, E

    2013-06-01

    Radioactive contamination in air dust particles of Cairo atmosphere from the Fukushima accident was detected by the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique. Analysis of the spectra obtained by using an High-Purity Germanium detector showed that there were some traces of (131)I and (134, 137)Cs. Estimate and study of concentration of those radionuclides were done over a period of about 5 months after the accident. Comparison with corresponding results in different countries all over the world has been performed.

  7. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM)--A Managerial Overview. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; Baran, H. Anthony

    This report gives a managerial overview of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM), which was designed to provide the Air Force with an in-house capability of assessing the life cycle cost impact of weapon system design alternatives. LCCIM consists of computer programs and the analyses which the user must perform to generate input data.…

  8. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Manh Hoai; Sebesvari, Zita; Tu, Binh Minh; Pham, Hung Viet; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2011-12-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. No Fukushima Dai-ichi derived plutonium signal in marine sediments collected 1.5-57km from the reactors.

    PubMed

    Wendel, C C S; Lind, O C; Fifield, L K; Tims, S G; Salbu, B; Oughton, D H

    2017-11-01

    Based on AMS analysis, it is shown that no Pu signals from the Fukushima accident could be discerned in marine sediments collected 1.5-57km away from the Fukushima Da-ichi power plant (FDNPP), which were clearly influenced by accident-derived radiocesium. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (0.21-0.28) were significantly higher than terrestrial global fallout (0.182 ± 0.005), but still in agreement with pre-FDNPP accident baseline data for Pu in near coastal seawaters influenced by global fallout and long-range transport of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) - Description, Users Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    27 2.2.2.2 Cost of Support (CS) 27 2.2.3 Disposal Costs ( CDP ) 28 2.3 Time Value of Money 282.4 General Assumptions of the RMCM 31 III. DATA FILE...NRC + RC + 2CDP + + 4 NRC Nonrecurring cost total using a baseline year value. RC Recurring cost total using a baseline year value. CDP Cost of system...application, the availability of data, and assurance that costs are not duplicated between cost elements. 27 2.2.3 Disposal Costs ( CDP ) The disposal costs

  11. Internal Radiation Exposure Dose in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture after the Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01–0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01–0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks. PMID:25478794

  12. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  13. Technological Issues and High Gradient Test Results on X-Band Molybdenum Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Spataro, B.; Alesini, D.; Chimenti, V.; Dolgashev, V.; Haase, A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Marrelli, C.; Mostacci, A.; Parodi, R.; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Two 11.424 GHz single cell standing wave accelerating structures have been fabricated for high gradient RF breakdown studies. Both are brazed structures: one made from copper and the other from sintered molybdenum bulk. The tests results are presented and compared to those of similar devices constructed at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and KEK (Ko Enerugi Kasokuki Kenkyu Kiko). The technological issues to build both sections are discussed.

  14. Morphological abnormalities in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) at the territories contaminated as a result of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Takase, Tsugiko; Sato, Natsumi; Keitoku, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Our research, carried out in 2014-2016 at eight sites in the radioactive contaminated territories of Fukushima Prefecture, showed that the young trees of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) are sensitive to radiation. Irradiation induced cancellation of the apical dominance in this species. The effect is similar to that observed in young trees of Scots pine growing in the Chernobyl zone. At the same time, we did not observed any morphological abnormalities in mature trees of Japanese red pine. The probability of cancelling the apical dominance in Japanese red pine increased to 0.11 and 0.14 in the two less irradiated populations, and to 0.5 and 0.9 at sites were the absorbed dose rates were approximately 14 and 25 μGy h(-1), respectively. Most of the observed abnormalities appeared in the second whorl after the beginning of exposure. No new abnormalities were observed in the fifth whorl. This temporal pattern is similar to those reported for Scots pine in Chernobyl and for Japanese fir in Fukushima. Additional detailed studies are necessary for interpretation of the observed temporal pattern and, in general, for explanation of the mechanism of formation of the morphological abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident.

  16. Radiocesium distribution and fluxes in the typical Cryptomeria japonica forest at the late stage after the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Takase, Tsugiko; Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Kivva, Sergiy; Zheleznyak, Mark; Sato, Natsumi; Keitoku, Koji

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima-derived radiocesium distribution in the typical Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest ecosystem was determined. In four years after the Fukushima accident, about 74% of the total radiocesium inventory was localized in soil, 20% was in the litter, and only 6% was associated with the aboveground biomass. Most of the radiocesium that was initially intercepted by the tree canopies has been already transported to the ground surface. The importance of the processes for removal of radiocesium from the tree canopies decreased in the order litterfall > throughfall > stemflow. Within the tree compartments, the largest radiocesium activity fraction, about 46%, was observed in old foliage, which indicates that the process of removal of the initial deposit from the tree crowns has not yet completed. The aggregate soil-to-wood transfer factor was 1.1⋅10(-3) m(2) kg(-1) d.w., which is close to the geometric means of transfer factors recommended by IAEA for other coniferous tree species. Further studies in Fukushima forest are necessary to assess the variation of this parameter under various soil-landscape conditions. Presence of the residues of the initial deposits does not allow to obtain the accurate values of the annual radiocesium fluxes in the ecosystem. Based on the conservative assumptions, the ranges of the fluxes were estimated. Analysis of the flux structures shows that up to percents of the total radiocesium activity in the ecosystem may be involved into biogenic cycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simple (40)K removal by acidified water leaching for estimating low levels of radiocesium in fishery products following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Yamashita, S; Fujimoto, K; Kofuji, H; Miki, S; Nagao, S

    2017-02-01

    We developed a simple method for (40)K removal by acidified water leaching combined with ammonium phosphomolybdate coprecipitation, for estimating low levels of radiocesium in Japanese flounder. (40)K removal from ashed samples was approximately 98%, with the radiocesium yield of ~98%. The treatment reduced the γ-spectral baseline to ~1/5 at ground and ~3/100 at underground levels (1.04 and 0.11 cph/keV, respectively). Faint signal of (134)Cs, which is embedded in the Compton continuum of (40)K in an untreated sample, was detected.

  18. Modeling watershed-scale (137)Cs transport in a forested catchment affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lezhang; Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Velleux, Mark L

    2017-05-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 resulted in (137)Cs contamination of large areas in northeast Japan. A watershed-scale (137)Cs transport model was developed and applied to a forested catchment in Fukushima area. This model considers (137)Cs wash-off from vegetation, movement through soils, and transport of dissolved and particulate (137)Cs adsorbed to clay, silt and sand. Comparisons between measurements and simulations demonstrated that the model well reproduced (137)Cs concentrations in the stream fed from the catchment. Simulations estimated that 0.57 TBq of (137)Cs was exported from the catchment between June, 2011 and December, 2014. Transport largely occurred with eroded sediment particles at a ratio of 17:70:13 of clay, silt, and sand. The overall (137)Cs reduction ratio by rainfall-runoff wash-off was about 1.6%. Appreciable (137)Cs remained in the catchment at the end of 2014. The largest rate of (137)Cs reduction by wash-off was simulated to occur in subwatersheds of the upper catchment. However, despite relatively low initial deposition, middle portions of the watershed exported proportionately more (137)Cs by rainfall-runoff processes. Simulations indicated that much of the transported (137)Cs originates from erosion over hillsides and river banks. These results suggested that areas where (137)Cs accumulates with redeposited sediments can be targeted for decontamination and also provided insight into (137)Cs transport at the watershed scale to assess risk management and decontamination planning efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Korpach, E.; Yi, Jing; Miley, Harry S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Ungar, R. Kurt; White, Brian; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  20. The existence state in the soil of radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by imaging plate photograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke

    2013-04-01

    In the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the wide area in east Japan was polluted seriously with radioactive cesium. But, unlike Chernobyl, reactor core explosion did not occur in Fukushima. Therefore, it is thought that many radioactive nuclides emitted into the atmosphere were in the gas state and aerosol. However, when the imaging plate photographs of the surface soils in Fukushima was observed, many granular radionuclides existed. Then, in order to confirm a radioactive cesium of particle state, the treatment for the soils contaminated with radioactive cesium by using chemical operation was tried. Three type soils, that is, paddy soil, river sediment, and sea sand, were made applicable to research. The contaminated soil samples were collected in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefecture. Radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry with a high pure germanium (HPGe) detector. After the radioactively measurement, soils had been burned in oven for five hours in 500 degree Celsius. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to soil samples, and they were heated for three hours. These samples were divided into residue and elution by centrifugal separation, and then radioactivity of cesium contained in residue was measured. After chemical operations, 70% and 85% of radioactive cesium from river sediment and sea sand were extracted approximately into elution, respectively. In contrast, in the soil of the paddy field, only 30% of radioactive cesium was approximately eluted. When radiation image photograph of the residues of all three types of soils were taken and observed, the granular radioactive nuclides remained clearly in paddy soil and river sediment. In contrast, all the granular radioactive nuclides in sea sand disappeared after treatment. The results of above things that desorption of radioactive cesium depend on the kind of soil. Furthermore, it was suggested that there was radioactive cesium of particle state in paddy soil and river sediment. It is a possibility that the substances on which radioactive cesium are concentrated depends on the kind of soil. The necessity of clarifying adsorption objects and particle state in the actual condition was suggested to elucidate Fukushima accident in more detail.

  1. The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-09-01

    We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average (137)Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (<0.45 μm) in the stemflow was measured to be around 10 Bq/L. The (137)Cs concentration ratio [present at the time of the accident (Bq/kg) in the bark/the dissolved fraction in the stemflow (Bq/L)] was approximately 10(3). A strong positive correlation was observed between the radiocesium concentration and the electrical conductivity of the dissolved fraction of the stemflow; this result suggests that radiocesium and electrolytes have the same elution mechanism from the tree. The size fractionation analysis of the <0.45 μm fraction through ultrafiltration revealed that the radiocesium was present as an almost dissolved species. Some of the particles in the particulate fraction (>0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening test for radioactivity of self-consumption products in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Yagihashi, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Shinya; Ishizu, Hidetake; Shiina, Takuya

    2017-02-23

    A food inspection service system for home grown products or wild plants collected by individual consumers for self-consumption was implemented in Fukushima in Nov. 2012. About 500 NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers were distributed to 300 or more temporary testing laboratories which were set up in public halls or meeting places of the municipalities. The screening method for radiocaesium was adapted to the present inspection service system. The performance of the equipment under field conditions was evaluated using sampled data obtained by temporary testing laboratories. From the present results of evaluation the confidence of these inspections was confirmed. Totally about 550,000 food samples have been tested with a pass rate of 90% or more.

  3. Comparison of radiocesium concentration changes in leguminous and non-leguminous herbaceous plants observed after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2017-08-26

    Transfer of radiocesium from soil to crops is an important pathway for human intake. In the period from one to two years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, food monitoring results showed that radiocesium concentrations in soybean (a legume) were higher than those in other annual agricultural crops; in these crops, root uptake is the major pathway of radiocesium from soil to plant. However, it was not clear whether or not leguminous and non-leguminous herbaceous plants have different Cs uptake abilities from the same soil because crop sample collection fields were different. In this study, therefore, we compared the concentrations of (137)Cs in seven herbaceous plant species including two leguminous plants (Trifolium pratense L. and Vicia sativa L.) collected in 2012-2016 from the same sampling field in Chiba, Japan that had been affected by the FDNPP accident fallout. Among these species, Petasites japonicus (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. showed the highest (137)Cs concentration in 2012-2016. The correlation factor between all concentration data for (137)Cs and those for (40)K in these seven plants was R = 0.54 (p < 0.001) by t-test, thus potassium uptake ability by species would affect radiocesium uptake; however, for each species, no correlation between (137)Cs and (40)K was found. Interestingly, (40)K concentrations in T. pratense, V. sativa and Poaceae family plants did not differ significantly, but (137)Cs data in the Poaceae family plants were significantly lower than those in T. pratense (p < 0.001) and V. sativa (p = 0.017). The results indicated that leguminous species would have higher (137)Cs uptake ability than Poaceae family plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-06-23

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident.

  5. RuHe DuiDai WanMei ZhuYi De XueSheng (Working with Perfectionist Students). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere

    Perfectionist students are not satisfied with merely doing well or even with doing better than their peers. They are satisfied only if they have done a job perfectly. Problems associated with forms of perfectionism that focus on seeking success are relatively minor, but problems associated with forms of perfectionism that focus on avoiding failure…

  6. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident. PMID:27334847

  7. VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSIS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas chromatographic environmental analysis by direct aqueous injection (DAI) was studied for 24 volatile organic analytes (VOAs). Internal standardization was used to determine the precision of analyzing these compounds by DAI. Aequous samples were directly introduced to a gas ch...

  8. 78 FR 48198 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Workforce Information Grants to States, Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Anthony Dais or Frank Gallo, Office of Workforce Investment, Room C-4526, Employment and Training... Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD). Fax: 202-693-3015. Email: Dais.Anthony@DOL.gov or Gallo...

  9. 77 FR 25503 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Event. 2. Current OMB approval number: 3150-0211. 3. How often the... request: 369,960 hours. 7. Abstract: Following events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power...

  10. 76 FR 59449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Force Report Regarding the Events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Site in Japan (Open)--The Committee will... recommendations on the Near-Term Task Force Report regarding the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi site in...

  11. 78 FR 44035 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... efforts associated with the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan. DATES: At... on the lessons-learned from the March 11, 2011, Fukushima Dai-ichi accident in Japan. By making...

  12. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  13. 77 FR 33780 - Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-03; Compliance with Order EA-12-051, Order Modifying Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ..., and resulting nuclear accident, at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Order EA... Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the NRC established a senior-level agency task force referred to as... in light of the events at Fukushima Dai-ichi. As a result of this review, the NTTF developed...

  14. 77 FR 65417 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread... northeastern coastal areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3, were... loss of cooling capabilities. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant,...

  15. 77 FR 59675 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread... northeastern coastal areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3, were... normal. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the NRC established a...

  16. 77 FR 23161 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan. DATES: Submit comments by June 18, 2012. Comments.... Background: Fukushima Dai-ichi and the NRC Regulatory Response III. Background: Onsite Emergency Response.... Background: Fukushima Dai-ichi and the NRC Regulatory Response On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0...

  17. 77 FR 33777 - Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-02; Compliance With Order EA-12-050, Order Modifying Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... large tsunami, estimated to have exceeded 14 meters (45 feet) in height that inundated the Fukushima Dai... of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3, were in operation and... events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the NRC established a senior-level agency...

  18. 78 FR 3039 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-06; Performing a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Recommendations 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3 of the Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi..., estimated to have exceeded 14 meters (45 feet) in height, that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear.... When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3 were in operation and Units 4,...

  19. 78 FR 48201 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2013-01; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Recommendations 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3 of the Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi..., estimated to have exceeded 14 meters (45 feet) in height, that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear.... When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3 were in operation and Units 4,...

  20. Lessons Learned from the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant-More than Basic Knowledge: Education and its Effects Improve the Preparedness and Response to Radiation Emergency.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Misao; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    A huge earthquake struck the northeast coast of the main island of Japan on 11 March 2011 triggering an extremely large tsunami to hit the area. The earthquake and tsunami caused serious damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), resulting in large amounts of radioactive materials being released into the environment. The major nuclides released were (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs. The deposition of these radioactive materials on land resulted in a high ambient dose of radiation around the NPPs, especially within a 20-km radius. Dose assessments based on behavior survey and ambient dose rates revealed that external doses to most residents were lower than 5 mSv, with the maximum dose being 25 mSv. It was fortunate that no workers from the NPPs required treatment from the viewpoint of deterministic effects of radiation. However, a lack of exact knowledge of radiation and its effects prevented the system for medical care and transportation of contaminated personnel from functioning. After the accident, demands or requests for training courses have been increasing. We have learned from the response to this disaster that basic knowledge of radiation and its effects is extremely important for not only professionals such as health care providers but also for other professionals including teachers.

  1. Spatial variations of low levels of ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in seawaters within the Sea of Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki; Oikawa, Shinji; Murakami, Takuma; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagao, Seiya; Hamajima, Yasunori; Misonoo, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Our method based on low background γ-spectrometry enabled the measurement of low radiocesium concentrations in only 20 L of seawater. In May 2011 after deposition of radiocesium, (134)Cs concentration in surface water within the Sea of Japan was confirmed to be significantly small (<0.1-1 mBq/L) by the method. The concentration was not detected (<0.1 mBq/L) below 50 m depth. The Fukushima-derived radiocesium migrated from the surface water of the Sea of Japan without advection to below the thermocline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in foliose lichens within Tsukuba-city as a reflection of radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Yoshihito; Matsukura, Kimiyo; Abe, Jun-ichi P; Hosaka, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Masanori; Dohi, Terumi; Kakishima, Makoto; Seaward, Mark R D

    2015-03-01

    (137)Cs concentrations in ten species of foliose lichens collected within Tsukuba-city in August 2013 ranged from 1.7 to 35 kBq/kg. The relationships between (137)Cs in two dominant species, Dirinaria applanata and Physcia orientalis, and the air dose rate (μSv/h) at the sampling sites were investigated. (137)Cs in P. orientalis measured about 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident was correlated (r(2) = 0.80) more closely with the air dose rate than those measured after about 2 years (r(2) = 0.65), possibly demonstrating its continued value as a biomonitor to reflect ambient fall-out levels. In contrast, those of Dirinaria applanata were not correlated with the air dose rate in either year.

  3. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 4: Chemistry = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 4: Hoa Hoc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanh-Van, Tran Thi

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  4. Commentary on: Laminectomy plus fusion versus laminectomy alone for lumbar spondylolisthesis by Ghogawala Z, Dziura J, Butler WE, Dai F, Terrin N, Magge SN, et al. NEJM 2016;374 (15):1424-34

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: How does an article involving only 66 patients randomized into two spinal surgical groups get into the New England Journal of Medicine? Nevertheless, this one did. The article by Ghogawala et al. entitled Laminectomy plus fusion versus laminectomy alone for lumbar spondylolisthesis, compared the efficacy/outcomes of pedicle/screw/rod instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusions vs. decompressions alone for treating lumbar stenosis with grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Methods: They designed a randomized controlled study involving only 66 patients between the ages of 50–80 (average age: 67) with lumbar stenosis and stable DS (3–14 mm). Outcomes were measured utilizing the physical measures from the Short Form 36 (SF-36) up to 4 postoperative years, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) upt to 2 postoperative years. Data were available for 86% of patients at 2, but only for 68% of the patients at 4 postoperative years. Results: At 2 postoperative years, SF-36 scores were higher for the instrumented patients (28 patients) vs. decompressed (29 patients) patients. However, the scores were comparable for both groups using the ODI at 4 years. SF-36 scores, however, remained higher for the 19 remaining instrumented patients. Additionally, reoperation rates were 14% for fusions and a staggering 34% for decompressions alone. Conclusions: The authors concluded; laminectomy with fusion offered a “slightly greater but clinically meaningful improvement in overall physical health-related quality of life vs. laminectomy alone.” Rather, it should have read there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups and an insufficient number of patients were included in the study at all stages. PMID:27843677

  5. The Relationship between Subclinical Asperger's Syndrome and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Akira; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    The existence of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD), including senile Asperger's syndrome (AS), has been proposed. However, there are no empirical case reports to support the proposal. In this report, we present 3 patients who showed symptoms of bv-FTD and demonstrated signs of autistic spectrum disorder, especially AS. We evaluated 3 subjects using the diagnostic criteria for bv-FTD, and their caregivers retrospectively provided data to calculate the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, Japanese version [Wakabayashi et al.: Shinrigaku Kenkyu 2004;75:78-84]. We also compared these data with those obtained from 3 individuals with Alzheimer's disease. All 3 patients met the criteria for bv-FTD and had a higher Autism-Spectrum Quotient score than did comparable Alzheimer's disease subjects. It is possible that some senile persons with frontotemporal lobar degeneration-like maladaptive behavior may suffer from subclinical AS.

  6. The Relationship between Subclinical Asperger's Syndrome and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Akira; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The existence of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD), including senile Asperger's syndrome (AS), has been proposed. However, there are no empirical case reports to support the proposal. In this report, we present 3 patients who showed symptoms of bv-FTD and demonstrated signs of autistic spectrum disorder, especially AS. Methods We evaluated 3 subjects using the diagnostic criteria for bv-FTD, and their caregivers retrospectively provided data to calculate the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, Japanese version [Wakabayashi et al.: Shinrigaku Kenkyu 2004;75:78–84]. We also compared these data with those obtained from 3 individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Results All 3 patients met the criteria for bv-FTD and had a higher Autism-Spectrum Quotient score than did comparable Alzheimer's disease subjects. Conclusion It is possible that some senile persons with frontotemporal lobar degeneration-like maladaptive behavior may suffer from subclinical AS. PMID:22719743

  7. History of Amateur Variable Star Observations in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, S.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Japan has about 100 years of history of variable star observing since Naozo Ichinohe, professional astronomer in Tokyo Observatory, observed d Cep in 1906. The first amateur variable star observer is Yoshihiko Kasai, who began observing variable stars in 1918. I introduce a brief history of Japanese amateur variable star observation, including topics of variable star organizations, nova and supernova hunters, collaborations with the AAVSO and the world, PEP and CCD observations. I also introduce the most active variable star observer, Hiroaki Narumi, who made over 260,000 visual estimates since 1975. VSOLJ was established in 1987 in collaborations with the variable star sections of Nihon Tenmon Kenkyu-kai (NTK) and the Oriental Astronomical Association (OAA). VSOLJ maintains a database of Japanese variable star observations (http://vsolj.cetus-net.org) and publishes the Variable Star Bulletin in English.

  8. Reduction and surveillance of device-associated infections in adult intensive care units at a Saudi Arabian hospital, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Amalraj, Antony; Memish, Ziad A

    2013-12-01

    Device-associated infections (DAI) are recognized as a marker of patient safety. Data regarding DAI rates in Saudi Arabia are sparse. This was a prospective surveillance study of DAI rates conducted in the adult intensive care units of the Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization, carried out using the DAI definition provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. DAI prevention bundles were introduced in 2006 for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), in mid-2010 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and in 2008 for central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI). DAI rates for VAP, CLABSI, and CAUTI are reported for the study period from 2004 to 2011. CAUTI was the most common DAI (42.2%), followed by CLABSI (38.5%) and VAP (19.3%). The overall rate of each infection type per 1000 device-days was 8.18 for CAUTI, 10 for CLABSI, and 4.52 for VAP. Annual DAI rates showed a significant reduction over time from the beginning of the study to the end of the study for CLABSI (16.3 vs. 6.06), CAUTI (6.75 vs. 3.41), and VAP (9.8 vs. 1.3) (p<0.05). CAUTI was the most common infection, and the use of DAI prevention bundles was associated with a significant decrease in DAI rates over time. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathogenesis and Blood-Brain Barrier Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Academiae Medicinae Shanghai, 20(suppl): 19-23, 1993. Lu, W., Zhang, J., Fan, W., and Dai, R. Hyperglycemia and in-hospital prognosis of acute myocardial...infarction in patients without diabetes mellitus. Acta Academiae Medicinae Shanghai, 20(suppl):47-50. 1993. Lu, W., Dai, R., Zhu, L., Fei, J., Ding, J...hypertriglyceridemia. Acta Academiae Medicinae Shanghai, 23(suppl):45-48, 1996. Lu, W., Dai, R., Zhu, L., Guo, L., Ding, J., Fan, W., Jing, C., and He, J

  10. Japan’s Self Defense Forces After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Toward a New Status Quo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    amount of radiation emitted by Fukushima Dai-ichi in 30 days was only 10% of the amount leaked in the first 10 days at Chernobyl . No one died from... Fukushima Dai- ichi’s radiation as opposed to the 28 acute radiation sickness deaths at Chernobyl . Also, the Japanese government quickly ordered citizens...to large amounts of radiation. Major Differences Between the Chernobyl Accident and the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station

  11. Diffuse Axonal Injury: Epidemiology, Outcome and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Rita de Cássia Almeida; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; de Oliveira, Daniel Vieira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; de Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), a type of traumatic injury, is known for its severe consequences. However, there are few studies describing the outcomes of DAI and the risk factors associated with it. This study aimed to describe the outcome for patients with a primary diagnosis of DAI 6 months after trauma and to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with mortality and dependence at this time point. Seventy-eight patients with DAI were recruited from July 2013 to February 2014 in a prospective cohort study. Patient outcome was analyzed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) within 6 months of the traumatic injury. The mean Injury Severity Score was 35.0 (SD = 11.9), and the mean New Injury Severity Score (NISS) was 46.2 (SD = 15.9). Mild DAI was observed in 44.9% of the patients and severe DAI in 35.9%. Six months after trauma, 30.8% of the patients had died, and 45.1% had shown full recovery according to the GOS-E. In the logistic regression model, the severity variables – DAI with hypoxia, as measured by peripheral oxygen saturation, and hypotension with NISS value – had a statistically significant association with patient mortality; on the other hand, severity of DAI and length of hospital stay were the only significant predictors for dependence. Therefore, severity of DAI emerged as a risk factor for both mortality and dependence. PMID:27812349

  12. T2*-Weighted and Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Differentiation of Cerebral Fat Embolism From Diffuse Axonal Injury.

    PubMed

    Rutman, Aaron M; Rapp, Elliot J; Hippe, Daniel S; Vu, Baoanh; Mossa-Basha, Mahmud

    2017-07-13

    This study differentiates cerebral fat embolism (CFE) and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Consecutive CFE and DAI cases were retrospectively selected. Hemorrhages were characterized by number, size/shape, and distribution, whereas DWI lesions by pattern. The number of hemorrhages was compared using the Mann-Whitney test with adjustment for multiple comparisons, whereas DWI abnormality was compared using Fisher exact test. Seven CFE and 20 DAI patients were included. Cerebral fat embolism had significantly more hemorrhages than DAI (mean, 670 ± 407 vs 136 ± 87; P = 0.01), particularly in the frontal (P = 0.025), parietal (P = 0.002), and occipital lobes (P = 0.01), the corpus callosum (P = 0.01), and cerebellum (P = 0.01). Cerebral fat embolism microhemorrhages were punctate/round, whereas DAI hemorrhages were small/medium sized (P < 0.001) and linear (P = 0.001). On DWI, DAI typically had few scattered abnormalities, whereas CFE had confluent abnormalities (P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging can differentiate CFE from DAI. Cerebral fat embolism demonstrates more hemorrhages. Larger or linear hemorrhages favor DAI. Diffuse confluent diffusion restriction favors CFE, whereas few scattered foci favor DAI.

  13. Prevalence and Nature of Dentoalveolar Injuries Among Patients with Maxillofacial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Brenda L.; Snyder, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Structure Summary Objective Although not previously reported, experience suggests that dentoalveolar injury (DAI) is common among patients with maxillofacial (MF) fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate and describe the prevalence and nature of DAIs in patients identified with MF fractures. Methods Medical records of 43 dogs and cats diagnosed with MF fractures between 2005–2012 were reviewed to identify patients with concurrent DAI. Medical records of patients with DAI were abstracted for the following information: signalment (including sex, age, and skull type), mechanism of MF trauma, location and number of MF fractures, DAI type and location and the number of DAI per patient. Statistical evaluation was performed to determine associations between signalment; mechanism of trauma; location and number of MF fractures; and the prevalence and nature of concurrent DAI. Results Dentoalveolar injuries are common among patients with MF trauma. Age and mechanism of trauma are significant predictors of the presence of DAI in patients with MF trauma. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The findings of this study serve to encourage veterinarians to fully assess the oral cavity in patients with MF fractures as DAI are common and can be predicted by age and mechanism of trauma. PMID:23033815

  14. Taxonomic study of the leafhopper genus Thagria Melichar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae) from Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhi-Hua; Li, Zi-Zhong; Dai, Ren-Huai

    2015-02-13

    The paper deals with 21 valid species of the genus Thagria from Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. Eight new species are described and illustrated: T. biprocessa Fan & Dai, sp. nov., T. decussata Fan & Dai, sp. nov., T. irregularis Fan & Dai, sp. nov., T. multispinosa Fan & Dai, sp. nov., T. paramultipars Fan & Li, sp. nov., T. triangula Fan & Li, sp. nov., T. trifasciata Fan & Li, sp. nov. and T. webbi Fan & Li, sp. nov.. A key is given to distinguish all species of this genus from Guangxi, China and maps showing the geographic distribution of new species are also provided. The name Thagria xuae nom. emend. is given for T. xui Nielson.

  15. The Development and Initial Validation of the Dating Attitudes Inventory: A Measure of the Gender Context of Dating Violence in Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan Peter; Kelley, Frances A.; Kohli, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    The development and initial psychometric investigation of the Dating Attitudes Inventory (DAI) is reported. The DAI was created, to fill a gap in the literature and to measure specific masculine ideology and traditional gender attitudes that rationalize the abuse of women. Using a sample (n = 164) of male college students, a 20-item measure was…

  16. Progress Made Toward Increased Stability under USAID’s Afghanistan Stabilization Initiative-East Program but Transition to Long Term Development Efforts Not Yet Achieved

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-29

    DAI Monitoring and Evaluation Preliminary Results ................................................................... 18 Table II: Altai Consulting...QED subcontracted with Altai Consulting to provide these services. The contract between OTI and QED expired in July 2011. To provide follow-on...monitoring and evaluation services, OTI requested that DAI subcontract with Altai Consulting to perform additional cycles of monitoring and evaluation in

  17. Digital Avionics Information System Preliminary Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis. Final Report (November 1974-May 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Gary K.; Dieterly, Duncan L.

    The results of a study to evaluate the potential life-cycle costs and cost savings that could be realized by applying the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept to future avionic systems were presented. The tasks evaluated included selection of program elements for costing, selection of DAIS installation potential, definition of a…

  18. 78 FR 39019 - Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... natural disasters, such as flooding, are undergoing NRC review as part of the lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi event in Japan. The NRC staff is evaluating the effect of multiple upstream dam failures as a part of the Fukushima Dai-ichi reviews, as well as other processes. The PRB intends to use...

  19. 77 FR 30435 - In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident,'' SECY-11-0093, July 12, 2011, available at: www... Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai... Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima...

  20. 78 FR 24439 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... feet) in height that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and... infrastructure and industry in the northeastern coastal areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima... Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the NRC established a senior-level agency task force referred to...

  1. 77 FR 49833 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Recommendations 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3, of the Near-Term Task Force Review of insights from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi... request: 457,502 hours. 10. Abstract: Following events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power...

  2. 77 FR 33779 - Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-01; Compliance With Order EA-12-049, Order Modifying Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... (45 feet) in height that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and... infrastructure and industry in the northeastern coastal areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima... earthquake appears to have been normal. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power ]...

  3. 76 FR 52716 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Regarding the Events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Site in Japan (Open)-The Committee will hear presentations by... on the events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi site in Japan. 10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.: Technical Basis...

  4. 77 FR 55510 - Guidance on Performing a Seismic Margin Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Information Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant on March 11, 2011, the NRC... Fukushima Dai-ichi. As a result of this review, the NTTF developed a comprehensive set of recommendations... of Recommended Actions To Be Taken in Response to Fukushima Lessons Learned,'' dated October 3,...

  5. 77 FR 73057 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-05; Performance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... exceeded 14 meters (45 feet) in height that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The... occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3 were in operation and Units 4, 5, and 6 were shut down for... fuel shortly after the loss of cooling capabilities. Following the events at the Fukushima...

  6. 77 FR 441 - Measurement and Control of Combustible Gas Generation and Dispersal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report... Fukushima Task Force Report: `` he task force recommends, as part of the longer term review, that the NRC... additional information is revealed through further study of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.'' The...

  7. Progress of Research on Diffuse Axonal Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junwei; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The current work reviews the concept, pathological mechanism, and process of diagnosing of DAI. The pathological mechanism underlying DAI is complicated, including axonal breakage caused by axonal retraction balls, discontinued protein transport along the axonal axis, calcium influx, and calpain-mediated hydrolysis of structural protein, degradation of axonal cytoskeleton network, the changes of transport proteins such as amyloid precursor protein, and changes of glia cells. Based on the above pathological mechanism, the diagnosis of DAI is usually made using methods such as CT, traditional and new MRI, biochemical markers, and neuropsychological assessment. This review provides a basis in literature for further investigation and discusses the pathological mechanism. It may also facilitate improvement of the accuracy of diagnosis for DAI, which may come to play a critical role in breaking through the bottleneck of the clinical treatment of DAI and improving the survival and quality of life of patients through clear understanding of pathological mechanisms and accurate diagnosis. PMID:28078144

  8. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  9. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 2: Physics = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Cac Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Cac Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 2: Vat Ly Hoc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Pham Cao

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  10. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 2: Physics = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Cac Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Cac Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 2: Vat Ly Hoc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Pham Cao

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  11. Feasibility of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing will lead to increasing pressure on visual rehabilitation services, which need to be efficiently organised in the near future. The Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI) was developed to assess the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons. This pilot study tests the feasibility of the D-AI using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Methods In addition to the regular intake, the first version of the D-AI was assessed in 20 patients. Subsequently, patients and intake assessors were asked to fill in an evaluation form. Based on these evaluations, a new version of the D-AI was developed. Results Mean administration time of the D-AI was 88.8 (± 41.0) minutes. Overall, patients and assessors were positive about the D-AI assessment. However, professionals and 60% of the patients found the administration time to be too long. All included items were considered relevant and only minor adjustments were recommended. Conclusion The systematic character of the revised D-AI will prevent topics from being overlooked and indicate which needs have the highest priority from a patient-centred perspective. Moreover, ongoing assessment of the D-AI will enhance evaluation of the rehabilitation process. To decrease administration time, in the revised D-AI only the top priority goals will be fully assessed. Using the D-AI, a rehabilitation plan based on individual needs can be developed for each patient. Moreover, it enables better evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation. A larger validation study is planned. PMID:21110871

  12. Spectroscopy and molecular docking study on the interaction of daidzein and genistein with pepsin.

    PubMed

    Nan, Guanjun; Wang, Ping; Sun, Jing; Lv, Jianhua; Ding, Meiwen; Yang, Liu; Li, Yiping; Yang, Guangde

    2016-12-01

    The interaction of pepsin with daidzein (Dai) or genistein (Gen) was investigated using spectroscopic techniques under simulated physiological conditions. Dai and Gen can quench the fluorescence of pepsin and the quenching mechanism was a static process. The binding site number n and apparent binding constant K were measured at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters ΔΗ, ΔG and ΔS were calculated. The results indicated that van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation played major roles in the interaction of Dai or Gen with pepsin. The binding distance between pepsin and Dai or Gen was calculated according to energy transfer theory. The results of synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the microenvironment and conformation of pepsin were changed. UV absorption and 3D fluorescence spectra showed that the binding interaction disturbed the microenvironment of amino acid residues and induced conformational changes in pepsin. Molecular docking results showed that Dai and Gen entered into the hydrophobic cavity of pepsin and two hydrogen bonds formed between Dai or Gen and pepsin. The results demonstrated that the interaction behavior between Dai and Gen with pepsin was slightly different, which denoted that the 5-hydroxyl group of Gen, to a certain extent, had an effect on ligand binding to proteins. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A new ground-based differential absorption sunphotometer for measuring atmospheric columnar CO2 and preliminary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yisong; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xingying; Xu, Hua; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao

    2015-10-01

    Carbon dioxide is commonly considered as the most important greenhouse gas. Ground-based remote sensing technology of acquiring CO2 columnar concentration is needed to provide validation for spaceborne CO2 products. A new groundbased sunphotometer prototype for remotely measuring atmospheric CO2 is introduced in this paper, which is designed to be robust, portable, automatic and suitable for field observation. A simple quantity, Differential Absorption Index (DAI) related to CO2 optical depth, is proposed to derive the columnar CO2 information based on the differential absorption principle around 1.57 micron. Another sun/sky radiometer CE318, is used to provide correction parameters of aerosol extinction and water vapor absorption. A cloud screening method based on the measurement stability is developed. A systematic error assessment of the prototype and DAI is also performed. We collect two-year DAI observation from 2010 to 2012 in Beijing, analyze the DAI seasonal variation and find that the daily average DAI decreases in growing season and reaches to a minimum on August, while increases after that until January of the next year, when DAI reaches its highest peak, showing generally the seasonal cycle of CO2. We also investigate the seasonal differences of DAI variation and attribute the tendencies of high in the morning and evening while low in the noon to photosynthesis efficiency variation of vegetation and anthropogenic emissions. Preliminary comparison between DAI and model simulated XCO2 (Carbon Tracker 2011) is conducted, showing that DAI roughly reveals some temporal characteristics of CO2 when using the average of multiple measurements.

  14. Neonatal exposure to daidzein, genistein, or the combination modulates bone development in female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to genistein (GEN), an isoflavone abundant in soy, favorably modulates bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in mice at adulthood. The study objective was to determine whether early exposure to a combination of the soy isoflavones daidzein (DAI) and GEN that naturally exists in soy protein-based infant formula results in greater benefits to bone at adulthood than either treatment alone. Male and female CD-1 mice (n = 8-16 pups per group per gender) were randomized to subcutaneous injections of DAI (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), GEN (5 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), DAI+GEN (7 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), diethylstilbesterol (DES; positive control) (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), or control (CON) from postnatal d 1-5 and were studied to 4 mo of age. BMD, biomechanical bone strength, and bone microarchitecture were assessed at the femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV). Females treated with DAI, GEN, DAI+GEN, or DES had greater (P < 0.05) BMD at the LV compared with CON and vertebra in the DAI and DES group were more resistant to compression fractures. Microstructural analyses demonstrated that treatment with DAI and GEN resulted in greater (P < 0.05) trabecular connectivity and trabecular thickness, respectively, than the CON. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to DAI and/or GEN had a positive effect on the skeleton of female mice at adulthood, but, compared with individual treatments, DAI+GEN did not have a greater benefit to bone in females or males.

  15. Severity of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Needs among 12- to 15-Year-Old School Children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumar, KM; Chandu, GN; Shafiulla, MD

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Talukas (administrative units in some states in India) were considered clusters. Schools were selected using simple random sampling procedures. The 300 study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling procedures. Data consisting of DAI components were recorded pro forma. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Chi-square test (χ2) was used to compare malocclusion severity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the changes in DAI scores and the mean DAI scores between age groups. The Z test was used to compare mean DAI scores between the 2 sexes and between children residing in urban and rural areas. Results: Of the 1800 school children examined, 899 (49.9%) were boys and 901 (50.1%) were girls. Most of the children (79.9%) had DAI scores ≤ 25 with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.4% had DAI scores of 26–30 with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 4.2% had DAI scores of 31–35 with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment, and 0.5% had DAI scores ≥ 36 with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: The majority of the children in our study (79.9%) required no or little treatment; 20.1% had definite malocclusion requiring definite orthodontic treatment. PMID:20613919

  16. 77 FR 39528 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., August 7, 2012 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima, Dai-Ichi Accident... information from the public meetings in another format (e.g. Braille, large print), please notify Bill...

  17. 77 FR 45381 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... 9:00 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident (Public... information from the public meetings in another format (e.g. braille, large print), please notify Bill...

  18. 77 FR 40385 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...--Tentative Tuesday, August 7, 2012 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai... . * * * * * The NRC provides reasonable accommodation to individuals with disabilities where appropriate. If...

  19. A concrete realization of specific heat-phonon spectrum inversion for YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XianXi, Dai; Wen, Tao; Ma, GuiCun; Dai, JiXin

    1999-12-01

    In this Letter, a phonon spectrum of YBCO is obtained from its experimental specific heat data by an exact inversion formula with eliminating divergence parameter [Dai Xianxi, Xu Xinwen and Dai Jiqiong, Proceedings of Beijing International Conference on High Tc Superconductivity, Sept. 4-8 Beijing, China, (1989) 521], [Dai Xianxi, Xu Xinwen and Dai Jiqiong, Phys. Lett. A 147 (1990) 445]. The results are comparable to that from neutron inelastic scattering. Some key points of specific heat-phonon spectrum inversion (SPI) theory as well as a method of asymptotic behavior control are discussed. An improved unique existence theorem is presented. A universal function set for the numerical calculation in SPI is obtained, which will make the inversion method applicable and convenient in practice. This is the first time to realize the specific heat-phonon spectrum inversion in a concrete system.

  20. 77 FR 42341 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident (Public... on requests for reasonable accommodation will be made on a case-by-case basis. This notice is...

  1. 78 FR 51169 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... ] System (IAPS), One Pay, and from the following DoD applications: Defense Enterprise Accounting Management System (DEAMS), General Fund Enterprise Business System (GFEBS), Defense Agencies Initiative (DAI), Logistics Modernization Program (LMP), Navy Enterprise Resource Planning (NAVY ERP), Enterprise Business...

  2. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. PMID:23230344

  3. 78 FR 22580 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D... Meyer, NRC Disability Program Manager, at 301-287-0727, or by email at kimberly.meyer-chambers@nrc.gov...

  4. Using quantum filters to process images of diffuse axonal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo

    2014-06-01

    Some images corresponding to a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are processed using several quantum filters such as Hermite Weibull and Morse. Diffuse axonal injury is a particular, common and severe case of traumatic brain injury (TBI). DAI involves global damage on microscopic scale of brain tissue and causes serious neurologic abnormalities. New imaging techniques provide excellent images showing cellular damages related to DAI. Said images can be processed with quantum filters, which accomplish high resolutions of dendritic and axonal structures both in normal and pathological state. Using the Laplacian operators from the new quantum filters, excellent edge detectors for neurofiber resolution are obtained. Image quantum processing of DAI images is made using computer algebra, specifically Maple. Quantum filter plugins construction is proposed as a future research line, which can incorporated to the ImageJ software package, making its use simpler for medical personnel.

  5. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the 'Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA' (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented.

  6. Preliminary study on diffuse axonal injury by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy histopathology imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiantong; He, Guanglong; Zhang, Xiang; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Haidong; Ripple, Mary G; Fowler, David R; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for detecting diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in a mouse model. Brain tissues from DAI mouse model were prepared with H&E, silver, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunohistochemistry stains and were also studied with FTIR. The infrared spectrum images showed high absorption of amide II in the subcortical white matter of the experimental mouse brain, while there was no obvious expression of amide II in the control mouse brain. The areas with high absorption of amide II were in the same distribution as the DAI region confirmed by the silver and β-APP studies. The result suggests that high absorption of amide II correlates with axonal injury. The use of FTIR imaging allows the biochemical changes associated with DAI pathologies to be detected in the tissues, thus providing an important adjunct method to the current conventional pathological diagnostic techniques.

  7. 76 FR 61401 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Nuclear Innovation North America LLC (South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Intervenors \\1\\ related to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. \\1\\ Intervenors are the Sustainable Energy and... Intervenors' newly proffered Fukushima-related contention immediately after the conclusion of the...

  8. 77 FR 25104 - Petition for Rulemaking; Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Fukushima Near Term Task Force (NTTF) Recommendation 8 rulemaking. DATES: The docket for the petition for... Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (NTTF Report,...

  9. Socio-economic and health characteristics of HIV-infected patients seeking care in relation to access to the Drug Access Initiative and to antiretroviral treatment in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Msellati, Philippe; Juillet-Amari, Anne; Prudhomme, Joanne; Akribi, Hortense Aka-Dago; Coulibaly-Traore, Djénéba; Souville, Marc; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2003-07-01

    To compare socio-economic and health characteristics of HIV-infected patients in Côte d'Ivoire whether or not they had access to the Drug Access Initiative (DAI) and to antiretroviral drug (ARV) treatment. Cross-sectional survey using medical files, blood sampling for CD4 cell counts and face-to-face interviews among all patients, informed of their HIV status, who attended during a 6-week period in the five DAI referral centres and three additional centres in charge of HIV care in Abidjan and Bouaké (participation rate = 65.4%). Multiple logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to identify factors related to non-access to DAI and to ARV treatment. Among the 711 respondents, 23.0% were ARV-treated, 14.2% had been included in the DAI but were still waiting for initiation of ARV, and 62.7% were neither part of the DAI nor ARV-treated. In this latter group, less than one-third (29.6%) declared that they knew about the existence of the DAI. Among the 164 ARV-treated patients, 59.1% had benefited from DAI public subsidies partially covering the costs of drugs. In the non-DAI-non-ARV-treated group, 86% could have qualified for ARV treatment according to the DAI medical criteria (CD4 cell counts < 500 x 10(6) cells/l), and only 32.9% of those medically eligible were prescribed cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. In multivariate analysis, not being in the DAI and not being ARV-treated was related to: being a male, not having health care insurance, having a low level of education, living in poor housing conditions (absence of refrigerator in the household, absence of ventilation in patient's bedroom), and not being under cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The Ivoirian DAI has facilitated access to ARV treatment for a significant number of patients with limited ability to pay. The majority of HIV-infected patients seeking care however face persisting socio-economic and informational barriers to access to these treatments.

  10. Metal-free and Oxygen-free Graphene as Oxygen Reduction Catalysts for Highly Efficient Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-30

    L. Science 2009, 323, 760) and nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (Qu, L.; Liu, Y.; Baek, J.-B.; Dai, L. ACS Nano 2010, 4, 1321) as highly efficient...fuel to create heat, fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electricity. By pumping , for example, hydrogen gas onto one electrode (the anode...760) and nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (Qu, L.; Liu, Y.; Baek, J.-B.; Dai, L. ACS Nano 2010, 4, 1321) as highly efficient ORR, we have developed in

  11. Evolution of Enzymes Required for Biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol in Sphingobium Chlorophenolicum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    reviewed journals (N/A for none) Dai, M. H., Zeisman, S., Ratcliffe, T., Gill, R. T., and Copley, S. D. “Visualization of Protoplast Fusion and Quantitation...of Recombination in Fused Protoplasts of Auxotrophic Strains of Escherichia coli”, Metabolic Engineering 7, 45-52, 2005 Dai, M.-H. and Copley, S. D...chlorophenolicum. Genome shuffling involves generation of mutant strains that have an improved phenotype, followed by multiple rounds of protoplast fusion to

  12. Description of two new species of the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Macropsinae) from Guangxi Province, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the Macropsinae leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912, Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) damingshanensis Li, Dai & Li, sp. n. and Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) tishetshkini Li, Dai & Li sp. n., are described and illustrated from Guangxi Province of southern China. A key to males is provided to distinguish the species of the subgenus along with a map showing the distribution of the new species. PMID:23950687

  13. Recent Research in Behind-Armor Blunt Trauma and Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    injury to the brain can be a product of explosive blast TBI, due to increase in intracranial pressure from pressure loading, and coup-contrecoup... intracranial pressure at the trauma point and decreased (contrecoup) pressure at the opposite side of the cerebrum. In addition to the brain striking the...difficult to detect, these injuries include DAI, ischemic brain injury, and swelling that can lead to increased intracranial pressure . DAI can result

  14. Orthodontic treatment need among special health care needs school children in Dharwad, India: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prajna P; Prasad, KVV; Bhat, Y Manohar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to assess and compare the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among various special health care needs (SHCN) schoolchildren and adolescents in Dharwad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 492 subjects in age group of 12-19 years (mean age 14.02 ± 1.84 standard deviation [SD]) who were examined for occlusal anomalies using dental aesthetic index (DAI). They were classified into five groups as: Visual impairment, speech and hearing disability (SH), physical disability, mentally subnormal and multiple disabilities (MD). Chi-square test was used to compare the orthodontic treatment need among various SHCN groups. One-way ANOVA and ANCOVA were performed to test any significant differences in mean DAI scores among the SHCN groups. Results: None of the children were undergoing or had undergone orthodontic treatment for malocclusion. Mean DAI score was 28.81 ± 11.64 (SD). Orthodontic treatment was indicated in 50.2% of study population who had DAI scores of 26 and above. Mandatory orthodontic treatment (DAI >=36) was required in as high as 29% of MD individuals when compared to only 10% of SH individuals. Significant differences in DAI scores were found between the SHCN groups. Conclusions: The need for orthodontic treatment among SHCN individuals was found to be high. Yet, absence of any orthodontic treatment for any child points out to the fact that the dental services are highly needed in these individuals. PMID:26020038

  15. Relation between diffuse axonal injury and internal head structures on blunt impact.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, T; Murakami, S

    1998-02-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a severe head injury, which exhibits symptoms of consciousness disturbance and is thought to occur through rotational angular acceleration. This paper analyzes the occurrence of DAI when direct impacts with translational accelerations are applied to two-dimensional head models. We constructed a human model reproducing the human head structure, as well as modified human models with some internal head structures removed. Blunt direct impacts were applied from a lateral direction to the bottom of the third ventricle, considered to be the center of impact, using an impactor. The analysis was done by comparing the macroscopic manifestation of DAI with the shear stress as the engineering index. In the analytical data obtained from the human model, shear stresses were concentrated on the corpus callosum and the brain stem, in the deep area. This agrees with regions of the DAI indicated by small hemorrhages in the corpus callosum and the brain stem. The analytical data obtained by the modified human models show that the high shear stress on the corpus callosum is influenced by the falx cerebri, while the high shear stress on the brain stem is influenced by the tentorium cerebelli and the shape of the brain. These results indicate that DAI, generally considered to be influenced by angular acceleration, may also occur through direct impact with translational acceleration. We deduced that the injury mechanism of DAI is related to the concentration of shear stress on the core of the brain, since the internal head structures influence the impact stress concentration.

  16. Acute alcohol intoxication, diffuse axonal injury and intraventricular bleeding in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Shinoda, Masaki; Fujii, Motoharu; Takahashi, Osamu; Murakata, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of blood alcohol level (BAL) on outcome remains unclear. This study investigated the relationships between BAL, type and number of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), intraventricular bleeding (IVB) and 6-month outcome. This study reviewed 419 patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. First, it compared clinical and radiological characteristics between patients with good recovery and disability. Second, it compared BAL among DAI lesions. Third, it evaluated the correlation between the BAL and severity of IVB, number of DAI and corpus callosum injury lesions. Regardless of BAL, older age, male gender, severe Glasgow Coma Scale score (<9), abnormal pupil, IVB and lesion on genu of corpus callosum were significantly related to disability. There were no significant differences between the BAL and lesions of DAI. Simple regression analysis revealed that there were no significant correlation between BAL and severity of IVB, number of DAI and corpus callosum injury lesions. Acute alcohol intoxication was not associated with type and number of DAI lesion, IVB and disability. This study suggested that a specific type of traumatic lesion, specifically lesion on genu of corpus callosum and IVB, might be more vital for outcome.

  17. [Molecular structural characteristics and the functions of mouse DNA-dependent activator of interferon-regulatory factors].

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiwang; Li, Tingting; He, Xiaobing; Jia, Huaijie; Chen, Guohua; Zeng, Shuang; Fang, Yongxiang; Jing, Zhizhong; Yang, Xiaopu

    2015-12-01

    To study the structural characteristics of the mouse DNA-dependent activator of interferon-regulatory factors (DAI) and its related molecular mechanism in anti-viral innate immune responses and signal transduction. The coding sequence of mouse DAI gene was amplified from splenic mononuclear cells by reverse transcription-PCR, and the genetic evolution and molecular structure of the mouse DAI gene were analyzed by bioinformatics softwares. After mouse DAI was stimulated by poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC), the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon-beta (IFN-β) promoter-driven luciferase activity were detected by dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The open reading frame (ORF) of the cloned mouse DAI sequence was 1236 bp, encoding 411 amino acids, which exhibited identity with the corresponding sequences of cattle, pig, rat and other mammals ranging from 60%, 63.1%, 84%, and it contained two Z-DNA domains (Zα and Zβ), DNA binding region (D3) and signaling domain (SD). The stimulation of poly (dA-dT) increased the expressions of mouse DAI activated transcription factors NF-κB and IFN-β promoter. However, the stimulation of poly(dG-dC) only induced the activation of NF-κB but not IFN-β promoter. Mouse DAI as an important cytosolic DNA sensor, is responsible for the recognition of A/T or G/C-rich DNA derived from DNA virus. It may play an important role in anti-viral innate immune responses.

  18. Encephalopathy and death in infants with abusive head trauma is due to hypoxic-ischemic injury following local brain trauma to vital brainstem centers.

    PubMed

    Matschke, Jakob; Büttner, Andreas; Bergmann, Markus; Hagel, Christian; Püschel, Klaus; Glatzel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Infants with abusive head trauma (AHT) have diffuse brain damage with potentially fatal brain swelling. The pathogenesis of the brain damage remains unclear. We hypothesize that brain damage in AHT is due to hypoxic-ischemic injury with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) rather than primary traumatic brain injury (TBI) with traumatic diffuse axonal injury (tDAI). We studied brain tissue of AHT victims. Primary outcome measure was the presence of primary traumatic versus hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The diagnosis of tDAI followed a standardized semiquantitative diagnostic approach yielding a 4-tiered grading scheme (definite, possible, improbable, and none). In addition, results of quantitative immunohistochemical analysis in a subgroup of AHT victims with instant death were compared with matched SIDS controls. In our cohort of 50 AHT victims, none had definite tDAI (no tDAI in 30, tDAI possible in 2, and tDAI improbable in 18). Instead, all AHT victims showed morphological findings indicative of HIE. Furthermore, the subgroup with instant death showed significantly higher counts of damaged axons with accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brainstem adjacent to the central pattern generator of respiratory activity (CPG) (odds ratio adjusted for age, sex, brain weight, and APP-count in other regions = 3.1; 95 % confidence interval = 1.2 to 7.7; p = 0.015). AHT victims in our cohort do not have diffuse TBI or tDAI. Instead, our findings indicate that the encephalopathy in AHT is the due to hypoxic-ischemic injury probably as the result of respiratory arrest due to local damage to parts of the CPG in the brainstem.

  19. Suppression of isoproterenol-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells by daidzein through activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Pan, Lung-Fa; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Li, Yi-Hui; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Ray-Jade; Padma, V. Vijaya; Chen, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-12-31

    Increased serum norepinephrine level is one of pathological processes relating to heart disease (HD). Estrogens are considered as potential therapeutics for the treatment of HD; however, estrogen supplementation shows some side-effects, such as increasing the risk of developing breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. This study investigated the cardio-protective effects of daidzein (Dai), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) from soy bean extract, in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells treated with isoproterenol (ISO), a norepinephrine analog. In this in vitro model, H9c2 cells treated with Dai at different concentrations showed no statistical difference in cell viability. TdT-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) data and western blotting results indicated that Dai treated-H9c2 cells recovered from the damage induced by ISO. The recovery effects of Dai on ISO-induced damage were blocked by inhibition of Akt activation through adding Akt inhibitor. On the other hand, the fold changes of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt)/Akt normalized with the control for con, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3 and 24 h of treatment were 1, 2, 5, 13, 11 and 10, respectively. In conclusion, Dai ameliorates apoptosis of cardiomyoblasts induced by ISO through Akt signaling pathway.

  20. Letter to the Editor: Can dog allergen immunotherapy reduce concomitant allergic sensitization to other furry animals? A preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Calzetta, L; Salzillo, A; Billeri, L; Lucà, G; Rogliani, P

    2017-03-01

    It has been shown that allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is effective in reducing symptoms of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Data on the efficacy are less convincing with regard to AIT for allergens of common pets (cats/dogs). We describe a case of dog allergy in which we explored if dog AIT (DAI) could reduce a concomitant allergic sensitization to other allergens of furry animals. Our case demonstrates the efficacy of sublingual DAI on SPTs, symptom score, and spirometric responses despite persistent exposure to dog allergens at home in a patient sensitized, but not exposed, to several other furry animals. Moreover, this is the first report suggesting that DAI is able to reduce SPTs responses not only to dog, but also to other furry animals such as rabbit, horse, mouse, rat, hamster, cow. We recommend an accurate anamnesis and diagnosis of dog allergy before prescribing DAI. In particular, the use of ImmunoCAP ISAC is essential to verify the presence of IgE to lipocalins / albumins belonging to other furry animals. Obviously further studies carried out by using different DAI schedules, allergen amount and time of re-evaluation, laboratory procedure should be performed to confirm our findings.

  1. Antioxidant effects of phyto-and synthetic-estrogens on cupric ion-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ted; March, Heather; Banz, William J; Hou, Yuqing; Adler, Stuart; Meyers, Cal Y; Winters, Todd A; Maher, Margaret A

    2002-03-29

    Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) promotes the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Estrogenic compounds (EC) from foods and other natural products, and synthetic estrogenic compounds (SECs) may prevent heart disease by inhibiting LDL oxidation. In the present study, we tested the antioxidant capacities of two phytoestrogens, daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN), and four SECs, (+)- and (-)-Z-bisdehydrodoisynolic acid (ZBDDA), and (+)- and (-)-hydroxy-allenoic acid (HAA), on isolated human LDL subjected to oxidation by cupric sulfate. The effects of these estrogenic compounds on the kinetics of conjugated diene formation in LDL undergoing oxidation were evaluated with a lag-time assay with continuous monitoring of absorbance at 234 nm. Lag-time data revealed that (+)-HAA, (-)-HAA, (+)-ZBDDA, and (-)-ZBDDA had similarly stronger antioxidant activities than either GEN or DAI. We also found that (+)-HAA, (-)-HAA, (+)-ZBDDA, and (-)-ZBDDA strongly inhibited the formation of Cu+-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in LDL, and that GEN and DAI were less effective for inhibiting LDL lipid peroxidation. Finally, electrophoretic evaluation suggested that (+)-HAA, (-)-HAA, (+)-ZBDDA, and (-)-ZBDDA protected the apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL against oxidation better than did GEN or DAI. In summary, the four SECs, (+)-HAA, (-)-HAA, (+)-ZBDDA, and (-)-ZBDDA, were more potent antioxidants than the phytoestrogens, DAI and GEN.

  2. Involvement of Toll Like Receptor 2 Signaling in Secondary Injury during Experimental Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang; Wang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) remains challenging in clinical practice due to the unclear pathophysiological mechanism. Uncontrolled, excessive inflammation is one of the most recognized mechanisms that contribute to the secondary injury after DAI. Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) is highlighted for the initiation of a vicious self-propagating inflammatory circle. However, the role and detailed mechanism of TLR2 in secondary injury is yet mostly unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of TLR2 levels in cortex, corpus callosum, and internal capsule and the localization of TLR2 in neurons and glial cells in rat DAI models. Intracerebral knockdown of TLR2 significantly downregulated TLR2 expression, attenuated cortical apoptosis, lessened glial response, and reduced the secondary axonal and neuronal injury in the cortex by inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) including Erk, JNK, and p38, translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and decreasing levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. On the contrary, administration of TLR2 agonist to DAI rats achieved an opposite effect. Collectively, we demonstrated that TLR2 was involved in mediating secondary injury after DAI by inducing inflammation via the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. PMID:28293064

  3. Probabilistic assessment of "dangerous" climate change and emissions pathways.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stephen H; Mastrandrea, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Climate policy decisions driving future greenhouse gas mitigation efforts will strongly influence the success of compliance with Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the prevention of "dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system." However, success will be measured in very different ways by different stakeholders, suggesting a spectrum of possible definitions for DAI. The likelihood of avoiding a given threshold for DAI depends in part on uncertainty in the climate system, notably, the range of uncertainty in climate sensitivity. We combine a set of probabilistic global average temperature metrics for DAI with probability distributions of future climate change produced from a combination of several published climate sensitivity distributions and a range of proposed concentration stabilization profiles differing in both stabilization level and approach trajectory, including overshoot profiles. These analyses present a "likelihood framework" to differentiate future emissions pathways with regard to their potential for preventing DAI. Our analysis of overshoot profiles in comparison with non-overshoot profiles demonstrates that overshoot of a given stabilization target can significantly increase the likelihood of exceeding "dangerous" climate impact thresholds, even though equilibrium warming in our model is identical for non-overshoot concentration stabilization profiles having the same target.

  4. A development framework for artificial intelligence based distributed operations support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced automation is required to reduce costly human operations support requirements for complex space-based and ground control systems. Existing knowledge based technologies have been used successfully to automate individual operations tasks. Considerably less progress has been made in integrating and coordinating multiple operations applications for unified intelligent support systems. To fill this gap, SOCIAL, a tool set for developing Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systems is being constructed. SOCIAL consists of three primary language based components defining: models of interprocess communication across heterogeneous platforms; models for interprocess coordination, concurrency control, and fault management; and for accessing heterogeneous information resources. DAI applications subsystems, either new or existing, will access these distributed services non-intrusively, via high-level message-based protocols. SOCIAL will reduce the complexity of distributed communications, control, and integration, enabling developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the target DAI system itself.

  5. Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K; Kulkarni, J; Sergejew, A A

    2000-05-05

    Medication compliance is one of the foremost problems affecting neuroleptic efficacy in psychiatric patients. To date, compliancy has most commonly been assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) developed by Hogan et al. (Hogan, T.P., Awad, A.G., Eastwood, R., 1983. A self-report scale predictive of drug compliance in schizophrenics: reliability and discriminative validity. Psychol. Med. 13, 177-183). The present study identified several deficiencies in the DAI. Using the partial credit version of the Item Response Theory measurement model, the DAI was refined with the aim of greater validity and clinical utility. The new inventory was administered to 66 patients, the majority of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia. When available, lithium levels and carer ratings of compliance were also recorded and used to verify compliancy. The new inventory appears to be a valid and reliable measure of compliancy for psychoactive medications.

  6. Hyperacute cerebral fat embolism in a patient with femoral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Chuan; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Liao, Wen-I; Chen, Yu-Long; Ho, Cheng-Hsuan; Tsai, Shih-Hung

    2013-09-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal complication and occurs most commonly after long bone fracture. In patients who sustained severe trauma, both cerebral fat embolism(CFE) and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) could be the cause of altered consciousness in the absence of marked intracranial lesions in cranial computed tomography. However, distinguishing CFE and DAI can be difficult clinically. Generally, DAI develops immediately after the insult, whereas CFE occurs 48 to 72 hours after the trauma and even after internal fixation for the fractures. Fat embolism syndrome develops within an average of 48.5 hours after long bone fracture [1] but has never been reported to occur in less than 2 hours. Here, we present a patient who developed hyperacute CFE and eventually had poor neurological outcome, in contrast to previous reports stating that CFE usually has a long latent period and favorable outcomes.

  7. Enhanced delivery of daidzein into fibroblasts and neuronal cells with cationic derivatives of gamma-cyclodextrin for the control of cellular glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Kamil; Kujdowicz, Monika; Kajta, Małgorzata; Nowakowska, Maria; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Two cationic derivatives of γ-cyclodextrin (GCD) were synthesized by functionalization with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) and ethylenediamine (EDA). Both these derivatives (GCD-GTMAC and GCD-EDA) have been shown to interact strongly with anionic biopolymers, unfractionated heparin (UFH) and mucin, the latter showing their mucoadhesive properties. They form inclusion complexes with daidzein (DAI), an isoflavone displaying a multitude of physiological effects, much more efficiently than the unmodified GCD. It was also shown that the complexes of these GCD derivatives with DAI and Nile Red penetrate human fibroblasts and murine hippocampal neuronal cells indicating that cationic GCD derivatives can be considered as potential delivery systems for isoflavones and other poorly water soluble compounds. Moreover, it was found that DAI delivered in cationic GCD complexes decreased the level of the cellular glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in normal fibroblasts suggesting their possible application in the control of GAGs in mucopolysaccharidoses, lysosomal storage diseases caused by pathological accumulation of GAGs in the cells.

  8. Induced paragonimiasis in cats: clinical signs and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J; Hoover, E A; Pechman, R D

    1978-09-15

    Twenty-eight specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with 14 to 50 metacercariae of Paragonimus kellicotti obtained from the hearts of naturally infected crayfish. Young flukes excysted in the intestine of cats and appeared in the peritoneal cavity from 1 to 14 days after inoculation (DAI) and in the pleural cavity from 5 to 23 DAI. Flukes penetrated the pulmonary parenchyma and formed hemorrhagic subpleural lesions within 5 weeks after inoculation. Marked eosinophilia developed between 2 and 12 weeks after inoculation. Fluke-containing pulmonary lesions were detected by radiography 3 to 4 weeks after inoculation. Lesions developed most frequently in the right caudal lung lobe. Clinical signs were mild and did not appear until 4 weeks after inoculation. Thereafter, cats appeared dull and coughed intermittently. One cat became dyspneic due to pneumothorax. Paragonimus eggs were first detected at the 34th DAI, using a fecal sedimentation technique.

  9. Development of a drug and alcohol information survey.

    PubMed

    Gough, H G

    1985-04-01

    Psychological measurement in regard to using drugs, alcohol, or other substances should attend to personological, attitudinal, and informational factors. Standardized tests are available for assessing personological and attitudinal variables, but not for knowledge. To develop a test of information, 45 multiple-choice items were correlated with total and part scores in samples of 132 men and 71 women; 35 items with significant (p less than .05) coefficients and other desirable properties were retained for a Drug and Alcohol Information Survey (DAIS). For 33 male and 36 female college students participating in an intensive psychological assessment program, scores on the DAIS were positively associated with (1) ratings of modernity, sensation seeking, originality, and nonorderliness; (2) personality scales for status propensity, sociability, social presence, and rebelliousness; and (3) a nonverbal test of field-independent cognitive ability. High scorers on the DAIS also reported more frequent use of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco than did students with low scores.

  10. Daidzein supplementation decreases serum triglyceride and uric acid concentrations in hypercholesterolemic adults with the effect on triglycerides being greater in those with the GA compared with the GG genotype of ESR-β RsaI.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Shu, FuRong; Zeng, Yuan; Meng, XiangGui; Wang, Bin; Diao, LiPing; Wang, Li; Wan, Jing; Zhu, JunDong; Wang, Jian; Mi, ManTian

    2014-01-01

    Daidzein (one of the major isoflavones) can be metabolized to equol in certain individuals. The effects of isoflavones alone and equol status on lipid profiles are still controversial. To evaluate the 6-mo effects of daidzein on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic individuals and the interactions of these effects with equol status and estrogen receptor (ESR) genotypes, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial consisting of 210 hypercholesterolemic adults (40-65 y old). The participants were randomly assigned (177 completed) to consume placebo, 40 mg daidzein (DAI40), or 80 mg daidzein (DAI80) daily for 6 mo. Daidzein decreased serum triglycerides (TGs) by 0.15 ± 0.62 mmol/L (mean ± SD) and 0.24 ± 0.61 mmol/L and decreased serum uric acid by 23 ± 47 μmol/L and 29 ± 44 μmol/L in the DAI40 and DAI80 groups, respectively. These reductions in the DAI40 and DAI80 groups were greater than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Other blood lipids, glucose, insulin, or glycated hemoglobin did not significantly change after daidzein treatment. No dose-dependent effects of daidzein were found. The reduction of TGs was influenced by the ESR genotype, with a greater effect observed in participants with the GA genotype compared with those with the GG genotype of ESR-β RsaI. These effects were not influenced by equol status. Six-month supplementation of daidzein significantly decreased TGs and uric acid. ESR-β RsaI genotype, not equol status, influenced daidzein's effects on TGs. Daidzein consumption may be effective to improve cardiovascular risk factors, especially in adults with the GA genotype of ESR-β RsaI. This trial was registered at the Chinese clinical trial registry as ChiCTR-TRC-10001048.

  11. Socio-environmental factors associated with dental occlusion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2006-06-01

    Information about the distribution of malocclusion in the population and identification of factors and conditions associated with it could help researchers build models to understand its occurrence and help public-health policy makers improve interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of occlusal disorders in Brazilian adolescents, 12 and 18 years old, and to investigate associations between occlusal disorders and demographic, socio-environmental, and clinical variables. Secondary data from a cross-sectional study, including 13,801 dental occlusion status records from a probabilistic sample randomly selected from public and private schools in 131 cities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed according to the dental aesthetic index (DAI). The proportion of DAI scores greater than 30 were compared between ages, sexes, white and nonwhite students, urban and rural dwellers, and private and public school students; and they were compared with variables such as access to fluoridated tap water and city population, and with clinical aspects such as the care index (CI) and the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index. Data analysis included frequency distribution calculation and multiple logistic regression modeling. The mean DAI score for the sample was 24.33 (SD 7.54), and 16.5% of the subjects had DAI scores of 30 or more (severe or very severe malocclusion). The rate of DAI >31 was significantly higher among 12-year-olds, nonwhites, public-school students, those from smaller municipalities, those without fluoridated tap water, and those with a CI <51%, a DMFT score >4 at age 12 years, or a DMFT score >6 at age 18 years. At age 18, fewer subjects had DAI scores >30; the components responsible for this reduction were spacing in at least 1 incisal segment, midline diastema > or =1, and anterior maxillary overjet > or =4. Some socio-environmental factors are associated with severity of malocclusion in adolescents.

  12. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Dovana, Francesco; Mucciarelli, Marco; Mascarello, Maurizio; Fusconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E) and roots (root-E) of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW) was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP) fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi.

  13. Distribution, Biology and Pathology of Anguina pacificae

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Mark E.; McCullough, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Anguina pacificae is distributed along a narrow strip on the Pacific coast of Northern California where it forms galls on the shoots of Poa annua and causes significant damage to golf course greens. Methods were developed for the continuous propagation of A. pacificae on P. annua in growth chambers, and they were used to examine the life cycle and host-parasite relationships of the nematode. At a mean temperature of 20°C (22°C day/18°C night) the life cycle was completed in as little as 32 days (inoculation to second-generation J2). The first molt occurred in the egg. Infective J2 hatched from the eggs and penetrated the shoot near the crown of the plant where a cavity was formed 200 to 300 μm below the shoot apex. A gall around the cavity was visible 12 days after inoculation (DAI), and the cavity and gall continued to enlarge until second-generation J2 began to hatch. Three additional molts occurred in the cavity of the developing gall 14 to 24 DAI. Sexes could be distinguished 15 DAI. Egg production began 26 DAI and continued for 10 to 15 days. Eggs commenced hatching inside the gall 42 DAI, when the adults began to die and decompose. By 57 DAI, the gall had reached its maximum diameter, and the cavity was filled entirely with second-generation J2 that remained in the gall until they were liberated when the gall decomposed. J2 in galls survived desiccation over silica gel for 14 months at 14°C and were active and infective when rehydrated. PMID:19440264

  14. Malocclusion and TMJ disorders in teenagers from private and public schools in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Irigoyen-Camacho, María E.; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Mendoza-Roaf, Patricia; Medina-Solís, Carlo; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify, among Mexican teenagers from public and private schools, the frequency, severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs, and their possible association with temporomandibular joint disorders. Material and Methods: Fifteen-year-old students were recruited from public and private schools. Clinical findings were registered as follows: oral hygiene status with the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified, malocclusion using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), and TMJ disorders following WHO criteria. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were constructed for data analysis. Results: A total of 249 fifteen-year old students were included in the study (118 female 47.4%). 68% had a DAI score ≤ 25 (minor or no occlusal anomalies), 18% scored 26-30 (mild anomalies), 7% scored 31-35 (evident anomalies), and 6% scored ≥ 36 (major malocclusion). The most frequent anomalies were dental crowding in 50%, maxillary dental irregularity in 44.6%, mandible irregularity in 41.2% and excessive maxillary overjet in 37.8%. Among the students, 26.1% had clicking/muscle or TMJ pain, of these 12.3% showed pain during palpation. OHI-S > 1 was found in 34% of the participants. The negative binomial model showed an association between DAI score and TMJ disorders (P=0.041). Also the logistic regression model showed an association between malocclusion (DAI>25) and TMJ disorders (OR=2.58, p=0.002). Malocclusion was associated also with poor oral hygiene (OR=1.65, p=0.007), and with attendance to public schools (OR=1.97, p=0.039). Conclusions: TMJ disorders and DAI scores were significantly associated. Screening/Diagnostic programs for ortho-dontic and TMJ-disorders are needed, to identify and offer treatment to teenagers with major malocclusion and TMJ/muscle pain. Key words:Dental Aesthetic Index, DAI, crowding, Temporo Mandibular Joint disorders (TMJ disorders), Temporo Mandibular Disorders (TMD), occlusal anomalies, OHI-S. PMID:23385494

  15. Exploring Temporospatial Changes in Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Gu, Lei; Ding, Fang; Zhu, Guangyao; Rong, Jiandong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the predominant effect of severe traumatic brain injury and contributes significantly to cognitive deficits. The mechanisms underlying these cognitive deficits are often associated with complex metabolic alterations. However, the relationships between temporospatial alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism and the pathophysiology of DAI-related learning and memory dysfunction are not yet completely understood. We used a small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) as a molecular probe to evaluate temporospatial glucose metabolism in vulnerable areas of rats with DAI. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate the development and progression of learning and memory dysfunction. Compared to the sham-treated group, PET-MRI fusion images showed that glucose metabolism was reduced in animals with DAI. In addition, the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG was significantly decreased in the sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, caudate putamen, brain stem, and cerebellum at days 1, 3, and 7 after injury. SUV returned to baseline levels by 30 days after injury. The escape latency of the injured group was significantly increased, and the percentages of distance travelled and time spent in the target quadrant were significantly decreased 1 month after injury. These effects persisted for 3 months. SUVs in the hippocampus at the acute stage were significantly correlated with MWM performance during the recovery stage of DAI. These results demonstrate that microstructural injury-induced hypometabolism in the hippocampus at the acute stage are all significantly correlated with learning and memory dysfunctions during the recovery stage of DAI. PMID:22880625

  16. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E) and roots (root-E) of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW) was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP) fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi. PMID:26641657

  17. Assessing anteroposterior basal bone discrepancy with the Dental Aesthetic Index.

    PubMed

    Huang, Boyen; Takahashi, Katsu; Yamazaki, Toru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Yamori, Masashi; Asai, Keita; Yoshikawa, Yusuke; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2013-05-01

    To investigate dental appearance and cephalometric features, using a sample of orthognathic and/or orthodontic patients. A special interest was to identify the relationship of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) with anteroposterior basal bone discrepancy (APBBD) and cephalometric indicators. A full sample of 159 patients in two Japanese hospitals was used. Each patient was assessed with a preorthodontic dental cast and cephalometric radiography. Malocclusion with APBBD was more prevalent among high DAI subjects (P  =  .034, OR  =  1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08), Class III malocclusion patients (P  =  .048, OR  =  2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.34) and male patients (P  =  .008, OR  =  2.96, 95% CI: 1.33-6.61). Participants scoring 88 points (the highest score in this sample) of the DAI had 16.84 times the risk of APBBD of those who scored 17 points (the lowest score in this sample). Patients with APBBD presented with a greater adjusted ANB angle (t  =  -8.10, P < .001) and a larger adjusted A-B/NF appraisal (t  =  -9.65, P < .001). The SNA angle (P < .001), the SNB angle (P  =  .002), the adjusted ANB angle (P  =  .001), and the adjusted A-B/NF appraisal (P  =  .035) were associated with DAI scores in cubic regression models. This study has demonstrated a relationship between the DAI and APBBD. Feasibility of using the adjusted ANB angle and the adjusted A-B/NF appraisal to assess severity of APBBD has been confirmed. The DAI may provide a supportive method to evaluate orthognathic needs. Future investigations are indicated.

  18. A randomised, controlled, double blind, escalating dose study of alicaforsen enema in active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    van Deventer, S J H; Tami, J A; Wedel, M K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an enema formulation of alicaforsen, an antisense inhibitor of intercellular adhesion molecule, after 1, 3, and 6 months. Methods: This was a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, escalating dose multicentre study in 40 patients with mild to moderately active distal ulcerative colitis (disease activity index (DAI) 4–10). Patients were assigned to four dosing cohorts of 10 patients each (eight active, two placebo). Each patient received 60 ml of alicaforsen enema (0.1, 0.5, 2, or 4 mg/ml or placebo) once daily for 28 consecutive days. Safety and efficacy (DAI and clinical activity index) scores were evaluated up to six months after initiation of dosing. Results: At day 29, alicaforsen enema resulted in dose dependent improvement in DAI (overall p = 0.003). Alicaforsen 4 mg/ml improved DAI by 70% compared with the placebo response of 28% (p = 0.004). Alicaforsen 2 and 4 mg/ml improved DAI status by 72% and 68% compared with a placebo response of 11.5% at month 3 (p = 0.016 and 0.021, respectively). Specifically, DAI improved from 5.6 to 1.6 and from 6.3 to 2.5 in the 2 and 4 mg/ml groups compared with placebo (7.5 to 6.1). None of the patients in the 4 mg/ml group compared with 4/8 placebo patients required additional medical or surgical intervention over baseline during the six month period after starting the enema treatment. The safety profile was favourable. Conclusions: Alicaforsen enema showed promising acute and long term benefit in patients with mild to moderate descending ulcerative colitis. Alicaforsen enemas had a favourable safety profile. These findings require verification in larger randomised controlled clinical trials. PMID:15479686

  19. A Study of Optimal Computer Network Architecture for Digital Avionics Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    DELIVERY I’ - MEORY - * INERTIAL SET 0 1Ii * INERTIAL SET 9 2 *L 2-’I I .ELOI DISPLA ONO * TFRON TTO NIT DEESVVER * ROPEAR ON :. =-- DFNI PODER PNTETE 1 Ii...Scarpino, F.A. and J.G. Weber . "A DAIS Architecture Utilizing Microprocessors," Proceedings of the National Aerospace Electronics Conference, 82-88...Pennsylvania. June 1980. (AD-A102113). 87. Weber J.G. et al. "DAIS: Design and Performance," *AIAA Paper No. 771499. (1977). 88. Wiegand, R. "Digital Data

  20. First record of the leafhopper genus Varicopsella Hamilton, 1980 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) in China, with descriptions of a new subgenus and new species, a checklist, and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A new monobasic leafhopper subgenus, Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) Li, Dai, and Li, subgen. nov., of the subfamily Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Membracoidea: Cicadellidae) is proposed to accommodate Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) hamiltoni Li, Dai, and Li, sp. nov.from Guangxi province of China. The new subgenus and new species are described and illustrated. They can be distinguished mainly by characteristics of the fore wings with two anteapical cells; weak dorsoventrally flattened body; aedeagal shaft with paired apical processes on ventral margin; and the shape of the dorsal connective. An updated checklist and an illustrated key for identification of the species of Varicopsella along with geographical distributions of the species are given.

  1. Therapy Development for Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas H.; Hicks, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) remains a prominent feature of human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a major player in its subsequent morbidity. The importance of this widespread axonal damage has been confirmed by multiple approaches including routine postmortem neuropathology as well as advanced imaging, which is now capable of detecting the signatures of traumatically induced axonal injury across a spectrum of traumatically brain-injured persons. Despite the increased interest in DAI and its overall implications for brain-injured patients, many questions remain about this component of TBI and its potential therapeutic targeting. To address these deficiencies and to identify future directions needed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of this component of TBI, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke hosted a workshop in May 2011. This workshop sought to determine what is known regarding the pathogenesis of DAI in animal models of injury as well as in the human clinical setting. The workshop also addressed new tools to aid in the identification of this axonal injury while also identifying more rational therapeutic targets linked to DAI for continued preclinical investigation and, ultimately, clinical translation. This report encapsulates the oral and written components of this workshop addressing key features regarding the pathobiology of DAI, the biomechanics implicated in its initiating pathology, and those experimental animal modeling considerations that bear relevance to the biomechanical features of human TBI. Parallel considerations of alternate forms of DAI detection including, but not limited to, advanced neuroimaging, electrophysiological, biomarker, and neurobehavioral evaluations are included, together with recommendations for how these technologies can be better used and integrated for a more comprehensive appreciation of the pathobiology of DAI and its overall structural and functional implications. Lastly, the

  2. Two new potamid crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus new genus, new species and Minutomon shanweiense new genus, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Mao, Si Ying

    2014-02-12

    Two new Chinese genera and species of freshwater crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus, new genus, new species, and Minutomon shanweiense, new genus, new species, are described from Zhaoqing City and Shanwei City, respectively. The former is superficially closest to Huananpotamon Dai & Ng, 1994, while the latter resembles Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, and Mediapotamon Dai, 1995. The two new genera, however, possess distinctive combinations of carapace, third maxilliped, male thoracic sternal and first gonopodal characters that easily distinguish them from other genera. Notes on the general biology of the two new species are also given.

  3. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-06

    September 7, 2009. A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai... Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from...heartland of Bamiyan province. Other significant candidates are shown below. 24 Mulrine

  4. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  5. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, Cao Dai,Hoa Hao, Roman Catholicism, Protestantism , Islam, Hinduism, and animism. Education and Literacy: Nine years of primary...that all must fulfill. Vietnamese law seeks to give the prisoner the right to reforma - tion. In theory, at least, there are very few incorrigibles

  6. Damage Tolerance Evaluation of the Anti-Camout Rib (ACR) Torq-Set Recess Fasteners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    second efforts. The test results are presented in bar chart format for the five driver bit/recess fastener combinations tested. All data com- parison is...John Bickford Simmonds Precision 217 Smith St Mr. S. Walters, Mr. P. Allain Middletown CT 06457 Panton Rd Vergennes VT 05491 Rexnord/Caml oc/Tri dai

  7. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats.

    PubMed

    de la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Duenas Jimenez, Judith Marcela; Estrada, Ismael Jimenez; Banuelos Pineda, Jacinto; Franco Rodriguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Lopez Ruiz, Jose Roberto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura Paulina; Candanedo Arellano, Ahiezer; Duenas Jimenez, Sergio Horacio

    2016-01-01

    We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats.

  8. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  9. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need among 12- to 15-year-old students in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa

    2010-10-01

    Self-perception of dental attractiveness is an important factor affecting orthodontic treatment need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and to evaluate the influence of gender and socioeconomic background such as family size, parental education and father's employment. The subjects were 900 male and female junior high school students (450 males, 450 females) aged 12-15 years, from four districts in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and then underwent a dental examination. Normative treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t- and chi-squared tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between DAI scores and demographics. The results showed a significant correlation between DAI scores and a subject's awareness of malocclusion and their satisfaction with dental appearance. There were no differences between genders concerning the questionnaire data. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment.

  10. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  11. Chinese-English Rocketry Dictionary. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    ranliaod huo- C 1• t • * • ’ ’ 4 prefilled rocket unit 10 jiwn fadongji yi-chuankong dai I _ JL I punched tape 11 yi-dianlid ionized 12 yi-jilid excited...zhurusai filling plug; fi]ler 25 Plugzhushefa J jet method 26 zhusheqi 4 t Injector; syringe 27 zhushul 4* water injection 28 1920 aliuyi tattention

  12. 78 FR 63901 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... actions stemming from the NRC's lessons-learned efforts associated with the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi... Regulations (10 CFR) to strengthen and integrate onsite emergency response capabilities, the NRC is making... public availability the regulatory basis to strengthen and integrate onsite emergency...

  13. A communications gap.

    PubMed

    Chand, A D

    1979-10-01

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are a plentiful, important resource for delivering high quality birth assistance and other health services. To integrate TBAs and modern health programs, however, is not easy. While TBAs offer the advantage of being accepted, trusted figures in village life, training presents challenges since they are often illiterate and unfamiliar with, or unconvinced of, the utility of western ways of looking at health and disease. The following experience underlines these difficulties and, incidentally, emphasizes the absolute need to pretest educational techniques and aids for each particular audience. We conducted training classes for dais, local traditional midwives. In a nutrition class, dais shown 25 accurate color illustrations of commonly available vegetables recognized an average of only 4 illustrations/person. In another class, 4 dais out of 30 could recognize a photo of an eye. To some it was a leaf, to others it was a flower or fish. Some of the cleverest dais associated the visual aid with their (midwifery) training program: they held the picture vertically and said that this was a picture of a vagina with the head of the fetus showing through. full text

  14. tRNAs as Biomarkers and Regulators for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    codon usage and tRNA genes of 18 unicellular organisms and quantification of Bacillus subtilis tRNAs: gene expression level and species-specific...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : The University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637 REPORT...Geslain, Q. Dai. 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  15. Effect of partially demineralized dentin beneath the hybrid layer on dentin-adhesive interface micromechanics.

    PubMed

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Machado, Lucas Silveira; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Luersen, Marco Antonio; Janal, Malvin; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Coelho, Paulo G

    2015-02-26

    To investigate the presence of non-infiltrated, partially demineralized dentin (PDD) beneath the hybrid layer for self-etch adhesive systems, and its effect on micromechanical behavior of dentin-adhesive interfaces (DAIs). This in-vitro laboratory and computer simulation study hypothesized that the presence of non-infiltrated PDD beneath the hybrid layer does not influence the mechanical behavior of the DAI of self-etch adhesive systems. Fifteen sound third molars were restored with composite resin using three adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP), Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB) and Adper Promp L-Pop (APLP). The thickness and length of all DAIs were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, and used to generate three-dimensional finite element models. Elastic moduli of the hybrid layer, adhesive layer, intertubular dentin, peritubular dentin and resin tags were acquired using a nano-indenter. Finite element software was used to determine the maximum principal stress. Mixed models analysis of variance was used to verify statistical differences (P<0.05). Elastic moduli and morphology were found to differ between the adhesive systems, as well as the presence and extension of PDD. Both self-etch adhesive systems (APLP and CSEB) had PDD. The DAI stress levels were higher for the one-step self-etch adhesive system (APLP) compared with the etch-and-rinse adhesive system (SBMP) and the self-etch primer system (CSEB). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photodynamic Therapy for Acinetobacter baumannii Burn Infections in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-29

    Acinetobacter baumannii Burn Infections in Mice Tianhong Dai,1,2 George P. Tegos,1,2 Zongshun Lu,1,3 Liyi Huang,1,2,4 Timur Zhiyentayev,1,5 Michael J...Agents Che- mother. 50:1402–1410. 28. Vallenet, D., P. Nordmann, V. Barbe, L. Poirel, S. Mangenot, E. Bataille , C. Dossat, S. Gas, A. Kreimeyer, P

  17. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  18. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  19. How Do Preservice Teachers Conceptualize Giftedness? A Metaphor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olthouse, Jill

    2014-01-01

    One hundred twenty-four undergraduate education majors completed the phrase "a gifted student is ______ " using a metaphor and then explained their choice of metaphor. Qualitative metaphor analysis influenced by Dai's (2009) essential tensions determined that preservice teachers conceive of giftedness as rapid memorization of content…

  20. The Other in Education: The Distance between School Education and Local Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongcheng, Shen; Minhui, Qian

    2010-01-01

    By means of an investigation into the school education of the Dai people in Dehong, Yunnan province, this article expounds on the interactive relationship between modern education and local culture and the problems of cultural adaptation among ethnic minority students. School education, as a symbol of state power, always endeavors to transform…

  1. 78 FR 66666 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... that the voltage regulator warning circuit, which is part of the engine, monitors Bus Voltage and is... lead to an undetected loss of one engine alternator and reduced capability of the electrical generating... 5A and thus indicates electrical power supply failure to the ship system. DAI issued Mandatory...

  2. An Overview of the Nigel Text Generation Grammar.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    77D-AI128 78B N OVERVIEW OF THE NIGEL TEXT GENERATION GRAMAR (U)- i/iI U IVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MARINA DEL REY IINFORMAlTION SCIENCES INST M...three design goals • have not all been met, and the work continues. 1. Work on the first goal, specifying the framework, is essentially finished (see

  3. Expression of tNASP in Prostate Cancer: Opportunities for a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Veer, L. J., Dai, H., van de Vijver, M. J., He, Y. D ., Hart, A. A. M., Mao, M., Peterse, H. L., van der Kooy, K., Marton , M. J., Witteveen, A. T...Trojan, L., Angel, P., & Mayer, D . (2005). Calcium-Binding Proteins S100A8 and S100A9 as Novel Diagnostic Markers in Human Prostate Cancer. Clinical

  4. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  5. Inhibition of TLR4 Signalling-Induced Inflammation Attenuates Secondary Injury after Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonglin; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Junjie; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary injury after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) damages more axons than the initial insult, but the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and have been shown to be associated with brain damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TLR4 signalling pathway in secondary axonal injury in the cortices of DAI rats. TLR4 was mainly localized in microglial cells and neurons, and the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules, including TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, toll/IR-1-(TIR-) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-beta, interferon regulatory factor 3, interferon β, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65, significantly increased and peaked at 1 d after DAI. Inhibition of TLR4 by TAK-242 attenuated apoptosis, neuronal and axonal injury, and glial responses. The neuroprotective effects of TLR4 inhibition were associated with decreases in the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules and inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α. These results suggest that the TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in secondary injury and may be an important therapeutic target following DAI. PMID:27478307

  6. Poly-gamma-Glutamate Capsule-Degrading Enzyme Treatment Enhances Phagocytosis and Killing of Encapsulated Bacillus Anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-14

    antibody activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae using differentiated HL-60 cells. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:415–422. 42. Ross , J. M. 1957. The...Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins. J. Bacteriol. 186:1249–1257. 46. Schneerson, R., J. Kubler -Kielb, T. Y. Liu, Z. D. Dai, S. H

  7. The Nature and Nurture of Giftedness: A New Framework for Understanding Gifted Education. Education & Psychology of the Gifted Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun

    2010-01-01

    With unprecedented scope and vision, Dr. Dai systematically redefines giftedness and proposes a new framework for the field of gifted education. He identifies nine essential tensions, revolving around three core questions: What do we know about the respective roles of natural ability, environment and experiences, and personal effort in talent…

  8. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion Project (IRRP), is the only organization that... disputes and sound industrial relations by developing approaches in cooperation with trade unions/worker...

  9. Changing Faces of Reform. Proceedings of the Annual Rural & Small Schools Conference (18th, Manhattan, Kansas, October 27-28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Center for Rural Education and Small Schools.

    This proceedings contains abstracts of 21 presentations. Titles and presenters are: "Teaching and Learning in Multiage Classrooms" (Laura Blevins and others); "Leadership, School Reform and the Rural School Superintendent" (Mike Boone); "Teaching English as a Second Language from Theory to Practice" (Mingsheng Dai); "A Guide for Central Office…

  10. [Clinical findings observed in rabbits, meat type, infected experimentally by Cystoisospora felis (Wenyon, 1923) Frenkel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Cystoisosporinae)].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo S; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Flausino, Walter; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2006-01-01

    Twenty four rabbits type meat, cross-breed of White New Zealand and California, of both sexes, with age of 58 days old, and average weight of 1,586 g were used. Than, they were divided in three groups of eight rabbits each. The first group was inoculated orally, in two serial days, with 10(6) sporulated oocysts of Cystoisospora felis per animal, second group was considered per feed, and thirty group was left as control. Clinical signs as body weight, feed consumption, rectal temperature, and breathing frequency were taken daily. Carcasses weights were taking at 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 16, 22 and 29 days after infection (DAI) when they were posted. In the first DAI, anorexia, slow movements, low percent of food consumption (85.76%), and of alimentary conversion were observed. Difference of 3.52% in the food consumption was observed between control and infected animals. The inoculated rabbits had high temperatures in the first DAI in comparison to controls and per fed animals (p<0.01) at 2nd and at 4th DAI. In relationship to the weight gain in the 1st week the carcasses of the infected rabbits had minimal difference in comparison to control animals. As conclusion, cystoisosporosis, beside clinical signs, can be interfered in the development of the rabbit.

  11. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... stamped and returned to the commenter. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH...

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases with gelatinolytic activity induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

    PubMed Central

    Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Ribeiro, Luciana Cristina; Molina, Raphael Fagnani Sanchez; Albe, Bernardo Paulo; Cunha, Cláudia da Silva; Burger, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) modulate extracellular matrix turnover, inflammation and immunity. We studied MMP-9 and MMP-2 in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. At 15 and 120 days after infection (DAI) with virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, MMP-9 was positive by immunohistochemistry in multinucleated giant cells, in mononuclear cells with macrophage and lymphocyte morphologies and also in fungal cells in the lesions of susceptible and resistant mice. Using gelatin zymography, pro- and active MMP-9 and active MMP-2 were detected in all infected mice, but not in controls. Gelatinolytic activity was not observed in P. brasiliensis extracts. Semiquantitative analysis of gelatinolytic activities revealed weak or absent MMP-2 and strong MMP-9 activity in both mouse strains at 15 DAI, declining at 120 DAI. Avirulent P. brasiliensis-infected mice had residual lesions with MMP-9-positive pseudoxantomatous macrophages, but no gelatinase activity at 120 DAI. Our findings demonstrate the induction of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, suggesting a possible influence in the pattern of granulomas and in fungal dissemination. PMID:19765107

  13. Comment on "Proactive quantum secret sharing"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gan; Wang, Yue

    2017-03-01

    In the paper, Qin and Dai (Quantum Inf Process 14:4237-4244, 2015) proposed a proactive quantum secret sharing scheme. We study the security of the proposed scheme and find that it is not secure. In the distribution phase of the proposed scheme, two dishonest participants may collaborate to eavesdrop the secret of the dealer without introducing any error.

  14. Control of tetanus neonatorum in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, S K; Reddaiah, V P; Lobo, J

    1991-01-01

    Experience in the control of tetanus neonatorum (TN) in a rural area is presented. TN was reduced by training of dais, increasing the coverage of tetanus toxoid to pregnant women and distribution of presterilized delivery kits to pregnant ladies for use by birth attendants. The problems of untrained birth attendants, effectiveness of tetanus toxoid coverage and place of delivery are discussed.

  15. Investigation of Nanophase Materials for Thermoelectric Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fang, K.L. Stokes, J.A. Weimann, W.L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen and C.J. O’Connor, “ Microemulsion -processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B...56:1001 (2000). J. Fang, K.L. Stokes, J.A. Weimann and W. Zhou, Nanocrystalline bismuth synthesized via an in situ polymerization- microemulsion

  16. Estimation of the total population moving into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the Fukushima NPP accident as calculated using "Auto-GPS" mobile phone data.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Adachi, Ryutaro

    2013-01-01

    The first objective data showing the geographical locations of people in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, obtained by an analysis of GPS (Global Positioning System)-enabled mobile phone logs, are presented. The method of estimation is explained, and the flow of people into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the accident is visualized.

  17. Length Dependent Foam-Like Mechanical Response of Axially Indented Vertically Oriented Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    38):385303. [7] Sihn S, Ganguli S, Roy AK, Qu L, Dai L. Enhancement of through-thickness thermal conductivity in adhesively bonded joints using...true potential of carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix through continuous reticulate architecture and molecular level couplings. Nano Lett 2009;9(8):2855

  18. Selected Readings in Transition: Cultural Differences, Chronic Illness, and Job Matching. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dais, Teresa; And Others

    This collection of four papers examines various aspects of the transition from school to adulthood and employment for individuals with disabilities. The first paper, "An Analysis of Transition Assessment Practices: Do They Recognize Cultural Differences?" (Teresa A. Dais), discusses the need for assessment practices to meet the needs of culturally…

  19. Characterizing drought for forested landscapes and streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The changing nature of drought is a growing global concern (Cook et al. 2015, Dai 2011, Seneviratne et al. 2010, Sheffield and Wood 2008b, Trenberth et al. 2014, Wilhite et al. 2014). Drought can be a severe natural disaster with substantial social and economic consequences affecting large areas wit...

  20. 78 FR 1154 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan. DATES: Submit comments by February 22...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 & 52 RIN 3150-AJ11 Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory basis. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  1. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Duenas Jimenez, Judith Marcela; Estrada, Ismael Jimenez; Banuelos Pineda, Jacinto; Franco Rodriguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Lopez Ruiz, Jose Roberto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura Paulina; Candanedo Arellano, Ahiezer; Duenas Jimenez, Sergio Horacio

    2016-01-01

    We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats. PMID:27006979

  2. Insula response and connectivity during social and non-social attention in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Paola; Uddin, Lucina Q; Lynch, Charles J; Kochalka, John; Chen, Tianwen; Menon, Vinod

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to salient social stimuli. Here, we use two visual oddball tasks to investigate brain systems engaged during attention to social (face) and non-social (scene) stimuli. We focused on the dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the anterior insula (dAI and vAI, respectively), anatomically distinct regions contributing to a 'salience network' that is known to regulate attention to behaviorally meaningful stimuli. Children with ASD performed comparably to their typically developing (TD) peers, but they engaged the right dAI and vAI differently in response to deviant faces compared with deviant scenes. Multivariate activation patterns in the dAI reliably discriminated between children with ASD and TD children with 85% classification accuracy, and children with ASD activated the vAI more than their TD peers. Children with ASD and their TD peers also differed in dAI connectivity patterns to deviant faces, with stronger within-salience network interactions in the ASD group and stronger cross-network interactions in the TD group. Our findings point to atypical patterns of right anterior insula activation and connectivity in ASD and suggest that multiple functions subserved by the insula, including attention and affective processing of salient social stimuli, are aberrant in children with the disorder.

  3. Suppression of the Immune Response by Synthetic Adjuvants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-28

    D-Ai138 561 SUPPRESSION OF THE IMIMUNE RESPONSE BY SYNTHETIC / ADJUVANTS4U) MINNESOTA UNIV DULUTH DEPT OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 8 G...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAE ANO AORESS A. PROAM ORKE. PUNJTN CTU TA Dept. of Medical Microbiology /Immunology University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55812 NR 666

  4. Some Aspects of Higher Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    1972-01-01

    Contemporary Japanese higher education is reviewed, taking into account German influences especially. Three main objectives of post-war reforms are discussed along with the entrance examination system in Japan. Available from: Japan Cultural Society, 101018, Shirokane-dai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (LBH)

  5. Effects of 9 Kampo medicines clinically used in hypertension on hemodynamic changes induced by theophylline in rats.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Komatsu, Y; Amagaya, S; Chisaki, K; Hayashi, H

    2000-06-01

    We examined the effects of 9 kinds of Kampo medicines, which are clinically used for the treatment of hypertension, on anesthetized rats with increases in arterial blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral blood flow induced by theophylline (5 mg/kg, i.v.) that were partially or completely mediated by endogenous catecholamines. Each Kampo medicine (1 g/kg) was intraduodenaly administered. Shinbu-to caused a severe disturbance of the arterial blood pressure. Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Oren-gedoku-to, San'o-shashin-to and Dai-jyoki-to had hypotensive effects, while Hachimi-jio-gan, Gosha-jinki-gan, Dai-saiko-to and Choto-san did not have such an effect. Moreover, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to attenuated the heart rate. In Oren-gedoku-to, San'o-shashin-to and Dai-jyoki-to, a reduction in peripheral blood flow was observed. These results suggest that Saiko-ka-ryukotsuborei-to, Oren-gedoku-to, San'o-shashin-to and Dai-jyoki-to are ameliorative to the hypertension in sympathetic system dominance and Shinbu-to is occasionally dangerous to it.

  6. GROND observations of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schady, P.; Kann, D. A.; Greiner, J.

    2016-06-01

    We observed the field of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103 (Swift trigger 700791; D'Ai et al., GCN #19547. ATel #9180) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'JHK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) mounted at the 2.2 m MPG telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile).

  7. What We Know about Literacy Practices for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review of Published Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, David; Mellard, Daryl F.; Garrison, Steven; Lancaster, Sean; Mellard, Jessica; Rausch, Trena

    The research on literacy practices for adults with learning disabilities was reviewed. A computerized search of four databases--Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI), ERIC, Psychological Abstracts (PA), and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)--yielded more than 500 pertinent publications that were published during the past 14 years. Of the…

  8. The Nature and Nurture of Giftedness: A New Framework for Understanding Gifted Education. Education & Psychology of the Gifted Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun

    2010-01-01

    With unprecedented scope and vision, Dr. Dai systematically redefines giftedness and proposes a new framework for the field of gifted education. He identifies nine essential tensions, revolving around three core questions: What do we know about the respective roles of natural ability, environment and experiences, and personal effort in talent…

  9. A preliminary evaluation of pre-treatment hypodontia patients using the Dental Aesthetic Index: how does it compare with other commonly used indices?

    PubMed

    Shelton, A T; Hobson, R S; Slater, D

    2008-06-01

    There is currently no specific occlusal index related to hypodontia and there is a paucity of published literature on this subject. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship, if any, between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index, the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON), and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) score and the severity of hypodontia. All new patients attending the Newcastle Dental Hospital hypodontia clinic between February 2002 and March 2003 were included in the study. Of the 60 patients, two were excluded as the models were unavailable and one because they were predominantly in the primary dentition, making scoring impractical. The patient casts were scored with respect to PAR, ICON, and DAI. The mean patient age at presentation was 12 years, with a standard deviation of 1.89 and a range of 9-16 years, and a female to male ratio of 1.1:1. A significant positive correlation, using Kendall tau b, was found between the number of missing teeth, excluding third molars, and the DAI score (tau = 0.215, P = 0.027). There was no significant positive correlation between PAR (tau = -0.186, P = 0.056) and ICON (tau = 0.017, P = 0.861) score and the number of missing teeth. The results of this investigation indicate that further research is required in order to assess if the DAI could be used to determine whether or not to refer hypodontia patients for specialist advice.

  10. Student Development of Educational Software: Spin-Offs from Classroom Use of DIAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, John A., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes several college courses which encourage students to develop computer software programs in the areas of remote sensing and geographic information systems. A microcomputer-based tutorial package, the Digital Image Analysis System (DAIS), teaches the principles of digital processing. (LS)

  11. [Impact of natural selection on the polymorphism of HLA-G 3'UTR among five ethnic Chinese populations].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Sun, Qianqian; Huang, Kai; Lin, Keqin; Liu, Shuyuan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Chu, Jiayou; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2016-08-01

    To assess the impact of natural selection and genetic background on the polymorphisms of HLA-G 3-untranslated regions (UTR) among five ethnic Chinese populations. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to determine the polymorphisms among 432 individuals from the five ethnic populations. Their genetic background was determined by genotyping of 10 short tandem repeats (STRs). Eight variations were identified among Gelao, Mongolian and Kirgiz populations, while only 7 were found in Shui and Dai people. For all 3 southern populations (Gelao, Shui, and Dai), the observed heterozygosites (Ho) was higher than expected heterozygosities (He). But this was reversed for the 2 northern populations (Mongolian and Kirgiz). The Ho and He of the 10 neutral STRs were in random distribution. Ewens-Watterson testing based on haplotypes of the HLA-G 3'UTR has suggested that a natural selection had occurred in the region where Dai and Shui had inhabited, but not in the northern region where Mongolian and Kirgiz population inhabited. Polygenetic trees based on the HLA and STRs were also different. The HLA-G 3'UTR of Dai and Shui people who lived in southern China may have subjected to a selection pressure. Based on current knowledge, this pressure may have been driven by a pathogenic selection.

  12. Discussions on Petty Bourgeois and Angry Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuanshan, Zhang; Lei, Rao; Liangyu, Feng; Gui, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Petty bourgeois and angry youth are two large sets of contemporary Chinese youth. There is no doubt that most contemporary youth do not belong to either of these two sets. However, these two large sets are indeed very fashionable at this time, and it is easy to simply distinguish between them by means of two terms: the label "shuai dai"…

  13. Collection of Helianthus porteri, an endemic sunflower of granite outcrops in the southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, all native to North America. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. Confederate dai...

  14. From wildlife biology to soil science, the USDA and the United Nations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It all(?) started at age 18, wearing a rented tuxedo at the Explorers Club in NYC. I tried to explain my high school research on pine marten to my dinner companions while perched nervously on the dais. I haven’t worn a penguin suit since, but every year has been just as fascinating as I’ve worked my...

  15. Department of Defense Cost Analysis Symposium (26th) on Cost Analysis in an Uncertain Defense Environment Held in Washington, DC on 9-11 September 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-09

    Naval Material Command Head, Ship Systems Branch, Cost Analysis Division - DAI, Ex. VP and Mgr., Cost Analysis Division - RMG ., Inc., VP and Mgr...Advance Minor Caliber Gun System (AMCGS)/Stabilized Weapon Platform System (SWPS! COEA. - Coordinated and directed Louisville, Crane , Gl1, SEA-017

  16. Structural covariance networks of the dorsal anterior insula predict females' individual differences in empathic responding.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Klimecki, Olga M; Leiberg, Susanne; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-01

    Previous functional imaging studies have shown key roles of the dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) in empathy for the suffering of others. The current study mapped structural covariance networks of these regions and assessed the relationship between networks and individual differences in empathic responding in 94 females. Individual differences in empathy were assessed through average state measures in response to a video task showing others' suffering, and through questionnaire-based trait measures of empathic concern. Overall, covariance patterns indicated that dAI and aMCC are principal hubs within prefrontal, temporolimbic, and midline structural covariance networks. Importantly, participants with high empathy state ratings showed increased covariance of dAI, but not aMCC, to prefrontal and limbic brain regions. This relationship was specific for empathy and could not be explained by individual differences in negative affect ratings. Regarding questionnaire-based empathic trait measures, we observed a similar, albeit weaker modulation of dAI covariance, confirming the robustness of our findings. Our analysis, thus, provides novel evidence for a specific contribution of frontolimbic structural covariance networks to individual differences in social emotions beyond negative affect. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A Transaction Workload Model and its Application to a Tactical C3 Distributed Database System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    34IANI’.LP MISSiON PLANNING FRAG ENIR’Y REVIEW FLIGHT SCHEDULING GERATION MONITORING IMMEDIATC MISSION PLANNING OPERATION ADOJS1MENT DAI A MAINTSNANCE 0 2...the performance and design of a distributed database system. The effect certaiftly warrants future investigation to which our model is we]i suited

  18. Effects of 7-O substitutions on estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of daidzein analogues in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Daidzein (1) is a natural estrogenic isoflavone. We report here that 1 can be transformed into an antiestrogenic ligand by simple alkyl substitutions of the 7-hydroxyl hydrogen. To test the effect of such structural modifications on the hormonal activities of the resulting compounds, a series of dai...

  19. Correlations between Cognitive Impairments and Employment Status in Patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    HIROTA, Shin; INAJI, Motoki; NARIAI, Tadashi; HARA, Mutsuya; TAMAKI, Masashi; MAEHARA, Taketoshi; TOMITA, Hiroki; TONE, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may initially present with prominent physical impairments, but their cognitive dysfunctions are more persistent and are attributable to later unemployment. In this study, we analyzed how the findings of early and delayed neuropsychological assessments correlated with employment outcome of patients with DAI. A total of 56 patients with DAI without motor or visual dysfunction were included in this study. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale - Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R), Trail Making Test (TMT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Word Fluency Test (WFT). This battery of tests was administered twice in early stage after injury and in later stage. The results of all of the neuropsychological tests improved significantly (P <0.001) between the early and later assessments. All scores other than TMT part A and B improved to the normal range (Z-score ≥ 2). The patient characteristics (age, gender, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, and duration of posttraumatic amnesia) had no relationship to the outcome. The results of TMT part B, however, were significantly correlated with employment outcome in both the early and later assessments (P = 0.01, 0.04). Given that TMT evaluates visual attention, we surmise that a lack of attention may be the core symptom of the cognitive deficit and cause the re-employment failure in patients with DAI. TMT part B in both early and later assessments has the potential to accurately predict chronic functional outcome. PMID:28003570

  20. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Íria Márcia; LIMA, Sarah Buzaim; FREITAS, Aline de Araújo; VINAUD, Marina Clare; JUNIOR, Ruy de Souza LINO

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  1. Discussions on Petty Bourgeois and Angry Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuanshan, Zhang; Lei, Rao; Liangyu, Feng; Gui, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Petty bourgeois and angry youth are two large sets of contemporary Chinese youth. There is no doubt that most contemporary youth do not belong to either of these two sets. However, these two large sets are indeed very fashionable at this time, and it is easy to simply distinguish between them by means of two terms: the label "shuai dai"…

  2. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  3. Student Development of Educational Software: Spin-Offs from Classroom Use of DIAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, John A., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes several college courses which encourage students to develop computer software programs in the areas of remote sensing and geographic information systems. A microcomputer-based tutorial package, the Digital Image Analysis System (DAIS), teaches the principles of digital processing. (LS)

  4. Bone-marrow mononuclear cells reduce neurodegeneration in hippocampal CA1 layer after transient global ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alane Bernardo; Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, Andréia; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca; Cintra, Wagner Monteiro; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia

    2013-07-19

    Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) results in death of the pyramidal neurons in the CA1 layer of the hippocampus. In this study we used the four-vessel occlusion (4VO) model of GCI to investigate a potential neuroprotective role of bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) transplantation. BMMCs (3×10(7)) were injected through the carotid artery, 1 or 3 days after ischemia (DAI), and the number of cells undergoing degeneration was investigated in brains at 7 DAI. A significant decrease in the number of dying cells was observed in the treated group, compared to animals treated with saline. Biodistribution of the injected cells (1 or 3 DAI) was investigated by (99m)Technetium labeling of the BMMCs and subsequent image analysis 2h after transplantation. In addition, the presence of CellTrace(™)-labeled BMMCs was investigated in tissue sections of the hippocampal area of these transplanted animals. BMMCs treatment significantly reduced the number of FJ-C positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 layer at 7 DAI. We also observed a decrease in the number of activated microglia/macrophage (ED1-positive cells) in the BMMCs-treated group compared with the untreated group. Our data show that BMMCs are able to modulate the microglial response and reduce neurodegeneration in the CA1 layer. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model: A Tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Animal agriculture is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but good information does not exist on the net emissions from our farms. A software tool called the Dai...

  6. 78 FR 13097 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Resolution of Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Recommendation 2.1: Seismic,'' Revision 0, hereafter referred to... Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident,'' dated March 12, 2012. The NRC issued the RFI following the NRC staff's evaluation of the earthquake and tsunami, and resulting nuclear accident, at the...

  7. 78 FR 68774 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    .... Background As a result of the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, the NRC's Near... Enhancing Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima...-0137, ``Prioritization of Recommended Actions to be Taken in Response to Fukushima Lessons...

  8. 76 FR 70067 - Taxpayers and Ratepayers United, et al.; Environmental Impacts of Severe Reactor and Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... environmental issues raised in the Fukushima Task Force Report. The NRC is not instituting a public comment... Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ADAMS Accession No. ML111861807), dated July 12, 2011,...

  9. 78 FR 44034 - Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident,'' (Fukushima Task Force...-100, the petitioner cited Section 4.2.4, pages 43-46, of the Fukushima Task Force Report, which... Fukushima Task Force Report, and the NRC did not institute a public comment period for the PRMs. In...

  10. 76 FR 58165 - Petitions for Rulemaking Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ML111861807), dated July 12, 2011, as the rationale for... stakeholders to review and assess the recommendations of the Fukushima Task Force Report for the purpose...

  11. 76 FR 70913 - Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13579

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ..., any Commission decisions related to the Fukushima Task Force Report. DATES: November 16, 2011... the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ML111861807), was issued. The... recommendations of the Fukushima Task Force Report for the purpose of providing the Commission with...

  12. 77 FR 16483 - Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ADAMS Accession... cites Section 4.2.1, pages 32-39, of the Fukushima Task Force Report, regarding the enhancement of the... Commission was still in the process of reviewing the Fukushima Task Force Report, and the NRC did...

  13. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 16, 2011, Room T-2B1... events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactor site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by...

  14. [The early magazines of traditional Chinese medicine in Fuzhou region].

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong

    2002-10-01

    The early magazines of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Fuzhou region, Xian dai yi yao (Modern Medicine) and Yi duo (Medical Bell) did play certain historical role in the protection of TCM, dissemination of Chinese medical know - how, and promotion of academic exchanges.

  15. The Conceptual Adequacy of the Drug Attitude Inventory for Measuring Youth Attitudes toward Psychotropic Medications: A Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Lisa; Floersch, Jerry; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents are routinely treated with psychiatric medications; however, little is known about their attitudes toward pharmacological intervention. The authors used a concurrent triangulation, mixed methods design to assess whether the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI), developed for adults, is suitable for measuring adolescent attitudes toward…

  16. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue.

  17. 76 FR 32232 - Employment and Training Administration Program Year (PY) 2011 Workforce Investment Act (WIA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ....gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: WIA Youth Activities allotments--Evan Rosenberg at (202) 693...--Mike Qualter at (202) 693-3014; Workforce Information Grant allotments--Anthony Dais at (202) 693-2784... Islands and Micronesia into supplemental education grants provided from the Department of Education's...

  18. ANALYSIS OF VOLATILES AND SEMIVOLATILES BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct aqueous injection analysis (DAI) with gas chromatographic separation and ion trap mass spectral detection was used to analyze aqueous samples for g/L levels of 54 volatile and semivolatile compounds, and problematic non-purgeables and non-extractables. The method reduces ...

  19. Minority Languages in Dehong, China: Policy and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Hong

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the language situation in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Prefecture in China's Hunan province. By examining language use in certain domains of public life (public signs, radio and television broadcasting, publishing, and education) certain discrepancies between government policies for minority languages and realities of everyday use of the…

  20. Visual-Proprioceptive Cue Conflicts in the Control of Remotely Piloted Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    34 - the tion DAI. The ideal design would have required subject over the communication system. These that all subjects be administered all conditions...ofvisual.propnocepsive conflict despite changes their lack of familiarity with flight operat ’ns. 2. The c/fcc! of experiente . The Previous Moreover, if pilots

  1. Nitrogen Fixation by White Lupin under Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    SCHULZE, JOACHIM; TEMPLE, GLENA; TEMPLE, STEPHEN J.; BESCHOW, HEIDRUN; VANCE, CARROLL P.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims White lupin is highly adapted to growth in a low-P environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether white lupin grown under P-stress has adaptations in nodulation and N2 fixation that facilitate continued functioning. • Methods Nodulated plants were grown in silica sand supplied with N-free nutrient solution containing 0 to 0·5 mm P. At 21 and 37 d after inoculation (DAI) growth, nodulation, P and N concentration, N2 fixation (15N2 uptake and H2 evolution), root/nodule net CO2 evolution and CO2 fixation (14CO2 uptake) were measured. Furthermore, at 21 DAI in-vitro activities and transcript abundance of key enzymes of the C and N metabolism in nodules were determined. Moreover, nodulation in cluster root zones was evaluated. • Key Results Treatment without P led to a lower P concentration in shoots, roots, and nodules. In both treatments, with or without P, the P concentration in nodules was greater than that in the other organs. At 21 DAI nitrogen fixation rates did not differ between treatments and the plants displayed no symptoms of P or N deficiency on their shoots. Although nodule number at 21 DAI increased in response to P-deficiency, total nodule mass remained constant. Increased nodule number in P-deficient plants was associated with cluster root formation. A higher root/nodule CO2 fixation in the treatment without P led to a lower net CO2 release per unit fixed N, although the total CO2 released per unit fixed N was higher in the treatment without P. The higher CO2 fixation was correlated with increased transcript abundance and enzyme activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase in nodules. Between 21 and 37 DAI, shoots of plants grown without P developed symptoms of N- and P-deficiency. By 37 DAI the P concentration had decreased in all organs of the plants treated with no P. At 37 DAI, nitrogen fixation in the treatment without P had almost ceased. • Conclusions Enhanced

  2. Development of Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 emend. Levine, 1961 in experimentally infected goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Vieira, L S; Lima, J D; Rosa, J S

    1997-12-01

    The endogenous development and prepatent and patent periods of Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae were studied in 43 1-3-wk-old coccidia-free kids inoculated with 5.0 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5), 2.0 x 10(5), or 9.0 x 10(5) sporulated oocysts/kg. Twenty-five kids were killed at 24- or 48-hr intervals, 2-18 days after inoculation (DAI). Two generations of meronts, gamonts, gametes, and oocysts were found in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined using under light microscopy. The first generation of meronts developed in the endothelium of the lacteals, in the lamina propria, and in the lymphatic vessels of the ileum submucosa. Mature, first-generation meronts, 165.5 x 123.6 microm, were first found 10 DAI. Second-generation merogony developed in the crypt epithelial cells of the cecum and colon; mature meronts, 16.8 x 11.6 microm, were first seen 12 DAI. Gametogenesis occurred in the cecum and colon epithelium; mature microgamonts (16.1 x 13.0 microm), microgametes, macrogametes (14.7 x 12.5 microm), and oocysts (18.3 x 13.3 microm) were seen at 13 DAI. The course of the infection was followed in 18 kids examined every day until 24 DAI. The prepatent period was 14.7 (13-17) days and the patent period 6.8 (4-10) days. The sporulation time at 30 C, with constant aeration, was 2-3 days.

  3. Malocclusion and TMJ disorders in teenagers from private and public schools in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; Irigoyen-Camacho, María-Esther; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Mendoza-Roaf, Patricia; Medina-Solís, Carlo; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-03-01

    To identify, among Mexican teenagers from public and private schools, the frequency, severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs, and their possible association with temporomandibular joint disorders. Fifteen-year-old students were recruited from public and private schools. Clinical findings were registered as follows: oral hygiene status with the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified, malocclusion using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), and TMJ disorders following WHO criteria. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were constructed for data analysis. A total of 249 fifteen-year old students were included in the study (118 female 47.4%). 68% had a DAI score ≤ 25 (minor or no occlusal anomalies), 18% scored 26-30 (mild anomalies), 7% scored 31-35 (evident anomalies), and 6% scored ≥ 36 (major malocclusion). The most frequent anomalies were dental crowding in 50%, maxillary dental irregularity in 44.6%, mandible irregularity in 41.2% and excessive maxillary overjet in 37.8%. Among the students, 26.1% had clicking/muscle or TMJ pain, of these 12.3% showed pain during palpation. OHI-S > 1 was found in 34% of the participants. The negative binomial model showed an association between DAI score and TMJ disorders (P=0.041). Also the logistic regression model showed an association between malocclusion (DAI>25) and TMJ disorders (OR=2.58, p=0.002). Malocclusion was associated also with poor oral hygiene (OR=1.65, p=0.007), and with attendance to public schools (OR=1.97, p=0.039). TMJ disorders and DAI scores were significantly associated. Screening/Diagnostic programs for orthodontic and TMJ-disorders are needed, to identify and offer treatment to teenagers with major malocclusion and TMJ/muscle pain.

  4. Mesquite pod extract modifies the reproductive physiology and behavior of the female rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Aguirre, F García; Alcántara, M; García-Díaz, E; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M; Arteaga-Silva, M; López, G; Romero, C; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2012-04-01

    Phytoestrogens are non steroidal compounds that can bind to estrogen receptors, mimicking some effects of estradiol (E(2)). These compounds are widespread among legumes, which are used as pasture, and their importance in animal agriculture has increased. Mesquite (Prosopis sp) is a widespread legume, widely used to feed several livestock species in Mexico. The main product of mesquite is the pod, which is considered high quality food. As a legume, it could be assumed that mesquite contains some amounts of phytoestrogens which might induce potential estrogenic effects. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports regarding the possible estrogenic activity of this legume either in livestock or in animal models such as the rat. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the potential estrogenic effects of mesquite pod extract on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the female rat. The effects of the extract were compared with those of E(2) and two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; E(2); GEN; DAI. Compared to vehicle groups, mesquite pod extract, DAI, GEN, and E(2) increased uterine weight and induced growth in vaginal and uterine epithelia. In intact rats, mesquite pod extract, GEN and DAI altered estrous cyclicity, decreased lordotic quotient and intensity of lordosis. In OVX rats, mesquite pod extract, DAI and GEN induced vaginal estrus, increased vaginal epithelium height, and induced lordosis, although its intensity was reduced, compared with intact rats in estrus and E2-treated rats. These results suggest that mesquite pod extract could have estrogenic activity. However, the presence of phytoestrogens in this legume remains to be confirmed.

  5. Content change of neurofilament protein subunits in experimental brain diffuse axonal injury by lateral head rotation.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaosheng; Yi, Shengyu; Zhang, Xiang; Fei, Zhou; Zhang, Jianning; Yang, Lisun

    2000-02-15

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the content change of neurofilament (NF) protein subunits in the experimental brain diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by lateral head rotation. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were equally divided into three injury groups (2 h, 12 h, and 24 h post injury) and one control group. The models of DAI were made in the injury groups by lateral head rotation. Western blotting technique was used to measure the content of NF68 (a kind of NF protein subunit) in the brainstem tissues among all the injured and control rats. The NF68 immunohistochemical staining was used in another six SD rats in order to observe the morphological changes in DAI. RESULTS: The NF68 content in the brainstem tended to decrease at 2 h post injury, decreased significantly at 12 h and continued its decrease at 24 h. NF56 and NF52, as the breakdown products of NF68, had a tendency to increase at 2-12 h after the injury, and amounted to a significantly higher level at 24 h. Microscopically, there were a lot of swelling neuronal axons in the ventral part of the medullar oblongata at 2 h after the injury. Some axons were disconnected, and axonal retraction balls formed on their proximal end. CONCLUSIONS: There is an occurrence of phosphorolysis within the brainstem in DAI by lateral head rotation. These reactions cause the breakdown of NF68, which results in the decrease of NF68 in content. It suggests that the breakdown of neurofilament protein subunits is an important reason for structur al destroy of neurofilaments in DAI.

  6. Translational stimulation by reovirus polypeptide sigma 3: substitution for VAI RNA and inhibition of phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, R M; Shatkin, A J

    1992-01-01

    COS cells transfected with plasmids that activate DAI depend on expression of virus-associated I (VAI) RNA to prevent the inhibitory effects of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 alpha) kinase (DAI) and restore the translation of vector-derived dihydrofolate reductase mRNA. This VAI RNA requirement could be completely replaced by reovirus polypeptide sigma 3, consistent with its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding activity. S4 gene transfection of 293 cells also partially restored adenovirus protein synthesis after infection with the VAI-negative dl331 mutant. In dl331-infected 293 cells, eIF-2 alpha was present mainly in the acidic, phosphorylated form, and trans complementation with polypeptide sigma 3 or VAI RNA decreased the proportion of eIF-2 alpha (P) from approximately 85 to approximately 30%. Activation of DAI by addition of dsRNA to extracts of S4 DNA-transfected COS cells required 10-fold-higher levels of dsRNA than extracts made from cells that were not producing polypeptide sigma 3. In extracts of reovirus-infected mouse L cells, the concentration of dsRNA needed to activate DAI was dependent on the viral serotype used for the infection. Although the proportion of eIF-2 alpha (P) was greater than that in uninfected cells, most of the factor remained in the unphosphorylated form, even at 16 h after infection, consistent with the partial inhibition of host protein synthesis observed with all three viral serotypes. The results indicate that reovirus polypeptide sigma 3 participates in the regulation of protein synthesis by modulating DAI and eIF-2 alpha phosphorylation. Images PMID:1433498

  7. [Evaluation of relevance in concussion and damage of health by monitoring of neuron specific enolase and S-100b protein].

    PubMed

    Vajtr, D; Průsa, R; Kukacka, J; Houst'ava, L; Sámal, F; Pelichovská, M; Strejc, P; Toupalík, P

    2007-07-01

    Proteins released to the circulation from affected glial (neuron specific enolasis, NSE) or ganglial cells (S-100b protein) during traumatic brain injury might be used in diagnosis of traumatic brain injury in cases with negative finding on computer tomography scan (concussion) or in patients where the serious clinical status does not corresponde with mild changes on CT scan (diffuse axonal injury, DAI). Classification of DAI according Gennarelli considered the concussion as lower degree of DAI. 15 patients were divided into group I of mild conccussion (n=3) with 1-day duration of hospitalisation, group II of serious concussion (n=4) with more days duration of hospitalisation with negative findings on CT scan and group III of patients with diagnosis of DAI (n=8). Blood samples were investigated by immunoanalysis for NSE and protein S-100b (Elecsys 2010, Roche). Values of NSE (16.30 +/- 2.33 vs. 110.48 +/- 34.99 vs. 24.07 +/- 6.29 microg/l), and protein S-100b (0.207 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.945 +/- 0.69 vs. 0.736 +/- 0.36 microg/l) overdrow the reference value in cases of group I, II, and III. We discuss the biomechanics of trauma and the blood brain barrier damage in comparison with values of NSE and S-100b protein. [corrected] We proved the significantly higher values of the NSE in group of serious concussion compared to group of DAI. We demonstrated that concussions in some cases lead to serious damage of health.

  8. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140 kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. A review of the leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) with description of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wu; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-16

    The morphologically diverse leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini is reinstated from synonymy under Iassini based on distinctive features of the male genitalia and a key to the Oriental genera is given. The previously monotypic genera Hyalojassus Evans and Coriojassus Evans are revised and redescribed based on study of the type species. The following new genera and species are described from Thailand and China and placed in Hyalojassini: Kanchanaburiassus maculatus gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Kanchanaburi, Thailand; Lamelliassus chaingmaiensis gen. & sp. nov. from Chaingmai, Thailand; Siamiassus constanti gen. & sp. nov. from Loei, Thailand ; Decliviassus gen nov. with D. bipunctatus sp. nov., D. maculatus sp. nov., and D. nudus sp. nov., from Thailand; Trocniassus gen. nov. with T. shaanxiensis and T. henanensis sp. nov.; Hyalojassus elongatus sp. nov. and H. punctulatus sp. nov. from Thailand and H. yunnanensis sp. nov. from China; Coriojassus loeiensis sp. nov. from Thailand, C. yunnanensis sp. nov. and C. zhejiangensis sp. nov. from Yunnan and Zhejiang, China, respectively, the latter representing the first records of the genus from China. Sinojassus Dai et al. 2010 (nec Zhang 1985) is a junior homonym, thus a new replacement name, Siniassus nom. nov., is proposed, the genus is transferred to Hyalojassini, and the following new combinations are made: Siniassus loberus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus aspinus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus compressus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010) and Siniassus webbi (Dai & Dietrich, 2010). Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for all new taxa are provided. The following New World genera share the diagnostic morphological features of Hyalojassini and are newly placed in this tribe: Absheta Blocker, Aztrania Blocker, Baldriga Blocker, Bertawolia Blocker, Betawala Blocker, Comanopa Blocker, Daveyoungana Blocker & Webb, Derakandra Blocker, Donleva Blocker, Gargaropsis Fowler, Garlica Blocker, Gehundra Blocker

  10. Assessing patient-rated vs. clinician-rated adherence to the therapy in treatment resistant schizophrenia, schizophrenia responders, and non-schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Iasevoli, Felice; Fagiolini, Andrea; Formato, Maria Vittoria; Prinzivalli, Emiliano; Giordano, Sara; Balletta, Raffaele; De Luca, Vincenzo; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The present study evaluated consistency, reliability, and determinants of two real-world measures of adherence to prescription in 57 schizophrenia and 61 non-schizophrenia patients. Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) was additionally diagnosed in 28 of the schizophrenia patients. Patients were screened for clinical severity, cognitive functioning, and adherence by 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10) or Adherence-to-Therapy (AtT), a clinician-rated tool developed by our group. DAI-10 and AtT scores showed a significant correlation (p=0.039; ρ=0.21; df=103). Compared to the DAI-10 scale, a higher number of variables were associated with AtT. In schizophrenia and TRS patients, substance abuse was the only significant predictor of lower DAI-10 score (p=0.027, F=5.2, R(2)=0.07, and p=0.06, F=8.9, R(2)=0.23, respectively). Lower AtT score was significantly associated with first-generation antipsychotic use (p=0.001, RR: 2.00 [1.40-2.87]), positive symptoms (p=0.02, RR: 1.63 [1.05-2.53]), impaired verbal fluency (p=0.01, RR: 1.88 [0.81-4.32]) or problem solving (p=0.01, RR: 2.14 [0.92-4.98]). AtT, but not DAI-10, score correlated with the score on the Personal and Social Performance scale (p=0.02, F=5.86, R(2)=0.08). Overall, AtT score was predicted by pharmacological, psychopathological, and cognitive factors, and predictive of psychosocial functioning. Therefore, AtT measure may represent a convenient and practical tool to evaluate schizophrenia patients' adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. S-like ribonuclease gene expression in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Emi; Kawahara, Minako; Kodaira, Reina; Kume, Marina; Arai, Naoki; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Functions of S-like ribonucleases (RNases) differ considerably from those of S-RNases that function in self-incompatibility. Expression of S-like RNases is usually induced by low nutrition, vermin damage or senescence. However, interestingly, an Australian carnivorous plant Drosera adelae (a sundew), which traps prey with a sticky digestive liquid, abundantly secretes an S-like RNase DA-I in the digestive liquid even in ordinary states. Here, using D. adelae, Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) and Cephalotus follicularis (Australian pitcher plant), we show that carnivorous plants use S-like RNases for carnivory: the gene da-I encoding DA-I and its ortholog cf-I of C. follicularis are highly expressed and constitutively active in each trap/digestion organ, while the ortholog dm-I of D. muscipula becomes highly active after trapping insects. The da-I promoter is unmethylated only in its trap/digestion organ, glandular tentacles (which comprise a small percentage of the weight of the whole plant), but methylated in other organs, which explains the glandular tentacles-specific expression of the gene and indicates a very rare gene regulation system. In contrast, the promoters of dm-I, which shows induced expression, and cf-I, which has constitutive expression, were not methylated in any organs examined. Thus, it seems that the regulatory mechanisms of the da-I, dm-I and cf-I genes differ from each other and do not correlate with the phylogenetic relationship. The current study suggests that under environmental pressure in specific habitats carnivorous plants have managed to evolve their S-like RNase genes to function in carnivory.

  12. Identification and VIGS-based characterization of Bx1 ortholog in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    PubMed Central

    Groszyk, Jolanta; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Yanushevska, Yuliya; Stochmal, Anna; Rakoczy-Trojanowska, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The first step of the benzoxazinoid (BX) synthesis pathway is catalyzed by an enzyme with indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase activity encoded by 3 genes, Bx1, TSA and Igl. A gene highly homologous to maize and wheat Bx1 has been identified in rye. The goal of the study was to analyze the gene and to experimentally verify its role in the rye BX biosynthesis pathway as a rye ortholog of the Bx1 gene. Expression of the gene showed peak values 3 days after imbibition (dai) and at 21 dai it was undetectable. Changes of the BX content in leaves were highly correlated with the expression pattern until 21 dai. In plants older than 21 dai despite the undetectable expression of the analyzed gene there was still low accumulation of BXs. Function of the gene was verified by correlating its native expression and virus-induced silencing with BX accumulation. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based vectors were used to induce transcriptional (TGS) and posttranscriptional (PTGS) silencing of the analyzed gene. Both strategies (PTGS and TGS) significantly reduced the transcript level of the analyzed gene, and this was highly correlated with lowered BX content. Inoculation with virus-based vectors specifically induced expression of the analyzed gene, indicating up-regulation by biotic stressors. This is the first report of using the BSMV-based system for functional analysis of rye gene. The findings prove that the analyzed gene is a rye ortholog of the Bx1 gene. Its expression is developmentally regulated and is strongly induced by biotic stress. Stable accumulation of BXs in plants older than 21 dai associated with undetectable expression of ScBx1 indicates that the function of the ScBx1 in the BX biosynthesis is redundant with another gene. We anticipate that the unknown gene is a putative ortholog of the Igl, which still remains to be identified in rye. PMID:28234909

  13. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D.; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription. PMID:25969552

  14. Evaluation of a rapid method for the detection of streptococcal group A antigen directly from throat swabs.

    PubMed Central

    Venezia, R A; Ryan, A; Alward, S; Kostun, W A

    1985-01-01

    Throat swabs from 196 pediatric patients were processed by a direct extraction-latex agglutination method (Group A Strep Direct Antigen Identification Test [DAI]) that detects group A streptococci in the specimen. The method requires a 45-min enzymatic extraction period at 37 degrees C and a 4-min reaction period with antibody-linked latex particles. The results were compared with those of the culture and fluorescent antibody methods and the clinical presentation of the patient for pharyngitis. Ninety-three percent of the specimens resulted in agreement by all tests, and 28% were culture positive for group A streptococci. Compared with the culture method, the DAI had a sensitivity and a specificity of 83% and 99%, respectively. The positive predictive values were 98% versus the culture method and 93% versus the fluorescent antibody method, whereas the negative predictive values were 94% versus both other methods. Of the 14 discrepant results when both clinical presentation of an acute pharyngitis and the test results were compared, the culture method provided the best correlation. An additional 64 specimens were processed by the DAI and another direct extraction-latex agglutination method (Culturette Ten-Minute Group A Strep ID Test), and the results were compared with those of the culture method. This group had a 40.6% culture isolation rate for group A streptococci. The sensitivity and specificity of the DAI and Strep ID methods versus the culture method were 81 and 100%, and 77 and 97%, respectively. These results indicate that the DAI is accurate for diagnosing group A streptococcal pharyngitis directly from throat swabs. However, negative results in the presence of a symptomatic patient must be confirmed by standard culture techniques. PMID:3884656

  15. The Serum Changes of Neuron-Specific Enolase and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients With Diffuse Axonal Injury Following Progesterone Administration: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Soltani, Zahra; Khaksari, Mohammad; Karamouzian, Saeid; Mofid, Behshad; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Improvement of neurologic outcome in progesterone-administered patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been found in a recent study. Also, there has been interest in the importance of serum parameters as predictors of outcome in traumatic brain injury. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progesterone administration on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in clinical DAI. Patients and Methods In this study, the serum levels of ICAM-1 and NSE of 32 male DAI patients (18 - 60 years of age, a Glasgow coma scale of 12 or less, and admitted within 4 hours after injury) who were randomized for a controlled phase II trial of progesterone were analyzed. The analysis was performed between the control and progesterone groups at admission time, and 24 hours and six days after DAI, respectively. Results A reduction in the serum level of ICAM-1 was noticed in the progesterone group 24 hours after the injury (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the serum level of NSE between the study groups during evaluation. At 24 hours after the injury, the level of ICAM-1 in the control group was higher than that at admission time (P < 0.05). The lowest level of NSE in the two groups was seen six days after DAI (P < 0.01). Conclusions In summary, progesterone administration reduced serum ICAM-1, and whereby may attenuate blood brain barrier disruption, the latter needs further investigation for confirmation. PMID:27800469

  16. Extent of microstructural white matter injury in postconcussive syndrome correlates with impaired cognitive reaction time: a 3T diffusion tensor imaging study of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Niogi, S N; Mukherjee, P; Ghajar, J; Johnson, C; Kolster, R A; Sarkar, R; Lee, H; Meeker, M; Zimmerman, R D; Manley, G T; McCandliss, B D

    2008-05-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a useful index of microstructural changes implicated in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) linked to persistent postconcussive symptoms, especially in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), for which conventional MR imaging techniques may lack sensitivity. We hypothesized that for mild TBI, DTI measures of DAI would correlate with impairments in reaction time, whereas the number of focal lesions on conventional 3T MR imaging would not. Thirty-four adult patients with mild TBI with persistent symptoms were assessed for DAI by quantifying traumatic microhemorrhages detected on a conventional set of T2*-weighted gradient-echo images and by DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) within a set of a priori regions of interest. FA values 2.5 SDs below the region average, based on a group of 26 healthy control adults, were coded as exhibiting DAI. DTI measures revealed several predominant regions of damage including the anterior corona radiata (41% of the patients), uncinate fasciculus (29%), genu of the corpus callosum (21%), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (21%), and cingulum bundle (18%). The number of damaged white matter structures as quantified by DTI was significantly correlated with mean reaction time on a simple cognitive task (r = 0.49, P = .012). In contradistinction, the number of traumatic microhemorrhages was uncorrelated with reaction time (r = -0.08, P = .71). Microstructural white matter lesions detected by DTI correlate with persistent cognitive deficits in mild TBI, even in populations in which conventional measures do not. DTI measures may thus contribute additional diagnostic information related to DAI.

  17. Sensitivity test of GOCI dust aerosol index with aerosol absorptivity by using radiative transfer simulation and comparison with AERONET aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Park, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    For the monitoring of aerosol properties in East Asia using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), the GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) algorithm was developed and has been improved continuously since 2011. GOCI YAER algorithm contains several aerosol models consisted of various optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine-mode fraction (FMF), and single scattering albedo (SSA) for assuming every possible aerosol status. Then, AOD at 550 nm is retrieved from selected aerosol models which show least difference between observed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and simulated TOA reflectance in terms of spectral AODs. Current inversion method is optimized for spectral AODs, especially AOD at 550 nm. Therefore, GOCI YAER AOD, FMF, and Angstrom exponent show reliable accuracy with ground-based AERONET and satellite-based MODIS and VIIRS products. However, SSA shows least accuracy (R = 0.2) with AERONET SSA, which is different from AOD, FMF, and AE. To improve accuracy of SSA retrieval, the inversion method should reflect a characteristic of aerosol absorptivity well, not only in the aerosol model construction as forward modeling. UV aerosol index from TOMS and OMI measurements, calculated by using 354 and 388 nm, provides the extent of aerosol absorptivity, which can be used for the improvement of aerosol model quality between absorbing and non-absorbing aerosol model. Instead of UV index, a dust aerosol index (DAI) can be calculated using two visible channels such as 412 and 443 (or 490) nm. Heavy dust plume, which is coarse and absorbing aerosol, in 47 April 2012 show DAI of 5, but heavy haze plume, which is fine and non-absorbing aerosol, in 6 May 2012 shows DAI close to 0. To find relationship between DAI and aerosol absorptivity properties, sensitivity is tested by using radiative transfer model (RTM), and retrieved GOCI DAI from observed TOA reflectance is compared with ground-based AERONET SSA and other optical properties. Both of

  18. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method

  19. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-11-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  20. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  1. A development framework for distributed artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) applications in which multiple organizations of agents solve multiple domain problems. They then describe work in progress on a DAI system development environment, called SOCIAL, which consists of three primary language-based components. The Knowledge Object Language defines models of knowledge representation and reasoning. The metaCourier language supplies the underlying functionality for interprocess communication and control access across heterogeneous computing environments. The metaAgents language defines models for agent organization coordination, control, and resource management. Application agents and agent organizations will be constructed by combining metaAgents and metaCourier building blocks with task-specific functionality such as diagnostic or planning reasoning. This architecture hides implementation details of communications, control, and integration in distributed processing environments, enabling application developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the intelligent agents and agent networks themselves.

  2. A development framework for distributed artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) applications in which multiple organizations of agents solve multiple domain problems. They then describe work in progress on a DAI system development environment, called SOCIAL, which consists of three primary language-based components. The Knowledge Object Language defines models of knowledge representation and reasoning. The metaCourier language supplies the underlying functionality for interprocess communication and control access across heterogeneous computing environments. The metaAgents language defines models for agent organization coordination, control, and resource management. Application agents and agent organizations will be constructed by combining metaAgents and metaCourier building blocks with task-specific functionality such as diagnostic or planning reasoning. This architecture hides implementation details of communications, control, and integration in distributed processing environments, enabling application developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the intelligent agents and agent networks themselves.

  3. Highly paraffinic Vietnamese crudes characterized

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1989-11-01

    Vietnamese crude oils, including crude from the Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear) fields have high paraffin content. This high-paraffin content and other characteristics of the crude oils require them to be processed through conversion units after distillation to obtain maximum light-product production. Classification of the Vietnamese crude oils as high-paraffin content used the basis of statistical analyses of fundamental properties of 400 different types of Soviet Union crude oils. The statistical analyses classified crude oils below 1 wt % paraffin content as low-paraffin crudes, between 1 wt% and 7 wt% as medium-paraffin crudes, and greater than 7 wt% as high-paraffin crudes. Evaluations of Vietnamese crude oils are ongoing. From these evaluations, the author presents some general refining properties of Vietnamese crude oils, along with the basic assays of Viet Nam's Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung( Big Bear) crude oils.

  4. Detailed assays conducted on Vietnamese crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1990-07-16

    More oil property data, in the form of recent crude oil assays, have been made available for two Vietnamese crude oils, Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear). Crude oil data presented earlier gave limited properties of the crudes,which are from the Miocene formations. Further analyses have been conducted on Bach Ho crude from the Oligocene formations. Production from Oligocene is far more representative of the oils produced from the Bach Ho field and marketed worldwide. Currently, Bach Ho is the only producing field. Dai Hung is expected to be in production during the next few years. Bach Ho is currently producing at the rate of 20,000 b/d. That figure is projected to grow to 100,000 b/d by 1992 and to 120,000 b/d by 1995. Detailed assays of both crude oils are presented.

  5. [Application of diffusion tensor imaging and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in diagnosis of traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Yu, Jian-yun; Wu, Kun-hua; Yu, Hua-lin; Liu, Ao-xiang; Li, Yu-hua

    2012-06-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common type of brain disorders among young adults. The dysfunction of the brain is often exacerbated due to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) which based on the injury of white matter fibers and axons. Since mild and moderate brain injury or DAI are diffuse and subtle, conventional CT and MRI are difficult to make a positive diagnosis. Recent clinical study indicated that functional magnetic resonance imaging has a high detection rate in the diagnosis of acute mild and moderate brain injury, especially the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). This paper has reviewed the principles and characteristics of DTI and 1H-MRS, and recent research in the clinical and animal experiments on brain injury.

  6. PG and E open system communications architecture project -- Volume 2: Commercial customer applications demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) has supported the development of open systems concepts and standards in data communications and the application of computer hardware and software to help solve its day-to-day business problems. PG and E participated in two projects that were intended to demonstrate and evaluate the benefits of Utility Communications Architecture (UCA{trademark}) and Database Access Integration Services (DAIS{trademark}) in its operational environment. Volume 1 describes the results of the development of a UCA/DAIS infrastructure. Volume 2 describes the results of the development of Power Quality and Load Profile applications as well as Graphical User Interfaces, which were developed for PG and E users and the Commercial Customers participating in the demonstration. The PG and E customers used these to interact with and make use of the information provided in their business.

  7. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  8. Review of the bamboo-feeding species of genus Scaphoideus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) from China, with description of one new species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The bamboo-feeding species of genus Scaphoideus Uhler (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) from China are reviewed to include 7 species: S. conicaplateus Li & Dai, 2004 (China: Guizhou), S. fanjingensis Li & Dai, 2004 (China: Guizhou), S. festivus Matsumura, 1902 (China: Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Hunan, Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Taiwan; India; Sri Lanka; Japan; Korea), S. kumamotonis Matsumura, 1914 (China: Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Sichuan, Zhejiang and Henan; Japan), S. nigrigenatus Li, 1990 (China: Guizhou, Sichuan and Hubei), S. nigrivalveus Li & Wang, 2005 (China: Guizhou and Hubei) and S. yaanensis sp. nov. (China: Sichuan). All seven species are re-illustrated and photographed. The new species is described. A key to the bamboo-feeding species of Scaphoideus is also provided.

  9. Dynamic functional network connectivity reveals unique and overlapping profiles of insula subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Jason S; Farrant, Kristafor; Damaraju, Eswar; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Calhoun, Vince D; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2016-05-01

    The human insular cortex consists of functionally diverse subdivisions that engage during tasks ranging from interoception to cognitive control. The multiplicity of functions subserved by insular subdivisions calls for a nuanced investigation of their functional connectivity profiles. Four insula subdivisions (dorsal anterior, dAI; ventral, VI; posterior, PI; middle, MI) derived using a data-driven approach were subjected to static- and dynamic functional network connectivity (s-FNC and d-FNC) analyses. Static-FNC analyses replicated previous work demonstrating a cognition-emotion-interoception division of the insula, where the dAI is functionally connected to frontal areas, the VI to limbic areas, and the PI and MI to sensorimotor areas. Dynamic-FNC analyses consisted of k-means clustering of sliding windows to identify variable insula connectivity states. The d-FNC analysis revealed that the most frequently occurring dynamic state mirrored the cognition-emotion-interoception division observed from the s-FNC analysis, with less frequently occurring states showing overlapping and unique subdivision connectivity profiles. In two of the states, all subdivisions exhibited largely overlapping profiles, consisting of subcortical, sensory, motor, and frontal connections. Two other states showed the dAI exhibited a unique connectivity profile compared with other insula subdivisions. Additionally, the dAI exhibited the most variable functional connections across the s-FNC and d-FNC analyses, and was the only subdivision to exhibit dynamic functional connections with regions of the default mode network. These results highlight how a d-FNC approach can capture functional dynamics masked by s-FNC approaches, and reveal dynamic functional connections enabling the functional flexibility of the insula across time. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1770-1787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Instrumentation Automation for Concrete Structures. Report. 3. Available Data Collection and Reduction Software.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Application: Data acquisition. b. Company: Transmation , Inc. 977 Mt. Read Blvd Rochester, NY 14606 (Phone) (716) 254-9000 c. Pricing: Ranges from $25,000.00...for harsh conditions. a. Application: Data acquisition, control, and graphics. b. Company: Transmation , Inc. 977 Mt. Read Blvd. Rochester, NY 14606...2-1. Systems Application Engineering, Inc. DAIS, para. V-1-6. Tektronix# Inc. PLOT-10; Interactive Graphics Lib., para. V-3-5. Transmation , Inc. ACT

  11. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-08

    A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces...conservatives. In March 2005, Karzai appointed a former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by...Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from Ghazni Province), heads the

  12. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    elections to the parliament, their service at many levels of government, including a governorship ( Bamiyan Province), and their growing presence in the...the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the...Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June

  13. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-06

    central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the fall of the Taliban. Some...former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush...in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from Ghazni Province), heads the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC

  14. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Eric B.; Angell, Christopher T.; Chodash, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products – 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. PMID:21957447

  15. Hsf1 in Her2-Positive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Hsf1 deficiency drastically delayed chemical skin carcinogenesis and increased survival from 30% to 90% (Dai et al, 2007). In this study, using...increased survival of p53-knock-in mutant (R172H) mice (13). Similarly, Hsf1 deficiency drastically postponed RAS-induced chemical skin carcinogenesis...damage-induced senescence is associated with suppression of the HSR To understand how HSR is modulated in aging, we investigated HSR in skin fibroblasts

  16. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1992/1993 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1991: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    from aircraft electroplating . - (U) Developed analytical procedures to identify source of fuel spills to determine cleanup responsibility. (U) FY 1991...been responsible for the revolution in avionics through such programs as DAIS and Pave Pillar . It is now providing the technology base for a new...the thin film solar cell assessment to test for electron and proton radiation effects on Amorphous Silicon, Copper Indium Diselenide and Cadmium

  17. The Fungus Raffaelea lauricola Modifies Behavior of Its Symbiont and Vector, the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Xyleborus Glabratus), by Altering Host Plant Volatile Production.

    PubMed

    Martini, Xavier; Hughes, Marc A; Killiny, Nabil; George, Justin; Lapointe, Stephen L; Smith, Jason A; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-05-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus is the vector of the symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola that causes laurel wilt, a highly lethal disease to members of the Lauraceae family. Pioneer X. glabratus beetles infect live trees with R. lauricola, and only when tree health starts declining more X. glabratus are attracted to the infected tree. Until now this sequence of events was not well understood. In this study, we investigated the temporal patterns of host volatiles and phytohormone production and vector attraction in relation to laurel wilt symptomology. Following inoculations with R. lauricola, volatile collections and behavioral tests were performed at different time points. Three days after infection (DAI), we found significant repellency of X. glabratus by leaf odors of infected swamp bay Persea palustris as compared with controls. However, at 10 and 20 DAI, X. glabratus were more attracted to leaf odors from infected than non-infected host plants. GC-MS analysis revealed an increase in methyl salicylate (MeSA) 3 DAI, whereas an increase of sesquiterpenes and leaf aldehydes was observed 10 and 20 DAI in leaf volatiles. MeSA was the only behaviorally active repellent of X. glabratus in laboratory bioassays. In contrast, X. glabratus did not prefer infected wood over healthy wood, and there was no associated significant difference in their volatile profiles. Analyses of phytohormone profiles revealed an initial increase in the amount of salicylic acid (SA) in leaf tissues following fungal infection, suggesting that the SA pathway was activated by R. lauricola infection, and this activation caused increased release of MeSA. Overall, our findings provide a better understanding of X. glabratus ecology and underline chemical interactions with its symbiotic fungus. Our work also demonstrates how the laurel wilt pathosystem alters host defenses to impact vector behavior and suggests manipulation of host odor by the fungus that attract more vectors.

  18. HGF/c-MET Pathway in AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    about subscriptions and ASH membership may be found online at: Copyright 2011 by The American Society of Hematology ; all rights reserved. of... Hematology , 2021 L St, NW, Suite 900, Washington DC 20036. Blood (print ISSN 0006-4971, online ISSN 1528-0020), is published weekly by the American Society...lymphoma. Journal of hematology & oncology. 2014; 7:30. 36. Dai L, Chen Y, Toole B, Parsons C and Qin Z. Induction of hyaluronan production by

  19. The Multi-Resistant Reaction of Drought-Tolerant Coffee 'Conilon Clone 14' to Meloidogyne spp. and Late Hypersensitive-Like Response in Coffea canephora.

    PubMed

    Lima, Edriana A; Furlanetto, Cleber; Nicole, Michel; Gomes, Ana C M M; Almeida, Maria R A; Jorge-Júnior, Aldemiro; Correa, Valdir R; Salgado, Sônia Maria; Ferrão, Maria A G; Carneiro, Regina M D G

    2015-06-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., have major economic impact on coffee production in Central and South America. Genetic control of RKN constitutes an essential part for integrated pest management strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Coffea canephora genotypes (clones) to Meloidogyne spp. Sensitive and drought-tolerant coffee genotypes were used to infer their resistance using nematode reproduction factor and histopathology. Eight clonal genotypes were highly resistant to M. paranaensis. 'Clone 14' (drought-tolerant) and 'ESN2010-04' were the only genotypes highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to both M. incognita races 3 and 1. Several clones were highly resistant to both avirulent and virulent M. exigua. Clone 14 and ESN2010-04 showed multiple resistance to major RKNs tested. Roots of 'clone 14' (resistant) and 'clone 22' (susceptible) were histologically studied against infection by M. incognita race 3 and M. paranaensis. Reduction of juvenile (J2) penetration in clone 14 was first seen at 2 to 6 days after inoculation (DAI). Apparent early hypersensitive reaction (HR) was seen in root cortex between 4 and 6 DAI, which led to cell death and prevention of some nematode development. At 12 to 20 DAI, giant cells formed in the vascular cylinder, besides normal development into J3/J4. From 32 to 45 DAI, giant cells were completely degenerated. Late, intense HR and cell death were frequently observed around young females and giant cells reported for the first time in coffee pathosystem. These results provide rational bases for future studies, including prospection, characterization, and expression profiling of genomic loci involved in both drought tolerance and resistance to multiple RKN species.

  20. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum

  1. U.S. - Panama Relations in the 1990’s: Developing a Post-Noriega Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-08

    Latin America Daily Report, 22 December 1989, p. 28. 22. "Foreign Minister Linares Outlines Foreign Policy," Panama City Circuito RPC Television (Channel...Daily Report 2 May 1989: 20. "Endara Says U.S. Forces To Leave in 1 Month." Panama City Circuito RPC TV (Channel 4) 23 December 1989, reported in FBIS...America Dai Report 12 January 1990: 29. "Foreign Minister Linares Outlines Foreign Policy." Panama City Circuito RPC Television (Channel 4) 25 December

  2. Multilevel, Multicomponent Microarchitectures of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Diverse Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-31

    Microarchitectures of Vertically- Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Diverse Applications Liangti Qu,†,* Rich A. Vaia,‡ and Liming Dai§,* †Key Laboratory of Cluster...single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), especially in an aligned andmicropatterned array form, have been extensively studied for various applications ...specific property for diverse applications . Recently, we have exploited the contact transfer method to sequentially extract CNTs from their vertically

  3. (GameChanger) Multifunctional Design of Hybrid Composites of Load Bearing Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    and Hydroethyl Cellulose ", Nov 2009, AICHE Annual Meeting 24. June 2009:Gordon Research Conference, “ Carbon Nanotube Nanostructures E. Jan, N...Volakis, “Polymer- Carbon Nanotube Sheets for Conformal Load Bearing Antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag., vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2169- 2175, Jul. 2010...Propagation, Toronto, Canada, July, 2010. 7. Y. Bayram, Feng Du, L. Dai, J.L. Volakis, “Surface Conditioned Carbon Nanotube Conductive Sheet for Flexible and

  4. Organo-Soluble Porphyrin Mixed Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-16

    Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods . J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 8410- 8426. (7) Yu, C.; Irudayaraj, J...Mixed Monolayer- Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes Chenming Xue, Yongqian Xu, Yi Pang, Dingshan Yu, Liming Dai, Min Gao, Augustine...Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  5. An Ambulatory Surgery Service Feasibility Study at Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    of the demand model on ,.,C operations involved ev .i,.ution of the alternative operational ambultory surgery service models possible at :.*,:C. Based...arrive, have surgery and be discharged on the same day. The type of pro- cedures included in this concept involves the use of general anesthesia in...live oirths). 4’. 0.3 times the dai:, average number of clinic visits. 𔃿. 0.14 times the average daily number of dental procedures. The significant

  6. Evaluation of reading, writing, and watching TV using the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory.

    PubMed

    Bruijning, Janna E; van Rens, Ger H M B; Knol, Dirk L; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the longitudinal outcomes of rehabilitation (from baseline to 4 and 12 months) at a multidisciplinary rehabilitation center. The three goals ("Reading," "Writing," and "Watching TV") were measured with the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI). In addition, outcomes were compared with the Low Vision Quality-of-Life questionnaire (LVQOL) for better insight into the (longitudinal) interpretation. In a cohort of 241 visually impaired persons, corrected and uncorrected linear mixed models were used to determine longitudinal rehabilitation outcomes for the D-AI goals "Reading," "Writing," and "Watching TV," and difficulty and underlying tasks, as well as for the LVQOL scales "Basic aspects" and "Reading and fine work." At baseline, Spearman correlations were determined for similar scales of the D-AI and LVQOL. Importance scores of goals were stable over time. Difficulty scores decreased over time, but the differences were not significant at each measurement moment. For reading, difficulty of underlying tasks seemed to reflect the (change in) difficulty at the goal level; however, change in writing tasks did not reflect the change in the umbrella goal. Each of the three subscales of underlying tasks of the goal "Watching TV" changed in a different way. Changes in similar LVQOL scales were comparable, although less pronounced and more influenced by depression. Prescription or advice of low-vision aids and training in visual devices was not related (p > 0.01) with any of the outcome measures. It seems reasonable to conclude that the decrease in perceived difficulty was an effect of rehabilitation. The D-AI goal scores for difficulty were less influenced by depression and may be more sensitive to measure change over time compared with the LVQOL. Importance scores may not be useful for evaluation purposes.

  7. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Lands and Reserved Water Committee on Energy and Natural Resources United States Senate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-25

    D-Ai37 480 REPORT TO THE CHAIRMAN SUBCOMMITTEE ON PUBLIC LANDS AND i/i RESERVED WATER CO..(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC RESOURCES...A II-. BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Report To The Chairman, Subcommittee On Public Lands And Reserved Water • Committee On Energy And Natural...Honorable Malcolm Wallop Availability Codes Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Lands Avail and/or and Reserved Water Dist Special Committee on Energy and

  8. The Relationship between Low-Level Convergence and Convective Precipitation in Illinois and South Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    D-Ai27 615 THE RELATIONSHIP BETMEEN LOW-LEVEL CONVERGENCE AND i/1 CONVECTIVE PRECIPITATI..(U) ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY DIV URBANA A I WATSON ET AL...construed as an official Department of the Army position, )olicy, or decision, unless so designated by other documentation N 19. 9.EY WORDS (Continue on...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Uh.n Date Ecoleomd) State Water Survey Division k Insttute of METEOROLOGY SECTION AT THED UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS THE

  9. Starvation beneficially influences the liver physiology and nutrient metabolism in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Shimizu, Sonoko; Urasaki, Shintaro; Matsubara, Takahiro; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Ohta, Kohei

    2015-11-01

    Dietary compromises, especially food restrictions, possess species-specific effects on the health status and infection control in several organisms, including fish. To understand the starvation-mediated physiological responses in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream, especially in the liver, we performed a 20-day starvation experiment using 4 treatment (2 fed and 2 starved) groups, namely, fed-placebo, starved-placebo, fed-infected, and starved-infected, wherein bacterial exposure was done on the 11th day. In the present study, the starved groups showed reduced hepatosomatic index and drastic depletion in glycogen storage and vacuole formation. The fed-infected fish showed significant (P<0.05) increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in relation to its starved equivalent. Significant (P<0.05) alteration in glucose and energy metabolism, as evident from hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, was recorded in the starved groups. Interestingly, coinciding with the liver histology, PPAR (peroxisome proliferator activated receptors) α transcription followed a time-dependent activation in starved groups while PPARγ exhibited an opposite pattern. The transcription of hepcidin 1 and transferrin, initially increased in 0dai (days after infection) starved fish but reduced significantly (P<0.05) at later stages. Two-color immunohistochemistry and subsequent cell counting showed significant increase in P63-positive cells at 0dai and 5dai but later reduced slightly at 10dai. Similar results were also obtained in the lysosomal (cathepsin D) and non-lysosomal (ubiquitin) gene transcription level. All together, our data suggest that starvation exerts multidirectional responses, which allows for better physiological adaptations during any infectious period, in red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Changes in State Identity on Alliance Cohesion in Northeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    School, Sun Zhe at Tsinghua University, and Zhan Debin at Fudan University, began to publicly express their new perceptions of the capabilities...Rin 4 al Hong Xuezhi 1 henyang MRC Wang Ke General Kim Hak Sam 994 DDM Kim Jong Kak COGS Choe Kwang General Oh Yong Bang 5 S 1995 MDN DFAB Sun...Qixiang AMS PC Zhang Gong Guangzhou MRPC Shi Yuxia DDM Kim Jong Kak 4 1996 ILD Deputy Director Dai Bingguo North Sea FC Wang Jiying

  11. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jagdale, Ganpati B; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P M; Cline, W O; Agudelo, P; Nyczepir, A P; Noe, J P

    2013-06-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum

  12. Assessment of Human Lung Macrophages After Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Part 2. DNA Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Part II. DNA Damage Lin Zhu13, Amanda M. Schrand1, Andrey A. Voevodin4, Dong Wook Chang3, Liming Dai2∗, and Saber M...5707 Due to the widespread production and use of carbon nanotubes in almost every area of science (i.e., drug delivery, biosensors, fuel cells and...purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes . Cells were incubated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and assessed for DNA damage response via fluorescent

  13. Temporal Formation and Immunolocalization of an Endospore Surface Epitope During Pasteuria penetrans Sporogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Preston, J. F.; Dickson, D. W.; Giblin-Davis, R. M.; Williams, D. S.; Aldrich, H. C.; Rice, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and localization of an endospore surface epitope associated with the development of Pasteuria penetrans was determined using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) as a probe. Nematodes, uninfected or infected with P. penetrans, were harvested at 12, 16, 24, and 38 days after inoculation (DAI) and then examined to determine the developmental stage of the bacterium. Vegetative growth of P. penetrans was observed only in infected nematodes harvested at 12 and 16 DAI, whereas cells at different stages of sporulation and mature endospores were observed at 24 and 38 DAI. ELISA and immunoblot analysis revealed that the adhesin-associated epitope was first detected at 24 DAI, and increased in the later stages of sporogenesis. These results indicate that the synthesis of adhesin-related proteins occurred at a certain developmental stage relative to the sporulation process, and was associated with endospore maturation. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the distribution of the epitope is nearly uniform on the periphery of each spore, as defined by parasporal fibers. Immunocytochemistry at the ultrastructural level indicated a distribution of the epitope over the parasporal fibers. The epitope also was detected over other structures such as sporangium and exosporium during the sporogenesis process, but it was not observed over the cortex, inner-spore coat, outer-spore coat, or protoplasm. The appearance of the adhesin epitope first at stage III of sporogenesis and its presence on the parasporal fibers are consistent with an adhesin-related role in the attachment of the mature endospore to the cuticle of the nematode host. PMID:19262762

  14. Investigation of Possible Antivitamin B-6 Properties in Irradiation Sterilized Chicken.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    recommended by the SSCP (14) as described in Sigma Tech. Bul- letin No. 57- UV (7-79) (15) for the analysis of serum. Reagent rela- tionships were modified...8217’ ’ ’’’ " ... ; ........ .... "- ..... ..... . . ,..... - Ii I g;mml Ir,,I;) W,i ls :Is igi icaintl\\’ lower u1! dai, 7 ( ,E i t,:) 2 : day 28 (bat I -xcs). L ,’Lron rradiated

  15. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  16. Nonlinear radiative transfer in high temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Vadim Y.

    2017-10-01

    An approximation to the nonlinear radiative transfer equation is considered in the context of magnetohydrodynamics. This approximation retains nonlinear terms which are responsible for the Compton plasma heating in addition to the radiation cooling. The effect is studied numerically. In particular, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Dai-Woodward case are modeled. It is shown that radiation-plasma coupling results in damping of small scale instabilities and alters the shock wave structure.

  17. Guidelines and Data to Support Plans for Reallocating Food during Crisis Relocation. Regional Appendix. FEMA Region III,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    D-Ai2 599 GUIDELINES AND DATA TO SUPPORT PLANS FOR REALLOCATING i/l FOOD DURING CRISIS..(U) SYSTAN INC LOS ALTOS CA J N BILLHEIMER ET AL. SEP 82...BUREAU OF STANDARDS 963 A * S w GUIDELINES AND DATA TO SUPPORT PLANS FOR REALLOCATING FOOD DURING CRISIS RELOCATION REGIONAL APPENDIX 4 FEMA REGION...REALLOCATING FOOD DURING CRISIS RELOCATION - REGIONAL APPENDICES FEMA REGION III By John W. Biliheimer Juliet McNally [ ° For Federal Emergency

  18. Investment Planning of Interdependent Waterway Improvement Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Selection," IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management , EM-18, Aug. 1971. Dai, D. M. and Schonfeld, P., "Reliability Analysis of Coal Inventories on the...perspective. However, with some exceptions, there tend to be two characteristic approaches: the engineering and management science approach, and the...economics-finance approach. Engineers and management scientists are concerned with normative models for decision making and techniques for their solution

  19. Head injury assessment of non-lethal projectile impacts: A combined experimental/computational method.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Debasis; Robbe, Cyril; Deck, Caroline; Meyer, Frank; Papy, Alexandre; Willinger, Remy

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess this risk based on experimental tests versus numerical predictive head injury simulations. A total of 16 non-lethal projectiles (NLP) impacts were conducted with rigid force plate at three different ranges of impact velocity (120, 72 and 55m/s) and the force/deformation-time data were used for the validation of finite element (FE) NLP. A good accordance between experimental and simulation data were obtained during validation of FE NLP with high correlation value (>0.98) and peak force discrepancy of less than 3%. A state-of-the art finite element head model with enhanced brain and skull material laws and specific head injury criteria was used for numerical computation of NLP impacts. Frontal and lateral FE NLP impacts to the head model at different velocities were performed under LS-DYNA. It is the very first time that the lethality of NLP is assessed by axonal strain computation to predict diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in NLP impacts to head. In case of temporo-parietal impact the min-max risk of DAI is 0-86%. With a velocity above 99.2m/s there is greater than 50% risk of DAI for temporo-parietal impacts. All the medium- and high-velocity impacts are susceptible to skull fracture, with a percentage risk higher than 90%. This study provides tool for a realistic injury (DAI and skull fracture) assessment during NLP impacts to the human head. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Mechanical, Thermal and Wear Properties of Titanium Rich Metallic Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-20

    I D-Ai23 595 CHRACTERIZATION OF MECHANICAL THERMAL AND NEAR / I PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM RI..(U) NORTHEASTERN UNIY BOSTON INA INST OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS...Mechanical, Thermal andJun 78 - 15 ar 82 Wear Properties of Titanium Rich Metallic Glasses 6. PERFORMINGORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) G. CONTRACT OR GRANT...b, blockh nmibor) metallic glasses transition metal glasses 2 titanium alloy glasses . /reactive alloys /alloys - properties " ABSTRAc C (emwn sm