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Sample records for kenkyu kaihatsu dai

  1. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Documentation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    maintaining the DAIS library, (2) generating certain specifications, plans, drawings and/or test reports, (3) performing configuration audits per MIL- STD ...1521, (4) assuring that DAIS documents conformed to MIL- STD -490 and 483, (5) technical editing and DO I’FAN 7 1473 EDITION OF I NOV LIIS OBSOLETE...programs on how to properly document their efforts in MIL- STD format.,/’ , lI UNCLASS IFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICAION OF THIS PAOR(VPMS 0Di Ent1m0

  2. DAI-CLIPS: Distributed, Asynchronous, Interacting CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagne, Denis; Garant, Alain

    1994-01-01

    DAI-CLIPS is a distributed computational environment within which each CLIPS is an active independent computational entity with the ability to communicate freely with other CLIPS. Furthermore, new CLIPS can be created, others can be deleted or modify their expertise, all dynamically in an asynchronous and independent fashion during execution. The participating CLIPS are distributed over a network of heterogeneous processors taking full advantage of the available processing power. We present the general framework encompassing DAI-CLIPS and discuss some of its advantages and potential applications.

  3. Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 (DAI Inc 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED DAI Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS Programs...Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel Development...Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics DAI Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3 Mr

  4. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS). Volume II. Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    package. This was chosen as being representative of current non-DAIS software in that it is coded in assembly language; it is monolithic as opposed to...expression below. NNII(I) = I + PA() + PP(I) PA Number of new P coded repairable assemblies within the LRU. PP Number of new P coded consumable items...expression by adding the value SP to the NNII term. BLII(I) = I + PA() + PP() SP(I) PA Number of new P coded repairable assemblies within the LRU. PP Number

  5. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Training Requirements Analysis Model (TRAMOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The training requirements analysis model (TRAMOD) described in this report represents an important portion of the larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. TRAMOD is the second of three models that comprise an LCC impact modeling system for use in the early stages of system development. As…

  6. Finding a New Vision of Gifted Education: An Interview with David Yun Dai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Zijiang lecture professor of education and psychology at East China Normal University. Dr. Dai has published seven books and over 70 journal articles, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, and book and…

  7. The significance of large variations in oil properties of the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Behrenbruch, P.; Du, P.Q.

    1995-10-01

    The Dai Hung Oil field, offshore Vietnam, is comprised of a complex subsurface structure containing stacked reservoir sequences typically found in many other Southeast Asian fields. Combined with areal fault compartmentalization, this situation has led to the observed, large variations in oil properties. Furthermore, the depositional environment in terms of burial history has created a unique overpressure situation which also had an affect, particularly on the crude saturation conditions of individual reservoirs. For commercial and technical reasons, this situation required a detailed analysis, both in terms of variation in crude assay and live oil properties. For whole crude properties: gravity, K factor, wax content and pour point-graphs were drawn up using a large data base of worldwide crudes against which the Dai Hung data could be validated. In case of PVT properties (bubble point and formation volume factor) existing industry correlations were examined. It could be concluded that the sweet, medium gravity and moderately waxy Dai Hung crude has whole crude properties which are comparable to other, similar crudes. The general framework of crude properties established is suitable to type other crudes, even if limited information is available. Of the existing PVT correlations tested, it was found that Standing`s correlation for the oil formation volume factor and the Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt correlation for the bubble point fitted the Dai Hung crude data the best. For the lower shrinkage Dai Hung crudes the Malaysian oil formation volume factor correlation by Omar-Todd gave the best data fit.

  8. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI).

    PubMed

    Xie, Lilan; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Cai, Kaimei; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-03-01

    The DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) is a recently identified DNA sensor for intracellular DNA that triggers a signal for the production of type I IFN. Here we report the cloning and characterization of porcine DAI (poDAI). The full-length of poDAI encodes 439 amino acids, contains two N-terminal DNA-binding domains and shows similarity to mouse, rat, dog, monkey, human, horse and cattle counterparts ranging from 44% to 67%. poDAI mRNA expression was mainly detected in spleen, lung, kidney and small intestine. Over-expression of poDAI activated transcription factors IRF3 and NF-kappaB and induced IFN-beta in different porcine cell lines, but to varying degrees. Deletion mutant analysis revealed that both the DNA-binding domains and the C-terminus are required for full activation of IFN-beta. siRNA targeting poDAI significantly decreased poly(dAT:dAT)- or Pseudorabies virus (PRV)-induced IFN-beta activation. These results indicate that DAI is an important immuno-regulator of the porcine innate immune system.

  9. Contesting modernity: Tobacco use and romanticism among older Dai farmers in Xishuangbanna, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Davey, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    The majority of research about tobacco use in China focuses on Han Chinese, the main ethnic group comprising over 90 per cent of the population, and a paucity of research exists on ethnic minorities. The present study elucidates tobacco use among the Dai people, an ethnic group in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The study design consisted of interviews and grounded theory methodology in a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework. The categories of the grounded theory revealed tobacco consumption was weaved in a complex web of meanings: social practices, perceptions of health, and work lives as agriculturalists, situated in Dai cultural and social milieu. An important finding was the stage-managing of tobacco as a symbol of 'tradition' versus 'modernity': Through a process of contested modernity, the older men championed long-standing tobacco customs as representative of Dai heritage and thus their own tobacco use as upholding traditions amid encroaching cultural and societal change in China. These findings are important because little is known about Dai people's tobacco use and how they are responding to social change. There are also implications for the development of culturally-appropriate tobacco control strategies.

  10. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The reliability and maintainability (R&M) model described in this report represents an important portion of a larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. The R&M model is the first of three models that comprise a modeling system for use in LCC analysis of avionics systems. The total…

  11. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  12. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Mid-1980's Maintenance Task Analysis. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The fundamental objective of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study is to provide the Air Force with an enhanced in-house capability to incorporate LCC considerations during all stages of the system acquisition process. The purpose of this report is to describe the technical approach, results, and conclusions…

  13. Interactions between double-stranded RNA regulators and the protein kinase DAI.

    PubMed Central

    Manche, L; Green, S R; Schmedt, C; Mathews, M B

    1992-01-01

    The interferon-induced protein kinase DAI, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated inhibitor of translation, plays a key role in regulating protein synthesis in higher cells. Once activated, in a process that involves autophosphorylation, it phosphorylates the initiation factor eIF-2, leading to inhibition of polypeptide chain initiation. The activity of DAI is controlled by RNA regulators, including dsRNA activators and highly structured single-stranded RNAs which block activation by dsRNA. To elucidate the mechanism of activation, we studied the interaction of DAI with RNA duplexes of discrete sizes. Molecules shorter than 30 bp fail to bind stably and do not activate the enzyme, but at high concentrations they prevent activation by long dsRNA. Molecules longer than 30 bp bind and activate the enzyme, with an efficiency that increases with increasing chain length, reaching a maximum at about 85 bp. These dsRNAs fail to activate at high concentrations and also prevent activation by long dsRNA. Analysis of complexes between dsRNA and DAI suggests that at maximal packing the enzyme interacts with as little as a single helical turn of dsRNA (11 bp) but under conditions that allow activation the binding site protects about 80 bp of duplex. When the RNA-binding site is fully occupied with an RNA activator, the complex appears to undergo a conformational change. Images PMID:1357546

  14. Dental caries status of Dai preschool children in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dai people, one of the ethnic minorities in China, have a population of 1,260,000. They have the same origin as one of the main ethnic groups of Laos and Thailand. Most of the Dai live in Yunnan province, which is located in the less-developed southwestern part of China. This study aimed to describe the oral health status of Dai preschool children in China and the factors that influence their oral health status. Methods An oral health survey was performed between 2011 and 2012 to select Dai five-year-old children using multi-stage stratified sampling in Yunnan. Their dental caries experience was measured using the “dmft” index, and severe caries was assessed using the “pa” index, which is modified from the “pufa” index. Oral hygiene status was assessed using the visual plaque index (VPI). A questionnaire to study the children’s socio-demographic background and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children’s parents. Results A total of 833 children were examined. Their caries prevalence was 89% and 49% of the children had carious tooth with pulp involvement. The mean (SD) dmft score was 7.0 (5.3). Higher dmft scores were found among children who were girls, were currently bottle-fed, took daily sweet snacks, had higher VPI scores, and had visited a dentist within the last year. Conclusions The caries prevalence and experience of the five-year-old Dai children in Yunnan, China was high, and almost half had severe caries. The caries experience was associated with gender, snack habits, dental visit habits, and oral hygiene status. PMID:24279504

  15. An analysis of reproducibility of DAI and IOTN indexes in a Brazilian scene.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rejane Bezerra de; Paiva, Angela Cristina Pinto de; Farias, Arthur Costa Rodrigues; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the indexes DAI and IOTN in predicting the need of orthodontic treatment based in one property: reproducibility. The index DAI was developed in USA in 1989 and can identify 10 occlusal alterations that result, mathematically, in scores, with weights based in its relative importance according with the judgment of laypeople. The IOTN was developed in England also in 1989 and incorporates an aesthetic component AC and a component of dental health DHC. The AC component consists on a scale illustrated with 10 photos which had been divided in bands of degrees in accordance with a hierarchic scale and classifies the patients in degrees of treatment needed. The instruments of collection of the data were: plastic rule of DHC component and an aesthetic visual scale of component AC praised for the IOTN and one periodontal OMS probe praised for DAI. The sample was composite by 60 patients. The results indicated that both indexes were highly reproducible in accordance with Pearson and Spearman coefficients, which were strengthened by t-tests of Student and Wilcoxon, respectively. The correlation results between the examiners had varied between r=0.85 and r=1.00.

  16. Inhibiting HMGB1 with Glycyrrhizic Acid Protects Brain Injury after DAI via Its Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Honggang; Huang, Tinqin; Li, Dandong; Zhao, Yonglin; Ma, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein that has endogenous cytokine-like activity, is involved in several neurological diseases by mediating inflammatory response. In this study, a lateral head rotation device was used to establish a rat diffuse axonal injury (DAI) model. The dynamic expression of HMGB1, apoptosis-associated proteins, and proinflammatory cytokines were detected by Western blot, and neuronal apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining. The extracellular release of HMGB1 and the accumulation of β-APP were observed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The brain injury was indicated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS), brain water content (BWC), and the extravasation of Evans blue. We showed that HMGB1 level obviously decreased within 48 h after DAI, accompanied by neuronal apoptosis, the activation of caspases 3 and 9, and the phosphorylation of BCL-2. Inhibiting HMGB1 with glycyrrhizic acid (GL) can suppress the activation of apoptosis-associated proteins and inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which ameliorated motor and cognitive deficits, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and protected the integrity of blood brain barrier (BBB) and axonal injury after experimental DAI in rats. Thus, HMGB1 may be involved in the inflammatory response after DAI, and inhibition of HMGB1 release with GL can notably alleviate the brain injury after DAI. PMID:27041825

  17. Service Infrastructure for Cross-Matching Distributed Datasets Using OGSA-DAI and TAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliman, M.; Alemu, T.; Hume, A.; van Hemert, J.; Mann, R. G.; Noddle, K.; Valkonen, L.

    2011-07-01

    One of the most powerful and important goals for VO developers has been to enable cross-match queries between disparate datasets for end users. This has only been achieved within the VO using the early SkyNode infrastructure and has not been reproduced using current IVOA standards. To remedy that situation, the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU) has worked with the Edinburgh Parallel Computing Center (EPCC) in leveraging the OGSA-DAI grid middleware to enable cross catalog queries on distributed VO services. We have achieved this goal by building a three layer service stack that places the OGSA-DAI software above multiple individual services implementing the IVOA's new Table Access Protocol (TAP), and then a single TAP service is placed above this and presented to the end users. Users can then execute ADQL queries that cross-match between the disparate datasets as though they were in the same database with acceptable performance rates on the resulting data flow. The OGSA-DAI software is able to interrogate any compliant TAP service to acquire the necessary metadata for insertion into the single federated TAP service used for cross-match queries. We are currently testing this distributed infrastructure using the TAP services provided by WFAU for the UKIDSS DR3 and SDSS DR7 datasets in combination with the TAP service available from the Canadian Astronomy Data Center (this last without requiring any action from CADC staff). This forms the basis for a large-scale distributed data mining workflow and similar activities can be readily implemented as more TAP services come online. Future work will involve releasing this infrastructure to the greater astronomical community as an IVOA compliant service for users.

  18. Detection of radioxenon in Darwin, Australia following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Orr, Blake; Schöppner, Michael; Tinker, Rick; Plastino, Wolfango

    2013-12-01

    A series of (133)Xe detections in April 2011 made at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System noble gas station in Darwin, Australia, were analysed to determine the most likely source location. Forward and backwards atmospheric transport modelling simulations using FLEXPART were conducted. It was shown that the most likely source location was the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Other potential sources in the southern hemisphere were analysed, including the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical facility, but it was shown that sources originating from these locations were highly unlikely to be the source of the observed (133)Xe Darwin detections.

  19. Radioiodine in the atmosphere after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Luke S; Dickson, Raymond S; Glowa, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    About 160 PBq of (131)I was released into the atmosphere during the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The chemistry of radioiodine is complicated, and it can be released in several different forms. In addition, the different physical forms, like molecular iodine, aerosol-form iodine, or organic iodine, would have all behaved differently once in the atmosphere, and would have been removed at different rates. These releases were detected by monitoring stations throughout Japan, and from these measurements, key insights can be made about the different chemical forms that were released, as well as the persistence of each in the environment.

  20. Linked spaces of vulnerability: HIV risk amongst migrant Dai women and their left-behind husbands in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Rui; Lyttleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In one county of Southwest China bordering Myanmar, large numbers of minority Dai women leave to work in southern Thailand. Many are married and they leave behind husbands and children, sending remittances and returning home intermittently. These women commonly establish relations with Chinese/Malaysian men in their worksites--massage parlours in the tourist sites near the Malaysian border. These men become second husbands just as the Dai women become second wives. This paper examines the complicated set of HIV risks and assumptions that emerge from the circular Dai exodus to Thailand and the manner in which transnational employment networks impact on domestic and sexual relationships for women and their non-migrant husbands back home.

  1. Identification of a high frequency transposon induced by tissue culture, nDaiZ, a member of the hAT family in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Kewei; Shen, Yi; Huang, Zejun; Li, Ming; Tang, Ding; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2009-03-01

    Recent completion of rice genome sequencing has revealed that more than 40% of its genome consists of repetitive sequences, and most of them are related to inactive transposable elements. In the present study, a transposable element, nDaiZ0, which is induced by tissue culture with high frequency, was identified by sequence analysis of an allelic line of the golden hull and internode 2 (gh2) mutant, which was integrated into the forth exon of GH2. The 528-bp nDaiZ0 has 14-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), and generates an 8-bp duplication of its target sites (TSD) during its mobilization. nDaiZs are non-autonomous transposons and have no coding capacity. Bioinformatics analysis and southern blot hybridization showed that at least 16 copies of nDaiZ elements exist in the japonica cultivar Nipponbare genome and 11 copies in the indica cultivar 93-11 genome. During tissue culture, only one copy, nDaiZ9, located on chromosome 5 in the genome of Nipponbare can be activated with its transposable frequency reaching 30%. However, nDaiZ9 was not present in the 93-11 genome. The larger elements, DaiZs, were further identified by database searching using nDaiZ0 as a query because they share similar TIRs and subterminal sequences. DaiZ can also generate an 8-bp TSD. DaiZ elements contain a conserved region with a high similarity to the hAT dimerization motif, suggesting that the nDaiZ-DaiZ transposon system probably belongs to the hAT superfamily of class II transposons. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is a new type of plant hAT-like transposon. Although nDaiZ is activated by tissue culture, the high transposable frequency indicates that it could become a useful gene tagging system for rice functional genomic studies. In addition, the mechanism of the high transposable ability of nDaiZ9 is discussed.

  2. Isograde mapping and mineral identification on the island of Naxos, Greece, using DAIS 7915 hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtler, Helmut; Segl, Karl; Dickerhof, Corinna; Chabrillat, Sabine; Kaufmann, Hermann J.

    2003-03-01

    The ESF-LSF 1997 flight campaign conducted by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) recorded several transects across the island of Naxos using the airborne hyperspectral scanner DAIS. The geological targets cover all major litho-tectonic units of a metamorphic dome with the transition of metamorphic zonations from the outer meta-sedimentary greenschist envelope to the gneissic amphibolite facies and migmatitic core. Mineral identification of alternating marble-dolomite sequences and interlayered schists bearing muscovite and biotite has been accomplished using the airborne hyperspectral DAIS 7915 sensor. Data have been noise filtered based on maximum noise fraction (MNF) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) and converted from radiance to reflectance. For mineral identification, constrained linear spectral unmixing and spectral angle mapper (SAM) algorithms were tested. Due to their unsatisfying results a new approach was developed which consists of a linear mixture modeling and spectral feature fitting. This approach provides more detailed and accurate information. Results are discussed in comparison with detailed geological mapping and additional information. Calcites are clearly separated from dolomites as well as the mica-schist sequences by a good resolution of the mineral muscovite. Thereon an outstanding result represents the very good resolution of the chlorite/mica (muscovite, biotite)-transition defining a metamorphic isograde.

  3. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3–3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9–14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5–2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7–7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China. PMID:26932265

  4. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model Users Guide. Final Report, May 1975-July 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    This report provides a complete guide to the stand alone mode operation of the reliability and maintenance (R&M) model, which was developed to facilitate the performance of design versus cost trade-offs within the digital avionics information system (DAIS) acquisition process. The features and structure of the model, its input data…

  5. Aerial radiation monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using an unmanned helicopter.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 generated a series of large tsunami that seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To provide further details regarding the distribution of air dose rate and the distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) deposition on the ground within a radius of approximately 5 km from the nuclear power plant, we carried out measurements using an unmanned helicopter equipped with a radiation detection system. The distribution of the air dose rate at a height of 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground was calculated. Accordingly, the footprint of radioactive plumes that extended from the FDNPP was illustrated.

  6. An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Mclaughlin, P D; Jones, B; Maher, M M

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Richter scale 0.9-magnitude Tokohu earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, resulting in widespread injury and loss of life. Compounding this tragic loss of life, a series of equipment and structural failures at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNP) resulted in the release of many volatile radioisotopes into the atmosphere. In this update, we detail currently available evidence about the nature of immediate radioactive exposure to FDNP workers and the general population. We contrast the nature of the radioactive exposure at FDNP with that which occurred at the Chernobyl power plant 25 years previously. Prediction of the exact health effects related to the FDNP release is difficult at present and this disaster provides the scientific community with a challenge to help those involved and to continue research that will improve our understanding of the potential complications of radionuclide fallout. PMID:22919005

  7. Concentration of (3)H in plants around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Yamada, Masatoshi; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Noda, Kaori; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) following the damage caused by the tsunami due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Although many radionuclides in various environmental samples around the FDNPS have been measured, (3)H in the terrestrial environment has not yet been reported. We present here the first survey results of (3)H concentrations in plant samples collected around the FDNPS in 2011 from shortly after the accident. The free-water (3)H concentrations in herbaceous plant shoots and evergreen tree leaves were considerably higher than the previous background concentration, and diminished with distance from the FDNPS. Although reconstruction of atmospheric (3)H concentrations after the accident is difficult, a rough estimate of the radiation dose due to (3)H inhalation about 20 km from the FDNPS is on the order of a few microsieverts (μSv).

  8. An update on radioactive release and exposures after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, P D; Jones, B; Maher, M M

    2012-09-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Richter scale 0.9-magnitude Tokohu earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, resulting in widespread injury and loss of life. Compounding this tragic loss of life, a series of equipment and structural failures at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNP) resulted in the release of many volatile radioisotopes into the atmosphere. In this update, we detail currently available evidence about the nature of immediate radioactive exposure to FDNP workers and the general population. We contrast the nature of the radioactive exposure at FDNP with that which occurred at the Chernobyl power plant 25 years previously. Prediction of the exact health effects related to the FDNP release is difficult at present and this disaster provides the scientific community with a challenge to help those involved and to continue research that will improve our understanding of the potential complications of radionuclide fallout.

  9. The Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident and its implications for the safety of nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William

    2016-05-01

    Five years ago the dramatic events in Fukushima that followed the massive earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck Japan on March 11, 2011 sharpened the focus of scientists, engineers and general public on the broad range of technical, environmental and societal issues involved in assuring the safety of the world's nuclear power complex. They also called into question the potential of nuclear power to provide a growing, sustainable resource of CO2-free energy. The issues raised by Fukushima Dai-ichi have provoked urgent concern, not only because of the potential harm that could result from severe accidents or from intentional damage to nuclear reactors or to facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, but also because of the extensive economic impact of those accidents and of the measures taken to avoid them.

  10. Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations of TEPCO--outline & lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The severe accident that broke out at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations on March 11, 2011, caused seemingly infinite damage to the daily life of residents. Serious and wide-spread contamination of the environment occurred due to radioactive materials discharged from nuclear power stations (NPSs). At the same time, many issues were highlighted concerning countermeasures to severe nuclear accidents. The accident is outlined, and lessons learned are extracted with respect to the safety of NPSs, as well as radiation protection of residents under the emergency involving the accident. The materials of the current paper are those released by governmental agencies, academic societies, interim reports of committees under the government, and others.

  11. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv. PMID:23591638

  12. NARAC Modeling During the Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Probanz, B; Foster, K T; Simpson, M; Vogt, P; Aluzzi, F; Dillon, M; Homann, S

    2012-02-14

    This paper summarizes the activities of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis. NARAC provided a wide range of products and analyses as part of its support including: (1) Daily Japanese weather forecasts and hypothetical release (generic source term) dispersion predictions to provide situational awareness and inform planning for U.S. measurement data collection and field operations; (2) Estimates of potential dose in Japan for hypothetical scenarios developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to inform federal government considerations of possible actions that might be needed to protect U.S. citizens in Japan; (3) Estimates of possible plume arrival times and dose for U.S. locations; and (4) Plume model refinement and source estimation based on meteorological analyses and available field data. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) deployed personnel to Japan and stood up 'home team' assets across the DOE complex to aid in assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The DOE Nuclear Incident Team (NIT) coordinated response activities, while DOE personnel provided predictive modeling, air and ground monitoring, sample collection, laboratory analysis, and data assessment and interpretation. DOE deployed the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) personnel, and the Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to Japan. DOE/NNSA home team assets included the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT); National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS); and Radiological Triage. NARAC was activated by the DOE/NNSA on March 11, shortly after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred. The center remained on active operations through late May when DOE ended its deployment to Japan. Over 32 NARAC staff members

  13. Bicoloratum Dai and Li, a new synonym of the leafhopper genus Scaphoideus Uhler (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae),
    with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangying; Dai, Wu

    2015-07-10

    Bicoloratum Dai and Li, 2011 is considered to be a junior synonym of Scaphoideus Uhler, 1889 based on study of specimens of two new species, one of which is morphologically very similar to the type species of Bicoloratum, B. pintungisis Dai and Li 2011. Three valid species now included within the genus Scaphoideus are: S. dinghuensis sp. nov., S. taishanensis sp. nov. and S. pingtungisis (Dai and Li, 2011) n. comb. The detailed morphology of the two new species is described, and photographs of their external habitus and male and female genitalia are also given.

  14. Taking Care, Bringing Life: A Post-structuralist Feminist Analysis of Maternal Discourses of Mothers and Dais in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2017-02-03

    My post-structuralist feminist reading of the antenatal and birthing practices of women (N = 25) living in a basti in India makes visible how the meanings of maternal experiences constituted as our ways open discursive spaces for the mothers and dais as procreators to: challenge (i.e., question the authority of), co-opt (i.e., conditionally adopt), and judge (i.e., employ sanctioned criteria to regulate) competing knowledge production forms. In critiquing maternal knowledge as feminist discourse, the women's strategies contribute theoretically to an integrative construction of care by reclaiming displaced knowledge discourses and diversity in meaning production. Pragmatically, consciousness-raising collectives comprising the mothers and dais can cocreate narratives of our ways of maternal experiences articulated in public discourse to sustain equitability of knowledge traditions in migrant urban Third World contexts.

  15. New Standards in Liquid Waste Treatment at Fukushima Dai-ichi - 13134

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, Paul; Milner, Tim; Ruffing, Jennifer; Poole, Scott; Townson, Paul; Jensen, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    The earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 severely damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant leading to the most severe nuclear incident since Chernobyl. Ongoing operations to cool the damaged reactors at the site have led to the generation of highly radioactive coolant water. This is currently mainly treated to remove Cs-137 and Cs-134 and passed through a reverse osmosis (RO) unit to reduce the salinity before being cycled back to the reactors. Because only the Cs isotopes are removed, the RO reject water still contains many radioactive isotopes and this has led to the accumulation of over 200,000 cubic meters (52 million gallons) of extremely contaminated water which is currently stored on site in tanks. EnergySolutions, in partnership with Toshiba, were contracted to develop a system to reduce 62 isotopes in this waste down to allowable levels. This was a significant technical challenge given the high background salt content of the wastewater, the variation in aqueous chemistry of the radioactive isotopes and the presence of non-active competing ions (e.g. Ca and Mg) which inhibit the removal of isotopes such as Sr-89 and Sr-90. Extensive testing was performed to design a suitable system that could meet the required decontamination goals. These tests were performed over a 6 month period at facilities available in the nearby Fukushima Dai-ni laboratory using actual waste samples. This data was then utilized to design a Multi Radioactive Nuclides Removal System (MRRS) for Fukushima which is a modified version of EnergySolutions' proprietary Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS)'. The stored tank waste is fed into a preliminary precipitation system where iron flocculation is performed to remove a number of isotopes, including Sb-125, Ru-106, Mn-54 and Co-60. The supernatant is then fed into a second precipitation tank where the pH is adjusted and the bulk of the Mg, Ca and Sr precipitated out as carbonates and hydroxides. After passing through a cross

  16. Radiocesium Transfer in Forest Insect Communities after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Seiji; Takamura, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    To understand radiocesium transfer in the forest insect food web, we investigated the activity concentrations of radiocesium in forest insects in the Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures approximately 1.5–2.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We analyzed 34 species of insects sampled from 4 orders and 4 feeding functional groups (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detritivore) from three sites in each prefecture. 137Cs activity concentrations were lowest in herbivorous species and were especially high in detritivorous and omnivorous species that feed on forest litter and fungi. Radiocesium activity concentrations in any given species reflected the degree of contamination of that species’ primary food sources since radiocesium activity concentrations were found to be the lowest in leaves and grass and the highest in litter, bark, and fungi. This study confirmed that litter and other highly contaminated forest components such as fungi, decaying wood, bryophytes, and lichens serve as sources of 137Cs transfer into the forest insect community. PMID:28125745

  17. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident: additional lessons from a radiological emergency assistance mission.

    PubMed

    Becker, Steven M

    2013-11-01

    In response to the March 2011 earthquake-tsunami disaster and the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, a special nongovernmental Radiological Emergency Assistance Mission flew to Japan from the United States. Invited by one of Japan's largest hospital and healthcare groups and facilitated by a New York-based international disaster relief organization, the mission included an emergency physician, a health physicist, and a disaster management specialist. During the 10 d mission, team members conducted fieldwork in areas affected by the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident; went to cities and towns in the 20-30 km Emergency Evacuation Preparation Zone around the damaged nuclear plant; visited other communities affected by the nuclear accident; went to evacuation shelters; met with mayors and other local officials; met with central government officials; exchanged observations, experiences, and information with Japanese medical, emergency response, and disaster management colleagues; and provided radiological information and training to more than 1,100 Japanese hospital and healthcare personnel and first responders. The mission produced many insights with potential relevance for radiological/nuclear emergency preparedness and response. The first "lessons learned" were published in December 2011. Since that time, additional broad insights from the mission and mission followup have been identified. Five of these new lessons, which focus primarily on community impacts and responses and public communication issues, are presented and discussed in this article.

  18. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Long, N Q; Truong, Y; Hien, P D; Binh, N T; Sieu, L N; Giap, T V; Phan, N T

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33, and 37 μBq m(-3) for (131)I, (13)(4)Cs, and (13)(7)Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 d over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima.

  19. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident on Spanish environmental radioactivity levels.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Rodríguez, A; Galván, J; García-Tenorio, R; Manjón, G; Mantero, J; Vioque, I; Arnold, D; Grossi, C; Serrano, I; Vallés, I; Vargas, A

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of the effect of the atmospheric radioactive release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station at three sites belonging to the Spanish environmental monitoring system. Measured values varied depending on the locations of the sites in Spain and their respective climatic characteristics. (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, and (132)Te activity concentrations in filter samples were studied and associated levels of (131)I fallout were estimated from wet and dry deposition. Particulate aerosol activity concentrations ranges, in μBq/m(3), were 1.63-3080 ((131)I), 2.8-690 ((137)Cs), 1.3-620 ((134)Cs) and 3.6-330 ((132)Te), while the associated (131)I fallout was roughly estimated to be less than 20 Bq/m(2), Gaseous (131)I was also detected and the (131)I-gaseous/(131)I-total ratio increased at the three stations from approximately 0.75 at the end of March to 0.85-0.9 during the first few days of April. Finally, the presence of (131)I in some crucial parts of the food chain was also studied. (131)I was detected in samples from goat's and cow's milk (maximum levels of 1.11 Bq/L) and in broadleaf plants (maximum level 1.42 Bq/kg).

  20. Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Shozugawa, Katsumi; Nogawa, Norio; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2012-04-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged reactor cooling systems at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The subsequent venting operation and hydrogen explosion resulted in a large radioactive nuclide emission from reactor containers into the environment. Here, we collected environmental samples such as soil, plant species, and water on April 10, 2011, in front of the power plant main gate as well as 35 km away in Iitate village, and observed gamma-rays with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. We observed activation products ((239)Np and (59)Fe) and fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs ((133)Cs), (137)Cs, (110m)Ag ((109)Ag), (132)Te, (132)I, (140)Ba, (140)La, (91)Sr, (91)Y, (95)Zr, and (95)Nb). (239)Np is the parent nuclide of (239)Pu; (59)Fe are presumably activation products of (58)Fe obtained by corrosion of cooling pipes. The results show that these activation and fission products, diffused within a month of the accident.

  1. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  2. Dai-Kenchu-To, a Herbal Medicine, Attenuates Colorectal Distention-induced Visceromotor Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Kumi; Nagura, Yohko; Hasegawa, Ryoko; Ito, Hitomi; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is known to increase gastrointestinal motility and improve ileal function. We tested our hypotheses that (1) pretreatment with DKT would block the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor response in rats, and (2) pretreatment with DKT would attenuate colorectal distention-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release and anxiety-related behavior. Methods Rats were pretreated with vehicle or DKT (300 mg/kg/5 mL, per os). Visceromotor responses were analyzed using electromyography in response to colorectal distention (10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg for 20 seconds at 3-minutes intervals). Anxiety-related behavior was measured during exposure to an elevated-plus maze after colorectal distention. Plasma ACTH and serum corticosterone levels were measured after exposure to the elevated-plus maze. Results Colorectal distention produced robust contractions of the abdominal musculature, graded according to stimulus intensity, in vehicle-treated rats. At 40, 60, and 80 mmHg of colorectal distention, the visceromotor responses of DKT-treated rats was significantly lower than that of vehicle-treated rats. At 80 mmHg, the amplitude was suppressed to approximately one-third in DKT-treated rats, compared with that in vehicle-treated rats. Smooth muscle compliance and the velocity of accommodation to 60 mmHg of stretching did not significantly differ between the vehicle-treated and DKT-treated rats. Similarly, the DKT did not influence colorectal distention-induced ACTH release, corticosterone levels, or anxiety-related behavior in rats. Conclusions Our results suggest that DKT attenuates the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor responses, without increasing smooth muscle compliance, ACTH release or anxiety-related behavior in rats. PMID:27095743

  3. Tracking of airborne radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors by European networks.

    PubMed

    Masson, O; Baeza, A; Bieringer, J; Brudecki, K; Bucci, S; Cappai, M; Carvalho, F P; Connan, O; Cosma, C; Dalheimer, A; Didier, D; Depuydt, G; De Geer, L E; De Vismes, A; Gini, L; Groppi, F; Gudnason, K; Gurriaran, R; Hainz, D; Halldórsson, Ó; Hammond, D; Hanley, O; Holeý, K; Homoki, Zs; Ioannidou, A; Isajenko, K; Jankovic, M; Katzlberger, C; Kettunen, M; Kierepko, R; Kontro, R; Kwakman, P J M; Lecomte, M; Leon Vintro, L; Leppänen, A-P; Lind, B; Lujaniene, G; Mc Ginnity, P; Mc Mahon, C; Malá, H; Manenti, S; Manolopoulou, M; Mattila, A; Mauring, A; Mietelski, J W; Møller, B; Nielsen, S P; Nikolic, J; Overwater, R M W; Pálsson, S E; Papastefanou, C; Penev, I; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P; Ramebäck, H; Reis, M C; Ringer, W; Rodriguez, A; Rulík, P; Saey, P R J; Samsonov, V; Schlosser, C; Sgorbati, G; Silobritiene, B V; Söderström, C; Sogni, R; Solier, L; Sonck, M; Steinhauser, G; Steinkopff, T; Steinmann, P; Stoulos, S; Sýkora, I; Todorovic, D; Tooloutalaie, N; Tositti, L; Tschiersch, J; Ugron, A; Vagena, E; Vargas, A; Wershofen, H; Zhukova, O

    2011-09-15

    Radioactive emissions into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine-131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific toward the North American continent and reached Europe despite dispersion and washout along the route of the contaminated air masses. In Europe, the first signs of the releases were detected 7 days later while the first peak of activity level was observed between March 28th and March 30th. Time variations over a 20-day period and spatial variations across more than 150 sampling locations in Europe made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. After the Chernobyl accident, only a few measurements of the gaseous (131)I fraction were conducted compared to the number of measurements for the particulate fraction. Several studies had already pointed out the importance of the gaseous (131)I and the large underestimation of the total (131)I airborne activity level, and subsequent calculations of inhalation dose, if neglected. The measurements made across Europe following the releases from the Fukushima NPP reactors have provided a significant amount of new data on the ratio of the gaseous (131)I fraction to total (131)I, both on a spatial scale and its temporal variation. It can be pointed out that during the Fukushima event, the (134)Cs to (137)Cs ratio proved to be different from that observed after the Chernobyl accident. The data set provided in this paper is the most comprehensive survey of the main relevant airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima reactors, measured across Europe. A rough estimate of the total (131)I inventory that has passed over Europe during this period was <1% of the released amount. According to the measurements, airborne activity levels remain of no concern for public health in Europe.

  4. Bingham Dai, Adolf Storfer, and the tentative beginnings of psychoanalytic culture in China, 1935-1941.

    PubMed

    Blowers, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the work of two figures who, while marginal to theoretical developments within the history of psychoanalysis, each briefly played an important role in the dissemination of analytical ideas in China, contributing to an early psychoanalytic culture there. Bingham Dai, a native of China, while studying for a PhD in sociology at Chicago, received instruction from Harry Stack Sullivan and a psychoanalytic training under Karen Horney's supervision. However, the neo-Freudian outlook with which this experience imbued him had its roots in an earlier encounter with his experiments in personality education first conducted on students in a Tientsin high school, and later in Shantung under the direction of the conservative Confucian scholar and reformer, Liang Shu Ming. These experiences convinced him that a less orthodox psychoanalytic perspective was what Chinese patients with psychological problems required. He returned in 1935 to teach medical psychology to doctors at Peking Union Medical College, taking a few into analysis and treating some patients. However, the Sino-Japanese war brought these activities to a close and he left in 1939, just a few months after the former Freud publisher and Viennese émigré, Adolf Storfer, arrived. Storfer set about publishing "Gelbe Post," a German language periodical replete with articles on psychoanalysis, linguistics and Chinese culture. But limited finances, severe competition from a rival publisher, plus his own ill health, forced him to abandon this in spite of the support offered him through the many contributors in the international psychoanalytic community whose articles he published. The paper concludes by considering the relative historiographic fate of the men upon whom subsequent scholarship has been very unevenly focused.

  5. Estimation of marine source-term following Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Bailly du Bois, P; Laguionie, P; Boust, D; Korsakissok, I; Didier, D; Fiévet, B

    2012-12-01

    Contamination of the marine environment following the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant represented the most important artificial radioactive release flux into the sea ever known. The radioactive marine pollution came from atmospheric fallout onto the ocean, direct release of contaminated water from the plant and transport of radioactive pollution from leaching through contaminated soil. In the immediate vicinity of the plant (less than 500 m), the seawater concentrations reached 68,000 Bq.L(-1) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and exceeded 100,000 Bq.L(-1) for (131)I in early April. Due to the accidental context of the releases, it is difficult to estimate the total amount of radionuclides introduced into seawater from data obtained in the plant. An evaluation is proposed here, based on measurements performed in seawater for monitoring purposes. Quantities of (137)Cs in seawater in a 50-km area around the plant were calculated from interpolation of seawater measurements. The environmental halftime of seawater in this area is deduced from the time-evolution of these quantities. This halftime appeared constant at about 7 days for (137)Cs. These data allowed estimation of the amount of principal marine inputs and their evolution in time: a total of 27 PBq (12 PBq-41 PBq) of (137)Cs was estimated up to July 18. Even though this main release may be followed by residual inputs from the plant, river runoff and leakage from deposited sediments, it represents the principal source-term that must be accounted for future studies of the consequences of the accident on marine systems. The (137)Cs from Fukushima will remain detectable for several years throughout the North Pacific, and (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio will be a tracer for future studies.

  6. Tracking Radioactive Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident in Arctic Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Thompson, J.; Landis, J.; Albert, M. R.; Campbell, S. W.; Hawley, R. L.; Virginia, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake produced a tsunami that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and led to the accidental release of radioactive 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, and 137Cs to the atmosphere. The Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission estimates that 12,000 TBq of 137Cs were released to the atmosphere during the incident, which represents ~14% of the total estimated 137Cs emission from the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. Measurements of airborne radiation collected at the Fukushima plant illustrate that >50% of the total emitted radiation was released on March 15 and 16 associated with explosions and fires at reactor units 1, 2, and 4, and 70% was emitted in the first 5 days of the event. The source of the radiation is thus well constrained in time and space, providing an opportunity to better understand long-range atmospheric transport processes from Asia to the Arctic, while also assessing the magnitude of the fallout in the Arctic. Here we describe the 137Cs and 134Cs fallout flux near Thule, Greenland (1700 m a.s.l.), at Summit (3200 m a.s.l.), Greenland, and within Denali National Park, Alaska (2400-3900 m a.s.l.) based on series of large-volume (5-15 l) snow pit samples collected in June and July, 2011. In addition to assessing the spatial variability of Fukushima fallout in the Arctic, the elevation range of samples allows for an analysis of any vertical heterogeneity in fallout transport and deposition. Major ion concentrations and stable water isotope ratios are used to confirm the seasonal timing of the Fukushima fallout horizon in the snowpack. Radiocesium was concentrated and isolated from the snow pit meltwater using the well-established ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) adsorption method, and 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations were measured using gamma spectrometry with a Canberra 3523 well-type intrinsic Ge-detector at the Dartmouth College Short-Lived Isotope Laboratory. NOAA HYPLIT atmospheric forward

  7. Combined behavioral and EEG power analysis in DAI improve accuracy in the assessment of sustained attention deficit.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Erika; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Butti, Michele; Reni, Gianluigi; Zucca, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    In clinical routine, the evaluation of sustained attention is often performed by analyzing the behavioral data collected during specific tests. Such analyses are rarely accompanied by a detailed examination of the subject's simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and particularly its frequency content. In this study, a group of healthy volunteers and a group of patients affected by diffuse axonal injury (DAI) were tested while performing a modified version of the Conners' continuous performance test. A comparative study was carried out between the behavioral and neuropsychological data obtained during the task, to investigate neural activation. Spectral power was calculated for each of the recorded EEG signals, taking account of the frequency bands traditionally considered in literature. Then a compressed spectral array sequence of spectra was plotted to put into evidence the temporal modifications in the signal power spectral density, and, finally, the analysis of the rhythm variability was carried out. Evaluation of the results thus obtained shows that the two groups registered very different cerebral activation dynamics during the ongoing attentional task. Moreover, DAI patients showed mild cortical activation in the prefrontal region, spread equally throughout both brain hemispheres, while controls showed strong predominant activation of the right prefrontal area. Our findings encourage further investigations of the combined employment of tests and EEG recordings during the clinical assessment of sustained attention performance.

  8. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on environmental radioactivity in Aomori Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kudo, S; Igarashi, K; Kimura, H

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclides with a short half-life, such as (131)I and (134)Cs, were detected in environmental samples collected in Aomori Prefecture after the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. In addition, the observed (137)Cs concentration was increased over the background level. The gaseous (131)I concentration in air observed in April was higher than that observed in March immediately after the accident. Using a backward trajectory analysis, the authors found that the air mass had passed the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant when the gaseous (131)I concentration in air was increasing. Maximum (131)I and radioactive Cs concentrations in daily fallout samples collected in Aomori city were observed on 28 April, when (131)I was also detected in air. (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentration ratios in pine needles and pasture grass were nearly equal to 1, which indicates that the source of these radionuclides was the nuclear power plant accident.

  9. Environmental Remediation Activities in Japan Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Incident - 12603

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, J.W.; Kelley, J.L.; Marcial, M.R.; Yashio, Shoko; Kuriu, Nobou; Kamijo, Hiroaki; Jotatsu, Kato

    2012-07-01

    In March 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor power plant was crippled by the Great Pacific earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Much of the focus in the news was on the reactor site itself as the utility company (TEPCO), the Japanese government, and experts from around the world worked to bring the damaged plants into a safe shutdown condition and stem the release of radioactivity to the environment. Most of the radioactivity released was carried out to sea with the prevailing winds. Still, as weather patterns changed and winds shifted, a significant plume of radioactive materials released from the plant deposited in the environment surrounding the plant, contaminating large land areas of the Fukushima Prefecture. The magnitude of the radiological impact to the surrounding environmental is so large that the Japanese government has had to reevaluate the meaning of 'acceptably clean'. In many respects, 'acceptably clean' cannot be a one-size-fits-all standard. The economics costs of such an approach would make impossible what is already an enormous and costly environmental response and remediation task. Thus, the Japanese government has embarked upon an approach that is both situation-specific and reasonably achievable. For example, the determination of acceptably clean for a nursery school or kindergarten play yard may be different from that for a parking lot. The acceptably clean level of residual radioactivity in the surface soil of a rice paddy is different from that in a forested area. The recognized exposure situation (scenario) thus plays a large role in the decision process. While sometimes complicated to grasp or implement, such an approach does prioritize national resources to address environment remediation based upon immediate and significant risks. In addition, the Japanese government is testing means and methods, including advanced or promising technologies, that could be proven to be effective in reducing the amount of radioactivity in the environment

  10. RIG-I is required for VSV-induced cytokine production by murine glia and acts in combination with DAI to initiate responses to HSV-1.

    PubMed

    Crill, Emma K; Furr-Rogers, Samantha R; Marriott, Ian

    2015-12-01

    A defining feature of viral central nervous system (CNS) infection is the rapid onset of severe neuroinflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying glial responses to replicative neurotropic viruses are only now becoming apparent with the discovery of a number of cytosolic sensors for viral nucleic acids. We have described the expression by murine and human glial cells of two disparate pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factors (DAI), receptors for viral RNA and DNA moieties, respectively. In the present study, we demonstrate the functional significance of RIG-I expression in primary murine microglia and astrocytes. Our data indicate that murine glial immune responses to a model neurotropic RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, are RIG-I dependent and independent of levels of DAI expression or RNA polymerase III activity. In contrast, maximal glial inflammatory and antiviral responses to the DNA virus herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) are dependent on the expression of both RIG-I and DAI, and require RNA polymerase III activity. These findings indicate that the RNA sensor, RIG-I, acts in parallel with DAI in an RNA polymerase III-dependent manner to initiate glial responses to HSV-1. We therefore suggest that RIG-I plays a significant role in the detection of both RNA and DNA pathogens by microglia and astrocytes.

  11. Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Stations of TEPCO —Outline & lessons learned—

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Shun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The severe accident that broke out at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power stations on March 11, 2011, caused seemingly infinite damage to the daily life of residents. Serious and wide-spread contamination of the environment occurred due to radioactive materials discharged from nuclear power stations (NPSs). At the same time, many issues were highlighted concerning countermeasures to severe nuclear accidents. The accident is outlined, and lessons learned are extracted with respect to the safety of NPSs, as well as radiation protection of residents under the emergency involving the accident. The materials of the current paper are those released by governmental agencies, academic societies, interim reports of committees under the government, and others. PMID:23138450

  12. Multi-Phased, Post-Accident Support of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant - 12246

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, Arnaud; Gillet, Philippe; Ytournel, Bertrand; Varet, Thierry; David, Laurent; Prevost, Thierry; Redonnet, Carol; Piot, Gregoire; Jouaville, Stephane; Pagis, Georges

    2012-07-01

    In the wake of the March 11 earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent flooding of several of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactors, Japan and the Japanese utility TEPCO faced a crisis situation with incredible challenges: substantial amounts of radioactive mixed seawater and freshwater accumulated in the basements of four reactor and other buildings on the site. This water held varying levels of contamination due to the fact that it had been in contact with damaged fuel elements in the cores and with other contaminated components. The overall water inventory was estimated at around 110,000 tons of water with contamination levels up to the order of 1 Ci/l. Time was of the essence to avoid overflow of this accumulated water into the ocean. AREVA proposed, designed and implemented a water treatment solution using a proven chemical coprecipitation process with ppFeNi reagent, which is currently in use for effluent treatment on several nuclear sites including AREVA sites. In addition to the extremely short schedule the other challenge was to adapt the chemical treatment process to the expected composition of the Fukushima water and, in particular, to evaluate the impact of salinity on process performance. It was also necessary to define operating conditions for the VEOLIA equipment that had been selected for implementation of the process in the future facility. The operation phase began on June 17, and by the end of July more than 30,000 tons of highly radioactive saltwater had been decontaminated - the Decontamination Factor (DF) for Cesium was ∼10{sup 4}. It allowed recycling the contaminated water to cool the reactors while protecting workers and the environment. This paper focuses on the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad water treatment unit project that was part of the TEPCO general water treatment scheme. It presents a detailed look at the principles of the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad, related on-the-fly R and D, an explanation of system implementation challenges, and a brief summary of

  13. Measurement of Airborne Fission Products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Kukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Accident

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Henning, R.; Holmes, R.; Vorren, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products 131I and 137Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 0.6 mBq/m3 and 0.42 0.07 mBq/m3 respectively. Additional activity from 131,132I, 134,136,137Cs and 132Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  14. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, Theodoros; Lelieveld, Jos

    2013-04-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).

  15. Atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides released after the Fukushima Dai-chi accident and resulting effective dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzo, Giuseppe A.

    2014-09-01

    On 11 March 2011 an earthquake off the Pacific coast of the Fukushima prefecture generated a tsunami that hit Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Da-ini Nuclear Power Plants. From 12 March a significant amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere and dispersed worldwide. Among the most abundant radioactive species released were iodine and cesium isotopes. By means of an atmospheric dispersion Lagrangian code and publicly available meteorological data, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs have been simulated for three months after the event with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° globally. The simulation has been validated by comparison to publicly available measurements collected in 206 locations worldwide. Sensitivity analysis shows that release height of the radionuclides, wet deposition velocity, and source term are the parameters with the most impact on the simulation results. The simulation shows that the radioactive plume, consisting of about 200 PBq by adding contributions from 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, has been transported over the entire northern hemisphere depositing up to 1.2 MBq m-2 nearby the NPPs to less than 20 Bq m-2 in Europe. The consequent effective dose to the population over a 50-year period, calculated by considering both external and internal pathways of exposure, is found to be about 40 mSv in the surroundings of Fukushima Dai-ichi, while other countries in the northern hemisphere experienced doses several orders of magnitude lower suggesting a small impact on the population health elsewhere.

  16. MELCOR Model of the Spent Fuel Pool of Fukushima Dai-ichi Unit 4

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Unit 4 of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered a hydrogen explosion at 6:00 am on March 15, 2011, exactly 3.64 days after the earthquake hit the plant and the off-site power was lost. The earthquake occurred on March 11 at 2:47 pm. Since the reactor of this Unit 4 was defueled on November 29, 2010, and all its fuel was stored in the spent fuel pool (SFP4), it was first believed that the explosion was caused by hydrogen generated by the spent fuel, in particular, by the recently discharged core. The hypothetical scenario was: power was lost, cooling to the SFP4 water was lost, pool water heated/boiled, water level decreased, fuel was uncovered, hot Zircaloy reacted with steam, hydrogen was generated and accumulated above the pool, and the explosion occurred. Recent analyses of the radioisotopes present in the water of the SFP4 and underwater video indicated that this scenario did not occur - the fuel in this pool was not damaged and was never uncovered the hydrogen of the explosion was apparently generated in Unit 3 and transported through exhaust ducts that shared the same chimney with Unit 4. This paper will try to answer the following questions: Could that hypothetical scenario in the SFP4 had occurred? Could the spent fuel in the SPF4 generate enough hydrogen to produce the explosion that occurred 3.64 days after the earthquake? Given the magnitude of the explosion, it was estimated that at least 150 kg of hydrogen had to be generated. As part of the investigations of this accident, MELCOR models of the SFP4 were prepared and a series of calculations were completed. The latest version of MELCOR, version 2.1 (Ref. 1), was employed in these calculations. The spent fuel pool option for BWR fuel was selected in MELCOR. The MELCOR model of the SFP4 consists of a total of 1535 fuel assemblies out of which 548 assemblies are from the core defueled on Nov. 29, 2010, 783 assemblies are older assemblies, and 204 are new/fresh assemblies. The total decay

  17. Numerical simulation of propagation of radioactive pollution in the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Budyansky, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    Numerical simulation of the large-scale horizontal mixing and transport of radioactive water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) (141°02' E, 37°27' N, east coast of Honshu Island, Japan) and the use of the satellite altimetric velocity field in the northwestern Pacific allowed us to obtain the following results. The patch of radioactive water dumped from the NPP propagated eastwards as jets of an extension of the Kuroshio Current. The discovered phenomenon of trapping the radionuclides by stable and unstable manifolds of local synoptic eddies may be harmful for living organisms. If one assumes that pollution of considerable areas of coastal waters near Honshu Island took place due to fallout of radioactive precipitation with rain, then a part of the radioactive water may be subjected to north-bound advection and is mixing under the impact of stable and unstable manifolds of the triple-eddy system to the north of the NPP. No radionuclide flux from the Tsugaru strait into the Sea of Japan has been found in the surface layer. Nevertheless, there is a small likelihood of their penetration there with a deep counter current and/or due to wind drift.

  18. Chromosomal Aberrations in Large Japanese Field Mice (Apodemus speciosus) Captured near Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Shiomi, Naoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Mizoguchi, Masahiko; Yamada, Fumio; Tomozawa, Morihiko; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa

    2017-04-07

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiation effects on nonhuman biota in the contaminated areas have been a major concern. Here, we analyzed the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (translocations and dicentrics) in the splenic lymphocytes of large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) inhabiting Fukushima Prefecture. A. speciosus chromosomes 1, 2, and 5 were flow-sorted in order to develop A. speciosus chromosome-specific painting probes, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) was performed using these painting probes to detect the translocations and dicentrics. The average frequency of the translocations and dicentrics per cell in the heavily contaminated area was significantly higher than the frequencies in the case of the noncontaminated control area and the slightly and moderately contaminated areas, and this aberration frequency in individual mice tended to roughly increase with the estimated dose rates and accumulated doses. In all four sampling areas, the proportion of aberrations occurring in chromosome 2 was approximately >3 times higher than that in chromosomes 1 and 5, which suggests that A. speciosus chromosome 2 harbors a fragile site that is highly sensitive to chromosome breaks induced by cellular stress such as DNA replication. The elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations in A. speciosus potentially resulting from the presence of a fragile site in chromosome 2 might make it challenging to observe the mild effect of chronic low-dose-rate irradiation on the induction of chromosomal aberrations in A. speciosus inhabiting the contaminated areas of Fukushima.

  19. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  20. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-02-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a large inhabited land area was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m-2. We also estimated the inhalation and 50-year dose by 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I to which the people in Japan are exposed.

  1. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoudias, T.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-09-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Stohl et al. (2012) and Chino et al. (2011); especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a land area of 34 000 km2 around the reactors, inhabited by nearly 10 million people, was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m-2. We also estimated the inhalation and 50-yr dose by 137Cs and 131I to which the people in Japan have been exposed.

  2. Temporal changes in radiocesium deposition in various forest stands following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Hisadome, Keigo; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The (137)Cs content of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantations of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous mixed broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine) from July 2011 to December 2012. The forest floor of cedar stands had received higher levels of additional (137)Cs deposition compared with the mixed broad-leaved stand during the sampling period. The cumulative (137)Cs deposition during the study period was 119 kBq m(-2) for the mature cedar stand, 105 kBq m(-2) for the young cedar stand, and 41.5 kBq m(-2) for the broad-leaved stand. The deposition of (137)Cs to the forest floor occurred mainly in throughfall during the first rainy season, from July to September 2011 (<200 d after the initial fallout); thereafter, the transfer of (137)Cs from the canopy to forest floor occurred mainly through litterfall. A double exponential field-loss model, which was used to simulate the removal of (137)Cs from canopies, was the best fit for the temporal changes in the canopy (137)Cs inventory.

  3. Numerical reconstruction of high dose rate zones due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Katata, Genki; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi

    2012-09-01

    To understand how the high dose rate zones were created during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident on March 2011, the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during the period from 15 to 17 March was reproduced by using a computer-based nuclear emergency response system, WSPEEDI-II. With use of limited environmental monitoring data, prediction accuracy of meteorological and radiological fields by the system was improved to obtain best estimates of release rates, radiation dose maps, and plume movements. A large part of current high dose rate zones in Fukushima was explained by simulated surface deposition of radionuclides due to major releases of radionuclides on 15 March. In the simulation, the highest dose rate zones to the northwest of FNPP1 were created by a significant deposition of radionuclides discharged from FNPP1 during the afternoon. The results indicate that two environmental factors, i.e., rainfall and topography, strongly affected the spatial patterns of surface deposition of radionuclides. The wet deposition due to rainfall particularly played an important role in the formation of wide and heterogeneous distributions of high dose rate zones. The simulation also demonstrated that the radioactive plume flowed along the valleys to its leeward, which can expand the areas of a large amount of surface deposition in complex topography.

  4. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko

    2014-02-01

    The large amount of (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile (137)Cs. To investigate (137)Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of (137)Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of (137)Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of (137)Cs, and only 2% of (137)Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total (137)Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of (137)Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total (137)Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable (137)Cs exists in forest surface soil.

  5. ZBP1/DAI is an innate sensor of influenza virus triggering the NLRP3 inflammasome and programmed cell death pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Teneema; Man, Si Ming; Malireddi, R.K. Subbarao; Karki, Rajendra; Kesavardhana, Sannula; Place, David E.; Neale, Geoffrey; Vogel, Peter; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-01-01

    The interferon-inducible protein Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also known as DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) and DLM-1) was identified as a dsDNA sensor, which instigates innate immune responses. However, this classification has been disputed and whether ZBP1 functions as a pathogen sensor during an infection has remained unknown. Herein, we demonstrated ZBP1-mediated sensing of the influenza A virus (IAV) proteins NP and PB1, triggering cell death and inflammatory responses via the RIPK1–RIPK3–Caspase-8 axis. ZBP1 regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as induction of apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis in IAV-infected cells. Importantly, ZBP1 deficiency protected mice from mortality during IAV infection owing to reduced inflammatory responses and epithelial damage. Overall, these findings indicate that ZBP1 is an innate immune sensor of IAV and highlight its importance in the pathogenesis of IAV infection. PMID:27917412

  6. Wet deposition of fission-product isotopes to North America from the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident, March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Gay, David A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Nilles, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the infrastructure of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), numerous measurements of radionuclide wet deposition over North America were made for 167 NADP sites before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident of March 12, 2011. For the period from March 8 through April 5, 2011, wet-only precipitation samples were collected by NADP and analyzed for fission-product isotopes within whole-water and filterable solid samples by the United States Geological Survey using gamma spectrometry. Variable amounts of 131I, 134Cs, or 137Cs were measured at approximately 21% of sampled NADP sites distributed widely across the contiguous United States and Alaska. Calculated 1- to 2-week individual radionuclide deposition fluxes ranged from 0.47 to 5100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period. Wet deposition activity was small compared to measured activity already present in U.S. soil. NADP networks responded to this complex disaster, and provided scientifically valid measurements that are comparable and complementary to other networks in North America and Europe.

  7. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Steven R.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Keillor, Martin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morin, Marc P.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of 131I reached levels of 3.0 * 10*2 Bqm*3 in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas 133Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm*3. While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  8. Artificial radionuclides in surface air in Finland following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Mattila, Aleksi; Kettunen, Markku; Kontro, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    We present observations of radionuclides released during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in ambient air and in deposition made in Finland during March-May 2011. The first observed fission product was (131)I, which arrived in Finland 8-9 days after the accident. Detections of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were made 2-3 days after the first (131)I observations. The highest concentrations of fission products in Finland were observed during March 31st and April 1st. The highest observed concentrations of the following isotopes were: (131)I (10.6 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3)), (134)Cs (0.397 ± 0.020 mBq/m(3)), (137)Cs (0.405 ± 0.017 mBq/m(3)), (136)Cs (28 ± 2 μBq/m(3)), (129)Te (129 ± 9 μBq/m(3)), (129m)Te (234 ± 20 μBq/m(3)), (132)Te (51 ± 3 μBq/m(3)) and (132)I (54 ± 3 μBq/m(3)). Generally, higher concentrations of fission product were observed in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland. The variations in the (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentration data suggest that three separate plumes passed over Finland with decreasing concentrations. The first plume, with highest cesium concentrations, passed over Finland during March 31st - April 2nd, the second plume during April 4th - 6th and the third and smallest one during April 10th - April 11th. Both aerosol and gaseous iodine fractions were sampled simultaneously and thus an accurate view of the behaviour of aerosol and gaseous fractions was obtained. Large variations between different fractions were observed with the gaseous fraction representing 65-98% of the total (131)I. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio was determined to be 0.99 ± 0.10, which indicates a fuel burnup of approximately 30 MWd/t. The (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(132)Te ratios were used to estimate the time lapse after the accident. The differences between true time lapse and the ones deduced from the isotope ratios were from the correct time lapse to 0-3 days for (136)Cs/(137)Cs and 5 days for (129m)Te/(132)Te, respectively. Radionuclides from

  9. (14)C levels in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant prior to the 2011 accident.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T; Cresswell, Alan J; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hastie, Helen; Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsson, Piotr; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David C W; Tripney, Brian G; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) from Okuma, ∼1 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was cored and each annual ring was analysed for (14)C. The (14)C specific activity values varied from 330.4 Bq kg(-1) C in the tree ring formed in 1971 to 231.2 Bq kg(-1) C in the 2014 ring. During the periods 1971-1976 and 2011-2014, the (14)C specific activities are indistinguishable from the ambient background values. However, compared with the ambient atmospheric levels, the (14)C specific activities between 1977 and 2010 are significantly elevated, clearly indicating (14)C discharges from the reactors during their normal operations. In addition, the specific activities are positively correlated with the annual electricity generation values. The excess (14)C specific activities were <36 Bq kg(-1) C, corresponding to an additional annual effective dose of <2 μSv via the food ingestion pathway in the study location. The primary wind direction is east-southeast/southeast with a frequency of ∼30%, in comparison to ∼20% frequency for the direction of the site under study (north-northeast/northeast). This would tend to indicate a similar magnitude of additional effective dose and consequently no significant radiological impact of atmospheric (14)C discharges from the FDNPP during the entire period of normal operations. Additionally, no (14)C pulse in activity can be observed in the year 2011 ring. This might be caused by a limited (14)C release from the damaged reactors during the accident or that the prevailing wind during the short period of release (11th-25th March 2011) was not in the direction of Okuma.

  10. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in soils of the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Yoschenko, V. I.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Presented are results of the study of radiocesium vertical distribution in the soils of the irrigation pond catchments in the near field 0.25 to 8 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, on sections of the Niida River floodplain, and in a forest ecosystem typical of the territory contaminated after the accident. It is shown that the vertical migration of radiocesium in undisturbed forest and grassland soils in the zone affected by the Fukushima accident is faster than it was in the soils of the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for a similar time interval after the accident. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils are several times higher than those for the Chernobyl soils. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone. In the forest soils the radiocesium dispersion is faster as compared to grassland soils, both in the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones. The study and analysis of the vertical distribution of the Fukushima origin radiocesium in the Niida gawa floodplain soils has made it possible to identify areas of contaminated sediment accumulation on the floodplain. The average accumulation rate for sediments at the study locations on the Niida gawa floodplain varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. Taking into account the sediments accumulation leading to an increase in the radiocesium inventory in alluvial soils is key for predicting redistribution of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima accident on the river catchments, as well as for decision-making on contaminated territories remediation and clean-up. Clean-up of alluvial soils does not seem to be worthwhile because of the following accumulation of contaminated sediments originating from more contaminated areas, including the exclusion zone.

  11. Isotopic Pu, Am and Cm signatures in environmental samples contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Sakaguchi, A; Ochiai, S; Takada, T; Hamataka, K; Murakami, T; Nagao, S

    2014-06-01

    Dust samples from the sides of roads (black substances) have been collected together with litter and soil samples at more than 100 sites contaminated heavily in the 20-km exclusion zones around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) (Minamisoma City, and Namie, Futaba and Okuma Towns), in Iitate Village located from 25 to 45 km northwest of the plant and in southern areas from the plant. Isotopes of Pu, Am and Cm have been measured in the samples to evaluate their total releases into the environment from the FDNPP and to get the isotopic compositions among these nuclides. For black substances and litter samples, in addition to Pu isotopes, (241)Am, (242)Cm and (243,244)Cm were determined for most of samples examined, while for soil samples, only Pu isotopes were determined. The results provided a coherent data set on (239,240)Pu inventories and isotopic composition among these transuranic nuclides. When these activity ratios were compared with those for fuel core inventories in the FDNPP accident estimated by a group at JAEA, except (239,240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios, fairly good agreements were found, indicating that transuranic nuclides, probably in the forms of fine particles, were released into the environment without their large fractionations. The obtained data may lead to more accurate information about the on-site situation (e.g., burn-up, conditions of fuel during the release phase, etc.), which would be difficult to get otherwise, and more detailed information on the dispersion and deposition processes of transuranic nuclides and the behavior of these nuclides in the environment.

  12. Radiological impact of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on invertebrates in the coastal benthic food web.

    PubMed

    Sohtome, Tadahiro; Wada, Toshihiro; Mizuno, Takuji; Nemoto, Yoshiharu; Igarashi, Satoshi; Nishimune, Atsushi; Aono, Tatsuo; Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) concentrations in invertebrates of benthic food web (10 taxonomic classes with 46 identified families) collected from wide areas off Fukushima Prefecture (3-500 m depth) were inspected from July 2011, four months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, to August 2013 to elucidate time-series trends among taxa and areas. Cesium-137 was detected in seven classes (77% of 592 specimens). Higher (137)Cs concentrations within detected data were often found in areas near or south of the FDNPP, which is consistent with the reported spatial distribution of (137)Cs concentrations in highly contaminated seawater and sediments after the FDNPP accident. Overall (137)Cs concentrations in invertebrates, the maxima of which (290 Bq kg(-1)-wet in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis) were lower than in many demersal fishes, had decreased exponentially with time, and exhibited taxon-specific decreasing trends. Concentrations in Bivalvia and Gastropoda decreased clearly with respective ecological half-lives of 188 d and 102 d. In contrast, decreasing trends in Malacostraca and Polychaeta were more gradual, with longer respective ecological half-lives of 208 d and 487 d. Echinoidea showed no consistent trend, presumably because of effects of contaminated sediments taken into their digestive tract. Comparison of (137)Cs concentrations in the invertebrates and those in seawater and sediments suggest that contaminated sediments are the major source of continuing contamination in benthic invertebrates, especially in Malacostraca and Polychaeta.

  13. Fluvial discharges of radiocaesium from watersheds contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-04-01

    A large amount of radiocaesium, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, was released to the atmosphere and Pacific Ocean from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that was damaged by the tsunami caused by the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011. Radiocaesium deposited on the ground is now the most important consideration in assessing the risk to people in the vicinity of the FDNPP and remediating the contaminated area. Transfer of radiocaesium from the ground through rivers is an important factor in the downstream contamination of irrigation waters, paddy fields, lakes, and the sea. We estimated the transport of radiocaesium through two small rivers, the Hiso River and Wariki River, that traverse mountainous areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Areal depositions of radiocaesium in their watersheds (catchments) were high (1-3 MBq m(-2)). Water samples were collected from the rivers twice during each of two baseflow and two flood stages in 2011 and analysed for radiocaesium in particulate and dissolved forms. The radiocaesium concentrations depended strongly on the rates of water discharge. Maximum activities of radiocaesium in the samples from the Hiso River and Wariki River when there was precipitation or flooding (July and September) were 25 ± 0.31 and 35 ± 0.25 Bq L(-1), respectively. Particulate radiocaesium during periods of flooding contributed over 90% of the total radiocaesium activity in the samples. The discharge of radiocaesium from the catchments during 2011 was estimated to be 0.5% and 0.3% of the total amount of radiocaesium deposited on the catchments of the Hiso River and Wariki River, respectively. It is considered that the most of the radiocaesium deposited in the catchment remains on the soil surface.

  14. Feasibility study on phyto-remediation techniques for soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Yuu Ishimori; Akihiro Sakoda; Mina Yamada; Yuko Makino; Satoshi Yamada; Hideyasu Fujiyama

    2013-07-01

    Tottori University and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency carried out jointly the feasibility study on phyto-remediation techniques, which apply to soil contaminated by the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident. This paper illustrates the results from experimental investigations. Experimental investigations include both water-culture tests and field tests. Several plants, mainly halophytes that can specifically absorb more Na than K, and others like sunflower demonstrated for other domestic large-scale tests, were water-cultured and examined for screening. Easily cultivated and harvested plants without harmful effects on subsequent cultivation were also considered. New Zealand spinach was selected as a candidate for demonstrations in fields. The field tests were carried out at two sites of different agricultural types in Minami-soma, Fukushima prefecture. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in soil is about 4.5 Bq/g-dry as the average of 10 cm depth. The aims of the field tests are to confirm absorption ability and environmental adaptation of the test plants and to document the cost and performance of projects. In conclusion, the absorption of {sup 137}Cs activity per unit area (Bq/m{sup 2}) by New Zealand spinach could be approximately 0.5%. To achieve an effective result in removal of {sup 137}Cs from soil in around a decade, it is required to find the plant which has ten or more times higher absorption capacity than New Zealand spinach. From the consistency of both results in water-culture and field tests, the water-culture test can be valid for screening. In addition, applicable sites will be limited to fields which are too steep or too narrow to use mechanical diggers, and which are free from any restrictions to enter. (authors)

  15. Radioactive Cs-137 discharge from Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, S.; Onda, Y.; Tsujimura, M.; Sakakibara, K.; Konuma, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter such as leaf and branch were monitored. Discharge amount of stream water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured to investigate the discharge amount of radiocesium and composition of radiocesium discharge form through the headwater stream. Observation were conducted at stream site in four headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ~35 km north west of FDNPP from June 2011 (suspended sediment and coarse organic matter: August 2012) to December 2014.The Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water was around 1Bq/l at June 2011. Then declined to 0.1 Bq/l at December 2011. And in December 2014, it declined to 0.01 Bq/l order. Declining trend of Cs-137 concentration in dissolved water was expressed in double exponential model. Also temporary increase was observed in dissolved Cs-137 during the rainfall event. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 170-49000 Bq/kg and 350-14000 Bq/kg respectably. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment showed good correlation with average deposition density of catchment. The effect of decontamination works appeared in declining of Cs-137 concentration in suspended sediment. Contribution rate of Cs-137 discharge by suspended sediment was 96-99% during a year. Total annual Cs-137 discharge from the catchment were 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  16. Dispersion and fate of ⁹⁰Sr in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Maderich, V; Jung, K T; Bezhenar, R; de With, G; Qiao, F; Casacuberta, N; Masque, P; Kim, Y H

    2014-10-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of (90)Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of (90)Sr due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident for the period 2011-2040. The contamination due to runoff of (90)Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken into account using a generic predictive model. A dynamical food-chain model describes the transfer of (90)Sr to phytoplankton, zooplankton, molluscs, crustaceans, piscivorous and non-piscivorous fishes. Results of the simulations were compared with observation data on (90)Sr for the period 1955-2010 and the budget of (90)Sr activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of the ocean influx and it was important only locally. Calculated concentrations of (90)Sr in water, bottom sediment and marine organisms before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident are in good agreement with available experimental measurements. The concentration of (90)Sr in seawater would return to the background levels within one year after leakages were stopped. The model predicts that the concentration of (90)Sr in fish after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident shall return to the background concentrations only 2 years later due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of (90)Sr. The contribution of (90)Sr to the maximal dose rate due to the FDNPP accident was three orders of magnitude less than that due to (137)Cs, and thus well below the maximum effective dose limits for the public.

  17. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-02-01

    The impact of the earthquake and tsunami in the east coast of Japan in 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity to the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr and 89Sr throughout waters 30-600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m-3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m-3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m-3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidences a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us establishing a 90Sr/137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e. 0.63) and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  18. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of the earthquake and tsunami on the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity into the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluating the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr (n = 57) and 89Sr (n = 19) throughout waters 30-600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m-3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m-3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m-3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidence a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us to establish a 90Sr / 137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e., 0.63) and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  19. Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific Ocean before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Zheng, J.; Aono, T.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides such as Pu-239 (half-life: 24100 yr), Pu-240 (half-life: 6560 yr) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 yr) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. In the North Pacific Ocean, two distinct sources of Pu isotopes can be identified; i.e., the global stratospheric fallout and close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater and marine sediment samples collected in the western North Pacific before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station will provide useful background data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The atom ratios of Pu-240/Pu-239 in water columns from the Yamato and Tsushima Basins in the Japan Sea were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18; however, there were no temporal variation of atom ratios during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the Japan Sea. The total Pu-239+240 inventories in the whole water columns were approximately doubled during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the two basins. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 in surface water from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific Ocean, was 0.224 and showed no notable variation from the surface to the bottom with the mean atom ratio being 0.234. The atom ratios for the Pacific coast, near the Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, were approximately the same as the 0.224 ratio obtained from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific margin. The atom ratios in the surficial sediments from Sagami Bay ranged from 0.229 to 0.247. The mean atom ratio in the sediment columns in the East China Sea ranged from 0.248 for the Changjiang estuary to 0.268 for the shelf edge. The observed atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean

  20. Southward transport of radiocesium discharged directly from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants across the Kuroshio Extension Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi; Aoyama, Michio

    2013-04-01

    The massive Tohoku earthquake and consequent giant tsunami of March 11, 2011 resulted in global releases of radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants (FNPPs). In the North Pacific Ocean, a large portion of Fukushima-derived radiocesium has been settled both through atmospheric deposition and direct discharge. Evaluation of Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes in the ocean is necessary to address risks to marine ecosystem and public health. Meanwhile the contaminants are potentially ideal tracers for material cycles and seawater circulation in the ocean. We present here Fukushima-derived radiocesium in seawaters at stations in the northwestern Pacific Ocean hundreds km away from FNPPs in February 2012. Surface and deeper samples (25-800 m) were collected into 20-L cubitainers using a bucket and a conductivity-temperature-depth rosette with water samplers, respectively. The sample were filtrated and acidified by nitric acid on board. Radiocesium in the seawater sample was concentrated onto ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP). The radiocesium in the AMP/Cs compound was measured using a gamma-spectrometry with well-type Ge detectors. Fukushima-derived radiocesium was found at all the stations from 20°N to 42°N about one year after the disaster. Concentration of radiocesium in the surface mixed layer (0 ~ 150-m depth approximately) was highest in the transition area between the subarctic and subtropical regions (~ 20 Bq/m3) because of the direct discharge of radiocesium from FNPPs into the transition area. The surface concentrations in the subarctic and subtropical regions were less than 5 and 1 Bq/m3, respectively, most of which were probably derived from the atmospheric deposition of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Below the surface mixed layer the Fukushima-derived radiocesium decreases sharply and was not detected below 400-m depth at stations in the subarctic region and transition area. However at stations just

  1. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  2. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in parmelioid lichens within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Terumi; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Kashiwadani, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Kenso; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Iijima, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    Radiocaesium activity concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured in parmelioid lichens collected within the Fukushima Prefecture approximately 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A total of 44 samples consisting of nine species were collected at 16 points within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The activity concentration of (134)Cs ranged from 4.6 to 1000 kBq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs ranged from 7.6 to 1740 kBq kg(-1). A significant positive correlation was found between the (137)Cs activity concentration in lichens and the (137)Cs deposition density on soil (n = 44), based on the calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficients as r = 0.90 (P < 0.01). The two dominant species, Flavoparmelia caperata (n = 12) and Parmotrema clavuliferum (n = 11), showed strong positive correlations, for which the r values were calculated as 0.92 (P < 0.01) and 0.90 (P < 0.01) respectively. Therefore, Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema clavuliferum are suggested as biomonitoring species for levels of radiocaesium fallout within the Fukushima Prefecture.

  3. Integrated watershed modeling for simulation of radio-cesium migration after flood events in the catchment near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, K.; Kurikami, H.; Malins, A.; Yamada, S.; Funaki, H.; Niizato, T.; Machida, M.; Kitamura, A.

    2015-12-01

    The environments of Fukushima near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant have been contaminated by the explosion accident of the plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The contamination level and air-dose rate behavior at present and in future are significant concern for the people used to live nearby. Most dominant radioactive material is 137Cs at present and its migration is considered to be driven by soil erosion and subsequent transport. To estimate the amount of soil sedimentation and the 137Cs migration, a three-dimensional hydrological model of the catchment was developed focused on the Ogi-no-sawa catchment, located 15 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Base on the developed hydrological model, top soil transport and resulting radio-cesium movement was simulated. For the modeling and simulation, physics based code the General-purpose terrestrial fluid-flow simulator GETFLOWS model, which is one of the tools for watershed modeling, was applied. The simulation results were compared with monitored data of the amount of water discharge and concentration of suspended solids for model testing. As a result of the study, the soil and 137Cs redistribution patterns at various scales of flood events could be predicted based on the results of modeling and simulation.

  4. Reply to Comment by Cole-dai Et Al. on "Climatic Impact of the Long-lasting Laki Eruption: Inapplicability of Mass-independent Sulfur Isotope Composition Measurements"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Oman, Luke D.; Robock, Alan; Self, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Here we respond to the comments by Cole-Dai et al. [2014] on our article Schmidt et al. [2012]. Specifically, in response to section 2 of their reply, we argued in Schmidt et al. [2012] that based on previously published estimates of the volatile release height during the 1783-1784 C.E. Laki eruption, the lack of a sulfur massindependent fractionation (MIF) anomaly is expected. In other words, no previous study on Laki ever argued that this eruption emitted SO2 into altitudes >13-15 km. In section 2.3, Cole-Dai et al. [2014] argue that the nonzero ?33S value of their Laki sample 1 may be explained by a short-lived explosive phase at Laki during which volatiles reached the stratosphere. In Schmidt et al. [2012] in section 2, we argued in agreement with Cole-Dai et al. [2014] (section 3.1) that for a MIF anomaly to be preserved, the Laki volatiles would have had to be emitted in >20 km altitude. Our main point is that eruption column heights >20 km are unlikely based on the historical accounts and plume-rise modeling for the Laki eruption [Stothers et al., 1986; Woods, 1993; Thordarson and Self, 2003]. In Schmidt et al. [2012], we argued that to deduce a short-lived climatic impact of the Laki eruption based on the lack of a MIF anomaly and the length of the sulfate deposition in Greenland ice cores may be misleading because the climatic impact will outlast the radiative forcing of the Laki aerosol cloud. Cole-Dai et al. [2014] acknowledge the latter in their reply in section 4.2. We agreewith Cole-Dai et al. [2014] in that themagnitude and length of the climatic impact during the winter of 1783-1784 depends on the altitude of the volatile release during the eruption (sections 2.3 and 4.2). However, even if we assumed that during Laki all sulfur dioxide (SO2) would have been released in the troposphere, then the aerosol cloud would still be present in the upper troposphere during March 1784, as is evident from independent model simulations of this "tropospheric

  5. Radiocesium wash-off associated with soil erosion from various land uses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Onda, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kato, Hiroaki; Konoplev, Alexei; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is the initial process which drives radiocesium into the aquatic systems and therefore the quantification of radiocesium wash-off associated with soil erosion is indispensable for mitigating the risks. This study presents two year's observation of soil erosion and radiocesium wash-off to quantify differences in radiocesium behavior in various land uses. Seven runoff plots were established in four landscapes; uncultivated farmland (Farmland A1, Farmland B1), cultivated farmland (Farmland A2, Farmland B2), grassland (Grassland A, Grassland B) and Japanese cedar forest (Forest) in Kawamata town, an area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The discharged sediments were collected approximately every two weeks. In laboratories, collected sediments were dried and weighed for calculating soil erosion rates (kg m-2) and served for measurements of radiocesium concentration (Bq kg-1) with HPGe detectors. The erosivity factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (R-factor: MJ mm ha-1 hr-1 yr-1) was calculated based on the data of precipitation. Standardized soil erosion rates (kg m-2 MJ-1 mm-1 ha hr yr), observed soil erosion rates divided by R-factor, was 1.8 × 10-4 in Farmland A1, 6.0 × 10-4 in Farmland A2, 1.5 × 10-3 in Farmland B1, 8.3 × 10-4 in Farmland B2, 9.6 × 10-6 in Grassland A, 5.9 × 10-6 in Grassland B and 2.3 × 10-6 in Forest. These erosion rates were basically proportional to their vegetation cover of soil surfaces except for cultivated farmlands. Concentrations of Cs-137 in eroded sediments basically depended on the local deposition of Cs-137 and varied enormously with ranging several orders of magnitude in all the landscapes. For the observation period of time decreasing trends in concentrations of Cs-137 in eroded sediments were not obvious. To compare these results with those of Chernobyl, we calculated normalized 'solid' wash-off coefficient (m2 g-1) with dividing the mean total concentration of Cs-137 in

  6. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Maderich, V; Bezhenar, R; Heling, R; de With, G; Jung, K T; Myoung, J G; Cho, Y-K; Qiao, F; Robertson, L

    2014-05-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from (137)Cs data for the period 1945-2010. Calculated concentrations of (137)Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y(-1) is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of (137)Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y(-1). Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  7. In-vivo visualisation of the anatomical structures related to the acupuncture points Dai mai and Shen mai by MRI: A single-case pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Diemling, Markus; Kremser, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Background The concept of acupuncture point localisation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on millenary practical experience. Modern imaging methods such as PET, MRI and SPECT have been used primary for the investigation of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture. In this pilot single-case study we have evaluated the technical possibilities for in-vivo imaging of the anatomical relations of acupuncture points using state of the art MRI. Methods Preliminary experiments relating to the quality of acupuncture needles under the setting of MRI were done both with stainless steel and gold needles. In a second step, in-vivo imaging was carried out. A licensed acupuncture practitioner (RM) chose two points belonging to the so-called extraordinary vessels. In 2 sequential, separate procedures, he inserted himself gold acupuncture needles using a neutral technique (known as Ping Bu Ping Xie) into the Dai mai and Shen mai points, i.e. gall bladder 26 and bladder 62. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using a head array and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. Results In the preliminary experiments only acupuncture needles made of gold showed enough stability in order to be used for further imaging procedures. Using an onion and a banana as an object, further studies showed that the gold needles produced a void defect that corresponds to the tip of the inserted needle, while at the same time an artefactually increased diameter was observed. The in-vivo experiments showed that the Dai mai point was in relation to the abdominal internal oblique muscle. The Shen mai point artefact showed up close to the longus and brevis peroneal tendons at the fibular malleolus. Side effects related to heating or burning were not observed. Improved anatomical recognition was obtained using 3D-volume rendering techniques. Conclusion Through an adequate choice of acupuncture

  8. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in soil using a scraper plate over a wide area surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Mikami, Satoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Takahashi, Junko; Nakano, Masakazu; Shimada, Kiyotaka; Uno, Kiichiro; Hagiwara, Shigetomo; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, radioactive cesium was released in the environment and deposited on the soils. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium in contaminated soils provide useful information not only for radiation protection and decontamination operations but also for geoscience and radioecology studies. Soil samples were collected using a scraper plate three times between December 2011 and December 2012 at 84 or 85 locations within a 100-km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. In most of the obtained radioactive cesium depth profiles, it was possible to fit the concentration to a function of mass depth as either an exponential or hyperbolic secant function. By using those functions, following three parameters were estimated: (i) relaxation mass depth β (g cm(-2)), (ii) effective relaxation mass depth βeff (g cm(-2)), which is defined for a hyperbolic secant function as the relaxation mass depth of an equivalent exponential function giving the same air kerma rate at 1 m above the ground as the inventory, and (iii) 1/10 depth L1/10 (cm), at which the soil contains 90% of the inventory. The average β value (wet weight) including ones by hyperbolic secant function in December 2012, was 1.29 times higher than that in December 2011. In fact, it was observed that depth profiles at some study sites deviated from the typical exponential distributions over time. These results indicate the gradual downward migration of radioactive cesium in the soils. The L1/10 values in December 2012 were summarized and presented on a map surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, and the average value of L1/10 was 3.01 cm (n = 82) at this time. It was found that radioactive cesium remained within 5 cm of the ground surface at most study sites (71 sites). The sech function can also be used to estimate the downward migration rate V (kg m(-2) y(-1)). The V values in December 2012 (n = 25) were in good agreement with those found by a

  9. Source term estimation of radioxenon released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, P W; Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Cooper, M W; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Korpach, E; Yi, J; Miley, H S; Rishel, J P; Ungar, K; White, B; Woods, V T

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout across the northern hemisphere resulting from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Sampling data from multiple International Modeling System locations are combined with atmospheric transport modeling to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of releases of (133)Xe. Modeled dilution factors at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of (133)Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This analysis suggests that 92% of the 1.24 × 10(19) Bq of (133)Xe present in the three operating reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a 3 d period. An uncertainty analysis bounds the release estimates to 54-129% of available (133)Xe inventory.

  10. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  11. Time series changes in radiocaesium distribution in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.)) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    Radiocaesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) release following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, belonging to the Tokyo Electric Power Company caused severe contamination of new tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.)) shoots by radiocaesium in many prefectures in eastern Japan. Because tea plants are perennial crops, there is the fear that the contamination might last for a long time. The objectives of this study were to reveal time series changes in the distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants after radioactive fallout and to evaluate the effect of pruning on reduction of radiocaesium concentrations in new shoots growing next year. The experimental tea field was located in Shizuoka, Japan, approximately 400 km away from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in a southwest direction. Time series changes in radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea, a tea product primarily produced for making Japanese green tea, from May 2011 to June 2013 and distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants from May 2011 to May 2012 were monitored. The radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea exponentially decreased; the effective half-lives for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.30 and 0.36 y during the first 2 y after the accident, respectively. With time, the highest concentrations of (137)Cs moved from the upper to the lower parts of plants. Medium pruning 2-3 months after the accident reduced the concentration of (137)Cs in new shoots harvested in the first crop season of the following year by 56% compared with unpruned tea plants; thus, pruning is an effective measure for reducing radiocaesium concentration in tea.

  12. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation.

  13. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  14. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides.

  15. Characteristics of radio-cesium transport and discharge between different basins near to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after heavy rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Akihiro; Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Machida, Masahiko; Mori, Koji; Tada, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Takamaru; Tawara, Yasuhiro; Tosaka, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes watershed modeling of catchments surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant to understand radio-cesium redistribution by water flows and sediment transport. We extended our previously developed three-dimensional hydrogeological model of the catchments to calculate the migration of radio-cesium in both sediment-sorbed and dissolved forms. The simulations cover the entirety of 2013, including nine heavy rainfall events, as well as Typhoon Roke in September 2011. Typhoons Man-yi and Wipha were the strongest typhoons in 2013 and had the largest bearing on radio-cesium redistribution. The simulated (137)Cs discharge quantities over the nine events in 2013 are in good agreement with field monitoring observations. Deposition mainly occurs on flood plains and points where the river beds broaden in the lower basins, and within dam reservoirs along the rivers. Differences in (137)Cs discharge ratios between the five basins are explained by differences in the initial fallout distribution within the basins, the presence of dam reservoirs, and the input supply to watercourses. It is possible to use these simulation results to evaluate future radioactive material distributions in order to support remediation planning.

  16. Discovery of radioactive silver ((110m)Ag) in spiders and other fauna in the terrestrial environment after the meltdown of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Mori, Atsushi; Takeda, Kouki; Tanaka, Houdo; Kobayashi, Natsuko; Tanoi, Keitaro; Yamakawa, Takashi; Mori, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Six months after the explosion of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, radioactive silver ((110m)Ag), was detected in concentrations of 3754 Bq/kg in Nephila clavata (the orb-web spider; Joro-gumo in Japanese) collected at Nimaibashi, Iitate village in Fukushima Prefecture, whereas (110m)Ag in the soil was 43.1 Bq/kg. A survey of 35 faunal species in the terrestrial environment during the 3.5 years after the accident showed that most of Anthropoda had two orders higher (110m)Ag in their tissues than soils, although silver is not an essential element for their life. However, tracing of the activity of (110m)Ag detected in spider Atypus karschi collected regularly at a fixed location showed that it declined much faster than the physical half-life. These results suggest that (110m)Ag was at once biologically concentrated by faunal species, especially Arthropoda, through food chain. The factors affecting the subsequent rapid decline of (110m)Ag concentration in faunal species are discussed.

  17. The Contribution of Sources to the Sustained Elevated Inventory of (137)Cs in Offshore Waters East of Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident.

    PubMed

    Takata, Hyoe; Kusakabe, Masashi; Inatomi, Naohiko; Ikenoue, Takahito; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-05

    We have evaluated the contribution of sources of (137)Cs to the inventory of radiocesium in waters (surface area: 6160 km(2), water volume: 753 km(3)) off Fukushima Prefecture and neighboring prefectures from May 2011 to February 2015. A time-series of the inventory of (137)Cs in the offshore waters revealed a clearly decreasing trend from May 2011 (283.4 TBq) to February 2015 (1.89 TBq). The (137)Cs inventory about four years after the accident was approximately twice the background inventory of 1.1 TBq. The magnitudes of the (137)Cs influxes from sources into offshore waters for periods of 182-183 days were estimated from the first period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2012: 15.3 TBq) to the last period (1 October 2014 to 31 March 2015: 0.41 TBq). We assumed that three sources contributed (137)Cs: continuous direct discharge from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS) even after the massive discharge in late March 2011, desorption/dissolution from sediments, and fluvial input. Quantification of these sources indicated that the direct discharge from the FNPS is the principal source of (137)Cs to maintain the relatively high inventory in the offshore area.

  18. Input and output budgets of radiocesium concerning the forest floor in the mountain forest of Fukushima released from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Watanabe, Takayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Estimations of radiocesium input and output concerning the forest floor within a mountain forest region have been conducted in the north and central part of the Abukuma Mountains of Fukushima, northeast Japan, after a 2-3 year period following the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The radiocesium input and output associated with surface washoff, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall processes at experimental plots installed on the forest floor of evergreen Japanese cedars and deciduous Konara oaks have been monitored. Despite the high output potential in the mountainous forest of Fukushima, the results at both monitoring locations show the radiocesium input to be 4-50 times higher than the output during the summer monsoon in Fukushima. These results indicate that the radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios (0.05%-0.19%). Thus, the associated fluxes throughout the circulation process are key issues for the projecting the environmental fate of the radiocesium levels, along with the subsequent reconstruction of life emphasized within the setting.

  19. Radiocaesium contamination and dose rate estimation of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife in the exclusion zone of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Osamu; Sato, Youji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aono, Tatsuo; Soeda, Haruhi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2017-03-02

    To characterise the radioactive contamination of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, biological samples, namely, fungi, mosses, plants, amphibians, reptiles, insects, molluscs, and earthworms, were collected mainly from the forests of the exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture from 2011 to 2012. Caesium-134 and (137)Cs were detected by gamma spectrometry in almost all the samples. Fungi, ferns, and mosses accumulated high amounts of radiocaesium, as they did in Chernobyl, with (134)Cs + (137)Cs activity concentrations of 10(4)-10(6) Bq kg(-1) fresh mass (FM). Earthworms, amphibians, and the soft tissue of the garden snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana, also had levels as high as 10(4)-10(5) Bq kg(-1) FM of (134)Cs + (137)Cs. Most of the estimated total (internal + external) dose rates to herbaceous plants, amphibians, insects, and earthworms were below the corresponding derived consideration reference levels (DCRLs) recommended by the ICRP. This suggests that, in most cases, there was little chance of deleterious effects of ionising radiation on these organisms in the exclusion zone for the first year after the accident, though the dose rates were underestimated mainly due to the lack of consideration of short-lived radionuclides.

  20. Discovery of radioactive silver (110mAg) in spiders and other fauna in the terrestrial environment after the meltdown of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    PubMed Central

    NAKANISHI, Hiromi; MORI, Atsushi; TAKEDA, Kouki; TANAKA, Houdo; KOBAYASHI, Natsuko; TANOI, Keitaro; YAMAKAWA, Takashi; MORI, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Six months after the explosion of TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, radioactive silver (110mAg), was detected in concentrations of 3754 Bq/kg in Nephila clavata (the orb-web spider; Joro-gumo in Japanese) collected at Nimaibashi, Iitate village in Fukushima Prefecture, whereas 110mAg in the soil was 43.1 Bq/kg. A survey of 35 faunal species in the terrestrial environment during the 3.5 years after the accident showed that most of Anthropoda had two orders higher 110mAg in their tissues than soils, although silver is not an essential element for their life. However, tracing of the activity of 110mAg detected in spider Atypus karschi collected regularly at a fixed location showed that it declined much faster than the physical half-life. These results suggest that 110mAg was at once biologically concentrated by faunal species, especially Arthropoda, through food chain. The factors affecting the subsequent rapid decline of 110mAg concentration in faunal species are discussed. PMID:25864469

  1. INITIAL AND PRESENT SITUATION OF FOOD CONTAMINATION IN JAPAN AFTER THE ACCIDENT AT THE FUKUSHIMA DAI-ICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT.

    PubMed

    Aono, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in March 2011 affected not only the terrestrial environment of Fukushima prefecture and the surrounding area, but also the marine area facing the NPP. Our present study is focused on the concentrations of radionuclides in agricultural products of Fukushima and sea-foods collected off Fukushima after the accident. The regulation value for radiocesium in vegetables, meat and fish was revised from 500 Bq/kg-wet to 100 Bq/kg-wet on 1 April 2012. The overall activity of radiocesium in these products was found to be within the limit of tolerance in respect to Japanese and also international regulations, but there is still radiocesium found at activities greater than this level in edible wild plants, wild mushrooms and game such as boar meat. Although the activities of radionuclides exceeding the regulatory limits were not detected in marine products collected off Fukushima after April 2015, the commercial marine fishery has not received approval in the affected areas except for certain species. We learned from the Fukushima accident that long-term kinetic studies of radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environments is extremely important for prevention of internal contamination, since contamination with radionuclides occurs via the food chain in the environment.

  2. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and (131)I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here.

  3. The air dose rate around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant: its spatial characteristics and temporal changes until December 2012.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Satoshi; Maeyama, Takeshi; Hoshide, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Shoji; Okuda, Naotoshi; Sato, Tetsuro; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Distribution maps of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were constructed using the results of measurement obtained from approximately 6500 locations (at most) per measurement period. The measurements were conducted 1 m above the ground using survey meters in flat and spatially open locations. Spatial distribution and temporal change of the air dose rate in the area were revealed by examining the resultant distribution maps. The observed reduction rate of the air dose rate over the 18 months between June 2011 and December 2012 was greater than that calculated from radioactive decay of radiocesium by 10% in relative percentage except decontaminated sites. This 10% difference in the reduction of the air dose rate can be explained by the mobility of radiocesium in the depth direction. In the region where the air dose rate was lower than 0.25 μSv h(-1) on June 2011, the reduction of the air dose rate was observed to be smaller than that of the other dose rate regions, and it was in fact smaller than the reduction rate caused by radioactive decay alone. In contrast, the reduction rate was larger in regions with higher air dose rates. In flat and spatially open locations, no significant difference in the reduction tendency of air dose rates was observed among different land use classifications (rice fields, farmland, forests, and building sites).

  4. A new comparison of marine dispersion model performances for Fukushima Dai-ichi releases in the frame of IAEA MODARIA program.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, Raúl; Brovchenko, Igor; Duffa, Celine; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Kobayashi, Takuya; Lamego, Fernando; Maderich, Vladimir; Min, Byung-Il; Nies, Hartmut; Osvath, Iolanda; Psaltaki, Maria; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-12-01

    A detailed intercomparison of marine dispersion models applied to the releases from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant was carried out in the frame of MODARIA program, of the IAEA. Models were compared in such a way that the reasons of the discrepancies between them can be assessed (i.e., if they are due to the hydrodynamic part, the dispersion part, and the ultimate reasons). A sequential chain of dispersion exercises was carried out with this purpose. The overall idea is to harmonize models, making them run with the same forcing in a step-by-step procedure, in such a way that the main agent in producing discrepancy between models can be found. It was found that the main reason of discrepancies between models is due to the description of the hydrodynamics. However, once this has been suppressed, some variability between model outputs remains due to intrinsic differences between models (as numerical schemes). The numerical experiments were carried out for a perfectly conservative radionuclide and for (137)Cs (including water/sediment interactions). Model outputs for this radionuclide were also compared with measurements in water and sediments.

  5. Delivery mechanism of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in seawater off the Sanriku Coast, Japan, following the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Fujimoto, K; Furusawa, Y; Yoshida, K; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Minakawa, M

    2014-11-01

    To assess the delivery mechanism of radiocesium emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we examined vertical profiles of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (228)Ra concentrations and the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio in the water columns off the Sanriku Coast in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, in July 2012, along with their surface lateral variations in July 2009. Radiocesium concentrations exhibited maximum peaks (3-5 mBq/L for (134)Cs) at depths of 100-200 m, accompanied by high (228)Ra concentrations (0.6-0.8 mBq/L) in comparison with shallower depths (∼0.4 mBq/L). Taking the circulation patterns of currents in the area into account, it was inferred that radioactive depositions were supplied to the (228)Ra-rich Tsugaru Warm Current Water (TWCW) in the offshore area of the Sanriku Coast following the FDNPP accident, and that after the spring of 2011, this water (∼26.5σθ) was covered by lower density surface water, which helped intrude its way to depths of 100-200 m.

  6. Sensitivity of the modelled deposition of Caesium-137 from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant to the wet deposition parameterisation in NAME.

    PubMed

    Leadbetter, Susan J; Hort, Matthew C; Jones, Andrew R; Webster, Helen N; Draxler, Roland R

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the impact of different meteorological data sets and different wet scavenging coefficients on the model predictions of radionuclide deposits following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Three separate operational meteorological data sets, the UK Met Office global meteorology, the ECMWF global meteorology and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) mesoscale meteorology as well as radar rainfall analyses from JMA were all used as inputs to the UK Met Office's dispersion model NAME (the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment). The model predictions of Caesium-137 deposits based on these meteorological models all showed good agreement with observations of deposits made in eastern Japan with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.44 to 0.80. Unexpectedly the NAME run using radar rainfall data had a lower correlation coefficient (R = 0.66), when compared to observations, than the run using the JMA mesoscale model rainfall (R = 0.76) or the run using ECMWF met data (R = 0.80). Additionally the impact of modifying the wet scavenging coefficients used in the parameterisation of wet deposition was investigated. The results showed that modifying the scavenging parameters had a similar impact to modifying the driving meteorology on the rank calculated from comparing the modelled and observed deposition.

  7. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas.

  8. Radiocesium contamination of the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida) 1.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in a large web spider, Nephila clavata L. Koch (Nephilidae: Arachnida), collected at three sites at different distances from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant about 1.5 y after the accident in March 2011. The radiocesium concentrations in spiders were highest in a streamside secondary forest 33 km northwest of the power plant: mean ± a standard deviation of 2.401 ± 1.197 Bq g(-1) dry for (134)Cs and 3.955 ± 1.756 Bq g(-1) dry for (137)Cs. In a hillside secondary forest 37 km northwest of the power plant, the mean concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.825 ± 0.247 Bq g(-1) dry and 1.470 ± 0.454 Bq g(-1) dry, respectively. In a pine forest 62 km west of the power plant, very low radiocesium concentrations were detected, but in only a few individuals. The concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in spiders collected at each site tended to be correlated with the air radiation dose rate at each site. Since spiders are key components of food webs in forests, the high concentrations in this species at contaminated sites suggested that the radiocesium from the accident has transferred through food chains and reached to higher trophic level of the food chains.

  9. Inverse modeling of the (137)Cs source term of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident constrained by a deposition map monitored by aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yumimoto, Keiya; Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Tsuruta, Haruo; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-11-01

    The amount of (137)Cs released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of 11 March 2011 was inversely estimated by integrating an atmospheric dispersion model, an a priori source term, and map of deposition recorded by aircraft. An a posteriori source term refined finer (hourly) variations comparing with the a priori term, and estimated (137)Cs released 11 March to 2 April to be 8.12 PBq. Although time series of the a posteriori source term was generally similar to those of the a priori source term, notable modifications were found in the periods when the a posteriori source term was well-constrained by the observations. Spatial pattern of (137)Cs deposition with the a posteriori source term showed better agreement with the (137)Cs deposition monitored by aircraft. The a posteriori source term increased (137)Cs deposition in the Naka-dori region (the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) by 32.9%, and considerably improved the underestimated a priori (137)Cs deposition. Observed values of deposition measured at 16 stations and surface atmospheric concentrations collected on a filter tape of suspended particulate matter were used for validation of the a posteriori results. A great improvement was found in surface atmospheric concentration on 15 March; the a posteriori source term reduced root mean square error, normalized mean error, and normalized mean bias by 13.4, 22.3, and 92.0% for the hourly values, respectively. However, limited improvements were observed in some periods and areas due to the difficulty in simulating accurate wind fields and the lack of the observational constraints.

  10. Temporal changes in radiocesium contamination derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in oceanic zooplankton in the western North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Minoru; Honda, Makio C; Hamajima, Yasunori; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Kawakami, Hajime; Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Mino, Yoshihisa

    2017-04-02

    We investigated temporal changes of the contamination of oceanic zooplankton with radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident one month to three years after the accident at subarctic and subtropical stations (1900 and 900-1000 km from the plant, respectively) in the western North Pacific. The maximum activity concentrations of (137)Cs in zooplankton were two orders of magnitude higher than the pre-accident level. In the first four months after the accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium in subtropical zooplankton decreased rapidly, but no similar change was observed at the subarctic station. The radiocesium derived from atmospheric deposition rapidly decreased as a result of seawater mixing. Thus, most of the subtropical zooplankton (with short lifespans) that had taken up radiocesium just after the accident were probably replaced by newly hatched zooplankton within four months of the accident, whereas subarctic zooplankton (with long lifespans) that were highly contaminated with radiocesium were still alive four months after the accident. By the end of the study, (137)Cs activity concentrations in subtropical zooplankton were still high, whereas the activity concentrations in subarctic zooplankton had decreased to nearly the pre-accident level. The former concentrations were probably influenced by a secondary supply of radiocesium via advection of subtropical mode water that was highly contaminated with Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Unexpectedly, at the subarctic station, the radiocesium activity concentrations in surface zooplankton were lower than those in subsurface zooplankton, whereas the opposite relationship was observed in surface and subsurface seawater. Because carnivores predominated in the subsurface zooplankton community, we hypothesize that the higher radiocesium activity concentrations in subsurface zooplankton were influenced by bioaccumulation. We conclude that radiocesium

  11. Measurement of soil contamination by radionuclides due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and associated estimated cumulative external dose estimation.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Kimura, S; Takatsuji, T; Nanasawa, K; Imanaka, T; Shizuma, K

    2012-09-01

    Soil sampling was carried out at an early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Samples were taken from areas around FDNPP, at four locations northwest of FDNPP, at four schools and in four cities, including Fukushima City. Radioactive contaminants in soil samples were identified and measured by using a Ge detector and included (129 m)Te, (129)Te, (131)I, (132)Te, (132)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (140)Ba and (140)La. The highest soil depositions were measured to the northwest of FDNPP. From this soil deposition data, variations in dose rates over time and the cumulative external doses at the locations for 3 months and 1y after deposition were estimated. At locations northwest of FDNPP, the external dose rate at 3 months after deposition was 4.8-98 μSv/h and the cumulative dose for 1 y was 51 to 1.0 × 10(3)mSv; the highest values were at Futaba Yamada. At the four schools, which were used as evacuation shelters, and in the four urban cities, the external dose rate at 3 months after deposition ranged from 0.03 to 3.8μSv/h and the cumulative doses for 1 y ranged from 3 to 40 mSv. The cumulative dose at Fukushima Niihama Park was estimated as the highest in the four cities. The estimated external dose rates and cumulative doses show that careful countermeasures and remediation will be needed as a result of the accident, and detailed measurements of radionuclide deposition densities in soil will be important input data to conduct these activities.

  12. 90Sr dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Bezhenar, Roman; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli; Casacuberta, Nuria; Masque, Pere

    2014-05-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R (Maderich et al., 2013) was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of 90Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of 90Sr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi (FDNPP) accident (2011-2040). The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in marine sediments, and the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and the subsequent doses to the population due to the consumption of marine products. The contamination due to runoff of 90Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken in account using generic predictive model (Smith et al., 2004). A dynamical food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue (bones for 90Sr ). The model was compared with observation data on 90Sr for the period 1955-2010 and the budget of its activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of ocean influx only with local importance. Calculated concentrations of 90Sr in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal box around the FDNPP before and after the accident are in agreement with measurements from the Japanese databases (TEPCO, MEXT) and publications (Casacuberta et al., 2013; Oikawa et al., 2013). The dynamical food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of 90Sr, the concentration for piscivorous fishes return to background level only in 2015. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture (except FDNPP vicinity) due to consumption of fishery products is an order less than the maximal dose rate caused by nuclear weapon testing in 1960.

  13. Reassessment of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in the Coast off Japan Derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Casacuberta, Núria; Breier, Crystaline F; Pike, Steven M; Masqué, Pere; Buesseler, Ken O

    2016-01-05

    The years following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, the distribution of (90)Sr in seawater in the coast off Japan has received limited attention. However, (90)Sr is a major contaminant in waters accumulated within the nuclear facility and in the storage tanks. Seawater samples collected off the FDNPP in September 2013 showed radioactive levels significantly higher than pre-Fukushima levels within 6 km off the FDNPP. These samples, with up to 8.9 ± 0.4 Bq·m(-3) for (90)Sr, 124 ± 3 Bq·m(-3) for (137)Cs, and 54 ± 1 Bq·m(-3) for (134)Cs, appear to be influenced by ongoing releases from the FDNPP, with a characteristic (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio of 3.5 ± 0.2. Beach surface water and groundwater collected in Sendai Bay had (137)Cs concentrations of up to 43 ± 1 Bq·m(-3), while (90)Sr was close to pre-Fukushima levels (1-2 Bq·m(-3)). These samples appear to be influenced by freshwater inputs carrying a (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio closer to that of the FDNPP fallout deposited on land in the spring of 2011. Ongoing inputs of (90)Sr from FDNPP releases would be on the order of 2.3-8.5 GBq·d(-1) in September 2013, likely exceeding river inputs by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These results strongly suggest that a continuous surveillance of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is still required.

  14. Isotopic ratio and vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil affected by the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Muroya, Yusa; Sawahata, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Yuji; Nagasaki, Shinya; Okamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Katsumura, Yosuke; Tanaka, Satoru

    2012-11-01

    The results of γ analyses of soil samples obtained from 50 locations in Fukushima prefecture on April 20, 2011, revealed the presence of a spectrum of radionuclides resulted from the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). The sum γ radioactivity concentration ranged in more than 3 orders of magnitude, depending on the sampling locations. The contamination of soils in the northwest of the FDNPP was considerable. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratios of the soil samples plotted as a function of the distance from the F1 NPPs exhibited three distinctive patterns. Such patterns would reflect not only the different deposition behaviors of these radionuclides, but also on the conditions of associated release events such as temperature and compositions and physicochemical forms of released radionuclides. The (136)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio, on the other hand, was considered to only reflect the difference in isotopic compositions of source materials. Two locations close to the NPP in the northwest direction were found to be depleted in short-lived (136)Cs. This likely suggested the presence of distinct sources with different (136)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratios, although their details were unknown at present. Vertical γ activity profiles of (131)I and (137)Cs were also investigated, using 20-30 cm soil cores in several locations. About 70% or more of the radionuclides were present in the uppermost 2-cm regions. It was found that the profiles of (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratios showed maxima in the 2-4 cm regions, suggesting slightly larger migration of the former nuclide.

  15. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident.

  16. Isotopic compositions of (236)U and Pu isotopes in "black substances" collected from roadsides in Fukushima prefecture: fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    Black-colored road dusts were collected in high-radiation areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Measurement of (236)U and Pu isotopes and (134,137)Cs in samples was performed to confirm whether refractory elements, such as U and Pu, from the fuel core were discharged and to ascertain the extent of fractionation between volatile and refractory elements. The concentrations of (134,137)Cs in all samples were exceptionally high, ranging from 0.43 to 17.7 MBq/kg, respectively. (239+240)Pu was detected at low levels, ranging from 0.15 to 1.14 Bq/kg, and with high (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios of 1.64-2.64. (236)U was successfully determined in the range of (0.28 to 6.74) × 10(-4) Bq/kg. The observed activity ratios for (236)U/(239+240)Pu were in reasonable agreement with those calculated for the fuel core inventories, indicating that trace amounts of U from the fuel cores were released together with Pu isotopes but without large fractionation. The quantities of U and (239+240)Pu emitted to the atmosphere were estimated as 3.9 × 10(6) Bq (150 g) and 2.3 × 10(9) Bq (580 mg), respectively. With regard to U, this is the first report to give a quantitative estimation of the amount discharged. Appreciable fractionation between volatile and refractory radionuclides associated with the dispersal/deposition processes with distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant was found.

  17. Impact of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived (134)Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived (137)Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess (137)Cs activity concentration relative to the (134)Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived (137)Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and the bomb-derived (137)Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m(-2), respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean.

  18. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-03-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 1.5 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 18-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 18-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 17 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3 and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 1.5 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  19. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-09-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  20. Effective half-lives of ¹³⁷Cs from persimmon tree tissue parts in Japan after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the radiocesium decreasing rates from persimmon trees during a period of about 3 y following the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we conducted measurements of tree tissue parts collected in 2011-2013. The sampling was carried out in Chiba, 220 km south of FDNPP; radioactive fallouts discharged from FDNPP had mainly been observed in March-April 2011 on the sampling site. We measured (137)Cs concentrations in the tree tissue parts, i.e., fruits (flesh, skin and seeds), leaves and newly emerged branches, and then the effective half-lives (T(eff)) of (137)Cs were calculated. Leaf samples were classified into two types by sampling months according to the growing stages, that is, immature (April-May) and mature (June-November) leaves. All these parts showed exponential declines in (137)Cs concentration with good adjusted contribution ratios of higher than ca. 0.7. The calculated T(eff) values from all tissue parts were similar with the average of 229 d (range: 216-243 d). From these results, we concluded that each tree tissue was representative for the calculation of Teff. For comparison to these observation results, open source food monitoring data from 2011 to 2013 including (137)Cs data for persimmon fruits collected in Fukushima Prefecture were used to calculate T(eff) for persimmon trees. Values of Teff were obtained for persimmon fruits grown in each local government area in Fukushima Prefecture and they ranged from 303 to 475 d.

  1. Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Matuda, Hiromitu; Hinoki, Tomoya; Kato, Yuko

    2009-04-20

    Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), composed of zanthoxylum fruit, ginseng root, dried ginger rhizome and malt sugar, is clinically effective for postoperative ileus and chronic constipation. MMIHS and CIIP are severe motility disorder associated with high morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DKT on functional intestinal obstruction. DKT was clinically effective for gastrointestinal motility in a case with MMIHS, but not effective in one with CIIP. MMIHS and CIIP are speculated to have different pathogenesis regarding gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction based upon the effect of this drug.

  2. First stage zoeal morphology of four ghost crabs Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Chen; Liu, Hong-Chang; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-02-03

    Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the first zoeal stage of four ghost crabs, Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897. Finding diagnostic characters to distinguish between the four species proved difficult because their setal appendage patterns were identical. However the rectangular and pockmarked patterns on the ventral carapace are rather pronounced in O. ceratophthalmus and O. stimpsoni but weak in O. cordimanus and O. sinensis. The spinulation on the furca of the telson is less in O. cordimanus than in the other three species.

  3. Temporal changes in dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in groundwater and stream water in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Nishino, Masataka; Konuma, Ryohei; Abe, Yutaka; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar; Sakaguchi, Aya; Kondo, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Miyata, Yoshiki; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in groundwater and stream water in the headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ∼35 km north west of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), was monitored from June 2011 to July 2013, after the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Groundwater and stream water were sampled at intervals of approximately 2 months at each site. Intensive sampling was also conducted during rainstorm events. Compared with previous data from the Chernobyl NPP accident, the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water was low. In the Iboishi-yama catchment, a trend was observed for the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water to decline, which could be divided into two phases by October 2011 (a fast flush of activity as a result of rapid washoff and a slow decline as a result of soil fixation and redistribution processes). The highest (137)Cs concentration recorded at Iboishi-yama was 1.2 Bq/L on August 6, 2011, which then declined to 0.021-0.049 Bq/L during 2013 (in stream water under normal water-flow conditions). During the rainfall events, the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water increased temporarily. The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in groundwater at a depth of 30 m at Iboishi-yama displayed a decreasing trend from 2011 to 2013, with a range from 0.039 Bq/L to 0.0025 Bq/L. The effective half-lives of stream water in the initial fast flush and secondary phases were 0.10-0.21 and 0.69-1.5 y, respectively in the three catchments. The effective half-life of groundwater was 0.46-0.58 y at Koutaishi-yama and 0.50-3.3 y at Iboishi-yama. The trend for the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs to decline in groundwater and stream water was similar throughout 2012-2013, and the concentrations recorded in deeper groundwater were closer to those in stream water. The declining trend of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in stream water was similar to that of the loss of canopy (137)Cs by throughfall, as

  4. Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

    2014-05-01

    Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates

  5. Vertical distribution and temporal changes of 137Cs in soil profiles under various land uses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Junko; Tamura, Kenji; Suda, Tomoya; Matsumura, Ryo; Onda, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in soil profiles under eight different land uses for the 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and discussed the temporal changes in the early-stage of the migration and the determinants of the initial distribution. The soil samples were collected for four surveys using a scraper plate at each study site, which consisted of three forests (mixed forest, mature cedar, and young cedar), two grasslands (pasture and meadow) and three abandoned agricultural fields (farm land, tobacco field, and paddy field). The land use patterns have a large influence on some soil properties and the migration processes of (137)Cs above ground, resulting in different distribution of (137)Cs in those soil profiles. Specifically, the secondary deposition of (137)Cs from the coniferous canopy, retention of (137)Cs by litter layer, and the homogenization of (137)Cs concentrations in surface soil by natural soil mixing such as the disturbance by cattle grazing, roots growing and the formation of needle ice were important to cause redistribution of the deposited (137)Cs. Only in the paddy field, the (137)Cs inventory in subsurface soils (5-10 cm) gradually increased and comprised 26% of the total (137)Cs in 2 y, showing the downward migration of (137)Cs to subsurface soil. In the other sites, it was considered that (137)Cs were strongly adsorbed by soil particles and rarely migrated downward as soluble form. Vertical distributions during the first survey were able to be used as the initial distributions and were well fitted to the exponential equation. The distribution parameters α (relaxation depth) and β (relaxation mass depth), calculated by the exponential equation were correlated with RIP (r = -0.806, p < 0.05), macro pore (r = 0.651, p = 0.11), and dispersible fine particle content (r = 0.856, p < 0.05). It indicated that the initial distribution would be influenced by the Cs fixation ability of

  6. Radiocesium discharge from paddy fields with different initial scrapings for decontamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuich; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya

    2014-11-01

    To explore the behavior of radionuclides released after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011, and the distribution of radiocesium in paddy fields, we monitored radiocesium (Cs) and suspended sediment (SS) discharge from paddy fields. We proposed a rating scale for measuring the effectiveness of surface soil removal. Our experimental plots in paddy fields were located ∼40 km from the FDNPP. Two plots were established: one in a paddy field where surface soil was not removed (the "normally cultivated paddy field") and the second in a paddy field where the top 5-10 cm of soil was removed before cultivation (the "surface-removed paddy field"). The amounts of Cs and SS discharge from the paddy fields were continuously measured from June to August 2011. The Cs soil inventory measured 3 months after the FDNPP accident was approximately 200 kBq m(-2). However, after removing the surface soil, the concentration of Cs-137 decreased to 5 kBq m(-2). SS discharged from the normally cultivated and surface-removed paddy fields after puddling (mixing of soil and water before planting rice) was 11.0 kg and 3.1 kg, respectively, and Cs-137 discharge was 630,000 Bq (1240 Bq m(-2)) and 24,800 Bq (47.8 Bq m(-2)), respectively. The total amount of SS discharge after irrigation (natural rainfall-runoff) was 5.5 kg for the normally cultivated field and 70 kg for the surface-removed field, and the total amounts of Cs-137 discharge were 51,900 Bq (102 Bq m(-2)) and 165,000 Bq (317 Bq m(-2)), respectively. During the irrigation period, discharge from the surface-removed plot showed a twofold greater inflow than that from the normally cultivated plot. Thus, Cs inflow may originate from the upper canal. The topsoil removal process eliminated at least approximately 95% of the Cs-137, but upstream water contaminated with Cs-137 flowed into the paddy field. Therefore, to accurately determine the Cs discharge, it is important to examine Cs inflow from the

  7. Dissolution rates of subsoil limestone in a doline on the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau, Japan: An approach from a weathering experiment, hydrological observations, and electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Sanae; Hattanji, Tsuyoshi; Matsushi, Yuki; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at estimating the controlling factors for the denudation rates of limestone, which often forms solution dolines on karst tablelands. Our approaches include (1) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to reveal shallow subsurface structures and hydrological settings, (2) automated monitoring of volumetric water content in soil profiles and manual measurements of subsurface CO2 concentrations and soil water chemistry, and (3) a field weathering experiment using limestone tablets with the micro-weight loss technique for determining current denudation rates. The field experiment and monitoring were carried out over 768 days from 2009-2011 at four sites with varying topographic and hydrological conditions along the sideslope of a doline on the Akiyoshi-dai karst plateau in SW-Japan. The installation depths of the limestone tablets were 15 cm or 50 cm below the slope surface. The soil moisture conditions varied site by site. Water-saturated conditions continued for 40-50% of the whole experimental period at 50-cm depth of upper and middle sites, while only 0-10% of the experimental period was water-saturated at the other sites. Chemical analysis revealed that the soil water was chemically unsaturated with calcite for all the sites. Spatial differences in concentrations of CO2 in soil pore air were statistically less significant. The denudation rates of the buried limestone tablets were 17.7-21.9 mg cm- 2 a- 1 at the upper and middle slopes, where the soil was water-saturated for a long time after precipitation. The lowest denudation of 3.9 mg cm- 2 a- 1 was observed on lower slopes where soil was not capable of maintaining water at a near saturation level even after precipitation. Statistical analysis revealed that the denudation rates of the tablets were strongly controlled by the duration for which soil pores were saturated by water (the conditions defined here are degrees of water saturation greater than 97%). Electrical resistivity tomography

  8. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2-18.3) EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated 133Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h) into 133Xe. There is strong evidence that the 133Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 36.6 (20.1-53.1) PBq, or about 43% of the estimated

  9. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will show the results of a paper currently under review in ACPD and some additional new results, including more data and with an independent box modeling approach to support some of the findings of the ACPD paper. On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started early, before active venting was performed. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they

  10. Three-dimensional modeling of oceanic dispersal of land-derived multi-class suspended radionuclides after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Yamanishi, Takafumi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    Several oceanic dispersal modeling have been conducted on dissolved radionuclides leaked from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) where the direct release of radionuclides from the FNPP and atmospheric deposition are major sources. In the present study, we view freshwater discharge from the rivers as a missing piece for the inventory of the radionuclides in the ocean. The land-derived input introduces a time lag behind the direct release through hydrological process because these radionuclides mostly are attached to suspended particles that are transported quite differently to the dissolved matter. We thus develop a multi-class, non-cohesive sediment transport model based on ROMS along with a wave-enhanced bed boundary layer model of Soulsby (1995) and a stratigraphy submodel proposed by Blaas et al. (2007). Suspended 137Cs attached to the sediment is evaluated with an empirical power law proposed by Onda et al. (2014) as a function of specific surface area of the suspended particles. A 128 x 256 km domain with the grid resolution of dx = 250 m centered at the FNPP is configured as a test bed nested in the existing double nested ROMS domain with dx = 1 km (Uchiyama et al., 2012, 2013). The wave field is computed with an operational wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) embedded in the JMA GVP-CWM wave reanalysis. A total of 20 rivers in the domain are configured as point sources of freshwater and sediments by exploiting a surface runoff model HYDREEMS (Toyoda et al., 2009) and an empirical discharge to sediment flux relation (Takekawa and Nihei, 2013). Fractions of three sediment classes, viz., fine sand, silt and clay, in the riverine discharge are determined empirically based on the outcome of a USLE-based river sediment modeling conducted by JAEA. The developed model successfully reproduces the dispersal of the land-derived sediments and their recirculation processes associated with resuspension and deposition in the Fukushima coast for 4 months

  11. Predicting the long-term (137)Cs distribution in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: a parameter sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akihiro; Oda, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Yasuo

    2014-09-01

    Radioactive materials deposited on the land surface of Fukushima Prefecture from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant explosion is a crucial issue for a number of reasons, including external and internal radiation exposure and impacts on agricultural environments and aquatic biota. Predicting the future distribution of radioactive materials and their fates is therefore indispensable for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness of remediation options regarding human health and the environment. Cesium-137, the main radionuclide to be focused on, is well known to adsorb to clay-rich soils; therefore its primary transportation mechanism is in the form of soil erosion on the land surface and transport of sediment-sorbed contaminants in the water system. In this study, we applied the Soil and Cesium Transport model, which we have developed, to predict a long-term cesium distribution in the Fukushima area, based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and simple sediment discharge formulas. The model consists of calculation schemes of soil erosion, transportation and deposition, as well as cesium transport and its future distribution. Since not all the actual data on parameters is available, a number of sensitivity analyses were conducted here to find the range of the output results due to the uncertainties of parameters. The preliminary calculation indicated that a large amount of total soil loss remained in slope, and the residual sediment was transported to rivers, deposited in rivers and lakes, or transported farther downstream to the river mouths. Most of the sediment deposited in rivers and lakes consists of sand. On the other hand, most of the silt and clay portions transported to river were transported downstream to the river mouths. The rate of sediment deposition in the Abukuma River basin was three times as high as those of the other 13 river basins. This may be due to the larger catchment area and more moderate channel slope of the Abukuma River basin

  12. Atmospheric lifetime of caesium-137 as an estimate of aerosol lifetime -quantified from global measurements in the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Radionuclides like caesium-137 (137Cs) can be emitted to the atmosphere in great quantities during nuclear accidents and are of significant health impact. A global set of radionuclide measurements collected over several months after the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 has been used to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs. Lifetime is here defined as the e-folding time scale (the time interval in which the exponential decay of the 137Cs quantity has decreased by factor of e). The estimated atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs can also be used as an estimate of the lifetime of aerosols in the atmosphere. This is based on the fact that 137Cs attaches to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and trace their fate in the atmosphere. The 137Cs "tags" the AM aerosols and both the 137Cs and AM aerosols are removed simultaneously from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. The 137Cs emitted from Fukushima attached mainly to sulphate aerosols in the size range 0.1-2 μm diameter. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations from several stations spread mostly over the Northern Hemisphere were evaluated, and the decrease in activity concentrations over time (after correction for radioactive decay) reflects the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition. Corrections for air mass transport were made using measurements of the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) which was also released during the accident. This noble gas does not attach to the aerosols and was thus used as a passive tracer of air mass transport. The atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs was estimated to 10.0-13.9 days during April and May 2011. This represents the atmospheric lifetime of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical northern hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources

  13. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  14. Ocean dynamic processes causing spatially heterogeneous distribution of sedimentary caesium-137 massively released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, H.; Morino, Y.; Furuichi, N.; Ohara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radiocaesium 137Cs that was released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011 are widely known to have extensively migrated to Pacific oceanic sediment off of east Japan. Several recent reports have stated that the sedimentary 137Cs is now stable with a remarkably heterogeneous distribution. The present study elucidates ocean dynamic processes causing this heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution in and around the shelf off Fukushima and adjacent prefectures. We performed a numerical simulation of oceanic 137Cs behaviour for about 10 months after the accident, using a comprehensive dynamic model involving advection-diffusion transport in seawater, adsorption and desorption to and from particulate matter, sedimentation and suspension on and from the bottom, and vertical diffusion transport in the sediment. A notable simulated result was that the sedimentary 137Cs significantly accumulated in a swath just offshore of the shelf break (along the 50-100 m isobath) as in recent observations, although the seabed in the entire simulation domain was assumed to have ideal properties such as identical bulk density, uniform porosity, and aggregation of particles with a single grain diameter. This result indicated that the heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution was not necessarily a result of the spatial distribution of 137Cs sediment adsorptivity. The present simulation suggests that the shape of the swath is mainly associated with spatiotemporal variation between bottom shear stress in the shallow shelf (< 50 m depths) and that offshore of the shelf break. In a large part of the shallow shelf, the simulation indicated that strong bottom friction suspending particulate matter from the seabed frequently occurred via a periodic spring tide about every 2 weeks and via occasional strong wind. The sedimentary 137Cs thereby could hardly stay on the surface of the seabed with the result that

  15. DAiSES: Dynamic Adaptivity in Support of Extreme Scale Department of Energy Project No. ER25622 Prime Contract No. DE-FG02-04ER25622 Final Report for September 15, 2004-September 14, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    PI: Patricia J. Teller, Ph.D. University of Texas-El Paso Department of Computer Science

    2009-05-05

    The DAiSES project [Te04] was focused on enabling conventional operating systems, in particular, those running on extreme scale systems, to dynamically customize system resource management in order to offer applications the best possible environment in which to execute. Such dynamic adaptation allows operating systems to modify the execution environment in response to changes in workload behavior and system state. The main challenges of this project included determination of what operating system (OS) algorithms, policies, and parameters should be adapted, when to adapt them, and how to adapt them. We addressed these challenges by using a combination of static analysis and runtime monitoring and adaptation to identify a priori profitable targets of adaptation and effective heuristics that can be used to dynamically trigger adaptation. Dynamic monitoring and adaptation of the OS was provided by either kernel modifications or the use of KernInst and Kperfmon [Wm04]. Since Linux, an open source OS, was our target OS, patches submitted by kernel developers and researchers often facilitated kernel modifications. KernInst operates on unmodified commodity operating systems, i.e., Solaris and Linux; it is fine-grained, thus, there were few constraints on how the underlying OS can be modified. Dynamically adaptive functionality of operating systems, both in terms of policies and parameters, is intended to deliver the maximum attainable performance of a computational environment and meet, as best as possible, the needs of high-performance applications running on extreme scale systems, while meeting system constraints. DAiSES research endeavored to reach this goal by developing methodologies for dynamic adaptation of OS parameters and policies to manage stateful and stateless resources [Te06] and pursuing the following two objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms to dynamically sense, analyze, and adjust common performance metrics, fluctuating workload situations, and

  16. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  17. An extensive study of the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in various river systems and their relationship with catchment inventory.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Matsuura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    An extensive investigation of particulate radiocaesium in suspended solids and dissolved radiocaesium in river water was undertaken at 30 sites in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures in December 2012, and their relationships with catchment inventory and the solid/liquid distribution coefficient (Kd) were evaluated. Rivers located in the coastal region on the north side of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant exhibited relatively higher particulate radiocaesium concentrations. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium and average catchment inventories, indicating that the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium could be approximated from the catchment inventory. Particulate radiocaesium concentration was significantly correlated with dissolved radiocaesium concentration (with the exception of concentrations measured in estuaries), and the geometric mean Kd was calculated as 3.6 × 10(5) with a 95% confidence interval of 2.6-5.1 × 10(5).

  18. Distributions of Pu isotopes in seawater and bottom sediments in the coast of the Japanese archipelago before and soon after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Takata, Hyoe

    2015-04-01

    A radioactivity measurement survey was carried out from 24 April 2008 to 3 June 2011 to determine the levels of plutonium isotopes and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the marine environments off the sites of commercial nuclear power stations around the Japanese islands; the sampling period extended to two months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In our previous study (Oikawa et al., 2015), data on Pu isotopes and (241)Am in sediments have already been reported. In this study, we report those on Pu isotopes in seawater as well as sediments, and the characteristics of sediments in addition (e.g., ignition loss and biogenic opals). Concentrations of (239+240)Pu in seawater and bottom sediments remained nearly constant at all sampling locations during the survey period. In addition, no regional differences were observed in the (239+240)Pu concentrations in surface waters. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were found in bottom waters at deeper sampling locations, but the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were nearly constant regardless of the water depth. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were also found in bottom sediments at deeper sampling locations, but vice versa for (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios as reported in the previous report. The sediments samples from deeper locations showed the higher percentage of ignition loss as well as the higher content of biogenic opal. There was likely to be some driving force participating in the transfer of Pu isotopes associated with biogenic substances to the deeper seabed. The present survey showed that the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station did not contribute much to the inventory of Pu isotopes in the adjacent sea area.

  19. 3D-MRI rendering of the anatomical structures related to acupuncture points of the Dai mai, Yin qiao mai and Yang qiao mai meridians within the context of the WOMED concept of lateral tension: implications for musculoskeletal disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background A conceptual model of lateral muscular tension in patients presenting thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) has been recently described. Clinical improvement has been achieved by using acupuncture on points belonging to the so-called extraordinary meridians. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical structures related to these acupuncture points by means of 3D MRI image rendering relying on external markers. Methods The investigation was carried out the index case patient of the lateral tension model. A licensed medical acupuncture practitioner located the following acupuncture points: 1) Yin qiao mai meridian (medial ankle): Kidney 3, Kidney 6, the plantar Kidney 6 (Nan jing description); 2) Yang qiao mai meridian (lateral ankle): Bladder 62, Bladder 59, Bladder 61, and the plantar Bladder 62 (Nan jing description); 3) Dai mai meridian (wait): Liver 13, Gall bladder 26, Gall bladder 27, Gall bladder 28, and Gall bladder 29. The points were marked by taping a nitro-glycerin capsule on the skin. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using an array head and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. The image data were rendered in 3D modus using dedicated software (Leonardo, Siemens). Results Points of the Dai mai meridian – at the level of the waist – corresponded to the obliquus externus abdominis and the obliquus internus abdominis. Points of the Yin qiao mai meridian – at the medial side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the flexor digitorum longus as well as to muscular structures of the abductor hallucis on the foot sole. Points of the Yang qiao mai meridian – at the lateral side of the ankle – corresponded to tendinous structures of the peroneus brevis, the peroneous longus, and the lateral surface of the calcaneus and close to the foot sole to the abductor digiti minimi. Conclusion This non

  20. Yi-Zhi-Fang-Dai Formula Protects against Aβ1–42 Oligomer Induced Cell Damage via Increasing Hsp70 and Grp78 Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lumei; Wan, Wenbin; Chen, Wenjing; Chan, Yuanjin; Shen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Yi-Zhi-Fang-Dai formula (YZFDF) is an experiential prescription used to cure dementia cases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, the main effective compounds of YZFDF have been identified from this formula, and the neuroprotective effect against Aβ1–42 oligomer of YZFDF has been tested in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that YZFDF could increase cell viability and could attenuate endothelial reticula- (ER-) mediated apoptosis. Evidence indicated that protein folding and endothelial reticula stress (ERS) played an important role in the AD pathological mechanism. We further explored the expression of Hsp70, an important molecular chaperon facilitating the folding of other proteins, and Grp78, the marker protein of ERS in SH-SY5Y cells. Data told us that YZFDF pretreatment could influence the mRNA and protein expression of these two proteins. At last, we also found that YZFDF pretreatment could activate Akt in SH-SY5Y cells. All these above indicate that YZFDF could be a potent therapeutic candidate for AD treatment. PMID:27829867

  1. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of Canarium lyi C.D. Dai & Yakovlev in RAW 264.7 macrophages and a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Shin, Na-Rae; Lee, Joongku; Park, Sang-Hong; Bach, Tran The; Hai, Do Van; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Han, Sang-Bae; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-05-01

    Canarium lyi C.D. Dai & Yakovlev (CL) is a member of the Anacardiaceae family. To the best of our knowledge, no studies on its anti-inflammatory effects have yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of CL on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice. CL attenuated the production of LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, CL suppressed phosphorylation of the inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), as well as the translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit into the nucleus. For the in vivo efficacy, the effect of CL on a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury was assessed. CL treatment of the mice significantly inhibited the inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). CL-treated mice also showed a marked inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phosphorylation of IκB and p65. In addition, CL attenuated lung histopathological changes in LPS-induced ALI mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that CL is a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia.

  3. Speciation analysis of I-127,129 in the crop field soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident with newly developed chemical separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Maki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takumi; Nagai, Hisao

    2014-05-01

    In previous study, we investigated the depth profile of the accident derived I-129 and downward migration speed in soils of near-field of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, including crop fields and man-made fields. I-129 in soil was measured by AMS and stable iodine (I-127) was measured by ICP-MS at MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University of Tokyo. It was found that I-129 was concentrated near surface but distributed deeper compared with Cs-137. It was also found that I-129 seems to move downward more quickly than Cs-137. To investigate the adsorption mechanism and the elemental process of migration of the accident derived I-129 in soil, it is important to know what kind of component the I-129 combines with. Recent studies on the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), especially near edge structure (XANES), reported that the stable iodine (I-127) in soil existed as an organic component. However, it had not yet been proved that it was also the case with the accident derived I-129 because it had been incorporated in the soil system only recently and the abundance of I-129 in soil was more than 8 orders of magnitude smaller than sub-ppm level stable iodine (I-127). In this study a progressive sequential extraction method including the dialysis and the dynamic headspace method was newly developed to obtain only the iodine sticking to the soil organic component. The stable iodine can be quantified by direct analysis of the fraction and I-129 can be quantified by AMS method of the fraction added with carrier. The fraction of the organic component for I-127 and I-129 can be evaluated respectively by comparing with the other fraction and/or with the total concentration obtained by the bulk analysis (e.g. by the pyrohydrolysis).

  4. Contribution of radioactive (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction from a headwater catchment in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Abe, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwaters in forested areas provides important information, as the output from forest streams subsequently enters various land-use areas and downstream rivers. Thus, it is important to determine the composition of (137)Cs fluxes (dissolved fraction, suspended sediment, or coarse organic matter) that migrate through a headwater stream. In this study, the (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment and coarse organic matter from a forest headwater catchment was monitored. The (137)Cs concentrations in suspended sediment and coarse organic matter, such as leaves and branches, and the amounts of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured at stream sites in three headwater catchments in Yamakiya District, located ∼35 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) from August 2012 to September 2013, following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were sampled at intervals of approximately 1-2 months. The (137)Cs concentrations of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 2.4-49 kBq/kg and 0.85-14 kBq/kg, respectively. The (137)Cs concentrations of the suspended sediment were closely correlated with the average deposition density of the catchment. The annual proportions of contribution of (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction were 96-99%, 0.0092-0.069%, and 0.73-3.7%, respectively. The total annual (137)Cs discharge from the catchment was 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  5. Changes in radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms in relation to the organic layer 2.5 years after the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Kaneko, Shinji; Ikeda, Shigeto; Akama, Akio; Komatsu, Masabumi; Ito, Masamichi T

    2015-07-01

    We reported previously that radiocesium ((137)Cs) concentrations in earthworms increased with those in litter and/or soil in Fukushima Prefecture forests 0.5 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. This study provides further results for 1.5 and 2.5 y after the accident and discusses temporal changes in (137)Cs concentrations and transfer factors (TF) from litter to earthworms to better understand the mechanisms by which (137)Cs enters soil food webs. The concentration of (137)Cs in accumulated litter on the forest floor rapidly decreased, and the concentration in soil (0-5-cm depth) increased over time from 0.5 to 1.5 y, but changed only moderately from 1.5 to 2.5 y. The concentration of (137)Cs in earthworms consistently decreased during the study period; values 2.5 y after the accident were 18.8-68.5% of those 0.5 y after the accident. The TFs from accumulated litter to earthworms decreased over time: 0.24 ± 0.08 (mean ± SD) at 0.5 y and 0.16 ± 0.04 at 2.5 y. This decrease may be a result of decreases in the bioavailability of (137)Cs in litter and the surface soil layer. Changes in (137)Cs bioavailability should be continuously tracked to determine any changes in the relationship between radiocesium concentrations in earthworms and that in accumulated litter or soil.

  6. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium.

  7. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-11-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols

  8. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I during the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-05-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of AM aerosols originating from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

  9. Estimating the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration using the water balance model WAVE and fine spatial resolution airborne remote sensing images from the DAIS-sensor: Experimental set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Veroustraete, F.; Feyen, J.

    2003-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ET) of agricultural land and forestland surfaces play an important role in the redistribution of water on the Earth's surface. Any change in evapotranspiration, either through change in vegetation or climate change, directly effects the available water resources. For quantifying these effects physical models need to be constructed. Most hydrological models have to deal with a lack of good spatial resolution, despite their good temporal information. Remote sensing techniques on the contrary determine the spatial pattern of landscape features and hence are very useful on large scales. The main objective of this research is the combination of the spatial pattern of remote sensing (using visible and thermal infrared spectrum) with the temporal pattern of the water balance model WAVE (Vanclooster et al., 1994 and 1996). To realise this, the following objectives are formulated: (i) relate soil and vegetation surface temperatures to actual evapotranspiration of forest and crops simulated with the water balance model WAVE using remote sensing derived parameters. Three methods will be used and mutually compared. Both airborne and satellite imagery will be implemented; (1) compare the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration, as a result of the three methods, with the energy balance model SEBAL (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) and finally; (2) subject the up-scaled WAVE and SEBAL models to an uncertainty analysis using the GLUE-approach (Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimate) (Beven en Binley, 1992). To study the behaviour of the model beyond the field-scale (micro-scale), a meso-scale study was conducted at the test-site of DURAS (50°50'38"N, 5°08'50"W, Sint-Truiden). Airborne imagery from the DAIS/ROSIS sensor are available. For the determination of the spatial pattern of actual evapotranspiration the next two methods are considered: (1) relations between surface temperature, surface albedo and vegetation indices are linked with field

  10. Pre- and post-accident (129)I and (137)Cs levels, and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in soil near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Sasa, Kimikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Satou, Yukihiko; Matsumura, Masumi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the deposition density and extent of subsurface infiltration of (129)I and (137)Cs in the restricted area that was highly contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, cumulative inventories of (129)I and (137)Cs, concentrations of (129)I and (137)Cs, and (129)I/(137)Cs ratio in 30-cm-long soil columns were compared with pre-accident levels from the same area. The cores were collected before and after the accident from locations of S-1 (4 km west of FDNPP) and S-2 (8 km west of FDNPP). Deposition densities of (129)I and (137)Cs in the soil following the accident were 0.90-2.33 Bq m(-2) and 0.80-4.04 MBq m(-2), respectively, which were 14-39 and 320-510 times larger than the pre-accident levels of (129)I (59.3-63.3 mBq m(-2)) and (137)Cs (2.51-7.88 kBq m(-2)), respectively. Approximately 90% of accident-derived (129)I and (137)Cs deposited in the 30-cm soil cores was concentrated in the surface layer from 0 to 44-95 kg m(-2) of mass depth (0-4.3-6.2 cm depth) and from 0 to 16-25 kg m(-2) of mass depth (0-1.0-3.1 cm depth), respectively. The relaxation mass depths (h0) of 10.8-11.2 kg m(-2) for (129)I estimated in the previous study were larger than those of 8.1-10.6 kg m(-2) for (137)Cs at both sites, owing to the larger infiltration depth of radioiodine mainly by the gravitational water penetration in the surface soil in our study sites. Approximately 7-9% of the accident-derived (129)I was present in the lower layer from 44 to 100 kg m(-2) (4.3-8.6 cm depth) at S-1, and from 95 to 160 kg m(-2) (6.2-10.2 cm depth) at S-2. Approximately 1% of (137)Cs seems to infiltrate deeper than (129)I in the lower layer at each site in contrast to the surface layer.

  11. Estimating the Duration of Public Concern After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident From the Occurrence of Radiation Exposure-Related Terms on Twitter: A Retrospective Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, a large number of comments, both positive and negative, were posted on social media. Objective The objective of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the trend in the number of tweets posted on Twitter, and to estimate how long public concern regarding the accident continued. We surveyed the attenuation period of the first term occurrence related to radiation exposure as a surrogate endpoint for the duration of concern. Methods We retrieved 18,891,284 tweets from Twitter data between March 11, 2011 and March 10, 2012, containing 143 variables in Japanese. We selected radiation, radioactive, Sievert (Sv), Becquerel (Bq), and gray (Gy) as keywords to estimate the attenuation period of public concern regarding radiation exposure. These data, formatted as comma-separated values, were transferred into a Statistical Analysis System (SAS) dataset for analysis, and survival analysis methodology was followed using the SAS LIFETEST procedure. This study was approved by the institutional review board of Hokkaido University and informed consent was waived. Results A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to show the rate of Twitter users posting a message after the accident that included one or more of the keywords. The term Sv occurred in tweets up to one year after the first tweet. Among the Twitter users studied, 75.32% (880,108/1,168,542) tweeted the word radioactive and 9.20% (107,522/1,168,542) tweeted the term Sv. The first reduction was observed within the first 7 days after March 11, 2011. The means and standard errors (SEs) of the duration from the first tweet on March 11, 2011 were 31.9 days (SE 0.096) for radioactive and 300.6 days (SE 0.181) for Sv. These keywords were still being used at the end of the study period. The mean attenuation period for radioactive was one month, and approximately one year for radiation and radiation units. The difference in mean duration

  12. Long-term Trends of Plot-scale Cs-137 Wash-off on Various Land Uses in the Area Affected by the Accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakiyama, Y.; Onda, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Takahashi, J.; Nakamura, N.; Manome, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off is indispensable for predicting Cs-137 fate. However, there are only a few numbers of long-term observations and hence lack of information on temporal trends of Cs-137 wash-off leaves uncertainties on the predictions. This study shows approximately three years' observation results of plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off from various land uses after the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Erosion plots (22.3 m × 5.0 m) were established in 2011 and 2013 on two uncultivated farmlands (FL-A1, FL-B1), two cultivated farmlands (FL-A2, FL-B2), three grasslands (GL-A, GL-B, GL-C) and one Japanese cedar forest (JCdF) in Kawamata town. Eroded sediments as well as the data of rainfall and vegetation cover were collected almost every two weeks. At the end of observations, we took soil samples from three to nine points on each plot with scraper plates (30 cm ×15 cm) to obtain Cs-137 depth distributions. Collected sediment and soil samples were dried, weighed and measured with HPGe type gamma detectors. We calculated βeff, 'effective' relaxation depth (g/m2), based on Cs-137 depth distributions. Annual soil loss ranged from 0.04 to 75 t/ha/year and the largest was from FL-A2 followed by FL-B2, FL-A1, FL-B1, GL-A, GL-B, JCdF and then GL-C. Sediment amount weighted mean values of Cs-137 concentration normalized by initial deposition density ranged from 0.0062 to 0.084 ((Bq/kg)/(Bq/m2)) and the largest was from JCdF followed by FL-B1, FL-A1, GL-A, FL-A2, FL-B2, GL-B, and then GL-C. Decreasing trends of Cs-137 concentration were found on FL-A1 and FL-B1, whereas no trend was found on other plots due to constant values on FL-A2 and FL-B2 and due to variable values on GL-C, GL-B, GL-C and JCdF. Depth distributions of Cs-137 on FL-A1 and FL-B1 showed exponential distributions with low inventories on their upslope points and deeper penetrations with high inventories on their downslope points. Mean values of βeff ranged from 2.1 to 24

  13. The Role of Community Studies in the Makiguchian Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two of the earlier works in the Makiguchi corpus, "Kyoju no togo chushin toshiteno kyodoka kenkyu" ("Research into Community Studies as the Integrating Focus of Instruction," 1912/1987; hereafter "Community Studies"), and "Chiri kyoju no hoho oyobi naiyo no kenkyu" ("Research…

  14. Radioactivity analysis following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Xu, Cuihua; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Wenhong; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Su, Xu

    2013-08-01

    A total of 118 samples were analyzed using HPGe γ-spectrometry. (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (136)Cs were detected in aerosol air samples that were collected 22 days after the accident with values of 1720 µBq m(-)³, 247 µBq m(-)³, 289 µBq m(-)³ and 23 µBq m(-)³, respectively. (131)I was detected in rainwater and soil samples and was also measurable in vegetables collected between April 2 and 13, 2011, with values ranging from 0.55 Bq kg(-1) to 2.68 Bq kg(-1). No (131)I was detected in milk, drinking water, seawater or marine biota samples.

  15. Technological Lessons from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    improved biological decontamination. As noted earlier, cesium accumulates in living organisms because of its chemical similarity to potassium, which... improve technological preparedness for any future radiological or nuclear incidents. This research was sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of...Decontamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Chemical Methods of Decontamination

  16. Determination of chlorinated solvents in industrial water and wastewater by DAI-GC-ECD.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-04-01

    A very simple and quick analytical method, based on direct aqueous injection, for determination of halogenated solvents in refinery water and wastewater, is described. There is a need to determine halogenated solvents in refinery water streams, because they may originate from several processes. There is also a need to develop methods enabling VOX to be determined in samples containing oil fractions. The method described enables simultaneous determination of 26 compounds with low detection limits (sub-μg L(-1)) and excellent precision, especially for highly halogenated solvents. The matrix effects of four types of sample were evaluated--the method seemed to be relatively insensitive to variations in matrix composition. Deuterated 1,2-dichloroethane was used as internal standard and surrogate compound in quantitative analysis; application of isotopically labelled compounds is rarely reported when non-mass spectrometric detectors are used for analysis. Analysis of real samples showed that the most frequently detected compounds were dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane.

  17. An experiment on induction of triploidy in Eriocheir japonicus hepuensis Dai by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renhou; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiangyu; Yu, Hongjun

    1993-03-01

    Temperature treatment to inhibit extrusion of the polar body of the egg was first used on a lower crustacean, Artemia salina (Gross, 1932), and then was used for inducing triploids of amphibian (Frankhauser and Griffiths, 1939), fish (Svardson, 1945), and mammal (Beatly and Fishchberg, 1949). So far, induction of triploidy has been extensively used to obtain sterile or quick-growth individuals in fish (Swarup, 1956; Lincoln, and Scott, 1983 and Thorgaard, 1986) and mollusk (Stanley et al., 1984), but similar work has not been reported on crab, a higher crustancean.

  18. Environmental radioactivity analyses in Italy following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, M; Conte, F; Delbono, I; Iurlaro, G; Battisti, P; Bortoluzzi, S; Lorenzelli, R; Salvi, S; Zicari, S; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    2012-12-01

    Following the Fukushima power plants accident on the 11th March 2011, the radioactivity monitoring programme at the Italian ENEA research centres was activated in order to detect the possible new input of radionuclides through atmospheric transport and precipitation. Measurements of (131)I and (134,137)Cs were carried out on atmospheric particulate, atmospheric deposition, seawater and mussels and sheep milk. In the daily samples of air particulate, (131)I was detectable between March 28 and April 12, with extremely low concentrations (<1 mBq m(-3); the detection limit for (131)I was ~0.2 mBq m(-3)) while Cs isotopes were always below the detection limit (<0.2 mBq m(-3)). The two main episodes of (131)I atmospheric deposition were registered in La Spezia research centre, around March 28 and April 15, reaching values of 17.8 ± 1.1 and 8.0 ± 2.5 Bq m(-2) respectively; maximum values of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.11 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2), respectively, detected in Brasimone research centre in April (reference date April 15). Mussels and seawater were collected in the Gulf of La Spezia: only mussels after the main (131)I deposition, on March 28, contained a measurable, although very small, amount of (131)I (0.18 ± 0.05 Bq kg(-1), detection limit (131)I = 0.03 Bq kg(-1) wet weight - soft parts). The (131)I was also detected in sheep milk in Rome (Casaccia research centre) until May 5, showing a maximum concentration of 4.9 ± 0.4 Bq L(-1). As for other European Countries for which data are available, activity levels remain of no concern for public health.

  19. 'Designing Ambient Interactions - Pervasive Ergonomic Interfaces for Ageing Well' (DAI'10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geven, Arjan; Prost, Sebastian; Tscheligi, Manfred; Soldatos, John; Gonzalez, Mari Feli

    The workshop will focus on novel computer based interaction mechanisms and interfaces, which boost natural interactivity and obviate the need for conventional tedious interfaces. Such interfaces are increasingly used in ambient intelligence environments and related applications, including application boosting elderly cognitive support, cognitive rehabilitation and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). The aim of the workshop is to provide insights on the technological underpinnings of such interfaces, along with tools and techniques for their design and evaluation.

  20. FDA Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Facility Incident

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/downloads/Food/ComplianceEnforcement/UCM073281.pdf How will water contaminated with radioactive materials affect seafood safety? FDA ... swim from the reactor site into U.S. fishing waters? Japan to U.S. waters would take several days ...

  1. Ethnography for Teachers' Professional Development: Japanese Approach of Investigation on Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matoba, Masami; Sarkar Arani Mohammed Reza

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how journal and ethnography field notes in Jugyou Kenkyu (lesson study) help teachers to understand the diverse range of talents and abilities of their students. Especially, we focus on how ethnography field note and reflective papers (karate) help teachers to change their assumptions about student learning. The data…

  2. Internal Radiation Exposure Dose in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture after the Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01–0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01–0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks. PMID:25478794

  3. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  4. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) - Description, Users Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    27 2.2.2.2 Cost of Support (CS) 27 2.2.3 Disposal Costs ( CDP ) 28 2.3 Time Value of Money 282.4 General Assumptions of the RMCM 31 III. DATA FILE...NRC + RC + 2CDP + + 4 NRC Nonrecurring cost total using a baseline year value. RC Recurring cost total using a baseline year value. CDP Cost of system...application, the availability of data, and assurance that costs are not duplicated between cost elements. 27 2.2.3 Disposal Costs ( CDP ) The disposal costs

  5. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  6. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-03-03

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice.

  7. Technological Issues and High Gradient Test Results on X-Band Molybdenum Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Spataro, B.; Alesini, D.; Chimenti, V.; Dolgashev, V.; Haase, A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Marrelli, C.; Mostacci, A.; Parodi, R.; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Two 11.424 GHz single cell standing wave accelerating structures have been fabricated for high gradient RF breakdown studies. Both are brazed structures: one made from copper and the other from sintered molybdenum bulk. The tests results are presented and compared to those of similar devices constructed at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and KEK (Ko Enerugi Kasokuki Kenkyu Kiko). The technological issues to build both sections are discussed.

  8. The existence state in the soil of radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by imaging plate photograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke

    2013-04-01

    In the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the wide area in east Japan was polluted seriously with radioactive cesium. But, unlike Chernobyl, reactor core explosion did not occur in Fukushima. Therefore, it is thought that many radioactive nuclides emitted into the atmosphere were in the gas state and aerosol. However, when the imaging plate photographs of the surface soils in Fukushima was observed, many granular radionuclides existed. Then, in order to confirm a radioactive cesium of particle state, the treatment for the soils contaminated with radioactive cesium by using chemical operation was tried. Three type soils, that is, paddy soil, river sediment, and sea sand, were made applicable to research. The contaminated soil samples were collected in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefecture. Radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry with a high pure germanium (HPGe) detector. After the radioactively measurement, soils had been burned in oven for five hours in 500 degree Celsius. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to soil samples, and they were heated for three hours. These samples were divided into residue and elution by centrifugal separation, and then radioactivity of cesium contained in residue was measured. After chemical operations, 70% and 85% of radioactive cesium from river sediment and sea sand were extracted approximately into elution, respectively. In contrast, in the soil of the paddy field, only 30% of radioactive cesium was approximately eluted. When radiation image photograph of the residues of all three types of soils were taken and observed, the granular radioactive nuclides remained clearly in paddy soil and river sediment. In contrast, all the granular radioactive nuclides in sea sand disappeared after treatment. The results of above things that desorption of radioactive cesium depend on the kind of soil. Furthermore, it was suggested that there was radioactive cesium of particle state in paddy soil and river sediment. It is a possibility that the substances on which radioactive cesium are concentrated depends on the kind of soil. The necessity of clarifying adsorption objects and particle state in the actual condition was suggested to elucidate Fukushima accident in more detail.

  9. RuHe DuiDai WanMei ZhuYi De XueSheng (Working with Perfectionist Students). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere

    Perfectionist students are not satisfied with merely doing well or even with doing better than their peers. They are satisfied only if they have done a job perfectly. Problems associated with forms of perfectionism that focus on seeking success are relatively minor, but problems associated with forms of perfectionism that focus on avoiding failure…

  10. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident.

  11. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-06-23

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident.

  12. Concentrations of Radiocesium in Local Foods Collected in Kawauchi Village after the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Hayashida, Naomi; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the current concentrations of radiocesium in local foods collected in Kawauchi Village, which is located less than 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to minimize public anxiety regarding internal radiation exposure through the consumption of locally produced foods after the 2011 Fukushima accident. The number of samples exceeding the regulatory radiocesium limit (100 Bq/kg for general foods) was five out of 4,080 vegetables (0.1%), 652 of 1,986 (32.8%) among edible wild plants and fungi, and eight of 647 (1.2%) in fruits. Our study confirmed that the internal radiation doses of ingesting these foods are acceptably low compared to the public dose limit, ranging from 24.4 to 42.7 μSv for males and from 21.7 to 43.4 μSv for females, although the potential for radiation exposure still exists. Long-term comprehensive follow-up should take place to clarify trends in radiocesium concentrations in local foods and the committed effective doses found in Fukushima-area residents. By constructing a system that allows residents to access information on radiocesium concentration in foods, a risk communication model between specialists and residents could be developed in the recovery phase after the Fukushima accident. PMID:27334847

  13. The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-09-01

    We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average (137)Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (<0.45 μm) in the stemflow was measured to be around 10 Bq/L. The (137)Cs concentration ratio [present at the time of the accident (Bq/kg) in the bark/the dissolved fraction in the stemflow (Bq/L)] was approximately 10(3). A strong positive correlation was observed between the radiocesium concentration and the electrical conductivity of the dissolved fraction of the stemflow; this result suggests that radiocesium and electrolytes have the same elution mechanism from the tree. The size fractionation analysis of the <0.45 μm fraction through ultrafiltration revealed that the radiocesium was present as an almost dissolved species. Some of the particles in the particulate fraction (>0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium.

  14. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Korpach, E.; Yi, Jing; Miley, Harry S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Ungar, R. Kurt; White, Brian; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  15. Modeling watershed-scale (137)Cs transport in a forested catchment affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lezhang; Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Velleux, Mark L

    2017-02-02

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 resulted in (137)Cs contamination of large areas in northeast Japan. A watershed-scale (137)Cs transport model was developed and applied to a forested catchment in Fukushima area. This model considers (137)Cs wash-off from vegetation, movement through soils, and transport of dissolved and particulate (137)Cs adsorbed to clay, silt and sand. Comparisons between measurements and simulations demonstrated that the model well reproduced (137)Cs concentrations in the stream fed from the catchment. Simulations estimated that 0.57 TBq of (137)Cs was exported from the catchment between June, 2011 and December, 2014. Transport largely occurred with eroded sediment particles at a ratio of 17:70:13 of clay, silt, and sand. The overall (137)Cs reduction ratio by rainfall-runoff wash-off was about 1.6%. Appreciable (137)Cs remained in the catchment at the end of 2014. The largest rate of (137)Cs reduction by wash-off was simulated to occur in subwatersheds of the upper catchment. However, despite relatively low initial deposition, middle portions of the watershed exported proportionately more (137)Cs by rainfall-runoff processes. Simulations indicated that much of the transported (137)Cs originates from erosion over hillsides and river banks. These results suggested that areas where (137)Cs accumulates with redeposited sediments can be targeted for decontamination and also provided insight into (137)Cs transport at the watershed scale to assess risk management and decontamination planning efforts.

  16. Morphological abnormalities in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) at the territories contaminated as a result of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Takase, Tsugiko; Sato, Natsumi; Keitoku, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Our research, carried out in 2014-2016 at eight sites in the radioactive contaminated territories of Fukushima Prefecture, showed that the young trees of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) are sensitive to radiation. Irradiation induced cancellation of the apical dominance in this species. The effect is similar to that observed in young trees of Scots pine growing in the Chernobyl zone. At the same time, we did not observed any morphological abnormalities in mature trees of Japanese red pine. The probability of cancelling the apical dominance in Japanese red pine increased to 0.11 and 0.14 in the two less irradiated populations, and to 0.5 and 0.9 at sites were the absorbed dose rates were approximately 14 and 25 μGy h(-1), respectively. Most of the observed abnormalities appeared in the second whorl after the beginning of exposure. No new abnormalities were observed in the fifth whorl. This temporal pattern is similar to those reported for Scots pine in Chernobyl and for Japanese fir in Fukushima. Additional detailed studies are necessary for interpretation of the observed temporal pattern and, in general, for explanation of the mechanism of formation of the morphological abnormalities.

  17. Screening test for radioactivity of self-consumption products in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Yagihashi, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Shinya; Ishizu, Hidetake; Shiina, Takuya

    2017-02-23

    A food inspection service system for home grown products or wild plants collected by individual consumers for self-consumption was implemented in Fukushima in Nov. 2012. About 500 NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers were distributed to 300 or more temporary testing laboratories which were set up in public halls or meeting places of the municipalities. The screening method for radiocaesium was adapted to the present inspection service system. The performance of the equipment under field conditions was evaluated using sampled data obtained by temporary testing laboratories. From the present results of evaluation the confidence of these inspections was confirmed. Totally about 550,000 food samples have been tested with a pass rate of 90% or more.

  18. Simple (40)K removal by acidified water leaching for estimating low levels of radiocesium in fishery products following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Yamashita, S; Fujimoto, K; Kofuji, H; Miki, S; Nagao, S

    2017-02-01

    We developed a simple method for (40)K removal by acidified water leaching combined with ammonium phosphomolybdate coprecipitation, for estimating low levels of radiocesium in Japanese flounder. (40)K removal from ashed samples was approximately 98%, with the radiocesium yield of ~98%. The treatment reduced the γ-spectral baseline to ~1/5 at ground and ~3/100 at underground levels (1.04 and 0.11 cph/keV, respectively). Faint signal of (134)Cs, which is embedded in the Compton continuum of (40)K in an untreated sample, was detected.

  19. 78 FR 44035 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... efforts associated with the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan. DATES: At... on the lessons-learned from the March 11, 2011, Fukushima Dai-ichi accident in Japan. By making...

  20. 77 FR 25503 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Event. 2. Current OMB approval number: 3150-0211. 3. How often the... request: 369,960 hours. 7. Abstract: Following events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power...

  1. 76 FR 59449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Force Report Regarding the Events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Site in Japan (Open)--The Committee will... recommendations on the Near-Term Task Force Report regarding the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi site in...

  2. 77 FR 65417 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread... northeastern coastal areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3, were... loss of cooling capabilities. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant,...

  3. 77 FR 59675 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread... northeastern coastal areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3, were... normal. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the NRC established a...

  4. 77 FR 16091 - Order Modifying Licenses With Regard to Requirements for Mitigation Strategies for Beyond-Design...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread... northeastern coastal areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3 were in.... Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the NRC established a...

  5. 77 FR 16082 - In the Matter of All Power Reactor Licensees and Holders of Construction Permits in Active Or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ..., estimated to have exceeded 14 meters (45 feet) in height, that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear.... When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3 were in operation and Units 4, 5... actions by decision makers. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the...

  6. 77 FR 33780 - Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-03; Compliance with Order EA-12-051, Order Modifying Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ..., and resulting nuclear accident, at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Order EA... Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the NRC established a senior-level agency task force referred to as... in light of the events at Fukushima Dai-ichi. As a result of this review, the NTTF developed...

  7. 77 FR 23161 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan. DATES: Submit comments by June 18, 2012. Comments.... Background: Fukushima Dai-ichi and the NRC Regulatory Response III. Background: Onsite Emergency Response.... Background: Fukushima Dai-ichi and the NRC Regulatory Response On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0...

  8. 78 FR 3039 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-06; Performing a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Recommendations 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3 of the Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi..., estimated to have exceeded 14 meters (45 feet) in height, that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear.... When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3 were in operation and Units 4,...

  9. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  10. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 4: Chemistry = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 4: Hoa Hoc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanh-Van, Tran Thi

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  11. ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in foliose lichens within Tsukuba-city as a reflection of radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Yoshihito; Matsukura, Kimiyo; Abe, Jun-ichi P; Hosaka, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Masanori; Dohi, Terumi; Kakishima, Makoto; Seaward, Mark R D

    2015-03-01

    (137)Cs concentrations in ten species of foliose lichens collected within Tsukuba-city in August 2013 ranged from 1.7 to 35 kBq/kg. The relationships between (137)Cs in two dominant species, Dirinaria applanata and Physcia orientalis, and the air dose rate (μSv/h) at the sampling sites were investigated. (137)Cs in P. orientalis measured about 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident was correlated (r(2) = 0.80) more closely with the air dose rate than those measured after about 2 years (r(2) = 0.65), possibly demonstrating its continued value as a biomonitor to reflect ambient fall-out levels. In contrast, those of Dirinaria applanata were not correlated with the air dose rate in either year.

  12. Commentary on: Laminectomy plus fusion versus laminectomy alone for lumbar spondylolisthesis by Ghogawala Z, Dziura J, Butler WE, Dai F, Terrin N, Magge SN, et al. NEJM 2016;374 (15):1424-34

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: How does an article involving only 66 patients randomized into two spinal surgical groups get into the New England Journal of Medicine? Nevertheless, this one did. The article by Ghogawala et al. entitled Laminectomy plus fusion versus laminectomy alone for lumbar spondylolisthesis, compared the efficacy/outcomes of pedicle/screw/rod instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusions vs. decompressions alone for treating lumbar stenosis with grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Methods: They designed a randomized controlled study involving only 66 patients between the ages of 50–80 (average age: 67) with lumbar stenosis and stable DS (3–14 mm). Outcomes were measured utilizing the physical measures from the Short Form 36 (SF-36) up to 4 postoperative years, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) upt to 2 postoperative years. Data were available for 86% of patients at 2, but only for 68% of the patients at 4 postoperative years. Results: At 2 postoperative years, SF-36 scores were higher for the instrumented patients (28 patients) vs. decompressed (29 patients) patients. However, the scores were comparable for both groups using the ODI at 4 years. SF-36 scores, however, remained higher for the 19 remaining instrumented patients. Additionally, reoperation rates were 14% for fusions and a staggering 34% for decompressions alone. Conclusions: The authors concluded; laminectomy with fusion offered a “slightly greater but clinically meaningful improvement in overall physical health-related quality of life vs. laminectomy alone.” Rather, it should have read there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups and an insufficient number of patients were included in the study at all stages. PMID:27843677

  13. Japan’s Self Defense Forces After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Toward a New Status Quo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    amount of radiation emitted by Fukushima Dai-ichi in 30 days was only 10% of the amount leaked in the first 10 days at Chernobyl . No one died from... Fukushima Dai- ichi’s radiation as opposed to the 28 acute radiation sickness deaths at Chernobyl . Also, the Japanese government quickly ordered citizens...to large amounts of radiation. Major Differences Between the Chernobyl Accident and the Accident at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station

  14. Taxonomic study of the leafhopper genus Thagria Melichar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae) from Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhi-Hua; Li, Zi-Zhong; Dai, Ren-Huai

    2015-02-13

    The paper deals with 21 valid species of the genus Thagria from Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. Eight new species are described and illustrated: T. biprocessa Fan & Dai, sp. nov., T. decussata Fan & Dai, sp. nov., T. irregularis Fan & Dai, sp. nov., T. multispinosa Fan & Dai, sp. nov., T. paramultipars Fan & Li, sp. nov., T. triangula Fan & Li, sp. nov., T. trifasciata Fan & Li, sp. nov. and T. webbi Fan & Li, sp. nov.. A key is given to distinguish all species of this genus from Guangxi, China and maps showing the geographic distribution of new species are also provided. The name Thagria xuae nom. emend. is given for T. xui Nielson.

  15. Diffuse Axonal Injury: Epidemiology, Outcome and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Rita de Cássia Almeida; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; de Oliveira, Daniel Vieira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; de Sousa, Regina Márcia Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), a type of traumatic injury, is known for its severe consequences. However, there are few studies describing the outcomes of DAI and the risk factors associated with it. This study aimed to describe the outcome for patients with a primary diagnosis of DAI 6 months after trauma and to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with mortality and dependence at this time point. Seventy-eight patients with DAI were recruited from July 2013 to February 2014 in a prospective cohort study. Patient outcome was analyzed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) within 6 months of the traumatic injury. The mean Injury Severity Score was 35.0 (SD = 11.9), and the mean New Injury Severity Score (NISS) was 46.2 (SD = 15.9). Mild DAI was observed in 44.9% of the patients and severe DAI in 35.9%. Six months after trauma, 30.8% of the patients had died, and 45.1% had shown full recovery according to the GOS-E. In the logistic regression model, the severity variables – DAI with hypoxia, as measured by peripheral oxygen saturation, and hypotension with NISS value – had a statistically significant association with patient mortality; on the other hand, severity of DAI and length of hospital stay were the only significant predictors for dependence. Therefore, severity of DAI emerged as a risk factor for both mortality and dependence. PMID:27812349

  16. 77 FR 441 - Measurement and Control of Combustible Gas Generation and Dispersal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report... Fukushima Task Force Report: `` he task force recommends, as part of the longer term review, that the NRC... additional information is revealed through further study of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.'' The...

  17. 77 FR 33779 - Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-01; Compliance With Order EA-12-049, Order Modifying Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... (45 feet) in height that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and... infrastructure and industry in the northeastern coastal areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima... earthquake appears to have been normal. Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power ]...

  18. 77 FR 49833 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Recommendations 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3, of the Near-Term Task Force Review of insights from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi... request: 457,502 hours. 10. Abstract: Following events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power...

  19. 76 FR 52716 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Regarding the Events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Site in Japan (Open)-The Committee will hear presentations by... on the events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi site in Japan. 10:45 a.m.-12:15 p.m.: Technical Basis...

  20. 78 FR 70356 - Compliance With Order EA-13-109, Order Modifying Licenses With Regard to Reliable Hardened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    .... ML13310B299). The events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant following the March 2011, earthquake... Fukushima Dai-ichi, limitations in time and unpredictable conditions associated with the accident... explosions that destroyed the reactor buildings (secondary containments) of three of the Fukushima...

  1. 77 FR 30435 - In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident,'' SECY-11-0093, July 12, 2011, available at: www... Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai... Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima...

  2. 77 FR 55510 - Guidance on Performing a Seismic Margin Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Information Following the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant on March 11, 2011, the NRC... Fukushima Dai-ichi. As a result of this review, the NTTF developed a comprehensive set of recommendations... of Recommended Actions To Be Taken in Response to Fukushima Lessons Learned,'' dated October 3,...

  3. 78 FR 39019 - Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... natural disasters, such as flooding, are undergoing NRC review as part of the lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi event in Japan. The NRC staff is evaluating the effect of multiple upstream dam failures as a part of the Fukushima Dai-ichi reviews, as well as other processes. The PRB intends to use...

  4. Progress of Research on Diffuse Axonal Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junwei; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The current work reviews the concept, pathological mechanism, and process of diagnosing of DAI. The pathological mechanism underlying DAI is complicated, including axonal breakage caused by axonal retraction balls, discontinued protein transport along the axonal axis, calcium influx, and calpain-mediated hydrolysis of structural protein, degradation of axonal cytoskeleton network, the changes of transport proteins such as amyloid precursor protein, and changes of glia cells. Based on the above pathological mechanism, the diagnosis of DAI is usually made using methods such as CT, traditional and new MRI, biochemical markers, and neuropsychological assessment. This review provides a basis in literature for further investigation and discusses the pathological mechanism. It may also facilitate improvement of the accuracy of diagnosis for DAI, which may come to play a critical role in breaking through the bottleneck of the clinical treatment of DAI and improving the survival and quality of life of patients through clear understanding of pathological mechanisms and accurate diagnosis. PMID:28078144

  5. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 2: Physics = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Cac Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Cac Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 2: Vat Ly Hoc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Pham Cao

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  6. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  7. Neonatal exposure to daidzein, genistein, or the combination modulates bone development in female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to genistein (GEN), an isoflavone abundant in soy, favorably modulates bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in mice at adulthood. The study objective was to determine whether early exposure to a combination of the soy isoflavones daidzein (DAI) and GEN that naturally exists in soy protein-based infant formula results in greater benefits to bone at adulthood than either treatment alone. Male and female CD-1 mice (n = 8-16 pups per group per gender) were randomized to subcutaneous injections of DAI (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), GEN (5 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), DAI+GEN (7 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), diethylstilbesterol (DES; positive control) (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), or control (CON) from postnatal d 1-5 and were studied to 4 mo of age. BMD, biomechanical bone strength, and bone microarchitecture were assessed at the femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV). Females treated with DAI, GEN, DAI+GEN, or DES had greater (P < 0.05) BMD at the LV compared with CON and vertebra in the DAI and DES group were more resistant to compression fractures. Microstructural analyses demonstrated that treatment with DAI and GEN resulted in greater (P < 0.05) trabecular connectivity and trabecular thickness, respectively, than the CON. In conclusion, neonatal exposure to DAI and/or GEN had a positive effect on the skeleton of female mice at adulthood, but, compared with individual treatments, DAI+GEN did not have a greater benefit to bone in females or males.

  8. Severity of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Needs among 12- to 15-Year-Old School Children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumar, KM; Chandu, GN; Shafiulla, MD

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Talukas (administrative units in some states in India) were considered clusters. Schools were selected using simple random sampling procedures. The 300 study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling procedures. Data consisting of DAI components were recorded pro forma. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Chi-square test (χ2) was used to compare malocclusion severity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the changes in DAI scores and the mean DAI scores between age groups. The Z test was used to compare mean DAI scores between the 2 sexes and between children residing in urban and rural areas. Results: Of the 1800 school children examined, 899 (49.9%) were boys and 901 (50.1%) were girls. Most of the children (79.9%) had DAI scores ≤ 25 with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.4% had DAI scores of 26–30 with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 4.2% had DAI scores of 31–35 with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment, and 0.5% had DAI scores ≥ 36 with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: The majority of the children in our study (79.9%) required no or little treatment; 20.1% had definite malocclusion requiring definite orthodontic treatment. PMID:20613919

  9. A new ground-based differential absorption sunphotometer for measuring atmospheric columnar CO2 and preliminary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yisong; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xingying; Xu, Hua; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao

    2015-10-01

    Carbon dioxide is commonly considered as the most important greenhouse gas. Ground-based remote sensing technology of acquiring CO2 columnar concentration is needed to provide validation for spaceborne CO2 products. A new groundbased sunphotometer prototype for remotely measuring atmospheric CO2 is introduced in this paper, which is designed to be robust, portable, automatic and suitable for field observation. A simple quantity, Differential Absorption Index (DAI) related to CO2 optical depth, is proposed to derive the columnar CO2 information based on the differential absorption principle around 1.57 micron. Another sun/sky radiometer CE318, is used to provide correction parameters of aerosol extinction and water vapor absorption. A cloud screening method based on the measurement stability is developed. A systematic error assessment of the prototype and DAI is also performed. We collect two-year DAI observation from 2010 to 2012 in Beijing, analyze the DAI seasonal variation and find that the daily average DAI decreases in growing season and reaches to a minimum on August, while increases after that until January of the next year, when DAI reaches its highest peak, showing generally the seasonal cycle of CO2. We also investigate the seasonal differences of DAI variation and attribute the tendencies of high in the morning and evening while low in the noon to photosynthesis efficiency variation of vegetation and anthropogenic emissions. Preliminary comparison between DAI and model simulated XCO2 (Carbon Tracker 2011) is conducted, showing that DAI roughly reveals some temporal characteristics of CO2 when using the average of multiple measurements.

  10. 76 FR 61401 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Nuclear Innovation North America LLC (South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Intervenors \\1\\ related to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. \\1\\ Intervenors are the Sustainable Energy and... Intervenors' newly proffered Fukushima-related contention immediately after the conclusion of the...

  11. 77 FR 25104 - Petition for Rulemaking; Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Fukushima Near Term Task Force (NTTF) Recommendation 8 rulemaking. DATES: The docket for the petition for... Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (NTTF Report,...

  12. 77 FR 11164 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Submission for the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...) Regarding Recommendations 2.1, 2.3 and 93, of the Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima...: Following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant resulting from the March 11,...

  13. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the 'Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA' (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented.

  14. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. PMID:23230344

  15. 77 FR 42341 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident (Public... meetings in another format (e.g. braille, large print), please notify Bill Dosch, Chief, Work Life...

  16. Using quantum filters to process images of diffuse axonal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo

    2014-06-01

    Some images corresponding to a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are processed using several quantum filters such as Hermite Weibull and Morse. Diffuse axonal injury is a particular, common and severe case of traumatic brain injury (TBI). DAI involves global damage on microscopic scale of brain tissue and causes serious neurologic abnormalities. New imaging techniques provide excellent images showing cellular damages related to DAI. Said images can be processed with quantum filters, which accomplish high resolutions of dendritic and axonal structures both in normal and pathological state. Using the Laplacian operators from the new quantum filters, excellent edge detectors for neurofiber resolution are obtained. Image quantum processing of DAI images is made using computer algebra, specifically Maple. Quantum filter plugins construction is proposed as a future research line, which can incorporated to the ImageJ software package, making its use simpler for medical personnel.

  17. 77 FR 39528 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., August 7, 2012 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima, Dai-Ichi Accident... information from the public meetings in another format (e.g. Braille, large print), please notify Bill...

  18. 77 FR 45381 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... 9:00 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident (Public... information from the public meetings in another format (e.g. braille, large print), please notify Bill...

  19. 78 FR 16893 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D... another format (e.g. braille, large print), please notify Kimberly Meyer, NRC Disability Program...

  20. 77 FR 40385 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...--Tentative Tuesday, August 7, 2012 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai... . * * * * * The NRC provides reasonable accommodation to individuals with disabilities where appropriate. If...

  1. Preliminary study on diffuse axonal injury by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy histopathology imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiantong; He, Guanglong; Zhang, Xiang; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Haidong; Ripple, Mary G; Fowler, David R; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for detecting diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in a mouse model. Brain tissues from DAI mouse model were prepared with H&E, silver, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunohistochemistry stains and were also studied with FTIR. The infrared spectrum images showed high absorption of amide II in the subcortical white matter of the experimental mouse brain, while there was no obvious expression of amide II in the control mouse brain. The areas with high absorption of amide II were in the same distribution as the DAI region confirmed by the silver and β-APP studies. The result suggests that high absorption of amide II correlates with axonal injury. The use of FTIR imaging allows the biochemical changes associated with DAI pathologies to be detected in the tissues, thus providing an important adjunct method to the current conventional pathological diagnostic techniques.

  2. Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Schedule Delays and Reengineering Weaknesses Increase Risks to DoD’s Auditability Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-13

    13F25-04 4800 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, VA 22350-1500 Acronyms and Abbreviations BPR CMO DAI DCMO DEAMS DLA EBS EC ERP FIAR GAO...the two enhancements not fully deployed and included business process reengineering ( BPR ) efforts that have costs of more than $100 million. o EBS...more resources for BPR efforts and training than initially planned. PMO personnel also stated that agencies using DAI requested delayed

  3. Evolution of Enzymes Required for Biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol in Sphingobium Chlorophenolicum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    reviewed journals (N/A for none) Dai, M. H., Zeisman, S., Ratcliffe, T., Gill, R. T., and Copley, S. D. “Visualization of Protoplast Fusion and Quantitation...of Recombination in Fused Protoplasts of Auxotrophic Strains of Escherichia coli”, Metabolic Engineering 7, 45-52, 2005 Dai, M.-H. and Copley, S. D...chlorophenolicum. Genome shuffling involves generation of mutant strains that have an improved phenotype, followed by multiple rounds of protoplast fusion to

  4. Dentofacial abnormalities among adolescents: A study on the prevalence and severity

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Rekha P.; Shenoy-Panchmal, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of this investigation were to assess prevalence and severity of dentofacial abnormalities and orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Mangalore taluk. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1340 children from randomly selected high schools. A proforma was used to record demographic data and components of the Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI] for each subject. The Chi squared test was used for analysis with p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Dentofacial abnormalities (DAI scores ≥ 26) were recorded in 38.5% subjects. Mean DAI score of the study population was 24.59 ± 6.09. Female subjects presented with higher prevalence and higher mean DAI scores than their male counterparts (p > 0.05). Assessment of severity of malocclusion between age groups revealed no differences (p > 0.05). Orthodontic treatment was highly desirable in 11% and mandatory in 5.2% subjects. Conclusions A high prevalence of dentofacial abnormalities was found among adolescents in Mangalore taluk pointing towards a need for designing effective programs for early diagnosis and treatment of this condition, especially among adolescents. Key words:Adolescents, Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI], dentofacial abnormalities, malocclusion, orthodontic treatment need, prevalence, severity. PMID:26155345

  5. Involvement of Toll Like Receptor 2 Signaling in Secondary Injury during Experimental Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang; Wang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) remains challenging in clinical practice due to the unclear pathophysiological mechanism. Uncontrolled, excessive inflammation is one of the most recognized mechanisms that contribute to the secondary injury after DAI. Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) is highlighted for the initiation of a vicious self-propagating inflammatory circle. However, the role and detailed mechanism of TLR2 in secondary injury is yet mostly unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of TLR2 levels in cortex, corpus callosum, and internal capsule and the localization of TLR2 in neurons and glial cells in rat DAI models. Intracerebral knockdown of TLR2 significantly downregulated TLR2 expression, attenuated cortical apoptosis, lessened glial response, and reduced the secondary axonal and neuronal injury in the cortex by inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) including Erk, JNK, and p38, translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and decreasing levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. On the contrary, administration of TLR2 agonist to DAI rats achieved an opposite effect. Collectively, we demonstrated that TLR2 was involved in mediating secondary injury after DAI by inducing inflammation via the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. PMID:28293064

  6. Probabilistic assessment of "dangerous" climate change and emissions pathways.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stephen H; Mastrandrea, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Climate policy decisions driving future greenhouse gas mitigation efforts will strongly influence the success of compliance with Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the prevention of "dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system." However, success will be measured in very different ways by different stakeholders, suggesting a spectrum of possible definitions for DAI. The likelihood of avoiding a given threshold for DAI depends in part on uncertainty in the climate system, notably, the range of uncertainty in climate sensitivity. We combine a set of probabilistic global average temperature metrics for DAI with probability distributions of future climate change produced from a combination of several published climate sensitivity distributions and a range of proposed concentration stabilization profiles differing in both stabilization level and approach trajectory, including overshoot profiles. These analyses present a "likelihood framework" to differentiate future emissions pathways with regard to their potential for preventing DAI. Our analysis of overshoot profiles in comparison with non-overshoot profiles demonstrates that overshoot of a given stabilization target can significantly increase the likelihood of exceeding "dangerous" climate impact thresholds, even though equilibrium warming in our model is identical for non-overshoot concentration stabilization profiles having the same target.

  7. Development of a drug and alcohol information survey.

    PubMed

    Gough, H G

    1985-04-01

    Psychological measurement in regard to using drugs, alcohol, or other substances should attend to personological, attitudinal, and informational factors. Standardized tests are available for assessing personological and attitudinal variables, but not for knowledge. To develop a test of information, 45 multiple-choice items were correlated with total and part scores in samples of 132 men and 71 women; 35 items with significant (p less than .05) coefficients and other desirable properties were retained for a Drug and Alcohol Information Survey (DAIS). For 33 male and 36 female college students participating in an intensive psychological assessment program, scores on the DAIS were positively associated with (1) ratings of modernity, sensation seeking, originality, and nonorderliness; (2) personality scales for status propensity, sociability, social presence, and rebelliousness; and (3) a nonverbal test of field-independent cognitive ability. High scorers on the DAIS also reported more frequent use of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco than did students with low scores.

  8. Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K; Kulkarni, J; Sergejew, A A

    2000-05-05

    Medication compliance is one of the foremost problems affecting neuroleptic efficacy in psychiatric patients. To date, compliancy has most commonly been assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) developed by Hogan et al. (Hogan, T.P., Awad, A.G., Eastwood, R., 1983. A self-report scale predictive of drug compliance in schizophrenics: reliability and discriminative validity. Psychol. Med. 13, 177-183). The present study identified several deficiencies in the DAI. Using the partial credit version of the Item Response Theory measurement model, the DAI was refined with the aim of greater validity and clinical utility. The new inventory was administered to 66 patients, the majority of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia. When available, lithium levels and carer ratings of compliance were also recorded and used to verify compliancy. The new inventory appears to be a valid and reliable measure of compliancy for psychoactive medications.

  9. Enhanced delivery of daidzein into fibroblasts and neuronal cells with cationic derivatives of gamma-cyclodextrin for the control of cellular glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Kamil; Kujdowicz, Monika; Kajta, Małgorzata; Nowakowska, Maria; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Two cationic derivatives of γ-cyclodextrin (GCD) were synthesized by functionalization with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) and ethylenediamine (EDA). Both these derivatives (GCD-GTMAC and GCD-EDA) have been shown to interact strongly with anionic biopolymers, unfractionated heparin (UFH) and mucin, the latter showing their mucoadhesive properties. They form inclusion complexes with daidzein (DAI), an isoflavone displaying a multitude of physiological effects, much more efficiently than the unmodified GCD. It was also shown that the complexes of these GCD derivatives with DAI and Nile Red penetrate human fibroblasts and murine hippocampal neuronal cells indicating that cationic GCD derivatives can be considered as potential delivery systems for isoflavones and other poorly water soluble compounds. Moreover, it was found that DAI delivered in cationic GCD complexes decreased the level of the cellular glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in normal fibroblasts suggesting their possible application in the control of GAGs in mucopolysaccharidoses, lysosomal storage diseases caused by pathological accumulation of GAGs in the cells.

  10. A development framework for artificial intelligence based distributed operations support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced automation is required to reduce costly human operations support requirements for complex space-based and ground control systems. Existing knowledge based technologies have been used successfully to automate individual operations tasks. Considerably less progress has been made in integrating and coordinating multiple operations applications for unified intelligent support systems. To fill this gap, SOCIAL, a tool set for developing Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systems is being constructed. SOCIAL consists of three primary language based components defining: models of interprocess communication across heterogeneous platforms; models for interprocess coordination, concurrency control, and fault management; and for accessing heterogeneous information resources. DAI applications subsystems, either new or existing, will access these distributed services non-intrusively, via high-level message-based protocols. SOCIAL will reduce the complexity of distributed communications, control, and integration, enabling developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the target DAI system itself.

  11. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E) and roots (root-E) of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW) was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP) fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi. PMID:26641657

  12. Exploring Temporospatial Changes in Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Gu, Lei; Ding, Fang; Zhu, Guangyao; Rong, Jiandong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the predominant effect of severe traumatic brain injury and contributes significantly to cognitive deficits. The mechanisms underlying these cognitive deficits are often associated with complex metabolic alterations. However, the relationships between temporospatial alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism and the pathophysiology of DAI-related learning and memory dysfunction are not yet completely understood. We used a small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) as a molecular probe to evaluate temporospatial glucose metabolism in vulnerable areas of rats with DAI. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate the development and progression of learning and memory dysfunction. Compared to the sham-treated group, PET-MRI fusion images showed that glucose metabolism was reduced in animals with DAI. In addition, the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG was significantly decreased in the sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, caudate putamen, brain stem, and cerebellum at days 1, 3, and 7 after injury. SUV returned to baseline levels by 30 days after injury. The escape latency of the injured group was significantly increased, and the percentages of distance travelled and time spent in the target quadrant were significantly decreased 1 month after injury. These effects persisted for 3 months. SUVs in the hippocampus at the acute stage were significantly correlated with MWM performance during the recovery stage of DAI. These results demonstrate that microstructural injury-induced hypometabolism in the hippocampus at the acute stage are all significantly correlated with learning and memory dysfunctions during the recovery stage of DAI. PMID:22880625

  13. In Vitro Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis to Search for Novel Endophytic Fungi Modulating Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Dovana, Francesco; Mucciarelli, Marco; Mascarello, Maurizio; Fusconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes have shown to affect plant growth and to confer stress tolerance to the host; however, effects of endophytes isolated from water plants have been poorly investigated. In this study, fungi isolated from stems (stem-E) and roots (root-E) of Mentha aquatica L. (water mint) were identified, and their morphogenetic properties analysed on in vitro cultured Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh., 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Nineteen fungi were analysed and, based on ITS analysis, 17 isolates showed to be genetically distinct. The overall effect of water mint endophytes on Arabidopsis fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW) was neutral and positive, respectively, and the increased DW, mainly occurring 14 DAI, was possibly related to plant defence mechanism. Only three fungi increased both FW and DW of Arabidopsis at 14 and 21 DAI, thus behaving as plant growth promoting (PGP) fungi. E-treatment caused a reduction of root depth and primary root length in most cases and inhibition-to-promotion of root area and lateral root length, from 14 DAI. Only Phoma macrostoma, among the water mint PGP fungi, increased both root area and depth, 21 DAI. Root depth and area 14 DAI were shown to influence DWs, indicating that the extension of the root system, and thus nutrient uptake, was an important determinant of plant dry biomass. Reduction of Arabidopsis root depth occurred to a great extent when plants where treated with stem-E while root area decreased or increased under the effects of stem-E and root-E, respectively, pointing to an influence of the endophyte origin on root extension. M. aquatica and many other perennial hydrophytes have growing worldwide application in water pollution remediation. The present study provided a model for directed screening of endophytes able to modulate plant growth in the perspective of future field applications of these fungi.

  14. Distribution, Biology and Pathology of Anguina pacificae

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Mark E.; McCullough, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Anguina pacificae is distributed along a narrow strip on the Pacific coast of Northern California where it forms galls on the shoots of Poa annua and causes significant damage to golf course greens. Methods were developed for the continuous propagation of A. pacificae on P. annua in growth chambers, and they were used to examine the life cycle and host-parasite relationships of the nematode. At a mean temperature of 20°C (22°C day/18°C night) the life cycle was completed in as little as 32 days (inoculation to second-generation J2). The first molt occurred in the egg. Infective J2 hatched from the eggs and penetrated the shoot near the crown of the plant where a cavity was formed 200 to 300 μm below the shoot apex. A gall around the cavity was visible 12 days after inoculation (DAI), and the cavity and gall continued to enlarge until second-generation J2 began to hatch. Three additional molts occurred in the cavity of the developing gall 14 to 24 DAI. Sexes could be distinguished 15 DAI. Egg production began 26 DAI and continued for 10 to 15 days. Eggs commenced hatching inside the gall 42 DAI, when the adults began to die and decompose. By 57 DAI, the gall had reached its maximum diameter, and the cavity was filled entirely with second-generation J2 that remained in the gall until they were liberated when the gall decomposed. J2 in galls survived desiccation over silica gel for 14 months at 14°C and were active and infective when rehydrated. PMID:19440264

  15. First record of the leafhopper genus Varicopsella Hamilton, 1980 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) in China, with descriptions of a new subgenus and new species, a checklist, and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A new monobasic leafhopper subgenus, Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) Li, Dai, and Li, subgen. nov., of the subfamily Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Membracoidea: Cicadellidae) is proposed to accommodate Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) hamiltoni Li, Dai, and Li, sp. nov.from Guangxi province of China. The new subgenus and new species are described and illustrated. They can be distinguished mainly by characteristics of the fore wings with two anteapical cells; weak dorsoventrally flattened body; aedeagal shaft with paired apical processes on ventral margin; and the shape of the dorsal connective. An updated checklist and an illustrated key for identification of the species of Varicopsella along with geographical distributions of the species are given.

  16. Therapy Development for Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas H.; Hicks, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) remains a prominent feature of human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a major player in its subsequent morbidity. The importance of this widespread axonal damage has been confirmed by multiple approaches including routine postmortem neuropathology as well as advanced imaging, which is now capable of detecting the signatures of traumatically induced axonal injury across a spectrum of traumatically brain-injured persons. Despite the increased interest in DAI and its overall implications for brain-injured patients, many questions remain about this component of TBI and its potential therapeutic targeting. To address these deficiencies and to identify future directions needed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of this component of TBI, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke hosted a workshop in May 2011. This workshop sought to determine what is known regarding the pathogenesis of DAI in animal models of injury as well as in the human clinical setting. The workshop also addressed new tools to aid in the identification of this axonal injury while also identifying more rational therapeutic targets linked to DAI for continued preclinical investigation and, ultimately, clinical translation. This report encapsulates the oral and written components of this workshop addressing key features regarding the pathobiology of DAI, the biomechanics implicated in its initiating pathology, and those experimental animal modeling considerations that bear relevance to the biomechanical features of human TBI. Parallel considerations of alternate forms of DAI detection including, but not limited to, advanced neuroimaging, electrophysiological, biomarker, and neurobehavioral evaluations are included, together with recommendations for how these technologies can be better used and integrated for a more comprehensive appreciation of the pathobiology of DAI and its overall structural and functional implications. Lastly, the

  17. International Conference on Photochemistry (15th) Abstracts of Invited Lectures and Oral and Poster Contributions Held in Paris, France on 28 July-2 August 1991 (XVeme Conference Internationale de Photochimie, Paris, France 28 Juillet-2 Aout 1991)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    RICIHARD and Pierre BDOULC Laboratolre de Photochimie 1ol6culalre et Hacromolculalire, Uh CHRS 433, Universit Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand), F...PROCESSES IN SATURAiLE DYES STUDIED BY TIME RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY Monique M. MARTIN, Pascal PLAZA, Nguyen DAI HUNG, Yves i1. MEYER Laboratoire dc...CONFOIINATIONNELLEH ULT’RARAPI)E D)ES COLORANTS SATURAIILES ET’UIEI P’AR SPEVUEROSCOPIE RESOLUI’ EN TEMI’S Monique M. MAirIN, Pascal PLAZA, Nguyen DAI I UNG

  18. 76 FR 58165 - Petitions for Rulemaking Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ML111861807), dated July 12, 2011, as the rationale for... stakeholders to review and assess the recommendations of the Fukushima Task Force Report for the purpose...

  19. 77 FR 25375 - Emergency Planning Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... health and safety in light of the real-world experience of the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters, which... Fukushima Experiences The petitioner cites reports and findings regarding the Chernobyl and Fukushima Dai... asserts that `` he accident at Fukushima, added to the experience of the Chernobyl disaster,...

  20. 77 FR 16098 - In the Matter of All Operating Boiling Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I and Mark II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... large tsunami, estimated to have exceeded 14 meters (45 feet) in height, which inundated the Fukushima... areas of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3 were in operation and... (INPO) report ``INPO 11-005, Special Report on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi...

  1. 76 FR 70067 - Taxpayers and Ratepayers United, et al.; Environmental Impacts of Severe Reactor and Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... environmental issues raised in the Fukushima Task Force Report. The NRC is not instituting a public comment... Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ADAMS Accession No. ML111861807), dated July 12, 2011,...

  2. 78 FR 68774 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    .... Background As a result of the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, the NRC's Near... Enhancing Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima...-0137, ``Prioritization of Recommended Actions to be Taken in Response to Fukushima Lessons...

  3. 77 FR 16483 - Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ADAMS Accession... cites Section 4.2.1, pages 32-39, of the Fukushima Task Force Report, regarding the enhancement of the... Commission was still in the process of reviewing the Fukushima Task Force Report, and the NRC did...

  4. 78 FR 44034 - Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident,'' (Fukushima Task Force...-100, the petitioner cited Section 4.2.4, pages 43-46, of the Fukushima Task Force Report, which... Fukushima Task Force Report, and the NRC did not institute a public comment period for the PRMs. In...

  5. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 16, 2011, Room T-2B1... events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactor site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by...

  6. 76 FR 70913 - Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13579

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ..., any Commission decisions related to the Fukushima Task Force Report. DATES: November 16, 2011... the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident'' (Fukushima Task Force Report, ML111861807), was issued. The... recommendations of the Fukushima Task Force Report for the purpose of providing the Commission with...

  7. Evaluation of Data Processing Techniques for Unobtrusive Gait Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    application in many industries , including medical devices for fall detection, as studied by Zhang [32] and Dai [33]. While this thesis is focused on...walk, types of footwear and clothing, terrain effects, and others leading to a deployable smartphone-based authentication system. We specifically

  8. 77 FR 47131 - Notice of Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ..., 2012 8:55 a.m. Affirmation Session (Public Meeting) (Tentative) a. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, L.L...) (Tentative) This meeting will be webcast live at the Web address--www.nrc.gov. 9 a.m. Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: John...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Íria Márcia; LIMA, Sarah Buzaim; FREITAS, Aline de Araújo; VINAUD, Marina Clare; JUNIOR, Ruy de Souza LINO

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis. PMID:27410915

  10. Effects of 7-O substitutions on estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of daidzein analogues in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daidzein (1) is a natural estrogenic isoflavone. We report here that 1 can be transformed into an antiestrogenic ligand by simple alkyl substitutions of the 7-hydroxyl hydrogen. To test the effect of such structural modifications on the hormonal activities of the resulting compounds, a series of dai...

  11. Suppression of the Immune Response by Synthetic Adjuvants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-28

    D-Ai138 561 SUPPRESSION OF THE IMIMUNE RESPONSE BY SYNTHETIC / ADJUVANTS4U) MINNESOTA UNIV DULUTH DEPT OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 8 G...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAE ANO AORESS A. PROAM ORKE. PUNJTN CTU TA Dept. of Medical Microbiology /Immunology University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55812 NR 666

  12. GROND observations of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schady, P.; Kann, D. A.; Greiner, J.

    2016-06-01

    We observed the field of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103 (Swift trigger 700791; D'Ai et al., GCN #19547. ATel #9180) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'JHK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) mounted at the 2.2 m MPG telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile).

  13. Selected Readings in Transition: Cultural Differences, Chronic Illness, and Job Matching. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dais, Teresa; And Others

    This collection of four papers examines various aspects of the transition from school to adulthood and employment for individuals with disabilities. The first paper, "An Analysis of Transition Assessment Practices: Do They Recognize Cultural Differences?" (Teresa A. Dais), discusses the need for assessment practices to meet the needs of culturally…

  14. Some Aspects of Higher Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    1972-01-01

    Contemporary Japanese higher education is reviewed, taking into account German influences especially. Three main objectives of post-war reforms are discussed along with the entrance examination system in Japan. Available from: Japan Cultural Society, 101018, Shirokane-dai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (LBH)

  15. USAID Assistance to Afghanistan Reconstruction: $13.3 Billion Obligated Between 2002 and 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    165 Checchi and Company Consulting, Inc (CCCI) 143 MSH -Management Sciences for Health 136 AEAI-Advanced Engineering Associates International 118...Strengthening 141 DAI-Development Alternatives, Inc. 131 MSH -Management Sciences for Health 131 CARE International 100 MERCY CORPS 74 CI

  16. Correlations between Cognitive Impairments and Employment Status in Patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    HIROTA, Shin; INAJI, Motoki; NARIAI, Tadashi; HARA, Mutsuya; TAMAKI, Masashi; MAEHARA, Taketoshi; TOMITA, Hiroki; TONE, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may initially present with prominent physical impairments, but their cognitive dysfunctions are more persistent and are attributable to later unemployment. In this study, we analyzed how the findings of early and delayed neuropsychological assessments correlated with employment outcome of patients with DAI. A total of 56 patients with DAI without motor or visual dysfunction were included in this study. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale - Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R), Trail Making Test (TMT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Word Fluency Test (WFT). This battery of tests was administered twice in early stage after injury and in later stage. The results of all of the neuropsychological tests improved significantly (P <0.001) between the early and later assessments. All scores other than TMT part A and B improved to the normal range (Z-score ≥ 2). The patient characteristics (age, gender, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, and duration of posttraumatic amnesia) had no relationship to the outcome. The results of TMT part B, however, were significantly correlated with employment outcome in both the early and later assessments (P = 0.01, 0.04). Given that TMT evaluates visual attention, we surmise that a lack of attention may be the core symptom of the cognitive deficit and cause the re-employment failure in patients with DAI. TMT part B in both early and later assessments has the potential to accurately predict chronic functional outcome. PMID:28003570

  17. Effects of 9 Kampo medicines clinically used in hypertension on hemodynamic changes induced by theophylline in rats.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Komatsu, Y; Amagaya, S; Chisaki, K; Hayashi, H

    2000-06-01

    We examined the effects of 9 kinds of Kampo medicines, which are clinically used for the treatment of hypertension, on anesthetized rats with increases in arterial blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral blood flow induced by theophylline (5 mg/kg, i.v.) that were partially or completely mediated by endogenous catecholamines. Each Kampo medicine (1 g/kg) was intraduodenaly administered. Shinbu-to caused a severe disturbance of the arterial blood pressure. Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Oren-gedoku-to, San'o-shashin-to and Dai-jyoki-to had hypotensive effects, while Hachimi-jio-gan, Gosha-jinki-gan, Dai-saiko-to and Choto-san did not have such an effect. Moreover, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to attenuated the heart rate. In Oren-gedoku-to, San'o-shashin-to and Dai-jyoki-to, a reduction in peripheral blood flow was observed. These results suggest that Saiko-ka-ryukotsuborei-to, Oren-gedoku-to, San'o-shashin-to and Dai-jyoki-to are ameliorative to the hypertension in sympathetic system dominance and Shinbu-to is occasionally dangerous to it.

  18. From wildlife biology to soil science, the USDA and the United Nations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It all(?) started at age 18, wearing a rented tuxedo at the Explorers Club in NYC. I tried to explain my high school research on pine marten to my dinner companions while perched nervously on the dais. I haven’t worn a penguin suit since, but every year has been just as fascinating as I’ve worked my...

  19. Structural covariance networks of the dorsal anterior insula predict females' individual differences in empathic responding.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Klimecki, Olga M; Leiberg, Susanne; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-01

    Previous functional imaging studies have shown key roles of the dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) in empathy for the suffering of others. The current study mapped structural covariance networks of these regions and assessed the relationship between networks and individual differences in empathic responding in 94 females. Individual differences in empathy were assessed through average state measures in response to a video task showing others' suffering, and through questionnaire-based trait measures of empathic concern. Overall, covariance patterns indicated that dAI and aMCC are principal hubs within prefrontal, temporolimbic, and midline structural covariance networks. Importantly, participants with high empathy state ratings showed increased covariance of dAI, but not aMCC, to prefrontal and limbic brain regions. This relationship was specific for empathy and could not be explained by individual differences in negative affect ratings. Regarding questionnaire-based empathic trait measures, we observed a similar, albeit weaker modulation of dAI covariance, confirming the robustness of our findings. Our analysis, thus, provides novel evidence for a specific contribution of frontolimbic structural covariance networks to individual differences in social emotions beyond negative affect.

  20. [Clinical findings observed in rabbits, meat type, infected experimentally by Cystoisospora felis (Wenyon, 1923) Frenkel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Cystoisosporinae)].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo S; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Flausino, Walter; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2006-01-01

    Twenty four rabbits type meat, cross-breed of White New Zealand and California, of both sexes, with age of 58 days old, and average weight of 1,586 g were used. Than, they were divided in three groups of eight rabbits each. The first group was inoculated orally, in two serial days, with 10(6) sporulated oocysts of Cystoisospora felis per animal, second group was considered per feed, and thirty group was left as control. Clinical signs as body weight, feed consumption, rectal temperature, and breathing frequency were taken daily. Carcasses weights were taking at 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 16, 22 and 29 days after infection (DAI) when they were posted. In the first DAI, anorexia, slow movements, low percent of food consumption (85.76%), and of alimentary conversion were observed. Difference of 3.52% in the food consumption was observed between control and infected animals. The inoculated rabbits had high temperatures in the first DAI in comparison to controls and per fed animals (p<0.01) at 2nd and at 4th DAI. In relationship to the weight gain in the 1st week the carcasses of the infected rabbits had minimal difference in comparison to control animals. As conclusion, cystoisosporosis, beside clinical signs, can be interfered in the development of the rabbit.

  1. 78 FR 24439 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... of this guidance. On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of the Japanese island of Honshu. The earthquake resulted in a large tsunami, estimated to have exceeded 14 meters (45 feet) in height that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake...

  2. 77 FR 33777 - Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-02; Compliance With Order EA-12-050, Order Modifying Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of the Japanese island of Honshu. The earthquake resulted in a...-ichi nuclear power plant site. The earthquake and tsunami produced widespread devastation across... of Japan. When the earthquake occurred, Fukushima Dai-ichi Units 1, 2, and 3, were in operation...

  3. Poly-gamma-Glutamate Capsule-Degrading Enzyme Treatment Enhances Phagocytosis and Killing of Encapsulated Bacillus Anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-14

    antibody activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae using differentiated HL-60 cells. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:415–422. 42. Ross , J. M. 1957. The...Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins. J. Bacteriol. 186:1249–1257. 46. Schneerson, R., J. Kubler -Kielb, T. Y. Liu, Z. D. Dai, S. H

  4. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-06

    September 7, 2009. A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai... Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from...heartland of Bamiyan province. Other significant candidates are shown below. 24 Mulrine

  5. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-02

    Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the fall of...former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited...Congressional Research Service 21 mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar

  6. Visual-Proprioceptive Cue Conflicts in the Control of Remotely Piloted Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    entitled "The Effects of Visual- Propioceptive Cue Conflicts on Human Tracking Performance" presented to The Ohio State University, March 1977. The author...concluded that the incompatible conditions (i.e, conflicts rather than by random control activities. SAl and DAI) produced visual propioceptive Thus, it

  7. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... stamped and returned to the commenter. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH...

  8. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation... conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model... the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry...

  9. 77 FR 31647 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Non-Relocation and Market and Capacity Information Report'' (Form 4279-2) for the following: Applicant... this enterprise is: 335911 (storage battery manufacturing). DATES: All interested parties may submit... (this is not a toll-free number). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Anthony D. Dais, at telephone...

  10. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion Project (IRRP), is the only organization that...: white.brenda.j@dol.gov . All inquiries should make reference to the USDOL Industrial Relations...

  11. The Other in Education: The Distance between School Education and Local Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongcheng, Shen; Minhui, Qian

    2010-01-01

    By means of an investigation into the school education of the Dai people in Dehong, Yunnan province, this article expounds on the interactive relationship between modern education and local culture and the problems of cultural adaptation among ethnic minority students. School education, as a symbol of state power, always endeavors to transform…

  12. Discussions on Petty Bourgeois and Angry Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuanshan, Zhang; Lei, Rao; Liangyu, Feng; Gui, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Petty bourgeois and angry youth are two large sets of contemporary Chinese youth. There is no doubt that most contemporary youth do not belong to either of these two sets. However, these two large sets are indeed very fashionable at this time, and it is easy to simply distinguish between them by means of two terms: the label "shuai dai"…

  13. Collection of Helianthus porteri, an endemic sunflower of granite outcrops in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, all native to North America. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. Confederate dai...

  14. Characterizing drought for forested landscapes and streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changing nature of drought is a growing global concern (Cook et al. 2015, Dai 2011, Seneviratne et al. 2010, Sheffield and Wood 2008b, Trenberth et al. 2014, Wilhite et al. 2014). Drought can be a severe natural disaster with substantial social and economic consequences affecting large areas wit...

  15. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Duenas Jimenez, Judith Marcela; Estrada, Ismael Jimenez; Banuelos Pineda, Jacinto; Franco Rodriguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Lopez Ruiz, Jose Roberto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura Paulina; Candanedo Arellano, Ahiezer; Duenas Jimenez, Sergio Horacio

    2016-01-01

    We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats. PMID:27006979

  16. A preliminary evaluation of pre-treatment hypodontia patients using the Dental Aesthetic Index: how does it compare with other commonly used indices?

    PubMed

    Shelton, A T; Hobson, R S; Slater, D

    2008-06-01

    There is currently no specific occlusal index related to hypodontia and there is a paucity of published literature on this subject. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship, if any, between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index, the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON), and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) score and the severity of hypodontia. All new patients attending the Newcastle Dental Hospital hypodontia clinic between February 2002 and March 2003 were included in the study. Of the 60 patients, two were excluded as the models were unavailable and one because they were predominantly in the primary dentition, making scoring impractical. The patient casts were scored with respect to PAR, ICON, and DAI. The mean patient age at presentation was 12 years, with a standard deviation of 1.89 and a range of 9-16 years, and a female to male ratio of 1.1:1. A significant positive correlation, using Kendall tau b, was found between the number of missing teeth, excluding third molars, and the DAI score (tau = 0.215, P = 0.027). There was no significant positive correlation between PAR (tau = -0.186, P = 0.056) and ICON (tau = 0.017, P = 0.861) score and the number of missing teeth. The results of this investigation indicate that further research is required in order to assess if the DAI could be used to determine whether or not to refer hypodontia patients for specialist advice.

  17. Comment on "Proactive quantum secret sharing"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gan; Wang, Yue

    2017-03-01

    In the paper, Qin and Dai (Quantum Inf Process 14:4237-4244, 2015) proposed a proactive quantum secret sharing scheme. We study the security of the proposed scheme and find that it is not secure. In the distribution phase of the proposed scheme, two dishonest participants may collaborate to eavesdrop the secret of the dealer without introducing any error.

  18. Student Development of Educational Software: Spin-Offs from Classroom Use of DIAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, John A., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes several college courses which encourage students to develop computer software programs in the areas of remote sensing and geographic information systems. A microcomputer-based tutorial package, the Digital Image Analysis System (DAIS), teaches the principles of digital processing. (LS)

  19. Estimation of the total population moving into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the Fukushima NPP accident as calculated using "Auto-GPS" mobile phone data.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Adachi, Ryutaro

    2013-01-01

    The first objective data showing the geographical locations of people in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, obtained by an analysis of GPS (Global Positioning System)-enabled mobile phone logs, are presented. The method of estimation is explained, and the flow of people into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the accident is visualized.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Íria Márcia; Lima, Sarah Buzaim; Freitas, Aline de Araújo; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Junior, Ruy de Souza Lino

    2016-07-11

    Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  1. Insula response and connectivity during social and non-social attention in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Paola; Uddin, Lucina Q; Lynch, Charles J; Kochalka, John; Chen, Tianwen; Menon, Vinod

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to salient social stimuli. Here, we use two visual oddball tasks to investigate brain systems engaged during attention to social (face) and non-social (scene) stimuli. We focused on the dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the anterior insula (dAI and vAI, respectively), anatomically distinct regions contributing to a 'salience network' that is known to regulate attention to behaviorally meaningful stimuli. Children with ASD performed comparably to their typically developing (TD) peers, but they engaged the right dAI and vAI differently in response to deviant faces compared with deviant scenes. Multivariate activation patterns in the dAI reliably discriminated between children with ASD and TD children with 85% classification accuracy, and children with ASD activated the vAI more than their TD peers. Children with ASD and their TD peers also differed in dAI connectivity patterns to deviant faces, with stronger within-salience network interactions in the ASD group and stronger cross-network interactions in the TD group. Our findings point to atypical patterns of right anterior insula activation and connectivity in ASD and suggest that multiple functions subserved by the insula, including attention and affective processing of salient social stimuli, are aberrant in children with the disorder.

  2. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  3. 76 FR 588 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Workforce Information Grants to States Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... flexibility, and maintain the current state reporting burden. It is ETA's goal for the Workforce Information... section of this notice. DATES: Written comments must be submitted to the office listed in the addressee's section below on or before March 7, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Mr. Anthony Dais, Room...

  4. 75 FR 70692 - TUV Rheinland PTL, LLC; Application for Recognition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... to meet OSHA standards that require product testing and certification. The Agency processes.... Arizona State University (ASU) established the organization in 1992, as the Photovoltaic Testing... (DAI/EC) summary documents, Exs. 3 and 4) reference many, but not all, of the documents or...

  5. The Nature and Nurture of Giftedness: A New Framework for Understanding Gifted Education. Education & Psychology of the Gifted Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun

    2010-01-01

    With unprecedented scope and vision, Dr. Dai systematically redefines giftedness and proposes a new framework for the field of gifted education. He identifies nine essential tensions, revolving around three core questions: What do we know about the respective roles of natural ability, environment and experiences, and personal effort in talent…

  6. 78 FR 63901 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... actions stemming from the NRC's lessons-learned efforts associated with the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi... Regulations (10 CFR) to strengthen and integrate onsite emergency response capabilities, the NRC is making... public availability the regulatory basis to strengthen and integrate onsite emergency...

  7. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need among 12- to 15-year-old students in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa

    2010-10-01

    Self-perception of dental attractiveness is an important factor affecting orthodontic treatment need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and to evaluate the influence of gender and socioeconomic background such as family size, parental education and father's employment. The subjects were 900 male and female junior high school students (450 males, 450 females) aged 12-15 years, from four districts in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and then underwent a dental examination. Normative treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t- and chi-squared tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between DAI scores and demographics. The results showed a significant correlation between DAI scores and a subject's awareness of malocclusion and their satisfaction with dental appearance. There were no differences between genders concerning the questionnaire data. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment.

  8. Investigation of Nanophase Materials for Thermoelectric Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fang, K.L. Stokes, J.A. Weimann, W.L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen and C.J. O’Connor, “ Microemulsion -processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B...56:1001 (2000). J. Fang, K.L. Stokes, J.A. Weimann and W. Zhou, Nanocrystalline bismuth synthesized via an in situ polymerization- microemulsion

  9. 78 FR 21171 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2013-...

  10. 78 FR 22580 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2013-...

  11. 78 FR 19757 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D. Reckley, 301- 415-7490... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC-2013-...

  12. 78 FR 23960 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks...

  13. 77 FR 43406 - Notice of Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    .... Briefing on the Status of Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  14. 78 FR 18376 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Learned from the Fukushima Dai'ichi Accident (Public Meeting) (Contact: William D. Reckley, 301- 415-7490... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2013--...

  15. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  16. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  17. tRNAs as Biomarkers and Regulators for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    codon usage and tRNA genes of 18 unicellular organisms and quantification of Bacillus subtilis tRNAs: gene expression level and species-specific...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : The University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637 REPORT...Geslain, Q. Dai. 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  18. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model: A Tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Animal agriculture is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but good information does not exist on the net emissions from our farms. A software tool called the Dai...

  19. Inhibition of TLR4 Signalling-Induced Inflammation Attenuates Secondary Injury after Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonglin; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Junjie; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary injury after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) damages more axons than the initial insult, but the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and have been shown to be associated with brain damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TLR4 signalling pathway in secondary axonal injury in the cortices of DAI rats. TLR4 was mainly localized in microglial cells and neurons, and the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules, including TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, toll/IR-1-(TIR-) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-beta, interferon regulatory factor 3, interferon β, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65, significantly increased and peaked at 1 d after DAI. Inhibition of TLR4 by TAK-242 attenuated apoptosis, neuronal and axonal injury, and glial responses. The neuroprotective effects of TLR4 inhibition were associated with decreases in the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules and inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α. These results suggest that the TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in secondary injury and may be an important therapeutic target following DAI. PMID:27478307

  20. Minority Languages in Dehong, China: Policy and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Hong

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the language situation in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Prefecture in China's Hunan province. By examining language use in certain domains of public life (public signs, radio and television broadcasting, publishing, and education) certain discrepancies between government policies for minority languages and realities of everyday use of the…

  1. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue.

  2. Identification and VIGS-based characterization of Bx1 ortholog in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    PubMed Central

    Groszyk, Jolanta; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Yanushevska, Yuliya; Stochmal, Anna; Rakoczy-Trojanowska, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The first step of the benzoxazinoid (BX) synthesis pathway is catalyzed by an enzyme with indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase activity encoded by 3 genes, Bx1, TSA and Igl. A gene highly homologous to maize and wheat Bx1 has been identified in rye. The goal of the study was to analyze the gene and to experimentally verify its role in the rye BX biosynthesis pathway as a rye ortholog of the Bx1 gene. Expression of the gene showed peak values 3 days after imbibition (dai) and at 21 dai it was undetectable. Changes of the BX content in leaves were highly correlated with the expression pattern until 21 dai. In plants older than 21 dai despite the undetectable expression of the analyzed gene there was still low accumulation of BXs. Function of the gene was verified by correlating its native expression and virus-induced silencing with BX accumulation. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based vectors were used to induce transcriptional (TGS) and posttranscriptional (PTGS) silencing of the analyzed gene. Both strategies (PTGS and TGS) significantly reduced the transcript level of the analyzed gene, and this was highly correlated with lowered BX content. Inoculation with virus-based vectors specifically induced expression of the analyzed gene, indicating up-regulation by biotic stressors. This is the first report of using the BSMV-based system for functional analysis of rye gene. The findings prove that the analyzed gene is a rye ortholog of the Bx1 gene. Its expression is developmentally regulated and is strongly induced by biotic stress. Stable accumulation of BXs in plants older than 21 dai associated with undetectable expression of ScBx1 indicates that the function of the ScBx1 in the BX biosynthesis is redundant with another gene. We anticipate that the unknown gene is a putative ortholog of the Igl, which still remains to be identified in rye. PMID:28234909

  3. S-like ribonuclease gene expression in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Emi; Kawahara, Minako; Kodaira, Reina; Kume, Marina; Arai, Naoki; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Functions of S-like ribonucleases (RNases) differ considerably from those of S-RNases that function in self-incompatibility. Expression of S-like RNases is usually induced by low nutrition, vermin damage or senescence. However, interestingly, an Australian carnivorous plant Drosera adelae (a sundew), which traps prey with a sticky digestive liquid, abundantly secretes an S-like RNase DA-I in the digestive liquid even in ordinary states. Here, using D. adelae, Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) and Cephalotus follicularis (Australian pitcher plant), we show that carnivorous plants use S-like RNases for carnivory: the gene da-I encoding DA-I and its ortholog cf-I of C. follicularis are highly expressed and constitutively active in each trap/digestion organ, while the ortholog dm-I of D. muscipula becomes highly active after trapping insects. The da-I promoter is unmethylated only in its trap/digestion organ, glandular tentacles (which comprise a small percentage of the weight of the whole plant), but methylated in other organs, which explains the glandular tentacles-specific expression of the gene and indicates a very rare gene regulation system. In contrast, the promoters of dm-I, which shows induced expression, and cf-I, which has constitutive expression, were not methylated in any organs examined. Thus, it seems that the regulatory mechanisms of the da-I, dm-I and cf-I genes differ from each other and do not correlate with the phylogenetic relationship. The current study suggests that under environmental pressure in specific habitats carnivorous plants have managed to evolve their S-like RNase genes to function in carnivory.

  4. Development of Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 emend. Levine, 1961 in experimentally infected goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Vieira, L S; Lima, J D; Rosa, J S

    1997-12-01

    The endogenous development and prepatent and patent periods of Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae were studied in 43 1-3-wk-old coccidia-free kids inoculated with 5.0 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5), 2.0 x 10(5), or 9.0 x 10(5) sporulated oocysts/kg. Twenty-five kids were killed at 24- or 48-hr intervals, 2-18 days after inoculation (DAI). Two generations of meronts, gamonts, gametes, and oocysts were found in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined using under light microscopy. The first generation of meronts developed in the endothelium of the lacteals, in the lamina propria, and in the lymphatic vessels of the ileum submucosa. Mature, first-generation meronts, 165.5 x 123.6 microm, were first found 10 DAI. Second-generation merogony developed in the crypt epithelial cells of the cecum and colon; mature meronts, 16.8 x 11.6 microm, were first seen 12 DAI. Gametogenesis occurred in the cecum and colon epithelium; mature microgamonts (16.1 x 13.0 microm), microgametes, macrogametes (14.7 x 12.5 microm), and oocysts (18.3 x 13.3 microm) were seen at 13 DAI. The course of the infection was followed in 18 kids examined every day until 24 DAI. The prepatent period was 14.7 (13-17) days and the patent period 6.8 (4-10) days. The sporulation time at 30 C, with constant aeration, was 2-3 days.

  5. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140 kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription.

  6. A review of the leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae) with description of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wu; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-16

    The morphologically diverse leafhopper tribe Hyalojassini is reinstated from synonymy under Iassini based on distinctive features of the male genitalia and a key to the Oriental genera is given. The previously monotypic genera Hyalojassus Evans and Coriojassus Evans are revised and redescribed based on study of the type species. The following new genera and species are described from Thailand and China and placed in Hyalojassini: Kanchanaburiassus maculatus gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Kanchanaburi, Thailand; Lamelliassus chaingmaiensis gen. & sp. nov. from Chaingmai, Thailand; Siamiassus constanti gen. & sp. nov. from Loei, Thailand ; Decliviassus gen nov. with D. bipunctatus sp. nov., D. maculatus sp. nov., and D. nudus sp. nov., from Thailand; Trocniassus gen. nov. with T. shaanxiensis and T. henanensis sp. nov.; Hyalojassus elongatus sp. nov. and H. punctulatus sp. nov. from Thailand and H. yunnanensis sp. nov. from China; Coriojassus loeiensis sp. nov. from Thailand, C. yunnanensis sp. nov. and C. zhejiangensis sp. nov. from Yunnan and Zhejiang, China, respectively, the latter representing the first records of the genus from China. Sinojassus Dai et al. 2010 (nec Zhang 1985) is a junior homonym, thus a new replacement name, Siniassus nom. nov., is proposed, the genus is transferred to Hyalojassini, and the following new combinations are made: Siniassus loberus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus aspinus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010), Siniassus compressus (Dai, Zhang & Zhang, 2010) and Siniassus webbi (Dai & Dietrich, 2010). Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for all new taxa are provided. The following New World genera share the diagnostic morphological features of Hyalojassini and are newly placed in this tribe: Absheta Blocker, Aztrania Blocker, Baldriga Blocker, Bertawolia Blocker, Betawala Blocker, Comanopa Blocker, Daveyoungana Blocker & Webb, Derakandra Blocker, Donleva Blocker, Gargaropsis Fowler, Garlica Blocker, Gehundra Blocker

  7. Translational stimulation by reovirus polypeptide sigma 3: substitution for VAI RNA and inhibition of phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, R M; Shatkin, A J

    1992-01-01

    COS cells transfected with plasmids that activate DAI depend on expression of virus-associated I (VAI) RNA to prevent the inhibitory effects of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 alpha) kinase (DAI) and restore the translation of vector-derived dihydrofolate reductase mRNA. This VAI RNA requirement could be completely replaced by reovirus polypeptide sigma 3, consistent with its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding activity. S4 gene transfection of 293 cells also partially restored adenovirus protein synthesis after infection with the VAI-negative dl331 mutant. In dl331-infected 293 cells, eIF-2 alpha was present mainly in the acidic, phosphorylated form, and trans complementation with polypeptide sigma 3 or VAI RNA decreased the proportion of eIF-2 alpha (P) from approximately 85 to approximately 30%. Activation of DAI by addition of dsRNA to extracts of S4 DNA-transfected COS cells required 10-fold-higher levels of dsRNA than extracts made from cells that were not producing polypeptide sigma 3. In extracts of reovirus-infected mouse L cells, the concentration of dsRNA needed to activate DAI was dependent on the viral serotype used for the infection. Although the proportion of eIF-2 alpha (P) was greater than that in uninfected cells, most of the factor remained in the unphosphorylated form, even at 16 h after infection, consistent with the partial inhibition of host protein synthesis observed with all three viral serotypes. The results indicate that reovirus polypeptide sigma 3 participates in the regulation of protein synthesis by modulating DAI and eIF-2 alpha phosphorylation. Images PMID:1433498

  8. Mesquite pod extract modifies the reproductive physiology and behavior of the female rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Aguirre, F García; Alcántara, M; García-Díaz, E; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M; Arteaga-Silva, M; López, G; Romero, C; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2012-04-01

    Phytoestrogens are non steroidal compounds that can bind to estrogen receptors, mimicking some effects of estradiol (E(2)). These compounds are widespread among legumes, which are used as pasture, and their importance in animal agriculture has increased. Mesquite (Prosopis sp) is a widespread legume, widely used to feed several livestock species in Mexico. The main product of mesquite is the pod, which is considered high quality food. As a legume, it could be assumed that mesquite contains some amounts of phytoestrogens which might induce potential estrogenic effects. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports regarding the possible estrogenic activity of this legume either in livestock or in animal models such as the rat. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the potential estrogenic effects of mesquite pod extract on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the female rat. The effects of the extract were compared with those of E(2) and two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; E(2); GEN; DAI. Compared to vehicle groups, mesquite pod extract, DAI, GEN, and E(2) increased uterine weight and induced growth in vaginal and uterine epithelia. In intact rats, mesquite pod extract, GEN and DAI altered estrous cyclicity, decreased lordotic quotient and intensity of lordosis. In OVX rats, mesquite pod extract, DAI and GEN induced vaginal estrus, increased vaginal epithelium height, and induced lordosis, although its intensity was reduced, compared with intact rats in estrus and E2-treated rats. These results suggest that mesquite pod extract could have estrogenic activity. However, the presence of phytoestrogens in this legume remains to be confirmed.

  9. The Serum Changes of Neuron-Specific Enolase and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients With Diffuse Axonal Injury Following Progesterone Administration: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Soltani, Zahra; Khaksari, Mohammad; Karamouzian, Saeid; Mofid, Behshad; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Improvement of neurologic outcome in progesterone-administered patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been found in a recent study. Also, there has been interest in the importance of serum parameters as predictors of outcome in traumatic brain injury. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progesterone administration on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in clinical DAI. Patients and Methods In this study, the serum levels of ICAM-1 and NSE of 32 male DAI patients (18 - 60 years of age, a Glasgow coma scale of 12 or less, and admitted within 4 hours after injury) who were randomized for a controlled phase II trial of progesterone were analyzed. The analysis was performed between the control and progesterone groups at admission time, and 24 hours and six days after DAI, respectively. Results A reduction in the serum level of ICAM-1 was noticed in the progesterone group 24 hours after the injury (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the serum level of NSE between the study groups during evaluation. At 24 hours after the injury, the level of ICAM-1 in the control group was higher than that at admission time (P < 0.05). The lowest level of NSE in the two groups was seen six days after DAI (P < 0.01). Conclusions In summary, progesterone administration reduced serum ICAM-1, and whereby may attenuate blood brain barrier disruption, the latter needs further investigation for confirmation. PMID:27800469

  10. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method

  11. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-11-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  12. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  13. Review of the bamboo-feeding species of genus Scaphoideus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) from China, with description of one new species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The bamboo-feeding species of genus Scaphoideus Uhler (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) from China are reviewed to include 7 species: S. conicaplateus Li & Dai, 2004 (China: Guizhou), S. fanjingensis Li & Dai, 2004 (China: Guizhou), S. festivus Matsumura, 1902 (China: Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Hunan, Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Taiwan; India; Sri Lanka; Japan; Korea), S. kumamotonis Matsumura, 1914 (China: Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Sichuan, Zhejiang and Henan; Japan), S. nigrigenatus Li, 1990 (China: Guizhou, Sichuan and Hubei), S. nigrivalveus Li & Wang, 2005 (China: Guizhou and Hubei) and S. yaanensis sp. nov. (China: Sichuan). All seven species are re-illustrated and photographed. The new species is described. A key to the bamboo-feeding species of Scaphoideus is also provided.

  14. A development framework for distributed artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) applications in which multiple organizations of agents solve multiple domain problems. They then describe work in progress on a DAI system development environment, called SOCIAL, which consists of three primary language-based components. The Knowledge Object Language defines models of knowledge representation and reasoning. The metaCourier language supplies the underlying functionality for interprocess communication and control access across heterogeneous computing environments. The metaAgents language defines models for agent organization coordination, control, and resource management. Application agents and agent organizations will be constructed by combining metaAgents and metaCourier building blocks with task-specific functionality such as diagnostic or planning reasoning. This architecture hides implementation details of communications, control, and integration in distributed processing environments, enabling application developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the intelligent agents and agent networks themselves.

  15. Estimation of the total population moving into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the Fukushima NPP accident as calculated using “Auto-GPS” mobile phone data

    PubMed Central

    HAYANO, Ryugo S.; ADACHI, Ryutaro

    2013-01-01

    The first objective data showing the geographical locations of people in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, obtained by an analysis of GPS (Global Positioning System)-enabled mobile phone logs, are presented. The method of estimation is explained, and the flow of people into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the accident is visualized. PMID:23666090

  16. Rationally Designed Graphene-Nanotube 3D Architectures with a Seamless Nodal Junction for Efficient Energy Conversion and Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-04

    Hao Chen,2 Jia Qu,2 Zhong Lin Wang,3,6* Liming Dai1,2* One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior...sources. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanomaterials, including one-dimensional (1D) carbon nano- tubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene, have been...demon- strated to show superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. Because of the presence of strong covalent bonding in the carbon plane

  17. Progress Made Toward Increased Stability under USAID’s Afghanistan Stabilization Initiative-East Program but Transition to Long Term Development Efforts Not Yet Achieved

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-29

    expended ASI-East costs were allowable, allocable, and reasonable; (2) performance oversight, monitoring , and evaluation systems have been implemented; and... monitoring and evaluation of the program. We also interviewed USAID OTI staff based in Washington, D.C. We reviewed the ASI-East task order, related...inappropriate charges. DAI implemented a range of program oversight, monitoring , and evaluation systems; however, final program results remain to be determined

  18. 78 FR 29159 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Guidance: EPRI Guidance for the Resolution of Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Recommendation 2.1: Seismic... 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3, of the Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi... Recommendations 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3, of the Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) Review of Insights from the Fukushima...

  19. Fiber-Tip Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor based on a Thin Silver Film

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    based optical fiber sensors. Journal of lightwave technology 19, 1495 (2001). 4 Rindorf, L. & Bang, O. Sensitivity of photonic crystal fiber grating...Several fabrication techniques for Fiber -tip sensors (FPI) using various film materials, such as silica 17 , polymer 18 , pyrex 19 , and graphene ...L. & Dai, J. Y. High-sensitivity fiber -tip pressure sensor with graphene diaphragm. Optics Letters 37, 2493-2495 (2012). 21 Donlagic, D. & Cibula

  20. U.S. - Panama Relations in the 1990’s: Developing a Post-Noriega Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-08

    Latin America Daily Report, 22 December 1989, p. 28. 22. "Foreign Minister Linares Outlines Foreign Policy," Panama City Circuito RPC Television (Channel...Daily Report 2 May 1989: 20. "Endara Says U.S. Forces To Leave in 1 Month." Panama City Circuito RPC TV (Channel 4) 23 December 1989, reported in FBIS...America Dai Report 12 January 1990: 29. "Foreign Minister Linares Outlines Foreign Policy." Panama City Circuito RPC Television (Channel 4) 25 December

  1. Elucidating the Severity of Preclinical Traumatic Brain Injury Models: A Role for Functional Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Ryan C.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Naser, Zachary J.; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Bailes, Julian E.; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Concussion remains a symptom-based diagnosis clinically, yet preclinical studies investigating traumatic brain injury, of which concussion is believed to represent a ‘mild’ form, emphasize histological endpoints with functional assessments often minimized or ignored all together. Recently, clinical studies have identified the importance of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, in addition to somatic complaints, following concussion. How these findings may translate to preclinical studies is unclear at present. Objective To address the contrasting endpoints utilized clinically compared to those in preclinical studies and the potential role of functional assessments in a commonly used model of diffuse axonal injury (DAI).. Methods Animals were subjected to DAI using the impact-acceleration model. Functional and behavioral assessments were conducted over 1 week following DAI prior to completion of histological assessment at 1-week post-DAI. Results We show, despite the suggestion that this model represents concussive injury, no functional impairments as determined using common measures of motor, sensorimotor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric function following injury over the course of 1 week. The lack of functional deficits is in sharp contrast to neuropathologic findings indicating neural degeneration, astrocyte reactivity, and microglial activation. Conclusion Future studies are needed to identify functional assessments, neurophysiologic techniques, and imaging assessments more apt to distinguish differences following so-called ‘mild’ traumatic brain injury (TBI) in preclinical models and determine whether these models are truly studying concussive or subconcussive injury. These studies are needed to not only understand mechanism of injury and production of subsequent deficits, but also for rigorous evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:24448183

  2. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin With Current Modulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    flexibility in aptamer detection systems can be added by attaching redox molecules, such as ferrocene or methylene blue , to the 3’ end of the DNA...6649 active binding pocket from steric hindrance due to nonspecific adsorption to the ZnO surface. A silane coupling agent, 3-glycidoxypropyl...Chang, Y.-L.; Dai, H. An investigation of the mechanisms of electronic sensing of protein adsorption on carbon nanotube devices. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Swift AGN and Cluster Survey (SWCL). II. SDSS (Griffin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. D.; Dai, X.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bregman, J. N.

    2016-02-01

    We downloaded all swift/XRT "GRB" observations before 2013 Jul 27, and reprocessed the data as described in Dai et al. (2015, Paper I, J/ApJS/218/8). From this, we made images and corresponding exposure maps in different energy ranges: total (0.2-10keV), soft (0.5-2keV), and hard (2-10keV). SDSS DR8 provides the optical data for this study. (1 data file).

  4. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-06-19

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  5. Conference on Operator Theory, Wavelet Theory and Control Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    Bourbaki 662 (1985-1986). [9] Meyer, Y., Ondelettes et operateurs I, Hermann editeurs des sciences et des arts, 1990. [10] Natanson, I. P., Theory of...OPERATOR THEORY , WAVELET THEORY & CONTROL THEORY (U)F 6. AUTHOR(S) 2304/ES Professor Xingde Dai F49620-93-1-0180 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...1STRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED UTL 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The conference on Interaction Between Operator Theory , Wavelet Theory and Control Theory

  6. Toward Development of a Field-Deployable Imaging Device for TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    identify the extent of each of hemorrhage, edema , and TAI, as tested via the following iterative aims. Specific Aim #1: Quantify via histology and...MR the spatial position and extent of each of hemorrhage, edema and TAI within each of the blast and CCI models of brain injury. Specific Aim # 2... edema and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) within each of the blast and CCI models of brain injury, with comparable studies for ischemic stroke. Task (1

  7. (GameChanger) Multifunctional Design of Hybrid Composites of Load Bearing Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    and Hydroethyl Cellulose ", Nov 2009, AICHE Annual Meeting 24. June 2009:Gordon Research Conference, “ Carbon Nanotube Nanostructures E. Jan, N...Volakis, “Polymer- Carbon Nanotube Sheets for Conformal Load Bearing Antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag., vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2169- 2175, Jul. 2010...Propagation, Toronto, Canada, July, 2010. 7. Y. Bayram, Feng Du, L. Dai, J.L. Volakis, “Surface Conditioned Carbon Nanotube Conductive Sheet for Flexible and

  8. Compendium on Waterway Transportation Reliability: Lock Congestion and Lock Queues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    While a microsimulation model for capturing such delays is available (Dai and Schonfeld 89), a significant amount of computer time is required for...development of an approximation to microsimulation that allows for an evaluation of lock delays that incorporate interdependencies. A simulation experiment was... microsimulation model of waterway traffic and lock operations, 3. statistically estimated functions ("metamodels") to approximate the results of the

  9. Characterization of Mechanical, Thermal and Wear Properties of Titanium Rich Metallic Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-20

    I D-Ai23 595 CHRACTERIZATION OF MECHANICAL THERMAL AND NEAR / I PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM RI..(U) NORTHEASTERN UNIY BOSTON INA INST OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS...Mechanical, Thermal andJun 78 - 15 ar 82 Wear Properties of Titanium Rich Metallic Glasses 6. PERFORMINGORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) G. CONTRACT OR GRANT...b, blockh nmibor) metallic glasses transition metal glasses 2 titanium alloy glasses . /reactive alloys /alloys - properties " ABSTRAc C (emwn sm

  10. History of the Pacific Ocean Division Corps of Engineers 1957-1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    venture of Vinnell Corporation and Hyun Dai. This contract provided for strength - ening airfield pavements at Kwangju, Suwon, and Taegu Air Bases...under 500. Except 51 for a slight increase around 1967 as a result of the 66-S program, OED’s per- sonnel strength has remained riear 500.1 The...in fiscal year 1966. A slight in- crease in construction activity thus char - acterized the Pacific Ocean Division be- tween 1963 and 1967.4 54

  11. COMBAT: A Prospective, Randomized Investigation of Plasma First Resuscitation for Traumatic Hemorrhage and Attenuation of Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    even before actual hemorrhage shock has enough time to ensue, consistent with the concept of traumatic diabetes or trauma-induced insulin resistance...1082, 1999. 14. Dunn E, Moore E, Breslich D, Galloway W. Acidosis-induced coagu- lopathy. Surg Forum 30: 471–473, 1979. 15. Foot CL, Fraser JF, Mullany...Wolfe RR, Jahoor F, Hartl WH. Protein and amino acid metabolism after injury. Diabetes Metab Rev 5: 149–164, 1989. 50. Zhang Y, Dai Y, Wen J, Zhang W

  12. COMBAT - A Prospective, Randomized Investigation of Plasma First Resuscitation for Traumatic Hemorrhage and Attenuation of Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    even before actual hemorrhage shock has enough time to ensue, consistent with the concept of traumatic diabetes or trauma-induced insulin resistance...1082, 1999. 14. Dunn E, Moore E, Breslich D, Galloway W. Acidosis-induced coagu- lopathy. Surg Forum 30: 471–473, 1979. 15. Foot CL, Fraser JF, Mullany...Wolfe RR, Jahoor F, Hartl WH. Protein and amino acid metabolism after injury. Diabetes Metab Rev 5: 149–164, 1989. 50. Zhang Y, Dai Y, Wen J, Zhang W

  13. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-07

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters.

  14. Investigation of Possible Antivitamin B-6 Properties in Irradiation Sterilized Chicken.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    recommended by the SSCP (14) as described in Sigma Tech. Bul- letin No. 57- UV (7-79) (15) for the analysis of serum. Reagent rela- tionships were modified...8217’ ’ ’’’ " ... ; ........ .... "- ..... ..... . . ,..... - Ii I g;mml Ir,,I;) W,i ls :Is igi icaintl\\’ lower u1! dai, 7 ( ,E i t,:) 2 : day 28 (bat I -xcs). L ,’Lron rradiated

  15. Temporal Formation and Immunolocalization of an Endospore Surface Epitope During Pasteuria penetrans Sporogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Preston, J. F.; Dickson, D. W.; Giblin-Davis, R. M.; Williams, D. S.; Aldrich, H. C.; Rice, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and localization of an endospore surface epitope associated with the development of Pasteuria penetrans was determined using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) as a probe. Nematodes, uninfected or infected with P. penetrans, were harvested at 12, 16, 24, and 38 days after inoculation (DAI) and then examined to determine the developmental stage of the bacterium. Vegetative growth of P. penetrans was observed only in infected nematodes harvested at 12 and 16 DAI, whereas cells at different stages of sporulation and mature endospores were observed at 24 and 38 DAI. ELISA and immunoblot analysis revealed that the adhesin-associated epitope was first detected at 24 DAI, and increased in the later stages of sporogenesis. These results indicate that the synthesis of adhesin-related proteins occurred at a certain developmental stage relative to the sporulation process, and was associated with endospore maturation. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the distribution of the epitope is nearly uniform on the periphery of each spore, as defined by parasporal fibers. Immunocytochemistry at the ultrastructural level indicated a distribution of the epitope over the parasporal fibers. The epitope also was detected over other structures such as sporangium and exosporium during the sporogenesis process, but it was not observed over the cortex, inner-spore coat, outer-spore coat, or protoplasm. The appearance of the adhesin epitope first at stage III of sporogenesis and its presence on the parasporal fibers are consistent with an adhesin-related role in the attachment of the mature endospore to the cuticle of the nematode host. PMID:19262762

  16. Review of the Grass Feeding Leafhopper Genus Balclutha Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Zhang, Yalin; Webb, M D

    2013-01-01

    The present paper treats 27 species and one species complex of the leafhopper genus Balclutha Kirkaldy from China, including descriptions of four new species, Balclutha bidentifurcata, B. parapunctata, B. paralucida and B. tricornis spp. nov., and gives six new records for China. One new synonymy, B. fuscoinaculatus Dai, Li & Chen, 2004, as a junior synonym of B. saltuella (Kirschbaum, 1868), is proposed. A key to males of Chinese Balclutha species, together with a checklist and figures for the species is provided.

  17. Novel Technologies for Next Generation Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-25

    Schematic cross-sectional view and TEM image of a typical independently-Controlled- Double- Gate Floating -Body-Cell device... floating gate 12 1 .15 Example of mechanical switch memory in dai ly l i fe 14 1.16 Illustration of micro-electro...transistors, the two gates in double- gate DRAM cells are not electrically connected. This structure permits an electrically induced floating body to

  18. Assessment of Human Lung Macrophages After Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Part 2. DNA Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Part II. DNA Damage Lin Zhu13, Amanda M. Schrand1, Andrey A. Voevodin4, Dong Wook Chang3, Liming Dai2∗, and Saber M...5707 Due to the widespread production and use of carbon nanotubes in almost every area of science (i.e., drug delivery, biosensors, fuel cells and...purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes . Cells were incubated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and assessed for DNA damage response via fluorescent

  19. Dynamic functional network connectivity reveals unique and overlapping profiles of insula subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Jason S; Farrant, Kristafor; Damaraju, Eswar; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Calhoun, Vince D; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2016-05-01

    The human insular cortex consists of functionally diverse subdivisions that engage during tasks ranging from interoception to cognitive control. The multiplicity of functions subserved by insular subdivisions calls for a nuanced investigation of their functional connectivity profiles. Four insula subdivisions (dorsal anterior, dAI; ventral, VI; posterior, PI; middle, MI) derived using a data-driven approach were subjected to static- and dynamic functional network connectivity (s-FNC and d-FNC) analyses. Static-FNC analyses replicated previous work demonstrating a cognition-emotion-interoception division of the insula, where the dAI is functionally connected to frontal areas, the VI to limbic areas, and the PI and MI to sensorimotor areas. Dynamic-FNC analyses consisted of k-means clustering of sliding windows to identify variable insula connectivity states. The d-FNC analysis revealed that the most frequently occurring dynamic state mirrored the cognition-emotion-interoception division observed from the s-FNC analysis, with less frequently occurring states showing overlapping and unique subdivision connectivity profiles. In two of the states, all subdivisions exhibited largely overlapping profiles, consisting of subcortical, sensory, motor, and frontal connections. Two other states showed the dAI exhibited a unique connectivity profile compared with other insula subdivisions. Additionally, the dAI exhibited the most variable functional connections across the s-FNC and d-FNC analyses, and was the only subdivision to exhibit dynamic functional connections with regions of the default mode network. These results highlight how a d-FNC approach can capture functional dynamics masked by s-FNC approaches, and reveal dynamic functional connections enabling the functional flexibility of the insula across time. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1770-1787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-08

    A positive development is that Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces...conservatives. In March 2005, Karzai appointed a former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by...Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from Ghazni Province), heads the

  1. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    elections to the parliament, their service at many levels of government, including a governorship ( Bamiyan Province), and their growing presence in the...the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the...Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June

  2. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-06

    central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a development unknown before the fall of the Taliban. Some...former Minister of Women’s Affairs, Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush...in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A female, Dr. Sima Samar (Hazara from Ghazni Province), heads the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC

  3. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    Afghanistan’s Shiite minority, mostly from the Hazara tribes of central Afghanistan ( Bamiyan and Dai Kundi provinces) can celebrate their holidays openly, a...Habiba Sohrabi, as governor of Bamiyan province, inhabited mostly by Hazaras. (She hosted then First Lady Laura Bush in Bamiyan in June 2008.) A... Bamiyan province. Other significant candidates are shown below. Other Candidates Abd al-Salam Rocketi ("Mullah Rocketi”). A Pashtun, reconciled

  4. The Impact of Changes in State Identity on Alliance Cohesion in Northeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    School, Sun Zhe at Tsinghua University, and Zhan Debin at Fudan University, began to publicly express their new perceptions of the capabilities...Rin 4 al Hong Xuezhi 1 henyang MRC Wang Ke General Kim Hak Sam 994 DDM Kim Jong Kak COGS Choe Kwang General Oh Yong Bang 5 S 1995 MDN DFAB Sun...Qixiang AMS PC Zhang Gong Guangzhou MRPC Shi Yuxia DDM Kim Jong Kak 4 1996 ILD Deputy Director Dai Bingguo North Sea FC Wang Jiying

  5. A comparative study of aesthetic perceptions of malocclusion among general practice dentists, orthodontists and the public using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the IOTN-AC

    PubMed Central

    Julián-Castellote, Gonzalo; Montiel-Company, José-María; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Perception of malocclusion varies among individuals and among patients and practitioners. Although several indices that tend to coincide in many aspects and unify criteria, no single index has been recognised as the most suitable for assessing orthodontic treatment need. Moreover, orthodontists are not always aware of the differences in perception of malocclusion between patients and practitioners. Objetives To examine the perception of dental anaesthetics amongst dentists, orthodontists and the general population, study the relationship between the perception of dental aesthetics and the severity of the malocclusion, using the visual analogue scale and the IOTN-AC, and investigate relationships among the resulting data. Study Design Frontal intraoral photographs of 24 cases were classified by the severity of their malocclusion according to the DAI index. The photographs were examined by 150 individuals (30 orthodontists, 30 general dental practitioners and 90 members of the general population), who assessed them on a visual analogue scale and according to the IOTN-AC. Results The orthodontists gave the lowest scores on the visual analogue scale, although the differences between the three groups were not significant. For DAI grades 1, 3 and 4, significant differences were found in the IOTN-AC assessments. Here too, the orthodontist group was the most critical. Conclusions In general, in all three groups, both the visual analogue scale and IOTN-AC scores increased or decreased in line with the severity of the malocclusion according to the DAI. However, the correlation between these scores was low. The orthodontists scored the malocclusions more critically than the general dentists or the general population with the IOTN-AC, but this difference was not found with the visual analogue scale. Key words:IOTN-AC, DAI, malocclusion. PMID:27957275

  6. An Analysis of the Effects of Varying Male and Female Force Levels. Annex 5. Organizational Assessment Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    things held constant. Statistical Significance of the Coefficients. This research is primarily concerned with hypothesis testing -- whether or not a...into three parts. First, each dependent variable is defined and important caveats are noted. Second , descriptive statistics show how each dependent...A D-AI57 805 AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF VARYING MALE AND FEMALE 1/5 F FORCE LEVELS ANNEX 5..(U) SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS CORP ARLINGTON

  7. Diffuse axonal injury induced by simultaneous moderate linear and angular head accelerations in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Li, J; Feng, D F; Gu, L

    2010-08-11

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common and important pathologic features of human traumatic brain injury (TBI), accounting for high mortality and development of persistent post-traumatic neurologic sequelae. Although a relatively high number of therapies have been shown to be effective in experimental models, there are currently few treatments that are effective for improving the prognosis of clinical DAI. A major reason is the failure of current models to validly reproduce the pathophysiological characteristics observed after clinical DAI. In the present study, we employed a specially designed, highly controllable model to induce a sudden rotation in the coronal plane (75 degrees rotation at 1.6x10(4) degrees/s) combined with lateral translation (1.57 cm displacement at 3.4x10(2) cm/s) to the rat's head. We were interested in discovering whether the combined accelerations could reproduce the pathophysiological changes analogous to those seen in human DAI. The axonal injury as assessed with amyloid protein precursor (APP) as a marker was consistently present in all injured rats. The commonly injured brain regions included the subcortical regions, deep white matter, corpus callosum and brain stem. The evolution of APP accumulations in brain sections depicted the detailed progression of axonal pathology. Ultrastructural studies gave further insights into the presence and progression of axonal injury. All injured rats exhibited transient physiological dysfunction, as well as immediate and dramatic neurological impairment that still persisted at 14 days after injury. These results suggest that this model reproduced the major pathophysiological changes analogous to those observed after severe clinical TBI and provides an attractive vehicle for experimental brain injury research.

  8. The Relationship between Low-Level Convergence and Convective Precipitation in Illinois and South Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    D-Ai27 615 THE RELATIONSHIP BETMEEN LOW-LEVEL CONVERGENCE AND i/1 CONVECTIVE PRECIPITATI..(U) ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY DIV URBANA A I WATSON ET AL...construed as an official Department of the Army position, )olicy, or decision, unless so designated by other documentation N 19. 9.EY WORDS (Continue on...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Uh.n Date Ecoleomd) State Water Survey Division k Insttute of METEOROLOGY SECTION AT THED UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS THE

  9. The Second National Chinese Conference on Permafrost, Lanzhou, China, 12-18 October 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    in China Lu Guowei et al ., Zonality and regional patterns of frozen 6 ground in northeast China Dai Jinbo and Li Enying, Law of ground temperature...the Qilian Shan area 15 Cheng Guodong and Wang Shaoling, On dividing high altitude 6 permafrost of China into zones Wu Ziwang et al ., Discussion on...Zuofu, Evaluation of permafrost in northeast 21 China since late Pleistocene and its age of formation Sun Jian Zhonz et al ., Paleoenvironment of the

  10. Hsf1 in Her2-Positive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    activated protein (MAP) signaling cascades (4, 15). Numerous studies indicate that Hsf1 and Hsps are overex- pressed in a variety of human tumors (11...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This study demonstrates that...Hsf1 deficiency drastically delayed chemical skin carcinogenesis and increased survival from 30% to 90% (Dai et al, 2007). In this study , using

  11. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  12. Multilevel, Multicomponent Microarchitectures of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Diverse Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-31

    Microarchitectures of Vertically- Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Diverse Applications Liangti Qu,†,* Rich A. Vaia,‡ and Liming Dai§,* †Key Laboratory of Cluster...single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), especially in an aligned andmicropatterned array form, have been extensively studied for various applications ...specific property for diverse applications . Recently, we have exploited the contact transfer method to sequentially extract CNTs from their vertically

  13. High Speed Compressor Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-21

    Nov 2011. 11 Walker, G., Senft, J. R., “Free Piston Stirling Engines”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985, pp118. 12 Green RH, Bailey PB, Roberts L...carried out on a relatively old design of compressor, initially developed for use with a Stirling cycle domestic freezer12, and subsequently used in a...2003), pp 247-253. 3 Wang, X, Dai, W., et al, “Performance of a Stirling -Type Pulse Tube Cooler for High Efficiency Operation at 100Hz

  14. Organo-Soluble Porphyrin Mixed Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-16

    Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods . J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 8410- 8426. (7) Yu, C.; Irudayaraj, J...Mixed Monolayer- Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes Chenming Xue, Yongqian Xu, Yi Pang, Dingshan Yu, Liming Dai, Min Gao, Augustine...Protected Gold Nanorods with Intercalated Fullerenes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  15. Extended Anatomical Grading in Diffuse Axonal Injury Using MRI: Hemorrhagic Lesions in the Substantia Nigra and Mesencephalic Tegmentum Indicate Poor Long-Term Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Marklund, Niklas; Lannsjö, Marianne; Howells, Tim; Raininko, Raili; Wikström, Johan; Enblad, Per

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Clinical outcome after traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is difficult to predict. In this study, three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were used to quantify the anatomical distribution of lesions, to grade DAI according to the Adams grading system, and to evaluate the value of lesion localization in combination with clinical prognostic factors to improve outcome prediction. Thirty patients (mean 31.2 years ±14.3 standard deviation) with severe DAI (Glasgow Motor Score [GMS] <6) examined with MRI within 1 week post-injury were included. Diffusion-weighted (DW), T2*-weighted gradient echo and susceptibility-weighted (SWI) sequences were used. Extended Glasgow outcome score was assessed after 6 months. Number of DW lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and internal capsule and number of SWI lesions in the mesencephalon correlated significantly with outcome in univariate analysis. Age, GMS at admission, GMS at discharge, and low proportion of good monitoring time with cerebral perfusion pressure <60 mm Hg correlated significantly with outcome in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent relation with poor outcome for age (p = 0.005) and lesions in the mesencephalic region corresponding to substantia nigra and tegmentum on SWI (p = 0.008). We conclude that higher age and lesions in substantia nigra and mesencephalic tegmentum indicate poor long-term outcome in DAI. We propose an extended MRI classification system based on four stages (stage I—hemispheric lesions, stage II—corpus callosum lesions, stage III—brainstem lesions, and stage IV—substantia nigra or mesencephalic tegmentum lesions); all are subdivided by age (≥/<30 years). PMID:27356857

  16. Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastases by Targeting Cathepsin K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    treatment. Cancer Treat Rev. 22, 289-331. [9] Roudier MP, True LD, Higano CS, Vesselle H, Ellis W , Lange P, and Vessella RL (2003). Phenotypic...burden in bone in nude mice. Cancer Res. 55, 3551-3557. [16] Zhang J, Dai J, Yao Z, Lu Y, Dougall W , and Keller ET (2003). Soluble receptor...Rommerskirch W , Moritz JD, Schu P, and von Figura K (1998). Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption leads to osteopetrosis in cathepsin-K-deficient mice

  17. Inhibition Of Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastases By Targeting Cathepsin K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Xie W , Fan J, Dai J, Mizokami A, and Zhang J*. Activation of MCP-1/CCR2 axis promotes prostate cancer growth in bone. Clin Exp Metastasis, 26(2):161...CS, Vesselle H, Ellis W , Lange P, and Vessella RL (2003). Phenotypic heterogeneity of end-stage prostate carcinoma metastatic to bone. Hum Pathol. 34...Yao Z, Lu Y, Dougall W , and Keller ET (2003). Soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB Fc diminishes prostate cancer progression in bone

  18. Research on X-Ray Nonlinear Optics and Single Particles Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    nonlinear response. The direct numerical simu- lation of the Schr ~ dinger equations for many-electron atoms using Hartry-Slater approximation requires... depends on whether resonances to XRL lines exist in neutral atoms, and whether the processes of interest would have time to develop before the medium...hour per responsel, Includling the time for reviewing 9lructimrs, Wsatch~ing eisliring doel sourctii galterigg And iilminalmiring the d~ai needed, rid

  19. Preparation of Tunable 3D Pillared Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Networks for High-Performance Capacitance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    puter modeling has predicted that such a 3D pillared VACNT graphene structure can be used for efficient hydrogen storage after being doped with...Pillared Carbon Nanotube Graphene Networks for High-Performance Capacitance Feng Du,†,§ Dingshan Yu,†,§ Liming Dai,†,* S. Ganguli,‡ V. Varshney,‡ and A...nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional (2D) single-atomic layer graphene , have been demonstrated to show superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical

  20. A Combat Battle Damage Assessor Expert System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Next, the requirements should receive just enough repair to allow for the battle damage assessor software it to be flown to a rear area for complete are...R’ D-Ai48 898 A COMBAT BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSOR EXPERT SYSTEM(U) AIR 1/i FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABS WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB ON D E NELSON MAY 84 SBI...8217.c.sw-x -: "--..... . .. .-. :;.-...... .............. .. . .. . . .. . .. . . r74 IV A COMBAT BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSOR EXPERT SYSTEM DAL E. NELSON

  1. Cross-sectional study of malocclusion in Spanish children

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Puertes-Fernández, Neus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the orthodontic treatment need of the child population of the Valencia region of Spain, employing the DAI and the IOTN, to examine the relations between treatment need, socio-economic data and gender and to assess the diagnostic agreement between the two indices. Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a random representative sample of the schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain. The sample size was a total of 765 children aged 12 and 15 years at 39 schools. Results: The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the DAI was 21.7% at 12 years of age and 14.1% at 15 years. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the IOTN DHC was 20.9% at 12 years of age and 12.7% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the DAI and the modified IOTN was moderate, with Kappa scores of 0.426 at 12 years of age and 0.415 for the 15-year-old group. Conclusions: Approximately 20% of the children needed orthodontic treatment. Neither gender nor social class appeared to exert a significant influence on orthodontic treatment need. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, children, malocclusion. PMID:23986013

  2. Are dialysis adequacy indices independent of solute generation rate?

    PubMed

    Waniewski, Jacek; Debowska, Malgorzata; Lindholm, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    KT/V is by definition independent of solute generation rate. Alternative dialysis adequacy indices (DAIs) such as equivalent renal clearance (EKR), standard KT/V (stdKT/V), and solute removal index (SRI) are estimated as the ratio of solute mass removed to an average solute mass in the body or solute concentration in blood; both nominator and denominator in these formulas depend on the solute generation rate. Our objective was to investigate whether and under which conditions the alternative DAIs are independent of solute generation rate. By using general compartment modeling, we show that for the metabolically stable patient (in whom the solute generated during the dialysis cycle, typically, 1 week, is equal to the solute removed from the body), DAIs estimated for the dialysis cycle are in general independent of the average solute generation rate (although they may depend on the pattern of oscillations in the generation rate). However, the alternative adequacy parameters (such as EKR, stdKT/V, and SRI) may depend on solute generation rate for metabolically unstable patients.

  3. Effect of personality traits, age and sex on aggressive driving: Psychometric adaptation of the Driver Aggression Indicators Scale in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huihui; Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2017-04-02

    This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Driver Aggression Indicators Scale (DAIS), which measures aggressive driving behaviors. Besides, demographic variables (sex and age) and the big five personality traits were examined as potential impact factors of aggressive driving. A total of 422 participants completed the DAIS, Big Five Personality Inventory (BFPI), and the socio-demographic scale. First, psychometric results confirmed that the DAIS had a stable two-factor structure and acceptable internal consistency. Then, agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively correlated with hostile aggression and revenge committed by the drivers themselves, while neuroticism was positively correlated with aggressive driving committed by the drivers themselves. Meanwhile, more agreeable drivers may perceive less hostile aggression and revenge. More neurotic drivers may perceive more aggressive warning. Finally, the effects of age and sex on aggressive driving were not same as most studies. We found that older age group perceived and committed more hostile acts of aggression and revenge than younger age groups. Female drivers of 49-60 years perceived more aggressive warnings committed by other drivers.

  4. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    PubMed

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  5. Spin Dynamics in the electron-doped high-Tc superconductors Pr0.88LaCe0.12CuO4-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Pengcheng

    2007-03-01

    We briefly review results of recent neutron scattering experiments designed to probe the evolution of antiferromagnetic (AF) order and spin dynamics in the electron- doped Pr0.88LaCe0.12CuO4-δ (PLCCO) as the system is tuned from its as-grown non-superconducting AF state into an optimally doped superconductor (Tc = 27.5 K) without static AF order [1-3]. For under doped materials, a quasi-two- dimensional spin-density wave was found to coexist with three- dimensional AF order and superconductivity. In addition, the low-energy spin excitations follow Bose statistics. In the case of optimally doped material, we have discovered a magnetic resonance intimately related to superconductivity analogous to the resonance in hole-doped materials. On the other hand, the low energy spin excitations have very weak temperature dependence and do not follow Bose statistics, in sharp contrast to the as-grown nonsuperconducting materials. 1 Stephen D. Wilson, Pengcheng Dai, Shiliang Li, Songxue Chi, H. J. Kang, and J. W. Lynn, Nature (London) 442, 59 (2006). 2 Stephen D. Wilson, Shiliang Li, Hyungje Woo, Pengcheng Dai, H. A. Mook, C. D. Frost, S. Komiya, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 157001 (2006). 3. Stephen D. Wilson, Shiliang Li, Pengcheng Dai, Wei Bao, J. H. Chung, H. J. Kang, S.-H. Lee, S. Komiya, and Y. Ando, Phys. Rev. B 74, 144514 (2006).

  6. The Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance: the reliability and validity of a schizophrenia medication adherence scale

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hikaru; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Shiozuka, Hideki; Igata, Ryohei; Miki, Tazuko; Atake, Kiyokazu; Takeuchi, Yuji; Shirozu, Hiroaki; Ohara, Naotoshi; Konishi, Yuki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Noriaki; Kubota, Takanori; Yoshimura, Reiji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many patients with schizophrenia have low medication adherence. There is, however, no objective assessment scale that can be used by nurses or caregiver specialists. The Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance (NAMA) was developed to assess patients’ medication adherence. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the NAMA in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 121 Japanese patients with schizophrenia were enrolled. All patients underwent evaluation using the NAMA and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10). Reliability was investigated using a test-retest method and a parallel-test method. To determine the test-retest reliability of the NAMA, we tested 101 schizophrenia patients twice, with the second assessment 2–4 weeks after the date of the first assessment. For validity verification, standard-related validity and the degree of concordance with the DAI-10 scores were measured. Results: The Cronbach’s alpha value of the NAMA in schizophrenia was 0.88. The test-retest correlation coefficients were all between 0.53–0.74. The total scores and all subscores for the NAMA were significantly correlated, and the NAMA total scores were significantly correlated with the DAI-10 total scores. Conclusions: The NAMA shows good reliability and validity in measuring medication adherence in schizophrenia. PMID:28101319

  7. An Empirical Investigation of Dance Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Maraz, Aniko; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark Damian; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Although recreational dancing is associated with increased physical and psychological well-being, little is known about the harmful effects of excessive dancing. The aim of the present study was to explore the psychopathological factors associated with dance addiction. The sample comprised 447 salsa and ballroom dancers (68% female, mean age: 32.8 years) who danced recreationally at least once a week. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (Terry, Szabo, & Griffiths, 2004) was adapted for dance (Dance Addiction Inventory, DAI). Motivation, general mental health (BSI-GSI, and Mental Health Continuum), borderline personality disorder, eating disorder symptoms, and dance motives were also assessed. Five latent classes were explored based on addiction symptoms with 11% of participants belonging to the most problematic class. DAI was positively associated with psychiatric distress, borderline personality and eating disorder symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression model indicated that Intensity (ß=0.22), borderline (ß=0.08), eating disorder (ß=0.11) symptoms, as well as Escapism (ß=0.47) and Mood Enhancement (ß=0.15) (as motivational factors) together explained 42% of DAI scores. Dance addiction as assessed with the Dance Addiction Inventory is associated with indicators of mild psychopathology and therefore warrants further research. PMID:25951077

  8. An empirical investigation of dance addiction.

    PubMed

    Maraz, Aniko; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark Damian; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Although recreational dancing is associated with increased physical and psychological well-being, little is known about the harmful effects of excessive dancing. The aim of the present study was to explore the psychopathological factors associated with dance addiction. The sample comprised 447 salsa and ballroom dancers (68% female, mean age: 32.8 years) who danced recreationally at least once a week. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (Terry, Szabo, & Griffiths, 2004) was adapted for dance (Dance Addiction Inventory, DAI). Motivation, general mental health (BSI-GSI, and Mental Health Continuum), borderline personality disorder, eating disorder symptoms, and dance motives were also assessed. Five latent classes were explored based on addiction symptoms with 11% of participants belonging to the most problematic class. DAI was positively associated with psychiatric distress, borderline personality and eating disorder symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression model indicated that Intensity (ß=0.22), borderline (ß=0.08), eating disorder (ß=0.11) symptoms, as well as Escapism (ß=0.47) and Mood Enhancement (ß=0.15) (as motivational factors) together explained 42% of DAI scores. Dance addiction as assessed with the Dance Addiction Inventory is associated with indicators of mild psychopathology and therefore warrants further research.

  9. Global priorities for an effective information basis of biodiversity distributions

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Carsten; Kreft, Holger; Guralnick, Robert; Jetz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in digital accessible information (DAI) on species distributions hamper prospects of safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services, and addressing central ecological and evolutionary questions. Achieving international targets on biodiversity knowledge requires that information gaps be identified and actions prioritized. Integrating 157 million point records and distribution maps for 21,170 terrestrial vertebrate species, we find that outside a few well-sampled regions, DAI on point occurrences provides very limited and spatially biased inventories of species. Surprisingly, many large, emerging economies are even more under-represented in global DAI than species-rich, developing countries in the tropics. Multi-model inference reveals that completeness is mainly limited by distance to researchers, locally available research funding and participation in data-sharing networks, rather than transportation infrastructure, or size and funding of Western data contributors as often assumed. Our results highlight the urgent need for integrating non-Western data sources and intensifying cooperation to more effectively address societal biodiversity information needs. PMID:26348291

  10. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  11. Review of the Leafhopper Genus Macrosteles Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Yalin, Zhang; Lin, Lu; Kwon, Yong Jung

    2013-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Macrosteles Fieber in China comprises 25 species including ten new species: Macrosteles brochus Zhang & Lu, M. brunneus Zhang & Lu, M. choui Zhang & Lu, M. ehensis Zhang & Lu, M. gracilis Zhang & Lu, M. falcatus Zhang & Lu, M. haperatus Zhang & Lu, M. nabiae Kwon, M. parastriifrons Zhang & Lu and M. spinosus Kwon. Five species are newly recorded from China, including M. abludens Anufriev, M. albicostalis Vilbaste, M. alpinus (Zetterstedt), M. lividus (Edwards) and M. sordidipennis (Stål). One taxon previously treated as a subspecies of M fascifrons (Stål) is elevated to species rank: M. lindbergi Dlabola, n. stat. The following six new synonyms are proposed: M. bimaculatus Dai, Li & Chen, 2008 = M. lividus (Edwards, 1894), M heiseles Kuoh, 1981 = M. guttatus (Matsumura, 1915); M. huangxionis Kuoh, 1981 = M. heitiacus Kuoh, 1981; M. latiaedeagus Dai et al., 2008 = M. cristatus Ribaut, 1927; and M. serrata Dai et al., 2011 = M. striifrons Anufriev, 1968 and also a junior homonym of M. serratus Kwon, 2010; and M. symphorosus Yang, 1996 = M. viridigriseus (Edwards, 1924). A checklist to the Macrosteles species from China is provided together with a key for separation of males.

  12. A review of the leafhopper genus Scaphotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae), with description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wu; Viraktamath, C A; Zhang, Yalin; Webb, M D

    2009-09-01

    The leafhopper genus Scaphotettix Matsumura is redescribed, and three new species are described and Illustrated: S. striatus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov. from Java (on bamboo) and China; S. bispinosus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov from China; and S. pectinatus Dai and Zhang, sp. nov. from Vietnam. Most other species of Scaphotettix were re-examined and found to belong to a new genus also described herein, Scaphomonus Viraktamath, gen. nov.. The new genus is compared with the superficially similar Melanetettix Knight and Fletcher, Scaphodhara Viraktamath and Mohan, and Scaphoideus Uhler and a new species, Scaphomonus vateriae Viraktamath, sp. nov. from India, is described and Illustrated. In addition, the following new combinations are proposed (all previously placed in Scaphotettix): Scaphomonus agumbensis (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. arcuatus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. freytagi (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. indicus (Distant) comb, nov.; S. longistylus (Li and Wang) comb, nov.; S. mainadicus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. quadrifidus (Viraktamath and Mohan) comb, nov.; S. redundans (Distant) comb, nov.; and S. splinterus (Li and Wang) comb. nov. Three species, Scaphotettix fanjingensis Li and Wang, Scaphotettix redstripeus Li and Wang, and Scaphotettix sienderus Li and Wang, do not belong to the genus Scaphotettix and are not treated further. Keys are provided for species of both Scaphotettix and Scaphomonus.

  13. Orthodontic treatment need in a 12-year-old population in the Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Puertes-Fernández, Neus; Montiel-Company, José María; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Manzanera, David

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish orthodontic treatment need according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Aesthetic Component (AC) and Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine its association with gender among Saharan schoolchildren. The study was carried out in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for oral health surveys at 12 years of age. The sample comprised 248 Sahrawi children (135 girls and 113 boys) living in refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria. None of the children had previously received any orthodontic treatment. A chi-square test was used to analyse the IOTN results by gender, and a Student's t-test was employed for the DAI results. The mean DAI was 23.32 with a standard deviation of 6.05, 4 percent with a very severe and 9.2 per cent with severe malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment need was 16.1 and 2.0 percent, respectively, according to grades 4 and 5 of the IOTN DHC, 13.7 percent according to the IOTN AC, and 28.6 percent according to the modified IOTN (IOTN DHC grades 4-5 and/or IOTN AC grades 8-10). There were no statistically significant differences by gender. The orthodontic treatment need of Western Saharan schoolchildren is similar to that reported by many recent studies in European and in Sub-Saharan countries.

  14. Direct production of D-arabinose from D-xylose by a coupling reaction using D-xylose isomerase, D-tagatose 3-epimerase and D-arabinose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Ishrat; Mizanur, Rahman Md; Takeshita, Kei; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae 40bXX, a mutant strain that constitutively produces D-arabinose isomerase (D-AI), was isolated through a series of repeated subcultures from the parent strain on a mineral salt medium supplemented with L-Xylose as the sole carbon source. D-AI could be efficiently immobilized on chitopearl beads. The optimum temperature for the activity of the immobilized enzyme was 40 degrees C and the enzyme was stable up to 50 degrees C. The D-Al was active at pH 10.0 and was stable in the range of pH 6.0-11.0. The enzyme required manganese ions for maximum activity. Three immobilized enzymes, D-xylose isomerase (D-XI), D-tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE and D-AI were used for the preparation of D-arabinose from D-xylose in a coupling reaction. After completion of the reaction, degradation of D-xylulose was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reaction mixture containing D-Xylose, D-ribulose and the product was then separated by ion exchange column chromatography. After crystallization, the product was checked by HPLC, IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and optical rotation measurements. Finally, 2.0 g of D-arabinose could be obtained from 5 g of the substrate.

  15. White Matter Injury Susceptibility via Fiber Strain Evaluation Using Whole-Brain Tractography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Ford, James C; Flashman, Laura A; McAllister, Thomas W; Ji, Songbai

    2016-10-15

    Microscale brain injury studies suggest axonal elongation as a potential mechanism for diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Recent studies have begun to incorporate white matter (WM) structural anisotropy in injury analysis, with initial evidence suggesting improved injury prediction performance. In this study, we further develop a tractography-based approach to analyze fiber strains along the entire lengths of fibers from voxel- or anatomically constrained whole-brain tractography. This technique potentially extends previous element- or voxel-based methods that instead utilize WM fiber orientations averaged from typically coarse elements or voxels. Perhaps more importantly, incorporating tractography-based axonal structural information enables assessment of the overall injury risks to functionally important neural pathways and the anatomical regions they connect, which is not possible with previous methods. A DAI susceptibility index was also established to quantify voxel-wise WM local structural integrity and tract-wise damage of individual neural pathways. This "graded" injury susceptibility potentially extends the commonly employed treatment of injury as a simple binary condition. As an illustration, we evaluate the DAI susceptibilities of WM voxels and transcallosal fiber tracts in three idealized head impacts. Findings suggest the potential importance of the tractography-based approach for injury prediction. These efforts may enable future studies to correlate WM mechanical responses with neuroimaging, cognitive alteration, and concussion, and to reveal the relative vulnerabilities of neural pathways and identify the most vulnerable ones in real-world head impacts.

  16. Geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system: case study in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Megumi

    2015-04-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its tsunami killed 18,508 people, including the missing (National Police Agency report as of April 2014) and raise the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in Japan. The problems revealed can be viewed as due to a combination of risk-management, risk-communication, and geoethics issues. Japan's preparations for earthquakes and tsunamis are based on the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake for each region. The government organization coordinating the estimation of anticipated earthquakes is the "Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion" (HERP), which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan's disaster mitigation system is depicted schematically as consisting of three layers: seismology, civil engineering, and disaster mitigation planning. This research explains students in geoscience should study geoethics as part of their education related Tohoku earthquake and the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Only when they become practicing professionals, they will be faced with real geoethical dilemmas. A crisis such as the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, will force many geoscientists to suddenly confront previously unanticipated geoethics and risk-communication issues. One hopes that previous training will help them to make appropriate decisions under stress. We name it "decision science".

  17. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the interaction between Trichoderma harzianum and perithecia of Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Inch, S; Gilbert, J

    2011-01-01

    Chronological events associated with the interaction between a strain of Trichoderma harzianum, T472, with known biological control activity against perithecial production of G. zeae, were studied with scanning electron microscopy to investigate the mechanisms of control. Large clusters of perithecia consisting of 5-15 perithecia formed on the autoclaved, mulched wheat straw inoculated with G. zeae alone (control) with an average of 157 perithecia per plate. Small clusters consisting of 3-6 and an average of 15 perithecia per plate perithecia formed on straw that was treated with T. harzianum. The mature perithecia from straw treated with T. harzianum produced less pigment and were lighter in color than those from the control plates. Furthermore the cells of the outer wall of these perithecia were abnormal in appearance and unevenly distributed across the surface. Immature perithecia were colonized by T. harzianum approximately 15 d after inoculation (dai) with the biocontrol agent and pathogen. Few perithecia were colonized at later stages. The affected perithecia collapsed 21 dai, compared to the perithecia in the control samples that began to collapse 28 dai. Abundant mycelium of T. harzianum was seen on the perithecia of treated samples. Perithecial structures may be resistant to penetration by the mycelium because direct penetration was not observed. Trichoderma harzianum colonized the substrate quickly and out-competed the pathogen, G. zeae.

  18. Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study)

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabeza, Ignacio; Gómez, Juan-Carlos; Sacristán, Jose A; Edgell, Eric; González de Chavez, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10), and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy) with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS. PMID:11835695

  19. Trypanosomiasis challenge estimation using the diminazene aceturate (Berenil) index in Zebu in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Cossic, Brieuc G A; Adjahoutonon, Brice; Gloaguen, Pierre; Dibanganga, Gui Lov; Maganga, Gael; Leroy, Pascal; MacLeod, Ewan T; Picozzi, Kim

    2017-03-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted within a cattle ranch in Gabon to determine the diminazene aceturate (Berenil) index (DAI) in a group of Zebu, raised under low tsetse density; this measure providing an assessment of trypanosomiasis risk. The objective was to evaluate the trypanosomiasis pressure thus informing trypanosomiasis control methods and cattle management. Twenty female adult Zebu were monitored for 24 weeks during the dry season. Blood samples were collected on a weekly basis and subjected to parasitological and haematological analysis (n = 480), using the buffy-coat method and the packed cell volume value (PCV), respectively, infected animals were treated with a single intramuscular injection of diminazene aceturate (8 mg/kg). Twenty-nine single infectious events were recorded and a DAI of 1.45 was calculated. Two trypanosome species were identified: Trypanosoma congolense (96.2%) and Trypanosoma vivax (3.8%). The mean PCV value of the infected animals was lower (26.6) compared to non-infected animals (32.0). This study shows that DAI may be a useful tool to assess trypanosomiasis. However, this is a time-consuming method that may be improved by using randomly selected sentinel animals to adapt the chemoprophylactic schemes, hence decreasing the costs and the drug resistance risk.

  20. Label-free Proteomic Reveals that Cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus Transiently Suppresses the Host Leaf Protein Accumulation During the Compatible Interaction with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.).

    PubMed

    Paiva, Ana L S; Oliveira, Jose T A; de Souza, Gustavo A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2016-12-02

    Viruses are important plant pathogens that threaten diverse crops worldwide. Diseases caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) have drawn attention because of the serious damages they cause to economically important crops including cowpea. This work was undertaken to quantify and identify the responsive proteins of a susceptible cowpea genotype infected with CPSMV, in comparison with mock-inoculated controls, using label-free quantitative proteomics and databanks, aiming at providing insights on the molecular basis of this compatible interaction. Cowpea leaves were mock- or CPSMV-inoculated and 2 and 6 days later proteins were extracted and analyzed. More than 3000 proteins were identified (data available via ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD005025) and 75 and 55 of them differentially accumulated in response to CPSMV, at 2 and 6 DAI, respectively. At 2 DAI, 76% of the proteins decreased in amount and 24% increased. However, at 6 DAI, 100% of the identified proteins increased. Thus, CPSMV transiently suppresses the synthesis of proteins involved particularly in the redox homeostasis, protein synthesis, defense, stress, RNA/DNA metabolism, signaling, and other functions, allowing viral invasion and spread in cowpea tissues.

  1. Urinary phytoestrogen levels related to idiopathic male infertility in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yankai; Chen, Minjian; Zhu, Pengfei; Lu, Chuncheng; Fu, Guangbo; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Daozhen; Wang, Honghua; Hang, Bo; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2013-09-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring chemical constituents of certain plants. The internal PE exposures, mainly from diet, vary among different populations and in different regions due to various eating habits. To investigate the potential relationship between urinary PE levels and idiopathic male infertility and semen quality in Chinese adult males, 608 idiopathic infertile men and 469 fertile controls were recruited by eligibility screening procedures. Individual exposure to PEs was measured using UPLC-MS/MS as spot urinary concentrations of 6 PEs (daidzein, DAI; equol, EQU; genistein, GEN; naringenin, NAR; coumestrol, COU; and secoisolariciresinol, SEC), which were adjusted with urinary creatinine (CR). Semen quality was assessed by sperm concentration, number per ejaculum and motility. We found that exposures to DAI, GEN and SEC were significantly associated with idiopathic male infertility (P-value for trend=0.036; 0.002; and 0.0001, respectively), while these exposures had stronger association with infertile subjects with at least one abnormal semen parameter than those with all normal semen parameters. Exposures to DAI, GEN and SEC were also related to idiopathic male infertility with abnormal sperm concentration, number per ejaculum and motility (P-value for trend<0.05), while these exposures had stronger association with the infertile men with abnormal sperm number per ejaculum. These findings provide the evidence that PE exposures are related to male reproductive function and raise a public health concern because that exposure to PEs is ubiquitous in China.

  2. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tohru; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sassa, Shuji; Nomura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2007-01-19

    Chinese herbal medicines, Inchinko-to, Bofu-tsusho-san and Dai-saiko-to, containing 3, 18 and 8 components, respectively, have since long been used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, choleretic and diuretic agent for liver disorders and jaundice, as an anti-obesity agent, a hypocholesterolemic agent for liver disorders and a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for cholesterol gallstone disease with hypertriglycerid-emia in China and Japan, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these three herbal medicines in young male mice fed a high-fat diet. Plasma levels of lipids and the numbers of the fatty droplets in the liver cytoplasm were markedly lowered by the diets supplemented with three herbal medicines. The liver weights and the body growth were reduced by the diet supplemented with Dai-saiko-to, which slightly affected the concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine or calcium, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Thus, Dai-saiko-to, besides Bofu-tsusho-san, seems effective in the activities of anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperlipids in liver cytoplasm, when used carefully.

  3. Hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Siyuan; Ma, Qiong; Fei, Zhe; Liu, Mengkun; Goldflam, Michael D.; Andersen, Trond; Garnett, William; Regan, Will; Wagner, Martin; McLeod, Alexander S.; Rodin, Alexandr; Zhu, Shou-En; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, T.; Dominguez, Gerado; Thiemens, Mark; Castro Neto, Antonio H.; Janssen, Guido C. A. M.; Zettl, Alex; Keilmann, Fritz; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Fogler, Michael M.; Basov, Dmitri N.

    2016-09-01

    Uniaxial materials whose axial and tangential permittivities have opposite signs are referred to as indefinite or hyperbolic media. While hyperbolic responses are normally achieved with metamaterials, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) naturally possesses this property due to the anisotropic phonons in the mid-infrared. Using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy, we studied polaritonic phenomena in hBN. We performed infrared nano-imaging of highly confined and low-loss hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN. The polariton wavelength was shown to be governed by the hBN thickness according to a linear law persisting down to few atomic layers [1]. Additionally, we carried out the modification of hyperbolic response in meta-structures comprised of a mononlayer graphene deposited on hBN [2]. Electrostatic gating of the top graphene layer allows for the modification of wavelength and intensity of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in bulk hBN. The physics of the modification originates from the plasmon-phonon coupling in the hyperbolic medium. Furthermore, we demonstrated the "hyperlens" for subdiffractional focusing and imaging using a slab of hBN [3]. References [1] S. Dai et al., Science, 343, 1125 (2014). [2] S. Dai et al., Nature Nanotechnology, 10, 682 (2015). [3] S. Dai et al., Nature Communications, 6, 6963 (2015).

  4. Mental Trauma Experienced by Caregivers of patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Syed Hassan, Syed Tajuddin; Jamaludin, Husna; Abd Raman, Rosna; Mohd Riji, Haliza; Wan Fei, Khaw

    2013-01-01

    Context As with care giving and rehabilitation in chronic illnesses, the concern with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), is that the caregivers are so overwhelmingly involved in caring and rehabilitation of the victim that in the process they become traumatized themselves. This review intends to shed light on the hidden and silent trauma sustained by the caregivers of severe brain injury survivors. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) is the highest contributor of TBI or DAI. The essence of trauma is the infliction of pain and suffering and having to bear the pain (i.e. by the TBI survivor) and the burden of having to take care and manage and rehabilitate the TBI survivor (i.e. by the TBI caregiver). Moreover many caregivers are not trained for their care giving task, thus compounding the stress of care giving and rehabilitating patients. Most research on TBI including DAI, focus on the survivors and not on the caregivers. TBI injury and its effects and impacts remain the core question of most studies, which are largely based on the quantitative approach. Evidence Acquisition Qualitative research can better assess human sufferings such as in the case of DAI trauma. While quantitative research can measure many psychometric parameters to assess some aspects of trauma conditions, qualitative research is able to fully reveal the meaning, ramification and experience of TBI trauma. Both care giving and rehabilitation are overwhelmingly demanding; hence , they may complicate the caregivers’ stress. However, some positive outcomes also exist. Results Caregivers involved in caring and rehabilitation of TBI victims may become mentally traumatized. Posttraumatic recovery of the TBI survivor can enhance the entire family’s closeness and bonding as well as improve the mental status of the caregiver. Conclusions A long-term longitudinal study encompassing integrated research is needed to fully understand the traumatic experiences of

  5. Climatic Droughts and the Impacts on Crop Yields in Northern India during the Past Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Y.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought has become an increasingly severe threat to water and food security recently. This study presents a novel method to calculate the return period of drought, considering drought as event characterized by expected drought inter-arrival time, duration, severity and peak intensity. Recently, Copula distribution, a multivariable probability distribution, is used to deal with strongly correlated variables in analyzing complex hydrologic phenomenon. This study assesses drought conditions in Northern India, including 8 sites, in the past century using Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from two latest datasets, Dai (2011, 2013) and Sheffield et al. (2012), which concluded conflicting results about global average drought trend. Our results include the change of the severity, intensity and duration of drought events during the past century and the impact of the drought condition on crop yields in the region. It is found that drought variables are highly correlated, thus copulas joint distribution enables the estimation of multi-variate return period. Based on Dai's dataset from 1900 to 2012, for a fixed drought return period the severity and duration is lower for the period before1955 in sites close to the Indus basin (site 1) or off the coast of the Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal) (site 8), while they are higher for the period after 1955 in other inland sites (sites 3-7), (e.g., severity in Fig.1). Projections based on two models (IPCC AR4 and AR5) in Dai (2011, 2013) suggested less severity and shorter duration in longer-year drought (e.g., 100-year drought), but larger in shorter-year drought (e.g., 2-year drought). Drought could bring nonlinear responses and unexpected losses in agriculture system, thus prediction and management are essential. Therefore, in the years with extreme drought conditions, impact assessment of drought on crop yield of corn, barley, wheat and sorghum will be also conducted through correlating crop yields with drought conditions during

  6. SNTF Immunostaining Reveals Previously Undetected Axonal Pathology in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Victoria E.; Stewart, William; Weber, Maura T.; Cullen, D. Kacy; Siman, Robert; Smith, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common feature of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may also be a predominant pathology in mild TBI or “concussion”. The rapid deformation of white matter at the instant of trauma can lead to mechanical failure and calcium-dependent proteolysis of the axonal cytoskeleton in association with axonal transport interruption. Recently, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-II spectrin, “SNTF”, was detected in serum acutely following mild TBI in patients and was prognostic for poor clinical outcome. However, direct evidence that this fragment is a marker of DAI has yet to be demonstrated in either humans following TBI or in models of mild TBI. Here we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to examine for SNTF in brain tissue following both severe and mild TBI. Human severe TBI cases (survival <7d; n=18) were compared to age-matched controls (n=16) from the Glasgow TBI archive. We also we examined brains from an established model of mild TBI at 6h, 48h and 72h post-injury versus shams. IHC specific for SNTF was compared to that of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the current standard for DAI diagnosis and other known markers of axonal pathology including non-phosphorylated neurofilament-H (SMI-32), neurofilament-68 (NF-68) and compacted neurofilament-medium (RMO-14) using double and triple immunofluorescent labelling. Supporting its use as a biomarker of DAI, SNTF immunoreactive axons were observed at all time-points following both human severe TBI and in the model of mild TBI. Interestingly, SNTF revealed a subpopulation of degenerating axons, undetected by the gold-standard marker of transport interruption, APP. While there was greater axonal co-localization between SNTF and APP after severe TBI in humans, a subset of SNTF positive axons displayed no APP accumulation. Notably, some co-localization was observed between SNTF and the less abundant neurofilament subtype markers. Other SNTF positive axons, however, did not co-localize with

  7. SNTF immunostaining reveals previously undetected axonal pathology in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria E; Stewart, William; Weber, Maura T; Cullen, D Kacy; Siman, Robert; Smith, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common feature of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may also be a predominant pathology in mild TBI or "concussion". The rapid deformation of white matter at the instant of trauma can lead to mechanical failure and calcium-dependent proteolysis of the axonal cytoskeleton in association with axonal transport interruption. Recently, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-II spectrin, "SNTF", was detected in serum acutely following mild TBI in patients and was prognostic for poor clinical outcome. However, direct evidence that this fragment is a marker of DAI has yet to be demonstrated in either humans following TBI or in models of mild TBI. Here, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to examine for SNTF in brain tissue following both severe and mild TBI. Human severe TBI cases (survival <7d; n = 18) were compared to age-matched controls (n = 16) from the Glasgow TBI archive. We also examined brains from an established model of mild TBI at 6, 48 and 72 h post-injury versus shams. IHC specific for SNTF was compared to that of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the current standard for DAI diagnosis, and other known markers of axonal pathology including non-phosphorylated neurofilament-H (SMI-32), neurofilament-68 (NF-68) and compacted neurofilament-medium (RMO-14) using double and triple immunofluorescent labeling. Supporting its use as a biomarker of DAI, SNTF immunoreactive axons were observed at all time points following both human severe TBI and in the model of mild TBI. Interestingly, SNTF revealed a subpopulation of degenerating axons, undetected by the gold-standard marker of transport interruption, APP. While there was greater axonal co-localization between SNTF and APP after severe TBI in humans, a subset of SNTF positive axons displayed no APP accumulation. Notably, some co-localization was observed between SNTF and the less abundant neurofilament subtype markers. Other SNTF positive axons, however, did not co-localize with any

  8. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange

  9. Programming environment for distributed applications design in artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baujard, Olivier; Pesty, Sylvie; Garbay, Catherine

    1992-03-01

    Complex applications in artificial intelligence need a multiple representation of knowledge and tasks in terms of abstraction levels and points of view. The integration of numerous resources (knowledge-based systems, real-time systems, data bases, etc.), often geographically distributed on different machines connected into a network, is moreover a necessity for the development of real scale systems. The distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) approach is thus becoming important to solve problems in complex situations. There are several currents in DAI research and we are involved in the design of DAI programming platforms for large and complex real-world problem solving systems. Blackboard systems constitute the earlier architecture. It is based on a shared memory which permits the communication among a collection of specialists and an external and unique control structure. Blackboard architectures have been extended, especially to introduce parallelism. Multi-agent architectures are based on coordinated agents (problem-solvers) communicating most of the time via message passing. A solution is found through the cooperation between several agents, each of them being in charge of a specific task, but no one having sufficient resources to obtain a solution. Coordination, cooperation, knowledge, goal, plan, exchanges are then necessary to reach a global solution. Our own research is along this last line. The current presentation describes Multi-Agent Problem Solver (MAPS) which is an agent-oriented language for a DAI system design embedded in a full programming environment. An agent is conceived as an autonomous entity with specific goals, roles, skills, and resources. Knowledge (descriptive and operative) is distributed among agents organized into networks (agents communicate through message sending). Agents are moreover geographically distributed and run in a parallel mode. Our purpose is to build a powerful environment for DAI applications design that not only

  10. Linear and nonlinear genetic relationships between type traits and productive life in US dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Bustos, V J; Montaldo, H H; Valencia-Posadas, M; Shepard, L; Pérez-Elizalde, S; Hernández-Mendo, O; Torres-Hernández, G

    2017-02-01

    Linear or nonlinear genetic relationships between productive life and functional productive life at 72 mo, with final score (SCO), stature, strength, dairyness (DAI), teat diameter, rear legs (side view), rump angle, rump width (RUW), fore udder attachment (FUA), rear udder height, rear udder arch, udder depth (UDD), suspensory ligament (SUS), and teat placement, as well as heritabilities and correlations were estimated from multibreed US dairy goat records. Productive life was defined as the total days in production until 72 mo of age (PL72) for goats having the opportunity to express the trait. Functional productive life (FPL72) was analyzed by incorporating first lactation milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and SCO in the statistical model. Heritabilities and correlations were estimated using linear mixed models with pedigree additive genetic relationships and ASReml software. Nonlinearity of genetic relationships was assessed based on second-degree polynomial (quadratic) regression models, with the breeding values of PL72 or FPL72 as responses and the breeding values for each type trait (linear and quadratic) as predictor variables. Heritability estimates were 0.19, 0.14, 0.18, 0.20, 0.14, 0.07, 0.28, 0.20, 0.15, 0.13, 0.25, 0.18, 0.20, 0.21, 0.21, and 0.32 for PL72, FPL72, SCO, stature, strength, DAI, teat diameter, rear legs, rump angle, RUW, FUA, rear udder height, rear udder arch, UDD, SUS, and teat placement, respectively. The type traits SCO, RUW, and FUA were the most correlated with PL72 and FPL72, so these may be used as selection criteria to increase longevity in dairy goats. An increase in the coefficient of determination >1% for the second degree, compared with that for the linear model for either PL72 or FPL72, was taken as evidence of a nonlinear genetic relationship. Using this criterion, PL72 showed maximum values at intermediate scores in DAI, UDD, and RUW, and maximum values at extreme scores in FUA and SUS, whereas FPL72 showed maximum

  11. A drought hazard assessment index based on the VIC-PDSI model and its application on the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoqing; Wu, Pute; Zhao, Xining; Wang, Yubao; Gao, Xiaodong; Cao, Xinchun

    2013-10-01

    Drought is a complex natural hazard that is poorly understood and difficult to assess. This paper describes a VIC-PDSI model approach to understanding drought in which the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model was combined with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Simulated results obtained using the VIC model were used to replace the output of the more conventional two-layer bucket-type model for hydrological accounting, and a two-class-based procedure for calibrating the characteristic climate coefficient ( K j ) was introduced to allow for a more reliable computation of the PDSI. The VIC-PDSI model was used in conjunction with GIS technology to create a new drought assessment index (DAI) that provides a comprehensive overview of drought duration, intensity, frequency, and spatial extent. This new index was applied to drought hazard assessment across six subregions of the whole Loess Plateau. The results show that the DAI over the whole Loess Plateau ranged between 11 and 26 (the greater value of the DAI means the more severe of the drought hazard level). The drought hazards in the upper reaches of Yellow River were more severe than that in the middle reaches. The drought prone regions over the study area were mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolian small rivers, Zuli and Qingshui Rivers basin, while the drought hazards in the drainage area between Hekouzhen-Longmen and Weihe River basin were relatively mild during 1971-2010. The most serious drought vulnerabilities were associated with the area around Lanzhou, Zhongning, and Yinchuan, where the development of water-saving irrigation is the most direct and effective way to defend against and reduce losses from drought. For the relatively humid regions, it will be necessary to establish the rainwater harvesting systems, which could help to relieve the risk of water shortage and guarantee regional food security. Due to the DAI considers the multiple characteristic of drought duration, intensity, frequency

  12. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  13. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 73 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, with different diurnal variations of the integrated total humidity content. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). The numerical tools, Singular Value Decomposition and classical Multidimensional Scaling methods, are used to study these variations, considering the measurements made at each stations, as sample in the analysis. The aim of this investigation is to identify the IWV variability with respect to the local time associated to the different climate regions. In order to improve our analysis, all available weather information, such as radiosondes measurements (which are few), measurements of pressure and temperature and Numerical Weather Models reanalysis data, are used. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl, 1999 a: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451-2473. Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999 b: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States.J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402. KEYWORDS: water vapor, diurnal cycle, GNSS

  14. EspL is a bacterial cysteine protease effector that cleaves RHIM proteins to block necroptosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Mühlen, Sabrina; Nachbur, Ueli; Pham, Chi L L; Zhang, Ying; Hildebrand, Joanne M; Oates, Clare V; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Ingle, Danielle; Dagley, Laura F; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Petrie, Emma J; Schroeder, Gunnar N; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad; Masters, Seth L; Vince, James; Murphy, James M; Sunde, Margaret; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2017-01-13

    Cell death signalling pathways contribute to tissue homeostasis and provide innate protection from infection. Adaptor proteins such as receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and Z-DNA-binding protein 1 (ZBP1)/DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) that contain receptor-interacting protein (RIP) homotypic interaction motifs (RHIM) play a key role in cell death and inflammatory signalling(1-3). RHIM-dependent interactions help drive a caspase-independent form of cell death termed necroptosis(4,5). Here, we report that the bacterial pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector EspL to degrade the RHIM-containing proteins RIPK1, RIPK3, TRIF and ZBP1/DAI during infection. This requires a previously unrecognized tripartite cysteine protease motif in EspL (Cys47, His131, Asp153) that cleaves within the RHIM of these proteins. Bacterial infection and/or ectopic expression of EspL leads to rapid inactivation of RIPK1, RIPK3, TRIF and ZBP1/DAI and inhibition of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C))-induced necroptosis and inflammatory signalling. Furthermore, EPEC infection inhibits TNF-induced phosphorylation and plasma membrane localization of mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL). In vivo, EspL cysteine protease activity contributes to persistent colonization of mice by the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. The activity of EspL defines a family of T3SS cysteine protease effectors found in a range of bacteria and reveals a mechanism by which gastrointestinal pathogens directly target RHIM-dependent inflammatory and necroptotic signalling pathways.

  15. Morphogenetic Alterations of Alternaria alternata Exposed to Dicarboximide Fungicide, Iprodione

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunji; Lee, Hye Min; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide-resistant Alternaria alternata impede the practical control of the Alternaria diseases in crop fields. This study aimed to investigate cytological fungicide resistance mechanisms of A. alternata against dicarboximide fungicide iprodione. A. alternata isolated from cactus brown spot was cultured on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) with or without iprodione, and the fungal cultures with different growth characteristics from no, initial and full growth were observed by light and electron microscopy. Mycelia began to grow from one day after incubation (DAI) and continued to be in full growth (control-growth, Con-G) on PDA without fungicide, while on PDA with iprodione, no fungal growth (iprodione-no growth, Ipr-N) occurred for the first 3 DAI, but once the initial growth (iprodione-initial growth, Ipr-I) began at 4–5 DAI, the colonies grew and expanded continuously to be in full growth (iprodione-growth, Ipr-G), suggesting Ipr-I may be a turning moment of the morphogenetic changes resisting fungicidal toxicity. Con-G formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and septa and intact dense cytoplasm. In Ipr-N, fungal sporulation was inhibited by forming mostly undeveloped unicellular conidia with degraded and necrotic cytoplasm. However, in Ipr-I, conspicuous cellular changes occurred during sporulation by forming multicellular conidia with double layered (thickened) cell walls and accumulation of proliferated lipid bodies in the conidial cytoplasm, which may inhibit the penetration of the fungicide into conidial cells, reducing fungicide-associated toxicity, and may be utilized as energy and nutritional sources, respectively, for the further fungal growth to form mature colonies as in Ipr-G that formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and intact cytoplasm with lipid bodies as in Con-G. PMID:28167893

  16. Evaluation of the Effect of Glibenclamide in Patients With Diffuse Axonal Injury Due to Moderate to Severe Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Zafardoost, Peyman; Ghasemi, Amir Abbas; Salehpour, Firooz; Piroti, Chia; Ziaeii, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem worldwide. Secondary injuries after TBI, including diffuse axonal injury (DAI) often occur, and proper treatments are needed in this regard. It has been shown that glibenclamide could reduce secondary brain damage after experimental TBI and improve outcomes. Objectives We aim to evaluate the role of glibenclamide on the short-term outcome of patients with DAI due to moderate to severe TBI. Patients and Methods In this controlled randomized clinical trial, 40 patients with moderate to severe TBI were assigned to glibenclamide (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. Six hours after admission the intervention group received 1.25 mg glibenclamide every 12 hours. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was administered at admission, in the first 24 and 48 hours, at one week post-trauma and at discharge. The Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was also administered at discharge. All results were evaluated and compared between groups. Results Patients treated with glibenclamide compared to the control group had a significantly better GCS score one week post-trauma (P = 0.003) and at discharge (P = 0.004), as well as a better GOS score at discharge (P = 0.001). The glibenclamide group also had a shorter length of hospital stay compared to the control group (P = 0.03). In the control group, two patients (10%) died during the first week post-trauma, but there was no mortality in the glibenclamide group (P = 0.48). Conclusions Treatment with glibenclamide in patients with DAI due to moderate to severe TBI significantly improves short-term outcomes. PMID:28184360

  17. Female health workers -- responsibilities and constraints.

    PubMed

    Nanda, P

    1993-02-01

    The Social Rural Research Institute confirms that 60-70% of village people in India seek the health services of a rural private practitioner (RPP), 98-99% of whom are men. Dais or female midwives provide most obstetric and childbirth care and have done so for generations. They have learned the skills needed to deliver infants from their forebears. They constitute a category separate from that of RPPs in rural India. Villagers have begun to accept modern medicine, resulting in the marginalization of Dais. Consequently, Dais face social pressures, lack of professional recognition, and problems of credibility. The government of India has trained rural health workers (75% of whom are female) in preventive and promotive health care since 1977. Other community workers include Anganwadi workers, Saathins, and trained assistant nurse-midwives but they have little authority or power to make decisions. The government claims that training women for these grass root roles empowers them, but it has not granted them power to make decisions, resulting in their low social status. They do not receive wages for their work, but honorariums, while most men receive a salary. Some cases objecting to this mode of payment have become before the High Court in Jaipur. In 1990 in Padampura, Saathins protested their low wages in relation to their long work hours, large workload, and commitment. Gender, caste, and class biases further undermine the status of many of these grass roots workers (e.g., the rape case of a Saathin in Bhateri district of Rajasthan). They must work odd hours and in far away villages with no transportation or other support. The government and nongovernmental groups should support them vigorously, including promoting their professional and social legitimacy and credibility. They should institutionalize a link between the community workers, RPPs, and primary health care physicians to establish this needed legitimacy and credibility.

  18. Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato by Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN38.

    PubMed

    Naing, Kyaw Wai; Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Anees, Muhammad; Lee, Yong Seong; Kim, Yong Cheol; Kim, Sang Jun; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kil Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate biocontrol potential of Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN38 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici causing Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Our result showed that P. ehimensis KWN38 produced extracellular organic compounds and crude enzyme to inhibit F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici conidial germination in in vitro assays. Tomato seedlings were treated with water (W), grass medium (G), G with P. ehimensis KWN38 inoculation (GP) and G along with synthetic fungicide (GSf). Disease symptoms were was first observed in G and W at 12 days after infection (DAI) while symptoms were noticeable in the GP and GSf treatments at 20 and 24 DAI, respectively. Tomato plants treated with P. ehimensis KWN38 or fungicide significantly reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence and severity as compared to control tomato plants treated with water and grass medium. The similar results were also found in the root mortality of tomato plants. At 25 DAI, most plants in control treatments (W and G) wilted and the brown vascular systems of infected plants was clearly differentiable from normal green vascular system of healthy plants from GP and GSf. Plants in the GP showed higher fresh and dry weights of both root and shoots than those in W and G treatments. Leaf peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities of tomato plants in G and W were higher than those in GP and GSf. Root enzyme activities showed a similar pattern but the values were higher than leaf enzyme. The results clearly demonstrated that P. ehimensis KWN38 may be considered as biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato.

  19. Increased anterior insula activity in anxious individuals is linked to diminished perceived control

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, R P; Kirlic, N; Misaki, M; Bodurka, J; Rhudy, J L; Paulus, M P; Drevets, W C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with high-trait anxiety frequently report decreased perceived control. However, it is unclear how these processes are instantiated at a neural level. Prior research suggests that individuals prone to anxiety may have exaggerated activity in the anterior insula and altered activity in the cingulate cortex during anticipation of aversive events. Thus, we hypothesized that anxiety proneness influences anterior insula activation during anticipation of unpredictable threat through decreased perceived control. Forty physically healthy adults underwent neuroimaging while they explored computer-simulated contexts associated either with or without the threat of an unpredictable shock. Skin conductance, anxiety ratings and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess responses to threat versus no threat. Perceived control was measured using the Anxiety Control Questionnaire-Revised. Mediation analysis examined how anxiety proneness influenced BOLD activity. Anticipation of unpredictable threat resulted in increased skin conductance responses, anxiety ratings and enhanced activation in bilateral insula, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Individuals with greater anxiety proneness and less perceived control showed greater activity in dorsal anterior insula (dAI). Perceived control mediated the relationship between anxiety proneness and dAI activity. Increased dAI activity was associated with increased activity in aMCC, which correlated with increased exploratory behavior. Results provide evidence that exaggerated insula activation during the threat of unpredictable shock is directly related to low perceived control in anxiety-prone individuals. Perceived control thus may constitute an important treatment target to modulate insula activity during anxious anticipation in anxiety-disordered individuals. PMID:26125154

  20. Alterations in bacterial spectrum and increasing resistance rates in isolated microorganisms from device-associated infections in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Istanbul (2004-2010).

    PubMed

    Inan, Asuman; Ozgultekin, Asu; Akcay, Seniha Senbayrak; Engin, Derya Ozturk; Turan, Guldem; Ceran, Nurgul; Dincer, Emine; Aksaray, Sebahat; Goktas, Pasa; Erdem, Ilknur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of device-associated infection (DAI) and the change in profiles and antimicrobial resistance patterns of the causative microorganisms in a medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU), as well as to evaluate the effect of a new nationwide hospital infection control program (NHICP), which has been implemented in Turkey. In this study, 5,772 patients that were hospitalized for a total of 43,658 days acquired 1,321 DAIs, with an overall rate of 30.2% per 1,000 ICU days. Between 2004 (before the NHICP) and 2010, the incidence densities of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) decreased from 10.2 to 5.7 per 1,000 device-days (P < 0.0001), and central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CVC-BSI) decreased from 5.3 to 2.1 per 1,000 device-days (P < 0.0001). However, ventilator-associated pneumonia increased from 27.0 to 31.5 per 1,000 device-days. Multidrug-resistant species rates increased from 5.8% to 76.6% (P < 0.0001) for Acinetobacter spp. and from 6.8% to 53.1% (P < 0.0001) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae rate increased from 23.1% to 54.2% (P = 0.01); the vancomycin-resistance rate among Enterococcus spp. increased from 0% in 2004 to 12.5% in 2010 (P = 0.0003). In conclusion, while a significant decrease was achieved in the incidences of CAUTI and CVC-BSI, the NHICP was not completely effective in our ICU. The high incidence of DAI and the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms indicate that further interventions are urgently needed.

  1. Proteome Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Mutants Reveals Differentially Induced Proteins during Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Sangha, Jatinder Singh; Yolanda, H. Chen; Kaur, Jatinder; Khan, Wajahatullah; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Alanazi, Mohammed S.; Mills, Aaron; Adalla, Candida B.; Bennett, John; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan; Jahn, Gary C.; Leung, Hei

    2013-01-01

    Although rice resistance plays an important role in controlling the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, not all varieties have the same level of protection against BPH infestation. Understanding the molecular interactions in rice defense response is an important tool to help to reveal unexplained processes that underlie rice resistance to BPH. A proteomics approach was used to explore how wild type IR64 and near-isogenic rice mutants with gain and loss of resistance to BPH respond during infestation. A total of 65 proteins were found markedly altered in wild type IR64 during BPH infestation. Fifty-two proteins associated with 11 functional categories were identified using mass spectrometry. Protein abundance was less altered at 2 and 14 days after infestation (DAI) (T1, T2, respectively), whereas higher protein levels were observed at 28 DAI (T3). This trend diminished at 34 DAI (T4). Comparative analysis of IR64 with mutants showed 22 proteins that may be potentially associated with rice resistance to the brown planthopper (BPH). Ten proteins were altered in susceptible mutant (D1131) whereas abundance of 12 proteins including S-like RNase, Glyoxalase I, EFTu1 and Salt stress root protein “RS1” was differentially changed in resistant mutant (D518). S-like RNase was found in greater quantities in D518 after BPH infestation but remained unchanged in IR64 and decreased in D1131. Taken together, this study shows a noticeable level of protein abundance in the resistant mutant D518 compared to the susceptible mutant D1131 that may be involved in rendering enhanced level of resistance against BPH. PMID:23434671

  2. What are the progesterone-induced changes of the outcome and the serum markers of injury, oxidant activity and inflammation in diffuse axonal injury patients?

    PubMed

    Mofid, Behshad; Soltani, Zahra; Khaksari, Mohammad; Shahrokhi, Nader; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Karamouzian, Saeed; Ahmadinejad, Mehdi; Maiel, Masoud; Khazaeli, Payam

    2016-03-01

    To permit appropriate targeted therapy, the present clinical study was aimed to investigate the effects of progesterone on the outcome and the serum markers of injury, oxidant activity and inflammation in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Forty-eight male DAI patients were divided into two groups (control and progesterone). Progesterone group received progesterone in dose of 1mg/kg per 12h for five days. The outcome was investigated using Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) and functional independence measure (FIM). The markers of inflammation [interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)], injury (brain protein of S-100B), and oxidant activity [malondialdehyde (MDA)] were evaluated in the serum of the patients. Higher GOS-E and FIM scores were observed in progesterone group at the six-month follow-up (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, a reduction in the serum levels of IL-1β, MDA and S-100B was noticed in progesterone group 24h after injury (P<0.05, P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively), and there was an increase in serum levels of IL-6 and TGF-β1 (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Also, lower levels of MDA and S-100B, and higher levels of TGF-β1 were observed in progesterone group six days after injury (P<0.05). According to these findings, progesterone may improve the outcome in DAI patients probably through modulation in the levels of cytokines, and reduction in the injury and oxidant activity.

  3. Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) "reasons for concern".

    PubMed

    Smith, Joel B; Schneider, Stephen H; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yohe, Gary W; Hare, William; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Patwardhan, Anand; Burton, Ian; Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Magadza, Chris H D; Füssel, Hans-Martin; Pittock, A Barrie; Rahman, Atiq; Suarez, Avelino; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal

    2009-03-17

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [United Nations (1992) http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2009] commits signatory nations to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that "would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system." In an effort to provide some insight into impacts of climate change that might be considered DAI, authors of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified 5 "reasons for concern" (RFCs). Relationships between various impacts reflected in each RFC and increases in global mean temperature (GMT) were portrayed in what has come to be called the "burning embers diagram." In presenting the "embers" in the TAR, IPCC authors did not assess whether any single RFC was more important than any other; nor did they conclude what level of impacts or what atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases would constitute DAI, a value judgment that would be policy prescriptive. Here, we describe revisions of the sensitivities of the RFCs to increases in GMT and a more thorough understanding of the concept of vulnerability that has evolved over the past 8 years. This is based on our expert judgment about new findings in the growing literature since the publication of the TAR in 2001, including literature that was assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), as well as additional research published since AR4. Compared with results reported in the TAR, smaller increases in GMT are now estimated to lead to significant or substantial consequences in the framework of the 5 "reasons for concern."

  4. Morphogenetic Alterations of Alternaria alternata Exposed to Dicarboximide Fungicide, Iprodione.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunji; Lee, Hye Min; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-02-01

    Fungicide-resistant Alternaria alternata impede the practical control of the Alternaria diseases in crop fields. This study aimed to investigate cytological fungicide resistance mechanisms of A. alternata against dicarboximide fungicide iprodione. A. alternata isolated from cactus brown spot was cultured on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) with or without iprodione, and the fungal cultures with different growth characteristics from no, initial and full growth were observed by light and electron microscopy. Mycelia began to grow from one day after incubation (DAI) and continued to be in full growth (control-growth, Con-G) on PDA without fungicide, while on PDA with iprodione, no fungal growth (iprodione-no growth, Ipr-N) occurred for the first 3 DAI, but once the initial growth (iprodione-initial growth, Ipr-I) began at 4-5 DAI, the colonies grew and expanded continuously to be in full growth (iprodione-growth, Ipr-G), suggesting Ipr-I may be a turning moment of the morphogenetic changes resisting fungicidal toxicity. Con-G formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and septa and intact dense cytoplasm. In Ipr-N, fungal sporulation was inhibited by forming mostly undeveloped unicellular conidia with degraded and necrotic cytoplasm. However, in Ipr-I, conspicuous cellular changes occurred during sporulation by forming multicellular conidia with double layered (thickened) cell walls and accumulation of proliferated lipid bodies in the conidial cytoplasm, which may inhibit the penetration of the fungicide into conidial cells, reducing fungicide-associated toxicity, and may be utilized as energy and nutritional sources, respectively, for the further fungal growth to form mature colonies as in Ipr-G that formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and intact cytoplasm with lipid bodies as in Con-G.

  5. [Orthodontic treatment need in school-age children in the Leningrad region].

    PubMed

    Bagnenko, N M; Bagnenko, A S; Grebnev, G A; Madai, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of dentoalveolar anomalies is undoubtedly important, but in terms of the organization of orthodontic care, greater interest are data on the needs in this type of treatment. In a situation of limited manpower and resources for the provision of orthodontic care information about needs in orthodontic treatment allows you to define a group of patients with the primary need for orthodontic treatment, and to identify priorities to optimize the organization of orthodontic care in the region. Such data can be obtained by using the Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of various forms of dentoalveolar anomalies school-age children of Kirishi district of Leningrad region, as well as their needs in orthodontic treatment in accordance with objective evaluation indices. The study involved 734 pupils of Kirishi lyceum №1 of Leningrad region. Analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies, as well as needs in the orthodontic treatment was conducted in three age groups: I mixed dentition period (6-9 years), II mixed dentition period (10-13 years), and permanent dentition (14-17). To determine the needs in the orthodontic treatment were used two most common international index (DAI and IOTN). In Kirishi district of Leningrad region dentoalveolar anomalies were found in 88.8% of children of school age, which is in accordance with the indices and IOTN DAI needs in orthodontic treatment is 38.8% and 54.5%, respectively. In order to reduce unnecessarily high load volume medical institutions orthodontic profile, optimize utilization of financial resources, as well as reducing social tension it is recommended to introduce the practice of doctors-orthodontists methodology for determining the needs in orthodontic treatment by objective indices.

  6. Salvia miltiorrhiza (dan shen) significantly ameliorates colon inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Zhang, Zhiyu; Calway, Tyler; Wang, Yunwei; Li, Ping; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risks of human colorectal cancer. In this study, the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (SME) on chemically-induced colitis in a mouse model were evaluated. Chemical composition of SME was determined by HPLC analysis. A/J mice received a single injection of AOM 7.5 mg/kg. After one week, these mice received 2.5% DSS for eight days, or DSS plus SME (25 or 50 mg/kg). DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index (DAI). Body weight and colon length were also measured. The severity of inflammatory lesions was further evaluated by colon tissue histological assessment. HPLC assay showed that the major constituents in the tested SME were danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid D, and salvianolic acid B. In the model group, the DAI score reached its highest level on Day 8, while the SME group on both doses showed a significantly reduced DAI score (both p < 0.01). As an objective index of the severity of inflammation, colon length was significantly shorter in the model group than the vehicle group. Treatment with 25 and 50 mg/kg of SME inhibited the shortening of colon in a dose-related manner (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). SME groups also significantly reduced weight reduction (p < 0.05). Colitis histological data supported the pharmacological observations. Thus, Salvia miltiorrhiza could be a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and in reducing the risks of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer.

  7. Effects of working memory demand on neural mechanisms of motor response selection and control.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2013-08-01

    Inhibitory control commonly recruits a number of frontal regions: pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), frontal eye fields (FEFs), and right-lateralized posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dorsal anterior insula (DAI), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and inferior frontal junction (IFJ). These regions may directly implement inhibitory motor control or may be more generally involved in executive control functions. Two go/no-go tasks were used to distinguish regions specifically recruited for inhibition from those that additionally show increased activity with working memory demand. The pre-SMA and IFG were recruited for inhibition in both tasks and did not have greater activation for working memory demand on no-go trials, consistent with a role in inhibitory control. Activation in pre-SMA also responded to response selection demand and was increased with working memory on go trials specifically. The bilateral FEF and right DAI were commonly active for no-go trials. The FEF was also recruited to a greater degree with working memory demand on go trials and may bias top-down information when stimulus-response mappings change. The DAI, additionally responded to increased working memory demand on both go and no-go trials and may be involved in accessing sustained task information, alerting, or autonomic changes when cognitive demands increase. DLPFC activation was consistent with a role in working memory retrieval on both go and no-go trials. The inferior frontal junction, on the other hand, had greater activation with working memory specifically for no-go trials and may detect salient stimuli when the task requires frequent updating of working memory representations.

  8. Nuclear Dynamics of BRCA1-Dependent Transcription Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    are ligand- and domain-dependent Z. Dave Sharp1,*, Maureen G. Mancini2,*, Cruz A. Hinojos2,*, Fangyan Dai2, Valeria Berno2, Adam T. Szafran2, Kelly P... Barron et al., 1989; Cao et al., 1987; Crenshaw et al., 1989; Day et al., 1990; Howard and Maurer, 1995; Ingraham et al., 1990; Mangalam et al., 1989...References Barron , E. A., Cao, Z., Schneider, B. G., Kraig, E., Carrillo, A. J. and Sharp, Z. D. (1989). Dual functions of a cis-acting element within the

  9. Human Immune Responses to Dengue Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    D-Ai8i 71S UMAN IMMUNE RESPONSES TO DENGUE VIRUSES(U) MASSACHUSETTS UNIV M DICAL CENTER WORCESTER MA F A ENNIS 81 AUG 86 DAD17-82-C-2233 UNCLSE...Classification) (U) Human Immune Responses to Dengue Viruses 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ennis. Francis A. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 414. DATE OF...Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP06 13 Virus; Dengue ; Arbovirus; Immunology 06 03 I9% ABSTRACT

  10. Application of decentralized cooperative problem solving in dynamic flexible scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zai-Lin; Lei, Ming; Wu, Bo; Wu, Ya; Yang, Shuzi

    1995-08-01

    The object of this study is to discuss an intelligent solution to the problem of task-allocation in shop floor scheduling. For this purpose, the technique of distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) is applied. Intelligent agents (IAs) are used to realize decentralized cooperation, and negotiation is realized by using message passing based on the contract net model. Multiple agents, such as manager agents, workcell agents, and workstation agents, make game-like decisions based on multiple criteria evaluations. This procedure of decentralized cooperative problem solving makes local scheduling possible. And by integrating such multiple local schedules, dynamic flexible scheduling for the whole shop floor production can be realized.

  11. Multi-Agent Coordination and Cooperation in a Distributed Dynamic Environment with Limited Resources: Simulated Air Wars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    of agents [Lo, 1988; Parunak, 1987; Smith , 1980; Smith & Davis, 1981]. 2.1.2 Coordination Closely related to cooperation, coordination involves the...even compete with one another. One of the earliest, and perhaps best known, DAI coordination techniques is the contract net [Davis & Smith , 1983; Smith ...Aircraft Resources A/C Combat Factor Maximum Engagements Z=x A-toA A-to-G Enurance SedrA A-toA A-to-G F-01 5 0 3 8 3 0 F-02 10 0 4 8 3 0 F-03 15 0 5 10

  12. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report. Systeam KG. Dr. Winterstein Systeam/German MoD VAX-11 Compiler VAX-11/750.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-24

    A D-Ai167 337 ADA (TRADE NAME) COMPILER VALIDATION SUMMARY REPORT 1r SYSTEAN KCG DR WINTERS.(U) I INDUSTRIEANLAGEN-BETRIEBSGESELLSCHAFT M 8 H ...rn.~11- Co147MACi OR GRANT NUMLLreo Idustrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft w.b . H (IABG) I*R wTNbDR Detp SZT, Einsteinstrasse, D 8012 Ottobrunn...DEFINITIONS USED IN ThE ACVC TESTS.I - THESE DEFINITIONS ARE FOR THE PRELIMNARY ACA TEST TRANSLATOR. M H AXIMUM INPUT L1INE LENGTH PERPITTED BY THE

  13. Hessian matrix estimation in hybrid systems based on an embedded FFNN.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Mook; Park, Jung-Wook

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the Hessian matrix estimation of nonsmooth nonlinear parameters by the identifier based on a feedforward neural network (FFNN) embedded in a hybrid system, which is modeled by the differential-algebraic-impulsive-switched (DAIS) structure. After identifying full dynamics of the hybrid system, the FFNN is used to estimate second-order derivatives of an objective function J with respect to the nonlinear parameters from the gradient information, which are trajectory sensitivities. Then, the estimated Hessian matrix is applied to the optimal tuning of a saturation limiter used in a practical engineering system.

  14. September 2016 Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Corrections to an article published in the May 2016 issue of JOSPT: Lentz TA, Beneciuk JM, Bialosky JE, Zeppieri G Jr, Dai Y, Wu SS, George SZ. Development of a yellow flag assessment tool for orthopaedic physical therapists: results from the Optimal Screening for Prediction of Referral and Outcome (OSPRO) cohort J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):327-345. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6487 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):813. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.46.9.813.

  15. Advancing of Russian ChemBioGrid by bringing Data Management tools into collaborative environment.

    PubMed

    Zhuchkov, Alexey; Tverdokhlebov, Nikolay; Kravchenko, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Virtual organizations of researchers need effective tools to work collaboratively with huge sets of heterogeneous data distributed over HealthGrid. This paper describes a mechanism of supporting Digital Libraries in High-Performance Computing environment based on Grid technology. The proposed approach provides abilities to assemble heterogeneous data from distributed sources into integrated virtual collections by using OGSA-DAI. The core of the conception is a Repository of Meta-Descriptions that are sets of metadata which define personal and collaborative virtual collections on base of virtualized information resources. The Repository is kept in a native XML-database Sedna and is maintained by Grid Data Services.

  16. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Kingsley Field, Oregon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    4D-AI1B 358 CH2M HILL GAINESVILLE FL F/0 13/2 INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM RECORDS EARCH FOR KINGSLEY FI-ETCCUl JUJN 82 F08637-80--0O10...AIR COMMANO I ANCMLEY AIR FORE BASE. VA 21"S ,,LY O DEEV 0 JUL 198? ATTN OP: SUACT: Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Records Search, Kingsley...Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Records Search at Kingsley Field. Revuest you attach these appendices to the phase I reports we provided you in Mar 82. 3

  17. Yuebeipotamon calciatile, a new genus and new species of freshwater crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Si Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus. PMID:27667941

  18. Complex Formation in RDX, HMX, TNT, and Some Related Compounds: A Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    nitramine component were combined chemically with other com- pounds, as, for example, in a molecular complex. Since the first mention in 1956 (13) of a 1:1...given by model (2), which takes into account deviations from the ellipsoidal atomic probability density functions brought about by libration. Of the rigid...OR TNT 13. Armour Research Foundation Report #5 (Final), 12 Dec 56 "Study of Surface Properties of Explosives" Contract DAI-II- 022-501-ORD-(P)-32 The

  19. D Meson Production in Negative Pion-Proton and Proton-Proton Interactions at 360 Gev/c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Immerseel, Marina

    The aim of the NA16 experiment is to study charm production in (pi)('-)p and pp interactions at 360 GeV/c. The possibility of direct observation and interpretation of the charmed particle decays is chosen. Therefore, the experimental set-up is composed of a high resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC coupled to the European Hybrid Spectrometer EHS. In this experiment 56 D mesons are identified. The neutral and charged D lifetimes are found to be respectively. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). The ratio of the charged over the neutral D meson lifetime is thus. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). This supports the idea that the weak decay of a charmed particle cannot be described by simple spectator diagrams wherein the light quarks, bound to the c-quark, do not participate actively in the decay. Processes in which the heavy charm quark and the light quark annihilate have to be included and this implies that a charmed particle cannot be described simply by its valence quarks. The D meson production in both (pi)('-)p and pp interactions is studied. In principle, this opens the possibility to check the relevance. of the different QCD diagrams for charm production. The inclusive single D/(')D cross section for x(,F) > 0 in (pi)('-)p interactions is found to be. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). whereas the D(')D pair cross section for all x(,F) in pp interactions has the same magnitude,. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). These charm yields are in agreement with production models including as well quark-antiquark and gluon-gluon fusion as charm excitation diagrams. The x(,F) distributions of the D mesons produced in both (pi)('-)p and pp interactions are flatter than predicted by the fusion models, indicating that the charm excitation processes are important. In addition, also the characteristics of the D(')D pairs seem to support the idea that more production mechanisms than qq and gg fusion

  20. The Letter S.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Incidentally, I tried the automatic equation- solving feature of the MACSYMA computer algebra system [5,6] on this problem, in order to get some idea of how...9, -h/(Ou)). % middle stroke 18 ... .. References 1. Richard J. Fateman, Essays in Algebraic Simplification, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, April...linca del spaicio da panre dritai puncti .2., c aIltri punicti .4. da la [ lineal inferiorc del qlu.dro. L’ahtra pun11Cta longe da quella del spaicio dai

  1. Capacity Building for Research and Education in GIS/GPS Technology and Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-20

    nmahalik@csufresno.edu Unmanned Systems - JCAST Fri, Jan 23, 2015 12:53 PM Hello Alex, I had a chance to talk to Dr. Mahalik today, and we walked over to...W911NF-14-1-0069 Award (UNCLASSIFIED) Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Caveats: NONE Hello Dr. Dai, If you concur with Dr. Nguyen on the re-budget request as...Return Mon, Jul 14, 2014 04:15 PM 2 attachments Hello Kris, I have attached the Questionnaire. The answers are given just below the Questions. Please

  2. Malfunction Investigation of the XM935 Point Detonating Fuze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    X -ray fuzes. 10) Record any dovaoe or on x - rayo 11) Disassemble fuzes, inspect for dai-,ge...tests to fa ilLiIre Jolt 526 271 Prop 85 1190 Static loald 21147 Sequential rough handling 560 11111 3Alli stic 2211 1395 1 152 DESCRIPTION TI\\1 M567/ X ...stood to mean the long pull wire. 3 ir x w: 33 0 - aD - _ - X IA x o .- C) ~:3 LM xx x ~ LU LA 0’ x x ( > x LA C’>< X Ln 0 - 4) ( A >O x

  3. Systematic technology evaluation program for SiC/SiC composite-based accident-tolerant LWR fuel cladding and core structures: Revision 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-08-01

    Fuels and core structures in current light water reactors (LWR’s) are vulnerable to catastrophic failure in severe accidents as unfortunately evidenced by the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This vulnerability is attributed primarily to the rapid oxidation kinetics of zirconium alloys in a water vapor environment at very high temperatures. Zr alloys are the primary material in LWR cores except for the fuel itself. Therefore, alternative materials with reduced oxidation kinetics as compared to zirconium alloys are sought to enable enhanced accident-tolerant fuels and cores.

  4. Three new phenolic compounds from the roots of Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Ji, Shuai; Yu, Si-wang; Wang, Hui-xia; Lin, Xiong-hao; Ma, Tao-tao; Qiao, Xue; Xiang, Cheng; Ye, Min; Guo, De-an

    2013-03-01

    Three new phenolic compounds (1-3), together with 16 known compounds (4-19), were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f. et L. K. Dai. On the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic analysis, structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 2-(2'-methoxy-4'-hydroxy)-aryl-3-methy-6-hydroxy-benzofuran (1), (2S)-6,7-(2,2-dimethyldihydropyrano)-8-prenyl-4'-hydroxyflavanone (2), and 6-prenyl-7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (3). Compounds 1, 3, 5, 12, 14, 15 and 16 showed antioxidant activity by an ABTS-based assay.

  5. Cultural Resource Reconnaissance of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Land Alongside Lake Sakakawea in Dunn County, North Dakota. Volume 1. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Sakakawea In Dunn County, North DaI’,Ota Volume 2: Appendix B (320U723) through Appendix M 089 621 0O84+ Now* E L C T 2N CULTURAL RESOURCE...NOVEMBER 1987 LT C0 PELECTEAp 2 1 89 Prepared for E _ U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OMAHA DISTRICT CONTRACT NUMBER DACW45-85-C-0304 ARCHEOLOGY...NuMuER( e ) R. Peter Winham, Kerry Lippincott, L. Adrien Hannus and Edward J. Lueck DACW45-85-C-0304 4. PeRFOR"ING ORGANIZATION NAME ANO ADORESS 10. PROGRAM

  6. Proceedings of the Conference on the Design of Experiments in Army Research Development and Testing (28th) Held at Monterey, California on 20-22 October 1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    where I had privileges, and buy food. Then I would 585 ,,’ ""..’ lug it to the Army operated Dai-lchi Hotel where I had a very small room. If I said...it was 8 feet by 9 feet, I wouldn’t be far off. Then I would arrange for a private dining room in the hotel and serve the food to my Japanese friends...attempted to put it Into practice. But no company dared to ’ narry out the wholesale Introduction of the revolutionary idea. 587 .1 "After the war, the

  7. A new genus and new species of Potamidea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamoidae), the first stygomorphic cave crab known from China and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Ng, Peter K L

    2017-02-15

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Diyutamon cereum n. gen., n. sp., is described from a cave in Guizhou, China. This is the first record of a true stygomorphic crab from China and East Asia, possessing pale body coloration, strongly reduced eyes, and long ambulatory legs. While superficially similar to Chinapotamon Dai & Naiyanetr, 1994, and Tiwaripotamon Bott, 1970, the new genus possesses a diagnostic combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal, and male abdominal characters that easily distinguishes it from other genera. Molecular data derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of the new genus.

  8. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-Effective, and Simultaneous Detection of Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA Antibodies by Use of Very Small Serum Volumes.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J

    2016-07-01

    Rapid, cost-effective, and early determination of the serological status of potentially infected individuals, particularly pregnant women, can be critical in preventing life-threatening infections and subsequent fetal congenital abnormalities. An article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (X. Li, C. Pomares, G. Gonfrier, B. Koh, S. Zhu, M. Gong, J. G. Montoya, and H. Dai, J Clin Microbiol 54:1726-1733, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03371-15) describes an innovative multiplexed immunoassay that offers a path toward universal screening.

  9. Towards the Prediction of Decadal to Centennial Climate Processes in the Coupled Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhengyu; Kutzbach, J.; Jacob, R.; Prentice, C.

    2011-12-05

    In this proposal, we have made major advances in the understanding of decadal and long term climate variability. (a) We performed a systematic study of multidecadal climate variability in FOAM-LPJ and CCSM-T31, and are starting exploring decadal variability in the IPCC AR4 models. (b) We develop several novel methods for the assessment of climate feedbacks in the observation. (c) We also developed a new initialization scheme DAI (Dynamical Analogue Initialization) for ensemble decadal prediction. (d) We also studied climate-vegetation feedback in the observation and models. (e) Finally, we started a pilot program using Ensemble Kalman Filter in CGCM for decadal climate prediction.

  10. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 53, Number 1, March 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    A Royal Air Force Story. Published by Walt Disney Productions, the book depict- ed gremlins with red noses and two horns. The text describing their...Guardian Spies: The US Coast Guard and OSS Maritime Operations During World War II.”dies in Intelligence Vol. 53, No. 1 (Extracts, March 2009) iii...Spies in the Garden, is set in Dai Li’s China in the early days of World War II. Michael Richard Danielle Foot is an eminent British historian and author

  11. An Introduction to the Pthales Domain of Ptolemy II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-26

    An Introduction to the Pthales Domain of Ptolemy II Remi Barrere Eric Lenormand Dai Bui Edward A. Lee Christopher Shaver Stavros Tripakis Electrical...to the Pthales Domain of Ptolemy II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission. An Introduction to the Pthales Domain of Ptolemy II1 Rémi Barrère, Eric Lenormand Thales

  12. Environmental Assessment of Selected Cone Penetrometer Grouts and a Tracer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    RQs. Components pommenl a dais pe*". at a imueol thsheaml requsi repeu undcr dbe sama art NONE SARA requoui dbe sbudmisla of aemad repena ot %weo...CEMENT. 2500 LBS. PAGE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET DATE: 02-27-9 C NALLIBURTON SERVICES REVISED DATE 08-06- DUNCAN , OKLAHOMA 73536 EMERGENCY TELEPHONE...cermteftintt free lmocyanaet troups 0 SECTION Id - PHYSICAL DATA Deco " 260* C ow~~’U1,) 1 Nomw "wo Ise c 1.4 0 Sare"w liquid SECTION MV -FIR ANO EXPLOSION

  13. Risk communication, geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Issues in Japan's disaster management system were revealed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, and by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident. Many important decisions were based on scientific data, but appear not to have sufficiently considered the uncertainties of the data and the societal aspects of the problems. The issues that arose show the need for scientists to appropriately deal with risk communication and geoethics and issues. This paper discusses necessity of education for risk communication, geoethics and decisions science in school before students become sicentific decision makers in future.

  14. Toward a Theory of Organizational Commitment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A0D-AI03 358 OREGON UNIV EUGENE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND--ETC F/0 5/1 TOWARD A THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT.(U) AUG A1 R T MOWDAY, R...M STEERS, L W PORTER N00014-81-K 0026 UNCLASSIFIED TR-8 ML EhEE"hE hhEEE~EE7hhhh LEVEr / 00 Gradate choo of anagmen Univrsit of rego -VI Euee0reo 70...Oregon Eugene , OR 97403 Dr. Gerald R. Stoffer Aerospace Psychologist LT, Medical Service Corp. Code N-712 HAVTRAEQUIPCEN Orlando, FL 32813 Dr

  15. Four Principles for Designing Instructions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    D-AI28 923 FOUR PRINCIPLES FOR DVSIONINO INSTRUCTIONS IU COLORADO / UNIV AT BOULDER INS OF COGNITIE SCIENCE P BAGGET APR 83 TR-121ONR N0OC 4 R -C...TEST CAR PMIVM.BUEA i SANARS-96- Four Principles for Designing Instructions ntTechnical Report No. 121-ONR This remearch was sormored by the Persnne...DOCUMENTATION PAGE sar n u S 1O NUR GOVT ACCESSION i. N itii[Nti CATALMOG UM1190121-0NRl 1 %01 jd1 4. TITLE (and lde) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Four

  16. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-Effective, and Simultaneous Detection of Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA Antibodies by Use of Very Small Serum Volumes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rapid, cost-effective, and early determination of the serological status of potentially infected individuals, particularly pregnant women, can be critical in preventing life-threatening infections and subsequent fetal congenital abnormalities. An article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (X. Li, C. Pomares, G. Gonfrier, B. Koh, S. Zhu, M. Gong, J. G. Montoya, and H. Dai, J Clin Microbiol 54:1726–1733, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03371-15) describes an innovative multiplexed immunoassay that offers a path toward universal screening. PMID:27170019

  17. National Dam Safety Program. Main Mill Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 262), Lake Champlain Basin, Clinton County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-21

    PZE P&CEM Phase~~~S I npetW Rpr OP REPORT 6 PERIOD COVZRSO Phas I nspctio ReortPhase I Inspection Repoct .gMain Mill Dai National. Dan& Safety Prosram...plain. Bedrock in the area is from the Ordovician era (435 to 500 million years ago). A review of the Brittle Structures Map of New York indicates that...1919. 607 W1’ (1,73 kei). PERIOD OP INCOR.--March 1903 to September 1930. October 1943 to current year. Published as "near Plattsburgh." 1903-30

  18. [Selection of medical talents under the influence of imperial examination system in the Tang Dynasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Guo; Zang, Shou-Hu

    2005-10-01

    The Tang Dynasty was an important period in which China's ancient imperial examination system was formed and perfected. The medical examination at that time was influenced by imperial examination system, too. Medical talents were chosen according to a clear regulation of exam subjects imitating "Examination based on Imperial College law", "Ming Jing" and "Ming Fa" in the Tang Dynasty. The ways of choosing sheng tu, gong jü, zhi jü, dai zhao were also used for choosing medical talents, and the practical subjects of medical examination and qualified standard were also made, which can be used as a reference for TCM education, examination, selecting and checking of TCM talents today.

  19. Validation of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (Pidaq) in Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of PIDAQ for application in adolescents. Study Design: The questionnaire was translated, cross-culturally adapted and completed by 627 adolescents (366 12-year-olds and 261 15-year-olds). The adolescents were also examined by 4 examiners who had been calibrated against a gold standard and relative to each other (Kappa >0.85) in determining treatment need with the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) DHC and AC components. Results: Cronbach´s alpha of the translated PIDAQ was 0.90. The 23 items of the questionnaire were divided into four domains that explained 60% of the variance. The test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was 0.93. Discriminant validity revealed a significant association between the scores for the questionnaire and its subscales or domains and those for the DAI, IOTN-DHC and IOTN-AC treatment need indices. Adolescents with orthodontic treatment need scored higher in the questionnaires. Conclusions: The results show that the Spanish version of PIDAQ has a very similar internal structure and psychometric properties to those of the original questionnaire and demonstrate its validity for use with Spanish adolescents. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, quality of life, malocclusion. PMID:23229257

  20. Effect of a Multi-Dimensional and Inter-Sectoral Intervention on the Adherence of Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Anne; Wolf, Carolin; Mayr, Andreas; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Friedland, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, hospital stays and transitions to the ambulatory sector are susceptible to major changes in drug therapy that lead to complex medication regimens and common non-adherence among psychiatric patients. A multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral intervention is hypothesized to improve the adherence of psychiatric patients to their pharmacotherapy. Methods 269 patients from a German university hospital were included in a prospective, open, clinical trial with consecutive control and intervention groups. Control patients (09/2012-03/2013) received usual care, whereas intervention patients (05/2013-12/2013) underwent a program to enhance adherence during their stay and up to three months after discharge. The program consisted of therapy simplification and individualized patient education (multi-dimensional component) during the stay and at discharge, as well as subsequent phone calls after discharge (inter-sectoral component). Adherence was measured by the “Medication Adherence Report Scale” (MARS) and the “Drug Attitude Inventory” (DAI). Results The improvement in the MARS score between admission and three months after discharge was 1.33 points (95% CI: 0.73–1.93) higher in the intervention group compared to controls. In addition, the DAI score improved 1.93 points (95% CI: 1.15–2.72) more for intervention patients. Conclusion These two findings indicate significantly higher medication adherence following the investigated multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral program. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00006358 PMID:26437449

  1. Magnetic order the iron spins in NdOFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lynn, J. W.; Li, J.; Li, G.; Chen, G. F.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Dai, Pengcheng; Dela Cruz, C.; Mook, H. A.

    2009-03-01

    Polarized and unpolarized powder neutron-diffraction measurements have been carried out to investigate the iron magnetic order in the parent compound of one of the highest Tc system, NdFeAsO. Antiferromagnetic order is observed below 141 K [1], which is in close proximity to the structural distortion observed in this material [2]. The magnetic structure consists of chains of parallel spins that are arranged antiparallel between chains, which is the same in-plane spin arrangement as observed in all the other iron oxypnictide materials. Nearest-neighbor spins along the c axis are antiparallel like LaFeAsO [3]. The ordered moment is 0.25 (7) μB, which is the smallest ordered moment found so far in these systems. [3pt] [1]Ying Chen, J. W. Lynn, J. Li, G. Li, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, Pengcheng Dai, C. dela Cruz and H. A. Mook, Phys. Rev. B 78, 064515 2008. [0pt] [2]Y. Qiu, W. Bao, Q. Huang, T. Yildirim, J. M. Simmons, M. A. Green, J.W. Lynn, Y.C. Gasparovic, J. Li, T. Wu, G. Wu, and X.H. Chen, arXiv:0806.2195 (Phys. Rev. Lett. accepted). [0pt] [3] C. dela Cruz, Q. Huang, J. W. Lynn, J. Li, W. Ratcliff II, J. L. Zarestky, H. A. Mook, G. F. Chen, J. L. Luo, N. L. Wang, and P. Dai, Nature 453, 899 (2008).

  2. Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Molina, Mario; Zaelke, Durwood; Sarma, K Madhava; Andersen, Stephen O; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Kaniaru, Donald

    2009-12-08

    Current emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) have already committed the planet to an increase in average surface temperature by the end of the century that may be above the critical threshold for tipping elements of the climate system into abrupt change with potentially irreversible and unmanageable consequences. This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of "dangerous anthropogenic interference" (DAI). Scientific and policy literature refers to the need for "early," "urgent," "rapid," and "fast-action" mitigation to help avoid DAI and abrupt climate changes. We define "fast-action" to include regulatory measures that can begin within 2-3 years, be substantially implemented in 5-10 years, and produce a climate response within decades. We discuss strategies for short-lived non-CO(2) GHGs and particles, where existing agreements can be used to accomplish mitigation objectives. Policy makers can amend the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with high global warming potential. Other fast-action strategies can reduce emissions of black carbon particles and precursor gases that lead to ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, and increase biosequestration, including through biochar. These and other fast-action strategies may reduce the risk of abrupt climate change in the next few decades by complementing cuts in CO(2) emissions.

  3. The effect of a preoperative education programme on perioperative anxiety in children: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mariam; Glasper, Alan; Keeton, Diana; Spargo, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The distress of children at the induction of anesthesia (DAI) is unpleasant for all involved and potentially harmful. Many strategies such as premedication or parental presence at induction have been described to minimize it. A preoperative education programme [the 'Saturday Morning Club' or (SMC)] has been in existence in our institution for a number of years and an observational study of children undergoing day case surgery was undertaken to assess the influence of attendance at the SMC on DAI. Ninety-four children aged between 2 and 16 years of age were included in the study; 21 attended the SMC and 73 did not. Patient anxiety using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale was measured by blinded observers on the day ward, in the preoperative waiting room and at induction of anesthesia. Parental anxiety at the same locations was self reported using a visual analogue scale. Attendance at the SMC had a favorable effect on patient anxiety levels in all three locations but only reached statistical significance in the waiting room (P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U-test). At present there is little evidence to support the use of preoperative education programmes in the UK and further studies are required to determine their benefit.

  4. Fukushima and the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesseler, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases at Fukushima Dai-ichi were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. The earthquake was the fourth largest ever recorded; the tsunami resulted in over 20,000 dead or missing and destroyed entire towns; and the radiation releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants created the largest accidental release of man-made radionuclides to the oceans in history— a release that continues to this day. Compared to monitoring on land, studies of the ocean are far fewer, yet the area impacted and quantity delivered- 80% of all radioactivity released- is far greater. For oceanographers, this presents a challenge of unprecedented scope and complexity: to understand exactly how these events played out, how radiation continues to move through the marine system (including important seafood items), and, in turn, how best to communicate scientific findings that will inform public policy decisions far into the future. This presentation will provide an overview of the sources and fate of radionuclides released from Fukushima to the ocean. An emphasis will be given on the sources of cesium, its transport in waters, and fluxes associated with sinking particles and accumulation in sediments.

  5. [Evaluation of the symptoms, adherence and satisfaction after pharmaceutical care at asthma clinic for outpatient].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinnosuke; Kuwahara, Hiroki; Asai, Reina; Kotani, Haruka; Kishi, Rina; Hirabayashi, Aya; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Hasegawa, Masaya; Mouri, Akihiro; Kume, Hiroaki; Ito, Satoru; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Noda, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether counseling at an outpatient asthma clinic improved asthma symptoms, adherence and patient satisfaction: The asthma control test (ACT) and asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) were used to assess subjective symptoms, 10-item version of the drug attitude inventory (DAI-10) was used to determine medication adherence, and 8-item Japanese version of the client satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ-8J) was used to ascertain patient satisfaction. All scores of inhalation technique, PEF (peak expiratory flow) value/predicted PEF value (%), ACT, ACQ and DAI-10 in 26 patients with asthma increased after counseling at the outpatient asthma clinic compared to those before counseling. The average CSQ-8J score of 28 points (highest possible score: 32 points) indicated that the patients were satisfied with services provided by this clinic. These results indicate that counseling provided by pharmacists at the outpatient clinic is a valuable way improving subjective symptoms, lung function and medication adherence. These results also indicate that counseling at the asthma clinic by pharmacists improves the quality of life of patients with asthma.

  6. Preparation of Spray-Dried Soy Isoflavone-Loaded Gelatin Microspheres for Enhancement of Dissolution: Formulation, Characterization and in Vitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Panizzon, Gean Pier; Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado

    2014-01-01

    The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI), daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to microencapsulate DAI and GEN from soy extract (SE) by spray drying, in order to obtain solid dispersions to overcome solubility problems and to allow controlled release. The influences of 1:2 (MP2) and 1:3 (MP3) SE/polymer ratios on the solid state, yield, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, release kinetics and cumulative release were evaluated. Analyses showed integral microparticles and high drug content. MP3 and MP2 yield were 43.6% and 55.9%, respectively, with similar mean size (p > 0.05), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous solid state of SE. In vitro release tests showed that dissolution was drastically increased. The results indicated that SE microencapsulation might offer a good system to control SI release, as an alternative to improve bioavailability and industrial applications. PMID:25494200

  7. Spatiotemporal deep imaging of syncytium induced by the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Mina; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Suzaki, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Daisuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2017-03-25

    Parasite infections cause dramatic anatomical and ultrastructural changes in host plants. Cyst nematodes are parasites that invade host roots and induce a specific feeding structure called a syncytium. A syncytium is a large multinucleate cell formed by cell wall dissolution-mediated cell fusion. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major soybean pathogen. To investigate SCN infection and the syncytium structure, we established an in planta deep imaging system using a clearing solution ClearSee and two-photon excitation microscopy (2PEM). Using this system, we found that several cells were incorporated into the syncytium; the nuclei increased in size and the cell wall openings began to be visible at 2 days after inoculation (DAI). Moreover, at 14 DAI, in the syncytium developed in the cortex, there were thickened concave cell wall pillars that resembled "Parthenon pillars." In contrast, there were many thick board-like cell walls and rarely Parthenon pillars in the syncytium developed in the stele. We revealed that the syncytia were classified into two types based on the pattern of the cell wall structures, which appeared to be determined by the position of the syncytium inside roots. Our results provide new insights into the developmental process of syncytium induced by cyst nematode and a better understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the syncytium in host roots.

  8. Expression of guanylate cyclase-C, guanylin, and uroguanylin is downregulated proportionally to the ulcerative colitis disease activity index

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Danfeng; Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Dong, Xiangqian; Wang, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling pathway has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Activation of GC-C via guanylin (Gn) and uroguanylin (Ugn) regulates intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, how it regulates the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of GC-C signaling in ulcerative colitis (UC) of different clinical severities. A total of 60 UC patients and 20 normal controls were recruited. Evaluation of the UC disease activity index (DAI) was performed using a modified Mayo scoring system. The expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn in the colonic mucosa was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that the UC patients had significantly lower expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn than the controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences for GC-C, Gn and Ugn expression for the UC groups of Grade 1, 2 and 3, and their expression levels were reduced with increases in their DAI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC-C, Gn and Ugn are downregulated in UC, and this downregulation is more significant with aggravation of the clinical condition. Therefore, the GC-C signaling pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. PMID:27125248

  9. The Decision Analysis Interview Approach in the Collaborative Management of a Large Regulated Water Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marttunen, Mika; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.

    2008-12-01

    There are always conflicting goals in the management of large water courses. However, by involving stakeholders actively in the planning and decision-making processes, it is possible to work together toward commonly acceptable solutions. In this article, we describe how we applied interactive multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in a collaborative process which aimed at an ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable water course regulation policy. The stakeholders’ opinions about the alternative regulation schemes and the relative importance of their impacts were elicited with the HIPRE software. Altogether, 20 personal interactive decision analysis interviews (DAIs) were carried out with the stakeholders. Our experience suggests that the DAIs can considerably improve the quality and efficiency of the collaborative planning process. By improving communication and understanding of the decision situation in the steering group, the approach helped to develop a consensus solution in a case having strong conflicts of interest. In order to gain the full benefits of the MCDA approach, interactive preference elicitation is vital. It is also essential to integrate the approach tightly into the planning and decision-making process. The project’s home pages are available to the public at http://www.paijanne.hut.fi/ .

  10. The decision analysis interview approach in the collaborative management of a large regulated water course.

    PubMed

    Marttunen, Mika; Hämäläinen, Raimo P

    2008-12-01

    There are always conflicting goals in the management of large water courses. However, by involving stakeholders actively in the planning and decision-making processes, it is possible to work together toward commonly acceptable solutions. In this article, we describe how we applied interactive multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in a collaborative process which aimed at an ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable water course regulation policy. The stakeholders' opinions about the alternative regulation schemes and the relative importance of their impacts were elicited with the HIPRE software. Altogether, 20 personal interactive decision analysis interviews (DAIs) were carried out with the stakeholders. Our experience suggests that the DAIs can considerably improve the quality and efficiency of the collaborative planning process. By improving communication and understanding of the decision situation in the steering group, the approach helped to develop a consensus solution in a case having strong conflicts of interest. In order to gain the full benefits of the MCDA approach, interactive preference elicitation is vital. It is also essential to integrate the approach tightly into the planning and decision-making process. The project's home pages are available to the public at http://www.paijanne.hut.fi/.

  11. Cytosolic DNA Sensor Upregulation Accompanies DNA Electrotransfer in B16.F10 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Znidar, Katarina; Bosnjak, Masa; Cemazar, Maja; Heller, Loree C.

    2016-01-01

    In several preclinical tumor models, antitumor effects occur after intratumoral electroporation, also known as electrotransfer, of plasmid DNA devoid of a therapeutic gene. In mouse melanomas, these effects are preceded by significant elevation of several proinflammatory cytokines. These observations implicate the binding and activation of intracellular DNA-specific pattern recognition receptors or DNA sensors in response to DNA electrotransfer. In tumors, IFNβ mRNA and protein levels significantly increased. The mRNAs of several DNA sensors were detected, and DAI, DDX60, and p204 tended to be upregulated. These effects were accompanied with reduced tumor growth and increased tumor necrosis. In B16.F10 cells in culture, IFNβ mRNA and protein levels were significantly upregulated. The mRNAs for several DNA sensors were present in these cells; DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor (DAI), DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 60 (DDX60), and p204 were significantly upregulated while DDX60 protein levels were coordinately upregulated. Upregulation of DNA sensors in tumors could be masked by the lower transfection efficiency compared to in vitro or to dilution by other tumor cell types. Mirroring the observation of tumor necrosis, cells underwent a significant DNA concentration-dependent decrease in proliferation and survival. Taken together, these results indicate that DNA electrotransfer may cause the upregulation of several intracellular DNA sensors in B16.F10 cells, inducing effects in vitro and potentially in vivo. PMID:27271988

  12. Changes in aridity in response to the global warming hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Guo, Ruixia

    2017-02-01

    The global warming slowdown or warming hiatus, began around the year 2000 and has persisted for nearly 15 years. Most studies have focused on the interpretation of the hiatus in temperature. In this study, changes in a global aridity index (AI) were analyzed by using a newly developed dynamical adjustment method that can successfully identify and separate dynamically induced and radiatively forced aridity changes in the raw data. The AI and Palmer Drought Severity Index produced a wetting zone over the mid-to-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in recent decades. The dynamical adjustment analysis suggested that this wetting zone occurred in response to the global warming hiatus. The dynamically induced AI (DAI) played a major role in the AI changes during the hiatus period, and its relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) also indicated that different phases of the NAO, PDO, and AMO contributed to different performances of the DAI over the Northern Hemisphere. Although the aridity wetting over the mid-to-high latitudes may relieve long-term drying in certain regions, the hiatus is temporary, and so is the relief. Accelerated global warming will return when the NAO, PDO, and AMO revert to their opposite phases in the future, and the wetting zone is likely to disappear.

  13. Malocclusion and deleterious oral habits among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Although malocclusions represent a serious public health issue, there is insufficient information about this problem in adolescents in Brazil, especially in poorer areas. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of facial alterations, dental malocclusions, and deleterious oral habits (DOH) among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of DOH in infancy is associated with DOH during adolescence. The study included a probabilistic population-based sample of 2,060 Brazilian students aged 12-15 years. Facial characteristics (type of facial profile, facial symmetry, and passive lip sealing) and malocclusions (Angle and Dental Aesthetic Index, DAI) were evaluated. DOH in infancy and adolescence were evaluated by interviews with the parents and adolescents. Most adolescents presented with normal facial characteristics. The malocclusion prevalence (Angle) was 83%. The DAI ranged from 13 to 69 (mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 7.7). Orthodontic treatment was necessary in 45.1% of the sample. The most prevalent DOH in adolescents were nail biting, object biting, cheek/lip biting, and bruxism, which were associated with finger sucking during infancy (P < 0.05). We conclude that malocclusions and DOH are common among Brazilian adolescents and that finger sucking during infancy may be a good predictor of DOH occurrence during adolescence.

  14. Short-term clinical stability and lack of insight are associated with a negative attitude towards antipsychotic treatment at discharge in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Esteban; Salvà, Joan; Ampudia, Rubén; Maurino, Jorge; Larumbe, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to assess the range of attitudes towards antipsychotic treatment at hospital discharge in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The secondary aim was to analyze the relationship between patients’ attitudes and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of patients admitted due to acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or a manic episode was conducted. Attitude towards pharmacological treatment at discharge was assessed with the 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10). Logistic regression was used to determine significant variables associated with attitude to medication. Results Eighty-six patients were included in the study. The mean age was 43.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.1), and 55.8% were males. Twenty-six percent of the patients presented a negative attitude towards antipsychotic treatment (mean DAI-10 score of −4.7, SD 2.7). Most of them had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Multivariate analysis showed that poor insight into illness and a greater number of previous acute episodes was significantly associated with a negative attitude towards medication at discharge (odds ratio 1.68 and 1.18, respectively). Conclusion Insight and clinical stability prior to admission were related to patients’ attitude towards antipsychotic treatment at hospital discharge among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The identification of factors related to the attitude towards medication would offer an improved opportunity for clinicians to select patients eligible for prophylactic adherence-focused interventions. PMID:22969293

  15. Estimation of the time-dependent radioactive source-term from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeppner, M.; Plastino, W.; Budano, A.; De Vincenzi, M.; Ruggieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    Several nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant have been severely damaged from the Tōhoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Due to the extremely difficult on-site situation it has been not been possible to directly determine the emissions of radioactive material. However, during the following days and weeks radionuclides of 137-Caesium and 131-Iodine (amongst others) were detected at monitoring stations throughout the world. Atmospheric transport models are able to simulate the worldwide dispersion of particles accordant to location, time and meteorological conditions following the release. The Lagrangian atmospheric transport model Flexpart is used by many authorities and has been proven to make valid predictions in this regard. The Flexpart software has first has been ported to a local cluster computer at the Grid Lab of INFN and Department of Physics of University of Roma Tre (Rome, Italy) and subsequently also to the European Mediterranean Grid (EUMEDGRID). Due to this computing power being available it has been possible to simulate the transport of particles originating from the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant site. Using the time series of the sampled concentration data and the assumption that the Fukushima accident was the only source of these radionuclides, it has been possible to estimate the time-dependent source-term for fourteen days following the accident using the atmospheric transport model. A reasonable agreement has been obtained between the modelling results and the estimated radionuclide release rates from the Fukushima accident.

  16. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Donato; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05) were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI) or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) and chloroperoxidase (cpo) was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome.

  17. Social classification and maternity practices in Aurangabad, India.

    PubMed

    Doke, P P; Sathe, P V

    1991-01-01

    A population of 3870 individuals constituting 823 families residing in five different localities of Aurangabad city was surveyed by house to house visits. The objectives of the study were to assess the validity of social classification by residence in certain localities. The variable used in the study was maternity practices. Family members and children under five years of age were recorded. Mothers of children were asked occupation of the head of the family and delivery details pertaining to these children. Social class was decided by residence in particular localities of the city, classified according to easily ascertainable characteristics of housing. Validity of such classification was judged by comparing it with classification by well known variable like occupation. The findings indicate that the system provides an inexpensive and rapid method of social classification. A total of 661 deliveries were recorded. A total of 67.62% deliveries were conducted in Government or Private Institutions. The remaining deliveries were home deliveries conducted by untrained personnel. Indigenous dais (traditional birth attendants) conducted 20.27% and senior female relatives 10.89% of the total deliveries. The findings, thus, stress the need of identifying and training dais in urban areas.

  18. Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 Axis-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Tang-you; Shi, Rui; Zhao, Wei-han; Guo, Yi; Gao, Kang-li; Chen, Chen; Xie, Tian-hong; Li, Jun-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction (QCWZD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription. Our previous studies have shown that QCWZD has significant efficacy in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and in colonic mucosa repair in UC rat models. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. Thus, this study was conducted to determine QCWZD's efficacy and mechanism in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced UC rat models, which were established by 7-day administration of 4.5% DSS solution. QCWZD was administered daily for 7 days, after which the rats were euthanized. Disease activity index (DAI), histological score (HS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level were determined to evaluate UC severity. Serum interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) levels were determined using ELISA kits. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were, respectively, used to determine colonic protein and gene expression of IP10, chemokine (cys-x-cys motif) receptor (CXCR)3, and nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65. Intragastric QCWZD administration ameliorated DSS-induced UC, as evidenced by decreased DAI, HS, and MPO levels. Furthermore, QCWZD decreased the protein and gene expression of IP10, CXCR3, and NF-κB p65. Overall, these results suggest that QCWZD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in rats by downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 axis-mediated inflammatory response and may be a novel UC therapy. PMID:27413386

  19. Screening symptoms of reactive attachment disorder: evidence for measurement invariance and convergent validity.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Eleonora; De Schipper, J Clasien; Bosmans, Guy; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-09-01

    The Relationship Problems Questionnaire (RPQ) was developed to screen symptoms of the inhibited and disinhibited subtype of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). This study further examines the psychometric properties of the RPQ in children with severe emotional and behavioural problems by testing its measurement invariance across informants and its convergent validity. Parents and teachers of 152 children [mean age (Mage) = 7.92] from 20 schools for special education filled out the RPQ and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). During a home visit in a subsample of 77 children the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI) was administered to the caregiver and the child was observed using an observational schedule for RAD. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed the expected two-factor structure for both parent and teacher RPQ. Configural and metric invariance, but no scalar invariance, were obtained across informants. Both RPQ-subscales had acceptable to good internal consistencies and correlated as expected with similar DAI-subscales. Furthermore, the disinhibited RPQ-scale related with observations of the child's approach to a stranger. Finally, significant associations were found between the RPQ and the SDQ. Overall, the RPQ has good psychometric qualities as a multi-informant instrument for RAD-symptoms in children with severe emotional and behavioural problems.

  20. Angular Impact Mitigation System for Bicycle Helmets to Reduce Head Acceleration and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M.; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p < 0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p < 0.001), and a 22% to 32% reduction in neck loading (p < 0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. PMID:23770518

  1. Review of the genera Hishimonus Ishihara and Litura Knight(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from the Indian subcontinent with description of new species.

    PubMed

    Viraktamath, C A; Murthy, H V Anantha

    2014-04-03

    This paper deals with 21 species of Hishimonus Ishihara and two species of Litura Knight from the Indian subcontinent. The following new species are described: Hishimonus acuminatus sp. nov. (India: Mizoram), H. distinctus sp. nov. (India: Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Sri Lanka), H. dwipae sp. nov. (Sri Lanka), H. longisetosus sp. nov. (India: Karnataka), H. spicans sp. nov. (India: Karnataka), H. thapai sp. nov. (Nepal), H. zeylanicus sp. nov. (Sri Lanka), and Litura triangula sp. nov. (India: Karnataka). Hishimonus versicolor Subba Rao & Ramakrishnan is removed from the genus Hishimonus and two new combinations namely, Hishimonus apricus (Melichar) comb. nov. (formerly in the genus Eutettix) and Litura tripunctatus (Li) comb. nov. (formerly in the genus Hishimonus) and a new name Hishimonus knightiella nom. nov. for Hishimonus apricus Knight 1970a, not Distant 1908 is proposed. H. gillespiei Dai, Fletcher & Zhang, H. pallidus Dai, Fletcher & Zhang, H. dividens Knight, H. aberrans Knight, H. concavus Knight, H. arcuatus Knight and Litura unda Knight are new records for India. All the taxa are described and new taxa are illustrated. Keys to identification of the species of Hishimonus and Litura found in the Indian subcontinent are also provided along with list of known host plants.

  2. A recombinant cystatin from Ascaris lumbricoides attenuates inflammation of DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Coronado, S; Barrios, L; Zakzuk, J; Regino, R; Ahumada, V; Franco, L; Ocampo, Y; Caraballo, L

    2017-03-10

    Helminthiasis may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Information about immunomodulators from Ascaris lumbricoides is scarce, but could be important considering the co-evolutionary relationships between helminths and humans. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant cystatin from A. lumbricoides on an acute model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. From an A. lumbricoides cDNA library, we obtained a recombinant cystatin (rAl-CPI). Protease activity inhibition was demonstrated on cathepsin B and papain. Immunomodulatory effects were evaluated at two intraperitoneal doses (0.5 and 0.25 μg/G) on mice with DSS-induced colitis. Body weight, colon length, Disease Activity Index (DAI), histological inflammation score, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, gene expression of cytokines and cytokines levels in colon tissue were analysed. Treatment with rAl-CPI significantly reduced DAI, MPO activity and inflammation score without toxic effects. Also, IL-10 and TGF-B gene overexpression was observed in rAl-CPI-treated group compared to DSS-exposed control and healthy mice. Furthermore, a reduction in IL-6 and TNF-A expression was found, and this was confirmed by the levels of these cytokines in colonic tissue. In conclusion, rAl-CPI reduces inflammation in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, probably by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing pro-inflammatory ones.

  3. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  4. Preparation of Spray-Dried Soy Isoflavone-Loaded Gelatin Microspheres for Enhancement of Dissolution: Formulation, Characterization and in Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Panizzon, Gean Pier; Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado

    2014-12-08

    The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI), daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to microencapsulate DAI and GEN from soy extract (SE) by spray drying, in order to obtain solid dispersions to overcome solubility problems and to allow controlled release. The influences of 1:2 (MP2) and 1:3 (MP3) SE/polymer ratios on the solid state, yield, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, release kinetics and cumulative release were evaluated. Analyses showed integral microparticles and high drug content. MP3 and MP2 yield were 43.6% and 55.9%, respectively, with similar mean size (p > 0.05), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous solid state of SE. In vitro release tests showed that dissolution was drastically increased. The results indicated that SE microencapsulation might offer a good system to control SI release, as an alternative to improve bioavailability and industrial applications.

  5. Emotion perception and executive control interact in the salience network during emotionally charged working memory processing.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; Qin, Shaozheng; Fernández, Guillén; Zhang, Yu; Klumpers, Floris; Li, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Processing of emotional stimuli can either hinder or facilitate ongoing working memory (WM); however, the neural basis of these effects remains largely unknown. Here we examined the neural mechanisms of these paradoxical effects by implementing a novel emotional WM task in an fMRI study. Twenty-five young healthy participants performed an N-back task with fearful and neutral faces as stimuli. Participants made more errors when performing 0-back task with fearful versus neutral faces, whereas they made fewer errors when performing 2-back task with fearful versus neutral faces. These emotional impairment and enhancement on behavioral performance paralleled significant interactions in distributed regions in the salience network including anterior insula (AI) and dorsal cingulate cortex (dACC), as well as in emotion perception network including amygdala and temporal-occipital association cortex (TOC). The dorsal AI (dAI) and dACC were more activated when comparing fearful with neutral faces in 0-back task. Contrarily, dAI showed reduced activation, while TOC and amygdala showed stronger responses to fearful as compared to neutral faces in the 2-back task. These findings provide direct neural evidence to the emerging dual competition model suggesting that the salience network plays a critical role in mediating interaction between emotion perception and executive control when facing ever-changing behavioral demands.

  6. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius

    PubMed Central

    Gerin, Donato; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05) were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI) or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) and chloroperoxidase (cpo) was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome. PMID:26765536

  7. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 μL sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 μL sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 μg/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ≤ 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ≤ 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water.

  8. Production of Lytic Enzymes by Trichoderma Isolates during in vitro Antagonism with Aspergillus Niger, The Causal Agent of Collar ROT of Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Gajera, H. P.; Vakharia, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, five of T. viride, one of T. virens), which reduced variably the incidence of collar rot disease caused in peanut by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, were evaluated for their potential to produce lytic enzymes during in vitro antagonism. T. viride 60 inhibited highest (86.2%) growth of test fungus followed by T. harzianum 2J (80.4%) at 6 days after inoculation (DAI) on PDA media. The specific activities of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease were 11, 3.46 and 9 folds higher in T6 antagonist (T. viride 60 and A. niger interactions) followed by 8.72, 2.85 and 9 folds in T8antagonist (T. harzianum 2J and A. niger interactions), respectively, compared to the activity produced by control petri plate T13 (A. niger alone) at 6 DAI. Activity of these lytic enzymes induced in antagonists’ plates comprises the growth of Trichoderma isolates. However, cellulase and poly galacturonase were found least amount in these antagonists treatment. A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) between percentage growth inhibition of test fungus and lytic enzymes – (chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease) in the culture medium of antagonist treatment established a relationship to inhibit growth of fungal pathogen by increasing the levels of these enzymes. Among the Trichoderma isolates, T. viride 60 was found best strain to be used in biological control of plant pathogen A. niger. PMID:24031802

  9. Diffuse axonal injury in brain trauma: insights from alterations in neurofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Siedler, Declan G.; Chuah, Meng Inn; Kirkcaldie, Matthew T. K.; Vickers, James C.; King, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from penetrating or closed forces to the cranium can result in a range of forms of neural damage, which culminate in mortality or impart mild to significant neurological disability. In this regard, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a major neuronal pathophenotype of TBI and is associated with a complex set of cytoskeletal changes. The neurofilament triplet proteins are key structural cytoskeletal elements, which may also be important contributors to the tensile strength of axons. This has significant implications with respect to how axons may respond to TBI. It is not known, however, whether neurofilament compaction and the cytoskeletal changes that evolve following axonal injury represent a component of a protective mechanism following damage, or whether they serve to augment degeneration and progression to secondary axotomy. Here we review the structure and role of neurofilament proteins in normal neuronal function. We also discuss the processes that characterize DAI and the resultant alterations in neurofilaments, highlighting potential clues to a possible protective or degenerative influence of specific neurofilament alterations within injured neurons. The potential utility of neurofilament assays as biomarkers for axonal injury is also discussed. Insights into the complex alterations in neurofilaments will contribute to future efforts in developing therapeutic strategies to prevent, ameliorate or reverse neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) following traumatic injury. PMID:25565963

  10. Phosphorylcholine-tuftsin compound prevents development of dextransulfate-sodium-salt induced murine colitis: implications for the treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami Shor, Dana; Bashi, Tomer; Lachnish, Jordan; Fridkin, Mati; Bizzaro, Giorgia; Barshak, Iris; Blank, Miri; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Improved clinical findings of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) upon treatment with helminthes and their ova were proven in animal models of IBD and in human clinical studies. The immunomodulatory properties of several helminthes were attributed to the phosphorylcholine (PC) molecule. We assessed the therapeutic potential of tuftsin-PC conjugate (TPC) to attenuate murine colitis. Colitis was induced by Dextransulfate-Sodium-Salt (DSS) in drinking water. TPC was given by daily oral ingestion (50 μg/0.1 ml/mouse or PBS) starting at day -2. Disease activity index (DAI) score was followed daily and histology of the colon was performed by H&E staining. Analysis of the cytokines profile in distal colon lysates was performed by immunoblot. Treatment of DSS induced colitis with TPC prevented the severity of colitis, including a reduction in the DAI score, less shortening of the colon and less inflammatory activity in histology. The immunoblot showed that the colitis preventive activity of TPC was associated with downregulation of colon pro-inflammatory IL-1β, TNFα and IL-17 cytokines expression, and enhancement of anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine expression. In the current study, we demonstrated that TPC treatment can prevent significantly experimental colitis induction in naïve mice. We propose the TPC as a novel potential small synthetic molecule to treat colitis.

  11. Emu Oil Reduces Small Intestinal Inflammation in the Absence of Clinical Improvement in a Rat Model of Indomethacin-Induced Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Abimosleh, Suzanne M.; Tran, Cuong D.; Howarth, Gordon S.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug (NSAID) enteropathy is characterized by small intestinal damage and ulceration. Emu Oil (EO) has previously been reported to reduce intestinal inflammation. Aim. We investigated EO for its potential to attenuate NSAID-enteropathy in rats. Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10/group) were gavaged with Water, Olive Oil (OO), or EO (0.5 mL; days 0–12) and with 0.5 mL Water or the NSAID, Indomethacin (8 mg/kg; days 5–12) daily. Disease activity index (DAI), 13C-sucrose breath test (SBT), organ weights, intestinal damage severity (IDS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. In Indomethacin-treated rats, DAI was elevated (days 10–12) and SBT values (56%) and thymus weight (55%) were decreased, relative to normal controls. Indomethacin increased duodenum (68%), colon (24%), SI (48%), caecum (48%), liver (51%) and spleen (88%) weights, IDS scores, and MPO levels (jejunum: 195%, ileum: 104%) compared to normal controls. Jejunal MPO levels were decreased (64%) by both EO and OO, although only EO decreased ileal MPO (50%), compared to Indomethacin controls. Conclusions. EO reduced acute intestinal inflammation, whereas other parameters of Indomethacin-induced intestinal injury were not affected significantly. Increased EO dose and/or frequency of administration could potentially improve clinical efficacy. PMID:23573127

  12. A cross-sectional study of migrant women with reference to their antenatal care services utilization and delivery practices in an urban slum of Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Badge, Vijay Loknath; Pandey, Minal; Solanki, Mridula J.; Shinde, Ratnendra Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Migrant is a vulnerable population. They face several barriers in accessing health services. The immigration status presents various challenges for maternity services utilization. So this study was conducted (1) to estimate proportion of women utilizing full ANC package and to find out reasons for its nonutilization (2) to estimate the proportion of institutional deliveries and reasons for home deliveries. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among migrant women in reproductive age group in an urban slum. The sample size was 120. Multistage simple random sampling was done. Results: Maximum numbers of migrants (71.7%) were from Uttar Pradesh. Sixty two percent married before the age of 18 years. Full ANC package was received by only 18% migrants. Proportion of home deliveries was 12%, and all were conducted by Untrained Dai. Lack of transport facility and availability of Dai (local birth attendant) were the reasons mentioned for home delivery. For nonutilization of full ANC package, far location of health center (30%); it is not necessary (25.8%); and family did not allow them to visit health center (21.8%) were the reasons mentioned. Religion and type of family were significantly associated with nonutilization of full ANC package. Conclusion: The present study revealed low utilization of ANC services and high proportion of home deliveries among the migrant women even after availability of health facilities for providing ANC care and to conduct deliveries in urban area. PMID:28348986

  13. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6–60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches. PMID:27597984

  14. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan-Li; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Qing-Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-Bin; Song, Qi-Shi

    2017-04-06

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark.

  15. Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (p<0.001), a 34% reduction in peak angular acceleration (p<0.001), and a 22-32% reduction in neck loading (p<0.001). Computational results predicted that AIM helmets reduced the risk of concussion and DAI by 27% and 44%, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AIM technology could effectively improve impact mitigation compared to a contemporary expanded polystyrene-based bicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required.

  16. Transcriptional reprogramming by root knot and migratory nematode infection in rice.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Denil, Simon; Haegeman, Annelies; Trooskens, Geert; Bauters, Lander; Van Criekinge, Wim; De Meyer, Tim; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2012-11-01

    Rice is one of the most important staple crops worldwide, but its yield is compromised by different pathogens, including plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study we have characterized specific and general responses of rice (Oryza sativa) roots challenged with two endoparasitic nematodes with very different modes of action. Local transcriptional changes in rice roots upon root knot (Meloidogyne graminicola) and root rot nematode (RRN, Hirschmanniella oryzae) infection were studied at two time points (3 and 7 d after infection, dai), using mRNA-seq. Our results confirm that root knot nematodes (RKNs), which feed as sedentary endoparasites, stimulate metabolic pathways in the root, and enhance nutrient transport towards the induced root gall. The migratory RRNs, on the other hand, induce programmed cell death and oxidative stress, and obstruct the normal metabolic activity of the root. While RRN infection causes up-regulation of biotic stress-related genes early in the infection, the sedentary RKNs suppress the local defense pathways (e.g. salicylic acid and ethylene pathways). Interestingly, hormone pathways mainly involved in plant development were strongly induced (gibberellin) or repressed (cytokinin) at 3 dai. These results uncover previously unrecognized nematode-induced expression profiles related to their specific infection strategy.

  17. Effect of a Ropy Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain Orally Administered on DSS-Induced Colitis Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Margolles, Abelardo; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gálvez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bifidobacteria, particularly Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, are used in the functional food industry as promising probiotics with purported beneficial effects. We used three isogenic strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis, with different EPS producing phenotypes (mucoid-ropy and non-ropy), in order to determine their capability to survive the murine gastrointestinal tract transit, as well as to evaluate their role in improving clinical outcomes in a chemically-induced colitis model. The three strains were able to survive in the intestinal tract of C57BL/6J mice during the course of the intervention study. Furthermore, the disease activity index (DAI) of the animal group treated with the ropy strain was significantly lower than of the DAI of the placebo group at the end of the treatment. However, no significant differences were found among the three strains. The analysis of several immune parameters, such as TNFα and IL-10 quantified in blood plasma and lymphocyte populations enumerated in mesenteric nodes, showed some significant variations among the four experimental animal groups. Remarkably, a higher capability of the ropy strain to increase regulatory T-cells in mesenteric lymphoid nodes was demonstrated, suggesting a higher ability of this strain to regulate inflammatory responses at mucosal level. Our data indicate that strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis producing EPS that confer a mucoid-ropy phenotype could represent promising candidates to perform further studies targeting intestinal inflammatory processes.

  18. Coping with health care expenses among poor households: evidence from a rural commune in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Thuy; Khuat, Oanh Thi Hai; Ma, Shuangge; Pham, Duc Cuong; Khuat, Giang Thi Hong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-03-01

    With the 1980s "Doi Moi" economic reforms, Vietnam transitioned from state-funded health care to a privatized user fee system. Out-of-pocket payments became a major source of funding for treatments received at both public and private health facilities. We studied coping strategies used by residents of Dai Dong, a rural commune of Hanoi, for paying health care costs, assessing the effects of such costs on economic and health stability. We developed a 2008 survey of 706 households (166 poor, 184 near-poor, 356 non-poor; 100% response rate). Outcome measures were reported episodes of illness; inpatient, outpatient, and self-treatments; out-of-pocket expenditures; and funding sources for health care costs. Households of all income levels borrowed to pay for inpatient treatments; loans are also more heavily used by the poor and near-poor than the non-poor for outpatient treatments. Compared to low cost treatments, the use of loans is intensified for extremely high cost health treatments for all poverty levels, but especially for the poor and near-poor. The likelihood of reducing food consumption to pay for extremely high cost treatment versus low cost treatments increased most for the poor in both inpatient and outpatient contexts. Decreased funding and increased costs in health care rendered Dai Dong's population vulnerable to the consequences of detrimental coping strategies such as debt and food reduction. Future reforms should focus on obviating these funding measures among at-risk populations.

  19. A Picrorhiza kurroa Derivative, Picroliv, Attenuates the Development of Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, De-Kui; Yu, Jian-Jie; Li, Yu-Min; Wei, Li-Na; Yu, Yi; Feng, Yan-Hu; Wang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Background. Free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Picroliv, a Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of picroliv on experimental model of UC in mice. Materials and Methods. Picroliv was administrated orally by gavage to mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histology score were observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and SOD, MDA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the expression of cytokine mRNAs was studied by real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and also ELISA. The expression of NF-κB p65 was observed by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Results. A significant improvement was observed in DAI and histological score in mice treated with picroliv, and incerased MPO activity, MDA concentrations, and the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in mice with DSS-induced colitis were significantly reduced while decreased SOD level increased following administration of picroliv. Conclusion. The administration of picroliv leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting administration of picroliv may provide a therapeutic approach for UC. PMID:23125487

  20. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  1. Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Mario; Zaelke, Durwood; Sarma, K. Madhava; Andersen, Stephen O.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Kaniaru, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Current emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) have already committed the planet to an increase in average surface temperature by the end of the century that may be above the critical threshold for tipping elements of the climate system into abrupt change with potentially irreversible and unmanageable consequences. This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI). Scientific and policy literature refers to the need for “early,” “urgent,” “rapid,” and “fast-action” mitigation to help avoid DAI and abrupt climate changes. We define “fast-action” to include regulatory measures that can begin within 2–3 years, be substantially implemented in 5–10 years, and produce a climate response within decades. We discuss strategies for short-lived non-CO2 GHGs and particles, where existing agreements can be used to accomplish mitigation objectives. Policy makers can amend the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with high global warming potential. Other fast-action strategies can reduce emissions of black carbon particles and precursor gases that lead to ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, and increase biosequestration, including through biochar. These and other fast-action strategies may reduce the risk of abrupt climate change in the next few decades by complementing cuts in CO2 emissions. PMID:19822751

  2. Individual and contextual determinants of malocclusion in 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, Daniela Nobre; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe malocclusion prevalence and its association with individual and contextual factors among Brazilian 12-year-old schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study included data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Brazil (n = 2,075), and data from the files of the local health authority. The data were collected through oral clinical examinations. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was used to assess occlusion. The presence of malocclusion (DAI > 25) was used as the dependent variable. The individual independent variables consisted of adolescents' sex and race and their mothers' level of schooling. The clinical variables were caries experience and presence of adverse periodontal condition (calculus and/or gingival bleeding). The contextual variables included type of school and the location of schools in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test and multilevel logistic regression were performed. The prevalence of malocclusion was 40.1%. In the final model, significantly higher rates of malocclusion were found among those who attended schools located in less affluent health districts and whose mothers had fewer years of education. Rates were also higher among those presenting calculus and/or gingival bleeding. Malocclusion demonstrated a high prevalence rate and the inequalities in its distribution were determined by individual and contextual factors.

  3. Regulating expression of cell and tissue-specific genes by modifying transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Beachy, Roger N; Dai, Shunhong

    2010-06-14

    Transcriptional regulation is the primary step to control gene expression, therefore function. Such regulation is achieved primarily via a combination of the activities of the promoter cis regulatory DNA elements and trans regulatory proteins that function through binding to these DNA elements. Rice bZIP transcription factors RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 play key roles in regulating the activity of a vascular tissue specific promoter isolated from Rice Tungro Bacilliform Virus (RTBV), through their interactions with the Box II essential cis element located in the promoter (Dai et al., 2006., Dai et al., 2004., Yin et al., 1997). RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 possess multiple regulatory domains. Functional characterization reveals that those domains can activate or repress the activity of the RTBV promoter. It is equally as important to recognize that these proteins control plant development by regulating differentiation and/or function of the vascular tissues. Studies of transcriptional regulation of the RTBV promoter by this group of bZIP proteins will not only provide insights about gene expression in the vascular tissue, but also insights about general mechanisms of transcription activation and repression. The knowledge gained from this research will also enable us to develop a well-described set of tools that can be used to control expression of multiple genes in transgenic plants. We have proposed characterize the function domains of RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 and explore the biological function of the transcription repressor RLP1.

  4. Is sickle cell anemia a risk factor for severe dental malocclusion?

    PubMed

    Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva; Carvalho, Halinna Larissa Cruz Correa; Souza, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between sickle cell anemia (SCA) and the severity of dental malocclusion (MO). This was a retrospective cohort study of 93 individuals with SCA (G1) and 186 individuals without the disease (G2). SCA patients were randomly selected by a simple draw from patients treated in the Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Maranhão (HEMOMAR) in northeastern Brazil. Patients aged between 16 and 60 were included after being tested for the hemoglobin S gene. G2 consisted of individuals living in the same residence as the patients. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), as well as some morphological deviations not included in DAI, were used for the orthodontic evaluation of MO. Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was employed to estimate relative risk (RR). In the multivariate analysis, SCA was associated with moderate (RR = 1.36) and very severe MO (RR = 8.0). SCA is correlated with anterior tooth loss (RR = 1.94), anterior spacing (RR = 1.66), overjet (RR = 1.87), anterior crossbite (RR = 1.94), and open bite (RR = 1.94). Thus, SCA is a risk factor for moderate and very severe MO.

  5. Assessing connectivity related injury burden in diffuse traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Berkan; Tunç, Birkan; Parker, Drew; Whyte, John; Hart, Tessa; Rabinowitz, Amanda; Rohrbach, Morgan; Kim, Junghoon; Verma, Ragini

    2017-03-15

    Many of the clinical and behavioral manifestations of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are thought to arise from disruption to the structural network of the brain due to diffuse axonal injury (DAI). However, a principled way of summarizing diffuse connectivity alterations to quantify injury burden is lacking. In this study, we developed a connectome injury score, Disruption Index of the Structural Connectome (DISC), which summarizes the cumulative effects of TBI-induced connectivity abnormalities across the entire brain. Forty patients with moderate-to-severe TBI examined at 3 months postinjury and 35 uninjured healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging, and completed behavioral assessment including global clinical outcome measures and neuropsychological tests. TBI patients were selected to maximize the likelihood of DAI in the absence of large focal brain lesions. We found that hub-like regions, with high betweenness centrality, were most likely to be impaired as a result of diffuse TBI. Clustering of participants revealed a subgroup of TBI patients with similar connectivity abnormality profiles who exhibited relatively poor cognitive performance. Among TBI patients, DISC was significantly correlated with post-traumatic amnesia, verbal learning, executive function, and processing speed. Our experiments jointly demonstrated that assessing structural connectivity alterations may be useful in development of patient-oriented diagnostic and prognostic tools. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Partial interruption of axonal transport due to microtubule breakage accounts for the formation of periodic varicosities after traumatic axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Tang-Schomer, Min D; Johnson, Victoria E; Baas, Peter W; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H

    2012-01-01

    Due to their viscoelastic nature, white matter axons are susceptible to damage by high strain rates produced during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common features of TBI, characterized by the hallmark pathological profiles of axonal bulbs at disconnected terminal ends of axons and periodic swellings along axons, known as "varicosities." Although transport interruption underlies axonal bulb formation, it is unclear how varicosities arise, with multiple sites accumulating transported materials along one axon. Recently, axonal microtubules have been found to physically break during dynamic stretch injury of cortical axons in vitro. Here, the same in vitro model was used in parallel with histopathological analyses of human brains acquired acutely following TBI to examine the potential role of mechanical microtubule damage in varicosity formation post-trauma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following in vitro stretch injury revealed periodic breaks of individual microtubules along axons that regionally corresponded with undulations in axon morphology. However, typically less than a third of microtubules were broken in any region of an axon. Within hours, these sites of microtubule breaks evolved into periodic swellings. This suggests axonal transport may be halted along one broken microtubule, yet can proceed through the same region via other intact microtubules. Similar axonal undulations and varicosities were observed following TBI in humans, suggesting primary microtubule failure may also be a feature of DAI. These data indicate a novel mechanism of mechanical microtubule damage leading to partial transport interruption and varicosity formation in traumatic axonal injury.

  7. Analysis of conflicting experimental studies of DNA size in nanofluidic slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Strychalski, Elizabeth A.; Nablo, Brian J.; Geist, Jon

    2013-03-01

    Recent experimental studies have reported conflicting accounts of the size variation of DNA in nanofluidic slitlike confinement; [Bonthuis et al., Physical Review Letters 101, 10, 108303 (2008)], [Tang et al., Macromolecules 43, 17, 7368 (2010)], [Strychalski et al., Macromolecules 45, 3, 1602 (2012)], [Lin et al., Macromolecules 45, 6, 2920 (2012)], [Dai et al., Soft Matter 8, 10, 2972 (2012)]. In an effort to resolve this controversy, these studies are analyzed by a reductive as opposed to predictive approach. Minimum references for DNA size (baselines) are simulated by a Monte Carlo methodology and quantitatively compared to measured and inferred DNA sizes. The measurements of Tang et al., Strychalski et al., and Lin et al. are consistent with the related baselines and in semi-quantitative agreement with each other. The inferences of Tang et al. and Dai et al. are consistent with the related baseline and in qualitative agreement with the measurements of Tang et al., Strychalski et al., and Lin et al. The measurements of Bonthuis et al. are inconsistently larger than the related baseline and the other experimental measurements and inferences of DNA size around the transition from moderate to weak slitlike confinement. A variety of physical and chemical differences between the experimental systems are examined in detail to elucidate this inconsistency. Detailed analyses of the baseline distribution and variation clarify several core physical attributes of the system related to excluded volume effects and chain dimensionality.

  8. Tracing the dispersion of sediment contaminated with fallout radionuclides along the main rivers draining the contaminated plume in Fukushima Prefecture (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, O.; Patin, J.; Lefèvre, I.; Chartin, C.; Ayrault, S.; Bonté, Ph.; Onda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident led to the release of important quantities of radionuclides into the environment. Several of those substances (e.g., Cs-134; Cs-137) strongly sorb onto soil particles. Resulting radiations lead to an external exposure threat associated with the spatial distribution of radionuclides. This threat, associated with the possibility of transfer of contamination to plants and direct ingestion of contaminated particles, will affect human activities such as agriculture, forest exploitation and fishing for long periods of time, depending on the half life of the radionuclides (e.g., 2 yrs for Cs-134; 30 yrs for Cs-137). Furthermore, sediment can be a preferential vector of contaminants in rivers, and its transfer can lead to the dispersion of radioactive contamination across larger areas over time. We present here preliminary results obtained during a field campaign conducted in November 2011 in a part of Fukushima Prefecture located in the main contamination plume and covering an area of about 5000 km2. We had the unique opportunity to measure and "trace" the dispersion of sediment contaminated with radionuclides shortly after the catastrophe. In total, 125 soil and sediment samples were collected along the main rivers of the area (i.e., Abukuma, Nitta, Mano, Kutchibuto and Hirose Rivers). This hydrological network drains the contamination plume located 20 to 80 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant. Furthermore, radiation dose rates were measured all throughout the field survey. Preliminary results show that, 8 months after the accident, radiation dose rates constitute a good proxy to trace contamination dispersion in the region, especially along rivers. Radiation dose rates varied between 0.5 µSv/h and 200 µSv/h in the field. Transfer of contaminated sediment has already started in rivers, and it was accelerated by the occurrence of violent typhoons in the region between July and October, 2011. Main gamma

  9. [Shearing injuries of parasagittal white matter, corpus callosum and basal ganglia: possible radiological evidences of hemiplegia in diffuse axonal injury].

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, H; Kubo, T; Kanazawa, I; Kamitani, H; Nakamura, N

    1997-08-01

    The relationship between spastic hemiplegia in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and neuroradiological findings was studied in 100 cases. These cases were prospectively collected from the files of Automobile Insurance Rating Organization in Japan between 1993 from to 1996. Requirements for entry to this study were as follows: presence of initial unconsciousness after head injury without any lucid interval. Existence of CT scan or MRI film obtained within 12 hours of injury showing no significant mass effects, as well as follow-up CT scan or MRI film obtained more than 3 months after the injury. Psychosocial outcome was described both by the medical professional and the caregiver. The hemiplegia was rated severe, mild, or none. The outcome and diffuse ventriculomegaly were classified as reported by the authors previously. Spastic hemiplegia or quadriplegia was documented in the chronic stage in 63 cases, including 53 severe cases with difficulty in walking and 10 mild cases with only pyramidal signs detected. Chi-square analysis showed significant correlation between hemiplegia and the DAI outcome level or ventriculomegaly rating. Focal brain contusion was noticed in 33 cases, but did not correlate with the hemiplegia at all. Radiological findings included 25 cases of parasagittal white matter injury (gliding contusion), 20 cases of callosal injury, 19 cases of basal ganglionic region injury, 5 cases of brain-stem injury, and 3 cases of cerebellar injury. Chi-square analyses of hemiplegia and contralateral presence of these injuries were significant in the former three types of injury. Presence of at least one of these 3 lesions was defined as GCB injury. There were altogether 46 GCB injury cases which were significantly correlated with contralateral hemiplegia by chi-square analysis and by Spearman rank analysis. Partial correlation analysis with hemiplegia as the target variable indicated highly significant correlation only with GCB injury and outcome level. In

  10. Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L.

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall

  11. Cross-sectional comparison of first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injections vs risperidone long-acting injection: patient-rated attitudes, satisfaction and tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sourabh Moti; Haddad, Peter M.; Husain, Nusrat; Heaney, Eamonn; Tomenson, Barbara; Chaudhry, Imran B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare patients’ attitudes and satisfaction with medication and patient-rated tolerability between those prescribed a first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injection (FGA-LAI) and those prescribed risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Method: A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of outpatients prescribed an FGA-LAI or RLAI for a minimum of 6 months and attending a depot clinic. Attitudes to medication were assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), tolerability was measured by the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) and satisfaction with antipsychotic medication was assessed by the Satisfaction with Antipsychotic Medication (SWAM) scale. Results: The RLAI (n = 28) and FGA-LAI (n = 39) groups did not differ in terms of mean age, sex, diagnosis and ethnicity. All individual LAIs were prescribed within British National Formulary limits. The most commonly prescribed FGA-LAI was flupentixol decanoate (n = 22). There was no significant difference between the RLAI and FGA-LAI groups in terms of mean total scores on the DAI-30, LUNSERS and SWAM or the tolerability subscales of the LUNSERS or the two subscales (treatment acceptability and medication insight) of the SWAM. In both LAI groups there was a low level of side effects (LUNSERS) and a generally positive attitude (DAI-30) and reasonable satisfaction (SWAM) with medication. Conclusions: Patients treated with FGA-LAI and RLAI for at least 6 months did not differ in terms of patient-rated tolerability, attitudes and satisfaction with medication. The current design cannot determine whether differences would have been evident earlier on during treatment. These results should be regarded as preliminary and are subject to prescribing bias. Randomized studies avoid prescribing bias and are a superior way to compare specific LAIs. Ideally randomized studies should include patient-rated outcome measures including

  12. Comparison of the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts with phytoestrogens on the reproductive physiology and sexual behavior in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Juárez-Rojas, L; Hernández, A; Romero, C; López, G; Miranda, L; Guerrero-Aguilera, A; Solano, F; Hernández, E; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-10-01

    Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) and Leucaena leucocephala are widespread legumes, widely used to feed several livestock species and as food source for human populations in several countries. Both mesquite and Leucaena contain several phytoestrogens which might have potential estrogenic effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the male rat. The effects of the extracts were compared with those of estradiol (E2) and of two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact male rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; Leucaena extract; E2; DAI; GEN. The results indicate that mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts disrupt male sexual behavior in a similar way to DAI and GEN, but less than E2. The main disruptor of sexual behavior was E2, however after 40 and 50days of administration, both extracts and phytoestrogens disrupted sexual behavior in a similar way to E2. The extracts also increased testicular germ cell apoptosis, decreased sperm quality, testicular weight, and testosterone levels, as phytoestrogens did, although these effects were less than those caused by estradiol. The number of seminiferous tubules with TUNEL-positive germ cells increased in extracts treated groups in a similar way to phytoestrogens groups, and E2 caused the greatest effect. The number of TUNEL-positive cells per tubule increased only in Leucaena extract and E2 groups, but not in mesquite- and phytoestrogens-treated groups. Spermatocytes and round spermatids were the TUNEL-positive cells observed in all experimental groups. This effect was associated with smaller testicular weights without atrophy in experimental groups compared with control. Testicular atrophy was only observed in estradiol-treated males. Testosterone decreased in males of all experimental groups, compared with control, this androgen was undetectable in E2

  13. Moxibustion regulates inflammatory mediators and colonic mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tie-Ming; Xu, Na; Ma, Xian-De; Bai, Zeng-Hua; Tao, Xing; Yan, Hong-Chi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy and mechanism of grain-sized moxibustion at different acupoints in a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, UC model, grain-sized moxibustion at a single acupoint (CV 12), grain-sized moxibustion at two acupoints (CV 12 and CV 4), grain-sized moxibustion at three acupoints (CV 12, CV 4, and ST 36), and medication groups (n = 8/group). The UC model was established by enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Direct moxibustion was used once a day for 7 d. Disease activity index (DAI) was evaluated before and after the treatment. Morphologic changes of intestinal tissue were observed under an optical microscope. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) in colonic tissue was detected using Western blot, and the levels of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNAs were detected using reverse transcription PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intestinal mucosae were incomplete in the model group, glandular structures were irregular, and submucosae were edematous, hyperemic, and infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The DAI scores and expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were increased significantly in the model group compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were reduced significantly (Ps < 0.01). Compared with the model group, colonic mucosa and the arrangement of glands were complete and regular in the treatment groups. DAI scores and the expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were reduced significantly in moxibustion groups compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were increased significantly (Ps < 0.01). The improvements in the above indices in the three acupoints group and the medication group were superior to those in the single and two acupoints groups (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Reduction of TNF-α and p38MAPK and increased expression of

  14. 5-ASA-loaded SiO2 nanoparticles-a novel drug delivery system targeting therapy on ulcerative colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haiying; Xiang, Dan; Wang, Feng; Mao, Jingwei; Tan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yingde

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a first-line therapeutic agent for mild to moderate active ulcerative colitis (UC), to the site of inflammation has remained a challenge and an unmet requirement in the treatment of UC. However, nanoscale carriers for targeted drug delivery are promising for pharmacotherapy, and nanoparticles improve the pharmacokinetics of the loaded therapeutics based on their physical properties. To design and prepare 5-ASA-loaded silicon dioxide nanoparticles (5-ASA-SiO2 NPs), a micro-emulsion method was conducted, and their respective therapeutic effects were validated in a mouse model of UC. Cytotoxicity of 5-ASA-SiO2 NPs was detected in vitro using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method. The therapeutic effect of 5-ASA-SiO2 NPs was assessed based on their disease activity index (DAI), colon histopathology, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). SiO2 NPs were successfully prepared, and cytotoxicity of 5-ASA-SiO2 NPs was identified as being similar to 5-ASA and SiO2 NPs. DAI and colonic histopathology scores in the normal dosage, high dosage and the 5-ASA-SiO2 NP groups demonstrated a significant improvement when compared with the model group. DAI in the high dosage and 5-ASA-SiO2 NP groups also demonstrated a significant improvement when compared with the normal dosage group. However, MPO, serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in normal dosage, high dosage and 5-ASA-SiO2 NPs groups were significantly lower than in the model group, and these indexes in the high dosage group and 5-ASA-SiO2 NP group were significantly lower than that in the normal dosage group. Expression of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA in colonic mucosa in the normal dosage, high dosage and 5-ASA-SiO2 NP group was significantly lower than that in the model group. Colonic mucosal IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in the high dosage and 5-ASA-SiO2 NP groups was significantly lower than that in the normal dosage group (P<0.05). In

  15. Predicted spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited onto forests following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Matsuura, Toshiya; Nanko, Kazuki; Linkov, Igor; Shaw, George; Kaneko, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The majority of the area contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident is covered by forest. To facilitate effective countermeasure strategies to mitigate forest contamination, we simulated the spatio-temporal dynamics of radiocesium deposited into Japanese forest ecosystems in 2011 using a model that was developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The simulation revealed that the radiocesium inventories in tree and soil surface organic layer components drop rapidly during the first two years after the fallout. Over a period of one to two years, the radiocesium is predicted to move from the tree and surface organic soil to the mineral soil, which eventually becomes the largest radiocesium reservoir within forest ecosystems. Although the uncertainty of our simulations should be considered, the results provide a basis for understanding and anticipating the future dynamics of radiocesium in Japanese forests following the Fukushima accident. PMID:23995073

  16. Quantifying the dilution of the radiocesium contamination in Fukushima coastal river sediment (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J. Patrick; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Jaegler, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène

    2016-01-01

    Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in a 3000-km2 radioactive contamination plume. Here, we model the progressive dilution of the radiocesium contamination in 327 sediment samples from two neighboring catchments with different timing of soil decontamination. Overall, we demonstrate that there has been a ~90% decrease of the contribution of upstream contaminated soils to sediment transiting the coastal plains between 2012 (median – M – contribution of 73%, mean absolute deviation – MAD – of 27%) and 2015 (M 9%, MAD 6%). The occurrence of typhoons and the progress of decontamination in different tributaries of the Niida River resulted in temporary increases in local contamination. However, the much lower contribution of upstream contaminated soils to coastal plain sediment in November 2015 demonstrates that the source of the easily erodible, contaminated material has potentially been removed by decontamination, diluted by subsoils, or eroded and transported to the Pacific Ocean. PMID:27694832

  17. Chinese Evaluations of the U.S. Navy Submarine Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    schematic diagrams, and tables with performance criteria. 44. “美国雷声公司拟用商用流行技术更新潜 艇作战 系 统 ” [U.S. Raytheon Corporation Draws Up a Plan to Use COTS to...Upgrade Subs’ Systems], 情报指挥控制 系 统 与仿真 技术 [Intelligence, Command, Control, and Simulation Technology], no. 10 (2003), p. 19. 45. 戴维 [Dai Wei], “ESM 对潜艇支持的新...作用” [ESM’s New Role in Submarine Support], 情报指挥控制 系 统 与仿真技 术 [Intelligence, Command, Control, and Simulation Technology], no. 7 (1999), p. 19. 46. 李平

  18. Dehumidifying Air for Cooling & Refrigeration: Nanotechnology Membrane-based Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Dais is developing a product called NanoAir which dehumidifies the air entering a building to make air conditioning more energy efficient. The system uses a polymer membrane that allows moisture but not air to pass through it. A vacuum behind the membrane pulls water vapor from the air, and a second set of membranes releases the water vapor outside. The membrane’s high selectivity translates into reduced energy consumption for dehumidification. Dais’ design goals for NanoAir are the use of proprietary materials and processes and industry-standard installation techniques. NanoAir is also complementary to many other energy saving strategies, including energy recovery.

  19. [Hua Shou's social circle and his accomplishments and good medical reputation].

    PubMed

    Wang, J L

    2016-07-28

    Hua Shou was a very famous physician at the turn of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. In addition to his medical skills, his social communication was also very helpful to his fame. Under the tutorship of the Confucianist Han Shuo, and physicians such as Wang Jüzhong and Gao Dongyang in his early days, Hua Shou obtained two identities: Confucian scholar and doctor. The former helped Hua Shou get acceptance from literati group, meanwhile, Hua Shou's medical skill helped him deepen the communication among them. By means of his double identity, Hua Shou got acquaintance with many local and nation-wide scholars and politicians, including Zhao Lian, Chen Xingzhong, Wang Shuyu, Fang Guozhen, Song Xuanxi, Zhu You, Wang Xiyang, Song Lian, Liu Ji, through them Hua Shou's fame spread throughout the country. The whole set of"Lin xia"(Hermit identity) constructed by Ding Henian, Liu Renben and Dai Liang, help Hua Shou attain his bequeathed reputation.

  20. Predictive value of time-intensity curves obtained with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the follow-up of 30 patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, F; Bertone, A; Fanigliulo, L; Comparato, G; Aragona, G; Marinone, M G; Sbolli, G; Tansini, P; Fornari, F

    2009-12-01

    Sommario OBIETTIVI: La CEUS è in grado di quantificare accuratamente la microvascolarizzazione della parete intestinale nel Crohn. IPOTESI: L'infiammazione della parete intestinale non è correlata con la quantità di parete vascolarizzata (studi di pattern di vascolarizzazione - SPV), ma con il grado di flusso di parete durante un periodo di tempo (studi di intensità-tempo - SIT). Obiettivo è stato capire se gli studi SPV o quelli SIT con CEUS fossero espressione dell'infiammazione vascolare della parete intestinale e fossero correlabili con l'attività clinica di malattia (T0) o nel follow-up (tre e sei mesi: T3, T6). MATERIALI E METODI: 30 Crohn (M: 12; F: 18; età media: 41,96; terapia: 8 Pts 5-ASA; 13 steroide; 7 ANTI-TNF; 2 azatioprina) sono stati seguiti per almeno sei mesi e studiati con CEUS SPV e con CEUS SIT. È stato utilizzato come mezzo di contrasto il SonoVue (BR1, Bracco) e un ecografo dedicato (TECHNOS MPX, Esaote) con software per curve di time intensity. Quattro pattern vascolari (1: tutta la parete vascolarizzata; 2: più del 50% di parete con vascolarizzazione; 3: flusso solo all'interno della sottomucosa; 4: nessun segnale). Un'analisi semiquantitativa è stata ottenuta misurando l'area sotto la curva - AUC (cut-off tra attività ed inattività = 15), l'intensità media - MI (cut off = 10). Tutti gli esami sono stati eseguiti per 150 secondi, registrati e analizzati in modo digitale. RISULTATI: T0: cDAI <150 in 22 pts; cDAI > 150 in 8; T3: 22 pts con cDAI <150, 8 con cDAI >150. A T0 sia la CEUS SPV che la SIT hanno ottenuto bassa specificità, accuratezza diagnostica e valore predittivo negativo (p = ns); la CEUS SPV ha dato a T0: 8 VP, 15 VN, 8 FP, 0 FN (sens: 100%; spec: 68,2%; acc diagn: 69,5%; VPP: 100%; VPN: 53,3%); la CEUS SIT ha conseguito a T0: 6 VP, 18 VN, 4 FP, 2 FN (sens: 75%; spec: 81,8%; acc diagn: 75%; VPP: 60%; VPN: 90%). La CEUS SPV ha raggiunto a T3: 8 VP, 12 VN, 7 FP, 3 FN (sens: 72,7%; spec: 63,2%; acc diagn: 50%; VPP