This article focuses on two of the earlier works in the Makiguchi corpus, "Kyoju no togo chushin toshiteno kyodoka kenkyu" ("Research into Community Studies as the Integrating Focus of Instruction," 1912/1987; hereafter "Community Studies"), and "Chiri kyoju no hoho oyobi naiyo no kenkyu" ("Research into the Methods and Content of Geography…
Matoba, Masami; Sarkar Arani Mohammed Reza
In this paper, we examine how journal and ethnography field notes in Jugyou Kenkyu (lesson study) help teachers to understand the diverse range of talents and abilities of their students. Especially, we focus on how ethnography field note and reflective papers (karate) help teachers to change their assumptions about student learning. The data…
Spataro, B.; Alesini, D.; Chimenti, V.; Dolgashev, V.; Haase, A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Marrelli, C.; Mostacci, A.; Parodi, R.; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC
Two 11.424 GHz single cell standing wave accelerating structures have been fabricated for high gradient RF breakdown studies. Both are brazed structures: one made from copper and the other from sintered molybdenum bulk. The tests results are presented and compared to those of similar devices constructed at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and KEK (Ko Enerugi Kasokuki Kenkyu Kiko). The technological issues to build both sections are discussed.
Sclafani, Anthony; Touzani, Khalid; Ackroff, Karen
Mice acquire strong preferences for flavors paired with intragastric (IG) fat infusions. This IG fat conditioning is attenuated in double knockout (DoKO) mice missing GPR40 and GPR120 fatty acid receptors. Here we determined if GPR40/120 DoKO mice are also impaired in IG fat self-administration in an operant lick task. In daily 1-h sessions the mice were trained with a sipper spout that contained dry food pellets; licks on the spout triggered infusions of IG fat (Intralipid). The training sessions were followed by test sessions with an empty spout. GPR40/120 DoKO mice self-infused more 20% fat than wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice in training with a food-baited spout (2.4 vs. 2.0 kcal/h) but self-infused less 20% fat than WT mice in empty spout tests (1.2 vs. 1.7 kcal/h). The DoKO mice also self-infused less 5% fat than WT mice (0.6 vs. 1.3 kcal/h) although both groups emitted more licks for 5% fat than 20% fat. The DoKO and WT mice did not differ, however, in their self-infusion of 12.5% glucose (1.5 vs. 1.6 kcal/h), which is isocaloric to 5% fat. A second 5% IL test showed that the DoKO mice reverted to a reduced self-infusion compared to WT mice. When the infusion was shifted to water, WT mice reduced licking in the first extinction session, whereas DoKO mice were less sensitive to the absence of infused fat. Our results indicate that post-oral GPR40/120 signaling is not required to process IG fat infusions in food-baited spout training sessions but contributes to post-oral fat reinforcement in empty spout tests and flavor conditioning tests. PMID:25911263
Sclafani, Anthony; Touzani, Khalid; Ackroff, Karen
Mice acquire strong preferences for flavors paired with intragastric (IG) fat infusions. This IG fat conditioning is attenuated in double knockout (DoKO) mice missing GPR40 and GPR120 fatty acid receptors. Here we determined if GPR40/120 DoKO mice are also impaired in IG fat self-administration in an operant lick task. In daily 1-h sessions the mice were trained with a sipper spout that contained dry food pellets; licks on the spout triggered infusions of IG fat (Intralipid). The training sessions were followed by test sessions with an empty spout. GPR40/120 DoKO mice self-infused more 20% fat than wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice in training with a food-baited spout (2.4 vs. 2.0kcal/h) but self-infused less 20% fat than WT mice in empty spout tests (1.2 vs. 1.7kcal/h). The DoKO mice also self-infused less 5% fat than WT mice (0.6 vs. 1.3kcal/h) although both groups emitted more licks for 5% fat than 20% fat. The DoKO and WT mice did not differ, however, in their self-infusion of 12.5% glucose (1.5 vs. 1.6kcal/h), which is isocaloric to 5% fat. A second 5% IL test showed that the DoKO mice reverted to a reduced self-infusion compared to WT mice. When the infusion was shifted to water, WT mice reduced licking in the first extinction session, whereas DoKO mice were less sensitive to the absence of infused fat. Our results indicate that post-oral GPR40/120 signaling is not required to process IG fat infusions in food-baited spout training sessions but contributes to post-oral fat reinforcement in empty spout tests and flavor conditioning tests. PMID:25911263
Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen
In addition to orosensory signals, postoral actions of fat stimulate appetite and condition flavor preferences, but the gut sensors mediating these responses are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the fatty acid sensors GPR40 and GPR120 in postoral and oral preferences for a soybean oil emulsion (Intralipid). Mice were trained to drink a flavored solution (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) oil infusions and another flavored solution (CS-) paired with water infusions. Knockout (KO) mice missing GPR40 or GPR120 sensors increased their CS+ intake in one-bottle tests (1 h/day) but less so than wild-type (WT) mice. The KO mice also preferred the CS+ to CS- in a two-bottle test, but the preference was attenuated in GPR40 KO mice. Double-knockout (DoKO) mice missing both GPR40 and GPR120 displayed attenuated stimulation of CS+ intake and only a marginal CS+ preference. The DoKO mice developed a more substantial CS+ preference when tested 24 h/day, although weaker than that of WT mice. The DoKO mice also consumed less of the CS+ paired with IG Intralipid, as well as less Intralipid in oral tests. However, DoKO mice, like GPR40 KO and GPR120 KO mice did not differ from WT mice in their preference for Intralipid over water at 0.001%-20% concentrations. In contrast to prior results obtained with mice missing the CD36 fatty acid sensor, these findings indicate that, together, GPR40 and GPR120 play a critical role in the postoral stimulation of appetite by fat but are not essential for oral fat preferences. PMID:24154510
(Abstract only) Japan has about 100 years of history of variable star observing since Naozo Ichinohe, professional astronomer in Tokyo Observatory, observed d Cep in 1906. The first amateur variable star observer is Yoshihiko Kasai, who began observing variable stars in 1918. I introduce a brief history of Japanese amateur variable star observation, including topics of variable star organizations, nova and supernova hunters, collaborations with the AAVSO and the world, PEP and CCD observations. I also introduce the most active variable star observer, Hiroaki Narumi, who made over 260,000 visual estimates since 1975. VSOLJ was established in 1987 in collaborations with the variable star sections of Nihon Tenmon Kenkyu-kai (NTK) and the Oriental Astronomical Association (OAA). VSOLJ maintains a database of Japanese variable star observations (http://vsolj.cetus-net.org) and publishes the Variable Star Bulletin in English.
Degirolamo, Chiara; Gomaraschi, Monica; Graham, Mark; Ossoli, Alice; Larsson, Lilian; Calabresi, Laura; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Steffensen, Knut R.; Eriksson, Mats; Parini, Paolo
Objectives ACAT2 is the exclusive cholesterol-esterifying enzyme in hepatocytes and enterocytes. Hepatic ABCA1 transfers unesterified cholesterol (UC) to apoAI, thus generating HDL. By changing the hepatic UC pool available for ABCA1, ACAT2 may affect HDL metabolism. The aim of this study was to reveal whether hepatic ACAT2 influences HDL metabolism. Design WT and LXRα/β double knockout (DOKO) mice were fed a western-type diet for 8 weeks. Animals were i.p. injected with an antisense oligonucleotide targeted to hepatic ACAT2 (ASO6), or with an ASO control. Injections started 4 weeks after, or concomitantly with, the beginning of the diet. Results ASO6 reduced liver cholesteryl esters, while not inducing UC accumulation. ASO6 increased hepatic ABCA1 protein independently of the diet conditions. ASO6 affected HDL lipids (increased UC) only in DOKO, while it increased apoE-containing HDL in both genotypes. In WT mice ASO6 led to the appearance of large HDL enriched in apoAI and apoE. Conclusions The use of ASO6 revealed a new pathway by which the liver may contribute to HDL metabolism in mice. ACAT2 seems to be a hepatic player affecting the cholesterol fluxes fated to VLDL or to HDL, the latter via up-regulation of ABCA1. PMID:24695360
Even giving birth has become a political issue in the tense Yugoslav province of Kosovo. Although ethnic Albanians in the province outnumber Serbs by nearly 10-to-1, they live 2nd-class lives. One ethnic Albanian midwife who lives near the capital of Pristina says that 1500 babies have been born in her spare room during the past 20 months to women who preferred to take risks rather than go to Serb-run clinics. Women who come to the midwife--she did not want her name used or even the name of her town mentioned--give birth on a narrow cot covered with 2 soiled plastic sheets. They clench their teeth to stifle the pain--the midwife saves her meager supply of anesthetic for severe cases only. Next to the cot is a small cradle, but otherwise there is no sign that the room with its sofas and cabinets is a maternity clinic. Albanians have a birth rate of 34/1000 residents--Europe's highest. In Kosovo, about 200,000 Serbs are outnumbered by 1.8 million albanians, in the land Serbia cherishes as the cradle of it civilization. The Serbs say they are being swamped by Albanians, and in the past 10 years, waves of Serbs have left Kosovo, Yugoslavia's poorest province. At least 2000 have left in the past 12 months. But ethnic Albanians say it is the Serbs who practice demographic warfare. After a period of unrest in mid-1990. Serbian forces clamped down on an Albanian independence drive. Albanian doctors and nurses were fired. The gynecological clinic in Pristina lost some top specialists. "They did it to change the demographic map of Kosovo--to discourage Albanian births," said Dr. Flora Doko, president of the health committee of the Democratic League--the main Albanian opposition party, which has formed a government-in-exile and seeks independence for the province. Unconfirmed reports of Albanian babies being positioned in hospitals further inflamed the atmosphere in the suspicious society. There is no law discriminating against Albanians in medical care, but they claim
Frączek, Paweł; Kaliski, Maciej; Siemek, Paweł
The paper discusses the essence of Poland's energy security, decisive factors for its attainment and the structure of primary energy sources of the country. It describes the main problem areas in functioning of the energy sector in Poland, as well as the conditions for its modernization. The issues of increasing the natural gas share in the country's structure of primary energy sources and a construction of the first nuclear power plant in Poland have been particularly emphasised. The paper stresses that without modernizing actions it will be impossible for Poland to fulfil international obligations concerning changes in the functioning of the energy sector. The study, analysing the conditions for increasing the role of natural gas in Poland, points at the necessity to expand the gas infrastructure, to increase a scale of gas production from domestic deposits and to complete liberalization of the energy industry. It also emphasises that a potential delay in the construction of the country's first nuclear power plant may limit competitiveness of the economy. W artykule omówiono istotę bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Polski, czynniki decydujące o jego osiągnięciu oraz strukturę źródeł energii pierwotnej w kraju. Przedstawiono główne problemy funkcjonowania sektora energii w Polsce oraz uwarunkowania jego modernizacji. Szczególny nacisk położono na kwestie zwiększenia udziału gazu ziemnego w krajowej strukturze źródeł energii pierwotnej oraz budowy pierwszej elektrownii atomowej w Polsce. Podkreślono, że bez podjęcia działań modernizacyjnych niemożliwe będzie wypełnienie zobowiązań międzynarodowych Polski dotyczących zmian w sposobie funkcjonowania sektora energii. Analizując uwarunkowania zwiększenia znaczenia gazu ziemnego w Polsce, wskazano na konieczność rozbudowy infrastruktury gazowniczej, zwiększenia skali wydobycia gazu ziemnego z krajowych złóż oraz na kwestię dokończenia liberalizacji branży. Podkreślono, że dla zwi
Agiadi, K.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Girone, A.; Karakitsios, V.; Dermitzakis, M. D.
conditions, to produce a rather compex palaeoceanographic setting in the central part of the basin. In this respect, fish otoliths offer a unique opportunity to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental conditions in the entire water column and through time. D'Onghia, G., Lloris, D., Politou, C.-Y., Sion, L., Dokos, L. (2004) New records of deep-water teleost fishes in the Balearic Sea and Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Scientia Marina, 68(3): 171-183. Malanotte - Rizzoli, P., Manca, B.B., d'Alcala, M.R., Theocharis, A., Bergamasco, A., Bregant, D., Budillon, G., Civitarese, G., Georgopoulos, D., Michelato, A., Snsone, E., Scarazzato, P., Souvermezoglou, E. (1997). A synthesis of the Ionian Sea hydrography, circulation and water mass pathways during POEM-Phase I, Progress in Oceanography, 39: 153-204. Mytilineou, C., Politou, C.-Y., Papaconstantinou, C., Kavadas, S., D'Onghia, G., Sion, L. (2005) Deep-water fish fauna in the Eastern Ionian Sea. Belgian Journal of Zoology, 135 (2): 229-233. Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.L., Hureau, J.C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E. (1984) Fishes of the North-Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Unesco, I: 510pp.
László, Márton, ,, Dr.
varieties, estimated at 85-100 t/ha for potato, 75-85 t/ha for beet and 12-15 t/ha for wheat (Evans 1977). These are far higher than the yields commonly obtained in practice. World average yields were only 1/6th of the potential for potato, 1/6th for wheat and 2/5th for sugar beet in 1995. Utilization of the crop The major part of potato production is usually used for human consumption. Human consumption of potatoes however has declined in the industrialised countries as the standard of living has increased. In these countries an increasing proportion of the crop is used for manufacturing products such as crisp, oven-ready chips, dehydrated potato powder. Thus, in Hungary the consumption of potatoes per person decreased from 110 kg in 1951/1960 to 60 kg in 1995, whereas the consumption of processed potatoes increased from 1 to 15 kg/person during this period. Uptake of potassium Potassium is the nutrient taken up by potato in the greatest quantity, it also takes up much nitrogen and appreciable amounts of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Perrenoud 1993). Maximum uptakes by different varieties in Japan range between 140 and 267 K2O (Kali Kenkyu Kai 1980). In England, potatoes grown on the " blueprint" system and giving the very high yield of 77.7 t/ha took up 450 kg/ha K2O (Anderson and Hewgill 1978). Brazílian experiments with 6 varieties showed the following uptakes (kg/ha): potassium 207-367 (Motta 1976). Removal of potassium by tubers 23 experimental crops in France (Loué 1977), -with a mean yield of 37.3 t/ha tubers removed: 196 kg K2O, respectively. It is equal to 5.3 kg K2O per 1 tonne tuber. Motta Macedo (1976) reports the following removals in kg/ha for 6 varieties grown in Brazíl: K2O: 118-192. In 14 experiments in India (Grewal and Singh 1979) a mean yield of 28.8 t/ha tuber was obtained which removed an average of 91 kg/ha K2O. At very high yield level, nutrient removal in tuber is very high. Anderson and Hewgill (1978) report a yield of 90 t