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Sample records for kenkyu ni okeru

  1. Thermal expansion behavior of NiSi/NiSi2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. F.; Cavin, O. B.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal expansion of NiSi/NiSi2 for a range of temperatures from 293 to 1223 K was determined using high-temperature X-ray diffraction. While a linear relation with temperature was found for the lattice parameter of NiSi2, third-order relationships were found for the three lattice parameters of NiSi, with one of the parameters showing a decrease with increasing temperature. The volumetric expansion of both materials exhibited linear relationships.

  2. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  3. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  4. Ni and Ni/Pt filling inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj K; Titus, E; Tyagi, Pawan K; Palnitkar, Umesh; Misra, D S; Roy, Mainak; Dua, A K; Cojocaru, C S; Le Normand, F

    2003-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes are grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition with CH4 and H2 as precursor gases. Ni and Ni/Pt electroplated layers are used as catalysts for the synthesis of the tubes. We observe that a very efficient filling of the tubes takes place with Ni. In some cases Ni/Pt filling is also observed inside the tubes. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies, coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses of the tubes, indicate Ni nanorods with a highly symmetrical cylindrical structure. The diameter of the cylindrical nanorods is on the order of 40 nm, and their length is 660 nm. The nano area diffraction pattern of the nanorods reveals the cubic structure of nickel, and electron diffraction spots corresponding to (111), (200), (220) planes are evident. The lattice constant of Ni measured from the diffraction spots was found to be 0.347 +/- 0.0013 nm. This should be compared with 0.352 nm, the value of "a" in bulk Ni. The decrease in the lattice constant may be due to the strain experienced inside the tubes. Raman spectroscopy shows the typical signature of the tangential breathing mode present in the tubes at 1580 cm-1 that shifts to a new position when the C12 is replaced by 13C. The shift, however, is too small and is difficult to explain on the basis of mass difference. HRTEM experiments indicate the presence of Ni3C in the samples dominantly in the interfacial region.

  5. Thermally Induced Interdiffusion and Precipitation in a Ni/Ni 3 Al System

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, C.; Martinez, E.; Aguiar, J. A.; ...

    2015-05-20

    Ordered Ni 3Al intermetallic precipitates constitute the main hardening sources of Ni-based superalloys. Here, we report the interdiffusion and precipitation behavior in a Ni/Ni3Al model system. The deposition of Ni3Al on a pure Ni layer at 500°C generated L12-structured γ' (Ni3Al) precipitates, preferentially at the interface. After annealing at 800°C for 1 h, interdiffusion between Ni and Ni3Al layers occurred, and the γ' precipitates that grew near the parent Ni/Ni 3Al interface are ~2.8 times larger in size than those formed in the matrix. In conclusion, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that vacancies preferentially diffuse along the Ni/Ni 3Al interface, increasingmore » the probability of precipitation.« less

  6. Abnormal Intermetallic Compound Evolution in Ni/Sn/Ni and Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni Micro Solder Joints Under Thermomigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, N.; Deng, J. F.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M. L.; Ma, H. T.

    2017-04-01

    Interfacial reactions in Ni/Sn/Ni and Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni micro solder joints during thermomigration (TM) have been studied by reflowing solder joints on a hot plate. Asymmetrical growth and transformation of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were clearly observed. The growth of the Ni3Sn4 IMC in the Ni/Sn/Ni solder joints was always fast at the cold end and relatively slow at the hot end. Only asymmetrical growth of the Ni5Zn21 IMC in the Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni solder joints occurred at the beginning because Zn was the dominant TM species; however, asymmetrical transformation of the Ni5Zn21 IMC also occurred under the combined effect of Zn depletion and Ni dissolution and migration, resulting in formation of a thin τ-phase layer at the hot end and a thick τ-phase/Ni5Zn21/τ-phase sandwich structure at the cold end. TM of Ni and Zn atoms was identified towards the cold end, being responsible for the abnormal IMC evolution. Addition of Zn was found to slow the TM-induced IMC growth and Ni dissolution.

  7. Measurement of 59Ni and 63Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; He, Ming; Ruan, Xiangdong; Xu, Yongning; Shen, Hongtao; Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran; Lan, Xiaoxi; Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang; Cai, Li; Pang, Fangfang

    2015-10-01

    The long lived isotopes 59Ni and 63Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for 59Ni and 63Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of 59Ni and 63Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of 59Ni and 63Ni measurements are determined as 59Ni/Ni = 1 × 10-13 and 63Ni/Ni = 2 × 10-12, respectively.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Pure Ni and Ni-Sn Intermetallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yakymovych, A; Ipser, H

    2017-12-01

    The present research focused on the synthesis of Ni and Ni-Sn nanoparticles via a chemical reduction method using hydrazine hydrate. The syntheses were performed applying highly purified water or diethylene glycol as solvent. The produced nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The as-synthesized Ni-Sn nanoparticles with nominal starting ratios Ni:Sn = 3:1, 3:2, and 3:4 consisted of different amounts of pure Ni and a low-temperature Ni 3 Sn 2 phase. It was found that all synthesized nanopowders had a spherical shape with the largest average size for pure Ni and decreasing size for particles containing Sn. X-ray diffraction showed that all synthesized nanoparticles contained Ni and a low-temperature Ni 3 Sn 2 phase independent of the initial molar ratio; while Ni 3 Sn and Ni 3 Sn 4 could not be detected.

  9. Thermal decomposition of hydrated salts of Ni(II)-acetate and Ni(II)-lactate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciuš, Marijan; Ristić, Mira; Ivanda, Mile; Musić, Svetozar

    2013-07-01

    The formation and microstructure of thermal decomposition products obtained in air from Ni(II)-acetate tetrahydrate and Ni(II)-lactate tetrahydrate were investigated using XRD, Raman, UV/Vis/NIR and FE-SEM/EDS techniques. The formation of metallic Ni particles was due to the presence of acetate and lactate groups as reducens and with an increase in the heating temperature the reoxidation of Ni particles occurred. Crystallite sizes of Ni and NiO particles were in nanosize range and with increasing heating temperature the crystallite size of NiO particles was growing. The Raman spectra depended on the microstructure of NiO particles. Raman spectrum features of NiO were temperature dependent. UV/Vis/NIR spectra also showed a certain dependence on the microstructure of NiO samples. The crystal growth of NiO particles and the sintering effect were pronounced at the highest heating temperature.

  10. Thermal modeling of NiH2 batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponthus, Agnes-Marie; Alexandre, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The following are discussed: NiH2 battery mission and environment; NiH2 cell heat dissipation; Nodal software; model development general philosophy; NiH2 battery model development; and NiH2 experimental developments.

  11. Magnetic properties of trinuclear Ni-M-Ni complexes, M = Mn, Co and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakol, Orhan; Boča, Roman; Ercan, Ismail; Ercan, Filiz; Fuess, Hartmut; Haase, Wolfgang; Herchel, Radovan

    2006-05-01

    A tetradentate ligand, abbr. L 2- = dmSALPD 2- = N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediaminato dianion, has been complexed with metal ions in the presence of dimethylformamide (dmf) and nitrite anion. As a result, trinuclear molecular complexes of the type [M II{Ni(NO 2)(L 2-)(dmf)} 2], where M II = Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) were obtained. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization data were treated simultaneously during the fitting procedure. In addition to the isotropic exchange, the zero-field splitting parameters DA were added to the spin Hamiltonian. An anti-ferromagnetic interaction was found in all complexes and the single ion magnetic anisotropy parameter for the Ni(II) peripheral centers adopt considerable values.

  12. Revisiting El Niño Modokis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, Shamal; Ashok, Karumuri; Swapna, P.; Sabin, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    The suggestion that there exist two types of El Niño in the tropical Pacific has generated a debate in the community. Applying various linear and non-linear approaches and composite analysis technique on observed and reanalyzed climate datasets primarily for the 1950-2010 period, we revisit the variability of the tropical Pacific in the light of this debate. Our objective is to examine whether the proposed El Niño Modokis need a classification distinct from canonical El Niños. Even if the distinction is subject to short data records, we demonstrate that the El Niño Modoki events indeed display a seasonal evolution and teleconnections different from the canonical El Niños, and that the distinction is not subject to inclusion of the two extreme El Niños 1982 and 1997 as canonical El Niños. We show that the El Niño Modoki events are not an artifact associated with the orthogonality constraint associated with the EOF technique. Our cluster analysis shows that evolutions of the canonical El Niño and El Niño Modokis through various seasons differ from one another. Importantly, the dynamic and thermodynamic air-sea coupling strength is distinctly different between the El Niño Modoki and the canonical El Niño events. We find that, dynamic feedback intensity is stronger for El Niño Modoki (canonical El Niño) during boreal summer (winter); though the air-sea coupling strength, a major contributor to Bjerknes feedback, is maximum for Modokis during the developing stages, it decreases thereafter. In case of thermodynamic feedback intensity, SST-wind-evaporation feedback is dominant for El Niños while SST-SHF feedback is important during El Niño Modokis. However, we find that the thermodynamic feedback values significantly differ across the flux datasets.

  13. Direct Experimental Probe of the Ni(II)/Ni(III)/Ni(IV) Redox Evolution in LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 Electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Qiao, Ruimin; Wray, L. Andrew; Kim, Jung -Hyun; ...

    2015-11-11

    The LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 spinel is an appealing cathode material for next generation rechargeable Li-ion batteries due to its high operating voltage of ~4.7 V (vs Li/Li +). Although it is widely believed that the full range of electrochemical cycling involves the redox of Ni(II)/(IV), it has not been experimentally clarified whether Ni(III) exists as the intermediate state or a double-electron transfer takes place. Here, combined with theoretical calculations, we show unambiguous spectroscopic evidence of the Ni(III) state when the LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 electrode is half charged. This provides a direct verification of single-electron-transfer reactions in LiNi 0.5Mnmore » 1.5O 4 upon cycling, namely, from Ni(II) to Ni(III), then to Ni(IV). Additionally, by virtue of its surface sensitivity, soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy also reveals the electrochemically inactive Ni 2+ and Mn 2+ phases on the electrode surface. Our work provides the long-awaited clarification of the single-electron transfer mechanism in LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 electrodes. Furthermore, the experimental results serve as a benchmark for further spectroscopic characterizations of Ni-based battery electrodes.« less

  14. Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Peltier, Edward; Sparks, Donald L.

    2012-12-10

    The kinetics of Ni sorption to two Delaware agricultural soils were studied to quantitatively assess the relative importance of Ni adsorption on soil organic matter (SOM) and the formation of Ni layered double hydroxide (Ni-LDH) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were conducted with both soils at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 7.5 from 24 h up to 1 month. Time-resolved Ni speciation in soils was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during the kinetic experiments. A kinetics model was developed to describe Ni kinetic reactions under various reaction conditions and time scales, which integratedmore » Ni adsorption on SOM with Ni-LDH precipitation in soils. The soil Ni speciation (adsorbed phases and Ni-LDH) calculated using the kinetics model was consistent with that obtained through XAS analysis during the sorption processes. Under our experimental conditions, both modeling and XAS results demonstrated that Ni adsorption on SOM was dominant in the short term and the formation of Ni-LDH precipitates accounted for the long-term Ni sequestration in soils, and, more interestingly, that the adsorbed Ni may slowly transfer to Ni-LDH phases with longer reaction times.« less

  15. California Niño/Niña

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The present study shows the existence of intrinsic coastal air-sea coupled phenomenon in the coastal ocean off Baja California and California in boreal summer for the first time. It contributes significantly to the interannual sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies there. An initial decrease/increase in the equatorward alongshore surface winds weakens/strengthens the coastal upwelling and raises/lowers the coastal SSTs through oceanic mixed-layer processes. The resultant coastal warming/cooling, in turn, heats/cools the overlying atmosphere anomalously, decreases/increases the atmospheric pressure in the lower troposphere, generates an anomalous cross-shore pressure gradient, and thus reinforces or maintains the alongshore surface wind anomalies. The regional air-sea coupled phenomenon seems to be analogous to the well-known El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific but with much smaller time and space scales, and may be referred to as California Niño/Niña in its intrinsic sense. PMID:24763062

  16. California Niño/Niña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-04-01

    The present study shows the existence of intrinsic coastal air-sea coupled phenomenon in the coastal ocean off Baja California and California in boreal summer for the first time. It contributes significantly to the interannual sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies there. An initial decrease/increase in the equatorward alongshore surface winds weakens/strengthens the coastal upwelling and raises/lowers the coastal SSTs through oceanic mixed-layer processes. The resultant coastal warming/cooling, in turn, heats/cools the overlying atmosphere anomalously, decreases/increases the atmospheric pressure in the lower troposphere, generates an anomalous cross-shore pressure gradient, and thus reinforces or maintains the alongshore surface wind anomalies. The regional air-sea coupled phenomenon seems to be analogous to the well-known El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific but with much smaller time and space scales, and may be referred to as California Niño/Niña in its intrinsic sense.

  17. Tuning Ni-catalyzed CO 2 hydrogenation selectivity via Ni-ceria support interactions and Ni-Fe bimetallic formation

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Lea R.; Gomez, Elaine; Yan, Binhang

    2017-10-16

    CO 2 hydrogenation over Fe-modified Ni/CeO 2 catalysts was investigated in a batch reactor using time-resolved in situ FTIR spectroscopy. Low loading of Ni/CeO 2 was associated with high selectivity to CO over CH 4, while higher Ni loading improved CO 2 hydrogenation activity with a reduced CO selectivity. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed Ni to be metallic for all catalysts including the CO-selective low loading 0.5% Ni catalyst, suggesting that the selectivity trend is due to structural rather than oxidation state effects. The loading amount of 1.5% Ni was selected for co-impregnation with Fe, based on themore » significant shift in product selectivity towards CH 4 for that loading amount, in order to shift the selectivity towards CO while maintaining high activity. Temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results indicated bimetallic interactions between Ni and Fe, and XANES analysis showed that about 70% of Fe in the bimetallic catalysts was oxidized. The Ni-Fe catalysts demonstrated improved selectivity towards CO without significantly compromising activity, coupling the high activity of Ni catalysts and the high CO selectivity of Fe. The general trends in Ni loading and bimetallic modification should guide efforts to develop non-precious metal catalysts for the selective production of CO by CO 2 hydrogenation.« less

  18. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified NiAl/NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloy when compared to other NiAl based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed.

  19. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  20. Cytosolic Ni(II) Sensor in Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Patterson, Carl J.; Pernil, Rafael; Hess, Corinna R.; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2012-01-01

    Efflux of surplus Ni(II) across the outer and inner membranes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is mediated by the Nrs system under the control of a sensor of periplasmic Ni(II), NrsS. Here, we show that the product of ORF sll0176, which encodes a CsoR/RcnR-like protein now designated InrS (for internal nickel-responsive sensor), represses nrsD (NrsD is deduced to efflux Ni(II) across the inner membrane) from a cryptic promoter between the final two ORFs in the nrs operon. Transcripts initiated from the newly identified nrsD promoter accumulate in response to nickel or cobalt but not copper, and recombinant InrS forms specific, Ni(II)-inhibited complexes with the nrsD promoter region. Metal-dependent difference spectra of Ni(II)- and Cu(I)-InrS are similar to Cu(I)-sensing CsoR and dissimilar to Ni(II)/Co(II)-sensing RcnR, consistent with factors beyond the primary coordination sphere switching metal selectivity. Competition with chelators mag-fura-2, nitrilotriacetic acid, EDTA, and EGTA estimate KD Ni(II) for the tightest site of InrS as 2.05 (±1.5) × 10−14 m, and weaker KD Ni(II) for the cells' metal sensors of other types: Zn(II) co-repressor Zur, Co(II) activator CoaR, and Zn(II) derepressor ZiaR. Ni(II) transfer to InrS occurs upon addition to Ni(II) forms of each other sensor. InrS binds Ni(II) sufficiently tightly to derepress Ni(II) export at concentrations below KD Ni(II) of the other sensors. PMID:22356910

  1. Point defect evolution in Ni, NiFe and NiCr alloys from atomistic simulations and irradiation experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; ...

    2015-08-08

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we elucidate irradiation-induced point defect evolution in fcc pure Ni, Ni 0.5Fe 0.5, and Ni 0.8Cr 0.2 solid solution alloys. We find that irradiation-induced interstitials form dislocation loops that are of 1/3 <111>{111}-type, consistent with our experimental results. While the loops are formed in all the three materials, the kinetics of formation is considerably slower in NiFe and NiCr than in pure Ni, indicating that defect migration barriers and extended defect formation energies could be higher in the alloys than pure Ni. As a result, while larger size clusters are formed in pure Ni, smaller andmore » more clusters are observed in the alloys. The vacancy diffusion occurs at relatively higher temperatures than interstitials, and their clustering leads to formation of stacking fault tetrahedra, also consistent with our experiments. The results also show that the surviving Frenkel pairs are composition-dependent and are largely Ni dominated.« less

  2. Electroless Plated Co-Ni-P-B/Ni Foam Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride.

    PubMed

    Park, Daeil; Kim, Taegyu

    2016-02-01

    Co-Ni-P-B catalyst supported on Ni foam was prepared using electroless plating for hydrogen generation from an alkaline NaBH4 solution. Co-B, Co-P-B, and Co-Ni-B were prepared for comparison. Surface morphology of catalyst/Ni foams were observed using SEM analysis. The Co- Ni-P-B/Ni foam catalyst showed the superior performance on hydrogen generation rate due to the uniform formation of catalyst particles on the surface of Ni foam. Characteristics of hydrogen generation rate on the Co-N-P-B/Ni foam catalyst were investigated at the variety of NaBH4 and NaOH concentrations. The hydrogen generation rate increased with decreasing NaBH4 concentration, while increasing NaOH concentration. Durability test was performed, resulting in the stable hydrogen generation for 6 hours.

  3. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, MK; Jia, QY; Ramaswamy, N

    2015-03-12

    We report a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unpreeedented massactivity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). in alkaline electrolyte. The HER Oietics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-euride/C samples were evaluated in aquebus 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni-Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to munerous binary dor ternary Ni-alloys, inCluding Ni Mg materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide actsmore » as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a, sink for the H-ads, intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiO content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiO component-under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni-0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(O-x)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion.exchange ionomer (AEI), a serloua consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a: detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI.« less

  4. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Bates, Michael K; Jia, Qingying; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Allen, Robert J; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-03-12

    We report a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolyte. The HER kinetics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-oxide/C samples were evaluated in aqueous 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni-Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiO x and Cr 2 O 3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys, including Ni-Mo materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiO x sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OH ads , while the metallic Ni acts as a sink for the H ads intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiO x content and that the Cr 2 O 3 appears to stabilize the composite NiO x component under HER conditions (where NiO x would typically be reduced to metallic Ni 0 ). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(O x )/Cr 2 O 3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion exchange ionomer (AEI), a serious consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI.

  5. Revisiting El Niño Modokis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karumuri, A.; Date, S.; Panickal, S.; TP, S.

    2013-12-01

    Applying various linear and non-linear approaches and the composite analysis technique on observed and reanalyzed climate datasets primarily for the 1950-2010 period, we revisit the variability of the tropical Pacific. We demonstrate that the El Niño Modokis events indeed display a seasonal evolution and teleconnections different from the canonical El Niños, and that the distinction is not subject to inclusion of the two extreme El Niños 1982 and 1997 as canonical El Niños. Our cluster analysis shows that evolutions of the canonical El Niño and El Niño Modokis through various seasons differ from one another. Importantly, the air-sea coupling during the El Niño Modokis events is weaker as compared to the canonical El Niños. In addition to the well-known distinctions in teleconnections of both types of El Niños, the impacts on the rainfall variability of the Middle East through North Africa are found to be opposite to one another in boreal summer.

  6. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu

    2008-02-15

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermetmore » and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen.« less

  7. Characterization of Electrodeposited Nanoporous Ni and NiCu Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koboski, Kyla; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films are interesting candidates to catalyze certain reactions because of their large surface areas. This project focuses on the deposition of Ni and NiCu thin films on a Au substrate and further explores the catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Depositions are created using controlled potential electrolysis. Samples are then dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry. Before and after the dealloying, all the samples are characterized using multiple techniques. Electrochemical capacitance measurements allow comparisons of sample roughness. HER measurements characterize the reactivity of the sample with respect to the specific catalytic reaction. The Tafel equation is fit to the data to obtain information about the kinetics of the HER of the samples. Other methods for characterizing the samples include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The use of SEM allows images to be taken of the deposition to determine the change in the structure pre- and post- dealloy of the sample. EDS allows the elemental composition of the deposition to be determined before and after the dealloy stage. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-1126462, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  8. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface.

  9. Ni-Cu ion exchange observed for Ni(II)-porphyrins on Cu(111).

    PubMed

    Doyle, Catherine M; Cunniffe, John P; Krasnikov, Sergey A; Preobrajenski, Alexei B; Li, Zheshen; Sergeeva, Natalia N; Senge, Mathias O; Cafolla, Attilio A

    2014-04-04

    A Ni-Cu ion exchange has been observed for (5,15-dibromo-10,20-diphenylporphyrinato)nickel(II) (NiDBrDPP) and (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-bromophenyl)porphyrinato)nickel(II) (NiTBrPP) on Cu(111). The ion exchange proceeds at a faster rate for the NiDBrDPP/Cu(111) system compared to NiTBrPP/Cu(111). This is explained in terms of the macrocycle-substrate distance and the distortions that occur when the molecules are deposited on the Cu(111) surface.

  10. Where is La Niña?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-14

    Since the weak El Niño event of last winter, the equatorial Pacific has cooled and oceanographers have been on a La Niña watch. Thus far, equatorial waters have seesawed between cooling and the present slight warming.

  11. Who is El Niño?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, S. George

    It is a curious story, about a phenomenon we first welcomed as a blessing but now view with dismay, if not horror [Philander, 1998]. We named it El Niño for the child Jesus, provided it with relatives—La Niña and ENSO—and are devoting innumerable studies to the description and idealization of this family. These scriptures provide such a broad spectrum of historical, cultural, and scientific perspectives that there is now confusion about the identity of El Niño. Trenberth [1997] summarizes the situation as follows.The atmospheric component tied to El Niño is termed the “Southern Oscillation.” Scientists often call the phenomenon where the atmosphere and ocean collaborate ENSO, short for El Niño-Southern Oscillation. El Niño then corresponds to the warm phase of ENSO. The opposite “La Niña” (“the girl” in Spanish) phase consists of a basinwide cooling of the tropical Pacific and thus the cold phase of ENSO. However, for the public, the term for the whole phenomenon is “El Niño.”

  12. Preparation and characterization of Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite alloy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yurong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Shi, Jianhua; Mitsuzaki, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2014-02-01

    The preparation of Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite alloy coating on the surface of copper was achieved by co-deposition of Ni3.1B nanoparticles with Ni-P coating during electroless plating. Ni-P-B alloy coating was obtained by heat-treating the as-plated Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite coating. The effect of the concentration of sodium alginate, borax, thiourea, Ni3.1B, temperature, and pH value on the deposition rate and B content were investigated and determined to be: 30 g L-1, 10 g L-1, 2 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 70 °C and 9.0 , respectively. Sodium alginate and thiourea were played as surfactant for coating Ni3.1B nanoparticles and stabilizer for the plating bath, respectively. Ni-P/Ni3.1B composite coating had good performance such as corrosion resistance and solderability.

  13. Electrochemical properties of NiO-Ni nanocomposite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. H.; Tu, J. P.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, C. Q.; Li, Y.; Yuan, Y. F.; Wu, H. M.

    NiO-Ni nanocomposite was prepared by calcining a mixture of Ni 2(OH) 2CO 3 and ethanol in a tube furnace at 700 °C for 45 min in air. The microstructure and morphology of the powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the composite, nanoscale Ni particles (<10 nm) were dispersed in the NiO matrix (about 100 nm). Electrochemical tests showed that the nanocomposite had higher initial and reversible capacity than pure NiO. The presence of the nanoscale Ni phase had improved both of the initial coulombic efficiency and the cycling performance, due to its catalytic activity, which would facilitate the decomposition of Li 2O and the SEI during the charge process.

  14. A ternary Ni-Al-W EAM potential for Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qin-Na; Wang, Chong-Yu; Yu, Tao; Du, Jun-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Based on experiments and first-principles calculations, a ternary Ni-Al-W embedded-atom-method (EAM) potential is constructed for the Ni-based single crystal superalloys. The potential predicts that W atoms do not tend to form clusters in γ(Ni), which is consistent with experiments. The impurity diffusion of W in γ(Ni) is investigated using the five-frequency model. The diffusion coefficients and the diffusion activation energy of W are in reasonable agreement with the data in literatures. By W doping, the lattice misfit between the two phases decreases and the elastic constants of γ‧(Ni3Al) increase. As for alloyed elements Co, Re and W, the pinning effect of solute atom on the γ(Ni)/γ‧(Ni3Al) misfit dislocation increases with the increasing of the atomic radius.

  15. Lithiation of multilayer Ni/NiO electrodes: criticality of nickel layer thicknesses on conversion reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T.; Buchholz, D. Bruce

    2017-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the morphological changes in thin film electrodes with alternating Ni and NiO layers during lithiation as a function of the Ni buffer layer thickness.

  16. Capture of Hydrogen Using ZrNi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Lisa; Wales, Joshua; Lynch, David; Parrish, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    Water, as ice, is thought to reside in craters at the lunar poles along with CH4 and H2 . A proposed robotic mission for 2012 will utilize metal/metal hydrides for H2 recovery. Specifications are 99% capture of H2 initially at 5 bar and 100C (or greater), and degassing completely at 300C. Of 47-systems examined using the van't Hoff equation, 4 systems, Mg/MgH2, Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4, ZrNi/ZrNiH2.8, and Pd/PdH0.77, were considered likely candidates for further examination. It is essential, when selecting a system, to also examine questions regarding activation, kinetics, cyclic stability, and gas impurity effects. After considering those issues, ZrN1 was selected as the most promising candidate, as it is easily activated and rapidly forms ZrNiH 2.8 . In addition, it resists oxide poisoning by CO2, and H2O, while some oxidation by O2 is recommended for improved activation . The presence of hydrogen in the as received Zr-Ni alloy from Alfa Aesar posed additional technical problems. X-ray diffraction of the Zr-Ni powder (-325 mesh), with a Zr:Ni wt% ratio of 70:30, was found to consist of ZrH2, ZrNiH2.8, and ZrNi. ZrH2 in the alloy presented the risk that after degassing that both Zr and ZrNi would be present, and thus lead to erroneous results regarding the reactivity of ZrNi with H2 . Fortunately, ZrH2 is a highly stable hydride that does not degas H2 to any significant extent at temperatures below 300C. Based on equilibrium calculations for the decomposition of ZrH2, only 1 millionth of the hydride decomposed at 300C under a N2 atmosphere flowing at 25 ccm for 64 hours, the longest time for pretreatment employed in the investigation. It was possible, from the X-ray results and knowledge of the Zr:Ni ratio, to compute the composition of a pretreated specimen as being 76 wt% ZrNi and the balance ZrH2.

  17. Charge ordering in Ni 1 + / Ni 2 + nickelates: La 4 Ni 3 O 8 and La 3 Ni 2 O 6

    DOE PAGES

    Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren E.; ...

    2016-08-09

    Ab initio calculations allow us to establish a close connection between the Ruddlesden-Popper layered nickelates and cuprates not only in terms of filling of d levels (close to d 9) but also because they show Ni 1+(S = 1/2)/Ni 2+(S = 0) stripe ordering. We obtained the insulating charge-ordered ground state from a combination of structural distortions and magnetic order. The Ni 2+ ions are in a low-spin configuration (S = 0) yielding an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Ni 1+ S = 1/2 ions like the long-sought spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic insulator analog of the cuprate parent materials. Furthermore, the analogy extends further with the main contribution to the bands near the Fermi energy coming from hybridized Ni d more » $$_x$$ 2- $$_y$$ 2 and O $p$ states.« less

  18. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  19. Neutron Spectroscopic factors of 56Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Lynch, W. G.; Bazin, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, Daniel; Hodges, R.; Lee, Jenny; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J.; Youngs, M.; Famiano, M.; Clement, R. R. C.; Howard, M. E.; Cizewski, J. A.; O'Malley, P. D.; Manning, B.; Charity, R. J.; Charity, L. G.; Shapira, D.; Shmitt, K. T.

    2011-10-01

    The exact shell-structure of the unstable doubly-magic nucleus 56Ni has attracted a lot of interest recently. To test if 56Ni is a good core, 56Ni(p, d)55Ni transfer reactions were measured using 56Ni beam at two different energies, 37 MeV/u and 80 MeV/u, in inverse kinematics in two experiments. The second measurement was done in order to test the sensitivity of reaction cross sections and models to reaction energies. The measurements were performed at NSCL using HiRA array and S800 spectrometer. Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for the first experiment. The results show good agreement with shell-model calculations. Preliminary results of the measurements with 80 MeV/u beam will be presented as well. This work is funded by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0606007.

  20. Magnetic properties of Ni fine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furubayashi, T.; Nakatani, I.

    1990-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Ni fine particles, 3 nm in diameter, dispersed in an oil by a surface-active agent were examined by magnetization and Mössbauer measurements. From the magnetization measurements, the particles were found superparamagnetic at temperatures above about 40 K. The saturation magnetization at 4.2 K was reduced to 50% of that of bulk Ni. Mössbauer effect was measured for 57Fe-doped Ni particles and it was shown that the particles were not oxidized. A component ascribed to surface atoms was detected in the Mössbauer spectrum. The hyperfine field of 57Fe at 4.2 K was found to be smaller than that in bulk Ni correspondingly to the reduction of the magnetization. The Ni magnetic moment is considered to be reduced in the fine particles.

  1. The Ni-rich part of the Al–Ge–Ni phase diagram

    PubMed Central

    Jandl, Isabella; Reichmann, Thomas L.; Richter, Klaus W.

    2013-01-01

    The Ni-rich part of the ternary system Al–Ge–Ni (xNi > 50 at.%) was investigated by means of optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The two isothermal sections at 550 °C and 700 °C were determined. Within these two sections a new ternary phase, designated as τ4, AlyGe9−yNi13±x (hP66, Ga3Ge6Ni13-type) was detected and investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Another ternary low temperature phase, τ5, was found only in the isothermal section at 550 °C around the composition AlGeNi4. This compound was found to crystallise in the Co2Si type structure (oP12, Pnma). The structure was identified by Rietveld refinement of powder data. The NiAs type (B8) phase based on binary Ge3Ni5 revealed an extended solid solubility of Al and the two isotypic compounds AlNi3 and GeNi3 form a complete solid solution. Based on DTA results, six vertical sections at 55, 60, 70, 75 and 80 at.% Ni and at a constant Al:Ni ratio of 1:3 were constructed. Furthermore, the liquidus surface projection and the reaction scheme (Scheil diagram) were completed by combining our results with previous results from the Ni-poor part of the phase diagram. Six invariant ternary reactions were identified in the Ni-rich part of the system. PMID:27087754

  2. Melting relationships of the Ni-NiS system up to 10 GPa and the stability of the Ni3S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakawa, S.; Matsubara, R.; Katsura, T.; Watanabe, T.; Kikegawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    The planetary core consists of iron, nickel and light elements. Study of melting relationships of iron alloys is of important to understand formation, evolution and the present state of the planetary core. Addition of nickel to iron affects significantly the phase relationships of iron alloys. Study on the phase relationships of the Ni alloys provides fundamental information to evaluate the effects of Ni to the phase relationships of Fe alloys. We studied the melting relationships of the Ni-NiS system up to 10 GPa by quenching experiments and synchrotron radiation experiments. Quench experiments showed that the Ni-NiS system is a eutectic system with the intermediate compounds of Ni3S and Ni3S2 at 10 GPa. The eutectic point is located at S-rich side of Ni3S in contract with the Fe-FeS system, in which the eutectic point is located between Fe and Fe3S. Synchrotron radiation experiments revealed the eutectic melting temperatures of the Ni-NiS system as well as the subsolidus phase relationships. The Clapeyron slope of eutectic melting curve changes from negative to positive in associate with the formation of Ni3S as shown in the Fe-FeS system. The eutectic temperature of the Ni-NiS system is about 500 K lower than that of the Fe-FeS system at 10 GPa. Thus, the Ni addition to the Fe-FeS system affects the eutectic temperature as well as its composition. The Ni3S is an iso-structural with Fe3S, but it is a non-stoichiometric compound with Ni deficiency. Compression behavior of the Ni3S is slightly different from the stoichiometric Fe3S and Fe3P. The Ni3S forms at much lower pressure than the Fe3S, and it should expand the stability fields of (Fe,Ni) 3S to lower pressure.

  3. Influence of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Yao, Jiangfeng; Sun, Rui

    2018-03-01

    Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by thermal annealing of Ni NWs and variations in the microstructure, surface morphology, and magnetic properties of the NWs as a function of annealing temperature were investigated. The results showed that the grain size and crystal quality of NiO increased with an increasing annealing temperature. Specially, the effect of annealing temperature was much greater than annealing time for the formation of Ni/NiO NWs during the oxidization process. The total weight gain of the Ni/NiO NWs continuously increased when the annealing temperature was lower than 400 °C and the annealing time was more than 2 h; however, the weight gain of the Ni/NiO NWs was almost constant after annealing for 40 min when the annealing temperature was higher than 500 °C. The thorns on the surface of the Ni/NiO NWs gradually passivated and magnetic properties declined when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 °C to 400 °C. Smooth Ni/NiO NWs with no magnetic properties were prepared when the annealing temperature was over 500 °C. The detail study regarding the formation and evolution of Ni/NiO NWs is of considerable value and may provide useful information regarding the choice of post-treatment parameters for different applications of Ni/NiO NWs.

  4. Water dissociation on Ni(100), Ni(110), and Ni(111) surfaces: Reaction path approach to mode selectivity

    DOE PAGES

    Seenivasan, H.; Jackson, Bret; Tiwari, Ashwani K.

    2017-02-17

    We performed a comparative study of mode-selectivity of water dissociation on Ni(100), Ni(110), and Ni(111) surfaces at the same level of theory using a fully quantum approach based on the reaction path Hamiltonian. Calculations show that the barrier to water dissociation on the Ni(110) surface is significantly lower compared to its close-packed counterparts. Transition states for this reaction on all three surfaces involve the elongation of one of the O–H bonds. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the symmetric stretching and bending mode frequencies near the transition state is observed in all three cases and in the vibrational adiabatic approximation, excitationmore » of these softened modes results in a significant enhancement in reactivity. Inclusion of non-adiabatic couplings between modes results in the asymmetric stretching mode showing a similar enhancement of reactivity as the symmetric stretching mode. Dissociation probabilities calculated at a surface temperature of 300 K showed higher reactivity at lower collision energies compared to that of the static surface case, underlining the importance of lattice motion in enhancing reactivity. Mode selective behavior is similar on all the surfaces. Molecules with one-quantum of vibrational excitation in the symmetric stretch, at lower energies (up to 0.45 eV), are more reactive on Ni(110) than the Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces. But, the dissociation probabilities approach saturation on all the surfaces at higher incident energy values. Ultimately, Ni(110) is found to be highly reactive toward water dissociation among the low-index nickel surfaces owing to a low reaction barrier resulting from the openness and corrugation of the surface. These results show that the mode-selective behavior does not vary with different crystal facets of Ni qualitatively, but there is a significant quantitative effect.« less

  5. NiCd battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.; Turchan, M.; Hopkins, J.

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop and evaluate electrodes for a negative limited nickel-cadmium cell and to prove its feasibility. The program consisted of three phases: (1) the development of cadmium electrodes with high hydrogen overvoltage characteristics, (2) the testing of positive and negative plates, and (3) the fabrication and testing of complete negative limited NiCd cells. The following electrode structures were manufactured and their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated: (1) silver sinter-based Cd electrodes, (2) Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes, (3) electrodeposited Cd sponge, and (4) Cd-sinter structures. All cadmium electrode structures showed a sharp increase in potential at the end of charge, with the advent of hydrogen evolution occurring at approximately -1.3 V versus Hg/HgO. The hydrogen advent potentials on pure cadmium structures were 50 to 70 mV more cathodic than those of their silver-containing counterparts.

  6. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-xiao; Wang, Gui-xian; Liu, Jing-shun; Zhang, Lun-yong; Wang, Wei; Li, Ze; Wang, Qi-xiang; Sun, Jian-fei

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50 μm. The morphology of the Ni-Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni-Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 particles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni-Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 precipitates and a Ni-Al-O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  7. Alkali metal reactions with Ni(110) O and NiO(100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, A. F.; Jackson, S. D.; Roberts, M. W.; O'Shea, J.

    2000-05-01

    The interaction of alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with an Ni(110)-O surface has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The reaction at 300 K gives rise to a peroxide species together with a degree of reduction of the oxide to metallic nickel. With sodium an Ni(2p) feature attributed variously to Ni 3+ or a final-state effect for Ni 2+ is suppressed, consistent with its origins in an intersite screening process in NiO. At higher temperatures, lithium and potassium participate in a solid-state reaction with the oxide in which a trivalent nickel oxidation state (as LiNiO 2 and KNiO 2) is formed. Analogous reactions with sodium form the divalent nickelate Na 2NiO 2. Coadsorption of the alkali metal and oxygen on clean Ni(110) provides for optimum nickelate formation, whereas the presence of water inhibits the formation of Ni 3+ significantly. Similar experiments on NiO(100) suggest that the widespread practice of using thin oxide films to mimic bulk oxides may not always be justified.

  8. 61Ni synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of Ni nanoparticle composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Aoyama, Yoshimasa; Saito, Makina; Kitao, Shinji; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Shuichi; Mitsui, Takaya; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Seto, Makoto

    2018-12-01

    We obtained energy-domain 61Ni synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer absorption spectra of three materials that relate to nanoparticles: Ni2(C8O6H2) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), Ni nanoparticles synthesized by complete heat decomposition of the MOFs, and the composites of Ni nanoparticles and the MOFs synthesized by partial decomposition of the MOFs. The 61Ni abundance of all the samples was not enriched but we were successfully able to obtain their spectra in 1 day or less, by using a highly efficient measurement system where the internal conversion electrons from energy standard 61Ni86V14 foil were detected. Although both nanoparticle constituent and MOF constituent in the composites included Ni atoms, the Mössbauer parameters of the Ni nanoparticle constituent could be evaluated; the magnetic hyperfine field of the Ni nanoparticle constituent in the composites was different from that of the Ni nanoparticles obtained by the complete heat decomposition. This difference implied that the 3 d and/or 4 s electron configuration of the nanoparticle constituent were affected by the MOF constituent in the composites.

  9. Composite Ni/NiO-Cr2O3 Catalyst for Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Michael K.; Jia, Qingying; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Allen, Robert J.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    We report a Ni–Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline electrolyte. The HER kinetics of numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys and composite Ni/metal-oxide/C samples were evaluated in aqueous 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The highest HER mass-activity was observed for Ni–Cr materials which exhibit metallic Ni as well as NiOx and Cr2O3 phases as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis. The onset of the HER is significantly improved compared to numerous binary and ternary Ni-alloys, including Ni–Mo materials. It is likely that at adjacent Ni/NiOx sites, the oxide acts as a sink for OHads, while the metallic Ni acts as a sink for the Hads intermediate of the HER, thus minimizing the high activation energy of hydrogen evolution via water reduction. This is confirmed by in situ XAS studies that show that the synergistic HER enhancement is due to NiOx content and that the Cr2O3 appears to stabilize the composite NiOx component under HER conditions (where NiOx would typically be reduced to metallic Ni0). Furthermore, in contrast to Pt, the Ni(Ox)/Cr2O3 catalyst appears resistant to poisoning by the anion exchange ionomer (AEI), a serious consideration when applied to an anionic polymer electrolyte interface. Furthermore, we report a detailed model of the double layer interface which helps explain the observed ensemble effect in the presence of AEI. PMID:26191118

  10. A NiAs/Ni 2In-Type Phase Ni 1+ xSn (0.35< x<0.45) with Incommensurate Occupational Ordering of Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leineweber, A.; Ellner, M.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2001-06-01

    The previously reported, ordered low-temperature NiAs/Ni2In-type phase Ni1+xSn comprises in the concentration range 0.35NiAs-type arrangement, "NiSn," with the additional Ni atoms distributed over the trigonal-bipyramidal interstitial sites in an ordered way. Around the ideal composition Ni3Sn2 (0.45Ni contents (0.35Ni on the trigonal-bipyramidal interstitial sites has been suggested.

  11. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80–100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1–3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20–40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:27434640

  12. Utilization of Active Ni to Fabricate Pt-Ni Nanoframe/NiAl Layered Double Hydroxide Multifunctional Catalyst through In Situ Precipitation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fumin; Wang, Zheng; Luo, Liangfeng; Lu, Haiyuan; Zhou, Gang; Huang, Weixin; Hong, Xun; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2015-09-14

    Integration of different active sites into metallic catalysts, which may impart new properties and functionalities, is desirable yet challenging. Herein, a novel dealloying strategy is demonstrated to decorate nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) onto a Pt-Ni alloy surface. The incorporation of chemical etching of Pt-Ni alloy and in situ precipitation of LDH are studied by joint experimental and theoretical efforts. The initial Ni-rich Pt-Ni octahedra transform by interior erosion into Pt3 Ni nanoframes with enlarged surface areas. Furthermore, owing to the basic active sites of the decorated LDH together with the metallic sites of Pt3 Ni, the resulting Pt-Ni nanoframe/NiAl-LDH composites exhibit excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in the dehydrogenation of benzylamine and hydrogenation of furfural. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis of a novel Au nanoparticles decorated Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite and electrocatalytic performance for the detection of glucose in human serum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyuan; Xu, Qin; Shu, Yun; Hu, Xiaoya

    2018-07-01

    A nonenzymatic glucose electrochemical sensor was constructed based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated Ni metal-organic-framework (MOF)/Ni/NiO nanocomposite. Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite was synthesized by one-step calcination of Ni-MOF. Then AuNPs were loaded onto the Ni-based nanocomposites' surface through electrostatic adsorption. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, it is found that the AuNPs were well distributed on the surface of Ni-based nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) study showed the electrocatalytic activity of Au-Ni nanocomposite was highly improved after loading AuNPs onto it. Amperometric study demonstrated that the Au-Ni nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a high sensitivity of 2133.5 mA M -1 cm -2 and a wide linear range (0.4-900 μM) toward the oxidation of glucose with a detection limit as low as 0.1 μM. Moreover, the reproducibility, selectivity and stability of the sensor all exhibited outstanding performance. We applied the as-fabricated high performance sensor to measure the glucose levels in human serum and obtained satisfactory results. It is believed that AuNPs decorated Ni MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite provides a new platform for developing highly performance electrochemical sensors in practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An Ultrastable and High-Performance Flexible Fiber-Shaped Ni-Zn Battery based on a Ni-NiO Heterostructured Nanosheet Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yinxiang; Meng, Yue; Lai, Zhengzhe; Zhang, Xiyue; Yu, Minghao; Fang, Pingping; Wu, Mingmei; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the main bottleneck for the widespread application of Ni-Zn batteries is their poor cycling stability as a result of the irreversibility of the Ni-based cathode and dendrite formation of the Zn anode during the charging-discharging processes. Herein, a highly rechargeable, flexible, fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive electrochemical performance is rationally demonstrated by employing Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheets as the cathode. Benefiting from the improved conductivity and enhanced electroactivity of the Ni-NiO heterojunction nanosheet cathode, the as-fabricated fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery displays high capacity and admirable rate capability. More importantly, this Ni-NiO//Zn battery shows unprecedented cyclic durability both in aqueous (96.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) and polymer (almost no capacity attenuation after 10 000 cycles at 22.2 A g -1 ) electrolytes. Moreover, a peak energy density of 6.6 µWh cm -2 , together with a remarkable power density of 20.2 mW cm -2 , is achieved by the flexible quasi-solid-state fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery, outperforming most reported fiber-shaped energy-storage devices. Such a novel concept of a fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive stability will greatly enrich the flexible energy-storage technologies for future portable/wearable electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Induced histamine regulates Ni elution from an implanted Ni wire in mice by downregulating neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yu; Asakawa, Sanki; Sato, Taiki; Takano, Takayuki; Nakajyo, Takahisa; Mizuno, Natsumi; Segawa, Ryosuke; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2017-10-01

    Histamine regulates various inflammatory reactions. We have reported that the expression of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) was induced by subcutaneous implantation of nickel (Ni) wire. However, the source and functions of histamine in Ni elution and Ni wire-induced inflammation have not been completely studied. We aimed to elucidate the effects of de novo synthesized histamine on leucocyte infiltration and Ni elution. Implantation of Ni wire induced an increase in the Ni ion content of the surrounding tissues and serum and in the mRNA levels of HDC, a histamine-producing enzyme, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), a chemoattractant for neutrophils, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemoattractant for monocytes. The Ni wire induced HDC expression even in mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/W V mice. In HDC knockout (HDC KO) mice, the Ni wire-induced increase in MIP-2 mRNA expression was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice but not MCP-1. MIP-2 expression was enhanced in histamine H2 receptor knockout (H2R KO) mice but not in WBB6F1-W/W V mice. Histamine inhibited NiCl 2 -induced MIP-2 mRNA expression in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) obtained from wild-type mice; this inhibition was not observed in BMDMs from H2R KO mice. Ni elution increased in HDC KO mice, in which leucocyte infiltration also increased, and was suppressed in mice treated with neutrophil-specific antibody. These results suggest that the Ni wire induced HDC expression in non-mast cells and that, in the chronic phase of inflammation, endogenous histamine reduced Ni elution, probably through regulation of MIP-2 expression and neutrophil migration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ni antidot structure via single-step anodization of Al/Ni films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Sheung Mei; Wong, Wang Cheung; Fang, Xu; Ye, Hui; Leung, Chi Wah

    2017-12-01

    Antidot nanostructures were fabricated on Ni films by a single-step anodization process of magnetron-sputtered Al/Ni/W trilayers. Coercivity and saturation magnetization of the Ni layer were tuned by controlling the anodization time. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the mechanism of the antidot formation process. The present study provides a simple and direct route for the fabrication of magnetic antidot nanostructures for device applications.

  17. Enhanced electrochemical performance of porous NiO-Ni nanocomposite anode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifei; Dhanabalan, Abirami; Wang, Chunlei

    The nickel foam-supported porous NiO-Ni nanocomposite synthesized by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was investigated as anodes for lithium ion batteries. This anode was demonstrated to exhibit improved cycle performance as well as good rate capability. Ni particles in the composites provide a highly conductive medium for electron transfer during the conversion reaction of NiO with Li + and facilitate a more complete decomposition of Li 2O during charge with increased reversibility of conversion reaction. Moreover, the obtained porous structure is benefical to buffering the volume expansion/constriction during the cycling.

  18. Preparation of magnetic Ni/wollastonite and zeolite P/Ni/wollastonite composite fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinlong; Lu, Xinyuan; Huang, Huan; Duanmu, Chuansong; Zhou, Sumin; Gu, Xu; Chen, Jing

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic composite fibers with wollastonite (WO) core and Ni shell were prepared by electroless plating using natural mineral WO fibers as supporters. Zeolite P layers were then loaded on the surface of Ni/WO fibers by in situ hydrothermal method. The sample structure and properties were characterized via SEM, XRD, SQUID, EDX, and N2 adsorption. The compact Ni-P coatings on the surface of WO fibers resulted in good magnetic properties of the Ni/WO fibers and zeolite P/Ni/WO fibers. After two crystallization cycles, a continuous zeolite P layer could be formed on the surface of Ni-P coating. The zeolite loading improved the stability of Ni-P coating in the acid solution, resulting in that the zeolite P/Ni/WO fibers can be used at a wide pH range of 3-7. Zeolite P/Ni/WO fiber exhibited a good sorption property for Cu2+ in the aqueous solution (12.48 mg/g) and could be reused after regeneration, indicating that it could be an effective and reusable adsorbent for metal ions from a liquid system.

  19. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-09-09

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 10 13 to 5 × 10 15 ions cm –2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. Withmore » continuously increasing the ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.« less

  20. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  1. Thickness and ordering temperature of surface NiO/Ni systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Ying-Ta; Su, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chung-Wei

    2014-02-15

    We estimate the thickness and ordering temperature of an antiferromagnetic and passivation surface oxide through exchange bias coupling. The surface NiO, which is generated through the exposure of a Ni/Cu(001) surface to oxygen, is taken as a model system on which to perform the estimation. Since no exchange bias is found in the surface NiO/Ni/Cu(001), we have built a sandwich structure of NiO/n ML Ni/10 ML Co/Cu(001) to measure the n dependence of exchange bias. With n ⩽ 2, a large exchange bias field is found above 300 K, which could be due to the direct contact between the oxidesmore » and the Co layer. With 3 ⩽ n ⩽ 6, a smaller exchange bias field is found with a blocking temperature of 190 K. This implies that the thickness of NiO is, at most, 3 ML. Discovering the thickness and ordering temperature of the surface NiO provides us to explore the potential applications by using surface NiO.« less

  2. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  3. Single Particle States in ^56Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, Alisher; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.; Bazin, D.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Lee, Jenny; Rogers, A. M.; Signoracci, A.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; O'Malley, P.; Peters, W. A.; Schmitt, K.; Shapira, D.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.

    2010-11-01

    Neutron spectroscopic factor of ^56Ni using (p, d) neutron transfer reaction has been measured using 37 MeV/u ^56Ni beam in inverse kinematics. The measurement was performed at NSCL using the high resolution silicon array, HiRA, to detect the deuterons in coincidence with the recoil residues detected in the S800 spectrometer. To test if ^56Ni is a good core, the most direct way is to measure the single particle nature of the neutrons or protons in the f7/2 orbits. Direct measurements of the spectroscopic factors of the neutron hole state in ^56Ni using the pickup (p,d) reaction will determine if the neutron f7/2 orbit is indeed a closed shell. In present work, preliminary experimental results will be presented.

  4. Preparation of C/Ni-NiO composite nanofibers for anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chenghao; Lu, Weili; Li, Yu; Feng, Yiyu; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) embedded with various amounts of Ni and NiO nanoparticles (C/Ni-NiO) were prepared by electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), followed by heat treatment. The structure and composition of the obtained C/Ni-NiO composite nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results suggested that the morphology, nanofiber diameter, and the content of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles in the CNFs were controlled by different amounts of nickel acetate added into the PAN. The electrochemical measurements of a charge/discharge experiment and a cyclic voltammetry test indicated that the content and the size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles embedded in the CNFs had a great influence on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. CNFs embedded with a certain content of Ni-NiO nanoparticles as binder-free anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries exhibited improved electrochemical performance, including high reversible capacities, good capacity retention, and stable cycling performance. This is mainly ascribed to the formation of a well-distributed Ni-NiO nanoparticle structure and the buffering role of the carbon nanofiber matrix, together with the high theoretical capacity of NiO and the increase in electrode connectivity caused by the formation of electrochemically inactive Ni nanoparticles.

  5. Heteromorphic NiCo2S4/Ni3S2/Ni Foam as a Self-Standing Electrode for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Rao, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jialiang; Wang, Luyang; Wu, Mingbo

    2018-04-04

    Considerable works have been devoted on developing high-efficiency nonplatinum electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, 3D heteromorphic NiCo 2 S 4 /Ni 3 S 2 nanosheets network has been constructed on Ni foam (denoted as NiCo 2 S 4 /Ni 3 S 2 /NF) serving as a self-standing electrocatalyst through directly thermal sulfurization of a single-source NiCo-layered double hydroxide precursor. The resultant NiCo 2 S 4 /Ni 3 S 2 /NF electrode exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic HER performance with an extremely low onset overpotential of 15 mV and long-term durability in alkaline solution. Such enhanced HER performance can be credited to (1) the massive exposed active sites provided by mixed transition metal chalcogenides (NiCo 2 S 4 and Ni 3 S 2 ), (2) the strong interfacial interaction at NiCo 2 S 4 /Ni 3 S 2 heterojunction interfaces with the strengthened H binding, and (3) the porous highly conductive Ni foam substrate with accelerated electron transfer. This work opens up a new direction to fabricate effective and non-noble-metal electrodes for water splitting and hydrogen generation.

  6. The new structure type Gd3Ni7Al14.

    PubMed

    Pukas, Svitlana; Gladyshevskii, Roman

    2015-11-01

    The crystal structure of Gd3Ni7Al14 (trigadolinium heptanickel tetradecaaluminide) belongs to a family of two-layer structures and can be described as an assembly of interpenetrating centred straight prisms. For the Ni atoms, trigonal prisms (Al4Gd2 and Al6) are observed, the Al atoms are inside tetragonal (Ni2Al2Gd4, Ni2Al4Gd2, Al4Gd4, Ni4Al4 and Al8) and pentagonal (Ni4Al6 and Al10) prisms, while the Gd atoms are at the centres of pentagonal (Ni4Al6) and hexagonal (Ni4Al8) prisms. In each case, the true coordination polyhedron is a capped prism, also including atoms from the same layer. The structural features of Gd3Ni7Al14 are similar to those of the intermetallides PrNi2Al3 and ZrNiAl. In all these structures, Ni-centred trigonal prisms form infinite columns via common triangular faces. The columns share prism edges and form a three-dimensional framework with six-membered rings in the (001) plane in the case of the PrNi2Al3 and ZrNiAl types. In the case of Gd3Ni7Al14, six-membered rings are also observed, but only two-thirds of the rings are interconnected via prism edges.

  7. Improvement of Ni phytostabilization by inoculation of Ni resistant Bacillus megaterium SR28C.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Mani; Ma, Ying; Freitas, Helena

    2013-10-15

    The use of metal tolerant plants for the phytostabilization of metal contaminated soil is an area of extensive research and development. In this study the effects of inoculation of Ni-resistant bacterial strains on phytostabilization potential of various plants, including Brassica juncea, Luffa cylindrica and Sorghum halepense, were studied. A Ni-resistant bacterial strain SR28C was isolated from a nickel rich serpentine soil and identified as Bacillus megaterium based on the morphological features, biochemical characteristics and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain SR28C tolerated concentrations up to 1200 mg Ni L(-1) on a Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium. Besides, it showed high degree of resistance to various metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr) and antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and kanamycin) tested. In addition, the strain bound considerable amounts of Ni in their resting cells. Besides, the strain exhibited the plant growth promoting traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in modified Pikovskayas medium and LB medium, respectively in the absence and presence of Ni. Considering such potential, the effects of SR28C on the growth and Ni accumulation of B. juncea, L. cylindrica and S. halepense, were assessed with different concentrations of Ni in soil. Inoculation of SR28C stimulated the biomass of the test plants grown in both Ni contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Further, SR28C alleviated the detrimental effects of Ni by reducing its uptake and translocation to the plants. This study suggested that the PGPB inoculant due to its intrinsic abilities of growth promotion and attenuation of the toxic effects of Ni could be exploited for phytostabilization of Ni contaminated site. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H <0.15 Tesla, shows that the two systems present differences in spin dynamics vs temperature. While both samples exhibit a main peak in the muon relaxation rate vs temperature, at T ˜10 K for Cr7Ni and T ˜8 K for Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni , the two compounds have distinct additional features: Cr7Ni shows a shoulder in λ (T ) for T <8 K, while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni shows a flattening of λ (T ) for T <2 K down to temperatures as low as T =20 mK. The main peak of both systems is explained by a Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound (BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  9. Evaporative segregation in 80% Ni-20% Cr and 60% Fe-40% Ni alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. P.; Mukherjee, J. L.; Li, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical approach is outlined to calculate the evaporative segregation behavior in metallic alloys. The theoretical predictions are based on a 'normal' evaporation model and have been examined for Fe-Ni and Ni-Cr alloys. A fairly good agreement has been found between the predicted values and the experimental results found in the literature.

  10. Adios El Niño, Hello La Niña?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-22

    This image from NASA European Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2 shows that the moderate El Niño of the past year has officially bowed out, leaving his cool sibling, La Niña, poised to potentially take the equatorial stage.

  11. Magnetic properties of monodispersed Ni/NiO core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seto, Takafumi; Akinaga, Hiroyuki; Takano, Fumiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Orii, Takaaki; Hirasawa, Makoto

    2005-07-21

    We have recently developed a method to fabricate monodispersed Ni/NiO core-shell nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation. In this report, the size-dependent magnetic properties of monodispersed Ni/NiO core-shell nanoparticles were investigated. These nanoparticles were formed in two steps. The first was to fabricate a series of monodispersed Ni nanoparticles of 5 to 20 nm in diameter using a combination of laser ablation and size classification by a low-pressure differential mobility analyzer (DMA). The second step was to oxidize the surfaces of the Ni particles in situ to form core-shell structures. A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer was used to measure the magnetic properties of nanostructured films prepared by depositing the nanoparticles at room temperature. Ferromagnetism was observed in the magnetic hysteresis loop of the nanostructured films composed of core-shell nanoparticles with core diameters smaller than the superparamagnetic limit, which suggests the spin of Ni core was weakly exchange coupled with antiferromagnetic NiO shell. In contrast, smaller nanoparticles with core diameters of 3.0 nm exhibited superparamagnetism. The drastic change in the hysteresis loops between field-deposited and zero-field-deposited samples was attributable to the strong anisotropy that developed during the magnetic-field-assisted nanostructuring process.

  12. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  13. Preferential diffusion in concentrated solid solution alloys: NiFe, NiCo and NiCoCr

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Shijun; Osetsky, Yuri; Zhang, Yanwen

    2017-02-13

    In single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys (CSAs), including high entropy alloys (HEAs), remarkable mechanical properties are exhibited, as well as extraordinary corrosion and radiation resistance compared to pure metals and dilute alloys. But, the mechanisms responsible for these properties are unknown in many cases. In this work, we employ ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory to study the diffusion of interstitial atoms in Ni and Ni-based face-centered cubic CSAs including NiFe, NiCo and NiCoCr. We model the defect trajectories over >100 ps and estimate tracer diffusion coefficients, correlation factors and activation energies. Furthermore, we found that the diffusionmore » mass transport in CSAs is not only slower than that in pure components, i.e. sluggish diffusion, but also chemically non-homogeneous. The results obtained here can be used in understanding and predicting the atomic segregation and phase separation in CSAs under irradiation conditions.« less

  14. First-Principles Study of Substitution of Au for Ni in Ni3Sn4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yali; Wu, Ping

    2018-02-01

    First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the effects of substitution of Au for Ni on the structural, elastic, thermodynamic and electronic properties of Ni3Sn4. The calculated lattice constants for the pure phase are consistent with the reported values. Substitution of Au for Ni results in a stable thermodynamic structure. The bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, hardness and thermal conductivity are decreased and the relative brittleness is improved after substitution. A three-dimensional graphic representation of the anisotropy of Young's modulus indicates that substitution of Au for Ni increases the anisotropy. All of the compound compositions examined are metallic and nonmagnetic. The electronic density of states manifests a conjoined peak between - 6 eV and - 4 eV hybridized by Au-d electrons and Sn-p electrons when the fraction of Au atom is above 14.29 at.% in Ni3Sn4.

  15. Photosensitivity of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F with visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Osuka, Hisao; Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5, Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192; Shomura, Yasuhito

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase showed light sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New FT-IR bands were observed with light irradiation of the Ni-A state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPR g-values of the Ni-A state shifted upon light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The light-induced state converted back to the Ni-A state under the dark condition. -- Abstract: [NiFe] hydrogenase catalyzes reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen. Its active site is constructed of a hetero dinuclear Ni-Fe complex, and the oxidation state of the Ni ion changes according to the redox state of the enzyme. We found that the Ni-A state (an inactive unready, oxidized state) of [NiFe] hydrogenasemore » from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) is light sensitive and forms a new state (Ni-AL) with irradiation of visible light. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) bands at 1956, 2084 and 2094 cm{sup -1} of the Ni-A state shifted to 1971, 2086 and 2098 cm{sup -1} in the Ni-AL state. The g-values of g{sub x} = 2.30, g{sub y} = 2.23 and g{sub z} = 2.01 for the signals in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the Ni-A state at room temperature varied for -0.009, +0.012 and +0.010, respectively, upon light irradiation. The light-induced Ni-AL state converted back immediately to the Ni-A state under dark condition at room temperature. These results show that the coordination structure of the Fe site of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase is perturbed significantly by light irradiation with relatively small coordination change at the Ni site.« less

  16. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, A. V.; Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E.; Baidakov, K. V.; Knyazeva, S. S.; Ladenkov, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders with nominal compositions Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4 were prepared by the solid-state reaction synthesis with periodic regrinding during the calcination at 1073 K. The structure of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4 was refined assuming space group F d-3m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the average sizes of the crystalline ferrite particles are 130-630 nm for Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and 140-350 nm for Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4. The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and 57.1 emu/g for Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2Fe2O4. The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. The Curie temperature tends to increase upon Zn substitution by Co, as well. The temperature dependences of magnetization measured using zero-field cooled and field cooled protocols exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior.

  18. Zinc ions have a potential to attenuate both Ni ion uptake and Ni ion-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Ryo; Asakawa, Sanki; Segawa, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Natsumi; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2018-02-13

    Nickel ions (Ni 2+ ) are eluted from various metallic materials, such as medical devices implanted in human tissues. Previous studies have shown that Ni 2+ enters inflammatory cells inducing inflammation. However, the regulation of Ni 2+ uptake in cells has not yet been reported in detail. In the present study, we investigated the effects of various divalent cations on Ni 2+ uptake and Ni 2+ -induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in the human monocytic cell line, THP-1. We demonstrated that ZnCl 2, MnCl 2 , and CoCl 2 inhibited the Ni 2+ uptake, while CuCl 2 , FeCl 2 , MgCl 2 , and divalent metal transporter (DMT)-1 inhibitor, Chlorazol Black, did not. Furthermore, ZnCl 2 inhibited Ni 2+ -induced IL-8 production, correlating with the inhibition of Ni 2+ uptake. These results suggested that Ni 2+ uptake occurred through Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Co 2+ -sensitive transporters and that the inhibition of Ni 2+ uptake resulted in the inhibition of IL-8 production. Furthermore, using an Ni wire-implanted mouse model, we found that Ni wire-induced expression of mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA in the skin tissue surrounding the wire were enhanced by low Zn conditions. These results suggested that the physiological concentration of Zn 2+ modulates Ni 2+ uptake by inflammatory cells, and a Zn deficient state might increase sensitivity to Ni.

  19. Evolution of Ni nanofilaments and electromagnetic coupling in the resistive switching of NiO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Zhao, Diyang; Zhao, Yonggang; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Pengcheng; Guo, Minghua; Luo, Nannan; Jiang, Xingli; Miao, Peixian; Sun, Ying; Chen, Aitian; Lin, Zhu; Li, Jianqi; Duan, Wenhui; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Yayu

    2014-12-01

    Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found that multi-nanofilaments are involved in the low resistance state and the nanofilaments become thin and rupture separately in the RESET process with subsequent increase of the rupture gaps. Theoretical calculations reveal the role of oxygen vacancy amount in the evolution of Ni nanofilaments. We also demonstrate electromagnetic coupling in this system, which opens a new avenue for multifunctional devices.Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found

  20. Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Aparna; De Toro, J. A.; Amaral, V. S.; Muniz, P.; Riveiro, J. M.; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2014-02-01

    We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400-550 °C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X-ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5-13.5 nm and 2.3-4 nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130 K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature "TB" of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, right up to 300 K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above TB since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T > TB, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with TB denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.

  1. Cyclic creep and fatigue of TD-NiCr (thoria-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium), TD-Ni, and NiCr sheet at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, M. H.; Spera, D. A.; Klima, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    The resistance of thin TD-NiCr sheet to cyclic deformation was compared with that of TD-Ni and a conventional nickel-chromium alloy. Strains were determined by a calibration technique which combines room-temperature strain gage and deflection measurements with high-temperature deflection measurements. Analyses of the cyclic tests using measured tensile and creep-rupture data indicated that the TD-NiCr and NiCr alloy specimens failed by a cyclic creep mechanism. The TD-Ni specimens, on the other hand, failed by a fatigue mechanism.

  2. Magnetic quantum diesel engine in Ni2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, C. D.; Lefkidis, G.; Hübner, W.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum Diesel cycles are numerically realized using the electronic states of a Ni2 dimer. The quantum nature and the complexity of the electronic structure of the Ni2 dimer result in new features in the evolution of the pressure as well as in the heat-work transformation. The multitude of internal degrees of freedom in the isobaric process in molecules can result in crossing of the two adiabatic processes in the P-V diagram. The interplay of heat and work, originating from thermal nonequilibrium effects, can lead to a thermal efficiency of up to 100%. The spin moment of the Ni2 can be decreased by the isobaric process. To link the molecular heat capacity to easily accessible experimental quantities, we also calculate the Kerr effect and the magnetic susceptibility at different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  3. Synthesis and chemical transformation of Ni nanoparticles embedded in silica.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Brian B; Anderson, Bryan D; Kennedy, W Joshua; Tracy, Joseph B

    2017-12-07

    Ni nanoparticles (NPs) catalyze many chemical reactions, in which they can become contaminated or agglomerate, resulting in poorer performance. We report deposition of silica (SiO 2 ) onto Ni NPs from tetraethyl orthysilicate (TEOS) through a reverse microemulsion approach, which is accompanied by an unexpected etching process. Ni NPs with an average initial diameter of 27 nm were embedded in composite SiO 2 -overcoated Ni NPs (SiO 2 -Ni NPs) with an average diameter of 30 nm. Each SiO 2 -Ni NP contained a ∼7 nm oxidized Ni core and numerous smaller oxidized Ni NPs with diameters of ∼2 nm distributed throughout the SiO 2 shell. Etching of the Ni NPs is attributed to use of ammonium hydroxide as a catalyst for deposition of SiO 2 . Aliquots acquired during the deposition and etching process reveal agglomeration of SiO 2 and Ni NPs, followed by dissociation into highly uniform SiO 2 -Ni NPs. This etching and embedding process may also be extended to other core materials. The stability of SiO 2 -Ni NPs was also investigated under high-temperature oxidizing and reducing environments. The structure of the SiO 2 -Ni NPs remained significantly unchanged after both oxidation and reduction, which suggests structural durability when used for catalysis.

  4. Electrodeposition of Ni and CeO₂/Ni Nanotubes for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Electrode.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yumeng; Yi, Chenxi; Chen, Yu; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhao

    2018-07-01

    Ni NTs and CeO2-Ni nanotubes (NTs) have been prepared by galvanostatic electrodeposition in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) Templates. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize the prepared NTs. The results showed that the preparation process of CeO2-Ni NTs was accompanied by the formation of many new phases CeNix (x = 1, 2, 3.5 or 5) and preferential orientation crystal face of Ni in CeO2-Ni NTs is 〈111〉, which is different from that Ni 〈200〉 in Ni NTs. Then linear scan voltammetry (LSV) is applied to test the electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen revolution reaction (HER) of the two electrodes in 1 M NaCl aqueous solution and find that both of the two materials exhibited good performance. Finally, the kinetics analyses from the HER process showed that Tafel slope b was mainly dependent on phase composition and electric conductivity of the electrode, while j0 was mainly dependent on its real specific surface area.

  5. Blending Cr 2O 3 into a NiO-Ni electrocatalyst for sustained water splitting

    DOE PAGES

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Kenney, Michael James; ...

    2015-08-24

    The rising H 2 economy demands active and durable electrocatalysts based on low-cost, earth-abundant materials for water electrolysis/photolysis. Here we report nanoscale Ni metal cores over-coated by a Cr 2O 3-blended NiO layer synthesized on metallic foam substrates. The Ni@NiO/Cr 2O 3 triphase material exhibits superior activity and stability similar to Pt for the hydrogen-evolution reaction in basic solutions. The chemically stable Cr 2O 3 is crucial for preventing oxidation of the Ni core, maintaining abundant NiO/Ni interfaces as catalytically active sites in the heterostructure and thus imparting high stability to the hydrogen-evolution catalyst. The highly active and stable electrocatalystmore » enables an alkaline electrolyzer operating at 20 mA cm –2 at a voltage lower than 1.5 V, lasting longer than 3 weeks without decay. Thus, the non-precious metal catalysts afford a high efficiency of about 15 % for light-driven water splitting using GaAs solar cells.« less

  6. Radiation damage buildup and dislocation evolution in Ni and equiatomic multicomponent Ni-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levo, E.; Granberg, F.; Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.

    2017-07-01

    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations ("equiatomic") have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity.

  7. Ionizing Radiation Effects in Ni Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlimas, D.; Kozlovsky, A.; Shumskaya, A.; Kaniukov, E.; Ibragimova, M.; Zdorovets, M.; Kadyrzhanov, K.

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline nickel nanotubes with diameter of 380 nm and wall thickness 95 nm were synthesized by electrochemical method using PET track-etched membranes with thickness of 12 μm. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of Ni nanotubes irradiated with C+13 ions with energy 1.75 MeV/nucleon and fluence ranging from 109 to 5 × 1011 cm-2 was carried out. The ability of modification of structural parameters such as lattice parameter and the average size of crystallites and conductivity of Ni nanotubes by irradiation was shown.

  8. Selective laser ionisation of radionuclide 63Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, G. O.; D'yachkov, A. B.; Gorkunov, A. A.; Labozin, A. V.; Mironov, S. M.; Firsov, V. A.; Panchenko, V. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    We report a search for a scheme of selective laser stepwise ionisation of radionuclide 63Ni by radiation of a dye laser pumped by a copper vapour laser. A three-stage scheme is found with ionisation through an autoionising state (AIS): 3d 84s2 3F4(E = 0) → 3d 94p 1Fo3(31030.99 cm-1) → 3d 94d 2[7/2]4(49322.56 cm-1) → AIS(67707.61 cm-1) which, by employing saturated radiation intensities provides the ionisation selectivity of above 1200 for 63Ni.

  9. Charge state fractions of sputtered Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, H.-J.; Mühling, E.; Eckstein, W.

    1985-05-01

    Energy distributions of sputtered Ni ions and neutrals were measured at non-normal incidence of Ne and Ar ions. Only the Ni particles sputtered in a binary collision can be used for the determination of the charge state fractions. Monte Carlo simulations (TRIM SP) were used for the absolute calibration of the total intensity in the binary recoil peak. The charged fractions are found to be less than 10% for energies below 5 keV. The positive fraction is about one order of magnitude larger than the negative and the doubly charged fractions.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of NiCl2, Ni- and NiO-NPs in controlling oral bacterial growth and biofilm formation on oral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz

    2013-12-01

    Oral ailments are often treated with antibiotics, which are rendered ineffective as bacteria continue to develop resistance against them. It has been suggested that the nanoparticles (NPs) approach may provide a safer and viable alternative to traditional antibacterial agents. Therefore, nickel (Ni)- and nickel oxide (NiO)-NPs were synthesized, characterized and assessed for their efficacy in reducing oral bacterial load in vitro. Also, the effects of bulk compound NiCl2 (Ni ions), along with the Ni- and NiO-NPs on bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and biofilm formation on the surface of artificial teeth, and acrylic dentures, were investigated. Total bacteria from a healthy male were collected and adjusted to 4×109cells/ml for all the tests. Effect of the NPs on growth, biofilm formation, EPS production and acid production from glucose was tested using standard protocols. Data revealed that the Ni-NPs (average size 41.23nm) exhibited an IC50 value of 73.37μg/ml against total oral bacteria. While, NiO-NPs (average size 35.67nm) were found less effective with much higher IC50 value of 197.18μg/ml. Indeed, the Ni ions exhibited greater biocidal activity with an IC50 value of 70μg/ml. Similar results were obtained with biofilm inhibition on the surfaces of dental prostheses. The results explicitly suggested the effectiveness of tested Ni compounds on the growth of oral bacteria and biofilm formation in the order as NiCl2>Ni-NPs>NiO-NPs. The results elucidated that Ni-NPs could serve as effective nanoantibiotics against oral bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ni Foam-Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 -Graphene Sandwich Structure Electrode Materials: Facile Synthesis and High Supercapacitor Performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiangjiang; Su, Yichang; Hao, Jin; Liu, Fanggang; Han, Shuang; An, Jian; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-03-23

    A novel Ni foam-Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sandwich-structured electrode (NF-NN-G) with high areal mass loading (8.33 mg cm -2 ) has been developed by sulfidation and hydrolysis reactions. The conductivity of Ni 3 S 2 and Ni(OH) 2 were both improved. The upper layer of Ni(OH) 2 , covered with a thin graphene film, is formed in situ from the surface of the lower layer of Ni 3 S 2 , whereas the Ni 3 S 2 grown on Ni foam substrate mainly acts as a rough support bridging the Ni(OH) 2 and Ni foam. The graphene stabilized the Ni(OH) 2 and the electrochemical properties were effectively enhanced. The as-synthesized NF-NN-G-5mg electrode shows a high specific capacitance (2258 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 or 18.81 F cm -2 at 8.33 mA cm -2 ) and an outstanding rate property (1010 F g -1 at 20 Ag -1 or 8.413 F cm -2 at 166.6 mA cm -2 ). This result is around double the capacitance achieved in previous research on Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 /3DGN composites (3DGN=three-dimensional graphene network). In addition, the as-fabricated NF-NN-G-5mg composite electrode has an excellent cycle life with no capacitance loss after 3000 cycles, indicating a potential application as an efficient electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Perpendicularly magnetized spin filtering Cu/Ni multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Wada, Eiji; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2014-01-20

    Spin filtering at perpendicular magnetized Cu/Ni multilayer/GaAs(001) interfaces is demonstrated at remanence using optical spin orientation method. [Cu(9 nm)/Ni(t{sub Ni} nm)]{sub n} multilayers are found to show a crossover from the in-plane to out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy at the Cu/Ni bilayer repetition n = 4 and the Ni layer thickness t{sub Ni} = 3. For a perpendicularly magnetized Cu/Ni multilayer/n-GaAs(001) interface, circular polarization dependent photocurrent shows a clear hysteretic behavior under optical spin orientation conditions as a function of magnetic field out-of-plane while the bias dependence exhibits a substantial peak at a forward bias, verifying that Cu/Ni multilayers work as an efficient spin filter in themore » remanent state.« less

  13. Enhancement of porous silicon photoluminescence using (Ni) treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabil, M.; Elnouby, M.; Gayeh, N.; Sakr, A. H.; Motaweh, H. A.

    2017-10-01

    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS). Self-organized (PS) can be used in various fields. The deposition of metal nanoparticles (Ni) allows utilizing the obtained nano-composite for numerous applications such as sensor technology, biomedicine, and many more. (Ni/PS) nano-composite powders are prepared using Ni deposition on the PS powder surface. The (Ni/PS) powders became hydrophilic by the deposited Ni nanoparticles. At the different percentages of (Ni: PS), at a higher percentage than (3:1) the values of the crystallite size of Ni and PS are nearly equivalent which suggests the saturation case of PS surface by Ni particles. It also depends on the deposition time value. In this study, that is the commercialization of nanostructured materials, it is important that the manufacturing costs are appropriate and inexpensive for large scale production, in addition, the enhancement of the photoluminescence intensity of (PS).

  14. Hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol over Ni-based catalysts obtained from Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beixiao; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Peng, Lincai; Jiang, Longfei

    2010-07-29

    A series of Ni-based catalysts were prepared using hydrogen reduction of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (Ni/Al HTlcs) synthesized by coprecipitation. The physico-chemical properties of Ni/Al hydrotalcite-like compounds and the corresponding Ni-based catalysts were characterized using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), BET surface areas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results indicated that Ni/Al HTlcs with layered structures could be successfully prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the characteristic HTlcs reflections were also observed in the XRD analysis. The NiO and Ni0 phases were identified in all Ni-based catalysts, which displayed randomly interconnected pores and no layer structures. In addition, the studies also found the Ni/Al HTlcs and Ni-based catalysts had high specific surface areas, low pore volumes and low pore diameters. The catalytic hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol with Ni-based catalysts was also investigated. Among the studied catalysts, RE1NASH-110-3 showed the highest selectivity and yield of ethyl acetate to ethanol, which were 68.2% and 61.7%, respectively. At the same time, a major by-product, butyl acetate, was formed due to an ester-exchange reaction. A proposed hydrogenation pathway for ethyl acetate over Ni-based catalysts was suggested.

  15. Simple solution-combustion synthesis of Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites with highly electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Ni, Yonghong; Zhai, Muheng

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal and its oxide composite nanomaterials are attracting increasing research interest due to their superior properties and extensive applications in many fields. In this paper, Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites were successfully synthesized in one step via a simple solution-combustion route, employing NiCl2 as the Ni source, oxygen in the atmosphere as the oxygen source, and ethanol as the solvent. The final product was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), (high resolution) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM), and Raman spectra. N2 gas sorption-desorption experiments uncovered that the BET surface area of Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites reached 161.9 m2 g-1, far higher than 34.2 m2 g-1 of Ni-NiO. The electrochemical measurement showed that the as-produced Ni-NiO@C nanocomposites presented better catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of methanol than Ni-NiO and NiO, which provides a new catalyst selection for the electro-oxidation of methanol.

  16. Effect of Synthetic Levers on Nickel Phosphide Nanoparticle Formation: Ni5P4 and NiP2.

    PubMed

    Li, Da; Senevirathne, Keerthi; Aquilina, Lance; Brock, Stephanie L

    2015-08-17

    Due to their unique catalytic, electronic, and redox processes, Ni5P4 and NiP2 nanoparticles are of interest for a wide-range of applications from the hydrogen evolution reaction to energy storage (batteries); yet synthetic approaches to these materials are limited. In the present work, a phase-control strategy enabling the arrested-precipitation synthesis of nanoparticles of Ni5P4 and NiP2 as phase-pure samples using different Ni organometallic precursors and trioctylphosphine (TOP) is described. The composition and purity of the product can be tuned by changing key synthetic levers, including the Ni precursor, the oleylamine (OAm) coordinating solvent and TOP concentrations, temperature, time, and the presence or absence of a moderate temperature soak step to facilitate formation of Ni and/or Ni-P amorphous nanoparticle intermediates. Notably, the 230 °C intermediate step favors the ultimate formation of Ni2P and hinders further phosphidation to form Ni5P4 or NiP2 as phase-pure products. In the absence of this step, increasing the P/Ni ratio (13-20), reaction temperature (350-385 °C), and time (10-48 h) favors more P-rich phases, and these parameters can be adjusted to generate either Ni5P4 or NiP2. The phase of the obtained particles can also be tuned between pure Ni2P to Ni5P4 and NiP2 by simply decreasing the OAm/TOP ratio and/or changing the nickel precursor (nickel(II)acetylacetonate, nickel(II)acetate tetrahydrate, or bis(cyclooctadiene)nickel(0)). However, at high concentrations of OAm, the product formed is the same regardless of Ni precursor, suggesting the formation of a uniform Ni intermediate (an Ni-oleylamine complex) under these conditions that is responsible for product distribution. Intriguingly, under the extreme phosphidation conditions required to favor Ni5P4 and NiP2 over Ni2P (large excess of TOP), the 20-30 nm crystallites assemble into supraparticles with diameters of 100-500 nm. These factors are discussed in light of a comprehensive

  17. Playing hide and seek with El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    A much-anticipated 'monster' El Niño failed to materialize in 2014, whereas an unforeseen strong El Niño is developing in 2015. El Niño continues to surprise us, despite decades of research into its causes. Natural variations most probably account for recent events, but climate change may also have played a role.

  18. Composition spread studies of (RE)NiO3-LaNiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchoski, Richard; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Jin, Kui; Greene, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Epitaxial thin films of LaxNd1-xNiO3 and LaxPr1-xNiO3 were grown via pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 (001) with an automated moving shutter system to create 100 nm thick composition spreads. These films have the advantage of providing a continuous spectrum of doping compositions at the same deposition conditions, such as temperature and oxygen pressure, without the need to prepare different stoichiometric targets or perform different depositions for desired compositions. Composition evolution is verified via wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction mapping shows that the lattice constant of the film varies continuously from LaNiO3 to NdNiO3. Simultaneous measurements of resistance versus temperature down to 4.2 K across the spreads show evolution in transport behavior. The details will be discussed.

  19. TEM studies of oxidized NiAl and Ni3Al cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Ruhle, M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections of oxide scale/(Ni-Al) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily TEM. The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped beta-NiAl cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent Al2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high dislocation density in the metal near the interface suggested that a large tensile stress was induced by the attached oxide scale. A duplex Al2O3-NiAl2O4 scale formed on zirconium-doped and zirconium/boron-doped gamma-prime-Ni3Al alloys. Additional results are presented involving oxidation mechanisms and oxide-metal interface structures.

  20. Epitaxial fabrication of two-dimensional NiSe2 on Ni(111) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yan; Song, Shiru; Wu, Xu; Qi, Jing; Lu, Hongliang; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Shiyu; Liu, Zhongliu; Wang, Jiaou; Shi, Dongxia; Du, Shixuan; Wang, Yeliang; Gao, H.-J.

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) receive significant attention due to their intriguing physical properties for both fundamental research and potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. A high-quality 2D film of NiSe2, a TMD material, is grown epitaxially by a single step direct selenization of a Ni(111) substrate. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory calculations are combined to confirm the formation and structure of the film, revealing a (√3 × √3) superlattice of the NiSe2 film formed on the (√7 × √7) superlattice of the substrate. Fabrication of this 2D NiSe2 film opens opportunities to research its applications, especially for electrocatalysis and energy storage devices.

  1. Temperature-dependent growth shapes of Ni nanoclusters on NiAl(110).

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Ünal, Barış; Jing, Dapeng; Thiel, P A; Evans, J W

    2011-08-28

    Scanning tunneling microscopy studies reveal that two-dimensional nanoscale Ni islands formed by deposition of Ni on NiAl(110) between 200-400 K exhibit far-from-equilibrium growth shapes which change systematically with temperature. Island structure reflects the two types of adsorption sites available for Ni adatoms, and island shapes are controlled by the details of adatom diffusion along island edges accounting for numerous local configurations. The temperature dependence of the island shapes is captured and elucidated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a realistic atomistic-level multisite lattice-gas model incorporating precise diffusion barriers. These barriers are obtained by utilizing density functional theory to probe energetics not just at adsorption sites but also at transition states for diffusion. This success demonstrates a capability for predictive atomistic-level modeling of nanocluster formation and shape selection in systems that have a high level of energetic and kinetic complexity. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  2. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Chen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2/r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol-1 L s-1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents.

  3. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni3Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni3Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni3Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill rule of mixtures.

  4. Properties of NiAl and Ni-Al-N thin films deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating using elemental Ni and Al targets.

    PubMed

    Baig, M N; Ahmed, W; Khalid, F A; Said, R M; McLaughlin, J

    2009-07-01

    Approximately 1 microm thick NiAl and Ni-Al-N thin films have been deposited from individual elemental Ni (99.5% pure) and Al (99.5% pure) targets onto glass and stainless steel 316 substrates using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion platting (CFUBMSIP) process. The films have been characterized using stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction patterns of both types of thin films produced confirmed the formation of beta-NiAl phase. The EDAX results revealed that all of the NiAl thin films produced exhibited the near equiatomic NiAl phase with the best results given by the one deposited using 300 Watts DC power for Ni and 400 Watts DC power for Al targets respectively. However, the Ni-Al-N thin films showed a Ni-rich NiAl phase. AFM results of both types of films produced carried out on glass samples exhibited that the coatings have quite a smooth surface with surface roughness in nanometres range.

  5. El Niño in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kug, Jong-Seong; Dewitte, Boris; Kwon, Min-Ho; Kirtman, Ben P; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2009-09-24

    El Niño events, characterized by anomalous warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, have global climatic teleconnections and are the most dominant feature of cyclic climate variability on subdecadal timescales. Understanding changes in the frequency or characteristics of El Niño events in a changing climate is therefore of broad scientific and socioeconomic interest. Recent studies show that the canonical El Niño has become less frequent and that a different kind of El Niño has become more common during the late twentieth century, in which warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central Pacific are flanked on the east and west by cooler SSTs. This type of El Niño, termed the central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño; also termed the dateline El Niño, El Niño Modoki or warm pool El Niño), differs from the canonical eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño) in both the location of maximum SST anomalies and tropical-midlatitude teleconnections. Here we show changes in the ratio of CP-El Niño to EP-El Niño under projected global warming scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 multi-model data set. Using calculations based on historical El Niño indices, we find that projections of anthropogenic climate change are associated with an increased frequency of the CP-El Niño compared to the EP-El Niño. When restricted to the six climate models with the best representation of the twentieth-century ratio of CP-El Niño to EP-El Niño, the occurrence ratio of CP-El Niño/EP-El Niño is projected to increase as much as five times under global warming. The change is related to a flattening of the thermocline in the equatorial Pacific.

  6. Superconductivity in Bi/Ni bilayer system: Clear role of superconducting phases found at Bi/Ni interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L. Y.; Xing, Y. T.; Merino, I. L. C.; Micklitz, H.; Franceschini, D. F.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Bell, D. C.; Solórzano, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    Bi/Ni bilayers with varying Bi and Ni layer thicknesses have been prepared by (a) pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at 300 K and (b) thermal evaporation at 4.2 K. A two-step superconducting transition appears on the electrical transport measurements in the samples prepared by PLD. High-resolution transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy, supported by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis, reveal that two superconducting intermetallic alloys, namely NiBi and NiBi3, are formed by interdiffusion, if the bilayers are prepared at 300 K. The Tc of the two phases behaves very differently in an external magnetic field and the upper critical magnetic fields at zero temperature [Bc 2(0 ) ] were estimated as 1.1 and 7.4 T, respectively. The lower value corresponds to the Bc 2(0) of NiBi3 phase and the higher one is supposed to be of NiBi. These alloys are responsible for the superconductivity and the two-step transition appearing in the Bi/Ni bilayer system. Surprisingly, the Bi-rich phase (NiBi3) is formed near the Ni layer, while the Ni-rich phase (NiBi) is formed far from the Ni layer. The EDXS analysis at nanometer scale clearly shows an unusual increase of Ni concentration near the interface of Bi/substrate. The limited thickness of Bi layer in the interdiffusion process results in an unexpected distribution of Ni concentration. Samples prepared at 4.2 K after annealing at 300 K do not show any superconductivity, which indicates that a nonepitaxial Bi/Ni interface does not induce superconductivity in the case interdiffusion does not occur. These results offer a deeper understanding of the superconductivity in the Bi/Ni bilayer system.

  7. Formation of β-NiAl Phase During Casting of a Ni-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detrois, Martin; Jablonski, Paul D.

    2018-04-01

    A high-refractory Ni-based superalloy prototype was melted on a research scale while simulating industry practices. Ingots were vacuum induction melted and subjected to a computationally optimized homogenization heat treatment prior to fabrication which consisted of forging and hot rolling. Failure of one of the ingots at the early stage of the forging process was attributed to the precipitation of the β-NiAl phase during melting which stabilized the eutectic constituent.

  8. Charge state fractions of Ni sputtered by Ne and Ne reflected from Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, W.; Barth, H. J.; Mühling, E.

    1986-04-01

    Charge state fractions of sputtered Ni and reflected Ne particles are determined from the measurement of energy distributions in different charge states for non-normal incidence in the energy range from 1 to 13 keV. It has been found that the charge state fractions depend on the type of collision. Monte Carlo simulations (TRIM.SP) were used to determine the ionization efficiency for the neutral Ni atoms in the N 2 stripping cell.

  9. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T.; Buchholz, D. Bruce

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) -> Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine andmore » lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (similar to 800 mA h g(-1) after similar to 100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction.« less

  10. A New Polycrystalline Co-Ni Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, M.; Mulvey, P.; Ismail, F.; Radecka, A.; Rahman, K. M.; Lindley, T. C.; Shollock, B. A.; Hardy, M. C.; Moody, M. P.; Martin, T. L.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Dye, D.

    2014-12-01

    In 2006, a new-ordered L12 phase, Co3(Al,W), was discovered that can form coherently in a face-centered cubic (fcc) A1 Co matrix. Since then, a community has developed that is attempting to take these alloys forward into practical applications in gas turbines. A new candidate polycrystalline Co-Ni γ/ γ' superalloy, V208C, is presented that has the nominal composition 36Co-35Ni-15Cr-10Al-3W-1Ta (at.%). The alloy was produced by conventional powder metallurgy superalloy methods. After forging, a γ' fraction of ~56% and a secondary γ' size of 88 nm were obtained, with a grain size of 2.5 μm. The solvus temperature was 1000°C. The density was found to be 8.52 g cm-3, which is similar to existing Ni alloys with this level of γ'. The alloy showed the flow stress anomaly and a yield strength of 920 MPa at room temperature and 820 MPa at 800°C, similar to that of Mar-M247. These values are significantly higher than those found for either conventional solution and carbide-strengthened Co alloys or the γ/ γ' Co superalloys presented in the literature thus far. The oxidation resistance, with a mass gain of 0.08 mg cm-2 in 100 h at 800°C, is also comparable with that of existing high-temperature Ni superalloys. These results suggest that Co-based and Co-Ni superalloys may hold some promise for the future in gas turbine applications.

  11. 3D Computer Models of T- x- y Diagrams, Forming the Fe-Ni-Co-FeS-NiS-CoS Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, V. I.; Vorob'eva, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    3D computer models of Fe-Ni-Co, Fe-Ni-FeS-NiS, Fe-Co-FeS-CoS, Ni-Co-NiS-CoS T- x- y diagrams have been designed. The geometric structure (35 surfaces, two-phase surface of the reaction type change, 17 phase regions) of the Fe-Ni-FeS-NiS T- x- y diagram is investigated in detail. The liquidus hypersurfaces prediction of the Fe-Ni-Co-FeS-NiS-CoS subsystem is represented.

  12. Cold Spray Deposition of Ni and WC-Reinforced Ni Matrix Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidokht, S. A.; Vo, P.; Yue, S.; Chromik, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ni-WC composites are ideal protective coatings against wear and are often fabricated using laser cladding and thermal spray processes, but the high temperatures of these processes result in decarburization, which deteriorates the performance of the coating. Cold spray has the potential to deposit Ni-WC composite coatings and retain the composition of the initial WC feedstock. However, the insignificant plastic deformation of hard WC particles makes it difficult to build up a high WC content coating by cold spray. By using three different WC powder sizes, the effect of feedstock powder size on WC retention was tested. To improve WC retention, a WC/Ni composite powder in mixture with Ni was also sprayed. Microstructural characterization, including the deformed structure of Ni splats, retention, distribution, and fragmentation of WC, was performed by scanning electron microscopy. An improvement in WC retention was achieved using finer WC particles. Significant improvement in WC particles retention was achieved using WC/Ni composite powder, with the WC content in the coating being close to that of the feedstock.

  13. Influence of Ni on Martensitic Phase Transformations in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, J.; George, Easo P; Dlouhy, A.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision data on phase transformation temperatures in NiTi, including numerical expressions for the effect of Ni on M{sub S}, M{sub F}, A{sub S}, A{sub F} and T{sub 0}, are obtained, and the reasons for the large experimental scatter observed in previous studies are discussed. Clear experimental evidence is provided confirming the predictions of Tang et al. 1999 regarding deviations from a linear relation between the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature and Ni concentration. In addition to affecting the phase transition temperatures, increasing Ni contents are found to decrease the width of thermal hysteresis and the heat of transformation. These findings are rationalizedmore » on the basis of the crystallographic data of Prokoshkin et al. 2004 and the theory of Ball and James. The results show that it is important to document carefully the details of the arc-melting procedure used to make shape memory alloys and that, if the effects of processing are properly accounted for, precise values for the Ni concentration of the NiTi matrix can be obtained.« less

  14. Structure relaxation and crystallization of the CoW-CoNiW-NiW electrodeposited alloys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The structure of electrolytically deposited nanocrystalline alloys of the CoW-CoNiW-NiW systems under low-temperature heating was investigated by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM), and analytical methods such as energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Structural relaxation and crystallization were investigated at temperatures of 200°C to 300°C. The structural and compositional inhomogeneities were found in the CoW-CoNiW-NiW alloys, while the local changes in composition were found to reach 18 at.%. Nanocrystals in the alloys grew most intensely in the presence of a free surface, and we found their nuclei density to range from 2 × 1023 /m3 to 3 × 1023 /m3. It was determined that the local diffusion coefficient ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 10−18 m2/s, which could be explained by the prevalence of surface diffusion. The data gathered in these investigations can be used to predict the thermal stability of CoW-CoNiW-NiW alloys. PMID:24506913

  15. Epitaxial NiWO4 films on Ni(110): Experimental and theoretical study of surface stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudin, N.; Pomp, S.; Blatnik, M.; Resel, R.; Vorokhta, M.; Goniakowski, J.; Noguera, C.; Netzer, F. P.; Surnev, S.

    2017-05-01

    Despite the application potential of nickel tungstate (NiWO4) in heterogeneous catalysis, humidity and gas sensing, etc, its surfaces have essentially remained unexplored. In this work, NiWO4 nanoparticles and films with the wolframite structure have been grown via a solid-state reaction of (WO3)3 clusters and a NiO(100) film on a Ni(110) crystal surface and characterized by a variety of experimental techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), combined with ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. NiWO4 grows initially as three-dimensional (3D) crystalline nanoparticles displaying mainly two crystalline facets vicinal to the (100) surface, which merge with increasing the (WO3)3 coverage into a quasi-continuous epitaxial film. The DFT results provide an account of the energetics of NiWO4 low index surfaces and highlight the role of faceting in the stabilization of extended polar (100) terraces. These combined experimental and theoretical results show that interaction with a metal substrate and vertical confinement may stabilize oxide nano-objects with high energy facets, able to enhance their reactivity.

  16. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19′ martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19′ martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  17. Synthesis and catalytic activity of electrospun NiO/NiCo2O4 nanotubes for CO and acetaldehyde oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il Hee; Lee, Hyerim; Yu, Areum; Jeong, Jae Hwan; Lee, Youngmi; Kim, Myung Hwa; Lee, Chongmok; Dok Kim, Young

    2018-04-01

    NiO/NiCo2O4 nanotubes with a diameter of approximately 100 nm are synthesized using Ni and Co precursors via electro-spinning and subsequent calcination processes. The tubular structure is confirmed via transmission electron microscopy imaging, whereas the structures and elemental compositions of the nanotubes are determined using x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. N2 adsorption isotherm data reveal that the surface of the nanotubes consists of micropores, thereby resulting in a significantly higher surface area (˜20 m2 g-1) than expected for a flat-surface structure (<15 m2 g-1). Herein, we present a study of the catalytic activity of our novel NiO/NiCo2O4 nanotubes for CO and acetaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic activity of NiO/NiCo2O4 is superior to Pt below 100 °C for CO oxidation. For acetaldehyde oxidation, the total oxidation activity of NiO/NiCo2O4 for acetaldehyde is comparable with that of Pt. Coexistence of many under-coordinated Co and Ni active sites in our structure is suggested be related to the high catalytic activity. It is suggested that our novel NiO/NiCo2O4 tubular structures with surface microporosity can be of interest for a variety of applications, including the catalytic oxidation of harmful gases.

  18. Synthesis and catalytic activity of electrospun NiO/NiCo2O4 nanotubes for CO and acetaldehyde oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il Hee; Lee, Hyerim; Yu, Areum; Jeong, Jae Hwan; Lee, Youngmi; Kim, Myung Hwa; Lee, Chongmok; Kim, Young Dok

    2018-04-27

    NiO/NiCo 2 O 4 nanotubes with a diameter of approximately 100 nm are synthesized using Ni and Co precursors via electro-spinning and subsequent calcination processes. The tubular structure is confirmed via transmission electron microscopy imaging, whereas the structures and elemental compositions of the nanotubes are determined using x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. N 2 adsorption isotherm data reveal that the surface of the nanotubes consists of micropores, thereby resulting in a significantly higher surface area (∼20 m 2 g -1 ) than expected for a flat-surface structure (<15 m 2 g -1 ). Herein, we present a study of the catalytic activity of our novel NiO/NiCo 2 O 4 nanotubes for CO and acetaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic activity of NiO/NiCo 2 O 4 is superior to Pt below 100 °C for CO oxidation. For acetaldehyde oxidation, the total oxidation activity of NiO/NiCo 2 O 4 for acetaldehyde is comparable with that of Pt. Coexistence of many under-coordinated Co and Ni active sites in our structure is suggested be related to the high catalytic activity. It is suggested that our novel NiO/NiCo 2 O 4 tubular structures with surface microporosity can be of interest for a variety of applications, including the catalytic oxidation of harmful gases.

  19. The accumulation of Ni in serpentines and garnierites from the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic) elucidated by means of μXAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roqué-Rosell, Josep; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-02-01

    Ni-bearing serpentines and garnierites (Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates) are the main Ni ores in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic). In the present paper a set of garnierite samples and the associated Ni-bearing serpentines with characteristic mineral compositions and textures, from the saprolite horizon, were studied by EMPA, μXRF and μXAS. The ultimate goal is to elucidate, for the first time, the Fe speciation and the Ni local environment of saprolite ores from Ni-laterites of the Dominican Republic. The chemical composition of the minerals has been obtained by means of EMPA and the Ni, Fe and Cr elemental maps obtained by μXRF allowed distinguishing the saprolite fragments containing Ni-bearing serpentines and Fe oxyhydroxides from the garnierite veins. The Fe K-edge μXANES demonstrated that Fe in the Ni-poor primary serpentine is mostly in the Fe2+ form, whereas in the Ni-bearing serpentine constituting the bulk of the saprolite and in the Fe-bearing garnierite Type I Fe was in the form of Fe3+. In parallel, the local environment of Ni determined by means of Ni K-edge μEXAFS confirmed that in Ni-poor primary serpentines Ni formed a homogeneous Ni-Mg solid solution, in garnierites formed Ni-Ni clusters, and in Ni-bearing secondary serpentines Ni was found in Ni-Mg and Ni-Ni mixed sites. This paper explains the accumulation of Ni, the speciation of Fe in garnierites with various mineral compositions and in Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon in Ni-laterite deposits.

  20. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  1. Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-Mo Eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Dudova, Marie; Kucharova, Kveta; Bartak, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    A directionally solidified NiAl-Mo eutectic and an NiAl intermetallic, having respective nominal compositions Ni-45.5Al-9Mo and Ni-45.2Al (at.%), were loaded in compression at 1073 and 1173 K. Formidable strengthening by regularly distributed Mo fibres (average diameter 600 nm, volume fraction 14%) was observed. The fibres can support compression stresses transferred from the plastically deforming matrix up to a critical stress of the order of 2.5 GPa, at which point they yield. Microstructural evidence is provided for the dislocation-mediated stress transfer from the NiAl to the Mo phase.

  2. State of Supported Nanoparticle Ni during Catalysis in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, Zizwe; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John

    2015-11-09

    The state of Ni supported on HZSM-5 zeolite, silica, and sulfonated carbon was studied during aqueous-phase catalysis of phenol hydrodeoxygenation using in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. On sulfonated carbon and HZSM-5 supports, NiO and Ni(OH)(2) were readily reduced to Ni-0 under reaction conditions (approximate to 35bar H-2 in aqueous phenol solutions containing up to 0.5wt.% phosphoric acid at 473K). In contrast, Ni supported on SiO2 was not stable in a fully reduced Ni-0 state. Water enables the formation of Ni-II phyllosilicate, which is more stable, that is, difficult to reduce, than either -Ni(OH)(2) or NiO. Leaching ofmore » Ni from the supports was not observed over a broad range of reaction conditions. Ni-0 particles on HZSM-5 were stable even in presence of 15wt.% acetic acid at 473K and 35bar H-2.« less

  3. Mono- and dinuclear Ni(i) products formed upon bromide abstraction from the Ni(i) ring-expanded NHC complex [Ni(6-Mes)(PPh3)Br].

    PubMed

    Blackaby, William J M; Sabater, Sara; Poulten, Rebecca C; Page, Michael J; Folli, Andrea; Krewald, Vera; Mahon, Mary F; Murphy, Damien M; Richards, Emma; Whittlesey, Michael K

    2018-01-15

    Bromide abstraction from the three-coordinate Ni(i) ring-expanded N-heterocyclic carbene complex [Ni(6-Mes)(PPh 3 )Br] (1; 6-Mes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene) with TlPF 6 in THF yields the T-shaped cationic solvent complex, [Ni(6-Mes)(PPh 3 )(THF)][PF 6 ] (2), whereas treatment with NaBAr F 4 in Et 2 O affords the dimeric Ni(i) product, [{Ni(6-Mes)(PPh 3 )} 2 (μ-Br)][BAr F 4 ] (3). Both 2 and 3 act as latent sources of the cation [Ni(6-Mes)(PPh 3 )] + , which can be trapped by CO to give [Ni(6-Mes)(PPh 3 )(CO)] + (5). Addition of [(Et 3 Si) 2 (μ-H)][B(C 6 F 5 ) 4 ] to 1 followed by work up in toluene results in the elimination of phosphine as well as halide to afford a co-crystallised mixture of [Ni(6-Mes)(η 2 -C 6 H 5 Me)][B(C 6 F 5 ) 4 ] (4), and [6MesHC 6 H 5 Me][B(C 6 F 5 ) 4 ]. Treatment of 1 with sodium salts of more strongly coordinating anions leads to substitution products. Thus, NaBH 4 yields the neutral, diamagnetic dimer [{Ni(6-Mes)} 2 (BH 4 ) 2 ] (6), whereas NaBH 3 (CN) gives the paramagnetic monomeric cyanotrihydroborate complex [Ni(6-Mes)(PPh 3 )(NCBH 3 )] (7). Treatment of 1 with NaO t Bu/NHPh 2 affords the three-coordinate Ni(i) amido species, [Ni(6-Mes)(PPh 3 )(NPh 2 )] (8). The electronic structures of 2, 5, 7 and 8 have been analysed in comparison to that of previously reported 1 using a combination of EPR spectroscopy and density functional theory.

  4. NiCo2S4 nanosheet-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode materials for all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Jayaseelan, Santhana Sivabalan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-12-07

    Wire type supercapacitors with high energy and power densities have generated considerable interest in wearable applications. Herein, we report a novel NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode for high performance supercapacitor application. In this work, a facile method is introduced to fabricate a 3D, porous Ni film deposited on a Ni wire as a flexible electrode, followed by decoration with NiCo 2 S 4 as an electroactive material. The fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode displays a superior performance with an areal and volumetric capacitance of 1.228 F cm -2 and 199.74 F cm -3 , respectively, at a current density of 0.2 mA cm -1 with a maximum volumetric energy and power density (E V : 6.935 mW h cm -3 ; P V : 1.019 W cm -3 ). Finally, the solid state asymmetric wire type supercapacitor is fabricated using the fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire as a positive electrode and N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) as a negative electrode and this exhibits good areal and volumetric capacitances of C A : 0.12 F cm -2 and C V : 19.57 F cm -2 with a higher rate capability (92%). This asymmetric wire type supercapacitor demonstrates a low leakage current and self-discharge with a maximum volumetric energy (E V : 5.33 mW h cm -3 ) and power (P V : 855.69 mW cm -3 ) density.

  5. Changing effect of El Niño on Antarctic iceberg distribution: From canonical El Niño to El Niño Modoki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yury A.; Romanova, Nina A.; Romanov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies indicate that during El Niño events the iceberg concentration increases in the east of the Pacific sector and in the west of the Atlantic sector of Southern Ocean, but decreases in the center of the Pacific sector. During La Niña the pattern of the iceberg concentration anomalies in these regions reverses. This iceberg redistribution is explained by anomalous winds and currents around an extensive positive atmospheric pressure anomaly that typically develops in the South-East Pacific during the warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase. In this study, the results of iceberg observations during two cruises of the r/v "Akademik Fedorov" in Antarctica in January-February 2008 (La Niña) and 2010 (El Niño) have been used to examine the consistency of changes in the iceberg distribution in the Southern Ocean related to El Niño events. The analysis of these observations has shown that in the Pacific Sector of Antarctica changes in the iceberg distribution between 2008 and 2010 followed the scenario outlined above and thus could be associated with the ENSO phase change. Contrary to earlier observations, the iceberg concentration in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica did not increase during 2010 El Niño. The latter is explained by a noncanonical type of 2010 El Niño, El Niño Modoki, and associated atmospheric circulation pattern different from the canonical El Niño. Further analysis has shown that a more frequent occurrence of El Niño Modoki in recent years have resulted in weaker links between El Niño events and the Antarctic iceberg distribution.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of T[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz with T=Fe, Ni; pyz=pyrazine: Formation of T-pyz-Ni bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J.; Institute of Materials Science and Technology, University of Havana

    2011-08-15

    The formation of T-pyz-Ni bridges (pyz=pyrazine) in the T[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz series is known for T=Mn, Zn, Cd and Co but not with T=Fe, Ni. In this contribution the existence of such bridges also for T=Fe, Ni is discussed. The obtained pillared solids, T[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz, were characterized from XRD, TG, UV-Vis, IR, Raman, Moessbauer and magnetic data. Their crystal structures were refined in the orthorhombic Pmna space group from XRD powder patterns. The structural behavior of these solids on cooling down to 77 K was also studied. In the 180-200 K temperature range the occurrence of a structural transition to amore » monoclinic structure (P2{sub 1}/c space group) was observed. No temperature induced spin transition was observed for Fe[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz. The iron (II) was found to be in high spin electronic state and this configuration is preserved on cooling down to 2 K. The magnetic data indicate the occurrence of a low temperature weak anti-ferromagnetic interaction between T metal centers within the T[Ni(CN){sub 4}] layer. In the paramagnetic region for Ni[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz, a reversible temperature induced spin transition for the inner Ni atom was detected. - Graphical abstract: Rippled sheets structure for the pillared solids T[Ni(CN){sub 4}].2pyz. The pyrazine molecule is found forming T-pyz-Ni bridges between neighboring layers. Highlights: > Pillared 2D solids. > Inorganic-organic solids. > Assembling of molecular blocks. > From 1D and 2D building blocks to 3D solids.« less

  7. Thermodynamic characterization of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawar, Rimpi; Babu, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2(g) over the biphasic mixture Ni3TeO6 (s) + NiO(s) in the temperature range 1143-1272 K was carried out using transpiration-thermogravimetric technique (TTG). Gibbs energy of formation of Ni3TeO6 was obtained from the temperature dependence of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g) generated by the incongruent vapourisation reaction, Ni3TeO6 (s) → NiO(s) + TeO2 (g) + 1/2 O2 in the temperature range 1143-1272 K. An isoperibol type drop calorimeter was used to measure the enthalpy increments of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5. Thermodynamic functions viz., heat capacity, entropy and Gibbs energy functions of these compounds were derived from the experimentally measured enthalpy increment values. Third-law analysis was carried out to ascertain absence of temperature dependent systematic errors in the measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g). A value of -1265.1 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Δ Hf,298K o (Ni3TeO6) using third-law analysis.

  8. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: romakav@lp.edu.ua; Romaka, L.; Horyn, A.

    2016-07-15

    The phase equilibria in the Gd–Ni–Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems were studied at 873 K by X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction of the elements in the Gd–Ni–Sb system results the formation of five ternary compounds at investigated temperature: Gd{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), Gd{sub 5}NiSb{sub 2} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type), GdNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5} (Y{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5}-type), and GdNi{sub 0.72}Sb{sub 2} (HfCuSi{sub 2}-type). At investigated temperature the Lu-Ni-Sb system is characterized by formation of the LuNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.56}Sb{sub 2.44} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type)more » compounds. The disordering in the crystal structure of half-Heusler GdNiSb and LuNiSb was revealed by EPMA and studied by means of Rietveld refinement and DFT modeling. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical transport property studies. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure model and electron localization function of Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb phase diagrams were constructed at 873 K. • GdNiSb and LuNiSb are characterized by disordered crystal structure. • Crystal structure optimization with DFT calculations confirmed crystal structure disorder in GdNiSb and LuNiSb.« less

  9. Long Term Performance Retention Test Using High Power COTS NiCd and NiMH Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dan; Darcy, Eric; Strangways, Brad; Nelson, Tim

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the tests and results for performance retention of high powered commercial off the shelf (COTS) NiCd, and NiMH cells. Electromechanical actuators for space flight requires short duration high power batteries. The concern is that NiCd battery designs demonstrate an unfavorable power degradation after long periods of inactivity. Cycling can recover some of the decay, but this reduces the readiness that these batteries must have. Two 5-cell SubC stick test batteries ere chosen using NiCd and NiMH were tested and then the differences for charge maintenance were compared.

  10. The Effect of Metal Composition on Fe-Ni Partition Behavior between Olivine and FeNi-Metal, FeNi-Carbide, FeNi-Sulfide at Elevated Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Metal-olivine Fe-Ni exchange distribution coefficients were determined at 1500 C over the pressure range of 1 to 9 GPa for solid and liquid alloy compositions. The metal alloy composition was varied with respect to the Fe/Ni ratio and the amount of dissolved carbon and sulfur. The Fe/Ni ratio of the metal phase exercises an important control on the abundance of Ni in the olivine. The Ni abundance in the olivine decreases as the Fe/Ni ratio of the coexisting metal increases. The presence of carbon (up to approx. 3.5 wt.%) and sulfur (up to approx. 7.5 wt.%) in solution in the liquid Fe-Ni-metal phase has a minor effect on the partitioning of Fe and Ni between metal and olivine phases. No pressure dependence of the Fe-Ni-metal-olivine exchange behavior in carbon- and sulfur-free and carbon- and sulfur-containing systems was found within the investigated pressure range. To match the Ni abundance in terrestrial mantle olivine, assuming an equilibrium metal-olivine distribution, a sub-chondritic Fe/Ni-metal ratio that is a factor of 17 to 27 lower than the Fe/Ni ratios in estimated Earth core compositions would be required, implying higher Fe concentrations in the core forming metal phase. A simple metal-olivine equilibrium distribution does not seem to be feasible to explain the Ni abundances in the Earth's mantle. An equilibrium between metal and olivine does not exercise a control on the problem of Ni overabundance in the Earth's mantle. The experimental results do not contradict the presence of a magma ocean at the time of terrestrial core formation, if olivine was present in only minor amounts at the time of metal segregation.

  11. Structural evolution of NiAg heterogeneous alloys upon annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proux, O.; Mimault, J.; Revenant-Brizard, C.; Regnard, J. R.; Mevel, B.

    1999-01-01

    NiAg heterogeneous alloys were studied by x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ni K-edge using a total electron yield detection. In the as-deposited 0953-8984/11/1/013/img8 alloys of 0.10 and 0.15 Ni atomic fraction, most of the Ni atoms are in substitutional sites in the Ag matrix. At higher Ni concentration, the Ni atoms outside the Ag-rich phase become numerous enough to group together in small clusters. An important disorder in the neighbourhood of Ni atoms is demonstrated. At low annealing temperature (up to 0953-8984/11/1/013/img9C), in 0953-8984/11/1/013/img10 and 0953-8984/11/1/013/img11, some Ni atoms are still present in substitutional sites in the Ag matrix and the small Ni particles are under strain. A very short-range order exists in this state. After a 0953-8984/11/1/013/img9C annealing, the Ni particles grow, and the Ag-rich phase remains in a steady structural state. After a higher annealing (0953-8984/11/1/013/img13C), the local Ni atomic environment becomes well ordered and typical of the pure Ni FCC phase. The Ag-rich crystallites are impoverished in Ni atoms and grow with elimination of defects. Ni grains are generally smaller than 1 nm for as-deposited alloys and reach several nanometres after a 0953-8984/11/1/013/img13C annealing for 10 min.

  12. Ni cycling in mangrove sediments from New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, V. S.; Morin, G.; Juillot, F.; Marchand, C.; Brest, J.; Bargar, J.; Munoz, M.; Ardo, S.; Brown, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    In New Caledonia, mangroves receive large inputs of lateritic materials eroded from massive ultramafic deposits enriched in Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, and Co. Because of the major physicochemical gradients, especially redox gradients, that characterize these ecosystems, mineralogical transformations may influence the crystal-chemistry and bioavailability of Ni and its mobility towards a lagoon of over 20,000 km2. Bulk and spatially resolved chemical analyses by SEM-EDXS were coupled with Ni K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy analysis to characterize the vertical and lateral changes in Ni speciation across the intertidal zone of a mangrove forest in the Vavouto Bay (New Caledonia) where Ni concentrations range from 1000 to 5300 mg•kg-1. XAFS results indicate that phyllosilicates and goethite inherited from the eroded lateritic materials are the dominant Ni-bearing phases in the surface horizons of the mangrove sediments. They are fully preserved at depth in the dry and oxic salt flat area, located on the inland side of the coast. In contrast, beneath the vegetated Rhizophoras and Avicennias stands Ni-bearing goethites rapidly diminish with increasing depth in the anoxic horizons of the sediments, and pyrite and organic complexes become the dominant Ni-containing species. Moreover, Ni incorporation in pyrite is more developed in the sediments beneath the intermediate Avicennia stand than beneath the Rhizophora stand that is closest to the shore. Such lateral changes in Ni speciation may be related to reoxidation of Ni-bearing pyrites in the Rhizophora stand, which is subject to periodic alternation of reducing and oxidizing events due to tidal fluctuations. These major changes in Ni speciation could significantly influence Ni mobility across the interidal zone. Indeed, as estimated with respect to Ti concentration, which is taken as a geochemical invariant, Ni is found to be immobile in the salt flat, to accumulate beneath the Avicennia stand, and to

  13. Nanometer thin-film Ni-NiO-Ni diodes for detection and mixing of 30 THz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumeaux, C.; Herrmann, W.; Kneubühl, F. K.; Rothuizen, H.

    1998-04-01

    We report on the realization and the experimental study of thin-film Ni-NiO-Ni diodes with integrated infrared antennas. These diodes are applied as detectors and mixers of 28-THz CO 2-laser radiation with difference frequencies up to 176 GHz. They constitute a mechanically stable alternative to the point-contact MOM diodes used today in heterodyne detection of such high frequencies. Thus, they represent the extension of present millimeter-wave and microwave thin-film and antenna techniques to the infrared. Our thin-film Ni-NiO-Ni diodes are fabricated on SiO 2/Si substrates with the help of electron-beam lithography at the IBM Research Laboratory (Rüschlikon, Switzerland). We have reduced the contact area to 110 nm×110 nm in order to achieve a fast response of the device. This contact area is in the order of those of point-contact diodes and represents the smallest ever reported for thin-film MOM diodes. The thin NiO layer with a thickness of about 35 Å is deposited by sputtering. Our thin-film diodes are integrated with planar dipole, bow-tie and spiral antennas that couples the incident field to the contact. The second derivative I″( V) of the nonlinear I( V) characteristics at the bias voltage applied to the diode is measured at a frequency of 10 kHz. It determines the detection and second-order mixing performed with the diode for frequencies from dc to at least 30 THz. The I″( V) characteristics exhibit for low bias voltage Vbias a linear dependence, which is followed by a saturation and a maximum for high Vbias. The zero-bias resistance of the diode is in the order of 100 Ω. It is not strictly inversely proportional to the contact area of the diode. The first application of our thin-film diodes was the detection of cw CO 2-laser radiation. The measured dc signal generated by the diode when illuminated with 10.6- μm radiation includes a polarization-independent contribution, caused by thermal effects. This contribution is independent of the contact

  14. Thiolate-protected Ni39 and Ni41 nanoclusters: synthesis, self-assembly and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianwei; Wang, Guan; Wang, Tianwei; You, Xiaozeng; Xu, Xiangxing

    2014-07-01

    Thiolate-protected soluble nickel clusters, Ni39(SC2H4Ph)24 and Ni41(SC2H4Ph)25, were synthesized via a wet chemical method. The cluster formulae were identified by MALDI-TOF. Possible structures of the clusters were discussed. These clusters exhibit ferromagnetism with hysteresis loops in the 1.8-300 K range. By solvent evaporation, the clusters can self-assemble into simple cubic structured crystals with a width in the range of 1-10 μm and length up to 300 μm. These properties shed light on their application potentials in nanomagnetics working at room temperature.Thiolate-protected soluble nickel clusters, Ni39(SC2H4Ph)24 and Ni41(SC2H4Ph)25, were synthesized via a wet chemical method. The cluster formulae were identified by MALDI-TOF. Possible structures of the clusters were discussed. These clusters exhibit ferromagnetism with hysteresis loops in the 1.8-300 K range. By solvent evaporation, the clusters can self-assemble into simple cubic structured crystals with a width in the range of 1-10 μm and length up to 300 μm. These properties shed light on their application potentials in nanomagnetics working at room temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS, EDS, MALDI-TOF mass spectrum and TGA analysis of the Ni39(SC2H4Ph)24 and Ni41(SC2H4Ph)25 clusters. TEM and XRD spectra of the Ni clusters annealed in Ar at 240 °C for 2 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01063a

  15. Ni and NiO Nanoparticles Decorated Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets: Facile Synthesis and High-Performance Nonenzymatic Glucose Detection in Human Serum.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yun; Yan, Yan; Chen, Jingyuan; Xu, Qin; Pang, Huan; Hu, Xiaoya

    2017-07-12

    Ni-MOF (metal-organic framework)/Ni/NiO/carbon frame nanocomposite was formed by combing Ni and NiO nanoparticles and a C frame with Ni-MOF using an efficient one-step calcination method. The morphology and structure of Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO/C nanocomposite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO/C nanocomposites were immobilized onto glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) with Nafion film to construct high-performance nonenzymatic glucose and H 2 O 2 electrochemical sensors. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) study showed Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO/C nanocomposite displayed better electrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation as compared to Ni-MOF. Amperometric study indicated the glucose sensor displayed high performance, offering a low detection limit (0.8 μM), a high sensitivity of 367.45 mA M -1 cm -2 , and a wide linear range (from 4 to 5664 μM). Importantly, good reproducibility, long-time stability, and excellent selectivity were obtained within the as-fabricated glucose sensor. Furthermore, the constructed high-performance sensor was utilized to monitor the glucose levels in human serum, and satisfactory results were obtained. It demonstrated the Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO/C nanocomposite can be used as a good electrochemical sensing material in practical biological applications.

  16. Ab initio molecular dynamics investigations of low-energy recoil events in Ni and NiCo

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Bin; Yuan, Fenglin; Jin, Ke; ...

    2015-10-06

    Low-energy recoil events in pure Ni and the equiatomic NiCo alloy are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the threshold displacement energies are strongly dependent on orientation and weakly dependent on composition. The minimum threshold displacement energies are along the [1 1 0] direction in both pure Ni and the NiCo alloy. Compared to pure Ni, the threshold displacement energies increase slightly in the NiCo alloy due to stronger bonds in the alloy, irrespective of the element type of the PKA. A single Ni interstitial occupying the center of a tetrahedron formed by four Ni atomsmore » and a <1 0 0> split interstitial is produced in pure Ni by the recoils, while only the <1 0 0> split interstitial is formed in the NiCo alloy. Compared to the replacement sequences in pure Ni, anti-site defect sequences are observed in the alloy, which have high efficiency for both producing defects and transporting energy outside of the cascade core. These results provide insights into energy transfer processes occurring in equiatomic alloys under irradiation.« less

  17. High Damping of Lightweight TiNi-Ti2Ni Shape Memory Composites for Wide Temperature Range Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bing; Luo, Zheng; Yuan, Bin; Liu, Jiangwen; Gao, Yan

    2017-10-01

    A bimodal porous TiNi-Ti2Ni shape memory alloy composite (SMAC) with 59% porosity was fabricated by sintering Ti-46at.%Ni elemental powders with pore-forming agent. The porous TiNi-Ti2Ni SMAC contains two irregular pores of about 400 and 120 μm. We investigated the microstructure and pore morphology correlated with the mechanical properties and damping capacities of the SMAC. Ti2Ni intermetallic phases with size of 1-3 μm were homogeneously distributed in the TiNi matrix. The porous TiNi-Ti2Ni SMAC exhibits exceptionally high inverse mechanical quality factor ( Q -1) of 0.25 at < 40 °C, which is among the highest value reported for porous/dense shape memory alloys or composites to best of our knowledge, and it shows very high compressive fracture strain of about 25%. Moreover, the fabricated porous SMAC at relatively low strain amplitude can exhibit considerable high Q -1 of 0.06 0.11 for a wide range of temperature between - 90 and 200 °C, which is attributed to the stress concentration distribution provided by the bimodal structure of pores and the massive interfaces between pore/matrix and TiNi/Ti2Ni. These porous SMACs can be an ideal candidate for using as a lightweight damping material in the energy-saving applications.

  18. Effect of heat treatment on morphology evolution of Ti2Ni phase in Ti-Ni-Al-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Liyuan; Yang, Yang; Xi, Tingfei

    2018-03-01

    The Ti6Al2Zr alloy with 15 wt.% Ni addition was prepared and then heat treated in the research. The microstructure of the alloy and evolution of Ti2Ni precipitate were investigated. The microstructure observations demonstrate that the Ni addition could promote the formation of eutectoid and eutectic structures in Ti-Al-Zr alloy. In the eutectoid structure, the ultrafine Ti2Ni fiber precipitates in the α-Ti matrix, but in the eutectic structure, the fine α-Ti phases precipitate in the Ti2Ni matrix. The heat treatment could change the morphology of Ti2Ni precipitates by thinning, fragmenting, merging and spherizing. In the alloy heat treated at and below 1073K, the coarsening of α-Ti precipitates in eutectic structure and Ti2Ni precipitates in eutectoid structure is the mainly characteristic. In the alloy heat treated above 1073K, the phase transformation of α to β phase is the main characteristic, which changes the morphology and amount of Ti2Ni phase by the solid solution of Ni. The phase transformation temperature of Ti-Ni-Al-Zr alloy is between 1073-1123K, which is increased compared with that of the Ti-Ni binary phase diagram.

  19. Rationally-designed configuration of directly-coated Ni 3S 2/Ni electrode by RGO providing superior sodium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaosheng; Li, Xifei; Bai, Zhimin

    2018-02-28

    Designing nanocomposite materials is an effective approach for enhancing the performance of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), and understanding the synergy among components is critically important for new, better materials design. Here in this paper, a directly reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated anode electrode was designed and tested for SIBs, in which uniform RGO coating onto the Ni 3S 2/Ni electrode was realized using facile hydrothermal reactions. The results indicate that the RGO/Ni 3S 2/Ni electrode delivers a high reversible specific capacity of 448.6 mAh g -1, high capacity retention of 96.5% after 100 cycles, and excellent rate capability of 263.1 mAhmore » g -1 at 800 mA g -1. Compared with the Ni 3S 2/Ni electrode, the improved performance of the RGO/Ni 3S 2/Ni electrode benefits from RGO-promoted displacement reaction of Ni 3S 2 with sodium. DFT calculations reveal that the RGO layer can significantly improve the electron mobility of the RGO/Ni 3S 2 + Na structure, and the hybrid interaction between the extraneous p orbits of C and indigenous p and d orbits of Ni, as well as p orbits of S is the major reason for why RGO can improve the electrical transport properties.« less

  20. Role of Ni-tolerant Bacillus spp. and Althea rosea L. in the phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Khan, Waheed Ullah; Yasin, Nasim Ahmad; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Ali, Aamir; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2017-05-04

    In our current study, four nickel-tolerant (Ni-tolerant) bacterial species viz, Bacillus thuringiensis 002, Bacillus fortis 162, Bacillus subtilis 174, and Bacillus farraginis 354, were screened using Ni-contaminated media. The screened microbes exhibited positive results for synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. The effects of these screened microbes on Ni mobility in the soil, root elongation, plant biomass, and Ni uptake in Althea rosea plants grown in Ni-contaminated soil (200 mg Ni kg -1 ) were evaluated. Significantly higher value for water-extractable Ni (38 mg kg -1 ) was observed in case of Ni-amended soils inoculated with B. subtilis 174. Similarly, B. thuringiensis 002, B. fortis 162, and B. subtilis 174 significantly enhanced growth and Ni uptake in A. rosea. The Ni uptake in the shoots and roots of B. subtilis 174-inoculated plants enhanced up to 1.7 and 1.6-fold, respectively, as compared to that in the un-inoculated control. Bacterial inoculation also significantly improved the root and shoot biomass of treated plants. The current study presents a novel approach for bacteria-assisted phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated areas.

  1. Preparation of Ni-YSZ Cermet through Reduction of NiO-YSZ Ceramic for SOFC Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baity, P. S. N.; Budiana, B.; Suasmoro, S.

    2017-07-01

    Research on the synthesis of Nickel-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (Ni-YSZ) cermet for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode has been performed. The preparation was carried out through the reduction process of the Nickel Oxide-Yttria stabilized Zirconia (NiO-YSZ) ceramic. NiO and YSZ were prepared separately, the NiO powder was prepared by calcination of CH4Ni3O7.xH2O at 500°C for 3 hours, while YSZ powder was prepared by calcination of 7mol% Y2O3 and 93mol% ZrO2 mixture at 1350°C for an hour. The NiO-YSZ ceramic preparation was carried outby mixing of YSZ and NiO powder with natural white starch by weight ratio NiO: YSZ: natural white starch = 4:6:1 followed by sintering at 1200°C for 4 hours. The completion of reduction process of NiO-YSZ ceramic was performed at 1000°C in flowing Argon (Ar) containing 10% Hydrogen (H2) up to 4 hours. The characterisations include thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRD, SEM-EDX and Impedance Analyzer meter. The synthesised Ni-YSZ cermet at composition 33wt% Ni and 67wt% YSZ, shows relative density 70% and electrical conductivity 10-2 S/cm at 700°C, it qualifies as anode for SOFC.

  2. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of Ni/NiO nanoparticles as electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Prabhakarn; Ghanem, Mohamed A.; Al-Mayouf, Abdullah M.; Al-shalwi, Matar; Hamed Abd-Elkader, Omar

    2017-02-01

    Nickel/Nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles catalyst is prepared by microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition using ethylene glycol (EG) and water mixture under atmospheric conditions. The physicochemical characterizations of the catalyst carried out by surface area analyzer, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopes measurements suggest the formation of crystalline nanoparticles structure of NiO. The surface area of Ni/NiO prepared using EG/water mixture reaches 70 m2 g-1 which is 2-fold enhsancement in surface area in comparison with NiO prepared in pure EG and an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk nickel prepared in pure water. The methanol electro-oxidation activity of the Ni/NiO nanoparticles obtained in EG/water mixture displayed more than 4-fold increase in oxidation current at 1.7 V versus RHE in comparison with NiO nanoparticles obtained in EG and 20-fold increase compared to bulk nickel catalyst concord with the enhancement of electro-active surface area. The results show the Ni/NiO nanoparticles produced by microwave assisted synthesis has superior activity for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution over the other nickel based catalysts and has potential for mass production.

  3. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Rongfang; Wang, Hui; Liao, Shijun; Key, Julian; Linkov, Vladimir; Ji, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C), were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA). While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous)/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells. PMID:28811402

  4. Ni-DNA-based nanowires and nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Ching; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Jian, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yu-Chang; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    DNA is a highly versatile biopolymer that has been a recent focus in the field of nanomachines and nanoelectronics. DNA exhibits high stability, adjustable conductance, self-organizing capability, programmability and vast information storage. It is an ideal material in the applications of nanodevices, nanoelectronics, and molecular computing. Low conductance of native DNA renders applications difficult. However, doping with nickel ions tunes the DNA into a conducting polymer. Further studies showed that nickel ions containing DNA (Ni-DNA) nanowires exhibit characteristics of memristor and memcapacitor making them a potential mass information storage system. In summary, Ni-DNA has promising applications in a variety of fields, including nanoelectronics, biosensors and memcomputing. This study was supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan (ROC) MOST 103-2112-M-009-011 -MY3, and MOST 105-2627-M-009-006.

  5. Fe-Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon of Caribbean Ni-laterite deposits: new insights from thermodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Domènech, Cristina; Tauler, Esperança; Galí, Salvador; Tassara, Santiago; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-10-01

    Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite horizon is the main Ni ores in hydrous silicate-type Ni laterites and formed by chemical weathering of partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions. During lateritization, Mg, Si, and Ni are leached from the surface and transported downwards. Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+ and fixed as insoluble Fe-oxyhydroxides (mostly goethite) that incorporate Ni. This Ni is later leached from goethite and incorporated in secondary serpentine and garnierite. As a result, a serpentine-dominated saprolite horizon forms over the ultramafic protolith, overlapped by a Fe-oxyhydroxide-dominated limonite horizon. The serpentine from the protolith (serpentine I) is of hydrothermal origin and yields similar Ni (0.10-0.62 wt.% NiO) and lower Fe (mostly 1.37-5.81 wt.% FeO) concentrations than the primary olivine. In contrast, Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite (serpentine II) shows significantly higher and variable Fe and Ni contents, typically ranging from 2.23 to 15.59 wt.% Fe2O3 and from 1.30 to 7.67 wt.% NiO, suggesting that serpentine get enriched in Fe and Ni under supergene conditions. This study presents detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical data on this serpentine II, as well as new insights by thermodynamic calculations assuming ideal solution between Fe-, Ni- and Mg-pure serpentines. The aim is to assess if at atmospheric pressure and temperature Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine can be formed by precipitation. Results indicate that the formation of serpentine II under atmospheric pressure and temperature is thermodynamically supported, and pH, Eh, and the equilibrium constant of the reaction are the parameters that affect the results more significantly.

  6. Porous Ni/β-Ni(OH)2 superstructures: rapid solvothermal synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Ni, Yonghong; Cao, Lei; Zhao, Dan; Ma, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    The porous Ni/β-Ni(OH)2 superstructures have been successfully prepared via a simple, fast one-pot solvothermal route in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), using NiCl2·6H2O and NaBH4 as the original reactants. The reaction was carried out in ethylene glycol at 170°C for 1h. The morphology of the obtained product could be controlled by adjusting the reaction time and the surfactant. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Infrared (IR) spectrometry, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The electrochemical property of the as-obtained superstructures was investigated through the cyclic voltammogram (CV) measurements. It was found that the as-obtained porous Ni/β-Ni(OH)2 superstructures exhibited good electrochemical properties and could be used as electrochemical sensors for the detection of some organic small molecules such as hydrochinone, pyrocatechol, and glucose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ni-MH spent batteries: a raw material to produce Ni-Co alloys.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Carla; Pilone, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Ni-MH spent batteries are heterogeneous and complex materials, so any kind of metallurgical recovery process needs a mechanical pre-treatment at least to separate irony materials and recyclable plastic materials (like ABS) respectively, in order to get additional profit from this saleable scrap, as well as minimize waste arising from the braking separation process. Pyrometallurgical processing is not suitable to treat Ni-MH batteries mainly because of Rare Earths losses in the slag. On the other hand, the hydrometallurgical method, that offers better opportunities in terms of recovery yield and higher purity of Ni, Co, and RE, requires several process steps as shown in technical literature. The main problems during leach liquor purification are the removal of elements such as Mn, Zn, Cd, dissolved during the leaching step, and the separation of Ni from Co. In the present work, the latter problem is overcome by co-deposition of a Ni-35/40%w Co alloy of good quality. The experiments carried out in a laboratory scale pilot-plant show that a current efficiency higher than 91% can be reached in long duration electrowinning tests performed at 50 degrees C and 4.3 catholyte pH.

  8. Breakdown of antiferromagnet order in polycrystalline NiFe/NiO bilayers probed with acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebyodkin, M. A.; Lebedkina, T. A.; Shashkov, I. V.; Gornakov, V. S.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetization reversal of polycrystalline NiFe/NiO bilayers was investigated using magneto-optical indicator film imaging and acoustic emission techniques. Sporadic acoustic signals were detected in a constant magnetic field after the magnetization reversal. It is suggested that they are related to elastic waves excited by sharp shocks in the NiO layer with strong magnetostriction. Their probability depends on the history and number of repetitions of the field cycling, thus testifying the thermal-activation nature of the long-time relaxation of an antiferromagnetic order. These results provide evidence of spontaneous thermally activated switching of the antiferromagnetic order in NiO grains during magnetization reversal in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (FM/AFM) heterostructures. The respective deformation modes are discussed in terms of the thermal fluctuation aftereffect in the Fulcomer and Charap model which predicts that irreversible breakdown of the original spin orientation can take place in some antiferromagnetic grains with disordered anisotropy axes during magnetization reversal of exchange-coupled FM/AFM structures. The spin reorientation in the saturated state may induce abrupt distortion of isolated metastable grains because of the NiO magnetostriction, leading to excitation of shock waves and formation of plate (or Lamb) waves.

  9. Study of Ni/Fe nanotube properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskiy, A.; Zhanbotin, A.; Zdorovets, M.; Manakova, I.; Ozernoy, A.; Kadyrzhanov, K.; Rusakov, V.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of Fe/Ni nanotubes fabricated in polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) ion-track membrane. Fe/Ni nanotubes were electrochemically deposited into PET membrane with cylindrical holes of diameter 111 ± 3 nm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analysis were used to determine the physical properties of the obtained nanostructures. It was found that the samples were single phase and had face-centered cubic structure with lattice parameter a = 2.866 ± 0.0008 Å. It was assumed that the observed phase was a solid solution of iron substitution in nickel. According to Mössbauer data, the hyperfine field amounts to 337.75 ± 0.4 kOe. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data show a metal ratio in the nanotubes of around Ni20/Fe80. The magnetic domains have sizes close to the thickness of nanotube wall with their magnetization vector oriented at an angle of 37.9 ± 1.1° to the axis of the nanotubes.

  10. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Kibédi, T.; Moukaddam, M.; Alshahrani, B.; Eriksen, T. K.; Holt, J. D.; Hota, S. S.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, B. Q.; McCormick, B. P.; Palalani, N.; Reed, M. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p') reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0), were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77-34+23 × 10-3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0) value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0) values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0) value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  11. Phytoremediation of Ni-contaminated soil by Salicornia iranica.

    PubMed

    Kaviani, Elina; Niazi, Ali; Moghadam, Ali; Taherishirazi, Mohsen; Heydarian, Zohreh

    2017-10-16

    Although nickel (Ni) is useful and is used in various industries, it is one of the most usual and important sources of heavy metals pollutants in the world. In this study, Salicornia iranica was used in order to phytoremediate Ni-contaminated soil. Possible mechanisms of plant tolerance to Ni pollution and its detoxification were studied through using expression analysis of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and measurement of involved key physiological components. The concentration of the chlorophylls a, b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were significantly decreased in 500 mg/kg Ni at 3, 24, 48 h, and 90 days after the treatment. Free proline significantly increased in the tissues. The absorption and concentration of Ni increased in tissues, so that Ni concentration at 50, 250, and 500 mg Ni/kg soil significantly increased to 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 fold compared with the lowest Ni level respectively. In addition, the GST expression was significantly increased both in the 50 and 500 mg/kg Ni treatment. The highest concentration of Ni affected plant growth parameters such as the root and shoot lengths. Therefore, S. iranica is able to accumulate Ni and it can be used as an environmental biotechnological study for phytoremediation of Ni-polluted soils. ABA: abscisic acid; ABRE: ABA-responsive element; As +3 : arsenic; Cd 2+ : cadmium; ef1: elongation factor; FW: fresh weight; GSH: glutathione; GST: glutathione-S-transferase; GSTU: tau class GST; Hcl: hydrochloric acid; Hg 2+ : mercury; HgCl 2 : mercury(II) chloride; MYB: myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog; Ni +2 : nickel; Pb: lead; SiGSTU: Salicornia iranica GSTU; ZnSO 4 : zinc sulfate.

  12. Morphological instability of lamellar structures in directionally solidified Ni-Ni3Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lufeng; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Jianjun; Cui, Kai; Guo, Jingying; Chen, Sen; Liu, Lin

    2018-02-01

    The morphological instability of lamellar structures in Ni-Ni3Si eutectic and hypereutectic alloys directionally solidified at low growth rates was investigated. The first instability in large lamellar structures was zigzag instability, which formed curved lamellae. A zigzag pattern was first displayed in three dimensions. The diffusion-limited growth of the Ni3Si phase decreased phase width and spacing, consequently causing zigzag instability. The reduced spacing was observed at λ/λave = 0.9. After zigzag instability, the microstructure of the eutectic alloy turned into a labyrinth structure and lamellar fragmentation. However, in hypereutectic alloys, shape transition from lamellae to rods occurred, in turn, by the broken lamellae or elongated rods to dumbbell-shaped rods, peanut-shaped rods, and circular rods.

  13. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  14. Local structure study of Fe dopants in Ni-deficit Ni 3Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    V. N. Ivanovski; Umicevic, A.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.

    2015-08-24

    We found that the local electronic and magnetic structure, hyperfine interactions, and phase composition of polycrystalline Ni–deficient Ni 3-x FexAl (x = 0.18 and 0.36) were investigated by means of 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The ab initio calculations performed with the projector augmented wave method and the calculations of the energies of iron point defects were done to elucidate the electronic structure and site preference of Fe doped Ni 3 Al. Moreover, the value of calculated electric field gradient tensor V zz=1.6 10 21Vm -2 matches well with the resultsmore » of Mössbauer spectroscopy and indicates that the Fe atoms occupy Ni sites.« less

  15. Measurement of 63Ni and 59Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry using characteristic projectile X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAninch, J. E.; Hainsworth, L. J.; Marchetti, A. A.; Leivers, M. R.; Jones, P. R.; Dunlop, A. E.; Mauthe, R.; Vogel, J. S.; Proctor, I. D.; Straume, T.

    1997-03-01

    The long-lived isotopes of nickel (59Ni, 63Ni) have current and potential use in a number of applications including cosmic radiation studies, biomedical tracing, characterization of low-level radioactive wastes, and neutron dosimetry. Methods are being developed at LLNL for the routine detection of these isotopes by AMS. One intended application is in Hiroshima dosimetry. The reaction 63Cu(n,p)63Ni has been identified as one of a small number of reactions which might be used for the direct determination of the fast neutron fluence emitted by the Hiroshima bomb. AMS measurement of 63Ni (t{1}/{2} = 100 y) requires the chemical removal of 63Cu, which is a stable isobar of 63Ni. Following the electrochemical separation of Ni from gram-sized copper samples, the Cu concentration is further lowered to < 2 × 10-8 ({Cu}/{Ni}) using the reaction of Ni with carbon monoxide to form the gas Ni(CO)4. The Ni(CO)4 is thermally decomposed directly in sample holders for measurement by AMS. After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions are identified using characteristic projectile X-rays, allowing further rejection of remaining 63Cu. In a demonstration experiment, 63Ni was measured in Cu wires (2-20 g) which had been exposed to neutrons from a 252Cf source. We successfully measured 63Ni at levels necessary for the measurement of Cu samples exposed near the Hiroshima hypocenter. For the demonstration samples, the Cu content was chemically reduced by a factor of 1012 with quantitative retention of 63Ni. Detection sensitivity (3σ) was ˜ 20 fg 63Ni in 1 mg Ni carrier ({63Ni}/{Ni} ≈ 2 × 10-11). Significant improvements in sensitivity are expected with planned incremental changes in the methods. Preliminary results indicate that a similar sensitivity is achievable for 59Ni (t{1}/{2} = 105 y). Initial work has been undertaken on the application of this isotope as a biomedical tracer in living systems.

  16. Measurement of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 59}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry using characteristic projectile x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J.E.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Marchetti, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    The long-lived isotopes of nickel ({sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni) have current and potential use in a number of applications including cosmic radiation studies, biomedical tracing, characterization of low-level radioactive wastes, and neutron dosimetry. Methods are being developed at LLNL for the routine detection of these isotopes by AMS. One intended application is in Hiroshima dosimetry. The reaction {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni has been identified as one of a small number of reactions which might be used for the direct determination of the fast neutron fluence emitted by the Hiroshima bomb. AMS measurement of {sup 63}Ni(t{sub 1/2} = 100 y) requires themore » chemical removal of {sup 63}Cu, which is a stable isobar of {sup 63}Ni. Following the electrochemical separation of Ni from gram-sized copper samples, the Cu concentration is further lowered to < 2 x 10{sup -8} (Cu/Ni) using the reaction of Ni with carbon monoxide to form the gas Ni(CO){sub 4}. The Ni(CO){sub 4} is thermally decomposed directly in sample holders for measurement by AMS. After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions are identified using characteristic projectile x-rays, allowing further rejection of remaining {sup 63}Cu. In a demonstration experiment, {sup 63}Ni was measured in Cu wires (2-20 g) which had been exposed to neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. We successfully measured {sup 63}Ni at levels necessary for the measurement of Cu samples exposed near the Hiroshima hypocenter. For the demonstration samples, the Cu content was chemically reduced by a factor of 10{sup 12} with quantitative retention of {sup 63}Ni. Detection sensitivity (3{sigma}) was {approximately}20 fg {sup 63}Ni in 1 mg Ni carrier ({sup 63}Ni/Ni {approx} 2 x 10{sup -11}). Significant improvements in sensitivity are expected with planned incremental changes in the methods. Preliminary results indicate that a similar sensitivity is achievable for {sup 59}Ni (t{sub 1/2} = 10{sup 5} y).« less

  17. Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.roy@ua.pt, E-mail: aparnaroy15@gmail.com; Ferreira, J. M. F.; De Toro, J. A.

    2014-02-21

    We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400–550 °C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X–ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5–13.5 nm and 2.3–4 nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130 K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature “T{sub B}” of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, rightmore » up to 300 K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above T{sub B} since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T > T{sub B}, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with T{sub B} denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.« less

  18. Effect of metal ion concentration in Ni-W plating solution on surface roughness of Ni-W film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Manabu; Kaneko, Satoru; Kurouchi, Masahito; Ito, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Takeshi; Arai, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since nanopatterns are used for various purposes including solar cells, super-hydrophilicity, and biosensors, it is necessary to miniaturize the patterns on glass devices from micro- to nano-order. We have studied glass imprinting as an excellent microfabrication technology for glass devices. Uniformity of the nanopattern height is required for a mold, since a nodular structure on the Ni-W surface is recognized as a problem in Ni-W nanopattern formation. We confirmed that the Ni-W plating bath increasing metal ion concentration is effective for inhibition of the nodular structure on the Ni-W film, and succeeded in Ni-W nano pattern formation with uniform height. However, the W content rate of plated Ni-W film was reduced in exchange for enhancing the flatness of the Ni-W film. It is necessary to examine the Ni-W plating condition for obtaining planarization of the Ni-W surface and a high content rate of W in the Ni-W film.

  19. The asymmetric response of Yangtze river basin summer rainfall to El Niño/La Niña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiman, Steven C.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Scaife, Adam A.; Bett, Philip E.; Li, Chaofan; Lu, Bo; Ren, Hong-Li; Smith, Doug M.; Stephan, Claudia C.

    2018-02-01

    The Yangtze river basin, in South East China, experiences anomalously high precipitation in summers following El Niño. This can lead to extensive flooding and loss of life. However, the response following La Niña has not been well documented. In this study, the response of Yangtze summer rainfall to El Niño/La Niña is found to be asymmetric, with no significant response following La Niña. The nature of this asymmetric response is found to be in good agreement with that simulated by the Met Office seasonal forecast system. Yangtze summer rainfall correlates positively with spring sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean and northwest Pacific. Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures are found to respond linearly to El Niño/La Niña, and to have a linear impact on Yangtze summer rainfall. However, northwest Pacific sea surface temperatures respond much more strongly following El Niño and, further, correlate more strongly with positive rainfall years. It is concluded that, whilst delayed Indian Ocean signals may influence summer Yangtze rainfall, it is likely that they do not lead to the asymmetric nature of the rainfall response to El Niño/La Niña.

  20. Influence of Ni doping on PtNi nanoparticles: Synthesis, electronic/atomic structure and photocatalyst investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Mayora; Sharma, Aditya; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Jeon, Tae-Yeol; Lee, Byeong-Hyeon; Chae, Keun-Hwa; Won, Sung Ok

    2017-11-01

    Carbon-supported Pt and PtNi nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a borohydride reduction method. Structural properties were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the size/shape of the NPs was determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). X-ray absorption spectroscopy with its two amendments; X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), has been employed to investigate the local electronic/atomic structure surrounding the Pt and Ni atoms. XANES results, at Pt L3-edge and Ni K-edge, have shown fractional oxidation of Pt and Ni atoms. The Pt3Ni1NPs have exhibited a lower bond distance of Pt-Ni shell and higher coordination number of Pt-Ni shells, indicating the alloy formation between Pt and Ni. We further have demonstrated that the Pt and PtNi NPs can serve as effective photocatalysts towards the degradation of water pollutant dye (methyl orange (MO)). By considering the interband charge-transfer of Pt (5d →6sp), a tentative mechanism is proposed to understand the photocatalytic degradation of MO dye molecules by Pt/PtNi NPs under the light irradiation.

  1. NiO-Microflower Formed by Nanowire-weaving Nanosheets with Interconnected Ni-network Decoration as Supercapacitor Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Ci, Suqing; Wen, Zhenhai; Qian, Yuanyuan; Mao, Shun; Cui, Shumao; Chen, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    We propose a ‘weaving’ evolution mechanism, by systematically investigating the products obtained in controlled experiments, to demonstrate the formation of Ni-based ‘microflowers’ which consists of multiple characteristic dimensions, in which the three dimensional (3D) NiO ‘microflower’ is constructed by a two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet framework that is derived from weaving one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. We found such unique nanostructures are conducive for the generation of an electrically conductive Ni-network on the nanosheet surface after being exposed to a reducing atmosphere. Our study offers a promising strategy to address the intrinsic issue of poor electrical conductivity for NiO-based materials with significant enhancement of utilization of NiO active materials, leading to a remarkable improvement in the performance of the Ni-NiO microflower based supercapacitor. The optimized Ni-NiO microflower material showed a mass specific capacitance of 1,828 F g−1, and an energy density of 15.9 Wh kg−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. This research not only contributes to understanding the formation mechanism of such ‘microflower’ structures but also offers a promising route to advance NiO based supercapacitor given their ease of synthesis, low cost, and long-term stability. PMID:26165386

  2. On the Ni-Ion release rate from surfaces of binary NiTi shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ševčíková, Jana; Bártková, Denisa; Goldbergová, Monika; Kuběnová, Monika; Čermák, Jiří; Frenzel, Jan; Weiser, Adam; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    The study is focused on Ni-ion release rates from NiTi surfaces exposed in the cell culture media and human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture environments. The NiTi surface layers situated in the depth of 70 μm below a NiTi oxide scale are affected by interactions between the NiTi alloys and the bio-environments. The finding was proved with use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electron microscopy experiments. As the exclusive factor controlling the Ni-ion release rates was not only thicknesses of the oxide scale, but also the passivation depth, which was two-fold larger. Our experimental data strongly suggested that some other factors, in addition to the Ni concentration in the oxide scale, admittedly hydrogen soaking deep below the oxide scale, must be taken into account in order to rationalize the concentrations of Ni-ions released into the bio-environments. The suggested role of hydrogen as the surface passivation agent is also in line with the fact that the Ni-ion release rates considerably decrease in NiTi samples that were annealed in controlled hydrogen atmospheres prior to bio-environmental exposures.

  3. Impact of Interstitial Ni on the Thermoelectric Properties of the Half-Heusler TiNiSn.

    PubMed

    Barczak, Sonia A; Buckman, Jim; Smith, Ronald I; Baker, Annabelle R; Don, Eric; Forbes, Ian; Bos, Jan-Willem G

    2018-03-30

    TiNiSn is an intensively studied half-Heusler alloy that shows great potential for waste heat recovery. Here, we report on the structures and thermoelectric properties of a series of metal-rich TiNi 1+y Sn compositions prepared via solid-state reactions and hot pressing. A general relation between the amount of interstitial Ni and lattice parameter is determined from neutron powder diffraction. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction reveals the occurrence of strain broadening upon hot pressing, which is attributed to the metastable arrangement of interstitial Ni. Hall measurements confirm that interstitial Ni causes weak n-type doping and a reduction in carrier mobility, which limits the power factor to 2.5-3 mW m -1 K -2 for these samples. The thermal conductivity was modelled within the Callaway approximation and is quantitively linked to the amount of interstitial Ni, resulting in a predicted value of 12.7 W m -1 K -1 at 323 K for stoichiometric TiNiSn. Interstitial Ni leads to a reduction of the thermal band gap and moves the peak ZT = 0.4 to lower temperatures, thus offering the possibility to engineer a broad ZT plateau. This work adds further insight into the impact of small amounts of interstitial Ni on the thermal and electrical transport of TiNiSn.

  4. When NiO@Ni Meets WS2 Nanosheet Array: A Highly Efficient and Ultrastable Electrocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The development of low-cost, high-efficiency, and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of paramount importance for large-scale water splitting. Here, we develop a new strategy for the first design and synthesis of a NiO@Ni decorated WS2 nanosheet array on carbon cloth (NiO@Ni/WS2/CC) composite. This composite serves as a unique three-dimensional (3D) synergistic electrocatalyst that not only combines the intrinsic properties of individual NiO@Ni and WS2, but also exhibits significantly improved HER and OER activities when compared to that of pure NiO@Ni and WS2. This electrocatalyst possesses Pt-like activity for HER and exhibits better OER performance than that for commercial RuO2, as well as demonstrating superior long-term durability in alkaline media. Furthermore, it enables an alkaline electrolyzer with a current density of 10 mA cm–2 at a cell voltage as 1.42 V, which is the lowest one among all reported values to date. The excellent performance is mainly attributed to the unique 3D configuration and multicomponent synergies among NiO, Ni, and WS2. Our findings provide a new idea to design advanced bifunctional catalysts for water splitting. PMID:29392183

  5. Nanostructured CoO/NiO/CoNi anodes with tunable morphology for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Wang, Xinlu; Xu, Hang; Yu, Wensheng; Dong, Xiangting; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Jinxian

    2017-08-22

    Nanostructured CoO/NiO/CoNi composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been successfully prepared by a facile, straightforward, and large-scale dealloying method. The effects of NaOH solution concentration on the structure, morphology and electrochemical performances of the resulting products are studied systematically. These results indicate that the concentration of NaOH solution mainly influences the morphology of the CoO/NiO/CoNi composites. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge tests have been conducted to assess the lithium storage performances of the CoO/NiO/CoNi anodes obtained from the 5 M NaOH solution. Remarkably, the CoO/NiO/CoNi anodes exhibit high specific capacity, excellent rate properties, and superb cycling stability. A reversible capacity is still maintained at 575 mA h g -1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g -1 . Even at a current rate of 2000 mA g -1 , the capacity could reach 267 mA h g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties of the CoO/NiO/CoNi anodes make them promising anode materials of LIBs and other energy storage applications.

  6. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on the NiO Photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengjun; Chen, Zeng; Kong, Wenping; Jia, Xiyang; Cai, Junhao; Dong, Shaokang

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a uniform nanoporous NiO film, with a thickness of up to 2.6 μm, was prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The addition of PEG significantly decreased the cracks in the NiO film and prevented the peeling of the NiO film from a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate. The NiO cathode was prepared using CdSeS quantum dots (QDs) as the sensitizer, with an optimized photoelectric conversion of 0.80%. The optimized QD-sensitized NiO films were first assembled with the TiO2 anode to prepared QD-sensitized p-n-type tandem solar cells. The open circuit voltage was greater than that obtained using the separated NiO cathode or TiO2 anode.

  7. Fabrication of black silicon by Ni assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kai; Shen, Honglie; Liu, Youwen; Tang, Quntao; Jiang, Ye; Yang, Wangyang; Li, Yufang; Huang, Chunlai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Ni was used as an assist metal to fabricate black silicon. Ni nanoparticles were first deposited on the surface of the hydrophilic silicon wafer by chemical solution deposition. Then the silicon wafer with Ni nanoparticles on its surface was etched in a HF/H2O2/H2O mixed solution at room temperature. The concentration of HF in the solution was changed to study the reaction principle of Ni assisted chemical etching. A reflectivity as low as 2.31% in the wavelength range of 400–900 nm was obtained in optimized condition. An ‘inverted pyramid + nano-pore’ structure could be formed when the etching time was long enough because of the corrosion of Ni nanoparticles by etching solution. Besides, the corrosion direction of the Ni assisted etching was found to be perpendicular to the surface of the silicon wafer.

  8. Bandgap bowing in Ni1-xMgxO alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Kazutoshi; Inada, Mitsuru

    2018-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the compositional dependence of the bandgap of the Ni1-xMgxO alloy as it is a promising bandgap-tunable material for ultraviolet (UV) and deep-UV photodetectors. However, the dependence of the bandgap of this material on the Mg content, x, is still a subject of debate, as the experimentally measured optical bandgap of Ni1-xMgxO is 2-3 eV lower than that of pure MgO (7.77 eV), in contrast to that predicted by conventional bandgap bowing theories. Here, we demonstrate that the Ni1-xMgxO alloy has two bandgaps: (i) the Ni-3d bandgap Eg3d, i.e., the bandgap between the valence band (O 2p) and Ni-3d(eg) bands, where the charge-transfer (CT) transition energy weakly depends on the Mg content and (ii) the alloy bandgap EgNi1 -xMgxO, i.e., the bandgap between the valence band and the conduction band of the Ni1-xMgxO alloy, which is related to the Ni 4s/Mg 3s states; the alloy bandgap obeys the conventional bandgap bowing model. The Ni1-xMgxO absorption spectra at low Mg contents are difficult to deconvolute because the electronic bands originating from the Ni-3d bands and the alloy conduction band overlap. The band structure described above elucidates the anomalous characteristics of the bandgap of Ni1-xMgxO, i.e., most of the optical bandgap values reported so far are smaller than the expected value corresponding to the transition from the valence band to the alloy conduction band because they were evaluated based on the absorption due to the O 2p-Ni 3d(eg) CT transition.

  9. Ni Sorption to Birnessite Drives a Surprisingly Large Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasylenki, L. E.; Wells, R. M.; Spivak-Birndorf, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    With current knowledge of sources and sinks for marine Ni, as compiled recently by Gall et al. [1], it is not possible to construct a balanced steady-state mass balance model for Ni in the global oceans. The recent discovery of considerable Ni stable isotope variations among seawater and the various inputs and outputs implies that Ni isotopes may be able to aid construction of a valid mass balance model, since the isotope systematics provide an additional dimension of constraints that must be balanced to close the budget. However, much work remains to be done to measure and especially to understand the controls on Ni isotope distribution among marine reservoirs. Ferromanganese sediments represent a major sink for Ni, and most of these rocks are variably enriched in heavier isotopes of Ni relative to seawater [1]. In an effort to understand why that is the case, we undertook experiments to quantify Ni isotope fractionation during sorption to birnessite, the dominant Mn phase in ferromanganese crusts, at low and high ionic strength. At low ionic strength we observed lighter isotopes of Ni preferentially sorbed, with an average magnitude of Δ60/58Nisorbed-dissolved = -1.38 ±0.16 ‰. The isotopic compositions of dissolved and sorbed Ni define parallel, linear trends as a function of fraction of Ni sorbed, indicating a reversible, equilibrium isotope effect. In simplified, synthetic seawater, the observed fractionation are even larger, up to Δ60/58Nisorbed-dissolved= -4‰. The large magnitudes of fractionation observed in this system are surprising, but the most puzzling aspect of these results is that, in our experiments, lighter isotopes are preferentially sorbed, while in the natural system Ni in ferromanganese crusts is quite heavy relative to seawater. Likely reasons for this discrepancy will be discussed, as well as possible causes of this surprisingly large metal isotope effect. [1] Gall et al. (2013, EPSL 375, 148)

  10. Anodic films on single phase Ni-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrovic-Scepanovic, V.; Ives, M.B.

    1984-12-01

    Anodic films formed on Ni and single phase Ni-Mo alloys in Na2SO4 solution have been investigated by electrochemical and surface analytical techniques (AES, XPS, and RHEED). A thicker, two phase oxide film which was enriched in Mo formed on the alloys and was concluded to be less perfect and less protective than the thin, compact, passive film on pure Ni. 59 references.

  11. NiAl-based Polyphase in situ Composites in the NiAl-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Polyphase in situ composites were generated by directional solidification of ternary eutectics. This work was performed to discover if a balance of properties could be produced by combining the NiAl-Laves phase and the NiAl-refractory metal phase eutectics. The systems investigated were the Ni-Al-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) alloys. Ternary eutectics were found in each of these systems and the eutectic composition, temperature, and morphology were determined. The ternary eutectic systems examined were the NiAl-NiAlTa-(Mo, Ta), NiAl-(Cr, Al) NiTa-Cr, and the NiAl-NiAlTa-V systems. Each eutectic consists of NiAl, a C14 Laves phase, and a refractory metal phase. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques in a levitation zone refiner to minimize alloy contamination. Room temperature fracture toughness of these materials was determined by a four-point bend test. Preliminary creep behavior was determined by compression tests at elevated temperatures, 1100-l400 K. Of the ternary eutectics, the one in the NiAl-Ta-Cr system was found to be the most promising. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-(Cr, Al)NiTa-Cr eutectic was intermediate between the values of the NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic and the NiAl-Cr eutectic. The creep strength of this ternary eutectic was similar to or greater than that of the NiAl-Cr eutectic.

  12. CVD Graphene/Ni Interface Evolution in Sulfuric Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Yivlialin, Rossella; Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Duò, Lamberto; Yu, Feng; Galbiati, Miriam; Camilli, Luca

    2018-03-20

    Systems comprising single and multilayer graphene deposited on metals and immersed in acid environments have been investigated, with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved, for instance, in hydrogen production or metal protection from corrosion. In this work, a relevant system, namely chemical vapor deposited (CVD) multilayer graphene/Ni (MLGr/Ni), is studied when immersed in a diluted sulfuric electrolyte. The MLGr/Ni electrochemical and morphological properties are studied in situ and interpreted in light of the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode behavior, when immersed in the same electrolyte. Following this interpretative framework, the dominant role of the Ni substrate in hydrogen production is clarified.

  13. Mechanisms of Formation and Transformation of Ni-Fe Hydroxycarbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Refait, Ph.; Jeannin, M.; Reffass, M.

    2005-04-26

    The mechanisms of the transformation of (Ni,Fe)(OH)2 precipitates in carbonated aqueous solutions were studied. The reactions were monitored by measuring the redox potential of the aqueous suspension, and end products were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation processes were compared to those occurring without Ni, that is when the initial hydroxide is Fe(OH)2. Schematically, the oxidation of Fe(OH)2 involves two intermediate compounds, the carbonated GR of formula Fe{sup II}{sub 4}Fe{sup III}{sub 2}(OH){sub 12}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O, and ferrihydrite, before to lead finally to goethite {alpha}-FeOOH. It proved possible to prepare Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonates with ratiosmore » Fe/Ni from 1/6 to 1/3. When the Fe/Ni ratio is larger than 1/3, a two stage oxidation process takes place. The first stage leads to a Ni(II)-Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate. The second stage corresponds to the oxidation of the Fe(II) remaining inside the hydroxycarbonate and leads to a mixture of Ni(II)-Fe(III) hydroxycarbonate with ferrihydrite. The main effect of Ni is then to stop the reaction at an intermediate stage, as Ni(II) is not oxidised by O2, leaving unchanged the main features of the mechanisms of transformation.« less

  14. Point defects in the NiAl(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Lerch, D; Dössel, K; Hammer, L; Müller, S

    2009-04-01

    The stability of various point defects in NiAl(100) has been investigated by first-principles calculations. For Al-rich surfaces, Ni vacancies within the first Al layer are energetically most favourable. For Ni-rich surfaces, so-called double defects, consisting of both Ni-antisite atom in the first Al layer and a Ni vacancy within the second Ni layer, form the configuration of lowest energy, superior to singular Ni antisites. An additional and significant energy gain is found in both cases by mutual lateral interaction of the defects, when they are arranged in the diagonal direction. Respective [Formula: see text] ordered configurations were found as the most stable structures. A 50:50 mixture of both defect types turns out to be even lower in energy than the ideal Al-terminated NiAl(100) surface, proving the latter to be metastable only. This is in line with the often reported inability in experiments to prepare ideal NiAl(100) surfaces.

  15. Ni cycling in mangrove sediments from New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Vincent; Morin, Guillaume; Juillot, Farid; Marchand, Cyril; Brest, Jessica; Bargar, John R.; Muñoz, Manuel; Marakovic, Grégory; Ardo, Sandy; Brown, Gordon E.

    2015-11-01

    Covering more than 70% of tropical and subtropical coastlines, mangrove intertidal forests are well known to accumulate potentially toxic trace metals in their sediments, and thus are generally considered to play a protective role in marine and lagoon ecosystems. However, the chemical forms of these trace metals in mangrove sediments are still not well known, even though their molecular-level speciation controls their long-term behavior. Here we report the vertical and lateral changes in the chemical forms of nickel, which accumulates massively in mangrove sediments downstream from lateritized ultramafic deposits from New Caledonia, where one of nature's largest accumulations of nickel occurs. To accomplish this we used Ni K-edge Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy data in combination with microscale chemical analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS). After Principal Component and Target Transform analyses (PCA-TT), the EXAFS data of the mangrove sediments were reliably least-squares fitted by linear combination of 3-components chosen from a large model compound spectral database including synthetic and natural Ni-bearing sulfides, clay minerals, oxyhydroxides, and organic complexes. Our results show that in the inland salt flat Ni is hosted in minerals inherited from the eroded lateritic materials, i.e. Ni-poor serpentine (44-58%), Ni-rich talc (20-31%), and Ni-goethite (18-24%). In contrast, in the hydromorphic sediments beneath the vegetated Avicennia and Rhizophora stands, a large fraction of Ni is partly redistributed into a neoformed smectite pool (20-69% of Ni-montmorillonite), and Ni speciation significantly changes with depth in the sediment. Indeed, Ni-rich talc (25-56%) and Ni-goethite (15-23%) disappear below ∼15 cm depth in the sediment and are replaced by Ni-sorbed pyrite (23-52%) in redox-active intermediate depth layers and by pyrite (34-55%) in the deepest

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of NiTi in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqiu; Li, Nianxing; Rao, Guangbin; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei

    2007-02-01

    This paper aimed to study the mechanism of the cracking of orthodontic NiTi wire. Two orthodontic NiTi wires were subjected: (1) optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the fracture surface; (2) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the composition of the surface product; (3) anodic polarization to remove the surface product. Samples of NiTi alloy were subjected to the constant loading test to study the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy in artificial saliva. The results showed that there were three typical areas at the fracture surface of NiTi orthodontic wire. Area '1' was a tool-made notch. Crack initiated from the root of this notch and propagated to form Area '2', which was perpendicular to the wire axis and covered by surface film. This film consisted of Na, K, Cl, P, S and O except Ni and Ti. The cracking process of NiTi alloy under the constant loading test depended on the pH of saliva and applied stress. The crack length was about 262microm, the longest at 300MPa and pH 3.0. A tool-made notch in orthodontic NiTi wires can cause SCC. At high stress and low pH, this NiTi alloy was most sensitive to cracking.

  17. Stability of the polar NiO(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bing; Tang, Bi-Yu

    2008-03-28

    Based on density functional theory and thermodynamic model, we compile a phase diagram for the polar NiO(111) surface as a function of temperature and oxygen pressure. The electronic correlation between Ni-3d electrons has also been included in the form of GGA+U method. Consistent with recent experiments, present GGA+U calculation indicates that over a broad range of oxygen partial pressure, the most stable phases are the oxygen and Ni terminated octopolar structures, which are almost degenerate in energy. We also show that the stabilization of the NiO(111) surface goes together with remarkable changes in the geometrical and electronic structure.

  18. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  19. Process development for Ni-Cr-ThO2 and Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. C.; Norris, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A process was developed for the production of thin gauge Ni-Cr-ThO2 sheet. The process was based on the elevated temperature deposition of chromium onto a wrought Ni-2%ThO2 sheet and subsequent high temperature diffusion heat treatments to minimize chromium concentration gradients within the sheet. The mechanical properties of the alloy were found to be critically dependent on those of the Ni-2%ThO2 sheet. A similar process for the production of a Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 alloy having improved oxidation resistance was investigated but the non-reproducible deposition of aluminum from duplex Cr/Al packs precluded successful scale-up. The mechanical properties of the Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 alloys were generally equivalent to the best Ni-Cr-ThO2 alloy produced in the programme.

  20. Eutectic superalloys strengthened by sigma, Ni3CB lamellae and gamma prime, Ni3Al precipitates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.

    1973-01-01

    By means of a screening and solidification optimization study of certain alloys located on the gamma-sigma liquidus surface within the Ni-Cb-Cr-Al system, alloys with high temperature properties superior to those of all known superalloys were defined. One alloy, Ni - 19.7w/o Cb - 6.0w/o Cr - 2.5w/o Al, directionally solidified at 3 cm/hr met or exceeded each program goal. A second alloy, Ni-21.75 w/o Cb-2.55 w/o Al, although deficient in its inherent oxidation resistance, met the other program goals and combined a remarkable insensitivity of composite microstructure to solidification parameters with excellent low temperature toughness. This investigation demonstrated that useful properties for gas turbine airfoil application have been achieved by reinforcing a strong and tough gamma solid solution matrix containing precipitated gamma prime by a lamellar intermetallic compound Ni3 Cb having greater strength at elevated temperature.

  1. The design of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO microstructures with tunable oil adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Enshuang; Cheng, Zhongjun; Lv, Tong; Li, Li; Liu, Yuyan

    2015-11-01

    Controlling oil adhesion in water is a fundamental issue in many practical applications for surfaces. Currently, almost all studies on underwater oil adhesion control are concentrated on regulating surface chemistry on polymer surfaces, and structure-dependent underwater oil adhesion is still rare, especially on inorganic materials. Herein, we report a series of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO surfaces with controlled oil adhesions by combining electro-deposition and heating techniques. The adhesive forces between an oil droplet and the surfaces can be adjusted from an extremely low (less than 1 μN) to a very high value (about 60 μN), and the tunable effect can be attributed to different wetting states that result from different microstructures on the surfaces. Moreover, the oil-adhesion controllability for different types of oils was also analyzed and the applications of the surface including oil droplet transportation and self-cleaning were discussed. The results reported herein provide a new feasible method for fabrication of underwater superoleophobic surfaces with controlled adhesion, and improve the understanding of the relationship between surface microstructures, adhesion, and the fabrication principle of tunable oil adhesive surfaces.Controlling oil adhesion in water is a fundamental issue in many practical applications for surfaces. Currently, almost all studies on underwater oil adhesion control are concentrated on regulating surface chemistry on polymer surfaces, and structure-dependent underwater oil adhesion is still rare, especially on inorganic materials. Herein, we report a series of underwater superoleophobic Ni/NiO surfaces with controlled oil adhesions by combining electro-deposition and heating techniques. The adhesive forces between an oil droplet and the surfaces can be adjusted from an extremely low (less than 1 μN) to a very high value (about 60 μN), and the tunable effect can be attributed to different wetting states that result from

  2. Solidification Behavior of gamma'-Ni3Al Containing Alloys in the Ni-Al-O System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    The chemical activities of Al and Ni in gamma(prime)-Ni3Al-containing systems were measured using the multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry technique (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K. From these measurements a better understanding of the equilibrium solidification behaviour of gamma(prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys in the Ni-Al-O system was established. Specifically, these measurements revealed that (1) gamma(prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod reaction, gamma + Beta (+ A12O3) = gamma (prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K, (2) the {gamma + Beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 through 1640 K, and (3) equilibrium solidification occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). When projected onto the Ni-Al binary, this behaviour is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(prime)-Ni3Al phase field.

  3. Ni ion release, osteoblast-material interactions, and hemocompatibility of hafnium-implanted NiTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingting; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xinqing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tao

    2012-04-01

    Hafnium ion implantation was applied to NiTi alloy to suppress Ni ion release and enhance osteoblast-material interactions and hemocompatibility. The auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope results showed that a composite TiO(2)/HfO(2) nanofilm with increased surface roughness was formed on the surface of NiTi, and Ni concentration was reduced in the superficial surface layer. Potentiodynamic polarization tests displayed that 4 mA NiTi sample possessed the highest E(br) - E(corr), 470 mV higher than that of untreated NiTi, suggesting a significant improvement on pitting corrosion resistance. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry tests during 60 days immersion demonstrated that Ni ion release rate was remarkably decreased, for example, a reduction of 67% in the first day. The water contact angle increased and surface energy decreased after Hf implantation. Cell culture and methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium indicated that Hf-implanted NiTi expressed enhanced osteoblasts adhesion and proliferation, especially after 7 days culture. Hf implantation decreased fibrinogen adsorption, but had almost no effect on albumin adsorption. Platelets adhesion and activation were suppressed significantly (97% for 4 mA NiTi) and hemolysis rate was decreased by at least 57% after Hf implantation. Modified surface composition and morphology and decreased surface energy should be responsible for the improvement of cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ni biogeochemical cycle through geological time: insights from Ni isotope variations in modern and ancient marine metallifereous deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, B.; Rouxel, O.; Ponzevera, E.; Sorensen, J. V.; Toner, B.; Bekker, A.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of isotopic composition of transition metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo as biogeochemical tracers became popular recently. Since Ni is ubiquitous in marine metallifereous deposits and its concentration in water column is coupled to that of nutrients, it has a potential as a biogeochemical tracer. Isotopic analyses were performed on a Neptune MC-ICP-MS using a double-spike correction method for instrumental mass bias. Deep-sea ferromanganese crusts have been used to establish a record of seawater over the last 60 Myr. Our results show that Fe-Mn crusts from both Atlantic and Pacific oceans are systematically enriched in heavy isotopes relative to Bulk Silicate Earth with δ60/58Ni values ranging from 0.30 to 1.80% (2se = 0.04%). In contrast, Iron Formations (IF) with ages ranging from 3.8 to 0.7 Gyr display a wider range of values with a striking negative Ni isotope excursion down to -2.46% (2se = 0.03%) in Neoproterozoic IF. Although correlation between Ni isotope compositions, Ni concentrations and BIFs ages seems to be lacking, several Ni isotope excursions to either positive or negative Ni isotope values are notable prior to 2.4 Gyr. Methanogens were likely abundant in Precambrian water column until they retreated to pore waters and local environments once the oceans were oxygenated after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). They preferentially uptake light Ni isotopes leaving isotopically heavier Ni in oceans. Our Ni isotope record of Precambrian IF does not show a unidirectional change across the GOE implying that Ni isotope composition of the Archean oceans was not dominated by this metabolism. Preliminary Ni adsorption experiments on Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxides show a maximum fractionation factor between the mineral phase and aqueous solution of -1.00% (2se = 0.03%). Hence, isotopic variations in Fe-Mn crusts and IF cannot be simply explained by adsorption processes, but require changes in composition of either Ni sources (local or global) to seawater (e

  5. Formation of a novel ordered Ni3Al surface structure by codeposition on NiAl(110).

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Unal, Barış; Evans, J W

    2012-05-25

    The formation of a new type of ordered 2D Ni3Al overlayer by low-temperature codeposition on NiAl(110) is demonstrated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a multisite atomistic lattice-gas model with a precise treatment of surface diffusion kinetics. Simultaneous codeposition with 3:1 Ni:Al yields poor ordering at 300 K but well-ordered structures by ~500 K. Sequential codeposition of Ni then Al yields unmixed core-ring nanostructures at 300 K but strong intermixing and ordering by ~500 K.

  6. Formation of a Novel Ordered Ni 3Al Surface Structure by Codeposition on NiAl(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yong; Unal, Baris; Evans, James W

    2012-05-23

    The formation of a new type of ordered 2D Ni 3Al overlayer by low-temperature codeposition on NiAl(110) is demonstrated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a multisite atomistic lattice-gas model with a precise treatment of surface diffusion kinetics. Simultaneous codeposition with 3:1 Ni:Al yields poor ordering at 300 K but well-ordered structures by ~500 K. Sequential codeposition of Ni then Al yields unmixed core-ring nanostructures at 300 K but strong intermixing and ordering by ~500 K.

  7. Low temperature diffusion coefficients in the Fe-Ni and FeNiP systems: Application to meteorite cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency in zirconia buffered n-NiO/p-NiO single crystalline heterostructures by nanosecond laser treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Molaei, R.; Bayati, M. R.; Alipour, H. M.

    2013-06-21

    We report the formation of NiO based single crystalline p-n junctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity induced by pulsed laser irradiation. The NiO epilayers were grown on Si(001) substrates buffered with cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ) by using pulsed laser deposition. The NiO/c-YSZ/Si heterostructures were subsequently laser treated by 5 pulses of KrF excimer laser (pulse duration = 25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} s) at lower energies. Microstructural studies, conducted by X-ray diffraction ({theta}-2{theta} and {phi} techniques) and high resolution transmission electron microscope, showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship at the c-YSZ/Si interface; the epitaxial relationship across the NiO/c-YSZ interface was established as NiO<111more » > Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line c-YSZ<001> and in-plane NiO<110> Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line c-YSZ<100>. Electron microscopy studies showed that the interface between the laser annealed and the pristine region as well as the NiO/c-YSZ interface was atomically sharp and crystallographically continuous. The formation of point defects, namely oxygen vacancies and NiO, due to the coupling of the laser photons with the NiO epilayers was confirmed by XPS. The p-type electrical characteristics of the pristine NiO epilayers turned to an n-type behavior and the electrical conductivity was increased by one order of magnitude after laser treatment. Photocatalytic activity of the pristine (p-NiO/c-YSZ/Si) and the laser-annealed (n-NiO/p-NiO/c-YSZ/Si) heterostructures were assessed by measuring the decomposition rate of 4-chlorophenol under UV light. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants were determined to be 0.0059 and 0.0092 min{sup -1} for the as-deposited and the laser-treated samples, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was attributed to the suppressed charge carrier recombination in the NiO based p-n junctions and higher electrical conductivity. Besides, the oxygen

  9. Metal Organic Frameworks Derived Hierarchical Hollow NiO/Ni/Graphene Composites for Lithium and Sodium Storage.

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Chen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Kewei; Yu, Zitian; Liang, Wenfeng; Bhaway, Sarang M; Gao, Min; Zhu, Yu

    2016-01-26

    Ni-based metal organic frameworks (Ni-MOFs) with unique hierarchical hollow ball-in-ball nanostructure were synthesized by solvothermal reactions. After successive carbonization and oxidation treatments, hierarchical NiO/Ni nanocrystals covered with a graphene shell were obtained with the hollow ball-in-ball nanostructure intact. The resulting materials exhibited superior performance as the anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs): they provide high reversible specific capacity (1144 mAh/g), excellent cyclability (nearly no capacity loss after 1000 cycles) and rate performance (805 mAh/g at 15 A/g). In addition, the hierarchical NiO/Ni/Graphene composites demonstrated promising performance as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Such a superior lithium and sodium storage performance is derived from the well-designed hierarchical hollow ball-in-ball structure of NiO/Ni/Graphene composites, which not only mitigates the volume expansion of NiO during the cycles but also provides a continuous highly conductive graphene matrix to facilitate the fast charge transfer and form a stable SEI layer.

  10. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Ding, Dongyan; Dong, Zhenbiao; Ning, Congqin

    2017-10-31

    Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti₂Ni phase region, and Ti₅Si₃ phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm² at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  11. Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonka, Lukas; Kubart, Tomas; Primetzhofer, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The authors have studied the reaction between a Ge (100) substrate and thin layers of Ni ranging from 2 to 10 nm in thickness. The formation of metal-rich Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 was found to precede that of the monogermanide NiGe by means of real-time in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp-annealing and ex situ x-ray pole figure analyses for phase identification. The observed sequential growth of Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 and NiGe with such thin Ni layers is different from the previously reported simultaneous growth with thicker Ni layers. The phase transformation from Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 to NiGe was found to be nucleation-controlled for Ni thicknesses <5 nm<5more » nm, which is well supported by thermodynamic considerations. Specifically, the temperature for the NiGe formation increased with decreasing Ni (rather Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3) thickness below 5 nm. In combination with sheet resistance measurement and microscopic surface inspection of samples annealed with a standard rapid thermal processing, the temperature range for achieving morphologically stable NiGe layers was identified for this standard annealing process. As expected, it was found to be strongly dependent on the initial Ni thickness« less

  12. Synergetic interface between NiO/Ni3S2 nanosheets and carbon nanofiber as binder-free anode for highly reversible lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jialin; Ma, Chao; Yang, Yinbo; Ding, Jingjing; Ji, Hongmei; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    A novel heterostructure of NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflake is synthesized and composited with carbon nanofibers (CNF) membrane. NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes are homogeneously dispersed in CNF network, herein, NiO/Ni3S2 like leaf and CNF like branch. Carbon nanofibers network efficiently prevents the pulverization and buffers the volume changes of NiO/Ni3S2, meanwhile, NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes through the conductive channels of carbon nanofibers own improved Li+ diffusion ability and structural stability. The capacity of NiO/Ni3S2/CNF reaches to 519.2 mA g-1 after 200 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 while NiO/Ni3S2 fades to 71 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles. Owing to the synergetic structure, the resultant binder-free electrode NiO/Ni3S2/carbon nanofibers shows an excellent reversible lithium storage capability.

  13. Reciprocating sliding wear behavior of laser-clad small amplitude Mo 2Ni 3Si/NiSi metal silicide composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. D.; Wang, H. M.; Zhou, Z. R.

    2005-02-01

    Mo 2Ni 3Si/NiSi metal silicide composite coatings with a fine microstructure consisting of Mo 2Ni 3Si primary dendrites and the interdendritic Mo 2Ni 3Si/NiSi eutectics were fabricated on austenitic stainless steel AISI 321 by laser cladding process. Small amplitude reciprocating sliding wear resistance of the coatings is evaluated as functions of normal load and slip amplitude and the wear mechanisms were discussed based on worn surface morphology observations. Results showed that the Mo 2Ni 3Si/NiSi coatings have excellent small amplitude reciprocating sliding wear resistance.

  14. Predicting El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In 1982, scientists neither predicted nor recognized the beginning of the most intense El Niño of the century, which caused thousands of deaths and more than $13 billion in damage. But warned that 1986 and 1987 would be wet years, Peruvian farmers avoided costly crop losses by planting rice instead of cotton.With the establishment of the new International Research Institute last month, more potential climate-related disasters will likely be averted. The new institute combines the scientists and resources of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the University of California's Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration will provide $18 million over 3 years in a cooperative agreement to establish the institute. Advances in ocean observation systems and new capabilities in computer models for predicting the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prompted the idea for the new institute. ENSO, a natural global climate cycle occurring irregularly over several years, causes a shift in ocean currents in the tropical Pacific and alters global wind and rainfall patterns.

  15. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; ...

    2016-02-25

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors.more » Here in this paper, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. In conclusion, the finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.« less

  16. Immunoproteomic identification and characterization of Ni2+-regulated proteins implicates Ni2+in the induction of monocyte cell death.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Annika; Mussotter, Franz; Ohnesorge, Stefanie; Dietz, Lisa; Pardo, Julian; Haidl, Ian D; Thierse, Hermann-Josef

    2017-03-16

    Nickel allergy is the most common cause of allergic reactions worldwide, with cutaneous and systemic effects potentially affecting multiple organs. Monocytes are precursors of not only macrophages but also dendritic cells, the most potent activators of nickel hypersensitivity. Monocytes are themselves important antigen-presenting cells, capable of nickel-specific T-cell activation in vivo and in vitro, in addition to being important for immediate innate immune inflammation. To elucidate early Ni 2+ -dependent inflammatory molecular mechanisms in human monocytes, a Ni 2+ -specific proteomic approach was applied. Quantitative two-dimensional (2D) differential gel electrophoresis and Delta2D software analyses coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) revealed that Ni 2+ significantly regulated 56 protein species, of which 36 were analyzed by MALDI-MS. Bioinformatics analyses of all identified proteins resulted in Ni 2+ -associated functional annotation clusters, such as cell death, metal ion binding, and cytoskeletal remodeling. The involvement of Ni 2+ in the induction of monocyte cell death, but not T-cell death, was observed at Ni 2+ concentrations at or above 250 μM. Examination of caspase activity during Ni 2+ -mediated cell death revealed monocytic cell death independent of caspase-3 and -7 activity. However, confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated Ni 2+ -triggered cytoskeletal remodeling and nuclear condensation, characteristic of cellular apoptosis. Thus, Ni 2+ -specific peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation suggests monocytic cell death at Ni 2+ concentrations at or above 250 μM, and monocytic effects on immune regulation at lower Ni 2+ concentrations.

  17. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.

    2016-02-22

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors.more » Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.« less

  18. Fabrication and performance of a double layered Mn-Co-Ni-O/Mn-Co-Ni-Cu-O thin film detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yiming; Yao, Niangjuan; Jiang, Lin; Qu, Yue; Wu, Jing; Gao, Y. Q.; Huang, Jingguo; Huang, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    A thermal sensitive infrared and THz detector was fabricated by a double layered Mn-Co-Ni-O/Mn-Co-Ni-Cu-O films. The Mn-Co-Ni-O material, as one type of transition metal oxides, has long been used as a candidate for thermal sensors or infrared detectors. The resistivity of a most important Mn-Co-Ni-O thin film, Mn1. 96Co0.96Ni0.48O4(MCN) , is about 200 Ω·cm at room temperature, which ranges about 2 orders larger than that of VOx detectors. Therefore, the thickness of a typical squared Mn-Co-Ni-O IR detector should be about 10 μm, which is too large for focal plane arrays applications. To reduce the resistivity of Mn-Co-Ni-O thin film, 1/6 of Co element was replaced by Cu. Meanwhile, a cover layer of MCN film was deposited onto the Mn-Co-Ni-Cu-O film to improve the long term stability. The detector fabricated by the double layered Mn-Co-Ni-O/Mn-Co-Ni-Cu-O films showed large response to blackbody and 170 GHz radiation. The NEP of the detector was estimated to be the order of 10-8 W/Hz0. 5. By applying thermal isolation structure and additional absorption materials, the detection performance can be largely improved by 1-2 orders according to numerical estimation. The double layered Mn-Co-Ni-O film detector shows great potentials in applications in large scale IR detection arrays, and broad-band imaging.

  19. Immunoproteomic identification and characterization of Ni2+-regulated proteins implicates Ni2+ in the induction of monocyte cell death

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Annika; Mussotter, Franz; Ohnesorge, Stefanie; Dietz, Lisa; Pardo, Julian; Haidl, Ian D; Thierse, Hermann-Josef

    2017-01-01

    Nickel allergy is the most common cause of allergic reactions worldwide, with cutaneous and systemic effects potentially affecting multiple organs. Monocytes are precursors of not only macrophages but also dendritic cells, the most potent activators of nickel hypersensitivity. Monocytes are themselves important antigen-presenting cells, capable of nickel-specific T-cell activation in vivo and in vitro, in addition to being important for immediate innate immune inflammation. To elucidate early Ni2+-dependent inflammatory molecular mechanisms in human monocytes, a Ni2+-specific proteomic approach was applied. Quantitative two-dimensional (2D) differential gel electrophoresis and Delta2D software analyses coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) revealed that Ni2+ significantly regulated 56 protein species, of which 36 were analyzed by MALDI-MS. Bioinformatics analyses of all identified proteins resulted in Ni2+-associated functional annotation clusters, such as cell death, metal ion binding, and cytoskeletal remodeling. The involvement of Ni2+ in the induction of monocyte cell death, but not T-cell death, was observed at Ni2+ concentrations at or above 250 μM. Examination of caspase activity during Ni2+-mediated cell death revealed monocytic cell death independent of caspase-3 and -7 activity. However, confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated Ni2+-triggered cytoskeletal remodeling and nuclear condensation, characteristic of cellular apoptosis. Thus, Ni2+-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation suggests monocytic cell death at Ni2+ concentrations at or above 250 μM, and monocytic effects on immune regulation at lower Ni2+ concentrations. PMID:28300831

  20. GeV ion irradiation of NiFe and NiCo: Insights from MD simulations and experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Leino, Aleksi A.; Samolyuk, German D.; Sachan, Ritesh; ...

    2018-03-31

    Concentrated solid solution alloys have attracted rapidly increasing attention due to their potential for designing materials with high tolerance to radiation damage. To tackle the effects of chemical complexity in defect dynamics and radiation response, we present in this paper a computational study on swift heavy ion induced effects in Ni and equiatomic Ni -based alloys (Ni 50Fe 50, Ni 50Co 50) using two-temperature molecular dynamics simulations (2T-MD). The electronic heat conductivity in the two-temperature equations is parameterized from the results of first principles electronic structure calculations. A bismuth ion (1.542 GeV) is selected and single impact simulations performed inmore » each target. We study the heat flow in the electronic subsystem and show that alloying Ni with Co or Fe reduces the heat dissipation from the impact by the electronic subsystem. Simulation results suggest no melting or residual damage in pure Ni while a cylindrical region melts along the ion propagation path in the alloys. In Ni 50Co 50 the damage consists of a dislocation loop structure (d = 2 nm) and isolated point defects, while in Ni 50Fe 50, a defect cluster (d = 4 nm) along the ion path is, in addition, formed. The simulation results are supported by atomic-level structural and defect characterizations in bismuth-irradiated Ni and Ni 50Fe 50. Finally, the significance of the 2T-MD model is demonstrated by comparing the results to those obtained with an instantaneous energy deposition model without consideration of e-ph interactions in pure Ni and by showing that it leads to a different qualitative behavior.« less

  1. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

  2. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

  3. Nanostructured CdO-NiO composite for multifunctional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Gobinath, C.; Prabukumar, S.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, CdO, NiO, and CdO-NiO nanocomposites (NCs) were synthesized and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. XRD detected cubic structures with average crystallite sizes of 45 nm for CdO, 25 nm for NiO, and 30 nm for CdO-NiO. The band gap was estimated based on the ultraviolet-visible spectra. The near band edge emission was determined according to the luminescence spectrum. The antibacterial activities were tested against seven foodborne pathogens and the zones of inhibition with the Gram-negative bacterium Bacillus subtilis measured as 30 mm with CdO, 20 mm NiO, and 27 mm with CdO-NiO. The death of the bacterial cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscope analysis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated the non-toxic effects of the NCs on normal healthy red blood cells. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the CdO, NiO, and CdO-NiO NCs were examined using the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line based on 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays with normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NH3T3) under identical conditions.

  4. Phase competition in ternary Ti-Ni-Al system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzba, Bartek

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the reactive diffusion in Ti-Ni-Al system is discussed at 1173 K. The calculation method based on the binary approach is presented. The key kinetic parameter is Wagner integral diffusion coefficient. The experimental and simulation results of reactive diffusion between pure Ti and β-NiAl are compared at 1173 K after 100 h.

  5. Anodic electrodeposition of NiTSPP from aqueous basic media.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Marta; Muñoz, Eulogia; Martín-Romero, María T; Camacho, Luis

    2005-06-07

    The oxidative electrodeposition of NiTSPP (tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) Ni porphyrin) on ITO electrode from 0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution has been studied, and UV-visible and reflection FTIR spectroscopies have been used to analyze the composition of such film. By use of UV-vis spectroscopy, small absorbance of the film and an almost nulling effect on the Soret band of the porphyrin along the Ni(III)/Ni(II) redox process were observed. The reflection FTIR spectroscopy detected the presence of Ni-OH groups in the reduced film and as well the state of the porphyrin molecules as radical cation. Moreover, the porphyrin has been quantified by means of the area of the vibration bands assigned to the sulfonate groups by using as reference a Langmuir-Blodgett film containing a known surface concentration of NiTSPP. These results lead us propose the formation of a conductor salt by electrocrystallization, with stoichiometries TSPP/Ni(II)(OH)2 and TSPP/Ni(III)OOH, for its reduced and oxidized forms, respectively. In these two forms, the porphyrin rings will be present as radical cation, which may be stabilized through its dimerization or polymerization.

  6. A Classroom Activity: Tracking El Niño

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbe, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce an activity for teachers to assist in meeting learning outcomes as defined in the earth and environmental science units of the Australian Curriculum. The focus of the classroom tasks is on a global ocean feature referred to as El Niño. This phenomenon is part of the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which is largely…

  7. Stabilization of Reactive MgO Surfaces by Ni Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazheika, Aliaksei; Levchenko, Sergey V.

    Ni-MgO solid solutions are promising materials for catalytic reduction of CO2 and dry reforming of CH4. To explain the catalytic activity, an ab initio study of Ni-substitutional defects in MgO (NiMg) has been performed. At first, the validation of the theory level was done. We compared results of CCSD(T) embedded-cluster calculations of NiMg formation energies and adsorption energies of CO, CO2 and H2 on them to the HSE(α) hybrid DFT functional with the fraction of the exact exchange α varied between 0 and 1. HSE(0.3) was found to be the best compromise in this study. Our periodic HSE(0.3) calculations show that NiMg defects are most stable at corner sites, followed by steps, and are least stable at (001) terraces. Thus, Ni-doping stabilizes stepped MgO surfaces. The dissociative adsorption of H2 on the terrace is found to be endothermic (+ 1 . 1 eV), whereas on (110) surface with NiMg it is highly exothermic (- 1 . 6 eV). Adsorbed CO2 is also significantly stabilized (- 0 . 6 vs. - 2 . 2 eV). These findings explain recent microcalorimetry measurements of H2 and CO2 adsorption at doped Ni-MgO samples. partially supported by UniCat (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft).

  8. Irradiation-enhanced reactivity of multilayer Al/Ni nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Khachatur V; Tan, Wanpeng; deBoer, Richard J; Stech, Edward J; Aprahamian, Ani; Wiescher, Michael; Rouvimov, Sergei; Overdeep, Kyle R; Shuck, Christopher E; Weihs, Timothy P; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2015-06-03

    We have investigated the effect of accelerated ion beam irradiation on the structure and reactivity of multilayer sputter deposited Al/Ni nanomaterials. Carbon and aluminum ion beams with different charge states and intensities were used to irradiate the multilayer materials. The conditions for the irradiation-assisted self-ignition of the reactive materials and corresponding ignition thresholds for the beam intensities were determined. We discovered that relatively short (40 min or less) ion irradiations enhance the reactivity of the Al/Ni nanomaterials, that is, significantly decrease the thermal ignition temperatures (Tig) and ignition delay times (τig). We also show that irradiation leads to atomic mixing at the Al/Ni interfaces with the formation of an amorphous interlayer, in addition to the nucleation of small (2-3 nm) Al3Ni crystals within the amorphous regions. The amorphous interlayer is thought to enhance the reactivity of the multilayer energetic nanomaterial by increasing the heat of the reaction and by speeding the intermixing of the Ni and the Al. The small Al3Ni crystals may also enhance reactivity by facilitating the growth of this Al-Ni intermetallic phase. In contrast, longer irradiations decrease reactivity with higher ignition temperatures and longer ignition delay times. Such changes are also associated with growth of the Al3Ni intermetallic and decreases in the heat of reaction. Drawing on this data set, we suggest that ion irradiation can be used to fine-tune the structure and reactivity of energetic nanomaterials.

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of NiO nanospindles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hai; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Lv, Baoliang, E-mail: lbl604@sxicc.ac.cn

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospindles with a different electrochemical activity as compared to those previous reports were synthesized via an agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process without the addition of any surfactant. - Highlights: • NiO nanospindles were synthesized without the addition of any surfactant. • The agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process was used to explain the precursors’ formation process of the spindle-like NiO. • As-obtained spindle-like NiO showed a different electrochemical activity as compared to those previous reports. - Abstract: NiO nanospindles were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal and post-treatment method. The as-synthesized nanospindles were about several hundred nanometers in width and about one micrometermore » in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the spindle-like structure was cubic NiO phase crystalline. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis indicated that these NiO nanospindles were of single crystal nature. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, a possible agglomeration–dissolution–recrystallization growth process was proposed to explain the formation process of the spindle-like precursors. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement showed that the as-prepared spindle-like NiO exhibited a pseudo-capacitance behavior.« less

  10. Ni-Co oxide formation with Cu assisted method on Ni foam: Unexpected higher areal capacitance of inner layer with naturally formed nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Diwen; Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Ni Foam substrate directly serves as the Ni source for the final Ni-Co oxide product with a Cu assisted chemical method. Especially, after shaking off top layer of Ni-Co oxide grown on Ni Foam, the sample unexpectedly exhibits a greatly enhanced areal capacitance from 4.17 to 11.44 F cm-2 (1 mA cm-2). Finer structures including oxide nanotubes are interestingly found underneath the top layer, which may account for this extraordinary phenomenon.

  11. Very early warning of next El Niño.

    PubMed

    Ludescher, Josef; Gozolchiani, Avi; Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2014-02-11

    The most important driver of climate variability is the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which can trigger disasters in various parts of the globe. Despite its importance, conventional forecasting is still limited to 6 mo ahead. Recently, we developed an approach based on network analysis, which allows projection of an El Niño event about 1 y ahead. Here we show that our method correctly predicted the absence of El Niño events in 2012 and 2013 and now announce that our approach indicated (in September 2013 already) the return of El Niño in late 2014 with a 3-in-4 likelihood. We also discuss the relevance of the next El Niño to the question of global warming and the present hiatus in the global mean surface temperature.

  12. Bioactive modification of NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuanjun; Xie, Yibing; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Yihe

    2007-07-01

    NiTi wire was anodized in phosphoric acid, diluted hydrogen fluoride, and fluoric ions containing non-aqueous electrolytes. Surface morphologies and compositions of modified NiTi wires were characterized by using field-emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The formation of oxides with reduced nickel element was observed on NiTi wires anodized in aqueous solution. Nano-roughness with lower surface hardness, compared to smooth surface formed in phosphoric acid, was obtained by anodization in hydrogen fluoride. After treatment in aqueous solution, corrosion resistance was improved as indicated by linear sweep voltammetry test in 0.9 % NaCl solution at room temperature. Uniform hydroxyapatite film on NiTi and anodized NiTi was obtained by electrodeposition method.

  13. NiTi superelastic orthodontic archwires with polyamide coating.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L A; de Cabañes, A González; Manero, J M; Rúperez, E; Gil, F Javier

    2014-02-01

    Twenty orthodontic archwires with 55.2% Ni and 44.8% Ti (% weight) were subjected to a dipping treatment to coat the NiTi surface by a polyamide polymer. It has been selected a Polyamide 11 due to its remarkable long lasting performance. The transformation temperatures as well as the transformation stresses of the NiTi alloy were determined in order to know whether the coating process can alter its properties. The adhesive wear tests have been demonstrated that the wear rates as well as the dynamic friction coefficients μ of polymer coated wires are much lower than metallic wires. The corrosion studies have shown that the use of this polymer, as coating, seals the NiTi surface to prevent corrosion and the release of nickel ions. The average decrease of Ni ions release due to this coating is around 85%.

  14. Adsorption Characteristics of LaNi 5Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M. Y.; Park, H. R.

    1997-11-01

    Nitrogen adsorption on an intermetallic compound, LaNi 5, was studied before and after activation and after hydriding-dehydriding cycling. The specific surface area of activated LaNi 5was 0.271±0.004 m 2g -1. Adsorption and desorption isotherms of activated LaNi 5were obtained. The adsorption isotherm was similar to type II among the five types of isotherms classified by S. Brunauer, L. S. Deming, W S. Deming, and E. Teller ( J. Am. Chem. Soc.62, 1723, 1940). Its hysteresis curve had the type B form among de Boer's five types of hysteresis. Desorption pore-size analyses showed that the activated LaNi 5had only a few mesopores, the diameters of which were around 20-110 Å. The average adsorption rate of the activated LaNi 5showed a first-order dependence on nitrogen pressure at 77 K.

  15. Creep and Toughness of Cryomilled NiAl Containing Cr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Aikin, Beverly; Salem, Jon

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-AlN + Cr composites were produced by blending cryomilled NiAl powder with approx. 10 vol % Cr flakes. In comparison to the as-consolidated matrices, hot isostatically pressed Cr-modified materials did not demonstrate any significant improvement in toughness. Hot extruded NiAl-AlN+10.5Cr, however, possessed a toughness twice that determine for the base NiAl-AlN alloy. Measurement of the 1200 to 1400 K plastic flow properties revealed that the strength of the composites was completely controlled by the properties of the NiAl-AlN matrices. This behavior could be successfully modeled by the Rule-of-Mixtures, where load is shed from the weak Cr to the strong matrix.

  16. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed on NiAl over the last decade, with an exponential increase in effort occurring over the last few years. This is due to interest in this material for electronic, catalytic, coating and especially high-temperature structural applications. This report uses this wealth of new information to develop a complete description of the properties and processing of NiAl and NiAl-based materials. Emphasis is placed on the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms of single and polycrystalline NiAl and its alloys over the entire range of temperatures for which data are available. Creep, fatigue, and environmental resistance of this material are discussed. In addition, issues surrounding alloy design, development of NiAl-based composites, and materials processing are addressed.

  17. Magnetic interactions in NiO at ultrahigh pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Potapkin, Vasily; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Sergueev, I.; ...

    2016-05-24

    Here, magnetic properties of NiO have been studied in the multimegabar pressure range by nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation using the 67.4 keV M ssbauer transition of 61Ni. The observed magnetic hyperfine splitting confirms the antiferromagnetic state of NiO up to 280 GPa, the highest pressure where magnetism has been observed so far, in any material. Remarkably, the hyperfine field increases from 8.47 T at ambient pressure to ~24 T at the highest pressure, ruling out the possibility of a magnetic collapse. A joint x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure investigation reveals that NiO remains in a distortedmore » sodium chloride structure in the entire studied pressure range. Ab initio calculations support the experimental observations, and further indicate a complete absence of Mott transition in NiO up to at least 280 GPa.« less

  18. Benzimidazole based ratiometric and colourimetric chemosensor for Ni(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Deblina; Pramanik, Ajoy Kumar; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective benzimidazole based colourimetric chemosensor (HL) for the efficient detection of Ni2 + has been reported. The synthesized chemosensor HL is highly efficient in detecting Ni2 + over other metal ions that commonly coexist with Ni2 + in physiological and environmental samples. HL also shows distinct color change from orange yellow to blue visible under the naked eye due to specific binding with Ni2 +. This color change corresponds to a large red shift of the UV-Vis spectrum from 403 nm to 600 nm with a distinct isosbestic point at around 500 nm. The cation sensing property of the receptor HL has been examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Electronic structure of the HL-Ni2 + complex and sensing mechanism has been interpreted by DFT and TDDFT calculations.

  19. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Robust Ni(OH)2 Nanoplate Arrays on NiAl Foil as Hierarchical Active Scaffold for Highly Efficient Overall Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuai; Jiang, Wen-Jie; Tang, Tang; Zhang, Yun; Li, Ji-Hui; Hu, Jin-Song

    2017-08-01

    Developing highly efficient low-cost electrocatalysts for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte is essential to advance water electrolysis technology. Herein, Ni(OH) 2 nanoplates aligned on NiAl foil (Ni(OH) 2 /NiAl) are developed by simply dealloying NiAl foil in KOH, which exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for OER with a small overpotential of 289 mV to achieve 10 mA cm -2 and outstanding durability with no detectable degradation during long-term operation. Furthermore, such Ni(OH) 2 /NiAl can effectively act as an active and robust hierarchical scaffold to simply electrodeposit other catalysts with intrinsically higher activity such as NiMo and NiFe nanoparticles for highly efficient HER and OER, respectively. The prepared NiFe/Ni(OH) 2 /NiAl displays superior OER catalytic activity with overpotentials of 246, 315, and 374 mV at 10, 100, and 500 mA cm -2 , respectively. While NiMo/Ni(OH) 2 /NiAl catalyst exhibits remarkable HER performance with a small overpotential of 78 mV to deliver 10 mA cm -2 . Consequently, the electrolysis device composed of the above two electrocatalysts demonstrates superb water splitting performance with a cell voltage of 1.59 V at 10 mA cm -2 . These results open up opportunities to explore and optimize low-cost advanced catalysts for energy applications.

  20. H-Phase Precipitation and Martensitic Transformation in Ni-rich Ni-Ti-Hf and Ni-Ti-Zr High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evirgen, A.; Pons, J.; Karaman, I.; Santamarta, R.; Noebe, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    The distributions of H-phase precipitates in Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 alloys formed by aging treatments at 500 and 550 °C or slow furnace cooling and their effects on the thermal martensitic transformation have been investigated by TEM and calorimetry. The comparative study clearly reveals faster precipitate-coarsening kinetics in the NiTiZr alloy than in NiTiHf. For precipitates of a similar size of 10-20 nm in both alloys, the martensite plates in Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 have larger widths and span a higher number of precipitates compared with the Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 alloy. However, for large H-phase particles with hundreds of nm in length, no significant differences in the martensitic microstructures of both alloy systems have been observed. The martensitic transformation temperatures of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 are 80-90 °C higher than those of Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 in the precipitate-free state and in the presence of large particles of hundreds on nm in length, but this difference is reduced to only 10-20 °C in samples with small H-phase precipitates. The changes in the transformation temperatures are consistent with the differences in the precipitate distributions between the two alloy systems observed by TEM.

  1. Effect of NiO inserted layer on spin-Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/NiO/YIG heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, T.; Zhan, Q. F., E-mail: zhanqf@nimte.ac.cn; Yang, H. L.

    2016-07-18

    We investigate spin-current transport with an antiferromagnetic insulator NiO thin layer by means of the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) over a wide range of temperature in Pt/NiO/Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (Pt/NiO/YIG) heterostructures. The SMR signal is comparable to that without the NiO layer as long as the temperature is near or above the blocking temperature of the NiO, indicating that the magnetic fluctuation of the insulating NiO is essential for transmitting the spin current from the Pt to YIG layer. On the other hand, the SMR signal becomes negligibly small at low temperature, and both conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance and the anomalousmore » Hall resistance are extremely small at any temperature, implying that the insertion of the NiO has completely suppressed the Pt magnetization induced by the YIG magnetic proximity effect (MPE). The dual roles of the thin NiO layer are, to suppress the magnetic interaction or MPE between Pt and YIG, and to maintain efficient spin current transmission at high temperature.« less

  2. Nickel recovery from electronic waste II electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from diluted sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Robotin, B; Ispas, A; Coman, V; Bund, A; Ilea, P

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from synthetic solutions similar to those obtained by the dissolution of electron gun (an electrical component of cathode ray tubes) waste. The influence of various parameters (pH, electrolyte composition, Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) ratio, current density) on the electrodeposition process was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) were used to provide information about the obtained deposits' thickness, morphology, and elemental composition. By controlling the experimental parameters, the composition of the Ni-Fe alloys can be tailored towards specific applications. Complementarily, the differences in the nucleation mechanisms for Ni, Fe and Ni-Fe deposition from sulfate solutions have been evaluated and discussed using cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronoamperometry. The obtained results suggest a progressive nucleation mechanism for Ni, while for Fe and Ni-Fe, the obtained data points are best fitted to an instantaneous nucleation model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First-principles study of Ni-Al intermetallic compounds under various temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhiqin; Zhao, Yuhong; Hou, Hua; Tian, Jinzhong; Han, Peide

    2017-03-01

    The pressure dependence behaviors of structural and mechanical properties as well as the effect of temperature on thermodynamic properties of Ni-Al ordered intermetallic compounds (i. e. Ni3Al, Ni5Al3, NiAl, Ni2Al3 and NiAl3) are investigated in details by implementing first-principles calculations. The calculated lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are well in agreement with available experimental and theoretical values at zero pressure. All the compounds are mechanically stable with pressure going up to 50 GPa, and the volume change resistance of nickel aluminum alloys can be improved by increasing pressure and Ni concentration. The shear deformation resistance, elastic stiffness and microhardness of nickel aluminum alloys can be strengthened by increasing the content of Ni5Al3 and Ni2Al3, and pressure can also enhance these properties of Ni5Al3, NiAl and Ni2Al3. The ductility of Ni3Al, Ni5Al3 and NiAl can be improved by increasing pressure, while brittle nature turns into ductile nature in 20-30 GPa and 10-20 GPa for Ni2Al3 and NiAl3, respectively. Furthermore, the elastic anisotropy of Ni3Al, Ni5Al3, Ni2Al3 and NiAl3 enhances with pressure, while NiAl shows few change with pressure increasing. In addition, Ni3Al is the most sensitive to pressure change among considered compounds. Finally, the Debye temperature, linear thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacity of these compounds are calculated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model in pressure ranging from 0 to 50 GPa and temperature ranging from 0 to 1200 K to elucidate the relationships between thermodynamic parameters and temperature under various pressure. The results are helpful insights into the study of nickel aluminum alloys.

  4. Structural Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Quasi-1D Quantum Magnets [Ni(HF2)(pyz)2]X (pyz = pyrazine; X = PF6- SbF6-) Exhibiting Ni-FHF-Ni and Ni-pyz-Ni Spin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    J Manson; S Lapidus; P Stephens

    2011-12-31

    [Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]X {l_brace}pyz = pyrazine; X = PF{sub 6}{sup -} (1), SbF{sub 6}{sup -} (2){r_brace} were structurally characterized by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and found to possess axially compressed NiN{sub 4}F{sub 2} octahedra. At 298 K, 1 is monoclinic (C2/c) with unit cell parameters, a = 9.9481(3), b = 9.9421(3), c = 12.5953(4) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 81.610(3){sup o} while 2 is tetragonal (P4/nmm) with a = b = 9.9359(3) and c = 6.4471(2) {angstrom} and is isomorphic with the Cu-analogue. Infinite one-dimensional (1D) Ni-FHF-Ni chains propagate along the c-axis which are linked via {mu}-pyz bridges in the ab-planemore » to afford three-dimensional polymeric frameworks with PF{sub 6}{sup -} and SbF{sub 6}{sup -} counterions occupying the interior sites. A major difference between 1 and 2 is that the Ni-F-H bonds are bent (157{sup o}) in 1 but are linear in 2. Ligand field calculations (LFT) based on an angular overlap model (AOM), with comparison to the electronic absorption spectra, indicate greater {pi}-donation of the HF{sub 2}{sup -} ligand in 1 owing to the bent Ni-F-H bonds. Magnetic susceptibility data for 1 and 2 exhibit broad maxima at 7.4 and 15 K, respectively, and {lambda}-like peaks in dxT/dT at 6.2 and 12.2 K that are ascribed to transitions to long-range antiferromagnetic order (TN). Muon-spin relaxation and specific heat studies confirm these TN's. A comparative analysis of x vs T to various 1D Heisenberg/Ising models suggests moderate antiferromagnetic interactions, with the primary interaction strength determined to be 3.05/3.42 K (1) and 5.65/6.37 K (2). However, high critical fields of 19 and 37.4 T obtained from low temperature pulsed-field magnetization data indicate that a single exchange constant (J1D) alone is insufficient to explain the data and that residual terms in the spin Hamiltonian, which could include interchain magnetic couplings (J), as mediated by Ni-pyz-Ni, and single-ion anisotropy (D), must be

  5. Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction activity comparable to platinum exhibited by the Ni/Ni(OH)2/graphite electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Manjeet; Sultan, Salman; Rao, C. N. R.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical dual-pulse plating with sequential galvanostatic and potentiostatic pulses has been used to fabricate an electrocatalytically active Ni/Ni(OH)2/graphite electrode. This electrode design strategy to generate the Ni/Ni(OH)2 interface on graphite from Ni deposits is promising for electrochemical applications and has been used by us for hydrogen generation. The synergetic effect of nickel, colloidal nickel hydroxide islands, and the enhanced surface area of the graphite substrate facilitating HO–H cleavage followed by H(ad) recombination, results in the high current density [200 mA/cm2 at an overpotential of 0.3 V comparable to platinum (0.44 V)]. The easy method of fabrication of the electrode, which is also inexpensive, prompts us to explore its use in fabrication of solar-driven electrolysis. PMID:28784781

  6. Static magnetic susceptibility of radiopaque NiTiPt and NiTiEr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chovan, Drahomír; Gandhi, Abbasi; Butler, James; Tofail, Syed A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic properties of metallic alloys used in biomedical industry are important for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). If the alloys were to be used for long term implants or as guiding devices, safety of the patient as well as the medical staff has to be ensured. Strong response to the external magnetic field can cause mechanical damage to the patients body. In this paper we present magnetic susceptibility of nickel rich, ternary NiTiPt and NiTiEr to static magnetic field. We show that the magnetic susceptibility of these radiopaque alloys has values in low paramagnetic region comparable to the binary nickel-titanium. Furthermore, we studied the effect of the thermal and mechanical treatments on magnetic properties. Despite deviation from linear M (H) treated samples spanning small region around H = 0 , the linearity of the M (H) and χ =d M /d H values suggest that these ternary alloys are safe to use under MRI conditions.

  7. Reinspecting two types of El Niño: a new pair of Niño indices for improving real-time ENSO monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang; Zhang, Tuantan; Zhang, Chengyang; Li, Yana; Deng, Kaiqiang; Wang, Teng; Chen, Junwen

    2016-12-01

    This study reinspects the dominant modes of different types of El Niño from the perspectives of monthly mean and seasonality using a combined technique referred as RC-REOF. Several features have been revealed. (1) The explained variances of eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño and central Pacific (CP) El Niño are comparable, in the ranges of 33-43 and 23-28 %, respectively. (2) This feature is more in line with the frequent occurrence of CP El Niño compared to the result from orthogonal EOF analysis in which El Niño Modoki explains a smaller variance of 11-12 %. (3) Both special patterns of EP El Niño and CP El Niño are of equatorial asymmetry that is often overlooked previously by the traditional Niño indices. Based on the features captured by the two leading RC-REOF modes, the authors propose a new pair of Niño indices referred to as Niño3b and Niño4b that have the following advantages: (1) simple calculation, (2) robust and stable relationship with the EP/CP El Niño modes, (3) more representative for Pacific decadal signals, (4) easier to distinguish ENSO types, and (5) without restriction by orthogonality, and others. The Niño3b and Niño4b indices are potentially useful for both scientific research and real-time monitoring of the two types of El Niño. Besides, an index namely Niño3.4b is also introduced to describe the hybrid ENSO events, with relatively equal covariance to EP El Niño and CP El Niño and with larger covariance at decadal time scale than index Niño3.4.

  8. Ni2+ Transport and Accumulation in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard K.; Ludden, Paul W.

    1999-01-01

    The cooCTJ gene products are coexpressed with CO-dehydrogenase (CODH) and facilitate in vivo nickel insertion into CODH. A Ni2+ transport assay was used to monitor uptake and accumulation of 63Ni2+ into R. rubrum and to observe the effect of mutations in the cooC, cooT, and cooJ genes on 63Ni2+ transport and accumulation. Cells grown either in the presence or absence of CO transported Ni2+ with a Km of 19 ± 4 μM and a Vmax of 310 ± 22 pmol of Ni/min/mg of total protein. Insertional mutations disrupting the reading frame of the cooCTJ genes, either individually or all three genes simultaneously, transported Ni2+ the same as wild-type cells. The nickel specificity for transport was tested by conducting the transport assay in the presence of other divalent metal ions. At a 17-fold excess Mn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Zn2+ showed no inhibition of 63Ni2+ transport but Co2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ inhibited transport 35, 58, and 66%, respectively. Nickel transport was inhibited by cold (50% at 4°C), by protonophores (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 44%, and 2,4-dinitrophenol, 26%), by sodium azide (25%), and hydroxyl amine (33%). Inhibitors of ATP synthase (N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin) and incubation of cells in the dark stimulated Ni2+ transport. 63Ni accumulation after 2 h was four times greater in CO-induced cells than in cells not exposed to CO. The CO-stimulated 63Ni2+ accumulation coincided with the appearance of CODH activity in the culture, suggesting that the 63Ni2+ was accumulating in CODH. The cooC, cooT, and cooJ genes are required for the increased 63Ni2+ accumulation observed upon CO exposure because cells containing mutations disrupting any or all of these genes accumulated 63Ni2+ like cells unexposed to CO. PMID:10419953

  9. Electronic Band Structure and Madelung Potential Study of the Nickelates La(2)NiO(4), La(3)Ni(2)O(7), and La(4)Ni(3)O(10).

    PubMed

    Seo, D.-K.; Liang, W.; Whangbo, M.-H.; Zhang, Z.; Greenblatt, M.

    1996-10-23

    Tight-binding electronic band structures and Madelung potentials were calculated for La(2)NiO(4), La(3)Ni(2)O(7), and La(4)Ni(3)O(10) to examine why a metal-to-metal transition occurs in the nickelate Ln(4)Ni(3)O(10) (Ln = La, Nd, Pr). La(4)Ni(3)O(10) and La(3)Ni(2)O(7) are each found to have two hidden one-dimensional (1D) Fermi surfaces, which suggests that both compounds should possess a charge density wave instability. Factors leading to hidden 1D Fermi surfaces in the e(g) block bands of the nickelates were discussed.

  10. Experimental study of the 66Ni(d ,p ) 67Ni one-neutron transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diriken, J.; Patronis, N.; Andreyev, A.; Antalic, S.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Darby, I. G.; De Witte, H.; Eberth, J.; Elseviers, J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flavigny, F.; Fransen, Ch.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhauser, R.; Hess, H.; Huyse, M.; Jolie, J.; Kröll, Th.; Krücken, R.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Mertzimekis, T.; Muecher, D.; Orlandi, R.; Pakou, A.; Raabe, R.; Randisi, G.; Reiter, P.; Roger, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Seliverstov, M.; Sotty, C.; Tornqvist, H.; Van De Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.

    2015-05-01

    The quasi-SU(3) sequence of the positive parity ν g9 /2,d5 /2,s1 /2 orbitals above the N =40 shell gap are assumed to induce strong quadrupole collectivity in the neutron-rich Fe (Z =26 ) and Cr (Z =24 ) isotopes below the nickel region. In this paper the position and strength of these single-particle orbitals are characterized in the neighborhood of 68Ni (Z =28 ,N =40 ) through the 66Ni(d ,p )67Ni one-neutron transfer reaction at 2.95 MeV/nucleon in inverse kinematics, performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility in CERN. A combination of the Miniball γ -array and T-REX particle-detection setup was used and a delayed coincidence technique was employed to investigate the 13.3-μ s isomer at 1007 keV in 67Ni. Excited states up to an excitation energy of 5.8 MeV have been populated. Feeding of the ν g9 /2 (1007 keV) and ν d5 /2 (2207 keV and 3277 keV) positive-parity neutron states and negative parity (ν p f ) states have been observed at low excitation energy. The extracted relative spectroscopic factors, based on a distorted-wave Born approximation analysis, show that the ν d5 /2 single-particle strength is mostly split over these two excited states. The results are also compared to the distribution of the proton single-particle strength in the 90Zr region (Z =40 ,N =50 ) .

  11. Characteristics of electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-P alloys from methanesulfonate electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sknar, Yu. E.; Savchuk, O. O.; Sknar, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The characteristics of electrodeposition of Ni-P alloys from a methanesulfonate electrolyte have been investigated. Ni-P alloys electrodeposited from an electrolyte containing 0.03-0.12 mol dm-3 of sodium hypophosphite, produce uniform, smooth, and well adherent to the substrate deposits. Phosphorus content of the alloy increases with an increase in the sodium hypophosphite concentration in the electrolyte and a decrease in the electrodeposition current density. Nickel-phosphorus alloys have a refined surface structure with small grains closely adjacent to each other. Ni-P alloys obtained from the methanesulfonate electrolyte at pH 3, have gloss levels of up to 20%. The coatings exhibit higher internal stresses and hardness, which increase with an increased concentration of sodium hypophosphite in the electrolyte. A decrease in the electrolyte pH increases the phosphorus content of the deposits and enhances the properties studied. The phosphorus content of the coatings obtained from a methanesulfonate electrolyte is lower than in the coatings deposited from a sulfate electrolyte under the same conditions. However, the deposits produced from the methanesulfonate electrolyte are characterized by higher values of gloss, hardness and internal stresses. This is due to the fact that along with phosphorus incorporated into the coating, the deposit structure is distorted by nickel hydroxide incorporated to the deposit during the electrolysis. The methanesulfonate electrolyte has lower buffering properties and, correspondingly, a higher amount of nickel hydroxide dispersion is formed in the near-electrode layer. The experimental data indicate that, in spite of lower phosphorus content, Ni-P alloys deposited from a methanesulfonate electrolyte have better physical-mechanical properties than those deposited from a sulfate electrolyte.

  12. Can Ni phosphides become viable hydroprocessing catalysts?

    SciTech Connect

    Soled, S.; Miseo, S.; Baumgartner, J.

    2015-05-15

    We prepared higher surface area nickel phosphides than are normally found by reducing nickel phosphate. To do this, we hydrothermally synthesized Ni hydroxy phosphite precursors with low levels of molybdenum substitution. The molybdenum substitution increases the surface area of these precursors. During pretreatment in a sulfiding atmosphere (such as H2S/H2) dispersed islands of MoS2 segregate from the precursor and provide a pathway for H2 dissociation that allows reduction of the phosphite precursor to nickel phosphide at substantially lower temperatures than in the absence of MoS2. The results reported here show that to create nickel phosphides with comparable activity to conventionalmore » supported sulfide catalysts, one would have to synthesize the phosphide with surface areas exceeding 400 m2/g (i.e. with nanoparticles less than 30 Å in lateral dimension).« less

  13. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOEpatents

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  14. Analyzing and Modelling the Corrosion Behavior of Ni/Al2O3, Ni/SiC, Ni/ZrO2 and Ni/Graphene Nanocomposite Coatings.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Mian Hammad; Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Saeed, Adil; Bakolas, Vasilios; Braun, Wolfgang; Bajwa, Rizwan; Rafique, Saqib

    2017-10-25

    A study has been presented on the effects of intrinsic mechanical parameters, such as surface stress, surface elastic modulus, surface porosity, permeability and grain size on the corrosion failure of nanocomposite coatings. A set of mechano-electrochemical equations was developed by combining the popular Butler-Volmer and Duhem expressions to analyze the direct influence of mechanical parameters on the electrochemical reactions in nanocomposite coatings. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni with Al₂O₃, SiC, ZrO₂ and Graphene nanoparticles were studied as examples. The predictions showed that the corrosion rate of the nanocoatings increased with increasing grain size due to increase in surface stress, surface porosity and permeability of nanocoatings. A detailed experimental study was performed in which the nanocomposite coatings were subjected to an accelerated corrosion testing. The experimental results helped to develop and validate the equations by qualitative comparison between the experimental and predicted results showing good agreement between the two.

  15. The Influence of Cr on the Solidification Behavior of Polycrystalline γ(Ni)/ γ'(Ni3Al)- δ(Ni3Nb) Eutectic Ni-Base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mengtao; Helmink, Randolph; Tin, Sammy

    2012-04-01

    In the current investigation, the effect of Cr on the solidification characteristics and as-cast microstructure of pseudobinary γ- δ eutectic alloys based on a near-eutectic composition (Ni-5.5Al-13.5Nb at. pct) was investigated. It was found that Cr additions promote the formation of a higher volume fraction of γ- δ eutectic microstructure in the interdendritic region. Increasing levels of Cr also triggered morphological changes in the γ- δ eutectic and the formation of γ- γ'- δ ternary eutectic during the last stage of solidification. A detailed characterization of the as-cast alloys also revealed that Cr additions suppressed the liquidus, solidus, and γ' precipitation temperature of these γ/ γ'- δ eutectic alloys. A comparison of the experimental results with thermodynamic calculations using the CompuTherm Pandat database (CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI) showed qualitative agreement.

  16. Obtaining of Ni nanotubes with specified properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlimas, D. I.; Kozlovskiy, A. L.; Zdorovets, M. V.; Kadyrzhanov, K. K.; Uglov, V. V.; Kenzhina, I. E.; Shumskaya, E. E.; Kaniukov, E. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the dependence of the change in synthesis conditions from structural and magnetic characteristics of Ni nanotubes. Dependences of the effect of deposition conditions from the concentration of microstresses and dislocations in the crystal structure, as well as the change in the main parameters characterizing the crystal lattice, are established. Analysis of hysteresis loops made it possible to determine that the synthesized nanotubes belong to the class of magnetically soft materials with small coercivity and sufficiently large saturation magnetization. At the same time, the presence of oxide impurities in the structure leads to a deterioration of structural properties, the appearance of amorphous inclusions in the structure, which cause the deterioration in magnetic characteristics of synthesized nanotubes.

  17. Analyzing and Modelling the Corrosion Behavior of Ni/Al2O3, Ni/SiC, Ni/ZrO2 and Ni/Graphene Nanocomposite Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Adil; Braun, Wolfgang; Bajwa, Rizwan; Rafique, Saqib

    2017-01-01

    A study has been presented on the effects of intrinsic mechanical parameters, such as surface stress, surface elastic modulus, surface porosity, permeability and grain size on the corrosion failure of nanocomposite coatings. A set of mechano-electrochemical equations was developed by combining the popular Butler–Volmer and Duhem expressions to analyze the direct influence of mechanical parameters on the electrochemical reactions in nanocomposite coatings. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni with Al2O3, SiC, ZrO2 and Graphene nanoparticles were studied as examples. The predictions showed that the corrosion rate of the nanocoatings increased with increasing grain size due to increase in surface stress, surface porosity and permeability of nanocoatings. A detailed experimental study was performed in which the nanocomposite coatings were subjected to an accelerated corrosion testing. The experimental results helped to develop and validate the equations by qualitative comparison between the experimental and predicted results showing good agreement between the two. PMID:29068395

  18. The first principle study of Ni{sub 2}ScGa and Ni{sub 2}TiGa

    SciTech Connect

    Özduran, Mustafa; Turgut, Kemal; Arikan, Nihat

    2014-10-06

    We computed the electronic structure, elastic moduli, vibrational properties, and Ni{sub 2}TiGa and Ni{sub 2}ScGa alloys in the cubic L2{sub 1} structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of these alloys are in good agreement with available data. In cubic systems, there are three independent elastic constants, namely C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}. We calculated elastic constants in L2{sub 1} structure for Ni{sub 2}TiGa and Ni{sub 2}ScGa using the energy-strain method. The electronic band structure, total and partial density of states for these alloys were investigated within density functional theory using the plane-wave pseudopotential method implemented in Quantum-Espresso programmore » package. From band structure, total and projected density of states, we observed metallic characters of these compounds. The electronic calculation indicate that the predominant contributions of the density of states at Fermi level come from the Ni 3d states and Sc 3d states for Ni{sub 2}TiGa, Ni 3d states and Sc 3d states for Ni{sub 2}ScGa. The computed density of states at Fermi energy are 2.22 states/eV Cell for Ni{sub 2}TiGa, 0.76 states/eV Cell for Ni{sub 2}ScGa. The vibrational properties were obtained using a linear response in the framework at the density functional perturbation theory. For the alloys, the results show that the L2{sub 1} phase is unstable since the phonon calculations have imagine modes.« less

  19. Ferromagnetic resonance in bulk nanocrystalline Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash Madduri, P. V.; Mathew, S. P.; Kaul, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    A detailed lineshape analysis of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra taken on pulse electrodeposited nanocrystalline (nc-) Ni sheets (with the average crystallite size, d, varying from 10 nm to 40 nm) at temperatures ranging from 113 K to 325 K yield accurate values for saturation magnetization, Ms (T), Landé splitting factor, g, anisotropy field, Hk (T) , resonance field, Hres , and FMR linewidth, ΔHpp (T) . Thermally-excited spin-wave (SW) excitations completely account for Ms (T) and the SW description of Ms (T) gives the values for the saturation magnetization and spin-wave stiffness at absolute zero of temperature, i.e., Ms (0) and D0 , for nc-Ni samples of different d that are in excellent agreement with the corresponding values deduced previously from an elaborate SW analysis of the bulk magnetization data. While Ms (0) varies with d as Ms (0) d - 3 / 2,D0 follows the power law D0 ∼d 4 / 3 . The angular variations of Hres in the 'in-plane' as well as 'out-of-plane' sample configurations, demonstrate that the main contribution to Hk (T) comes from the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The exchange-conductivity mechanism describes the observed thermal decline of ΔHpp reasonably well but fails to explain the very large magnitude of ΔHpp at any given temperature. By comparison, the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) damping gives a much greater contribution to ΔHpp but the LLG contribution is relatively insensitive to temperature.

  20. High-performance NiO/Ag/NiO transparent electrodes for flexible organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhichao; Liu, Xingyuan; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xuanming; Wang, Haiyu; Guo, Xiaoyang

    2014-09-24

    Transparent electrodes with a dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) structure can be implemented in a simple manufacturing process and have good optical and electrical properties. In this study, nickel oxide (NiO) is introduced into the DMD structure as a more appropriate dielectric material that has a high conduction band for electron blocking and a low valence band for efficient hole transport. The indium-free NiO/Ag/NiO (NAN) transparent electrode exhibits an adjustable high transmittance of ∼82% combined with a low sheet resistance of ∼7.6 Ω·s·q(-1) and a work function of 5.3 eV after UVO treatment. The NAN electrode shows excellent surface morphology and good thermal, humidity, and environmental stabilities. Only a small change in sheet resistance can be found after NAN electrode is preserved in air for 1 year. The power conversion efficiencies of organic photovoltaic cells with NAN electrodes deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates are 6.07 and 5.55%, respectively, which are competitive with those of indium tin oxide (ITO)-based devices. Good photoelectric properties, the low-cost material, and the room-temperature deposition process imply that NAN electrode is a striking candidate for low-cost and flexible transparent electrode for efficient flexible optoelectronic devices.

  1. Solubility limits and precipitation phenomena in Ni--Ni/sub 3/Nb aligned eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Bertorello, H.R.; Hertzberg, R.W.; Mills, W.

    1976-03-01

    The unidirectionally solidified microstructure of the Ni--Nb eutectic alloy consists of alternate lamellae of Ni/sub 3/Nb (delta) and Ni--Nb solid solution (..gamma..) phases. Nb has a solubility limit in ..gamma.. phase that decreases with temperature, suggesting the possibility of obtaining additional delta phase and strength via precipitation processes. To this end, the microstructure, ..gamma.. phase lattice parameter and microhardness of the aligned composite were examined in the as-grown, solution treated (ST), and ST + aged conditions. Little precipitation was found after a ten hour 1000/sup 0/C aging treatment in the as-grown ingots. However, approximately 12 vol percent of Widmanstatten deltamore » precipitates--(111)/sub ..gamma../ habit planes--was produced after a 1220/sup 0/C solution treatment followed by short time aging at 1000/sup 0/C. Considerable precipitation was found also after longer time aging at 800/sup 0/C. Lattice parameter measurements indicate the ..gamma.. phase to be in a metastable, supersaturated condition. Upon ST + aging, the ..gamma.. lattice parameter decreases slightly, reflecting the Nb loss associated with delta precipitation. The remaining solubility of Nb in ..gamma.. is compared with previously reported results. The microhardness of the composite was determined as a function of heat treatment and found to increase with increasing vol percent of delta (original lamellae + precipitates). A significant precipitation hardening effect was noted for the ST + 800/sup 0/C aging treatment with hardness measurements suggesting a substantial increase in yield strength.« less

  2. Structure, stability and magnetic properties of (NiAl)n(n≤6) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Chen, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Zhen; Wen, Zhen-Yi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential has been used to calculate the energetically global-minimum geometries and electronic states of (NiAl)n(n≤6) clusters. Full structural optimizations, analysis of energy and frequency calculation are performed. The most stable structures of (NiAl)n clusters are all three-dimensional structures except NiAl. The average bond lengths of (NiAl)n clusters are larger than that of Ni2n, and are smaller than that of Al2n. The binding energy per atom of Ni2n and (NiAl)n has the same change trend, and that are larger than that of Al2n. Stability analysis shows that Ni8, (NiAl)2 and Al10 clusters have higher relative stability than other clusters. Mulliken analysis indicates that charges always transfer from Al atoms to Ni atoms, and the average charges of transfer from Al atoms to Ni atoms have a maximum at (NiAl)6, implying the strong interaction between Al and Ni atoms in (NiAl)6. The average atomic magnetic moments of (NiAl)n are smaller than that of true Ni2n. The analysis of the static polarizability shows that the electronic structures of (NiAl)n clusters tend to be compact with the increase of atoms.

  3. Cavitation resistance of surface composition "Steel-Ni-TiNi-TiNiZr-cBNCo", formed by High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.

    2018-01-01

    The object of the study is a multilayered surface composition "Steel - a Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect - a wear-resistant layer" under conditions of cavitation effects in sea water. Multicomponent TiNi-based coatings with addition of alloying elements such as Zr in an amount up to 10% mass, allow to create a composite material with a gradient of properties at the interface of layers, which gives new properties to coatings and improves their performance significantly. The use of materials with shape memory effect (SME) as surface layers or in the composition of surface layered compositions allows to provide an effective reaction of materials to the influence of external factors and adaptation to external influences. The surface composite layer cBN-10%Co has high hardness and strength, which ensures its resistance to shock cyclic influences of collapsing caverns. The increased roughness of the surface of a solid surface composite in the form of strong columnar structures ensures the crushing of vacuum voids, redistributing their effect on the entire surface, and not concentrating them in certain zones. In addition, the gradient structure of the multilayer composite coating TiNi-Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co Co makes it possible to create conditions for the relaxation of stresses created by the variable impact load of cavitation caverns and the manifestation of compensating internal forces due to thermo-elastic martensitic transformations of SME materials. The cavitation resistance of the coating TiNi-Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co according to the criterion of mass wear is 15-20 times higher than that of the base material without coating and 10-12 times higher than that of the TiNi-TiNiZr coating. The proposed architecture of the multifunctional gradient composition, "steel-Ni-TiNi- Ti33Ni49Zr18-cBN-10%Co", each layer of which has its functional purpose, allows to increase the service life of parts operating under conditions of cavitation-fatigue loading in

  4. Synthesis of FeCoNi nanoparticles by galvanostatic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Budi, Setia, E-mail: setiabudi@unj.ac.id; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No.10, Rawamangun, Jakarta 13220; Hafizah, Masayu Elita

    2016-06-17

    Soft magnetic nanoparticles of FeCoNi have been becoming interesting objects for many researchers due to its potential application in electronic devices. One of the most promising methods for material preparation is the electrodeposition which capable of growing nanoparticles alloy directly onto the substrate. In this paper, we report our electrodeposition studies on nanoparticles synthesis using galvanostatic electrodeposition technique. Chemical composition of the synthesized FeCoNi was successfully controlled through the adjustment of the applied currents. It is revealed that the content of each element, obtained from quantitative analysis using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), could be modified by the adjustment of currentmore » in which Fe and Co content decreased at larger applied currents, while Ni content increased. The nanoparticles of Co-rich FeCoNi and Ni-rich FeCoNi were obtained from sulphate electrolyte at the range of applied current investigated in this work. Broad diffracted peaks in the X-ray diffractograms indicated typical nanostructures of the solid solution of FeCoNi.« less

  5. Nano-sized Ni-doped carbon aerogel for supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Jae; Jung, Ji Chul; Park, Sunyoung; Seo, Jeong Gil; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Yoon, Jung Rag; Yi, Jongheop; Song, In Kyu

    2011-07-01

    Carbon aerogel was prepared by polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde using sodium carbonate as a catalyst in ambient conditions. Nano-sized Ni-doped carbon aerogel was then prepared by a precipitation method in an ethanol solvent. In order to elucidate the effect of nickel content on electrochemical properties, Ni-doped carbon aerogels (21, 35, 60, and 82 wt%) were prepared and their performance for supercapacitor electrode was investigated. Electrochemical properties of Ni-doped carbon aerogel electrodes were measured by cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 10 mV/sec and charge/discharge test at constant current of 1 A/g in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Among the samples prepared, 35 wt% Ni-doped carbon aerogel (Ni/CA-35) showed the highest capacitance (110 F/g) and excellent charge/discharge behavior. The enhanced capacitance of Ni-doped carbon aerogel was attributed to the faradaic redox reactions of nano-sized nickel oxide. Moreover, Ni-doped carbon aerogel exhibited quite stable cyclability, indicating long-term electrochemical stability.

  6. Porous NiTi for bone implants: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bansiddhi, A.; Sargeant, T.D.; Stupp, S.I.; Dunand, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    NiTi foams are unique among biocompatible porous metals because of their high recovery strain (due to the shape-memory or superelastic effects) and their low stiffness facilitating integration with bone structures. To optimize NiTi foams for bone implant applications, two key areas are under active study: synthesis of foams with optimal architectures, microstructure and mechanical properties; and tailoring of biological interactions through modifications of pore surfaces. This article reviews recent research on NiTi foams for bone replacement, focusing on three specific topics: (i) surface modifications designed to create bio-inert porous NiTi surfaces with low Ni release and corrosion, as well as bioactive surfaces to enhance and accelerate biological activity; (ii) In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies to confirm the long-term safety of porous NiTi implants; and (iii) biological evaluations for specific applications, such as in intervertebral fusion devices and bone tissue scaffolds. Possible future directions for bio-performance and processing studies are discussed that could lead to optimized porous NiTi implants. PMID:18348912

  7. NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional porous Ni film current collectors as integrated electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Shuhui; Yang, Hai-Peng; Lu, Daniel; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Three dimensional interconnected hierarchical porous Ni films are easily fabricated as effective current collectors through hydrogen bubble template electrochemical deposition. The binder-free integrated electrodes of spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly coated the three dimensional porous Ni films are facilely obtained through successively electrochemical co-deposition of Ni/Co alloy layer then followed by subsequent annealing at 350 °C in air. Compared with NiCo2O4 nanosheets on smooth Ni foil or porous NiO/Ni film electrodes, the porous NiCo2O4/Ni integrated film electrodes for supercapacitors demonstrate remarkably higher area specific capacitance. The porous NiCo2O4/Ni film electrodes also exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability. The super electrochemical capacitive performances are attributed to the unique integrated architecture of NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional continuous hierarchical porous Ni collector collectors, which could provide large electrode-electrolyte interface area, high active sites, low contact resistance between current collector and active materials, fast electron conduction and ion/electrolyte diffusion.

  8. Quantitative analysis of Ni2+/Ni3+ in Li[NixMnyCoz]O2 cathode materials: Non-linear least-squares fitting of XPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zewei; Hu, Juntao; Hu, Wenlong; Yang, Shiyu; Luo, Yunfeng

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative analysis of Ni2+/Ni3+ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is important for evaluating the crystal structure and electrochemical performance of Lithium-nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide (Li[NixMnyCoz]O2, NMC). However, quantitative analysis based on Gaussian/Lorentzian (G/L) peak fitting suffers from the challenges of reproducibility and effectiveness. In this study, the Ni2+ and Ni3+ standard samples and a series of NMC samples with different Ni doping levels were synthesized. The Ni2+/Ni3+ ratios in NMC were quantitatively analyzed by non-linear least-squares fitting (NLLSF). Two Ni 2p overall spectra of synthesized Li [Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2(NMC111) and bulk LiNiO2 were used as the Ni2+ and Ni3+ reference standards. Compared to G/L peak fitting, the fitting parameters required no adjustment, meaning that the spectral fitting process was free from operator dependence and the reproducibility was improved. Comparison of residual standard deviation (STD) showed that the fitting quality of NLLSF was superior to that of G/L peaks fitting. Overall, these findings confirmed the reproducibility and effectiveness of the NLLSF method in XPS quantitative analysis of Ni2+/Ni3+ ratio in Li[NixMnyCoz]O2 cathode materials.

  9. The castability of pure titanium compared with Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Be alloys.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Silvana Maria; Leal, Monica Barbosa; Pagnano, Valeria Oliveira; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz

    2007-12-01

    Titanium is the most biocompatible metal available for dental casting; however, there is great concern about its castability since this aspect of a casting metal/alloy has direct influence on the marginal fit of dental crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the castability of commercially pure titanium with 2 Ni-Cr base metal alloys. Castability was evaluated indirectly by determining the sharpness of cast crown margins using the lost-wax technique. Castability was expressed in terms of the deficiency (mum) between an actual casting margin and a potentially perfect margin. Crown margins were recorded in a silicone impression material. The degree of marginal rounding was measured and margin length deficiencies (mum) were calculated. Sixty acrylic resin crown patterns with wax margins were prepared on a stainless steel stylized crown die having a 30-degree beveled finish line. The degree of wax margin rounding was determined in the control group (group W, n=15). The remaining 45 crown patterns were divided into 3 groups (n=15) and cast in commercially pure titanium (Tritan, group Ti), Ni-Cr-Be alloy (Verabond; group VB), and Ni-Cr alloy (Verabond II; group VBII). Margin configurations for both wax patterns and cast specimens were measured and recorded with the same method, using silicone impressions of the margins. After polymerization, the silicone material was sectioned in 8 locations through the margin area so that cross sections of the margins could be observed. Marginal deficiency was determined using microscopic measurements from the silicone sections and calculations. Data were subjected to 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (alpha=.05). Statistical analysis showed significant differences among the groups W, Ti, VB, and VBII (P<.001). The Tukey test revealed that Ti (108 +/-26 microm) was not significantly different from VBII (95 +/-35 microm), but was significantly different than Groups VB (22 +/-5 microm) and W (19 +/-6 microm), which were similar

  10. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation studies of ion-exchanged NiH-SAPO-17 and NiH-SAPO-35 molecular sieves: Comparison with ion-exchanged NiH-SAPO-34 molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Djieugoue, M.A.; Prakash, A.M.; Zhu, Z.

    1999-08-26

    Erionite-like silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve SAPO-17 and levyne-like SAPO-35, in which Ni ions were incorporated via solid-state ion-exchange into known extra framework sites, have been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron spin echo modulation (ESEM). The Ni ion reducibility, location, and interaction with several adsorbates have been investigated. Among these adsorbates, the interaction with nitric oxide was emphasized and compared to that of Ni ion with NO in the previously studied chabazite-like SAPO-34. Room-temperature adsorption of C[sub 2]D[sub 4] on NiH-SAPO-17 after dehydration at 573 K, oxygen treatment at 823 K, evacuation, and subsequent hydrogen treatment at 573 Kmore » produces two Ni-ethylene complexes. Carbon monoxide adsorption gives rise to a Ni(I)-(CO)[sub n] complex with unresolved [sup 13]C hyperfine lines. Following the kinetics of nitric oxide adsorption on NiH-SAPO-17 shows that initially, a Ni(I)-(NO)[sup +] complex, a NO radical, and a new species which appears to be another NO species are generated. After a reaction time of 24 h, NO[sub 2] is observed. As the adsorption time further increases, NO[sub 2] becomes stronger while Ni(I)-(NO)[sup +] decays, and after 5 days only NO[sub 2] remains. NO adsorption on NiH-SAPO-35 shows different features. Initially, two Ni(I)-(NO)[sup +] complexes along with a NO radical are seen. As the adsorption time increases, one of the Ni(I)-(NO)[sup +] complexes decreases in intensity while the other one increases, and after a few days only one Ni(I)-(NO)[sup +] complex remains. Simulation of the [sup 31]P ESEM spectrum, supplemented by [sup 27]Al modulation, suggests that, upon dehydration, Ni ions in NiH-SAPO-17 migrate from the erioinite supercage to the smaller cancrinite cage. In dehydrated NiH-SAPO-17 migrate from the erionite supercage to the smaller cancrinite cage. In dehydrated NiH-SAPO-34 and NiH-SAPO-35, Ni ions remain in the large chabazite and levyne cages

  11. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation studies of ion-exchanged NiH-SAPO-17 and NiH-SAPO-35 molecular sieves: Comparison with ion-exchanged NiH-SAPO-34 molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Djieugoue, M.A.; Prakash, A.M.; Zhu, Z.

    1999-08-26

    Erionite-like silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve SAPO-17 and levyne-like SAPO-35, in which Ni ions were incorporated via solid-state ion-exchange into known extra framework sites, have been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron spin echo modulation (ESEM). The Ni ion reducibility, location, and interaction with several adsorbates have been investigated. Among these adsorbates, the interaction with nitric oxide was emphasized and compared to that of Ni ion with NO in the previously studied chabazite-like SAPO-34. Room-temperature adsorption of C{sub 2}D{sub 4} on NiH-SAPO-17 after dehydration at 573 K, oxygen treatment at 823 K, evacuation, and subsequent hydrogen treatment at 573 Kmore » produces two Ni-ethylene complexes. Carbon monoxide adsorption gives rise to a Ni(I)-(CO){sub n} complex with unresolved {sup 13}C hyperfine lines. Following the kinetics of nitric oxide adsorption on NiH-SAPO-17 shows that initially, a Ni(I)-(NO){sup +} complex, a NO radical, and a new species which appears to be another NO species are generated. After a reaction time of 24 h, NO{sub 2} is observed. As the adsorption time further increases, NO{sub 2} becomes stronger while Ni(I)-(NO){sup +} decays, and after 5 days only NO{sub 2} remains. NO adsorption on NiH-SAPO-35 shows different features. Initially, two Ni(I)-(NO){sup +} complexes along with a NO radical are seen. As the adsorption time increases, one of the Ni(I)-(NO){sup +} complexes decreases in intensity while the other one increases, and after a few days only one Ni(I)-(NO){sup +} complex remains. Simulation of the {sup 31}P ESEM spectrum, supplemented by {sup 27}Al modulation, suggests that, upon dehydration, Ni ions in NiH-SAPO-17 migrate from the erioinite supercage to the smaller cancrinite cage. In dehydrated NiH-SAPO-17 migrate from the erionite supercage to the smaller cancrinite cage. In dehydrated NiH-SAPO-34 and NiH-SAPO-35, Ni ions remain in the large chabazite and levyne cages

  12. Ni(II) biosorption by Cassia fistula (Golden Shower) biomass.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Nadeem, Raziya; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Ahmad, Najum Rashid; Ansari, Tariq Mehmood

    2007-01-10

    Cassia fistula is a fast-growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree which is now widely cultivated worldwide as an ornamental tree for its beautiful showy yellow flowers. Methods are required to reuse fallen leaves, branches, stem bark and pods when they start getting all over lawn. This investigation studies the use of these non-useful parts of C. fistula as naturally occurring biosorbent for the batch removal of Ni(II) in a well stirred system under different experimental conditions. The data showed that the maximum pH (pHmax) for efficient sorption of Ni(II) was 6 at which evaluated biosorbent dosage, biosorbent particle size, initial concentrations of Ni(II) and sorption time were 0.1 g/100 mL, <0.255 mm, up to 200 mg/L and 720 min, respectively. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted well to data of Ni(II) biosorption by C. fistula biomass as compared to the model of Freundlich. The kinetic studies showed that the sorption rates could be described better by a second order expression than by a more commonly applied Lagergren equation. The magnitude of the Gibbs free energy values indicates spontaneous nature of the sorption process. The sorption ability of C. fistula biomass for Ni(II) removal tends to be in the order: leavesNi(II) removal was achieved when the initial Ni(II) concentration was 25 mg/L. Due to its outstanding Ni(II) uptake capacity, C. fistula biomass proved to be an excellent biomaterial for accumulating Ni(II) from aqueous solutions.

  13. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution at Ordered Mo 7 Ni 7

    SciTech Connect

    Csernica, Peter M.; McKone, James R.; Mulzer, Catherine R.

    2017-04-11

    Ni–Mo alloys containing up to ~15 mol % Mo are excellent non-noble electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline aqueous electrolytes. To date, studies have not addressed the details of HER activity of ordered Ni–Mo intermetallic compounds, which can contain a significantly larger fraction of Mo (up to 50 mol %) than can be accessed through high-temperature alloying. Here, we present a straightforward and facile synthesis of three phase-pure electrocatalyst powders using a precipitation–reduction approach: ordered Mo7Ni7, disordered Ni0.92Mo0.08, and pure Ni. The Ni0.92Mo0.08 alloy exhibited a nearly 10-fold higher mass-specific HER activity than either pure Ni ormore » Mo7Ni7, where much of the difference could be attributed to relative surface area. Therefore, we attempted to quantify and account for differences in surface areas using electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, and gas adsorption measurements. These data suggest that Ni–Mo alloys and intermetallic compounds exhibit substantial pseudocapacitance at potentials near the onset of hydrogen evolution, which can cause impedance spectroscopy to overestimate the interfacial capacitance, and thus the electrochemically active surface area, of these materials. From these observations, we postulate Mo redox activity as the chemical basis for the observed pseudocapacitance of Ni–Mo composites. Furthermore, using gas adsorption measurements, rather than capacitance, to estimate active surface area, we find that ordered Mo7Ni7 is more intrinsically active than the Ni0.92Mo0.08 alloy, implying that Mo7Ni7 intermetallics with high surface area will also give higher mass-specific activities than alloys with comparable roughness.« less

  14. Electrochemical Performance of Ni-MOFs for Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yujuan; Song, Lili; Han, Yinghui; Wang, Guangyou

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the Ni-MOFs of electrode material has been synthesized, characterized and studied for the electrochemical properties of electrode materials. The effects of the doping amount of Ni, calcination temperature and time were studied in detail. The results suggested that the electrochemical properties were obviously improved by the Ni-MOFs of electrode material and the best preparation conditions can also improve the electrochemical properties of electrode materials. These results open a way for the design of tailored MOFs as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  15. Magnetic behavior of Ni nanoparticles with high disordered atomic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, W. C.; De Biasi, E.; Meneses, C. T.; Knobel, M.; Winnischofer, H.; Rocha, T. C. R.; Zanchet, D.

    2008-05-01

    This report concerns the magnetic properties of colloidal Ni nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by chemical reduction of Ni(II) salt in an organic solvent. The NPs present a complex and disordered atomic structure, where small clusters of a few Ni atoms appear to coexist within each NP. These NPs exhibit interesting magnetic properties, with a low temperature ferromagnetic order followed by a transition from ferromagnetic to a "spin-glass-like" state as the temperature decreases. The results are discussed considering the role of the atomic ordering of the NPs on the corresponding magnetic behavior.

  16. Percolation framework to describe El Niño conditions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Fan, Jingfang; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-03-01

    Complex networks have been used intensively to investigate the flow and dynamics of many natural systems including the climate system. Here, we develop a percolation based measure, the order parameter, to study and quantify climate networks. We find that abrupt transitions of the order parameter usually occur ∼1 year before El Niño events, suggesting that they can be used as early warning precursors of El Niño. Using this method, we analyze several reanalysis datasets and show the potential for good forecasting of El Niño. The percolation based order parameter exhibits discontinuous features, indicating a possible relation to the first order phase transition mechanism.

  17. Physicochemical investigation of NiAl with small molybdenum additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troshkina, V. A.; Kucherenko, L. A.; Fadeeva, V. I.; Aristova, N. M.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of four cast NiAl alloys, three of them containing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at. % Mo., were homogenized for 10, 10, and 140 hr at 1373, 1523 and 1273 K, respectively, then kept at 1073, 1173 and 1323 K for 60, 120 and 3 hr, respectively, and quenched in icy water. The precipitation of a metastable Ni3Mo phase was observed at temperatures between 1073 and 1523 K. Molybdenum substituted for nickel was found to inhibit the lattice disordering in NiAl at 1073 and 1523 K.

  18. Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Ni Nanotubes and Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Highly ordered Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays were fabricated via electrodeposition. The Ni microstructures and the process of the formation were investigated using conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Herein, we demonstrated the systematic fabrication of Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays and proposed an original growth mechanism. With the different deposition time, nanotubes or nanowires can be obtained. Tubular nanostructures can be obtained at short time, while nanowires take longer time to form. This formation mechanism is applicable to design and synthesize other metal nanostructures and even compound nanostuctures via template-based electrodeposition. PMID:20596512

  19. EXAFS study of NiAl in thin films.

    PubMed

    Arcon, I; Mozetic, M; Kodre, A; Jagielski, J; Traverse, A

    2001-03-01

    Technologically important coatings of transition-metal aluminides call be produced by thermal or ion beam mixing of multilayer structures sputter deposited on substrates. The quantitative detection of constituents by depth profiling is sufficient to establish the efficiency of mixing methods. However, to decide whether a mixture of nanoparticles or a stoichiometric alloy is formed, EXAFS analysis of the local atomic neighborhood in the film is required. Ni K edge EXAFS spectra are measured on a series of samples of Ni/Al multilayer on Si(111) surface, after ion mixing at different substrate temperatures. The spectra show that with increasing temperature the nickel aluminide phase gradually substitutes the Ni fcc metal phase.

  20. The Ce-Ni-Si system as a representative of the rare earth-Ni-Si family: Isothermal section and new rare-earth nickel silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@tech.chem.msu.ru; Knotko, A.V.; Garshev, A.V.

    2016-11-15

    The Ce-Ni-Si system has been investigated at 870/1070 K by X-ray and microprobe analyses. The existence of the known compounds, i.e.: Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 15.8}Si{sub 1.2} (Th{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}-type), Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 15-14}Si{sub 2-3} (Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type), CeNi{sub 8.6}Si{sub 2.4} (BaCd{sub 11}-type), CeNi{sub 8.8}Si{sub 4.2} (LaCo{sub 9}Si{sub 4}-type), CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} (CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type), CeNi{sub 5}Si{sub 1-0.3} (TbCu{sub 7}-type), CeNi{sub 4}Si (YNi{sub 4}Si-type), CeNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (CeGa{sub 2}Al{sub 2}-type), Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 5} (U{sub 2}Co{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-type), Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 2} (Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 2}-type), Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 4} (U{sub 3}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 4}-type), CeNiSi{sub 2} (CeNiSi{sub 2}-type), ~CeNi{sub 1.3}Si{sub 0.7} (unknown typemore » structure), Ce{sub 6}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 4} (Pr{sub 6}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 4}-type), CeNiSi (LaPtSi-type), CeNi{sub 0.8-0.3}Si{sub 1.2-1.7} (AlB{sub 2}-type), ~Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Si (unknown type structure), ~Ce{sub 4.5}Ni{sub 3.5}Si{sub 2} (unknown type structure), Ce{sub 15}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 10} (Pr{sub 15}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 10}-type), Ce{sub 5}Ni{sub 1.85}Si{sub 3} (Ce{sub 5}Ni{sub 1.85}Si{sub 3}-type), Ce{sub 6}Ni{sub 1.4}Si{sub 3.4} (Ce{sub 6}Ni{sub 1.67}Si{sub 3}-type), Ce{sub 7}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 5} (Ce{sub 7}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 5}-type) and Ce{sub 3}NiSi{sub 3} (Y{sub 3}NiSi{sub 3}-type) has been confirmed in this section. Moreover, the type structure has been determined for ~Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Si (Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2}-type Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 2.5}Si{sub 0.5}) and ~Ce{sub 4.5}Ni{sub 3.5}Si{sub 2} (W{sub 3}CoB{sub 3}-type Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 3-2.7}Si{sub 1-1.3}) and new ternary phases Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 6.25}Si{sub 0.75} (Gd{sub 2}Co{sub 7}-type), CeNi{sub 7-7.6}Si{sub 6-5.4} (GdNi{sub 7}Si{sub 6}-type) and ~Ce{sub 27}Ni{sub 42}Si{sub 31} (unknown type structure) have been identified in this system. Quasi-binary phases, solid solutions, were detected at 870/1070 K for CeNi{sub 5}, CeNi{sub 3} and

  1. Template-Mediated Ni(II) Dispersion in Mesoporous SiO2 for Preparation of Highly Dispersed Ni Catalysts: Influence of Template Type.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xin; Lu, Yiyuan; Fu, Heyun; Wan, Haiqin; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong

    2017-06-07

    Supported Ni catalysts on three mesoporous SiO 2 supports (i.e., SBA-15, MCM-41, and HMS) were prepared using a solid-state reaction between Ni(NO 3 ) 2 and organic template-occluded mesoporous SiO 2 . For comparison, supported Ni catalysts on mesoporous SiO 2 synthesized by the conventional impregnation method were also included. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, H 2 temperature-programmed reduction, transmission electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray. The catalytic properties of the catalysts were evaluated using gas-phase catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane. The results showed that upon grinding Ni(NO 3 ) 2 with template-occluded mesoporous SiO 2 , strong coordination between Ni 2+ and dodecylamine was identified in the Ni(NO 3 ) 2 -HMS system. Additionally, the results of H 2 temperature-programmed reduction revealed that NiO in calcined NiO/HMS was reduced at higher temperature than those in calcined NiO/SBA-15 and NiO/MCM-41, reflecting the presence of a strong interaction between NiO and mesoporous SiO 2 in NiO/HMS. Consistently, the average particle sizes of metallic Ni were found to be 2.7, 3.4, and 9.6 nm in H 2 -reduced Ni/HMS, Ni/SBA-15, and Ni/MCM-41, respectively, indicative of a much higher Ni dispersion in Ni/HMS. For the catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane, Ni/MCM-41 synthesized by the solid-state reaction method exhibited a catalytic activity similar to that prepared by the impregnation method, while higher catalytic activities were observed on Ni/HMS and Ni/SBA-15 than on their counterparts prepared by the impregnation method. Furthermore, a higher conversion was identified on Ni/HMS than on Ni/SBA-15 and Ni/MCM-41, highlighting the importance of template type for the preparation of highly dispersed metal catalysts on mesoporous Si

  2. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A

    2013-07-01

    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wetting - Dewetting Transitions of Au/Ni Bilayer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Xi

    Thin films deposited at low temperatures are often kinetically constrained and will dewet the underlying substrate when annealed. Solid state dewetting is driven by the minimization of the total free energy of thin film-substrate interface and free surface, and mostly occurs through surface diffusion. Dewetting is a serious concern in microelectronics reliability. However, it can also be utilized for the self-assembly of nanostructures with potentials in storage, catalysis, or transistors. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the dewetting behavior of thin metal films is critical for improving the thermal stability of microelectronics and controlling the order of self-assembled nanostructures. Mechanisms for dewetting of single layer films have been studied extensively. However little work has been reported on multilayer or alloyed thin films. In the thesis, the solid state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayer films deposited on SiO2/Si substrates was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration corrected scanning TEM (STEM). Ex-situ SEM and TEM studies were performed with in-situ TEM heating characterization to identify the mechanisms during the dewetting process of Au/Ni bilayer films. The solid state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayer films from SiO2/Si substrates exhibits both homogeneous and localized dewetting of Ni and long-edge retraction for Au under isothermal annealing condition. The top Au layer retracts up to 1 mm from the edge of the substrate wafer to reduce the energetically unfavored Au/Ni interface. In contrast, Ni dewets and agglomerates locally due to its limited diffusivity compared to Au. Film morphology and local chemical composition varies significantly across hundreds of microns along the direction normal to the retracting edge. Besides long range edge receding, localized dewetting shows significant changes in film morphology and chemical distribution. Both Au and Ni shows texturing. Despite

  4. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Ba, Ni and BaNiO3: A First-Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rupesh; Adhikari, Narayan; Kaphle, Gopi; Mani, Ramesh

    The electronic and magnetic Properties of Ba, Ni and hexagonal crystal structure BaNiO3have been studied under TB-LMTO ASA method. The space group of compound is P63/mmc and lattice parameters are a =b =5.62 A°and c =4.81 A°. From our calculation, the minimized lattice parameters of Ba, Ni and BaNiO3were found to be 5.280 A°,3.488A°and 6.08 A° which are at most 1% deviation from the experimental values. Band Structures were determined using the minimized structures which showed the metallic nature of elements Ba and Ni. However, the compound BaNiO3possessed a band gap of 0.95 eV under LDA calculation. Further, U correction was implemented to account for the orbital dependent potential arising largely from the strong correlation of d and f electrons, and the band gap increased to 1.59 eV which is close to the theoretically expected gap (1.612 eV). Density of states showed the ferromagnetic nature of the element nickel with a magnetic moment of 0.59 μB close to that of experimental 0.60 μB , whereas the compound BaNiO3itself was non-magnetic. Finally, a brief study of the charge properties showed the presence of ionic and covalent bonds between the atoms.

  5. Ni-elimination from the active site of the standard [NiFe]‑hydrogenase upon oxidation by O2.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Koji; Mochida, Satoko; Hiromoto, Takeshi; Shibata, Naoki; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogenase is a key enzyme for a coming hydrogen energy society, because it has strong catalytic activities on both uptake and production of dihydrogen. We, however, have to overcome the sensitivity against O 2 of the enzyme, because hydrogenase is, generally, easily inactivated in the presence of O 2 . In this study, we have revisited the crystal structures of [NiFe]‑hydrogenase from sulfate-reducing bacterium in the several oxidized and reduced conditions. Our results revealed that the Ni-Fe active site of the enzyme exposed into O 2 showed two forms, Form-1 and Form-2. The Ni-Fe active site in Form-1 showed the typical Ni-B (inactive ready) structure, whereas those in Form-2 lost Ni with no relation to an exposure time to O 2 , and two cysteinyl sulfur ligands made a disulfide bond. On the other hand, the formation of sulfenylation of the cysteinyl ligand to Ni, which is often observed in the oxidized form, did not correlate with the Ni-elimination, but with exposure time to O 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Atomic-scale dynamics of edge dislocations in Ni and concentrated solid solution NiFe alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Shijun; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2017-01-19

    Single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs), including high entropy alloys, exhibit excellent mechanical properties compared to conventional dilute alloys. However, the origin of this observation is not clear yet because the dislocation properties in CSAs are poorly understood. In this work, the mobility of a <110>{111} edge dislocation in pure Ni and equiatomic solid solution Ni 0.5Fe 0.5 (NiFe) is studied using molecular dynamics simulations with different empirical potentials. The threshold stress to initiate dislocation movement in NiFe is found to be much higher compared to pure Ni. The drag coefficient of the dislocation motion calculated from the linear regimemore » of dislocation velocities versus applied stress suggests that the movement of dislocations in NiFe is strongly damped compared to that in Ni. The present results indicate that the mobility of edge dislocations in fcc CSAs are controlled by the fluctuations in local stacking fault energy caused by the local variation of alloy composition.« less

  7. Superior electrochemical performance of Li3VO4/NiO/Ni electrode via a coordinated electrochemical reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Shibing; Zhang, Jicheng; Lv, Xiaohu; Yang, Xuelin; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-09-01

    Coordinated electrochemical effect between Li3VO4 and NiO occurs in Li3VO4/NiO/Ni electrodes owing to the close potential regions of lithiation and delithiation for Li3VO4 and NiO. Remarkably, Li3VO4/NiO/Ni with bottom nanowalls and upper micro-flowers architecture undergoes a novel coordinated electrochemical reconstruction owing to well coordinated morphology variation of Li3VO4 and NiO in lithiation and delithiation process, which leads to the formation of a new symmetrical porous architecture in cycling, resulting in superior electrochemical performance. At a specific current of 70 mA g-1, it exhibits discharge and charge capacity of 860 and 631 mAh g-1 in the initial cycle, maintaining of 612 and 604 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. After 60 cycles at various specific currents from 54 to 2700 mA g-1, the discharge and charge capacity can restore to 612 mAh g-1 when reverting the specific current to 54 mA g-1.

  8. Shaped Pd-Ni-Pt core-sandwich-shell nanoparticles: influence of Ni sandwich layers on catalytic electrooxidations.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Brian T; Young, Allison P; Jalalpoor, Daniel; Golden, Matthew C; Mao, Shunjia; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yong; Tsung, Chia-Kuang

    2014-07-22

    Shape-controlled metal nanoparticles (NPs) interfacing Pt and nonprecious metals (M) are highly active energy conversion electrocatalysts; however, there are still few routes to shaped M-Pt core-shell NPs and fewer studies on the geometric effects of shape and strain on catalysis by such structures. Here, well-defined cubic multilayered Pd-Ni-Pt sandwich NPs are synthesized as a model platform to study the effects of the nonprecious metal below the shaped Pt surface. The combination of shaped Pd substrates and mild reduction conditions directs the Ni and Pt overgrowth in an oriented, layer-by-layer fashion. Exposing a majority of Pt(100) facets, the catalytic performance in formic acid and methanol electro-oxidations (FOR and MOR) is assessed for two different Ni layer thicknesses and two different particle sizes of the ternary sandwich NPs. The strain imparted to the Pt shell layer by the introduction of the Ni sandwich layer (Ni-Pt lattice mismatch of ∼11%) results in higher specific initial activities compared to core-shell Pd-Pt bimetallic NPs in alkaline MOR. The trends in activity are the same for FOR and MOR electrocatalysis in acidic electrolyte. However, restructuring in acidic conditions suggests a more complex catalytic behavior from changes in composition. Notably, we also show that cubic quaternary Au-Pd-Ni-Pt multishelled NPs, and Pd-Ni-Pt nanooctahedra can be generated by the method, the latter of which hold promise as potentially highly active oxygen reduction catalysts.

  9. Natural nanomorphous Ni/NiO magnetic multilayers: structure and magnetism of the high-Ar pressure series.

    PubMed

    Pappas, S D; Delimitis, A; Kapaklis, V; Papaioannou, E Th; Poulopoulos, P; Trachylis, D; Velgakis, M J; Politis, C

    2014-08-01

    Natural nanomorphous Ni/NiO multilayers have exhibited interesting magnetic properties, such as an unusual positive surface anisotropy and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Most attention has been paid to multilayers prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering under relatively low (3 x 10(-3) mbar) Ar pressure. Here we report on the correlation between structural and magnetic properties for a new series of multilayers, prepared under relatively high (3 x 10(-2) mbar) Ar pressure. The crystalline Ni individual layer thickness ranges between 5-8 nm. The amorphous NiO layer thickness is constant, about 1.1 nm thick. X-ray reflectivity showed that in some of the multilayers the high-order Bragg peaks become broader and diminish quickly. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy reveals that this occurs because the first bilayers are formed in accordance to the growth conditions, while the ones near the top are vanished. Despite the deterioration of the interface quality, all samples show tendency for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even for large bilayer thickness of about 9 nm. Similar tendency is observed even by a 330 nm thick non-multilayered Ni film grown under the same conditions. This observation reveals the important role of strain and magnetoelastic anisotropy as a source of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the Ni/NiO multilayers.

  10. Pressure-induced development of bonding in NiAs type compounds and polymorphism of NiP

    SciTech Connect

    Dera, Przemyslaw; Lazarz, John D.; Lavina, Barbara

    2016-07-29

    A reversible, displacive, pressure-induced structural phase transition has been found to occur in nickel monophosphide NiP at approximately 3.5 GPa by means of in situ synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The new phase, with Pearson symbol oC56, assumes an orthorhombic structure with Cmc2{sub 1} space group and unit cell parameters a=23.801(2) {angstrom}, b=5.9238(6) {angstrom}, and c=4.8479(4) {angstrom} at 5.79 GPa. The high-pressure phase is a superstructure of the ambient, oP16 phase with multiplicity of 3.5. The phosphorous sublattice gradually converts from the net of isolated P{sub 2} dimers found in the ambient NiP, towards zig-zag polymeric P{infinity} chains found in MnP-typemore » structures. The transformation involves development of triatomic phosphorous clusters and interconnected Ni slabs with diamondoid topology. The high-pressure phase, which represents intermediate polymerization step, is a commensurately modulated superstructure of the NiAs aristotype. The phase transformation in NiP bears resemblance to the effect of successive substitution of Si or Ge in place of P found in the series of stoichiometric inhomogeneous linear structures in ternary NiP{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} and NiP{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} systems.« less

  11. Magnetic and conventional shape memory behavior of Mn-Ni-Sn and Mn-Ni-Sn(Fe) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turabi, A. S.; Lázpita, P.; Sasmaz, M.; Karaca, H. E.; Chernenko, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic and conventional shape memory properties of Mn49Ni42Sn9(at.%) and Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3(at.%) polycrystalline alloys exhibiting martensitic transformation from ferromagnetic austenite into weakly magnetic martensite are characterized under compressive stress and magnetic field. Magnetization difference between transforming phases drastically increases, while transformation temperature decreases with the addition of Fe. Both Mn49Ni42Sn9 and Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3 alloys show remarkable superelastic and shape memory properties with recoverable strain of 4% and 3.5% under compression at room temperature, respectively. These characteristics can be counted as extraordinary among the polycrystalline NiMn-based magnetic shape memory alloys. Critical stress for phase transformation was increased by 34 MPa in Mn49Ni39Sn9Fe3 and 21 MPa in Mn49Ni42Sn9 at 9 T, which can be qualitatively understood in terms of thermodynamic Clausius-Clapeyron relationships and in the framework of the suggested physical concept of a volume magnetostress.

  12. Ultrathin NiGe films prepared via catalytic solid-vapor reaction of Ni with GeH(4).

    PubMed

    Peter, Antony P; Opsomer, Karl; Adelmann, Christoph; Schaekers, Marc; Meersschaut, Johan; Richard, Olivier; Vaesen, Inge; Moussa, Alain; Franquet, Alexis; Zsolt, Tokei; Van Elshocht, Sven

    2013-10-09

    A low-temperature (225-300 °C) solid-vapor reaction process is reported for the synthesis of ultrathin NiGe films (∼6-23 nm) on 300 mm Si wafers covered with thermal oxide. The films were prepared via catalytic chemical vapor reaction of germane (GeH4) gas with physical vapor deposited (PVD) Ni films of different thickness (2-10 nm). The process optimization by investigating GeH4 partial pressure, reaction temperature, and time shows that low resistive, stoichiometric, and phase pure NiGe films can be formed within a broad window. NiGe films crystallized in an orthorhombic structure and were found to exhibit a smooth morphology with homogeneous composition as evidenced by glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) analysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that the NiGe layers exhibit a good adhesion without voids and a sharp interface on the thermal oxide. The NiGe films were found to be morphologically and structurally stable up to 500 °C and exhibit a resistivity value of 29 μΩ cm for 10 nm NiGe films.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of yttrium and lanthanum-doped Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn spinel ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Stergiou, Charalampos, E-mail: stergiou@cperi.certh.gr; Litsardakis, George, E-mail: lits@eng.auth.gr

    2014-11-05

    Rare earth doping of Co-rich spinel ferrites is investigated through the preparation of two groups of polycrystalline Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn ferrites, where Fe is partly substituted by Y and La. The characterization of the sintered ferrites by means of X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld profile analysis, indicates the subtle expansion of the spinel unit cell and the cation redistribution in the doped ferrites in order to accommodate the incorporation of Y and La in the lattice. The impurity traces, detected only in the Ni-Co-Zn group, is ascribed to the Zn population in the tetrahedral A-sites impeding the cation transfer. Moreover,more » the examined microstructure of the doped Ni-Co samples comprises enlarged and more homogeneous grains, whereas grain growth is moderated in the doped Ni-Co-Zn ferrites. The discussed characteristics of the crystal and magnetic structure along with the morphological aspects define the impact of Y and La doping on the static magnetic properties of Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn ferrites, saturation magnetization MS and coercivity HC, which were extracted from the respective hysteresis loops.« less

  14. Solution growth of NiO nanosheets supported on Ni foam as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Well-aligned nickel oxide (NiO) nanosheets with the thickness of a few nanometers supported on a flexible substrate (Ni foam) have been fabricated by a hydrothermal approach together with a post-annealing treatment. The three-dimensional NiO nanosheets were further used as electrode materials to fabricate supercapacitors, with high specific capacitance of 943.5, 791.2, 613.5, 480, and 457.5 F g-1 at current densities of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 A g-1, respectively. The NiO nanosheets combined well with the substrate. When the electrode material was bended, it can still retain 91.1% of the initial capacitance after 1,200 charging/discharging cycles. Compared with Co3O4 and NiO nanostructures, the specific capacitance of NiO nanosheets is much better. These characteristics suggest that NiO nanosheet electrodes are promising for energy storage application with high power demands. PMID:25276099

  15. New oxidation treatment of NiTi shape memory alloys to obtain Ni-free surfaces and to improve biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Michiardi, A; Aparicio, C; Planell, J A; Gil, F J

    2006-05-01

    Various oxidation treatments were applied to nearly equiatomic NiTi alloys so as to form a Ni-free protective oxide on the surface. Sample surfaces were analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and NiTi transformation temperatures were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before and after the surface treatment. An ion release experiment was carried out up to one month of immersion in SBF for both oxidized and untreated surfaces. The results show that oxidation treatment in a low-oxygen pressure atmosphere leads to a high surface Ti/Ni ratio, a very low Ni surface concentration and a thick oxide layer. This oxidation treatment does not significantly affect the shape memory properties of the alloy. Moreover, the oxide formed significantly decreases Ni release into exterior medium comparing with untreated surfaces. As a consequence, this new oxidation treatment could be of great interest for biomedical applications, as it could minimize sensitization and allergies and improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory alloys. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of tensile misfit dislocation on diffusion of Ni adatom on Ni/Cu(111): a Molecular Dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushin, Oleg; Aminpour, Maral; Rahman, Talat S.

    2012-02-01

    We apply molecular dynamics and molecular static methods to calculate the effect of tensile misfit dislocation on Ni adatom diffusion for Ni/Cu(111) system and compare the results with those calculated previously for Cu adatom on the Cu/Ni(111) system [1] which has compressive dislocation. Our Ni/Cu(111) substrate model system consists of 5 layers of Ni on top of a 7-layer Cu(111) slab which after energy minimization displays an isolated misfit dislocation buried at the Cu-Ni interface, causing the Ni film to be under tensile stress. In contrast to the isotropic trajectory that emerges on a defect-free surface, in this tensile stressed system we find that presence of the defect under the surface strongly affects the adatom trajectory, introducing anisotropy in atomic diffusion similar to compressive system, but with the difference: tensile misfit dislocation enhances diffusion in the direction perpendicular to the misfit dislocation line and decreases it in the direction parallel to it, whereas compressive dislocation induces the opposite behavior. We present the calculated energy barriers for the adatom and compare them with adatom diffusion on defect -- free and on the surface containing compressive dislocation. [4pt] [1] M. Aminpour, O. Trushin, and T. S. Rahman, Physical Review B, 84, 035455 (2011).

  17. [Ni III(OMe)]-mediated reductive activation of CO 2 affording a Ni(κ 1-OCO) complex

    DOE PAGES

    Chiou, Tzung -Wen; Tseng, Yen -Ming; Lu, Tsai -Te; ...

    2016-02-24

    Here, carbon dioxide is expected to be employed as an inexpensive and potential feedstock of C 1 sources for the mass production of valuable chemicals and fuel. Versatile chemical transformations of CO 2, i.e. insertion of CO 2 producing bicarbonate/acetate/formate, cleavage of CO 2 yielding μ-CO/μ-oxo transition-metal complexes, and electrocatalytic reduction of CO 2 affording CO/HCOOH/CH 3OH/CH 4/C 2H 4/oxalate were well documented. Herein, we report a novel pathway for the reductive activation of CO 2 by the [Ni III(OMe)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] – complex, yielding the [Ni III(κ 1-OCO˙ –)(P(C 6H 3-3-SiMe 3-2-S) 3)] – complex. The formationmore » of this unusual Ni III(κ 1-OCO ˙–) complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, EPR, IR, SQUID, Ni/S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Ni valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy. The inertness of the analogous complexes [Ni III(SPh)], [Ni II(CO)], and [Ni II(N 2H 4)] toward CO 2, in contrast, demonstrates that the ionic [Ni III(OMe)] core attracts the binding of weak σ-donor CO 2 and triggers the subsequent reduction of CO 2 by the nucleophilic [OMe] – in the immediate vicinity. This metal–ligand cooperative activation of CO 2 may open a novel pathway promoting the subsequent incorporation of CO 2 in the buildup of functionalized products.« less

  18. Organic acids rather than histidine predominate in Ni chelation in Alyssum hyperaccumulator xylem exudate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A better understanding of Ni uptake mechanisms by hyperaccumulator plants is necessary to improve Ni uptake efficiency for phytoremediation technologies i.e. phytomining. It is known that an important aspect of Ni translocation involves Ni chelation with organic ligands. However, it is still not cle...

  19. Improvement of the wear resistance of electroplated Au-Ni coatings by Zr ion bombardment of Ni-B sublayer

    SciTech Connect

    Lyazgin, Alexander, E-mail: lyazgin@list.ru; Shugurov, Artur, E-mail: shugurov@ispms.tsc.ru; Sergeev, Viktor, E-mail: retc@ispms.tsc.ru

    2015-10-27

    The effect of bombardment of the Ni-B sublayer by Zr ion beams on the surface morphology and tribomechanical properties of Au-Ni coatings was investigated. It was found that the treatment has no significant effect on the surface roughness and grain size of the Au-Ni coatings, while it provides essential reducing of their friction coefficient and improvement of wear resistance. It is shown that increased wear resistance of these coatings was caused by their strain hardening resulted from localization of plastic strain. The optimal Zr fluence were determined that provide the maximum reduction of linear wear of the coatings.

  20. Fast electrochemical deposition of Ni(OH)2 precursor involving water electrolysis for fabrication of NiO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Miki; Ichimura, Masaya

    2018-05-01

    Ni(OH)2 precursor films were deposited by galvanostatic electrochemical deposition (ECD), and NiO thin films were fabricated by annealing in air. The effects of the deposition current densities were studied in a range that included current densities high enough to electrolyze water and generate hydrogen bubbles. The films fabricated by ECD involving water electrolysis had higher transparency and smoother surface morphology than those deposited with lower current densities. In addition, the annealed NiO films clearly had preferred (111) orientation when the deposition was accompanied by water electrolysis. p-type conduction was confirmed for the annealed films.

  1. Comment on “the ground-state structures of Au10-, Au8Ni and Au9Ni clusters”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ben-Xia; Die, Dong; Li, Qian-Qian; Dai, Ming-Liang; Li, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Ji-Xian

    2017-09-01

    The lowest energy structures of Aun+1- and AunNi (n = 2-9) clusters have been researched using the CALYPSO structure searching method in conjunction with the density functional theory. It is found that the most stable structures of Au10-, Au8Ni and Au9Ni clusters reported by Tang et al. [C. M. Tang, X. X. Chen and X. D. Yang, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28, 1450138 (2014)] are low-lying isomers. The correct ground states and vibrational spectra are given in this paper.

  2. Do Ni/Cu and Cu/Ni alloys have different catalytic performances towards water-gas shift? A density functional theory investigation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Cheng; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Hai; Ling, ChongYi; Wang, SuFan; Du, Jin Yan

    2014-08-25

    Density functional calculations were preformed to investigate whether adding Ni into a Cu surface (denoted as Cu/Ni) or adding Cu into a Ni surface (Ni/Cu) is more efficient for catalyzing the water-gas shift (WGS)? The reactions of water dissociation and monoxide dissociation were selected to assess the activity and selectivity towards WGS, respectively. Our results show that Ni-atom modification of surfaces is thermodynamically favorable for both reactions. Kinetically, compared with pure Cu, water dissociation is greatly facilitated on Ni-modified surfaces, and the activity is insensitive to the Ni concentration; however, monoxide dissociation is not well-promoted on one Ni-atom-modified surfaces, but two Ni-atom modification can notably decrease the dissociation barriers. Overall, on the basis of these results, we conclude that 1) the catalytic performance of bimetallic metals is superior to monometallic ones; 2) at the same Ni concentration on the surface, Cu/Ni and Ni/Cu alloys have almost the same performance towards WGS; and 3) to acquire high WGS performance, the surface Ni atoms should either be low in concentration or highly dispersed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Kinetic Reaction between Ni and Al Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Fig. 2, 2a is the diameter of a circle circumscribed by the contact circumference of the two nanoparticles. vAl and vNi are the distances from the Al...written as SNi,exposed = SNi − 2rNivNi = 4rNi 2 − 2rNivNi, 7 where vNi = rNi1 − cos . 8 Initially during the sintering process the Ni...where vAl = rAl − rAl2 − a2, 10a a = vNi 2rNi − vNi . 10b The radius of the Al nanoparticle is computed numerically by using conservation of

  4. Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Draper, D. S.; Agee, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their metal-loving nature, Ni and Co were strongly partitioned into the metallic core and were left depleted in the silicate mantle during core formation in the Earth. Based on experimental liquid metal- liquid silicate partition coefficients (D), studies have suggested that core formation in an early magma Ocean can explain the observed mantle depletions of Ni and Co [l-51. However, the conditions proposed by the magma ocean models have ranged from pressures of 24 to 59 GPa and temperatures of 2200 to < 4000 K. Furthermore, the proposed magma Ocean oxygen fugacities have differed by nearly two orders of magnitude.Chabot and Agee noted that the different models predicted contradictory behaviors for D(Ni) and D(Co) as a function of temperature. With the hope of resolving the discrepancies between the magma ocean models, we conducted a systematic experimental study to constrain the effects of temperature on D(Ni) and D(Co).

  5. Determination of thermal properties of commercial Ni-MH cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcy, Eric C.

    1994-02-01

    The test objectives were to evaluate the electrical and thermal performance of commercial Ni-MH cells, evaluate the effectiveness of commercial charge control circuits, assess the abuse tolerance of these cells, and correlate performance and abuse tolerances to cell design via disassembly. Design objectives were to determine which cell designs are most suitable for scale-up and to guide the design of future shuttle and space station based battery chargers. Results, displayed in viewgraph format, include: reflex charging with ICS circuit resulted in premature charge termination; Ni-MH cells appear very tolerant to overcharge at low rates; Enstore's charger is more electrically and thermally efficient at high rates; and Ni-MH cycles much more efficiently than Ni-Cd with the delta-V/delta-t termination.

  6. Support effects on hydrotreating activity of NiMo catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Grupo de Ingenieria en Procesamiento de Materiales CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira. Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps.; Arce-Estrada, E.M.

    2007-10-15

    The effect of the gamma alumina particle size on the catalytic activity of NiMoS{sub x} catalysts prepared by precipitation method of aluminum acetate at pH = 10 was studied. The structural characterization of the supports was measured by using XRD, pyridine FTIR-TPD and nitrogen physisorption. NiMo catalysts were characterized during the preparation steps (annealing and sulfidation) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen TPR studies of the NiMo catalysts were also carried out in order to correlate their hydrogenating properties and their catalytic functionality. Catalytic tests were carried out in a pilot plant at 613, 633 and 653 K temperatures. Themore » results showed that the rate constants of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatizing (HDA) at 613-653 K decreased in the following order: A > B > C corresponding to the increase of NiMoS particle size associated to these catalysts.« less

  7. Hybridized boron-carbon nitride fibrous nanostructures on Ni substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Yoke Khin; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2002-04-01

    Stoichiometric BC2N films can be deposited on Si (100) at 800 °C, however, they are phase separated as pure carbon and BN phases. Likewise, hybridized boron-carbon nitride (BCN) films can be synthesized on Ni substrates. On Ni, the carbon and BN phases are hybridized through carbon nitride and boron carbide bonds. These films appeared as fibrous nanostructures. Evidence indicates that the Ni substrate acts as a sink for the carbon and forces the carbon composites to grow on top of the B and N atoms. However, as these films are grown thicker, phase separation occurs again. These results indicate that hybridized BCN phases should now be regarded as semiconducting or superhard nanostructures. High-temperature deposition on Ni substrates might be a solution to the obstacle of preparing hybridized BCN phases.

  8. Resistance switching characteristics in Li-doped NiO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyooho; Choi, Joonhyuk; Kim, Yongmin; Im, Hyunsik; Seo, Sunae; Jung, Ranju; Kim, DongChul; Kim, J.-S.; Park, B. H.; Hong, J. P.

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the effects of lithium (Li)-doping on bi-stable resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO film in the temperature range of 10 KNiO films previously studied. An analysis of the temperature dependence of the resistive switching transport showed that Li-doping could modify the thermal properties of the off-state leading to a stable on/off switching operation. It is clearly shown that doping Li in NiO can improve NiO's retention properties and stability of on/off switching voltages.

  9. Electrochemical properties of CNT/NiO composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, N.; Sivaprakash, S.; Chakraborty, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) nano-structures were synthesized on random multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via hydrothermal route followed by calcination in air for the electric double layer capacitor electrode application (EDLC).XRD studies revealed the crystallinity of NiO nanostructures. The average particle size of these nanostructures was found to be 25 nm. The ratio of peak current (Ipr), was found to be 0.99 which confirmed that the redox reaction was a quasi-reversible process The specific NiO/CNTs electrode capacitance reached up to 650 F/g in 1 M Na2SO4 solution. These results indicate that NiO nano-structures formed onto MWCNT network are suitable materials for EDLC applications.

  10. Double dumbbell shaped AgNi alloy by pulsed electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanapal, K.; Vasumathi, M.; Santhi, Kalavathy

    2014-01-28

    Silver-Nickel is the well-known thermally immiscible system that makes them quite complex for the formation of alloy. This kind of alloy can be attained from electrodeposition method. In the present work, AgNi alloy was synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition in a single bath two electrode system with the use of anodic alumina membrane. The prepared AgNi alloy and pure Ag were characterized with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for structural confirmation, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for morphological, and magnetic properties by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, respectively. The X-ray Diffraction study shows the formation of cubic structure for pure Ag. SEM analysis reveals the doublemore » dumbbell morphology for AgNi alloy and spherically agglomeration for pure silver. Hysteresis behaviour from VSM measurement indicates that the AgNi alloy have good ferro-magnetic properties.« less

  11. Structure of Ni 78 from First-Principles Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hagen, Gaute; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Gustav R.; ...

    2016-10-17

    Doubly magic nuclei have a simple structure and are the cornerstones for entire regions of the nuclear chart. Theoretical insights into the supposedly doubly magic 78Ni and its neighbors are challenging because of the extreme neutron-to-proton ratio and the proximity of the continuum. In this study, we predict the J π = 2more » $$+\\atop{1}$$ state in 78Ni from a correlation with the J π = 2$$+\\atop{1}$$ state in 48Ca using chiral nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions. Our results confirm that 78Ni is doubly magic, and the predicted low-lying states of 79,80Ni open the way for shell-model studies of many more rare isotopes.« less

  12. Atomistic Simulations of Ti Additions to NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Garg, Anita; Ferrante, John; Amador, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    The development of more efficient engines and power plants for future supersonic transports depends on the advancement of new high-temperature materials with temperature capabilities exceeding those of Ni-based superalloys. Having theoretical modelling techniques to aid in the design of these alloys would greatly facilitate this development. The present paper discusses a successful attempt to correlate theoretical predictions of alloy properties with experimental confirmation for ternary NiAl-Ti alloys. The B.F.S. (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is used to predict the solubility limit and site preference energies for Ti additions of 1 to 25 at.% to NiAl. The results show the solubility limit to be around 5% Ti, above which the formation of Heusler precipitates is favored. These results were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy performed on a series of NiAl-Ti alloys.

  13. NiAl-based approach for rocket combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Gayda, John (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-layered component, such as a rocket engine combustion chamber, includes NiAl or NiAl-based alloy as a structural layer on the hot side of the component. A second structural layer is formed of material selected from Ni-based superalloys, Co-based alloys, Fe-based alloys, Cu, and Cu-based alloys. The second material is more ductile than the NiAl and imparts increased toughness to the component. The second material is selected to enhance one or more predetermined physical properties of the component. Additional structural layers may be included with the additional material(s) being selected for their impact on physical properties of the component.

  14. Chemical ordering patterns and magnetism of NiAl nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habeeb Mokkath, Junais; Henzie, Joel

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the chemical ordering patterns and magnetism of face-centered cubic Ni x Al1-x nanoclusters having sizes 79 and 201 atoms and Ni concentrations x  =  0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 using a combined basin hopping global sampling technique and spin-polarized density functional theory. The optimized nanoclusters display surface patterns with partially alloyed facets and a tendency for mixing. We also found a nonmagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition at x  =  0.75. This behavior is explained in terms of the distribution of the Ni atoms on the surface/subsurface region and local Ni clustering.

  15. NiAl-Based Approach For Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Gayda, John (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-layered component, such as a rocket engine combustion chamber, includes NiAl or NiAl-based alloy as a structural layer on the hot side of the component. A second structural layer is formed of material selected form Ni-based superalloys, Co-based alloys, Fe-based alloys, Cu, and Cu-based alloys. The second material is more ductile than the NiAl and imparts increased toughness to the component. The second material is selected to enhance one or more predetermined physical properties of the component. Additional structural layers may be included with the additional material(s) being selected for their impact on physical properties of the component.

  16. Single chamber microbial fuel cell with Ni-Co cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Kalinichenko, Antonina

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of wastewater treatment and the parallel energy production using the Ni-Co alloy as cathode catalyst for single chamber microbial fuel cells is presented in this research. The research included a preparation of catalyst and comparison of COD, NH4+ and NO3- reduction in the reactor without aeration, with aeration and with using a single chamber microbial fuel cell with Ni-Co cathode. The reduction time for COD with the use of microbial fuel cell with the Ni-Co catalyst is similar to the reduction time with aeration. The current density (2.4 A·m-2) and amount of energy (0.48 Wh) obtained in MFC is low, but the obtained amount of energy allows elimination of the energy needed for reactor aeration. It has been shown that the Ni-Co can be used as cathode catalyst in single chamber microbial fuel cells.

  17. Steam Reforming of CH4 Using Ni- Substituted Pyrochlore Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Daniel J.

    The steam reforming of methane (SMR) continues to remain an important industrial reaction for large-scale production of H2 as well as synthesis gas mixtures which can be used for the production of useful chemicals (e.g. methanol). Although SMR is a rather mature technology, traditional nickel based catalysts used industrially are subjected to severe temperatures and reaction conditions, which lead to irreversible activity loss through sintering, support collapse, and carbon formation. Pyrochlore-based mixed oxide have been identified as refractory materials that can be modified through the substitution of catalytic metals and other promoting species into the structure to mitigate these issues causing deactivation. For this study, a lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore catalyst was substituted with Ni to determine whether the oxide structure could effectively stabilize the activity of the catalytic metal during the SMR. The effect of different variables including calcination temperature, a comparison of a substituted versus supported Ni pyrochlore catalyst, Ni weight loading, and Sr promotion have been evaluated to determine the location of the Ni in the structure, and their effect on catalytic behavior. It was revealed that the effect of calcination temperature on a 6wt% Ni substituted pyrochlore produced by the Pechini method demonstrated very little Ni was soluble in the pyrochlore lattice. It was further revealed that by XRD, TEM, and atom probe tomography that, despite the metal loading, Ni exsolves from the structure upon crystallization of the pyrochlore at 700°C, and forms NiO at the surface and grain boundaries. An additional separate La2ZrNiO6 perovskite phase also began to form at higher temperatures (>800°C). Increasing calcination temperature was found to lead to slight sintering of the NiO at the surface, which made the NiO more reducible. Meanwhile decreasing the Ni weight loading was found to produce a lower reduction temperature due to the presence of

  18. Microstructure evolution of heat treated NiTi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losertová, M.; Štencek, M.; Matýsek, D.; Štefek, O.; Drápala, J.

    2017-11-01

    Superelastic behavior of off-stoichiometric NiTi alloys is significantly affected by microstructure changes due to heat treatment. Applying appropriate thermal treatments important effects on microstructural changes, transformation temperatures and thermomechanical properties of final NiTi products can be achieved. The experimental samples of NiTi alloy with 55.8 wt.% Ni were submitted to heat treatment and the microstructures before and after the treatment were observed. The thermal regimes consisted of annealing treatment at 600 °C for 1 hour followed by water quenching and of ageing at eight different temperatures (250, 270, 290, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C) for 30 minutes. Microstructure features studied by means of optical and scanning electron microscopies, EDX microanalyses, X-ray diffraction analyses and microhardness measurement, have shown that higher ageing temperatures led to microstructure changes and corresponding increase in microhardness.

  19. UV-photodetector based on NiO/diamond film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xiaohui; Wang, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Xiaofan; Liu, Zhangcheng; Fu, Jiao; Fan, Shuwei; Bu, Renan; Zhang, Jingwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a NiO/diamond UV-photodetector has been fabricated and investigated. A single crystal diamond (SCD) layer was grown on a high-pressure-high-temperature Ib-type diamond substrate by using a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. NiO films were deposited directly by the reactive magnetron sputtering technique in a mixture gas of oxygen and argon onto the SCD layer. Gold films were patterned on NiO films as electrodes to form the metal-semiconductor-metal UV-photodetector which shows good repeatability and a 2 orders of magnitude UV/visible rejection ratio. Also, the NiO/diamond photodetector has a higher responsivity and a wider response range in contrast to a diamond photodetector.

  20. Growth mechanism and magnon excitation in NiO nanowalls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The nanosized effects of short-range multimagnon excitation behavior and short-circuit diffusion in NiO nanowalls synthesized using the Ni grid thermal treatment method were observed. The energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping technique was used to characterize the growth mechanism, and confocal Raman scattering was used to probe the antiferromagnetic exchange energy J2 between next-nearest-neighboring Ni ions in NiO nanowalls at various growth temperatures below the Neel temperature. This study shows that short spin correlation leads to an exponential dependence of the growth temperatures and the existence of nickel vacancies during the magnon excitation. Four-magnon configurations were determined from the scattering factor, revealing a lowest state and monotonic change with the growth temperature. PACS: 75.47.Lx; 61.82.Rx; 75.50.Tt; 74.25.nd; 72.10.Di PMID:21824408

  1. Conductive microemulsions for template CoNi electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Albert; Gómez, Elvira; Calderó, Gabriela; Esquena, Jordi; Solans, Conxita; Vallés, Elisa

    2013-09-21

    Microemulsions have been revealed as feasible templates to grow magnetic nanostructures using an electrodeposition method. Reducing agents are not required and the applied potential has been used as driving force of the nanostructure growth. A systematic study of conductive microemulsion systems to allow the CoNi electrodeposition process has been performed. Different surfactants and organic components have been tested to form microemulsions with a CoNi electrolytic bath as an aqueous component in order to define the microemulsions showing enough conductivity to perform an electrodeposition process from the aqueous component. By using microemulsions of the aqueous electrolyte solution-Triton X-100-diisopropyl adipate system, CoNi electrodeposition has been achieved, the structure of the deposits being dependent on the composition and structure of the microemulsion, which can act as a soft-template to obtain different discontinuous deposits. The magnetic properties of the CoNi deposits vary with their structure.

  2. Determination of thermal properties of commercial Ni-MH cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric C.

    1994-01-01

    The test objectives were to evaluate the electrical and thermal performance of commercial Ni-MH cells, evaluate the effectiveness of commercial charge control circuits, assess the abuse tolerance of these cells, and correlate performance and abuse tolerances to cell design via disassembly. Design objectives were to determine which cell designs are most suitable for scale-up and to guide the design of future shuttle and space station based battery chargers. Results, displayed in viewgraph format, include: reflex charging with ICS circuit resulted in premature charge termination; Ni-MH cells appear very tolerant to overcharge at low rates; Enstore's charger is more electrically and thermally efficient at high rates; and Ni-MH cycles much more efficiently than Ni-Cd with the delta-V/delta-t termination.

  3. Effect of NiO spin orientation on the magnetic anisotropy of the Fe film in epitaxially grown Fe/NiO/Ag(001) and Fe/NiO/MgO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, W.; Jin, E.; Wu, J.

    2010-02-10

    Single crystalline Fe/NiO bilayers were epitaxially grown on Ag(001) and on MgO(001), and investigated by Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE), and X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD). We find that while the Fe film has an in-plane magnetization in both Fe/NiO/Ag(001) and Fe/NiO/MgO(001) systems, the NiO spin orientation changes from in-plane direction in Fe/NiO/Ag(001) to out-of-plane direction in Fe/NiO/MgO(001). These two different NiO spin orientations generate remarkable different effects that the NiO induced magnetic anisotropy in the Fe film is much greater in Fe/NiO/Ag(001) than in Fe/NiO/MgO(001). XMLD measurement shows that the much greater magnetic anisotropy inmore » Fe/NiO/Ag(001) is due to a 90{sup o}-coupling between the in-plane NiO spins and the in-plane Fe spins.« less

  4. NiCo2S4@NiMoO4 Core-Shell Heterostructure Nanotube Arrays Grown on Ni Foam as a Binder-Free Electrode Displayed High Electrochemical Performance with High Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Jie; Zheng, Yayun; Zhang, Yingjiu; Hu, Xing; Xu, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    Core-shell-structured system has been proved as one of the best architecture for clean energy products owing to its inherited superiorities from both the core and the shell part, which can provide better conductivity and high surface area. Herein, a hierarchical core-shell NiCo2S4@NiMoO4 heterostructure nanotube array on Ni foam (NF) (NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF) has been successfully fabricated. Because of its novel heterostructure, the capacitive performance has been enhanced. A specific capacitance up to 2006 F g-1 was obtained at a current density of 5 mA cm-2, which was far higher than that of pristine NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays (about 1264 F g-1). More importantly, NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF and active carbon (AC) were congregated as positive electrode and negative electrode in an asymmetric supercapacitor. As-fabricated NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF//AC device has a good cyclic behavior with 78% capacitance retention over 2000 cycles, and exhibits a high energy density of 21.4 Wh kg-1 and power density of 58 W kg-1 at 2 mA cm-2. As displayed, the NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF core-shell herterostructure holds great promise for supercapacitors in energy storage.

  5. Low-frequency creep in CoNiFe films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartran, D. S.; Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Chow, L. G.

    1972-01-01

    Domain wall motion excited by slow rise-time, bipolar, hard-axis pulses in vacuum deposited CoNiFe films from 1500 to 2000 A thick is studied. The results are consistent with those of comparable NiFe films. Furthermore, the wall coercivity is found to be the most significant sample property correlated to the low-frequency creep properties of all the samples.

  6. Ordered arrays of Ni magnetic nanowires: Synthesis and investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolskii, K. S.; Eliseev, A. A.; Yesin, N. V.; Lukashin, A. V.; Tretyakov, Yu. D.; Grigorieva, N. A.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Eckerlebe, H.

    2007-03-01

    The present study is focused on the synthesis and investigation of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films and magnetic nanocomposites Ni/AAO obtained by Ni electrodeposition into porous matrix. AAO membranes and magnetic nanocomposites were investigated by HRSEM, EDX microanalysis, XRD, nitrogen capillary adsorption method, SQUID magnetometry, and polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The influence of synthesis conditions and form factor effect on the magnetic properties of nanowire arrays is reported.

  7. The influence of Ni(II) on brushite structure stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-López, J. R.; Güida, J. A.; Ramos, M. A.; Punte, G.

    2017-06-01

    Brushite samples doped with Ni(II) in different concentrations, from 5% to 20%, were prepared in aqueous solution at pH = 7 and at two temperatures: 25 and 37 °C. The solid samples were characterized by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Chemical analysis has shown Ni(II) almost complete incorporation to the solid phase up to 15%. X-ray diffraction patterns have allowed to identify brushite phase with almost no modification of the line breadth and only small shifts of lines positions with increasing Ni(II) incorporation up to 15%. For larger Ni(II) concentration, in solution, a mixture of phases has been detected. Infrared spectra have supported diffraction results. For Ni(II) 20% and over the characteristic bands of HPO42- anions tend to vanish, and the typical shaped PO43- bands are observed. These results have allowed to establish that the presence of low levels of Ni in the synthetic process not only helps brushite formation; but, also prevents brushite from apatite conversion and, in addition, preserves brushite crystallinity. According to these findings, it is possible to propose that nickel traces present in the urinary system might be a trigger to brushite stone formation and/or growth, rather than the expected brushite conversion to hydroxyapatite. This outcome would explain the recurrent detection of difficult to treat brushite stones, observed in the last three decades.

  8. Microstructure characteristics of Ni/WC composite cladding coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gui-rong; Huang, Chao-peng; Song, Wen-ming; Li, Jian; Lu, Jin-jun; Ma, Ying; Hao, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    A multilayer tungsten carbide particle (WCp)-reinforced Ni-based alloy coating was fabricated on a steel substrate using vacuum cladding technology. The morphology, microstructure, and formation mechanism of the coating were studied and discussed in different zones. The microstructure morphology and phase composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In the results, the coating presents a dense and homogeneous microstructure with few pores and is free from cracks. The whole coating shows a multilayer structure, including composite, transition, fusion, and diffusion-affected layers. Metallurgical bonding was achieved between the coating and substrate because of the formation of the fusion and diffusion-affected layers. The Ni-based alloy is mainly composed of γ-Ni solid solution with finely dispersed Cr7C3/Cr23C6, CrB, and Ni+Ni3Si. WC particles in the composite layer distribute evenly in areas among initial Ni-based alloying particles, forming a special three-dimensional reticular microstructure. The macrohardness of the coating is HRC 55, which is remarkably improved compared to that of the substrate. The microhardness increases gradually from the substrate to the composite zone, whereas the microhardness remains almost unchanged in the transition and composite zones.

  9. Chemical synthesis and characterization of manganese oxide coated Ni particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Jing; Xu, LiHong; He, Jun; Zhao, DongLiang; Liu, ZhongYuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanosized Ni particles with an average diameter of about 8 nm were prepared by reducing of NiCl2 with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in aqueous solution. By moderate annealing in protective atmosphere, the composite grew up to be 15-20 nm particles. Both of the as-prepared and annealed Ni particles were coated by a layer of manganese oxide via decomposition reaction in aqueous KMnO4 solution. Hysteresis loops of as-prepared samples show a large increase in the magnetization with decreasing temperature and an unsaturated component at high magnetic field. In contrast, the ferromagnetic characteristics of annealed one are much stronger with large magnetization and coercivity. The thermomagnetic curves verified the coexistence of ferromagnetic Ni and antiferromangetic Mn oxide phases. But there exists no exchange bias behavior in the samples, even though the interface structure between the ferromagnetic Ni core and the antiferromagnetic manganese oxides has been distinctly formed. The absence of exchange bias probably originates from the weak ferromagnetic characteristic of Ni cores.

  10. Preparation of high-permeability NiCuZn ferrite*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Yan, Mi

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate addition of CuO/V2O5 and the reduction of the granularity of the raw materials particle decrease the sintering temperature of NiZn ferrite from 1200 °C to 930 °C. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the NiZn ferrite prepared at low temperature of 930 °C is superior to that of the NiZn ferrite prepared by sintering at high temperature of 1200 °C because the microstructure of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 930 °C is more uniform and compact than that of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 1200 °C. The high permeability of 1700 and relative loss coefficient tanδ/μi of 9.0×10−6 at 100 kHz was achieved in the (Ni0.17Zn0.63Cu0.20)Fe1.915O4 ferrite. PMID:15909348

  11. Reliability analysis of single crystal NiAl turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Noebe, Ronald; Wheeler, Donald R.; Holland, Fred; Palko, Joseph; Duffy, Stephen; Wright, P. Kennard

    1995-01-01

    As part of a co-operative agreement with General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA LeRC is modifying and validating the Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures algorithm for use in design of components made of high strength NiAl based intermetallic materials. NiAl single crystal alloys are being actively investigated by GEAE as a replacement for Ni-based single crystal superalloys for use in high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The driving force for this research lies in the numerous property advantages offered by NiAl alloys over their superalloy counterparts. These include a reduction of density by as much as a third without significantly sacrificing strength, higher melting point, greater thermal conductivity, better oxidation resistance, and a better response to thermal barrier coatings. The current drawback to high strength NiAl single crystals is their limited ductility. Consequently, significant efforts including the work agreement with GEAE are underway to develop testing and design methodologies for these materials. The approach to validation and component analysis involves the following steps: determination of the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, NiAl single crystal turbine blade material; measurement of the failure strength envelope of the material; coding of statistically based reliability models; verification of the code and model; and modeling of turbine blades and vanes for rig testing.

  12. Synthesis of colloidal dispersions of NiAl, ZnAl, NiCr, ZnCr, NiFe, and MgFe hydrotalcite-like nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bellezza, Francesca; Nocchetti, Morena; Posati, Tamara; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Cipiciani, Antonio

    2012-06-15

    Colloidal aqueous dispersions of nanometric NiAl, ZnAl, NiCr, ZnCr, NiFe, and MgFe hydrotalcite-like compounds were prepared in a water/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/n-butanol/isooctane microemulsion. Particle sizes were analyzed with different techniques, and the results confirm dimensions between 10 and 30 nm, except for ZnAl-HTlc (150-200 nm). A good colloidal stability of HTlc-NPs aqueous dispersions, investigated with DLS and Pz measurements, was obtained without the need for any stabilizing agent. SEM images clearly showed that the obtained HTlc posses a high tendency to spontaneously form homogeneous and dense stacking of plate-like HTlc crystals directly from aqueous solution, giving rise to the developing of functional materials in optical, electrical and magnetic fields. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary Microstructural and Microscratch Results of Ni-Cr-Fe and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Magnesium Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Lupescu, S.; Benchea, M.; Vizureanu, P.

    2017-06-01

    Thermal coatings have a large scale application in aerospace and automotive field, as barriers improving wear mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. In present research, there have been used two types of coatings, Ni-Cr-Fe, respectively Cr3C2-NiCr which were deposited on magnesium based alloys (pure magnesium and Mg-30Y master alloy). There have been investigated the microstructural aspects through scanning electronic microscopy and XRD analysis and also a series of mechanical characteristics through microscratch and indentation determinations. The results revealed the formation of some adherent layers resistant to the penetration of the metallic indenter, the coatings did not suffer major damages. Microstructural analysis highlighted the formation of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr3Ni2, Cr7Ni3, FeNi3, Cr-Ni phases. Also, the apparent coefficient of friction for Ni-Cr-Fe coatings presents superior values than Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  14. Tuning Surface Electronic Configuration of NiFe LDHs Nanosheets by Introducing Cation Vacancies (Fe or Ni) as Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyong; Qiao, Man; Li, Yafei; Wang, Shuangyin

    2018-04-03

    Intrinsically inferior electrocatalytic activity of NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanosheets is considered as a limiting factor to inhibit the electrocatalytic properties for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Proper defect engineering to tune the surface electronic configuration of electrocatalysts may significantly improve the intrinsic activity. In this work, the selective formation of cation vacancies in NiFe LDHs nanosheets is successfully realized. The as-synthesized NiFe LDHs-V Fe and NiFe LDHs-V Ni electrocatalysts show excellent activity for OER, mainly attributed to the introduction of rich iron or nickel vacancies in NiFe LDHs nanosheets, which efficiently tune the surface electronic structure increasing the adsorbing capacity of OER intermediates. Density functional theory (DFT) computational results also further indicate that the OER catalytic performance of NiFe LDHs can be pronouncedly improved by introducing Fe or Ni vacancies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x}more » particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.« less

  16. From Fe3O4 /NiO bilayers to NiFe2O4 -like thin films through Ni interdiffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuschel, O.; Buß, R.; Spiess, W.; Schemme, T.; Wöllermann, J.; Balinski, K.; N'Diaye, A. T.; Kuschel, T.; Wollschläger, J.; Kuepper, K.

    2016-09-01

    Ferrites with (inverse) spinel structure display a large variety of electronic and magnetic properties, making some of them interesting for potential applications in spintronics. We investigate the thermally induced interdiffusion of Ni2 + ions out of NiO into Fe3O4 ultrathin films, resulting in off-stoichiometric nickel ferrite-like thin layers. We synthesized epitaxial Fe3O4 /NiO bilayers on Nb-doped SrTiO3(001) substrates by means of reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Subsequently, we performed an annealing cycle comprising three steps at temperatures of 400 ∘C , 600 ∘C , and 800 ∘C under an oxygen background atmosphere. We studied the changes of the chemical and electronic properties as result of each annealing step with help of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and found a rather homogeneous distribution of Ni and Fe cations throughout the entire film after the overall annealing cycle. For one sample we observed a cationic distribution close to that of the spinel ferrite NiFe2O4 . Further evidence comes from low-energy electron diffraction patterns indicating a spinel-type structure at the surface after annealing. Site- and element-specific hysteresis loops performed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism uncovered the antiferrimagnetic alignment between the octahedral coordinated Ni2 + and Fe3 + ions and the Fe3 + ion in tetrahedral coordination. We find a quite low coercive field of 0.02 T, indicating a rather low defect concentration within the thin ferrite films.

  17. Fabrication of YH3 thin film using Pd/Ni co-capping layer: Ni thickness effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, K.; Hirama, H.; Aoki, N.; Sakai, M.; Saito, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kitajima, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Nakamura, O.

    2017-06-01

    With an aim of decreasing the temperature at which metallic Y reacts with H2 to form the semiconductor phase YH3 (γ phase), we employed Pd and Ni co-capping layers as catalysts. For this purpose, various types of Pd/Ni co-capping layers having different Ni thicknesses varied from 5 to 80 nm while having a Pd thickness of 80 nm were prepared as a catalytic capping layer on metal Y. We achieved an onset temperature (50 ° C) of the γ phase formation, which is approximately independent of Ni thickness except for 40 nm. A directing principle for decreasing the onset temperature of the γ phase formation was discussed in terms of crystal texture and crystallite size of dihydride phase (β phase).

  18. Theoretical study of electron-phonon interaction in [beta]-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Guang-Lin.

    1992-09-17

    The electronic band structure of [beta]-phase NiTi and NiAl was calculated using a first-principles LCAO method, and then fitted by the nonorthogonal empirical tight binding method for the evaluation of electron-phonon (e-ph) matrix elements. Contribution of the e-ph interaction to phonon dynamical matrix was calculated by the method of Varma and Weber. It is found that an accurate calculation of e-ph interaction can explain the behavior of phonon anomalies in [beta]-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys. Fermi surface nesting and the symmetric properties of the e-ph interaction matrix elements are attributed as the source of the phonon anomalies and/or the softmore » phonon in these alloys. The temperature dependence of the phonon anomalies can be explained as a smearing effect of the Fermi surface.« less

  19. Theoretical study of electron-phonon interaction in {beta}-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Guang-Lin

    1992-09-17

    The electronic band structure of {beta}-phase NiTi and NiAl was calculated using a first-principles LCAO method, and then fitted by the nonorthogonal empirical tight binding method for the evaluation of electron-phonon (e-ph) matrix elements. Contribution of the e-ph interaction to phonon dynamical matrix was calculated by the method of Varma and Weber. It is found that an accurate calculation of e-ph interaction can explain the behavior of phonon anomalies in {beta}-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys. Fermi surface nesting and the symmetric properties of the e-ph interaction matrix elements are attributed as the source of the phonon anomalies and/or the softmore » phonon in these alloys. The temperature dependence of the phonon anomalies can be explained as a smearing effect of the Fermi surface.« less

  20. Catalysts characteristics of Ni/YSZ core-shell according to plating conditions using electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun-Wook; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Hwang, Hae-jin; Lee, Mi-Jai

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to develop an anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using electroless nickel plating. We have proposed a new method for electroless plating of Ni metal on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles. We examine the uniformity of the Ni layer on the plated core-shell powder, in addition to the content of Ni and the reproducibility of the plating. We have also evaluated the carbon deposition rate and characteristics of the SOFC anode catalyst. To synthesize Ni-plated YSZ particles, the plated powder is heat-treated at 1200 °C. The resultant particles, which have an average size of 50 μm, were subsequently used in the experiment. The size of the Ni particles and the Ni content both increase with increasing plating temperature and plating time. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the growth of Ni particles. After heat-treatment, Ni is oxidized to NiO, leading to the co-existence of Ni and NiO; Ni3P is also observed due to the presence of phosphorous in the plating solution. Following heat treatment for 1 h at 1200 °C, Ni is mostly oxidized to NiO. The carbon deposition rate of the reference YSZ powder is 135%, while that of the Ni-plated YSZ is 1%-6%.

  1. Release of Ni from birnessite during transformation of birnessite to todorokite: Implications for Ni cycling in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Amy L.; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L.

    2016-09-01

    The phyllomanganate birnessite is the main Mn-bearing phase in oxic marine sediments where it exerts a primary control on the concentration of micronutrient trace metals in seawater. However, during sediment diagenesis and under mild hydrothermal conditions birnessite transforms into the tectomanganate todorokite. We have recently shown that the transformation of birnessite to todorokite proceeds via a four-stage nucleation and growth mechanism, beginning with todorokite nucleation, then crystal growth from solution to form todorokite primary particles, followed by their self-assembly and oriented growth via oriented attachment to form crystalline todorokite laths, culminating in traditional crystal ripening (Atkins et al., 2014). Here we determine the fate and mobility of Ni sorbed by birnessite during this transformation process. Specifically, in our recent work we predict that the presence of Ni within the phyllomanganate matrix will disrupt the formation of todorokite primary particles. As such, contrary to current understanding, we suggest that Ni sorbed by birnessite will slow the transformation of birnessite to todorokite and/or be released to marine porewaters during sediment diagenesis. Here we transform a synthetic, poorly crystalline, Ni-sorbed (∼1 wt% Ni) hexagonal birnessite, analogous to marine birnessite, into todorokite under a mild reflux procedure, developed to mimic marine diagenesis and mild hydrothermal conditions. We characterise our birnessite and reflux products as a time series, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. In addition we determine Ni speciation and mineral phase associations in a suite of natural marine ferromanganese precipitates, containing intermixed phyllomanganate and todorokite. Our work shows for the first time that Ni significantly slows the transformation of birnessite to todorokite and reduces the

  2. Characterization of Sputtered Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    ARL-TR-7526 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally...ARL-TR-7526 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally...10/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi

  3. One-pot fabrication of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheet for enhanced water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Yan, Junqing; Wu, Huan; Zhang, Yunxia; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2016-08-01

    Water splitting has been intensively investigated as a promising solution to resolve the future environmental and energy crises. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of the photo- and electric field-induced water splitting limits the development of other reactions, including hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Fe, Ni and NiFe (hydro) oxide-based catalysts are generally acknowledged among the best candidates of OER catalysts for water splitting. Herein, we developed a one-pot simple hydrothermal process to assemble NiFe2O4 nanoparticles onto the α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. The first formed NiFe2O4 under high temperature and pressure environment induces and assists the α-Ni(OH)2 formation without any further additives, because the distance between the neighboring Ni atoms in the cubic NiFe2O4 is similar to that in the α-Ni(OH)2 {003} facets. We have synthesized a series of NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds and find that the overpotential decreases with the increase of Ni(OH)2 content while the OER kinetics stays unchanged, suggesting that Ni(OH)2 plays a major role in overpotential while NiFe2O4 mainly affects the OER kinetics. The obtained NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds is also found to be a promising co-catalyst for the photocatalytic water oxidation. In fact, it is even more active than the noble PtOx with acceptable stability for the oxygen generation.

  4. Detection of OH stretching mode of CH3OH chemisorbed on Ni3+ and Ni4+ by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Okawa, Ryuji; Ichihashi, Masahiko; Kondow, Tamotsu; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2007-08-09

    Structures of nickel cluster ions adsorbed with methanol, Ni3+ (CH3OH)m (m = 1-3) and Ni4+ (CH3OH)m (m = 1-4) were investigated by using infrared photodissociation (IR-PD) spectroscopy based on a tandem-type mass spectrometer, where they were produced by passing Ni3,4+ through methanol vapor under a multiple collision condition. The IR-PD spectra were measured in the wavenumber region between 3100 and 3900 cm-1. In each IR-PD spectrum, a single peak was observed at a wavenumber lower by approximately 40 cm-1 than that of the OH stretching vibration of a free methanol molecule and was assigned to the OH stretching vibrations of the methanol molecules in Ni3,4+ (CH3OH)m. The photodissociation was analyzed by assuming that Ni3,4+ (CH3OH)m dissociate unimolecularly after the photon energy absorbed by them is statistically distributed among the accessible modes of Ni3,4+ (CH3OH)m. In comparison with the calculations performed by the density functional theory, it is concluded that (1) the oxygen atom of each methanol molecule is bound to one of the nickel atoms in Ni3,4+ (defined as molecular chemisorption), (2) the methanol molecules in Ni3,4+ (CH3OH)m do not form any hydrogen bonds, and (3) the cross section for demethanation [CH4 detachment from Nin+ (CH3OH)] is related to the electron density distribution inside the methanol molecule.

  5. Electronic and structural influence of Ni by Pd substitution on the hydrogenation properties of TiNi

    SciTech Connect

    Emami, Hoda; Souques, Raphaeel; Crivello, Jean-Claude, E-mail: crivello@icmpe.cnrs.fr

    2013-02-15

    In Ti (Ni,Pd) compounds, the hydrogen capacity and the stability of their hydrides decreases when Ni is partially substituted by larger in size Pd atoms. To understand this peculiar behaviour, the crystal structure of TiNi{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}D{sub y} (x=0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) deuterides and the stability of TiNi{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x} (0{<=}x{<=}0.5) intermetallics and their hydrides have been investigated by both neutron diffraction experiments and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Neutron diffraction shows that at x=0.1 and 0.3, deuterium absorption induces tetragonal distortion in intermetallics sublattice whereas at x=0.5 the cubic symmetry is preserved. The structural properties and the heat ofmore » formation of TiNi{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x} (0{<=}x{<=}0.5) intermetallics and their hydrides have been determined by DFT. These results show that Pd substitution increases the stability of the intermetallics and decreases the stability of the hydrides, which confirms the rule of reverse stability. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Ti(Ni,Pd)Hy hydrides in the I4/mmm space group. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutron Diffraction and DFT calculations have been done on TiNi{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}H{sub y} compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic effect of Pd substitution governs the hydrogenation properties in TiNi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rule of reverse stability in intermetallics/hydrides is observed with Pd substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen atoms in the I4/mmm structure prefer to occupy the 16n site.« less

  6. Validation of site-specific soil Ni toxicity thresholds with independent ecotoxicity and biogeochemistry data for elevated soil Ni.

    PubMed

    Hale, Beverley; Gopalapillai, Yamini; Pellegrino, Amanda; Jennett, Tyson; Kikkert, Julie; Lau, Wilson; Schlekat, Christian; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2017-12-01

    The Existing Substances Regulation Risk Assessments by the European Union (EU RA) generated new toxicity data for soil organisms exposed to Ni added to sixteen field-collected soils with low background concentration of metals and varying physico-chemical soil characteristics. Using only effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) as a bioavailability correction, chronic toxicity of Ni in soils with a wide range of characteristics could be predicted within a factor of two. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this was also the case for three independent data sets of Ni toxicity thresholds. Two of the data sets were from Community Based Risk Assessments in Port Colborne ON, and Sudbury ON (Canada) for soils containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Co and Cu arising from many decades of Ni mining, smelting and refining. The third data set was the Metals in Asia study of soluble Ni added to field soils in China. These data yielded 72 leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values for soil Ni, for arthropods, higher plants and woodlot structure and function. These were reduced to nine most sensitive single or geometric mean species/function endpoints, none of which were lower than the HC 5 predicted for a soil with an eCEC of 20 cmol/kg. Most of these leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values were from soils co-contaminated with Cu, in some cases at its median HC 5 as predicted by the EU RA from soil characteristics. We conclude that the EU RA is protective of Ni toxicity to higher-tier ecological endpoints, including in mixture with Cu, before the assessment factor of 2 is applied. We suggest that for prospective risk assessment, the bioavailability based PNEC (HC 5 /2) be used as a conservative screen, but for retrospective and site-specific risk assessment, the bioavailability based HC 5 is sufficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermomechanical training and characterization of Ni-Ti-Hf and Ni-Ti-Hf-Cu high temperature shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denowh, Chantz M.; Miller, David A.

    2012-06-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) is the most commonly used shape memory alloy (SMA) for actuator applications, though its usefulness is limited to temperature ranges below 100 °C. High temperature SMAs are formed by adding ternary elements to NiTi, but their usefulness as actuators is still in question. The purpose of this research was to characterize and train two high temperature SMAs, NiTi29.7Hf20 and NiCu5Ti29.7Hf20, to determine their effectiveness as linear actuators. Low temperature martensitic phase and high temperature austenitic phase stress-strain tests were performed to characterize the materials’ behavior followed by temperature cycling under constant stress. Temperature cycling under constant stress is known as thermomechanical training and resulted in small amounts of plastic strain growth and the development of two-way shape memory (TWSM). The results from these tests support the conclusion that hafnium distorts slip planes within the martensitic material phase, and that (Ti,Hf)2Ni and (Ti,Hf)3Ni4 particulates form during aging and annealing. The distorted slip planes cause slip and martensite reorientation to occur simultaneously, which develops a strong internal stress field during training within the first few cycles. The internal stress field develops TWSM, but limits further plastic growth. The particulate formation also embrittles the material. The transformation temperatures of both alloys were below creep and annealing temperatures making them ideally suited for high temperature actuators.

  8. Neutron-capture rates for explosive nucleosynthesis: the case of 68Ni(n, γ)69Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, A.; Larsen, A. C.; Liddick, S. N.; Naqvi, F.; Crider, B. P.; Dombos, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Couture, A.; Crespo Campo, L.; Lewis, R.; Mosby, S.; Mumpower, M. R.; Perdikakis, G.; Prokop, C. J.; Quinn, S. J.; Renstrøm, T.; Siem, S.; Surman, R.

    2017-04-01

    Neutron-capture reactions play an important role in heavy element nucleosynthesis, since they are the driving force for the two processes that create the vast majority of the heavy elements. When a neutron capture occurs on a short-lived nucleus, it is extremely challenging to study the reaction directly and therefore the use of indirect techniques is essential. The present work reports on such an indirect measurement that provides strong constraints on the 68Ni(n, γ)69Ni reaction rate. This is done by populating the compound nucleus 69Ni via the β decay of 69Co and measuring the γ-ray deexcitation of excited states in 69Ni. The β-Oslo method was used to extract the γ-ray strength function and the nuclear level density. In addition the half-life of 69Co was extracted and found to be in agreement with previous literature values. Before the present results, the 68Ni(n, γ)69Ni reaction was unconstrained and the purely theoretical reaction rate was highly uncertain. The new uncertainty on the reaction rate based on the present experiment (variation between upper and lower limit) is approximately a factor of 3. The commonly used reaction libraries JINA-REACLIB and BRUSLIB are in relatively good agreement with the experimental rate. The impact of the new rate on weak r-process calculations is discussed.

  9. Improved ethanol electrooxidation performance by shortening Pd-Ni active site distance in Pd-Ni-P nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Lilin; Zhu, Hengli; Chen, Yueguang; Huang, Yu; Li, Yadong; Wang, Leyu

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating oxophilic metals into noble metal-based catalysts represents an emerging strategy to improve the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. However, effects of the distance between the noble metal and oxophilic metal active sites on the catalytic performance have rarely been investigated. Herein, we report on ultrasmall (~5 nm) Pd-Ni-P ternary nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation. The activity is improved up to 4.95 A per mgPd, which is 6.88 times higher than commercial Pd/C (0.72 A per mgPd), by shortening the distance between Pd and Ni active sites, achieved through shape transformation from Pd/Ni-P heterodimers into Pd-Ni-P nanoparticles and tuning the Ni/Pd atomic ratio to 1:1. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the improved activity and stability stems from the promoted production of free OH radicals (on Ni active sites) which facilitate the oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison and combination with CH3CO radicals on adjacent Pd active sites.

  10. Pd surface functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy metallic nanofoams for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petica, A.; Brincoveanu, O.; Golgovici, F.; Manea, A. C.; Enachescu, M.; Anicai, L.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents some experimental results regarding the functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy nanofoams with Pd nanoclusters, as potential cathodic materials suitable for HER during seawater electrolysis. The electrodeposition from aqueous electrolytes containing NiCl2 and NH4Cl has been applied to prepare the 3D Ni nanofoams. Ni-Mo alloys have been electrodeposited involving aqueous ammonium citrate type electrolytes. Pd surface functionalization has been performed using both electroless and electrochemical procedures. Pd content varied in the range of 0.5 – 8 wt.%, depending on the applied procedure and the operation conditions. The use of a porous structure associated with alloying element (i.e. Mo) and Pd surface functionalization facilitated enhanced performances from HER view point in seawater electrolyte (lower Tafel slopes). The determined Tafel slope values ranged from 123 to 105 mV.dec-1, suggesting the Volmer step as rate determining step. The improvement of the HER catalytic activity may be ascribed to a synergistic effect between the high real active area of the 3D electroformed metallic substrate, Ni alloying with a left transition metal and surface modification using Pd noble metal.

  11. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K.; ...

    2016-02-01

    We report that energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters farmore » exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance.« less

  12. Controllably Alloyed, Low Density, Free-standing Ni-Co and Ni-Graphene Sponges for Electrocatalytic Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Vineesh, Thazhe Veettil; Mubarak, Suhail; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Prabu, V.; Alwarappan, Subbiah; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of low cost, durable and efficient electrocatalysts that support oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are the bottlenecks in water electrolysis. Here we propose a strategy for the development of controllably alloyed, porous, and low density nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) based alloys - whose electrocatalytic properties can be tuned to make them multifunctional. Ni and Co based alloy with the chemical structure of Ni1Co2 is identified as an efficient OER catalyst among other stoichiometric structures in terms of over potential @ 10 mAcm−2 (1.629 V), stability, low tafel slope (87.3 mV/dec), and high Faradaic efficiency (92%), and its OER performance is also found to be on par with the benchmarked IrO2. Tunability in the porous metal synthesis strategy allowed the incorporation of graphene during the Ni sponge formation, and the Ni- incorporated nitrogen doped graphene sponge (Ni-NG) is found to have very high HER activity. A water electrolysis cell fabricated and demonstrated with these freestanding electrodes is found to have high stability (>10 hours) and large current density (10 mAcm−2 @ 1.6 V), opening new avenues in the design and development of cost effective and light weight energy devices. PMID:27510857

  13. Corrosion and wear properties of Zn-Ni and Zn-Ni-Al2O3 multilayer electrodeposited coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shourgeshty, M.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Karimzadeh, A.; Poursalehi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Zn-Ni and Zn-Ni-Al2O3 multilayer coatings with 32, 128, and 512 layers were electroplated on a low carbon steel substrate by pulse electrodeposition under alternative changes in the duty cycle between 20% and 90% and a constant frequency of 250 Hz. Corrosion behavior was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and wear behavior of the coatings was evaluated by a pin on disk test. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of coatings was improved by increasing the number of layers (the decrease in layer thickness) as well as the presence of alumina nanoparticles. The lowest corrosion current density corresponds to Zn-Ni-Al2O3 with 512 layers equal to 3.74 µA cm-2. Increasing the number of layers in the same total thickness and the presence of alumina nanoparticles within the coating also leads to the improvement in wear resistance of the samples. The coefficient of friction decreased with increasing number of layers and the lowest coefficient of friction (0.517) corresponds to Zn-Ni-Al2O3 coating with 512 layers. Wear mechanism of Zn-Ni coatings with a different number of layers is adhesive while in the Zn-Ni-Al2O3 coatings wear mechanism is a combination of adhesive and abrasive wear, where by increasing the number of the layers to 512 abrasive wear mechanism becomes dominant.

  14. The effect of Mn/Ni on thermodynamic properties of critical nucleus in Fe-Cu-Mn (Ni) ternary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Boyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Chengliang

    2018-04-18

    The aging- or radiation-induced hardening of Cu/Mn/Ni precipitates in Fe alloys is one of property degradation mechanisms in structural materials in nuclear reactors. Experiments show that aging or radiation leads the formation of Cu-rich precipitates, and the addition of Mn or Ni elements enhances the precipitation kinetics. In this study, the phase-field model coupled with the constrained string method have been applied to investigate the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei such as the minimum energy path of Cu/Mn/Ni precipitation in Fe-Cu-Mn and Fe-Cu-Ni ternary alloys. The chemical free energies used in the model are taken from CALPHAD. The simulation resultsmore » show that the formation of Cu/Mn/Ni clusters needs to overcome an energy barrier, and the precipitate has a Core-Shell structure. The thermodynamic properties of the critical nucleus are influenced by temperature and Cu/Mn/Ni overall concentrations, which are in accordance with the simulation results as well as the experimental observations.« less

  15. In-situ formation of Ni4Ti3 precipitate and its effect on pseudoelasticity in selective laser melting additive manufactured NiTi-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dongdong; Ma, Chenglong

    2018-05-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technology was applied to synthesize NiTi-based composites via using ball-milled Ti, Ni, and TiC mixed powder. By transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization, it indicated that the B2 (NiTi) matrix was obtained during SLM processing. In spite of more Ti content (the Ti/Ni ratio >1), a mass of Ni-rich intermetallic compounds containing Ni4Ti3 with nanostructure features and eutectic Ni3Ti around in-situ Ti6C3.75 dendrites were precipitated. Influence of the applied laser volume energy density (VED) on the morphology and content of Ni4Ti3 precipitate was investigated. Besides, nanoindentation test of the matrix was performed in order to assess pseudoelastic recovery behavior of SLM processed NiTi-based composites. At a relatively high VED of 533 J/mm3, the maximum pseudoelastic recovery was obtained due to the lowest content of Ni4Ti3 precipitates. Furthermore, the precipitation mechanism of in-situ Ni4Ti3 was present based on the redistribution of titanium element and thermodynamics analysis, and then the relationship of Ni4Ti3 precipitate, VED and pseudoelastic recovery behavior was also revealed.

  16. Synergistic effect of nano-Pt and Ni spine for HER in alkaline solution: hydrogen spillover from nano-Pt to Ni spine.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Asad; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Iqbal, Muhammad Ibrahim; Muhammad, Shoaib; Yoon, Won-Sub; Jung, Kwang-Deog

    2018-02-14

    The design of active, stable, and cost-effective electrocatalysts for the H 2 evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline conditions is important for electrochemical systems such as the chloro-alkaline process and H 2 production. Here we report catalysts comprising Pt on Ni single crystalline spines (Pt/Ni-SP) with high activity and stability for HER in alkaline solution with proposed mechanism. The Pt/Ni-SP catalysts are prepared by dispersing platinum nanoparticles (1.7-3.1 nm) on the single-crystalline spines (Ni-SP) of Ni urchin-like particles. The size and coverage of Pt nanoparticles on Ni-SP are increased with increases in the Pt loading amount. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are performed to observe the structure of the Pt/Ni-SP catalyst. The catalysts achieve the mass activity of 1.11 A mg -1 (Pt) , comparing favorably to Pt/C catalysts with the mass activity of 0.33 A mg -1 (Pt) at 0.05 V overpotential. The Tafel slope of the Pt/Ni-SP catalyst is approximately 30 mV dec -1 , similar to that of Pt, while Pt/Ni-SP is very stable in alkaline solution, like Ni. The synergistic effect of Pt/Ni-SP is ascribed to H spillover from Pt to Ni.

  17. Percolation Phase Transition of Surface Air Temperature Networks under Attacks of El Niño/La Niña.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenghui; Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao

    2016-05-26

    In this study, sea surface air temperature over the Pacific is constructed as a network, and the influences of sea surface temperature anomaly in the tropical central eastern Pacific (El Niño/La Niña) are regarded as a kind of natural attack on the network. The results show that El Niño/La Niña leads an abrupt percolation phase transition on the climate networks from stable to unstable or metastable phase state, corresponding to the fact that the climate condition changes from normal to abnormal significantly during El Niño/La Niña. By simulating three different forms of attacks on an idealized network, including Most connected Attack (MA), Localized Attack (LA) and Random Attack (RA), we found that both MA and LA lead to stepwise phase transitions, while RA leads to a second-order phase transition. It is found that most attacks due to El Niño/La Niña are close to the combination of MA and LA, and a percolation critical threshold Pc can be estimated to determine whether the percolation phase transition happens. Therefore, the findings in this study may renew our understandings of the influence of El Niño/La Niña on climate, and further help us in better predicting the subsequent events triggered by El Niño/La Niña.

  18. Percolation Phase Transition of Surface Air Temperature Networks under Attacks of El Niño/La Niña

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenghui; Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sea surface air temperature over the Pacific is constructed as a network, and the influences of sea surface temperature anomaly in the tropical central eastern Pacific (El Niño/La Niña) are regarded as a kind of natural attack on the network. The results show that El Niño/La Niña leads an abrupt percolation phase transition on the climate networks from stable to unstable or metastable phase state, corresponding to the fact that the climate condition changes from normal to abnormal significantly during El Niño/La Niña. By simulating three different forms of attacks on an idealized network, including Most connected Attack (MA), Localized Attack (LA) and Random Attack (RA), we found that both MA and LA lead to stepwise phase transitions, while RA leads to a second-order phase transition. It is found that most attacks due to El Niño/La Niña are close to the combination of MA and LA, and a percolation critical threshold Pc can be estimated to determine whether the percolation phase transition happens. Therefore, the findings in this study may renew our understandings of the influence of El Niño/La Niña on climate, and further help us in better predicting the subsequent events triggered by El Niño/La Niña. PMID:27226194

  19. Template-assisted electrodeposition of Ni and Ni/Au nanowires on planar and curved substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiliani, Jason; Cadena, John; Monton, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    We present a variant of the template-assisted electrodeposition method that enables the synthesis of large arrays of nanowires (NWs) on flat and curved substrates. This method uses ultra-thin (50 nm-10 μm) anodic aluminum oxide membranes as a template. We have developed a procedure that uses a two-polymer protective layer to transfer these templates onto almost any surface. We have applied this technique to the fabrication of large arrays of Ni and segmented composition Ni/Au NWs on silicon wafers, Cu tapes, and thin (0.2 mm) Cu wires. In all cases, a complete coverage with NWs is achieved. The magnetic properties of these samples show an accentuated in-plane anisotropy which is affected by the form of the substrate (flat or curve) and the length of the NWs. Unlike current lithography techniques, the fabrication method proposed here allows the integration of complex nanostructures into devices, which can be fabricated on unconventional surfaces.

  20. Template-assisted electrodeposition of Ni and Ni/Au nanowires on planar and curved substrates.

    PubMed

    Guiliani, Jason; Cadena, John; Monton, Carlos

    2018-02-16

    We present a variant of the template-assisted electrodeposition method that enables the synthesis of large arrays of nanowires (NWs) on flat and curved substrates. This method uses ultra-thin (50 nm-10 μm) anodic aluminum oxide membranes as a template. We have developed a procedure that uses a two-polymer protective layer to transfer these templates onto almost any surface. We have applied this technique to the fabrication of large arrays of Ni and segmented composition Ni/Au NWs on silicon wafers, Cu tapes, and thin (0.2 mm) Cu wires. In all cases, a complete coverage with NWs is achieved. The magnetic properties of these samples show an accentuated in-plane anisotropy which is affected by the form of the substrate (flat or curve) and the length of the NWs. Unlike current lithography techniques, the fabrication method proposed here allows the integration of complex nanostructures into devices, which can be fabricated on unconventional surfaces.

  1. On the origin of resistive switching volatility in Ni/TiO{sub 2}/Ni stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, Simone, E-mail: simone.cortese@soton.ac.uk; Trapatseli, Maria; Khiat, Ali

    2016-08-14

    Resistive switching and resistive random access memories have attracted huge interest for next generation nonvolatile memory applications, also thought to be able to overcome flash memories limitations when arranged in crossbar arrays. A cornerstone of their potential success is that the toggling between two distinct resistance states, usually a High Resistive State (HRS) and a Low Resistive State (LRS), is an intrinsic non-volatile phenomenon with the two states being thermodynamically stable. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most common materials known to support non-volatile RS. In this paper, we report a volatile resistive switching in a titanium dioxide thin filmmore » sandwiched by two nickel electrodes. The aim of this work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism that triggers the volatile effect, which is ascribed to the presence of a NiO layer at the bottom interface. The NiO layer alters the equilibrium between electric field driven filament formation and thermal enhanced ion diffusion, resulting in the volatile behaviour. Although the volatility is not ideal for non-volatile memory applications, it shows merit for access devices in crossbar arrays due to its high LRS/HRS ratio, which are also briefly discussed.« less

  2. Ni-Co alloy plaque for cathode of Ni-Cd battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, J. J.

    1986-03-01

    The present invention relates generally to Ni-Cd batteries, and, in particular, relates to the plaque material attached to the cathode. Because of the wide use of nickel-cadmium batteries, the corrosion rates of nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys are of interest to nickel-cadmium battery electrochemical theory and its technology. The plaque material of the cathode consists of a Ni-Co alloy in solid solution wherein the cobalt is by weight percent one to ten percent of the alloy. Conventional methods of applying the plaque material to the nickel core may be used. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved cathode for a nickel-cadmium battery wherein the nickel corrosion is substantially lessened in the plaque material. One process of making the plaque uses a nickel powder slurry that is applied to a nickel-plated steel core. This is then sintered at a high temperature which results in a very porous structure and an welding of the nickel grains to the core. This plaque is then soaked in appropriate salts to make either a positive or a negative plate; nickel salts make a positive plate and a cadmium salts a negative plate, for example. After impregnation, the plaque is placed in an electrolyte and an electric current is passed therethrough to convert the salts to their final form. In the nickel-cadmium cell, nickel hydroxide is the active material in the positive plate.

  3. On the origin of resistive switching volatility in Ni/TiO2/Ni stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, Simone; Trapatseli, Maria; Khiat, Ali; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-08-01

    Resistive switching and resistive random access memories have attracted huge interest for next generation nonvolatile memory applications, also thought to be able to overcome flash memories limitations when arranged in crossbar arrays. A cornerstone of their potential success is that the toggling between two distinct resistance states, usually a High Resistive State (HRS) and a Low Resistive State (LRS), is an intrinsic non-volatile phenomenon with the two states being thermodynamically stable. TiO2 is one of the most common materials known to support non-volatile RS. In this paper, we report a volatile resistive switching in a titanium dioxide thin film sandwiched by two nickel electrodes. The aim of this work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism that triggers the volatile effect, which is ascribed to the presence of a NiO layer at the bottom interface. The NiO layer alters the equilibrium between electric field driven filament formation and thermal enhanced ion diffusion, resulting in the volatile behaviour. Although the volatility is not ideal for non-volatile memory applications, it shows merit for access devices in crossbar arrays due to its high LRS/HRS ratio, which are also briefly discussed.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of a flexible metal organic framework {[Ni(dpbz)][Ni(CN 4]} n, dpbz = 1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)benzene) with an unusual Ni-N bond

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Culp, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Yu-S.

    2016-02-10

    The chartreuse monoclinic Ni-dpbz (Ni(L)[Ni(CN) 4], (L = 1,4-Bis(4-pyridyl)benzene, or dpbz) crystal assumes a pillared structure with layers defined by 2-D Ni[Ni(CN) 4] n nets and dpbz ligands as pillars, linking between coordinated Ni sites. In addition to the hysteretic adsorption/desorption feature of Ni-dpbz, in half of the parallelepiped-shape space enclosed by the pillars and nets, an additional dpbz ligand was found to link between the open ends of two four-fold Ni sites. This arrangement results in an unusual 5-fold pseudo square-pyramid environment for Ni and a significantly long Ni–N distance of 2.369(4) Å. The presence of disordered dimethyl sulfoxidemore » (DMSO) solvent molecules give rise to the formula of Ni(dpbz)[Ni(CN) 4]·½dpbz·0.44DMSO. Sorption isotherms showed flexible behavior during the adsorption and desorption of CO 2.« less

  5. Sol-gel-derived NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion by coal char

    SciTech Connect

    Haibo Zhao; Liming Liu; Baowen Wang

    2008-03-15

    This paper focuses on the investigation of Ni-based oxygen carriers for CLC by coal char. First, Al(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are selected as the main raw materials to prepare sol-gel-derived NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers. The oxygen carrier with a mass content of 60% NiO, a sintering temperature of 1300{sup o}C, and a sintering time of 6 h performs comparatively well. Second, the reduction reaction of the NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers with char and the circular reduction/oxidation reactions of the NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers with char/air or hydrogen/air are carried out in a thermogravimetricmore » analysis (TGA) instrument to investigate the reactivities and chemical life of the prepared NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers. The experimental results show that (a) when the TGA temperature is higher than 850{sup o}C, NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} starts to react with coal char rapidly, which indicates that CLC of coal char using NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} as oxygen carriers is a feasible technology of energy utilization in principle; (b) NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which maintains its activity over single-cycle reduction/oxidation reactions with char/air or multiple-cycle reduction/oxidation reactions with hydrogen/air, exhibits extremely good recyclablity; (c) the porous beehive structure of the NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particle is maintained, and the sintering behavior between different particles is not observed during cyclic studies. Those experimental results prove the sol-gel-derived oxygen carrier NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is capable of being used in chemical-looping combustion fueled by coal char or H{sub 2}. 51 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  6. Microstructural evolution of single Ni 2TiAl or hierarchical NiAl/Ni 2 TiAl precipitates in Fe-Ni-Al-Cr-Ti ferritic alloys during thermal treatment for elevated-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    2017-01-07

    Precipitate features, such as the size, morphology, and distribution, are important parameters determining the mechanical properties of semi- or fully-coherent precipitatehardened alloys at elevated temperatures. In this study, the microstructural formation and evolution of recently-developed Fe-Ni-Al-Cr-Ti alloys with superior creep resistance have been systematically investigated using transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), and atom-probe tomography (APT). These alloys were designed by adding 2 or 4 weight percent (wt. %) Ti into a NiAl-hardened ferritic alloy with a nominal composition of Fe-6.5Al-10Cr-10Ni-3.4Mo-0.25Zr-0.005B in wt. %. These alloys were, then, subjected to a homogenization treatment at 1,473 K for 0.5 hour, followedmore » by aging treatments at 973 K for 1 ~ 500 hours. In the homogenization-treated case, both alloys contain a primary L21-type Ni 2TiAl precipitate, but with the distinct size and morphology of the precipitates and precipitate/matrix interface structures. In the subsequent aging treatments, the 2 wt. % Ti alloy establishes a hierarchical-precipitate structure consisting of a fine network of a B2-type NiAl phase within the parent L2 1-type Ni2TiAl precipitate, while the 4 wt. % Ti alloy retains the single Ni 2TiAl precipitate. It was found that the hierarchical structure is more effective in remaining the coherent interface during the growth/coarsening of the precipitate. The formation of the different types of the precipitates, and their effects on the microstructural evolution are discussed, and the driving forces for these features are identified from the competition between the interface energy and elastic interactions due to the lattice misfit and misfit dislocations.« less

  7. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, A., E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    We report systematic investigations of structural, vibrational, resonance and magnetic properties of nanoscale NiO powders prepared by ball milling process under different milling speeds for 30 hours of milling. Structural properties revealed that both pure NiO and as-milled NiO powders exhibit face centered cubic structure, but average crystallite size decreases to around 11 nm along with significant increase in strain with increasing milling speed. Vibrational properties show the enhancement in the intensity of one-phonon longitudinal optical (LO) band and disappearance of two-magnon band due to size reduction. In addition, two-phonon LO band exhibits red shift due to size-induced phonon confinementmore » effect and surface relaxation. Pure NiO powder exhibit antiferromagnetic nature, which transforms into induced ferromagnetic after size reduction. The average magnetization at room temperature increases with decreasing the crystallite size and a maximum moment of 0.016 μ{sub B}/f.u. at 12 kOe applied field and coercivity of 170 Oe were obtained for 30 hours milled NiO powders at 600 rotation per minute milling speed. The change in the magnetic properties is also supported by the vibrational properties. Thermomagnetization measurements at high temperature reveal a well-defined magnetic phase transition at high temperature (T{sub C}) around 780 K due to induced ferromagnetic phase. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies reveal a good agreement between the EPR results and magnetic properties. The observed results are described on the basis of crystallite size variation, defect density, large strain, oxidation/reduction of Ni and interaction between uncompensated surfaces and particle core with lattice expansion. The obtained results suggest that nanoscale NiO powders with high T{sub C} and moderate magnetic moment at room temperature with cubic structure would be useful to expedite for spintronic devices.« less

  8. Exchange interactions in the intermetallic compounds GdCo 4-xNi xAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasongkit, J.; Tang, I. M.

    2004-12-01

    The two sub-lattice model is modified to take into account the presence of two types of transition metal ions in GdCo4-xNixAl. An expression for magnetization is obtained and is used to fit the experimental results of Burzo and Pop (J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 196-97 (1999) 768)). From the values of the molecular field coefficients nij (i, j=Gd, Co or Ni), the values of the exchange interactions JGdGd, JGdCo, JGdNi, JCoCo, JCoNi and JNiNi were found. It is seen that three of them, JGdGd, JNiNi and JGdNi, exhibit clear exponential decreases as the Ni content increases; one of them, JCoCo, exhibits a clear exponential increase. The other two exchange interactions, JGdCo (JCoNi), appear to exhibit a parabolic (inverted parabolic) dependence on the Ni content.

  9. Ni-Impurity Effect in High-Tc Cuprates Studied by Neutron Scattering and XAFS Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraka, Haruhiro; Wakimoto, Shuichi; Matsuda, Masaaki; Matsumura, Daiju; Nishihata, Yasuo; Mizuki, Jun-Ichiro; Yamada, Kazuyoshi

    2008-03-01

    Neutron scattering experiments using La2-xSrxCu1-yNiyO4 clarified that the parallel spin-density modulations (SDMs) in the superconducting phase are susceptible to Ni, in the same way as the diagonal SDMs in the insulating spin-glass phase. Ni substitution reduces the mobile hole concentration from x down to x-y. Polarized XAFS measurements using Ni K-edge probe two types of Ni valence states; Ni^2+ and Ni^(2+α)+. It indicates that a strong hole localization occurs around Ni, resulting in an effective spin-1/2 value at Ni sites. Therefore, a charge dopant nature of Ni is most likely realized when x >=y.

  10. Morphology and properties of NiO electrodes for p-DSSCs based on hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Li, Linyu; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng; Wang, Linjun

    2013-07-01

    In order to obtain highly efficient tandem dye-sensitized solar cells (tandem-DSSCs), the preparation of high-quality p-DSSCs and n-DSSCs respectively are crucial. n-DSSCs have developed rapidly, while this article focuses on p-DSSCs based on NiO electrodes. NiO films were obtained by primary hydrothermal method (pri-NiO) and improved hydrothermal method (imp-NiO) based on different reaction solution concentration, respectively. SEM results show that the morphology of NiO changes from flocks consisting of nanosheets to flower-like microspheres and gridding. Imp-NiO has controllable thickness, more uniform surface and higher specific surface area than pri-NiO. As a result, the efficiency of DSSCs based on imp-NiO is twice as high as that of pri-NiO.

  11. Theoretical study of electron-phonon interaction in [beta]-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    NiTi and Ni-Al alloys are two materials which exhibit martensitic phase transformations. At high temperature, both alloys possess the CSCl-type or B2 structure with a simple cubic (SC) lattice. They are often called [beta]-phase alloys. As temperature is lowered, the [beta]-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys undergo premartensitic phase transformations or premartensitic anomalies before the martensitic phase transformation. Neutron scattering measurements have found that the TA[sub 2] [110] phonon modes in the [beta]-phases are temperature dependent and exhibit anomalous behavior which is responsible for the premartensitic anomalies. The electron-phonon interaction and the phonon anomalies in [beta]-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys havemore » been studied. The microscopic mechanisms of the phonon anomaly have been examined carefully. The electronic structures of [beta]-phase NiTi and Ni-Al alloys have been calculated by the first-principles LCAO (linear combination of atomic orbitals) method. Then the first-principles band structures were fitted using a non-orthogonal Slater-Koster tight binding (TB) Hamiltonian which is used in the calculation of the electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction. The contribution of the e-ph interaction to the phonon dynamical matrix was calculated by the method of Varma and Weber. Strong electron-proton interactions together with a nesting feature of the Fermi surface was the source of anomalous behavior of the low frequency TA[sub 2] phonon branch along the [rvec q] = [110] direction. Temperature dependences of TA[sub 2] phonons were examined carefully. The thermal smearing effect of the nesting feature of the Fermi surface makes the soft phonon stable. A rigid band model was used to study the concentration dependence of the phonon anomaly in [beta]-phase Ni[sub x]Al[sub 1[minus]x] alloys. The position of the phonon anomaly was found as a linear dependence of the total number of valence electrons in Ni[sub x]Al[sub 1[minus]x] alloys.« less

  12. Enhanced hydrogen storage capacity of Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Varshoy, Shokufeh; Khoshnevisan, Bahram; Behpour, Mohsen

    2018-02-16

    The hydrogen storage capacity of Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes was investigated by using a chronopotentiometry method. The Sn layer was electrochemically deposited inside pores of nanoscale Ni foam. The MWCNTs were put on the Ni-Sn foam with nanoscale porosities using an electrophoretic deposition method and coated with Sn nanoparticles by an electroplating process. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy results indicated that the Sn layer and MWCNTs are successfully deposited on the surface of Ni substrate. On the other hand, a field-emission scanning electron microscopy technique revealed the morphology of resulting Ni foam, Ni-Sn and Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes. In order to measure the hydrogen adsorption performed in a three electrode cell, the Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/MWCNT and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes were used as working electrodes whereas Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes were employed as counter and reference electrodes, respectively. Our results on the discharge capacity in different electrodes represent that the Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT has a maximum discharge capacity of ∼30 000 mAh g -1 for 20 cycles compared to that of Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes for 15 cycles (∼9500 mAh g -1 ). By increasing the number of cycles in a constant current, the corresponding capacity increases, thereby reaching a constant amount for 20 cycles.

  13. Enhanced hydrogen storage capacity of Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshoy, Shokufeh; Khoshnevisan, Bahram; Behpour, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    The hydrogen storage capacity of Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes was investigated by using a chronopotentiometry method. The Sn layer was electrochemically deposited inside pores of nanoscale Ni foam. The MWCNTs were put on the Ni-Sn foam with nanoscale porosities using an electrophoretic deposition method and coated with Sn nanoparticles by an electroplating process. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy results indicated that the Sn layer and MWCNTs are successfully deposited on the surface of Ni substrate. On the other hand, a field-emission scanning electron microscopy technique revealed the morphology of resulting Ni foam, Ni-Sn and Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes. In order to measure the hydrogen adsorption performed in a three electrode cell, the Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/MWCNT and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes were used as working electrodes whereas Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes were employed as counter and reference electrodes, respectively. Our results on the discharge capacity in different electrodes represent that the Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT has a maximum discharge capacity of ˜30 000 mAh g-1 for 20 cycles compared to that of Ni-Sn/MWCNT electrodes for 15 cycles (˜9500 mAh g-1). By increasing the number of cycles in a constant current, the corresponding capacity increases, thereby reaching a constant amount for 20 cycles.

  14. Numerical Prediction of the Thermodynamic Properties of Ternary Al-Ni-Pd Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Romanowska, Jolanta; Kotowski, Sławomir; Sieniawski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of ternary Al-Ni-Pd system, such as exGAlNPd, µAl(AlNiPd), µNi(AlNiPd) and µPd(AlNiPd) at 1,373 K, were predicted on the basis of thermodynamic properties of binary systems included in the investigated ternary system. The idea of predicting exGAlNiPd values was regarded as calculation of values of the exG function inside a certain area (a Gibbs triangle) unless all boundary conditions, that is values of exG on all legs of the triangle are known (exGAlNi, exGAlPd, exGNiPd). This approach is contrary to finding a function value outside a certain area, if the function value inside this area is known. exG and LAl,Ni,Pd ternary interaction parameters in the Muggianu extension of the Redlich-Kister formalism were calculated numerically using the Excel program and Solver. The accepted values of the third component xx differed from 0.01 to 0.1 mole fraction. Values of LAlNiPd parameters in the Redlich-Kister formula are different for different xx values, but values of thermodynamic functions: exGAlNiPd, µAl(AlNiPd), µNi(AlNiPd) and µPd(AlNiPd) do not differ significantly for different xx values. The choice of xx value does not influence the accuracy of calculations.

  15. Microstructure and phase transformations in laser clad CrxSy/Ni coating on H13 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yiwen; Sun, Ronglu; Tang, Ying; Niu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Laser cladding was carried out onto H13 steel with preplaced NiCrBSi+Ni/MoS2 powders using CO2 laser under the optimized experimental parameters of laser power 2 kW, scanning velocity 6 mm/s and laser beam diameter 3 mm. An X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy were applied to analyze the microstructure and phase compositions of the coating. Thermodynamic calculation was performed with Thermo-Calc software on the basis of a commercially available Ni-based Alloys' database. The experimental results show that MoS2 decomposed and S reacted with Cr to form nonstoichiometric CrxSy during the laser cladding process. The coating consists of spherical CrxSy particles, primary γ-Ni dendrite, interdendritic eutectic (γ-Ni+NiMo) and precipitated NiMo. The precipitated NiMo was fine and uniformly distributed in primary γ-Ni dendrite. The calculated results and experimental data indicate that the solidification process in the coating during laser cladding process was liquid→liquid+CrxSy→ liquid+CrxSy+γ-Ni→liquid+CrxSy+γ-Ni+ eutectic (γ-Ni+NiMo). A solid state phase transformation (fine and uniformly distributed NiMo precipitated from γ-Ni) occurred after the solidification process. The calculations agree well with the experimental data and it is helpful to understand the phase transformation and microstructure evolution in the coating.

  16. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomo, Matteo; Marrani, Andrea Giacomo; Novelli, Vittoria; Awais, Muhammad; Dowling, Denis P.; Vos, Johannes G.; Dini, Danilo

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2-6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  17. Crystallography of the NiHfSi Phase in a NiAl (0.5 Hf) Single-Crystal Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, A.; Noebe, R. D.; Darolia, R.

    1996-01-01

    Small additions of Hf to conventionally processed NiAl single crystals result in the precipitation of a high density of cuboidal G-phase along with a newly identified silicide phase. Both of these phases form in the presence of Si which is not an intentional alloying addition but is a contaminant resulting from contact with the ceramic shell molds during directional solidification of the single-crystal ingots. The morphology, crystal structure and Orientation Relationship (OR) of the silicide phase in a NiAl (0.5 at.%Hf) single-crystal alloy have been determined using transmission electron microscopy, electron microdiffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Qualitative elemental analysis and indexing of the electron microdiffraction patterns from the new phase indicate that it is an orthorhombic NiHfSi phase with unit cell parameters, a = 0.639 nm, b = 0.389 nm and c = 0.72 nm, and space group Pnma. The NiHfSi phase forms as thin rectangular plates on NiAl/111/ planes with an OR that is given by NiHfSi(100))(parallel) NiAl(111) and NiHfSi zone axes(010) (parallel) NiAl zone axes (101). Twelve variants of the NiHfSi phase were observed in the alloy and the number of variants and rectangular morphology of NiHfSi plates are consistent with symmetry requirements. Quenching experiments indicate that nucleation of the NiHfSi phase in NiAI(Hf) alloys is aided by the formation of NiAl group of zone axes (111) vacancy loops that form on the NiAl /111/ planes.

  18. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Robust Ni(OH)2 Nanoplate Arrays on NiAl Foil as Hierarchical Active Scaffold for Highly Efficient Overall Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shuai; Jiang, Wen‐Jie; Tang, Tang; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Developing highly efficient low‐cost electrocatalysts for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte is essential to advance water electrolysis technology. Herein, Ni(OH)2 nanoplates aligned on NiAl foil (Ni(OH)2/NiAl) are developed by simply dealloying NiAl foil in KOH, which exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for OER with a small overpotential of 289 mV to achieve 10 mA cm−2 and outstanding durability with no detectable degradation during long‐term operation. Furthermore, such Ni(OH)2/NiAl can effectively act as an active and robust hierarchical scaffold to simply electrodeposit other catalysts with intrinsically higher activity such as NiMo and NiFe nanoparticles for highly efficient HER and OER, respectively. The prepared NiFe/Ni(OH)2/NiAl displays superior OER catalytic activity with overpotentials of 246, 315, and 374 mV at 10, 100, and 500 mA cm−2, respectively. While NiMo/Ni(OH)2/NiAl catalyst exhibits remarkable HER performance with a small overpotential of 78 mV to deliver 10 mA cm−2. Consequently, the electrolysis device composed of the above two electrocatalysts demonstrates superb water splitting performance with a cell voltage of 1.59 V at 10 mA cm−2. These results open up opportunities to explore and optimize low‐cost advanced catalysts for energy applications. PMID:28852626

  19. Enhanced magnetic properties of NiO powders by the mechanical activation of aluminothermic reduction of NiO prepared by a ball milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhan, Aneeta Manjari; Ravikumar, P.; Saravanan, P.; Alagarsamy, Perumal

    2016-11-01

    We report the effect of mechanical activation on NiO-Al (x wt%) reduction reaction and resulting structural and magnetic properties by carrying out high-energy planetary ball milling. The pure NiO (un-milled) and milled NiO-Al (x≤2.5) powders exhibit face centered cubic structure, but the antiferromagnetic nature of pure NiO powder shows significant room temperature ferromagnetism with moderate moment and coercivity after milling due to non-stoichiometry in NiO caused by the defects, size reduction and oxidation of Ni. On the other hand, the addition of Al between 2.5 and 10% in NiO forms solid solution of NiO-Al with considerable reduction in the moment due to the atomic disorder. With increasing Al above 10%, NiO reduction reaction progresses gradually and as a result, the average magnetization increases from 0.57 to 4.3 emu/g with increasing Al up to 25%. A maximum of 91% reduction was observed for NiO-Al (40%) powders in 30 h of milling with a large increase in magnetization (~24 emu/g) along with the development of α-Al2O3. Thermomagnetization data reveal the presence of mixed magnetic phases in milled NiO powders and the component of induced ferromagnetic phase fades out with increasing Al due to the formation of Ni from the NiO-Al reduction reaction. The changes in the structural and magnetic properties are discussed on the basis of mechanical activation on the reduction of NiO by Al. The controlled reduction reaction with different Al content in NiO-Al is encouraging for the applications in catalysis and process of ore reduction.

  20. Phytotoxicity and Microbial Respiration of Ni-spiked Soils After Field Aging for 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyan; McBride, Murray B

    2018-04-24

    To assess the impact of Ni toxicity in soils after long-term field aging, a coarse-textured soil was spiked with Ni salt at 100, 200 and 400 mg kg -1 Ni concentrations. These soils were aged in the field along with an unspiked (control) soil under natural conditions for 12 years, after which total soil Ni was measured and tests of Ni extractability by 0.01 M CaCl 2 and DTPA were done. Soybean assays and soil respiration tests were performed to determine residual Ni toxicity of the aged contaminated soils. The greatest loss of Ni after 12 years of aging occurred from the soil spiked with the highest Ni level, but substantial loss of Ni occurred from the lower Ni levels as well. Loss was attributable to leaching as the fraction of readily extractable (by 0.01 M CaCl 2 ) Ni diminished with long-term aging. Readily extractable and DTPA-extractable Ni increased with increasing soil spiking levels, but only the latter was linearly proportional to total Ni. Phytotoxicity to soybeans (Glycine max L.) in the field was initially high at all levels of added Ni but diminished over the 12 years of aging. A greenhouse soybean assay with the 12-year aged soils confirmed toxicity to be statistically significant at all Ni addition levels and dose-dependent, with 0.01 M CaCl 2 -extractable Ni greater than 5 mg kg -1 shown to be measurably phytotoxic to soybeans. Phytotoxicity may have been caused at least in part by the observed inhibition of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn uptake by soil Ni. Soil respiration was increasingly inhibited as levels of added Ni increased from 100 to 400 mg kg -1 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental Constraints on Reconstruction of Archean Seawater Ni Isotopic Composition from Banded Iron Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Wasylenki, L.

    2016-12-01

    Ni isotope systematics in banded iron formations (BIFs) potentially recorded the Ni isotopic composition of ancient seawater during the Precambrian Eon[1]. The use of BIFs as seawater proxies requires knowing how Ni isotopes fractionated during initial incorporation into iron-rich sediments and during early diagenesis. We conducted experiments to investigate Ni isotope behavior during coprecipitation with ferrihydrite and transformation of ferrihydrite to hematite. Ferrihydrite synthesis at neutral pH demonstrated that dissolved Ni was variably heavier than coprecipitated Ni (Δ60/58Ni = +0.08 to +0.50 ‰), in contrast to the constant offset observed earlier during adsorption to pre-existing ferrihydrite[2]. Experiments at lower pH (<7) yielded negative values of Δ60/58Ni ( -0.18 ‰), suggesting enrichment in heavier isotopes of structurally incorporated Ni relative to dissolved and adsorbed Ni, possibly due to the presence of a small amount of highly fractionated tetrahedral Ni2+ in the ferrihydrite structure. We model our results as equilibrium fractionation among three pools of Ni with systematically varied proportions. We synthesized hematite by transforming Ni-bearing ferrihydrite in aqueous solution at 100 °C and observed significant Ni release from solids (up to 60 %) as pH dropped from 7 to 4.5 - 5.5 during phase transformation. Rinsing hematite with acetic acid released very little Ni (presumably surface-adsorbed) compared to the amounts remaining in solid residues (presumably incorporated). We infer that Δ60/58Ni values (-0.04 to +0.77 ‰) observed in hematite experiments likely reflect Rayleigh fractionation between incorporated and dissolved Ni. The final hematite was slightly lighter than the ferrihydrite had been (by 0.08 ‰), indicating that this phase transformation results in very limited change in Ni isotopic composition, given current analytical uncertainty of ± 0.09 ‰. [1] Wasylenki and Wang (2016) Goldschmidt; [2] Wasylenki et al

  2. Indirect probing of defects in unipolar resistive switching NiO x thin films by Ni K-edge resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Ranju; Phark, Soo-Hyon; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-05

    We present observations of the Ni K-edge resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) in NiOx thin films showing unipolar resistive switching (RS). The RIXS spectra of RS NiOx thin films can be described in terms of crystal field (dd) and charge transfer (CT) excitations. We found distorted dd excitations in the films' pristine state before electroforming, and identical excitations for high and low resistance states after electroforming. This suggests that the RS property of NiOx thin film is related to defects in pristine NiOx films, and RS occurs in local nanosized spots too small to be detected by RIXS.

  3. In-Situ Observation on the Diversified Morphology and Growth Behavior of Al3Ni Phase at the Liquid Al/Solid Ni Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zongye; Hu, Qiaodan; Lu, Wenquan; Sun, Siyu; Xia, Mingxu; Li, Jianguo

    2018-03-01

    The morphology and growth behavior of Al3Ni in the liquid Al/solid Ni interface were observed through synchrotron radiation. The formation time and mechanism of Al3Ni are connected with saturation of the molten layer. In unsaturated conditions, the growth of columnar Al3Ni formed during solidification governed by the melting of small grains accompanied by the growth of adjacent large grains and coalescence of grains near the tips. Conversely, the scallop-type Al3Ni formed in holding showed annexation of adjacent small grains with its morphology changing from scallop to hemisphere.

  4. The behavior of Ni 2+ on calcite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, U.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2001-11-01

    Transport of Ni2+ in the geosphere plays a role in the formation of ore deposits as well as in the dispersion of contaminants in the environment. Some elements (Cd2+, Zn2+, Na+, K+, and Cl-) are known to diffuse in calcite at the rate of nanometers in months, so questions arose about the ability of Ni2+ to move away from adsorption sites at the surface into the bulk. Nickel incorporation into calcite is limited by its high dehydration enthalpy and by its ligand field hindrance to entering the distorted octahedra of calcite, but evidence exists that calcite can tolerate several percent Ni2+ in the structure. Cleaved samples of Iceland spar were exposed for 1 minute to solutions of 10-3 M and 10-2 M Ni(ClO4)2, the solution was physically removed and the samples were examined using the surface sensitive techniques: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). XPS and TOF-SIMS showed that Ni2+ was adsorbed while AFM confirmed that dissolution was taking place. The sample was stored in air and relative surface concentration and physical morphology were monitored for 2 years. Trends in the chemical data suggested statistically significant loss of surface Ni2+ with time, but the decrease was very close to the limits for significance. AFM images demonstrated that surface topography of the Ni-exposed samples is modified by spontaneous recrystalization in the water layer adsorbed from air in exactly the same way that clean calcite surfaces typically rearrange. This process could bury a small amount of Ni2+ in the bulk, explaining the very weak loss. Limited burial of Ni2+ within the near-surface could renew calcite adsorption sites, thus increasing uptake capacity. Evidence indicates that surface recrystalization occurs even in very dry environments (<5% humidity). This means that burial could play a role in Ni2+ mobility in unsaturated groundwater regimes or in fractures (such as in

  5. Australasian microtektites: Impactor identification using Cr, Co and Ni ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; Glass, B. P.; D'Orazio, M.; Rochette, P.

    2018-02-01

    Impactor identification is one of the challenges of large-scale impact cratering studies due to the dilution of meteoritic material in impactites (typically < 1 wt%). The nature of the impactor that generated the Australasian tektite/microtektite strewn field, i.e., the largest Cenozoic strewn field (∼15% of the Earth's surface), the youngest (∼0.78 Myr old) on Earth, and the only one without an associated impact crater so far, is an outstanding issue. We identify a chondritic impactor signature in 77 Australasian microtektites (size range: ∼200-700 μm) from within 3000 km from the hypothetical impact location in Indochina (∼17°N, 107°E) based on variations of Cr, Co and Ni interelement ratios in a Co/Ni vs Cr/Ni space (46 microtektites analyzed in this work by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma -Mass Spectrometry and 31 from literature by means of Neutron Activation Analyses with Cr, Co and Ni concentrations up to ∼370, 50 and 680 μg/g, respectively). Despite substantial overlap in Cr/Ni versus Co/Ni composition for several meteorite types with chondritic composition (chondrites and primitive achondrites), regression calculation based on ∼85% of the studied microtektites best fit a mixing line between crustal compositions and an LL chondrite. However, due to some scatter mainly in the Cr versus Ni ratios in the considered dataset, an LL chondrite may not be the best fit to the data amongst impactors of primitive compositions. Eight high Ni/Cr and five low Ni/Cr outlier microtektites (∼15% in total) deviate from the above mixing trend, perhaps resulting from incomplete homogenization of heterogeneous impactor and target precursor materials at the microtektite scale, respectively. Together with previous evidence from the ∼35 Myr old Popigai impact spherules and the ∼1 Myr old Ivory Coast microtektites, our finding suggests that at least three of the five known Cenozoic distal impact ejecta were generated by the impacts of large stony

  6. Phase equilibria and structural investigations in the Ni-poor part of the system Al–Ge–Ni

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Thomas L.; Duarte, Liliana I.; Effenberger, Herta S.; Leinenbach, Christian; Richter, Klaus W.

    2012-01-01

    The ternary phase diagram Al–Ge–Ni was investigated between 0 and 50 at.% Ni by a combination of differential thermal analysis (DTA), powder- and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), metallography and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Ternary phase equilibria and accurate phase compositions of the equilibrium phases were determined within two partial isothermal sections at 400 and 700 °C, respectively. The two binary intermediate phases AlNi and Al3Ni2 were found to form extended solid solutions with Ge in the ternary. Three new ternary phases were found to exist in the Ni-poor part of the phase diagram which were designated as τ1 (oC24, CoGe2-type), τ2 (at approximately Al67.5Ge18.0Ni14.5) and τ3 (cF12, CaF2-type). The ternary phases show only small homogeneity ranges. While τ1 was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, τ2 and τ3 were identified from their powder diffraction pattern. Ternary phase reactions and melting behaviour were studied by means of DTA. A total number of eleven invariant reactions could be derived from these data, which are one ternary eutectic reaction, six transition reactions, three ternary peritectic reactions and one maximum. Based on the measured DTA values three vertical sections at 10, 20 and 35 at.% Ni were constructed. Additionally, all experimental results were combined to a ternary reaction scheme (Scheil diagram) and a liquidus surface projection. PMID:27087753

  7. Nonlinearities in the Evolutional Distinctions Between El Niño and La Niña Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, K.; Shamal, M.; Sahai, A. K.; Swapna, P.

    2017-12-01

    Using the HadISST, SODA reanalysis, and various other observed and reanalyzed data sets for the period 1950-2010, we explore nonlinearities in the subsurface evolutional distinctions between El Niño types and La Niña types from a few seasons before the onset. Cluster analysis carried out over both summer and winter suggests that while the warm-phased events of both types are distinguishable, several cold phased events are clustered together. Further, we apply a joint Self-Organizing Map (SOM) analysis using the monthly sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and thermocline-depth anomalies in tropical Pacific (TP). Results reveal that the evolutionary paths of El Niño Modoki (EM) and El Niño (EL) are, broadly, different. Subsurface temperature composites of EL and EM show different onset characteristics. During an EL, warm anomaly in the west spreads eastward along the thermocline and reaches the surface in the east in March-May of year(0). During an EM, warm anomaly already exists in the central tropical Pacific and then reaches the surface in the east in September-November of year(0). Composited SSTAs during La Niña (LN) and La Niña Modoki (LM) are distinguishable only at 80% confidence level, but the composited subsurface temperature anomalies show differences in the location of the coldest anomaly as well as evolution at 90% confidence level. Thus, the El Niño flavor distinction is potentially predictable at longer leads.

  8. Supergene neoformation of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloys: multistage grains explain nugget formation in Ni-laterites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Baurier-Aymat, Sandra; Galí, Salvador; Lewis, John F.; Longo, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic host rare but extremely platinum-group element (PGE)-rich chromitites (up to 17.5 ppm) without economic significance. These chromitites occur either included in saprolite (beneath the Mg discontinuity) or as `floating chromitites' within limonite (above the Mg discontinuity). Both chromitite types have similar iridium-group PGE (IPGE)-enriched chondrite normalized patterns; however, chromitites included in limonite show a pronounced positive Pt anomaly. Investigation of heavy mineral concentrates, obtained via hydroseparation techniques, led to the discovery of multistage PGE grains: (i) Os-Ru-Fe-(Ir) grains of porous appearance are overgrown by (ii) Ni-Fe-Ir and Ir-Fe-Ni-(Pt) phases which are overgrown by (iii) Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni mineral phases. Whereas Ir-dominated overgrowths prevail in chromitites from the saprolite, Pt-dominated overgrowths are observed within floating chromitites. The following formation model for multistage PGE grains is discussed: (i) hypogene platinum-group minerals (PGM) (e.g. laurite) are transformed to secondary PGM by desulphurization during serpentinization; (ii) at the stages of serpentinization and/or at the early stages of lateritization, Ir is mobilized and recrystallizes on porous surfaces of secondary PGM (serving as a natural catalyst) and (iii) at the late stages of lateritization, biogenic mediated neoformation (and accumulation) of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni nanoparticles occurs. The evidence presented in this work demonstrates that in situ growth of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloy nuggets of isometric symmetry is possible within Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic.

  9. Magnetic anomalies in Fe-doped NiO nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, R.; Gandhi, A. C.; Tejabhiram, Y.; Mathar Sahib, I. K. Md; Shimura, Y.; Karmakar, L.; Das, D.; Wu, Sheng Yun; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Undoped and iron-doped NiO nanoparticle were synthesized by standard hydrothermal method. A detailed study is carried out on the effect of dopant concentration on morphology, structural, resonance and magnetic properties of NiO nanoparticle by varying the Fe concentration from 0.01 to 0.10 M. The synchrotron-x-ray diffraction confirmed that no secondary phase was observed other than NiO. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed that, Fe was primarily in the trivalent state, replacing the Ni2+ ion inside the octahedral crystal site of NiO. The Electron paramagnetic studies revealed the ferromagnetic cluster formation at high doping concentration (5 and 10%). The ZFC-FC curves displayed an average blocking temperature around 180 K due to particle size distribution. The anomalous behaviour of spontaneous exchange bias (H SEB) and magnetic remanence (M r) for all Fe-doped samples observed at 5 K showed an increase (0.1316-0.1384 emu g-1) in the moment of frozen spin (M p) as the dopant concentration increased. The role of frozen spin moment in spontaneous exchange bias behaviour was discussed.

  10. Theory of Valence Transition in BiNiO_{3}.

    PubMed

    Naka, Makoto; Seo, Hitoshi; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-02-05

    Motivated by the colossal negative thermal expansion recently found in BiNiO_{3}, the valence transition accompanied by the charge transfer between the Bi and Ni sites is theoretically studied. We introduce an effective model for Bi-6s and Ni-3d orbitals taking into account the valence skipping of Bi cations, and investigate the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams within the mean-field approximation. We find that the valence transition is caused by commensurate locking of the electron filling in each orbital associated with charge and magnetic orderings, and the critical temperature and the nature of the transitions are strongly affected by the relative energy between the Bi and Ni levels and the effective electron-electron interaction in the Bi sites. The obtained phase diagram well explains the temperature- and pressure-driven valence transitions in BiNiO_{3} and the systematic variation of valence states for a series of Bi and Pb perovskite oxides.

  11. Theory of Valence Transition in BiNiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Makoto; Seo, Hitoshi; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by the colossal negative thermal expansion recently found in BiNiO3 , the valence transition accompanied by the charge transfer between the Bi and Ni sites is theoretically studied. We introduce an effective model for Bi -6 s and Ni -3 d orbitals taking into account the valence skipping of Bi cations, and investigate the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams within the mean-field approximation. We find that the valence transition is caused by commensurate locking of the electron filling in each orbital associated with charge and magnetic orderings, and the critical temperature and the nature of the transitions are strongly affected by the relative energy between the Bi and Ni levels and the effective electron-electron interaction in the Bi sites. The obtained phase diagram well explains the temperature- and pressure-driven valence transitions in BiNiO3 and the systematic variation of valence states for a series of Bi and Pb perovskite oxides.

  12. Highly Sensitive NiO Nanoparticle based Chlorine Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Mohd.; Sanger, Amit; Singh, Arun

    2018-03-01

    We have synthesized a chemiresistive sensor for chlorine (Cl2) gas in the range of 2-200 ppm based on nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles obtained by wet chemical synthesis. The nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD spectra of the sensing layer revealed the cubic phase of NiO nanoparticles. The NiO nanoparticle size was calculated to be ˜ 21 nm using a Williamson-Hall plot. The bandgap of the NiO nanoparticles was found to be 3.13 eV using Tauc plots of the absorbance curve. Fast response time (12 s) and optimum recovery time (˜ 27 s) were observed for 10 ppm Cl2 gas at moderate temperature of 200°C. These results demonstrate the potential application of NiO nanoparticles for fabrication of highly sensitive and selective sensors for Cl2 gas.

  13. Neutron diffraction studies for realtime leaching of catalytic Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iles, Gail N.; Devred, François; Henry, Paul F.; Reinhart, Guillaume; Hansen, Thomas C.

    2014-07-01

    The leaching of Al from intermetallic samples of Nickel Aluminium alloys to form Raney-type nickel catalysts is widely used in the hydrogenation industry, however, little is known of the leaching process itself. In this study, the leaching of Al was measured in realtime, in situ, using the high-flux powder neutron diffractometer, D20, at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Despite the liberation of hydrogen and effervescent nature of the reaction the transformation of the dry powder phases into Raney-type Ni was determined. Samples produced by gas-atomisation were found to leach faster than those produced using the cast and crushed technique. Regardless of processing route of the precursor powder, the formation of spongy-Ni occurs almost immediately, while Ni2Al3 and NiAl3 continue to transform over longer periods of time. Small-angle scattering and broadening of the diffraction peaks is an evidence for the formation of the smaller Ni particles. Understanding the kinetics of the leaching process will allow industry to refine production of catalysts for optimum manufacturing time while knowledge of leaching dynamics of powders produced by different manufacturing techniques will allow further tailoring of catalytic materials.

  14. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N2 adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  15. Origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, M.; Hübner, R.; Suess, D.; Heinrich, B.; Girt, E.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the variation in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of (111) textured Au /N ×[Co /Ni ]/Au films as a function of the number of bilayer repeats N . The ferromagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer measurements show that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co/Ni multilayers first increases with N for N ≤10 and then moderately decreases for N >10 . The model we propose reveals that the decrease of the anisotropy for N <10 is predominantly due to the reduction in the magnetoelastic and magnetocrystalline anisotropies. A moderate decrease in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for N >10 is due to the reduction in the magnetocrystalline and the surface anisotropies. To calculate the contribution of magnetoelastic anisotropy in the Co/Ni multilayers, in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray diffraction measurements are performed to determine the spacing between Co/Ni (111) and (220) planes. The magnetocrystalline bulk anisotropy is estimated from the difference in the perpendicular and parallel g factors of Co/Ni multilayers that are measured using the in-plane and out-of-plane ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to estimate the multilayer film roughness. These values are used to calculate the roughness-induced surface and magnetocrystalline anisotropy coefficients as a function of N .

  16. Neutron diffraction studies for realtime leaching of catalytic Ni.

    PubMed

    Iles, Gail N; Devred, François; Henry, Paul F; Reinhart, Guillaume; Hansen, Thomas C

    2014-07-21

    The leaching of Al from intermetallic samples of Nickel Aluminium alloys to form Raney-type nickel catalysts is widely used in the hydrogenation industry, however, little is known of the leaching process itself. In this study, the leaching of Al was measured in realtime, in situ, using the high-flux powder neutron diffractometer, D20, at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Despite the liberation of hydrogen and effervescent nature of the reaction the transformation of the dry powder phases into Raney-type Ni was determined. Samples produced by gas-atomisation were found to leach faster than those produced using the cast and crushed technique. Regardless of processing route of the precursor powder, the formation of spongy-Ni occurs almost immediately, while Ni2Al3 and NiAl3 continue to transform over longer periods of time. Small-angle scattering and broadening of the diffraction peaks is an evidence for the formation of the smaller Ni particles. Understanding the kinetics of the leaching process will allow industry to refine production of catalysts for optimum manufacturing time while knowledge of leaching dynamics of powders produced by different manufacturing techniques will allow further tailoring of catalytic materials.

  17. Optical and magnetic properties of Ni-doped ZnO nanocones.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui; Ni, Zhenhua; Yi, Jiabao; Gao, Xinyu; Liu, Chuanjun; Feng, Yuan Ping; Ding, Jun; Lin, Jianyi; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Shen, Zexiang

    2007-10-01

    Ni-doped ZnO flower-like nanocones with wurzite structures were produced by oxidative evaporation of Zn and Ni powders. The Ni doping did not change the ZnO wurtzite structure. Raman scattering indicated that the normal lattice vibration modes are related to the hexagonal ZnO. Ni clusters and Ni oxides phases did not existed in the sample as characterized by XRD, XPS, and TEM. Upon excitations the nanocones could emit strong green light at 525 nm, which can be directly observed with a digital camera. The magnetic measurement indicated that the Ni-doped ZnO nanocone was high-Curie-temperature magnetic semiconductor.

  18. Site occupancy trend of Co in Ni{sub 2}MnIn: Ab initio approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Soumyadipta, E-mail: soumyadipta.pal@gmail.com; Mahadevan, Priya; Biswas, C.

    2015-06-24

    The trend of site occupation of Co at Ni sites of Ni{sub 2}MnIn system is studied in austenitic phase having L2{sub 1} structure by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The Co atoms prefer to be at Ni sites rather than Mn site and are ferromagetically coupled with Ni and Mn. The ground state has tetragonal structure for Ni{sub 1.5}Co{sub 0.5}MnIn and Ni{sub 1.25}Co{sub 0.75}MnIn. The Co tends to form cluster.

  19. Chemical Ni-C Bonding in Ni-Carbon Nanotube Composite by a Microwave Welding Method and Its Induced High-Frequency Radar Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

    PubMed

    Sha, Linna; Gao, Peng; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Yujin

    2017-11-22

    In this work, a microwave welding method has been used for the construction of chemical Ni-C bonding at the interface between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metal Ni to provide a different surface electron distribution, which determined the electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption properties based on a surface plasmon resonance mechanism. Through a serial of detailed examinations, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectrum, the as-expected chemical Ni-C bonding between CNTs and metal Ni has been confirmed. And the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and surface zeta potential measurements uncovered the great evolution of structure and electronic density compared with CNTs, metal Ni, and Ni-CNT composite without Ni-C bonding. Correspondingly, except the EM absorption due to CNTs and metal Ni in the composite, another wide and strong EM absorption band ranging from 10 to 18 GHz was found, which was induced by the Ni-C bonded interface. With a thinner thickness and more exposed Ni-C interfaces, the Ni-CNT composite displayed less reflection loss.

  20. Ni nanoparticles on RGO as reusable heterogeneous catalyst: effect of Ni particle size and intermediate composite structures in C-S cross-coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debasish; Bhowmik, Koushik; De, Goutam; Basu, Basudeb

    2017-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the C-S cross-coupling reaction between aryl halides and thiols using nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) supported on reduced graphene oxide (Ni/RGO) as a heterogeneous catalyst. It is observed that the uniformly dispersed Ni NPs supported on RGO could exhibit excellent catalytic activity in C-S cross-coupling reactions and the catalytic application is generalized with diverse coupling partners. Although the electron-rich planar RGO surface helps in stabilizing the agglomeration-free Ni NPs, the catalytic process is found to occur involving Ni(II) species and the recovered catalyst containing both Ni(0)/Ni(II) species is equally efficient in recycle runs. A correlation of loading of Ni species, size of NPs and the intermediate Ni-related heterostructures formed during the catalytic process has been established for the first time, and found to be best in the C-S cross-coupling reaction for Ni(0) and Ni(II) NPs of the average sizes 11-12 nm and 4 nm, respectively.

  1. Ni-Co nanoparticles immobilized on a 3D Ni foam template as a highly efficient catalyst for borohydride electrooxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meisong; Cheng, Yu; Yu, Yanan; Hu, Jingbo

    2017-09-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have drawn a great deal of attention due to the rapidly growing energy consumption. Recently, Ni- and Co-based materials have been considered as promising electorcatalysts owing to their multi-functionality. In this work, Ni and Co nanoparticles are directly immobilized on a three-dimensional Ni foam substrate (Ni-Co/NF) without any conductive agents or polymer binder by a facile ion implantation method. The structure and morphology of the Ni-Co/NF electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the Ni-Co/NF electrode in the electrochemical oxidation of NaBH4 is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The Ni-Co/NF electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and good stability during electrochemical reactions. These properties are attributed to the 3D porous structure of the Ni foam and the synergistic effect of Ni and Co nanoparticles. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance in NaBH4 electrooxidation compared with either Ni or Co nanoparticles alone suggests that the Ni-Co/NF is promising for fuel cell applications.

  2. Facilitating Active Species Generation by Amorphous NiFe-BiLayer Formation on NiFe-LDH Nanoarray for Efficient Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution at Alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Rong; Ge, Ruixiang; Ren, Xiang; Hao, Shuai; Xie, Fengyu; Qu, Fengli; Liu, Zhiang; Du, Gu; Asiri, Abdullah M; Zheng, Baozhan; Sun, Xuping

    2017-08-25

    Searching for a simple and fast strategy to effectively enhance the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance of non-noble-metal electrocatalysts in alkaline media remains a significant challenge. Herein, the OER activity of NiFe-LDH nanoarray on carbon cloth (NiFe-LDH/CC) in alkaline media is shown to be greatly boosted by an amorphous NiFe-Borate (NiFe-B i ) layer formation on NiFe-layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) surface. Such a NiFe-LDH@NiFe-B i /CC catalyst electrode only needs an overpotential of 294 mV to drive 50 mA cm -2 in 1.0 m KOH; 116 mV less than that needed by NiFe-LDH/CC. Notably, this electrode also demonstrates strong long-term electrochemical durability. The superior activity is ascribed to the pre-formed amorphous NiFe-B i layer effectively promoting active species generation on the NiFe-LDH surface. This work opens up exciting new avenues for developing high-performance water-oxidation catalyst materials for application. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Controlled Pyrolysis of Ni-MOF-74 as a Promising Precursor for the Creation of Highly Active Ni Nanocatalysts in Size-Selective Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Kazuki; Yoshii, Takeharu; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2018-01-19

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous organic-inorganic crystalline materials that have attracted much attention as H 2 storage devices and catalytic supports. In this paper, the synthesis of highly-dispersed Ni nanoparticles (NPs) for the hydrogenation of olefins was achieved by employing Ni-MOF-74 as a precursor. Investigations of the structural transformation of Ni species derived from Ni-MOF-74 during heat treatment were conducted. The transformation was monitored in detail by a combination of XRD, in situ XAFS, and XPS measurements. Ni NPs prepared from Ni-MOF-74 were easily reduced by the generation of reducing gases accompanied by the decomposition of Ni-MOF-74 structures during heat treatment at over 300 °C under N 2 flow. Ni-MOF-74-300 exhibited the highest activity for the hydrogenation of 1-octene due to efficient suppression of excess agglomerated Ni species during heat treatment. Moreover, Ni-MOF-74-300 showed not only high activity for the hydrogenation of olefins but also high size-selectivity because of the selective formation of Ni NPs covered by MOFs and the MOF-derived carbonaceous layer. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. One-step facile synthesis of Ni2P/C as cathode material for Ni/Zn aqueous secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JiLan; Chen, ChangGuo

    2018-01-01

    Nickel phosphides/carbon(Ni2P/C) composites have been successfully synthesized via a simple one-pot hydrothermal method using glucose as carbon source for the first time. By contrast, the pure Ni2P was prepared under the same conditions without glucose. The results show that glucose not only provide the carbon source, but also prevent the aggregation of Ni2P particles. The as-obtained Ni2P/C composites and pure Ni2P were used as cathode material for alkaline Ni/Zn battery. Owing to unique Ni2P/C composites and loose, Ultra thin flower-like shape the synthesized Ni2P/C material delivers high capacity of 176 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 82 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 current density in Ni2P/C-Zn battery. Moreover, it shows a good cycling life that capacity fading only about 6.2% after 1500 cycles. All of these indicate that the prepared Ni2P/C composites may be a new promising cathode material for Ni-Zn rechargeable battery.

  5. Efficient NiSe-Ni3Se2/Graphene Electrocatalyst in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Role of Hollow Hybrid Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhen, Mengmeng; Bai, Jinwu; Jin, Shaowei; Liu, Lu

    2016-07-13

    Hollow and hybrid nanomaterials are excellent electrocatalysts on account of their novel electrocatalytic properties compared with homogeneous solid nanostructures. In this report, NiSe-Ni3Se2 hybrid nanostructure with morphology of hollow hexagonal nanodisk was synthesized in situ on graphene. A series of NiSe-Ni3Se2/RGO with different phase constitutions and nanostructures were obtained by controlling the durations of solvothermal treatment. Because of their unique hollow and hybrid structure, NiSe-Ni3Se2/RGO hollow nanodisks exhibited higher electrocatalytic performance than NiSe/RGO and solid NiSe-Ni3Se2/RGO nanostructure for reducing I3(-) as counter cell (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Additionally, NiSe-Ni3Se2/RGO hollow nanodisks achieved much lower charge transfer resistance (Rct = 0.68 Ω) and higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) (7.87%) than those of Pt (Rct = 1.41 Ω, PCE = 7.28%).

  6. Mechanistic aspects of the ethanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production on Pt, Ni, and PtNi catalysts supported on gamma-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sanchez, Maria Cruz; Navarro Yerga, Rufino M; Kondarides, Dimitris I; Verykios, Xenophon E; Fierro, Jose Luis G

    2010-03-25

    Mechanistic aspects of ethanol steam reforming on Pt, Ni, and PtNi catalysts supported on gamma-Al(2)O(3) are investigated from the analysis of adsorbed species and gas phase products formed on catalysts during temperature-programmed desorption of ethanol and during ethanol steam reforming reaction. DRIFTS-MS analyses of ethanol decomposition and ethanol steam reforming reactions show that PtNi and Ni catalysts are more stable than the Pt monometallic counterpart. Ethanol TPD results on Ni, Pt, and NiPt catalysts point to ethanol dehydrogenation and acetaldehyde decomposition as the first reaction pathways of ethanol steam reforming over the studied catalysts. The active sites responsible for the acetaldehyde decomposition are easily deactivated in the first minutes on-stream by carbon deposits. For Ni and PtNi catalysts, a second reaction pathway, consisting in the decomposition of acetate intermediates formed over the surface of alumina support, becomes the main reaction pathway operating in steam reforming of ethanol once the acetaldehyde decomposition pathway is deactivated. Taking into account the differences observed in the mechanism of ethanol decomposition, the better stability observed for PtNi catalyst is proposed to be related with a cooperative effect between Pt and Ni activities together with the enhanced ability of Ni to gasify the methyl groups formed by decomposition of acetate species. On the contrary, monometallic catalysts are believed to dehydrogenate these methyl groups forming coke that leads to deactivation of metal particles.

  7. Electrodeposition of Ni on Bi2Te3 and Interfacial Reaction Between Sn and Ni-Coated Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Chen; Lee, Hsuan; Hau, Nga Yu; Feng, Shien-Ping; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Bismuth-telluride (Bi2Te3)-based compounds are common thermoelectric materials used for low-temperature applications, and nickel (Ni) is usually deposited on the Bi2Te3 substrates as a diffusion barrier. Deposition of Ni on the p-type (Sb-doped) and n-type (Se-doped) Bi2Te3 substrates using electroplating and interfacial reactions between Sn and Ni-coated Bi2Te3 substrates are investigated. Electrodeposition of Ni on different Bi2Te3 substrates is characterized based on cyclic voltammetry and Tafel measurements. Microstructural characterizations of the Ni deposition and the Sn/Ni/Bi2Te3 interfacial reactions are performed using scanning electron microscopy. A faster growth rate is observed for the Ni deposition on the n-type Bi2Te3 substrate which is attributed to a lower activation energy of reduction due to a higher density of free electrons in the n-type Bi2Te3 material. The common Ni3Sn4 phase is formed at the Sn/Ni interfaces on both the p-type and n-type Bi2Te3 substrates, while the NiTe phase is formed at a faster rate at the interface between Ni and n-type Bi2Te3 substrates.

  8. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of deformation behavior and load transfer in a Ti{sub 2}Ni-NiTi composite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Junsong; Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun

    2014-07-28

    The deformation behavior and load transfer of a dual-phase composite composed of martensite NiTi embedded in brittle Ti{sub 2}Ni matrices were investigated by using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction during compression. The composite exhibits a stage-wise deformation feature and a double-yielding phenomenon, which were caused by the interaction between Ti{sub 2}Ni and NiTi with alternative microscopic deformation mechanism. No load transfer occurs from the soft NiTi dendrites to the hard Ti{sub 2}Ni matrices during the pseudoplastic deformation (detwinning) of NiTi, which is significantly different from that previously reported in bulk metallic glasses matrices composites.

  9. Vacuum-free, maskless patterning of Ni electrodes by laser reductive sintering of NiO nanoparticle ink and its application to transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daeho; Paeng, Dongwoo; Park, Hee K; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2014-10-28

    We introduce a method for direct patterning of Ni electrodes through selective laser direct writing (LDW) of NiO nanoparticle (NP) ink. High-resolution Ni patterns are generated from NiO NP thin films by a vacuum-free, lithography-free, and solution-processable route. In particular, a continuous wave laser is used for the LDW reductive sintering of the metal oxide under ambient conditions with the aid of reducing agents in the ink solvent. Thin (∼ 40 nm) Ni electrodes of glossy metallic surfaces with smooth morphology and excellent edge definition can be fabricated. By applying this method, we demonstrate a high transmittance (>87%), electrically conducting panel for a touch screen panel application. The resistivity of the Ni electrode is less than an order of magnitude higher compared to that of the bulk Ni. Mechanical bending test, tape-pull test, and ultrasonic bath test confirm the robust adhesion of the electrodes on glass and polymer substrates.

  10. Ni-Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Unger, R E; Kirkpatrick, C J; Susz, C; Eschler, P-Y; Zuercher, M-H; Antoniac, I; Lüthy, H

    2012-08-01

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10-15% for female adults and 1-3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni-Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni-Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Niño1+2 region and the Niño4 region predictability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, Tasambay-Salazar; Jose, Ortizbevia Maria; Francisco Jose, Alvarez-Garcia; Antonio, Ruizdeelvira

    2016-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability is monitored basically by the the Niño3.4 Index. In addition, the Niño1+2 and the Niño4 Indexes are also used to characterise ENSO variability, by reason of their relationships with some of the variability of the neighboring regions, like the air temperature in South America or Australia. However, with the increased length of the available instrumental ENSO records, the need of considering the two different ENSO types identified, Eastern Pacific (EP) or Central Pacific (CP), has become more evident. (Yu and Kim 2013). While the Nino3.4 Index is used to monitor the EP events, the CP events are currently identified by removing from the Niño4 Index the variability associated to the Niño1+2 Index (Kao and Yu 2009). Therefore there is a renewed interest on the predictability of both Indexes. In this study we focus on the predictability of the Niño1+2 region variability and those of the Niño4 region, in the recent post-satellital period. We develop a methodology to identify potential predictors among climate modes, represented by their respective indexes. Among the tropical predictors tested we include the most commonly used,like the Southern Oscillation Index or the Warm Water Volume in the equatorial Pacific (WWV) Index, but also some whose part in the ENSO generation and evolution has been pointed only recently, like the Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM) Index or the North Tropical Zonal Gradient and South Tropical Zonal Gradient Indexes.We also include in our study some other tropical Indexes outside the Pacific basin, like the Tropical North Atlantic, the Tropical South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean Dipole Indexes. We use a seasonal approach, based in a linear statistical relationship and focus on leads going from one season to one year. In the case of the Niño1+2 Index, the number of potential predictors is much higher in spring, followed by winter and summer and last of all autumn. The potential predictor most

  12. The melting and phase relations of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-Si alloys up to 100 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, A.; Ohtani, E.; Kamada, S.; Sakamaki, T.; Hirao, N.

    2013-12-01

    The existence of density deficit in the Earth's core has been proposed based on comparison of seismic data with the density of FeNi alloys, and Si is considered to be one of the major candidates for the light elements in the core (e.g., Birch, 1952). The phase relations in the Fe-Si system have been studied by some authors, and several polymorphs such as hcp phase, fcc phase, B2 phase, and bcc phase have been reported to date in the Fe-Si alloy system (e.g., Lin et al., 2002; Kuwayama and Hirose, 2004; Asanuma et al., 2008; Kuwayama et al., 2009). However the stability fields of these phases are not consistent among these studies. Kuwayama et al. (2009) reported that the stable phases changed with compositions from hcp + fcc phases for Fe-6.4 wt% Si to hcp + B2 phases for Fe-9.9 wt% Si at 65 GPa. On the other hand, Asanuma et al. (2008) reported that the stability field of hcp and fcc phases extended up to about 115 GPa for Fe-3.4 wt% Si. In this study we determined the phase and melting relations in Ni bearing Fe-4.0 wt% Si alloys. The melting and phase relations of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-Si alloys were studied using a double sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell up to about 100 GPa. The starting alloys are Fe-4.8 wt% Ni-4.0 wt% Si and Fe-5.2 wt% Ni alloys. The melting temperatures of Fe-4.8 wt% Ni-4.0 wt% Si and Fe-5.2 wt% Ni alloys were determined up to 70 GPa and 100 GPa respectively based on a discontinuity in a laser power and temperature relations during heating. Observation of the quenched texture was also conducted to determine melting in some runs. Both melting curves of Fe-Ni-Si and Fe-Ni alloys are very close with each other up to about 100 GPa and can be fitted to Simon's equation TM = T0 ((PM - P0)/a + 1)1/c, where P0 = 0, T0 = 1741 K, a = 67 × 39 GPa, and c = 1.2 × 0.5 for Fe-Ni-Si alloys, and P0 = 0, T0 = 1791 K, a = 85 × 22 GPa, and c = 1.1 × 0.2 for Fe-Ni alloys. The phase relations of Fe-4.8 wt% Ni-4.0 wt% Si alloys were studied by in situ X

  13. The fabrication of foam-like 3D mesoporous NiO-Ni as anode for high performance Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Peng, E-mail: huangp07@lzu.edu.cn; Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000; Zhang, Xin

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Foam-like 3 dimensional (3D) mesoporous NiO on 3D micro-porous Ni was fabricated. - Highlights: • We prepare NiO-Ni foam composite via hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing. • The NiO exhibits novel foam-like 3D mesoporous architecture. • The NiO-Ni anode shows good cycle stability. - Abstract: Foam-like three dimensional mesoporous NiO on Ni foam was fabricated via facile hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing treatment. The porous NiO consists of a large number of nanosheets with mean thickness about 50 nm, among which a large number of mesoscopic pores with size ranges from 100 nm to 1 μm distribute. Themore » electrochemical performance of the as-prepared NiO-Ni as anode for lithium ion battery was studied by conventional charge/discharge test, which shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability. It exhibits initial discharge and charge capacities of 979 and 707 mA h g{sup −1} at a charge/discharge rate of 0.7 C, which maintain of 747 and 738 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles. Even after 60 cycles at various rates from 0.06 to 14 C, the 10th discharge and charge capacities of the NiO-Ni electrode can revert to 699 and 683 mA h g{sup −1} when lowering the charge/discharge rate to 0.06 C.« less

  14. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  15. Investigation of Dual-phase Nanocrystalline Ni-Cu Electrodeposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuchao

    Ni-Cu alloys are employed on a large scale in the marine industry due to their excellent corrosion resistance in natural sea water. In an effort to enhance the erosion resistance of these alloys as well, nanocrystalline Ni-Cu specimens were synthesized by electrodeposition. However, surface and bulk characterization revealed an unexpected macrostructure that displayed separate Ni- and Cu-rich phases. Detailed characterization showed significant differences between the two phases in terms of chemical composition, grain size distribution, and localization of bulk defects. Furthermore, inhomogeneity of this electrodeposit in terms of hardness was found as well, hindering the application of such electrodeposits in industry. The formation of this macrostructure was investigated through assessing key characterization results, and a formation mechanism is postulated which is related to the diffusion-controlled deposition of uncomplexed Cu species, due to inadequate stability of complexing agents in the electrolyte. Some steps to eliminate this undesirable macrostructure are proposed.

  16. Magnetic properties of hybrid V2O3/Ni composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, L.; Lauzier, J.; de la Venta, J.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic properties of bulk hybrid V2O3/Ni composites were studied as a function of composition and synthesis conditions. We find a sharp increase in the coercivity and a sharp decrease of the magnetization as the temperature of the bulk materials passes through the V2O3 structural phase transition. The magnitude of the effect of the V2O3 phase transformation on the magnetic properties of the Ni is strongly dependent on sintering temperature. The V2O3 crystallite size is also dependent on the sintering conditions. Stress on the Ni particles due to the V2O3 structural transformation produces an inverse magnetostrictive effect which is responsible for the changes in the magnetic properties.

  17. Preparation and reactivity of Cu(100)-Ni surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietersen, C. A.; Mesters, C. M. A. M.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.; Gijzeman, O. L. J.; Geus, J. W.; Bootsma, G. A.

    1981-06-01

    A novel way of preparing Cu(100)-Ni single crystal surfaces is described. Reproducible quantities of nickel are deposited on a clean Cu(100) surface via reaction of nickel carbonyl. The chemical properties of this surface as monitored by AES and ellipsometry are investigated with respect to oxygen uptake and reduction (CO) reactions. At low Ni concentration the nickel atoms appeared to be below the first monolayer of copper atoms and are incapable of binding CO at room temperature and pressures up to 10 -3 Torr CO. At exposures up to 2500 L and at 320°C, the surface takes up more oxygen than a clean Cu(100) surface but less than clean Ni(100).

  18. Formability of Annealed Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fann, K. J.; Su, J. Y.; Chang, C. H.

    2018-03-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloy has two specific properties, superelasiticity and shape memory effect, and thus is widely applied in diverse industries. To extend its application, this study attempts to investigate the strength and cold formability of its sheet blank, which is annealed at various temperatures, by hardness test and by Erichsen-like cupping test. As a result, the higher the annealing temperature, the lower the hardness, the lower the maximum punch load as the sheet blank fractured, and the lower the Erichsen-like index or the lower the formability. In general, the Ni-Ti sheet after annealing has an Erichsen-like index between 8 mm and 9 mm. This study has also confirmed via DSC that the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy possesses the austenitic phase and shows the superelasticity at room temperature.

  19. Processing and microstructure of melt spun NiAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, I. E.; Noebe, R. D.; Moser, J. A.; Lee, D. S.; Nathal, M.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of various melt spinning parameters and the effect of consolidation on the microstructure of melt spun NiAl and NiAl + W alloys have been examined by optical and electron microscopy techniques. It was found that the addition of 0.5 at. pct W to NiAl results in a fine dispersion of W particles after melt spinning which effectively controls grain growth during annealing treatments or consolidation at temperatures between 1523 and 1723 K. Increased wheel speeds are effective at reducing both the ribbon thickness and grain size, such that proper choice of both composition and casting parameters can produce structures with grain sizes as small as 2 microns. Finally, fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced composites which used pulverized ribbon as the matrix material was demonstrated.

  20. Synthesis and properties of Fe/Ni nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskiy, A. L.; Zdorovets, M. V.; Kadyrzhanov, K. K.

    2016-09-01

    Fe/Ni nanotubes were formed in pores of polyethylenterephtalate-based template matrices by electrochemical deposition. The inner diameter, wall height, and thickness of the nanostructures, as well as the elemental and phase compositions, can be controlled by varying the deposition conditions. The volume deposition rate constants have been determined for each potential difference, due to which the nanostructure growth could be controlled. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the samples obtained at a potential difference of 1-1.6 V has revealed their composition to correspond to the substitutional solid solution, with an iron atom replaced by a nickel atom and dominance of the bcc a-Fe phase. The samples obtained at a potential difference of 1.8-2 V contain the bcc a-Fe phase and fcc Ni phase; the fcc phase dominates in the sample obtained at a potential difference of 2 V, which can be related to the high Ni content in nanotubes.

  1. Changes in impedance of Ni electrodes upon standing and cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1989-01-01

    Impedances of Ni electrodes vary with many factors including voltage, cycling, and manufacturer. However, results from Ni/H2 cells being tested for Space Station Freedom show that consistent results are obtained within a group of cells from the same manufacturer if the cells are cycled and stored in the same manner. Impedance changes with storage and cycling are being investigated. Impedances are low in the fully charged state but rise abruptly by several orders of magnitude at a voltage corresponding to a very low state-of-charge. After standing for several months, this increase occurred at a higher voltage, consistent with an increase in structural order during storage which hinders diffusion of protons and reduces high rate capacity. Early measurements on the effects of cycling on Ni/H2 cells being tested for Space Station Freedom show differences between cells from different manufacturers.

  2. Fusion reactions of Ni 58 , 64 + Sn 124

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. L.; Stefanini, A. M.; Esbensen, H.

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of fusion excitation functions of Ni-58 + Sn-124 and Ni-64 + Sn-124 are extended towards lower energy to cross sections of 1 mu b and are compared to detailed coupled-channels calculations. The calculations clearly show the importance of including transfer reactions in a coupled-channels treatment for such heavy systems. This result is different from the conclusion made in a previous article which claimed that the influence of transfer on fusion is not important for fusion reactions of Ni + Sn. In the energy region studied in this experiment no indication of fusion hindrance has been observed, which is consistentmore » with a systematic study of this behavior.« less

  3. Dirac R-matrix calculations of photoionization cross sections of Ni XII and atomic structure data of Ni XIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, R. T.; Bari, M. A.; Bilal, M.; Sardar, S.; Nasim, M. H.; Salahuddin, M.

    2017-02-01

    We performed R-matrix calculations for photoionization cross sections of the two ground state configuration 3s23p5 (^2P^o3/2,1/2) levels and 12 excited states of Ni XII using relativistic Dirac Atomic R-matrix Codes (DARC) across the photon energy range between the ionizations thresholds of the corresponding states and well above the thresholds of the last level of the Ni XIII target ion. Generally, a good agreement is obtained between our results and the earlier theoretical photoionization cross sections. Moreover, we have used two independent fully relativistic GRASP and FAC codes to calculate fine-structure energy levels, wavelengths, oscillator strengths, transitions rates among the lowest 48 levels belonging to the configuration (3s23p4, 3s3p5, 3p6, 3s23p33d) in Ni XIII. Additionally, radiative lifetimes of all the excited states of Ni XIII are presented. Our results of the atomic structure of Ni XIII show good agreement with other theoretical and experimental results available in the literature. A good agreement is found between our calculated lifetimes and the experimental ones. Our present results are useful for plasma diagnostic of fusion and astrophysical plasmas.

  4. Magnetic Compton profiles of disordered Fe0.5Ni0.5 and ordered FeNi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, D.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.; Chioncel, L.

    2018-04-01

    We study the magnetic Compton profile (MCP) of the disordered Fe0.5Ni0.5 and of the ordered FeNi alloys and discuss the interplay between structural disorder and electronic correlations. The coherent potential approximation is employed to model the substitutional disorder within the single-site approximation, while local electronic correlations are captured with the dynamical mean field theory. Comparison with the experimental data reveals the limitation of local spin-density approximation in the low momentum region, where we show that including local but dynamic correlations the experimental spectra is excellently described. We further show that using local spin-density approximation no significant difference is seen between the MCP spectra of the disordered Fe0.5Ni0.5 and a hypothetical FeNi alloy having the ordered CuAu L 10 structure. Only by including the electronic correlations, the spectra significantly separate, from the second Brillouin zone boundary down to zero momenta. The difference between the MCP spectra of ordered and disordered alloys is discussed also in terms of the atomic-type decompositions. Finally based on the presented calculations we predict the shape of the MCP profile for the ordered FeNi alloy along the [111] direction.

  5. Effect of Temperature and Composition on NiAl Precipitation and Morphology in Fe-Ni-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Palma, C.; Contreras-Piedras, E.; Cayetano-Castro, N.; Saucedo-Muñoz, M. L.; Lopez-Hirata, V. M.; González-Velázquez, J. L.; Dorantes-Rosales, H. J.

    2017-11-01

    NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloys have been of particular interest because of their possibilities as a high-temperature material for power-generation purposes. In the present work, the effect of temperature and composition on the precipitation of the NiAl ( β') phase was studied using a diffusion couple made of alloys Fe0.50Ni0.25Al0.25 and Fe0.80Ni0.08Al0.12. The composition gradient was obtained with a diffusion annealing treatment at 1373 K (1100°C), and the precipitation was promoted by aging at 1123 K, 1173 K and 1223 K (850 °C, 900 °C and 950 °C) for 5 hours. The formation of a supersaturated solid solution and the precipitation of the β' phase were obtained after the diffusion annealing and aging treatments, respectively. A gradual increase in the size and volumetric fraction of the precipitates was evident in compositions with higher NiAl. This promoted changes in the precipitate morphology that followed the sequence: rounded cuboids → plates → irregular (maze-like). Compositions with a low β' volumetric fraction followed the predicted size distributions of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory. Finally, it was observed that the hardness tends to increase inversely to the Fe content and decreases only because of precipitate coarsening. The achieved results provide new information regarding the dependency of the morphology of β' precipitates with composition and temperature.

  6. Eruption combustion synthesis of NiO/Ni nanocomposites with enhanced properties for dye-absorption and lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale energy-efficient productions of oxide nanoparticles are of great importance in energy and environmental applications. In nature, volcano eruptions create large amounts of volcano ashes within a short duration. Inspired by such phenomena, we report herein our first attempt to achieve an artificial volcano for mass productions of various oxide nanoparticles with enhanced properties for energy and environmental applications. The introduction of NaF into the solution combustion synthesis (SCS), which is a generally adopted synthetic route for mass productions of various oxide nanoparticles, results in better particle dispersity and a drastic increase in specific surface area compared to the conventional SCS. In a fixed dosage of NaF, a new eruption combustion pattern emerges, which may be contributed to the more gas evolution, lower apparent density, and weaker interparticle force. The novel eruption combustion pattern observed in SCS provides a versatile alternative for SCS to control combustion behavior, microstructure, and property of the products. NiO/Ni nanocomposite yielded by the new approach shows an ideal dye-absorption ability as well as lithium storage capacity. The new SCS pattern reported in this paper is versatile, emerging in various systems of Ni-Co-O, Co-O, La-O, Ni-Co-O, Zn-Co-O, and La-Ni-O. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Enhanced Dry Reforming of Methane on Ni and Ni-Pt Catalysts Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Troy D.; Montemore, Matthew M.; Lubers, Alia M.

    2015-02-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit Ni and Pt on alumina supports to form monometallic and bimetallic catalysts with initial particle sizes of 1–2.4 nm. The ALD catalysts were more active (per mass of metal) than catalysts prepared by incipient wetness (IW) for dry reforming of methane (DRM), and they did not form carbon whiskers during reaction due to their sufficiently small size. Catalysts modified by Pt ALD had higher rates of reaction per mass of metal and inhibited coking, whereas NiPt catalysts synthesized by IW still formed carbon whiskers. Temperature-programmed reduction of Ni catalysts modified by Ptmore » ALD indicated the presence of bimetallic interaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that under reaction conditions, the NiPt surfaces form Ni-terminated surfaces that are associated with higher DRM rates (due to their C and O adsorption energies, as well as the CO formation and CH4 dissociation energies).« less

  8. A study on the orientation inheritance in laminated NiAl produced by in situ reaction annealing.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Fan, Guohua; Geng, Lin

    2016-04-01

    In order to promote the performance of B2 NiAl by texture control of orientation during in situ processing, phase transformation in laminated NiAl with bimodal grain size distribution manufactured by reaction annealing of Ni and Al foils has been studied. It turned out that there existed a Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship (K-S OR) between parent Ni and product NiAl by crystallography analysis according to the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) results. The parent Ni did not transform to the product NiAl directly but via the formation of Ni3Al firstly according to the transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of the interface. This led to a new K-S OR between Ni3Al and NiAl with a small atomic misfit, which made less residual stress generated through the formation of Ni3Al than directly from the parent Ni. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Network analysis reveals strongly localized impacts of El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jingfang; Meng, Jun; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Climatic conditions influence the culture and economy of societies and the performance of economies. Specifically, El Niño as an extreme climate event is known to have notable effects on health, agriculture, industry, and conflict. Here, we construct directed and weighted climate networks based on near-surface air temperature to investigate the global impacts of El Niño and La Niña. We find that regions that are characterized by higher positive/negative network “in”-weighted links are exhibiting stronger correlations with the El Niño basin and are warmer/cooler during El Niño/La Niña periods. In contrast to non-El Niño periods, these stronger in-weighted activities are found to be concentrated in very localized areas, whereas a large fraction of the globe is not influenced by the events. The regions of localized activity vary from one El Niño (La Niña) event to another; still, some El Niño (La Niña) events are more similar to each other. We quantify this similarity using network community structure. The results and methodology reported here may be used to improve the understanding and prediction of El Niño/La Niña events and also may be applied in the investigation of other climate variables.

  10. Intrinsic properties and strengthening mechanism of monocrystalline Ni-containing ternary concentrated solid solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, K.; Gao, Y. F.; Bei, H.

    2017-04-07

    Ternary single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs), so-called "medium entropy alloys", not only possess notable mechanical and physical properties but also form a model system linking the relatively simple binary alloys to the complex high entropy alloys. Our knowledge of their intrinsic properties is vital to understand the material behavior and to prompt future applications. To this end, three model alloys NiCoFe, NiCoCr, and NiFe-20Cr have been selected and grown as single crystals. We measured their elastic constants using an ultrasonic method, and several key materials properties, such as shear modulus, bulk modulus, elastic anisotropy, and Debye temperatures have beenmore » derived. Furthermore, nanoindentation tests have been performed on these three alloys together with Ni, NiCo and NiFe on their (100) surface, to investigate the strengthening mechanisms. NiCoCr has the highest hardness, NiFe, NiCoFe and NiFe-20Cr share a similar hardness that is apparently lower than NiCoCr; NiCo has the lowest hardness in the alloys, which is similar to elemental Ni. The Labusch-type solid solution model has been applied to interpret the nanoindentation data, with two approaches used to calculate the lattice mismatch. Finally, by adopting an interatomic spacing matrix method, the Labusch model can reasonably predict the hardening effects for the whole set of materials.« less

  11. Effect of compositions on the microstructure and properties of plasma clad NiAl coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Pengcheng; Han, Guanpeng; Xie, Kun

    2016-05-01

    NiAl intermetallic coating was in-situ synthesized by the plasma cladding process. The effect of atomic ratio of Ni to Al atoms 1 (coating 1), 2 (coating 2) and 3 (coating 3) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma clad was studied by combining microstructural analysis and wear-resistant test. The obtained results indicated that the microstructure of the synthesized NiAl coating was compact and uniform in addition to few porosities and the NiAl coating well metallurgically bonded with the substrate. Coating 1 is mainly composed of NiAl and the solid solution γ-(Fe,Ni) phases. Coating 2 contains of NiAl, Ni3Al and γ-(Fe,Ni). Coating 3 is mainly composed of Ni3Al, γ-(Fe,Ni) and NiAl. Coating 3 has excellent wear-resistance property owing to high hardness and low friction coefficient. Ni3Al phase has great influence on wear-resistance property of coating 3. The main wear mechanism of coating 1 is multi-plastic deformation wear and adhesion wear. Grain abrasion is the main wear mechanism of coating 3. The main wear mechanism of coating 2 is grain abrasion and partly adhesive wear.

  12. Synthesis Mechanism and Strengthening Effects of Laminated NiAl by Reaction Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yan; Fan, Guohua; Wang, Qingwei; Geng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    N iA l with a laminated microstructure has been fabricated by reaction annealing of Ni-Al system at 1473 K (1200 °C). The laminated NiAl shows heterogeneity of chemical gradient and bimodal grain size distribution. The objective of this study is to investigate the synthesis mechanism and the strengthening effect of this laminated NiAl, therefore to promote further application of NiAl as a high-temperature structural material. Heat treatments at 1473 K (1200 °C) and subsequent characterization were utilized to study the synthesis mechanism. It shows that in original Al regions NiAl nuclei precipitate from Al(Ni) liquid phase and form fine-grained NiAl layers, whereas in original Ni regions NiAl nuclei precipitate from Ni(Al) saturated solution through diffusion and form coarse-grained NiAl layers. Moreover, heterogeneity of chemical gradient is generated through diffusion during annealing. The mechanical properties of laminated NiAl have also been studied via nanoindentation method. It shows that both chemical gradient and bimodal grain size distribution could strengthen the laminated NiAl.

  13. Network analysis reveals strongly localized impacts of El Niño.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingfang; Meng, Jun; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2017-07-18

    Climatic conditions influence the culture and economy of societies and the performance of economies. Specifically, El Niño as an extreme climate event is known to have notable effects on health, agriculture, industry, and conflict. Here, we construct directed and weighted climate networks based on near-surface air temperature to investigate the global impacts of El Niño and La Niña. We find that regions that are characterized by higher positive/negative network "in"-weighted links are exhibiting stronger correlations with the El Niño basin and are warmer/cooler during El Niño/La Niña periods. In contrast to non-El Niño periods, these stronger in-weighted activities are found to be concentrated in very localized areas, whereas a large fraction of the globe is not influenced by the events. The regions of localized activity vary from one El Niño (La Niña) event to another; still, some El Niño (La Niña) events are more similar to each other. We quantify this similarity using network community structure. The results and methodology reported here may be used to improve the understanding and prediction of El Niño/La Niña events and also may be applied in the investigation of other climate variables.

  14. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2011-02-28

    Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and furthermore » confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.« less

  15. Network analysis reveals strongly localized impacts of El Niño

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingfang; Meng, Jun; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Climatic conditions influence the culture and economy of societies and the performance of economies. Specifically, El Niño as an extreme climate event is known to have notable effects on health, agriculture, industry, and conflict. Here, we construct directed and weighted climate networks based on near-surface air temperature to investigate the global impacts of El Niño and La Niña. We find that regions that are characterized by higher positive/negative network “in”-weighted links are exhibiting stronger correlations with the El Niño basin and are warmer/cooler during El Niño/La Niña periods. In contrast to non-El Niño periods, these stronger in-weighted activities are found to be concentrated in very localized areas, whereas a large fraction of the globe is not influenced by the events. The regions of localized activity vary from one El Niño (La Niña) event to another; still, some El Niño (La Niña) events are more similar to each other. We quantify this similarity using network community structure. The results and methodology reported here may be used to improve the understanding and prediction of El Niño/La Niña events and also may be applied in the investigation of other climate variables. PMID:28674008

  16. Solidification Rate Dependence of Microstructures and Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni-Hf Alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Jo; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2018-09-01

    The microstructures and transformation behavior of Ti-49Ni-20Hf, Ti-49.5Ni-20Hf and Ti-50.3Ni- 20Hf alloys, when prepared by conventional casting, were investigated and compared with the properties of the alloys prepared by melt spinning. The area fraction of (Ti,Hf)2Ni in Ti-Ni-Hf alloys decreased to 3.9% from 9.4% as Ni content rose to 50.3 at% from 49 at%. Several cracks were observed in the hot-rolled Ti-49Ni-20Hf alloy sheet but none were found in the Ti-50.3Ni-20Hf alloy sheet. The B2-B19' transformation start temperature (Ms) decreased to 476 K from 580 K as Ni content increased to 50.3 at% from 49 at%. All the as-spun ribbons were amorphous, and the activation energy for crystallization ranged from 167.8 kJ/mol to 182.7 kJ/mol based on Ni content. When annealing temperature ranged from 810 K to 873 K, crystalline Ti-Ni-Hf alloys without (Ti,Hf)2Ni particles were obtained. At annealing temperatures higher than 873 K, very fine (Ti,Hf)2Ni particles, less than 20 nm in size, were found embedded in a crystalline matrix.

  17. Performance and Safety Characteristics of Sanyo NiCd Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2002-01-01

    NiCd batteries are widely used for high drain applications like power tools and also in other portable equipment like cameras, PCs, etc. NASA and Dreamtime Holdings, Inc. worked together to have the capability of a High Definition TV (HDTV) on the ISS and Space Shuttle. The Sanyo HD camcorder was used on the STS 105 fight in July, 2001 . The camcorder used two versions of a NiCd battery. One was a cOlnmercial off-the-shelf Sony BP90 battery pack that had Sanyo NiCd D cells. The other was a modified battery (FBP-90) made by Frezzi Energy, which also had the same Sanyo NiCd D cells. The battery has 10 NiCd D cells in series to form a 12 V pack with 5.0 Ah capacity. Our current study involved the perforn1ance and abuse tests on the Sanyo NiCd 5.0 Ah D cells. The best combination of charge/discharge current rate is 0.3C for charge and 1/2e for discharge within 200 cycles. No significant changes in capacity were observed in 200 cycles. The cell also showed capability of 5C (25.0A) high rate discharge. In overcharge and overdischarge tests, all tested cells passed the tests without venting. In imbalance tests, the battery pack could be charged and discharged only at relatively low current. At charge current of 1.0A or less, the imbalanced cells in the battery pack displayed relatively high temperatures during charge or discharge. The cells functioned normally during internal short and no mishap occurred during external short. Cells passed exposure tests at 80 C and no leakage till 150 C during heat-tovent tests.

  18. Disordered anodes for Ni-metal rechargeable battery

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William C.

    2016-11-22

    An electrochemical cell is provided that includes a structurally and compositionally disordered electrochemically active alloy material as an anode active material with unexpected capacity against a nickel hydroxide based cathode active material. The disordered metal hydroxide alloy includes three or more transition metal elements and is formed in such a way so as to produce the necessary disorder in the overall system. When an anode active material includes nickel as a predominant, the resulting cells represent the first demonstration of a functional Ni/Ni cell.

  19. Lifetime of the bound excited level in Ni-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamińska, M.; Davis, V. T.; Hole, O. M.; Nascimento, R. F.; Chartkunchand, K. C.; Blom, M.; Björkhage, M.; Källberg, A.; Löfgren, P.; Reinhed, P.; Rosén, S.; Simonsson, A.; Thomas, R. D.; Mannervik, S.; Neill, P. A.; Thompson, J. S.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Hanstorp, D.

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic lifetime of the upper level in the bound-bound 3 d94 s2 2D3 /2 → 3 d94 s2 2D5 /2 radiative transition in Ni- was measured to be 15.1 ±0.4 s . The experiment was performed at cryogenic temperatures in one of the ion-beam storage rings of the Double ElectroStatic Ion Ring ExpEriment facility at Stockholm University. The storage lifetime of the Ni- ion beam was measured to be close to 5 min at a ring temperature of 13 K.

  20. NiCo2O4-Based Supercapacitor Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenggang; Zhou, E; He, Weidong; Deng, Xiaolong; Huang, Jinzhao; Ding, Meng; Wei, Xianqi; Liu, Xiaojing; Xu, Xijin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the research on supercapacitors has ushered in an explosive growth, which mainly focuses on seeking nano-/micro-materials with high energy and power densities. Herein, this review will be arranged from three aspects. We will summarize the controllable architectures of spinel NiCo2O4 fabricated by various approaches. Then, we introduce their performances as supercapacitors due to their excellent electrochemical performance, including superior electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity, together with the low cost and environmental friendliness. Finally, the review will be concluded with the perspectives on the future development of spinel NiCo2O4 utilized as the supercapacitor electrodes. PMID:28336875

  1. Hydrogen-Resistant Fe/Ni/Cr-Base Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Chen, Po-Shou; Panda, Binayak

    1994-01-01

    Strong Fe/Ni/Cr-base hydrogen- and corrosion-resistant alloy developed. Superalloy exhibits high strength and exceptional resistance to embrittlement by hydrogen. Contains two-phase microstructure consisting of conductivity precipitated phase in conductivity matrix phase. Produced in wrought, weldable form and as castings, alloy maintains high ductility and strength in air and hydrogen. Strength exceeds previously known Fe/Cr/Ni hydrogen-, oxidation-, and corrosion-resistant alloys. Provides higher strength-to-weight ratios for lower weight in applications as storage vessels and pipes that must contain hydrogen.

  2. Correlation effects in Auger spectra of Ni and Cu nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyan, V. I.; Borisyuk, P. V.; Kashurnikov, V. A.; Krasavin, A. V.; Borman, V. D.; Tronin, V. I.

    2013-01-01

    Results of experimental research of exciton-like two-hole states in nanoclusters of narrow-band metals (Ni, Cu) on surface of high-oriented pyrolitic graphite by X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy are presented. It was found that the evolution of the electronic structure in Ni nanoclusters with the decreasing of their sizes can lead to appearance of long-living two-hole states in the valence band. One-particle and two-particle density of states are analyzed, and the Auger-electron spectra confirming the presence of the bound and localized states are obtained.

  3. In vitro thermomechanical ageing of Ni-Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Planell, J A

    1998-01-01

    NiTi alloy is used as a biomaterial due to its pseudoelastic behaviour. It exhibits a great potential in dental and orthopedic applications where constant correcting loads are required. In order to use such materials, it is necessary to investigate the effect of the cyclic straining upon the transformation stresses and temperatures of the material, the effect of thermal cycling and the ageing at different temperatures and times of heat treatment. The aim of this work is to study the load and thermal cycling and the ageing with the temperature of a superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy.

  4. Structural evolution of electroless Ni-P coating on Al-12 wt.% Si alloy during heat treatment at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtěch, D.; Novák, M.; Zelinková, M.; Novák, P.; Michalcová, A.; Fabián, T.

    2009-01-01

    The work is concerned with the high-temperature heat treatment of an Al-12 wt.% Si alloy coated by an electroless Ni-P layer. The electroless deposition took place on a pre-treated substrate in a bath containing nickel hypophosphite, nickel lactate and lactic acid. Resulting Ni-P deposit showed a thickness of about 8 μm. The coated samples were heat-treated at 200-550 °C/1-24 h. LM, SEM, EDS and XRD were used to investigate phase transformations. Adherence to the substrate was estimated from the scratch test and microhardness of the heat-treated layers was also measured. It is found that various phase transformations occur, as both temperature and annealing time increase. These include (1) amorphous Ni-P → Ni + Ni 3P, (2) Al + Ni → Al 3Ni, (3) Ni 3P → Ni 12P 5 + Ni, (4) Ni 12P 5 → Ni 2P + Ni, and (5) Al 3Ni + Ni → Al 3Ni 2. The formation of intermetallic phases, particularly Al 3Ni 2, leads to significant surface hardening, however, too thick layers of intermetallics reduce the adherence to the substrate. Based on the growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases, diffusion coefficients of Ni in Al 3Ni and Al 3Ni 2 at 450-550 °C are estimated as follows: D(Al 3Ni, 450 °C) ≈ 6 × 10 -12 cm 2 s -1, D(Al 3Ni, 550 °C) ≈ 4 × 10 -11 cm 2 s -1, D(Al 3Ni 2, 450 °C) ≈ 1 × 10 -12 cm 2 s -1 and D(Al 3Ni 2, 550 °C) ≈ 1 × 10 -11 cm 2 s -1. Mechanisms of phase transformations are discussed in relation to the elemental diffusion.

  5. Hydrides of CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and mixed CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect

    Lakner, J.F.; Chow, T.S.

    1982-09-01

    Six intermetallic alloys (CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and a mixed alloy, CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/) were investigated with respect to their suitability to provide high hydrogen capacity and their potential for use in providing substantial hydrogen pressure at both low and high temperatures. A second phase of our investigation dealt with ball-milling and hydriding and dehydriding cycles to produce fine particles for use in hydride powder transfer studies. A summary ofmore » several Van't Hoff plots is also included for hydride-forming alloys.« less

  6. Effect of NiO crystallinity on forming characteristics in Pt/NiO/Pt cells as resistive switching memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yusuke; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2016-09-01

    Resistive switching (RS) in metal/oxide/metal stack structures plays a key role in resistive RAM. The formation and rupture of conductive filaments have been widely accepted as an origin of RS mechanism especially in binary transition metal oxides. Forming exhibits some analogies with a dielectric breakdown of SiO2 thin films. In this study, Time-Dependent Forming (TDF) characteristics of Pt/NiO/Pt stack structures have been investigated. The results revealed that the formation of conductive filaments at the forming process by applying constant voltage followed a weakest-link theory and that the weakest spots were almost randomly distributed in NiO thin films according to the Poisson statistics. Furthermore, the distribution of TDF characteristics depends on NiO crystallinity. A small variation of initial resistance tends to result in a large variation of time to forming and vice versa.

  7. Novel synthesis of Ni-ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, V.; Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu

    2015-06-24

    Novel nanocrystalline NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been synthesized through combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. Phase of the synthesized material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. The XRD study revealed the formation of spinel phase cubic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high crystallinity. The average crystallite size of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanomaterial was calculated from scherrer equation. The electrochemical properties were realized by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode material shows a maximum specific capacitance of 454 F/g with pseudocapacitive behavior. High capacitance retention of electrode material over 1000 continuous charging-discharging cycles suggests its excellent electrochemicalmore » stability. The results revealed that the nickel ferrite electrode is a potential candidate for energy storage applications in supercapacitor.« less

  8. Biocorrosion investigation of two shape memory nickel based alloys: Ni-Mn-Ga and thin film NiTi.

    PubMed

    Stepan, L L; Levi, D S; Gans, E; Mohanchandra, K P; Ujihara, M; Carman, G P

    2007-09-01

    Thin film nitinol and single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga represent two new shape memory materials with potential to be used as percutaneously placed implant devices. However, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been adequately assessed. Immersion tests were conducted on both thin film nitinol and single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga in Hank's balanced salt solution at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. After 12 h, large pits were found on the Ni-Mn-Ga samples while thin film nitinol displayed no signs of corrosion. Further electrochemical tests on thin film nitinol samples revealed breakdown potentials superior to a mechanically polished nitinol disc. These results suggest that passivation or electropolishing of thin film nitinol maybe unnecessary to promote corrosion resistance.

  9. The effect of CO chemisorption on the metal surface CO/Ni(100)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles, W., jr.; Nelin, Constance J.

    1986-01-01

    The chemisorption of CO on Ni(100) is studied with a cluster model. The calculations suggest that chemisorption changes the nature of the Ni 3d orbitals. The open shell Ni 3d accepts charge from the Ni valence 4s4p orbitals, reducing the open shell 3d character on the Ni. The closed shell Ni 3d orbitals also mix with the Ni valence 4s4p orbitals and donate charge to the CO; thus helping to maintain the Ni 3d population near 9. These changes should affect the density of 3d states near the Fermi level and the surface magnetic moment. The variation in the bonding with the size of cluster is also discussed.

  10. Synthesis, magnetism, and electrochemistry of the Ni14- and Ni5-containing heteropolytungstates [Ni14(OH)6(H2O)10(HPO4)4(P2W15O56)4]34- and [Ni5(OH)4(H2O)4(β-GeW9O34)(β-GeW8O30(OH))]13-.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Masooma; Xiang, Yixian; Bassil, Bassem S; Lan, Yanhua; Powell, Annie K; de Oliveira, Pedro; Keita, Bineta; Kortz, Ulrich

    2013-08-05

    The two Ni(2+)-containing heteropolytungstates [Ni14(OH)6(H2O)10(HPO4)4(P2W15O56)4](34-) (Ni14) and [Ni5(OH)4(H2O)4(β-GeW9O34)(β-GeW8O30(OH))](13-) (Ni5) have been successfully synthesized in aqueous, basic media under conventional reaction conditions, and they were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and elemental analyses, electrochemistry, and magnetic studies. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) patterns of Ni14 and Ni5 showed chemically reversible multielectronic waves for slow scan time scales. For Ni14, an important acidity inversion effect between its reduced forms was observed. Magnetic studies revealed dominant ferromagnetic interactions among the nickel(II) ions in both polyanions.

  11. Erratum: Analogous intruder behavior near Ni, Sn, and Pb isotopes [Phys. Rev. C 92, 024319 (2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Liddick, S. N.; Walters, W. B.; Chiara, C. J.

    2016-12-30

    Here, the interpretation of neutron knockout reactions leading to 69Ni, a transcription error was discovered in the third column of Table I in the original paper, reporting the absolute γ -ray intensities of transitions in 69Ni.

  12. Infiltration sintering properties of Ni-4B-4Si(wt.%) alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Wang, F. L.; Zou, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    The Ni-4B-4Si(wt.%) alloy powders were infiltrated into the nickel skeletons, the effects of sintering temperatures (1050-1150 °C) and skeletons (loose and compact nickel powders) on the microstructures and hardness of the sintered alloys were investigated. The Ni-B-Si alloy sintered at 1100 °C consisted of γ-Ni and Ni3B, and Si mainly solid soluted in the γ-Ni. The loose nickel powders favored to the infiltration of Ni-B-Si liquid alloy into the nickel skeletons, the sintered alloys exhibited dense microstructures and good interfacial bonding with Ni substrates. The interfacial hardness was equal to that of the sintered alloys and Ni substrates. Loose nickel powders ensured the density and interfacial bonding of the sintered alloys, the infiltration sintering process can be simplified and easily applied to practice.

  13. Study on catalytic properties and carbon deposition of Ni-Cu/SBA-15 for cyclohexane dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhijun; Liu, Huayan; Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Zekai; Chen, Yinfei

    2017-11-01

    A series of Ni-Cu supported on SBA-15 were prepared by impregnation, and used as catalysts in cyclohexane dehydrogenation for hydrogen production. The results indicated that the addition of Cu into Ni changes the crystal structure of metal Ni, and forms Ni-Cu alloy. Thus, Cu improves the reduction properties of Ni. Conversely, Ni stables and disperses metal Cu. With the space limitation of the ordered channels and high surface area of SBA-15, the bimetallic Ni-Cu/SBA-15 catalysts expose large amounts of selective active sites composed uniformly with Ni and Cu. Therefore, they present not only excellent catalytic performance for cyclohexane dehydrogenation, but also low coke formation. The in-situ DRIFT studies have shown the vinyl species, indicating the existence of alkenes in the reactive intermediates. Additionally, the strong absorption of benzene on the metal could induce benzene was dehydrogenated further to carbon.

  14. Understanding micro-diffusion bonding from the fabrication of B4C/Ni composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Wen-xian; Chen, Hong-sheng; Li, Yu-li

    2018-03-01

    A Ni-B4C macroscopic diffusion welding couple and a Ni-15wt%B4C composite fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) were used to understand the micro-scale diffusion bonding between metals and ceramics. In the Ni-B4C macroscopic diffusion welding couple a perfect diffusion welding joint was achieved. In the Ni-15wt%B4C sample, microstructure analyses demonstrated that loose structures occurred around the B4C particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses revealed that during the SPS process, the process of diffusion bonding between Ni and B4C particles can be divided into three stages. By employing a nano-indentation test, the room-temperature fracture toughness of the Ni matrix was found to be higher than that of the interface. The micro-diffusion bonding between Ni and B4C particles is quite different from the Ni-B4C reaction couple.

  15. Electronic and optical properties of antiferromagnetic iron doped NiO - A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, John E.; Twagirayezu, Fidele; Scolfaro, Luisa M.; Borges, Pablo D.; Geerts, Wilhelmus J.

    2017-05-01

    Antiferromagnetic NiO is a candidate for next generation high-speed and scaled RRAM devices. Here, electronic and optical properties of antiferromagnetic NiO: Fe 25% in the rock salt structure are studied and compared to intrinsic NiO. From density of states and complex dielectric function analysis, the first optical transition is found to be at lower frequency than intrinsic NiO due to an Fe impurity level being the valence band maximum. The resulting effects on refractive index, reflectivity, absorption, optical conductivity and loss function for Fe-doped NiO are compared to those of intrinsic NiO, and notable differences are analyzed. The electronic component of the static dielectric constant of NiO: Fe 25% is calculated to be about 2% less than that of intrinsic NiO.

  16. Asymmetric Modulation of El Niño and La Niña and the Linkage to Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Sun, T.; Wu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in a 1300-year control simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) exhibits distinct modulation of its properties in association with tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV). The leading mode of TPDV, which resembles the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO) in observations, is linked to changes in the frequency and duration of El Niño events. When the IPO is in the positive phase, the occurrence of El Niño increases by twofold and weak El Niño becomes more persistent compared to the negative phase. These El Niño changes are closely related to decadal changes in the interbasin gradient of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during boreal winter-spring. The same mechanism also affects the frequency and duration of La Niña but this effect is nearly counteracted by changes in La Niña induced by changes in the preceding El Niño. The amplitude of ENSO, on the other hand, is highly correlated with the second leading mode of TPDV that modulates the zonal and meridional contrast of tropical Pacific climate. The background state changes associated with this mode affect the seasonal evolution of only El Niño due to the nonlinear relation between the atmospheric deep convection and SSTs. The resultant changes in the amplitude of El Niño, in turn, affect the amplitude and duration of the following La Niña. Both the pattern and duration of El Niño and La Niña become more asymmetric during the positive phase of this TPDV mode. The decadal ENSO modulation associated with TPDV is not symmetrical between El Niño and La Niña and thus not likely to occur solely due to random variability. In general, El Niño appears more sensitive to changes in the background state than La Niña and drives changes in La Niña that follows. Intriguingly, the patterns of TPDV in CCSM4 have resemblance to those simulated by its atmospheric component coupled to a slab ocean model, suggesting that TPDV induced by stochastic

  17. Enhancement of the recycling of waste Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries by mechanical treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-06-01

    A serious environmental problem was presented by waste batteries resulting from lack of relevant regulations and effective recycling technologies in China. The present work considered the enhancement of waste Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries recycling by mechanical treatment. In the process of characterization, two types of waste batteries (Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries) were selected and their components were characterized in relation to their elemental chemical compositions. In the process of mechanical separation and recycling, waste Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries were processed by a recycling technology without a negative impact on the environment. The technology contained mechanical crushing, size classification, gravity separation, and magnetic separation. The results obtained demonstrated that: (1) Mechanical crushing was an effective process to strip the metallic parts from separators and pastes. High liberation efficiency of the metallic parts from separators and pastes was attained in the crushing process until the fractions reached particle sizes smaller than 2mm. (2) The classified materials mainly consisted of the fractions with the size of particles between 0.5 and 2mm after size classification. (3) The metallic concentrates of the samples were improved from around 75% to 90% by gravity separation. More than 90% of the metallic materials were separated into heavy fractions when the particle sizes were larger than 0.5mm. (4) The size of particles between 0.5 and 2mm and the rotational speed of the separator between 30 and 60 rpm were suitable for magnetic separation during industrial application, with the recycling efficiency exceeding 95%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A short-range ordered-disordered transition of a NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair induces switchable wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Huei; Hau, Nga Yu; Liu, Chang; Huang, Yu-Ting; Li, Chien-Cheng; Shih, Kaimin; Feng, Shien-Ping

    2014-11-01

    By virtue of its amorphous structure with a short-range order feature, the inorganic nanoporous nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) can reversibly and rapidly switch wettability by alternate treatments of environmental chamber (superhydrophobic) and UV/ozone (superhydrophilic). The switchable mechanism of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair arising from its exceptional intrinsic short-range order-disorder transition together with chemical composition change is highlighted for the first time, which significantly differs from the current stimuli-responsive materials. This distinct multifunctional thin film not only possesses reversible wettability but also is optically patternable/repairable and electrically conductive, which could be applicable in the manufacturing of various micro- and nanostructures. We demonstrate this potential in the rewritable two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic channels and wetting-contrast enhanced selective electroplating.By virtue of its amorphous structure with a short-range order feature, the inorganic nanoporous nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) can reversibly and rapidly switch wettability by alternate treatments of environmental chamber (superhydrophobic) and UV/ozone (superhydrophilic). The switchable mechanism of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair arising from its exceptional intrinsic short-range order-disorder transition together with chemical composition change is highlighted for the first time, which significantly differs from the current stimuli-responsive materials. This distinct multifunctional thin film not only possesses reversible wettability but also is optically patternable/repairable and electrically conductive, which could be applicable in the manufacturing of various micro- and nanostructures. We demonstrate this potential in the rewritable two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic channels and wetting-contrast enhanced selective electroplating. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05261g

  19. Magnetic, dielectric and microwave absorption properties of rare earth doped Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn spinel ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, Charalampos

    2017-03-01

    In this article we analyze the electromagnetic properties of rare earth substituted Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Zn cubic ferrites in the microwave band, along with their performance as microwave absorbing materials. Ceramic samples with compositions Ni0.5Co0.5Fe2-xRxO4 and Ni0.25Co0.5Zn0.25Fe2-xRxO4 (R=Y and La, x=0, 0.02), fabricated with the solid state reaction method, were characterized with regard to the complex permeability μ*(f) and permittivity ε*(f) up to 20 GHz. The rare earth substitutions basically affect the microwave μ*(f) spectra and the dynamic magnetization mechanisms of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. Key parameters for this effect are the reduced magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the created crystal inhomogeneities. Moreover, permittivity is increased with the Y and La content, due to the enhancement of the dielectric orientation polarization. Regarding the electromagnetic wave attenuation, the prepared ferrites exhibit narrowband return losses (RL) by virtue of the cancellation of multiple reflections, when their thickness equals an odd multiple of quarter-wavelength. Interestingly, the zero-reflection conditions are satisfied in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic resonance. As the rare earth doping shifts this mechanism to lower frequencies, loss peaks with RL>46 dB occur at 4.1 GHz and 5 GHz for Y and La-doped Ni-Co-Zn spinels, whereas peaks with RL>40 dB appear at 18 GHz and 19 GHz for Y and La-doped Ni-Co spinels, respectively. The presented experimental findings underline the potential of cubic ferrites with high Co concentration in the suppression of electromagnetic reflections well above the 1 GHz region.

  20. Mechanical activation on aluminothermic reduction and magnetic properties of NiO powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjari Padhan, Aneeta; Sathish, M.; Saravanan, P.; Perumal, Alagarsamy

    2017-06-01

    We report the mechanically activated aluminothermic reduction of NiO [NiO-Al(x wt.%) with x  =  0, 20, 40] into NiO-Ni-Al2O3 nanocomposites using high-energy planetary ball milling under dry milling and the resulting structural and magnetic properties. Structural studies reveal that both NiO and NiO-Al powders exhibit a face centered cubic structure with large crystal size reduction. However, the NiO-Al milled powders unveil the process of aluminothermic reaction kinetics, which changes from gradual reaction as a function of milling time for x  =  20 powders to self-propagating combustion reaction for x  =  40. This allows us to achieve a maximum NiO reduction of 40% and 90% for x  =  20 and 40, respectively. The process of NiO reduction by Al is further confirmed through thermal studies. Pure NiO shows an antiferromagnetic (AFM) nature, which transforms into a ferromagnetic (FM) one with the moderate magnetization of about 1 emu g-1 with decreasing crystal size. The formation of FM Ni from AFM NiO matrix in milled NiO-Al powders could be precisely monitored by the change in the magnetization, which increases up to 4 emu g-1 and 28 emu g-1 for the gradual and combustion reactions, respectively. This results in a considerable exchange bias and its magnitude strongly depends on the relative fractions of NiO and Ni phases. Thermomagnetization data confirm the presence of mixed magnetic phases and the component of induced FM phase fades out due to the formation of Ni from the reduction of NiO. The changes in the structural and magnetic properties of milled NiO-Al powders are discussed on the basis of milling time-dependent mechanically activated reduction reaction of NiO into NiO-Ni-Al2O3 nanocomposites. The process of mechanical activation on the aluminothermic reduction allows for a controlled reduction of NiO; thus, it is suitable for the applications in catalysis and the ore reduction process.

  1. Homogeneous (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compound joints rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system using ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase soldering process.

    PubMed

    Li, Z L; Dong, H J; Song, X G; Zhao, H Y; Tian, H; Liu, J H; Feng, J C; Yan, J C

    2018-04-01

    Homogeneous (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 intermetallic compound (IMC) joints were rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system by an ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase (TLP) soldering process. In the traditional TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system consisted of major (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and minor Cu 3 Sn IMCs, and the grain morphology of (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs subsequently exhibited fine rounded, needlelike and coarse rounded shapes from the Ni side to the Cu side, which was highly in accordance with the Ni concentration gradient across the joints. However, in the ultrasound-induced TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system only consisted of the (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs which exhibited an uniform grain morphology of rounded shape with a remarkably narrowed Ni concentration gradient. The ultrasound-induced homogeneous intermetallic joints exhibited higher shear strength (61.6 MPa) than the traditional heterogeneous intermetallic joints (49.8 MPa). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} on hydriding and dehydriding behavior of Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, D., E-mail: danny.guzman@uda.cl; Ordonez, S.; Fernandez, J.F.

    2011-04-15

    Composite Mg{sub 2}Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} was prepared by mechanical milling starting with nanocrystalline Mg{sub 2}Ni and amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, by using a SPEX 8000 D mill. The morphological and microstructural characterization of the powders was performed via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydriding characterization of the composite was performed via a solid gas reaction method in a Sievert's-type apparatus at 363 K under an initial hydrogen pressure of 2 MPa. The dehydriding behavior was studied by differential thermogravimetry. On the basis of the results, it is possible to conclude that amorphous Mg{submore » 50}Ni{sub 50} improved the hydriding and dehydriding kinetics of Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy upon cycling. A tentative rationalization of experimental observations is proposed. - Research Highlights: {yields} First study of the hydriding behavior of composite Mg{sub 2}Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50}. {yields} Microstructural characterization of composite material using XRD and SEM was obtained. {yields} An improved effect of Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} on the Mg{sub 2}Ni hydriding behavior was verified. {yields} The apparent activation energy for the hydrogen desorption of composite was obtained.« less

  3. Effect of aging on the microstructure and shear strength of SnPbAg/Ni-P/Cu and SnAg/Ni-P/Cu solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahat, Shawkret; Du, Liguang; Sheng, Mei; Luo, Le; Kempe, Wolfgang; Freytag, Juergen

    2000-09-01

    The effect of aging on the microstructure and shear strength of 62Sn36Pb2Ag/Ni-P/Cu and SnAg/Ni-P/Cu surface mount solder joints was investigated. An intermetallic (IMC) layer of Ni3Sn4 forms at the interface between both solders and the Ni-P barrier layer and it thickens with aging time, with a decrease in the thickness of remaining Ni-P layer. The SnAg solder joint initially has a greater shear force than that of SnPbAg, but it drops dramatically after 250 h aging, and fracture occurs at the Ni-P/Cu interface afterwards, although it initiates in the solder in the initial stage of aging. The fracture in SnAg solder joint may arise from the excessive depletion of Ni characterized by a rapid accumulation of P in the remaining Ni-P layer, which results in a poor adhesion between the Ni-P layer and the Cu substrate. However, for the SnPbAg solder joint, the shear force initially decreases rapidly then asymptotically approaches a minimum, and fracture occurs from inside solder toward the solder/Ni-P interface. SnPbAg solder joint keeps relatively higher shear strength compared to SnAg solder joint after long term aging even though it decreases with aging time.

  4. The Influence of the Regional Hadley and Walker Circulations on Precipitation Patterns over Africa in El Niño, La Niña, and Neutral Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo; Aímola, Luis; Ambrizzi, Tércio; Freitas, Ana Carolina Vasques

    2018-02-01

    This study focuses on the differential impacts of the positive (El Niño), negative (La Niña), and neutral phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on precipitation over Africa during DJF and JJA, evaluated through changes in the regional Hadley and Walker Circulations. Identification of the Hadley and Walker Cells was done using stream function mass transport calculations of ERA-Interim reanalysis data from 1979 to 2014. Analysis of the spatial pattern of precipitation anomalies shows that during DJF, El Niño (La Niña) negatively (positively) impacts precipitation over the African continent. During JJA, El Niño (La Niña) influences precipitation variability over the Sahel region, producing positive (negative) anomalies. Negative precipitation anomalies associated with El Niño (DJF) over southern Africa are linked to a strengthening in subsidence of the descending branch of the regional Hadley Cell, and during JJA the negative precipitation anomalies over the Sahel are associated with a weakening of the ascending branch of the regional Hadley Cell. During La Niña events in DJF, there is a tendency toward increased convection in southern Africa, associated with a stronger ascending branch and weaker descending branch of the regional Hadley Cell. During La Niña events in JJA, positive precipitation anomalies over the Sahel are associated with an intensification of the ascending branch of the regional Hadley Cell north of the equator.

  5. A Ni-P@NiCo LDH core-shell nanorod-decorated nickel foam with enhanced areal specific capacitance for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiale; Du, Jing; Zhang, Xuan; Shao, Yubo; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Cailing

    2017-08-14

    Recently, transition metal-based nanomaterials have played a key role in the applications of supercapacitors. In this study, nickel phosphide (Ni-P) was simply combined with NiCo LDH via facile phosphorization of Ni foam and subsequent electrodeposition to form core-shell nanorod arrays on the Ni foam; the Ni-P@NiCo LDH was then directly used for a pseudocapacitive electrode. Owing to the splendid synergistic effect between Ni-P and NiCo LDH nanosheets as well as the hierarchical structure of 1D nanorods, 2D nanosheets, and 3D Ni foam, the hybrid electrode exhibited significantly enhanced electrochemical performances. The Ni-P@NiCo LDH electrode showed a high specific capacitance of 12.9 F cm -2 at 5 mA cm -2 (3470.5 F g -1 at a current density of 1.3 A g -1 ) that remained as high as 6.4 F cm -2 at a high current density of 100 mA cm -2 (1700 F g -1 at 27 A g -1 ) and excellent cycling stability (96% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles at 40 mA cm -2 ). Furthermore, the asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) were assembled using Ni-P@NiCo LDH as a positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as a negative electrode. The obtained ASCs delivered remarkable energy density and power density as well as good cycling performance. The enhanced electrochemical activities open a new avenue for the development of supercapacitors.

  6. Effects of Ni vacancies and crystallite size on the O 1s and Ni 2p x-ray absorption spectra of nanocrystalline NiO.

    PubMed

    Mossanek, R J O; Domínguez-Cañizares, G; Gutiérrez, A; Abbate, M; Díaz-Fernández, D; Soriano, L

    2013-12-11

    We have studied the electronic structure of nanocrystalline NiO thin films, grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering under different experimental conditions, using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The O 1s and Ni 2p spectra showed distinct changes as a function of O2 content in the plasma, which were reproduced with cluster model calculations. These changes are attributed to the incrementing of the surface contribution due to a decrease of the crystallite size as the O2 content in the plasma increases, and to the presence of induced nickel vacancies. Thus, the changes in the electronic structure can be related to the modification of structural and transport properties of these nanocrystalline films.

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni nanofilms on Ge(001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocirnea, Amelia Elena; Costescu, Ruxandra Maria; Pasuk, Iuliana; Lungu, George Adrian; Teodorescu, Cristian Mihail

    2017-12-01

    Ni films of 20 nm nominal thickness were grown on Ge(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy at several different temperatures from room temperature up to 400 °C. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal the nucleation of Ni-Ge compounds (NiGe, Ni2Ge, Ni5Ge2) as well as a departure from the fcc Ni structure exhibited by the films at and beyond a temperature of 100 °C. The binding energy of the Ni 2p peak increases from the RT value (852.7 eV) by 0.5-1.1 eV for the Ni/Ge(001) samples, while the Ge 2p binding energy changes by 0.6-0.7 eV after Ni growth compared to a clean Ge(001) substrate (there is only a ±0.15 eV shift among the samples grown on substrates at higher temperatures). By increasing substrate temperature, we obtained higher intermixing of Ni and Ge, but rather than both Ni and Ge interdiffusing, we find that Ni diffuses further into the germanium with higher substrate temperature, forming increasingly Ni-rich Ni-Ge compounds diluted into the Ge matrix. Based on Magneto-optic Kerr Effect measurements, Ni/Ge(001) grown on substrates at 100 and 200 °C does not exhibit a hysteresis loop, while the samples on 300 and 400 °C substrates show magnetic behavior, which we attribute to the magnetic character of hexagonal Ni5Ge2 (which is determined here for the first time to be a ferromagnetic phase).

  8. Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cai; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Wang, Qing Xiao; Liu, Yang; Gianchandani, Yogesh; Kosel, Jurgen

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B.

  9. Optical anisotropy and domain structure of multiferroic Ni-Mn-Ga and Co-Ni-Ga Heusler-type alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. I.; Gasanov, O. V.; Kaplunova, E. I.; Kalimullina, E. T.; Zalyotov, A. B.; Grechishkin, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    A study is made of the reflectance anisotropy of martensitic and magnetic domains in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) Ni-Mn-Ga and Co-Ni-Ga. The reflectance of metallographic sections of these alloys was measured in the visible with the aid of standard inverted polarized light microscope with a 360° rotatable specimen stage. Calculations are presented for the estimation of image contrast values between neighboring martensite twins. Qualitative and quantitative observations and angular measurements in reflected polarized light proved to be useful for the analysis of specific features of the martensite microstructure of multiferroic materials.

  10. Local structure of ball-milled LaNi{sub 5} hydrogen storage material by Ni K-edge EXAFS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, B.; Iadecola, A.; Schiavo, B.

    2010-07-15

    Local structure of the nanostructured LaNi{sub 5} hydrogen storage alloys, prepared by ball-milling, has been studied using Ni K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Results indicate that the ball-milling up to 100 h results in the production of nanoparticles characterized by large atomic disorder and slightly reduced unit-cell volume, compared to the bulk LaNi{sub 5}. High temperature annealing appears to help in partial recovery of atomic order in the ball-milled samples; however, long-time ball-milled samples retain large disorder even after the high temperature annealing. The results suggest that the large disorder and the reduced unit-cell volume might be causingmore » a higher energy-barrier for the hydride-phase formation in the long time ball-milled LaNi{sub 5} powders. - Graphical Abstract: X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern (left panel) and Fourier transforms of the Ni K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy (right panel) of bulk LaNi{sub 5} hydrogen storage material (structure model is given in the middle) together with the same after 100 h ball-milling. Milled samples show a remarkable reduction intensity and broadening of the XRD peaks. Substantial damping of the amplitude and a slight shrinkage of the profile are observed in the EXAFS spectrum. These results indicate that the ball-milling up to 100 h results in the production of nanoparticles characterized by slightly reduced unit-cell volume and substantial atomic disorder compared to the bulk LaNi5. High temperature annealing appears to help in partial recovery of atomic order in the ball-milled samples; however, long-time ball-milled samples retain the disorder even after the high temperature annealing. The results suggest that the large disorder and the reduced unit-cell volume might be causing a higher energy-barrier for the hydride-phase formation in the long-time ball-milled LaNi{sub 5} powders.« less

  11. Structural heat-resistant β-NiAl + γ'-Ni3Al alloys of the Ni-Al-Co system: I. Solidification and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarova, K. B.; Drozdov, A. A.; Bazyleva, O. A.; Morozov, A. E.; Antonova, A. V.; Bondarenko, Yu. A.; Bulakhtina, M. A.; Ashmarin, A. A.; Arginbaeva, E. G.; Alad'ev, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    When analyzing the ternary Ni-Al- M phase diagrams, where M is a group VI-VIII transition metal, we chose the Ni-Al-Co system, where the γ' and γ phases are in equilibrium with the β phase, as a base for designing alloys with the following physicochemical properties: a moderate density (≤7.2 g/cm3) and satisfactory heat resistance at temperatures up to 1300°C. The structure formation in heterophase β + γ' alloys during directional solidification is studied. It is found that, in contrast to cobalt-free β + γ' alloys (where the γ'-Ni3Al aluminide forms according to the peritectic reaction L + β ⇄ γ'), the alloys with 8-10 at % Co studied in this work during directional solidification at 1370°C contain the degenerate eutectic L ⇄ β + γ. The transition from the β + γ field to the β + γ' + γ field occurs in the temperature range 1323-1334°C, and the γ' phase then forms according to the reaction β + γ ⇄ γ'.

  12. The Janus effect on superhydrophilic Cu mesh decorated with Ni-NiO/Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanoparticles for oil/water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi-Yong; Lyu, Shu-Shen; Fu, Yuan-Xiang; Heng, Yi; Mo, Dong-Chuan

    2017-07-01

    Janus effect has been studied for emerging materials like Janus membranes, Janus nanoparticles, etc., and the applications including fog collection, oil/water separation, CO2 removal and stabilization of multiphasic mixtures. However, the Janus effect on oil/water separation is still unclear. Herein, Janus Cu mesh decorated with Ni-NiO/Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanoparticles is synthesized via selective electrodeposition, in which we keep one side of Cu mesh (Janus A) to be superhydrophilic, while manipulate the wettability of another side (Janus B) from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic. Experimental results indicate that Cu mesh with both-side superhydrophilic shows the superior oil/water separation performance (separation efficiency >99.5%), which is mainly due to its higher water capture percentage as well as larger oil intrusion pressure. Further, we demonstrate the orientation of Janus membranes for oil/water separation, and summarize that the wettability of the upper surface plays a more important role than the lower surface to achieve remarkable performance. Our work provides a clear insight of Janus effect on oil/water separation, it is significative to design high-performance membranes for oil/water separation and many other applications.

  13. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shalendra, E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com; Vats, Prashant; Gautam, S.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption finemore » structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L{sub 3,2}-edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L{sub 3,2}-edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior.« less

  14. Fabrication and Gas-Sensing Properties of Ni-Silicide/Si Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Chen, Chun-An; Liu, Shang-Wu; Tang, Chun-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ni-silicide/Si nanowires were fabricated by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation on silicon-on-insulator substrates, selective wet etching, and reactive deposition epitaxy. Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire were formed by low- and high-coverage depositions of Ni, respectively. The Ni-silicide/Si Schottky junction and Ni-silicide region were attributed high- and low-resistance parts of nanowire, respectively, causing the resistance of the Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire to be a little higher and much lower than that of Si nanowire. An O 2 sensing device was formed from a nanowire that was mounted on Pt electrodes. When the nanowires exposed to O 2 , the increase in current in the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire was much larger than that in the other nanowires. The Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire device had the highest sensitivity. The phenomenon can be explained by the formation of a Schottky junction at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in these two types of Ni-Silicide/Si nanowire and the formation of a hole channel at the silicon nanowire/native oxide interface after exposing the nanowires to O 2 .

  15. The Metal Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale Uses Nitrogen and Oxygen Donor Ligands for Ni Transport and Storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Kotodesh genotype of the nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale was examined to determine the compartmentalization and internal speciation of Ni, and other elements, in an effort to ascertain the mechanism used by this plant to tolerate extremely high shoot Ni concentrations. Plants were g...

  16. Complete genome sequence of Brucella melitensis biovar 3 strain NI, isolated from an aborted bovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiao; Jing, Zhigang; Ou, Qixing; Cui, Buyun; He, Yongqun; Wu, Qingmin

    2012-11-01

    From an aborted bovine fetus in China, a bacterial strain named NI was isolated and identified as Brucella melitensis by a PCR assay. Strain NI was further characterized as B. melitensis biovar 3 using biochemical assays. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain NI.

  17. 78 FR 68465 - NiSource, Inc.; Record of Decision, Habitat Conservation Plan, Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...., pursuant to the ESA. The ITP issued to NiSource authorizes the take of 10 federally listed species over a 50-year period. NiSource prepared a multi-species habitat conservation plan (MSHCP) to cover a suite... the application. On July 16, 2009, NiSource filed an application with the Service for a section 10(a...

  18. Structure and thermomechanical behavior of NiTiPt shape memory alloy wires.

    PubMed

    Lin, Brian; Gall, Ken; Maier, Hans J; Waldron, Robbie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the structure-property relationships in polycrystalline NiTiPt (Ti 42.7 at.% Ni 7.5 at %Pt) with a composition showing pseudoelasticity at ambient temperatures. Structural characterization of the alloy includes grain size determination and texture analysis while the thermomechanical properties are explored using tensile testing. Variation in heat treatment is used as a vehicle to modify microstructure. The results are compared to experiments on Ni-rich NiTi alloy wires (Ti-51.0 at.% Ni), which are in commercial use in various biomedical applications. With regards to microstructure, both alloys exhibit a <111> fiber texture along the wire drawing axis; however, the NiTiPt alloy grain size is smaller than that of the Ni-rich NiTi wires, while the latter materials contain second-phase precipitates. Given the nanometer-scale grain size in NiTiPt and the dispersed, nanometer-scale precipitate size in NiTi, the overall strength and ductility of the alloys are essentially identical when given appropriate heat treatments. Property differences include a much smaller stress hysteresis and smaller temperature dependence of the transformation stress for NiTiPt alloys compared to NiTi alloys. Potential benefits and implications for use in vascular stent applications are discussed.

  19. Discovery of New Mineral Butianite, Ni6SnS2, an Alteration Phase from Allende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.

    2017-07-01

    Butianite (Ni6SnS2) is a new chalcogenide mineral from an Allende CAI, along with nuwaite (Ni6GeS2), formed from a late-stage sulfidation process, where Ni-Fe metals reacted with a low-temperature fluid enriched in S, Ge, Sn and Te.

  20. Microstructure evolution and erosion-corrosion resistance of amorphous Ni-P coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiulin; Jiang, Shuang; Li, Hongbin; Yan, Chunyan; Jiang, Liangfeng

    2012-08-01

    Amorphous Ni-P coatings with 7.8 wt% P were electrodeposited successfully from an electrolytic bath containing 15 g/L H3PO3. Its microstructure evolution by heat treatment and erosion-corrosion resistance are investigated in this paper. From room temperature to 500 °C, there were three exothermic crystalline phases of Ni5P2, Ni3P and Ni precipitated from the amorphous base. The microstructure evolution of the amorphous Ni-P deposits follows the sequence of amorphous, amorphous-noncrystalline, (Ni5P2 + Ni3P), then (Ni5P2 + Ni3P + Ni) with increasing heat treatment temperature. The mass loss rate of amorphous Ni-P coatings is approximately 14 mg/h and the synergism of erosion-corrosion was larger than half of the total mass loss at an impingement velocity of 8.37 m/s under saline-sand slurry. The erosion-corrosion resistance of amorphous Ni-P coatings can be enhanced obviously by heat treatment because of the elevated hardness and corrosion resistance.

  1. Fabrication and Gas-Sensing Properties of Ni-Silicide/Si Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Chen, Chun-An; Liu, Shang-Wu; Tang, Chun-Kai

    2017-03-01

    Ni-silicide/Si nanowires were fabricated by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation on silicon-on-insulator substrates, selective wet etching, and reactive deposition epitaxy. Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire were formed by low- and high-coverage depositions of Ni, respectively. The Ni-silicide/Si Schottky junction and Ni-silicide region were attributed high- and low-resistance parts of nanowire, respectively, causing the resistance of the Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire to be a little higher and much lower than that of Si nanowire. An O2 sensing device was formed from a nanowire that was mounted on Pt electrodes. When the nanowires exposed to O2, the increase in current in the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire was much larger than that in the other nanowires. The Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire device had the highest sensitivity. The phenomenon can be explained by the formation of a Schottky junction at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in these two types of Ni-Silicide/Si nanowire and the formation of a hole channel at the silicon nanowire/native oxide interface after exposing the nanowires to O2.

  2. Oxidation stages of Ni electrodes in solid oxide fuel cell environments.

    PubMed

    El Gabaly, Farid; McCarty, Kevin F; Bluhm, Hendrik; McDaniel, Anthony H

    2013-06-07

    Nickel is the most commonly used anode for solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to its fast kinetics and low price. A leading cause of degradation in Ni electrodes is oxidation. Here we use operando ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to chemically characterize the Ni electrode of a fuel cell anode during oxidation in a H2/H2O atmosphere. We find three different stages of Ni oxidation in the model SOFC. In the first two stages, the Ni exposed to the gas remains metallic but the Ni at the interface with the zirconia electrolyte is oxidized. In the third oxidation stage, we find that Ni transforms to NiOOH, a phase not previously considered in the SOFC literature. We show that the transformation between Ni and NiOOH is reversible and is initiated at the Ni/gas interface. In addition we find that NiOOH stores charge, as evidenced by the stable discharge plateau (voltage) measured as this oxyhydroxide phase reduces to metallic Ni.

  3. Current status and challenges in developing Ni phytomining: An agronomic perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review examines the current status, progress and challenges in Ni phytomining agronomy undertaken since the first field trial two decades ago. To date, over 400 Ni hyperaccumulators have been documented (of which >30% are in Cuba) including approximately 50 species with potential for use in Ni ...

  4. Damage accumulation in ion-irradiated Ni-based concentrated solid-solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Ullah, Mohammad W.; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2016-03-05

    We investigate Irradiation-induced damage accumulation in Ni 0.8Fe 0.2 and Ni 0.8Cr 0.2 alloys by using molecular dynamics simulations to assess possible enhanced radiation-resistance in these face-centered cubic (fcc), single-phase, concentrated solid-solution alloys, as compared with pure fcc Ni.

  5. Phytomining of Ni from mineralized or contaminated soils available to industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new technology is available to the Ni mining and remediation community to "phytomine" Ni from mineralized or contaminated soils using rare plants which hyperaccumulate Ni to over 1% of shoot dry matter. Research has identified useful plant species, and even bred improved cultivars of Alyssum mura...

  6. Thermophysical properties of Ni-containing single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Ke; Mu, Sai; An, Ke; ...

    2016-12-27

    For this research temperature dependent thermophysical properties, including specific heat capacity, lattice thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity and conductivity, have been systematically studied in Ni and eight Ni-containing single-phase face-centered-cubic concentrated solid solution alloys, at elevated temperatures up to 1273 K. The alloys have similar specific heat values of 0.4–0.5 J·g -1·K -1 at room temperature, but their temperature dependence varies greatly due to Curie and K-state transitions. The lattice, electronic, and magnetic contributions to the specific heat have been separated based on first-principles methods in NiCo, NiFe, Ni-20Cr and NiCoFeCr. The alloys have similar thermal expansion behavior, with the exceptionmore » that NiFe and NiCoFe have much lower thermal expansion coefficient in their ferromagnetic state due to magnetostriction effects. Calculations based on the quasi-harmonic approximation accurately predict the temperature dependent lattice parameter of NiCo and NiFe with < 0.2% error, but underestimated that of Ni-20Cr by 1%, compared to the values determined from neutron diffraction. In addition, all the alloys containing Cr have very similar thermal conductivity, which is much lower than that of Ni and the alloys without Cr, due to the large magnetic disorder.« less

  7. Ethanol oxidative steam reforming over Ni-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, V.; Akdim, O.; Provendier, H.; Mirodatos, C.

    Oxidative steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production in order to feed a solid polymer fuel cell (SPFC) has been studied over several catalysts at on board conditions (a molar ratio of H 2O/EtOH and of O 2/EtOH equal to 1.6 and 0.68 respectively) and a reforming temperature between 923 and 1073 K. Two Ni (11 and 20 wt.%)/Al 2O 3 catalysts and five bimetallic catalysts, all of them supported on Al 2O 3, were tested. The bimetallic catalysts were Ni (approximately 20 wt.%) based catalysts doped with Cr (0.65 wt.%), Fe (0.6 wt.%), Zn (0.7 wt.%) or Cu (0.6 and 3.1 wt.%). The results in terms of H 2 production and CO 2/CO x ratio obtained over Ni-based catalysts supported on Al 2O 3 are compared with those obtained over Ni-Cu/SiO 2 and Rh/Al 2O 3 catalysts reported in our previous works. Tendencies of the product selectivities are analyzed in the light of the reaction network proposed.

  8. Ni-Ti Alloys for Aerospace Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-rich Ni-Ti alloys are emerging candidate materials for aerospace bearing applications. These alloys exhibit a unique combination of physical, chemical, and tribological properties that are highly relevant to challenging aerospace bearings and other mechanical components. Despite being made solely from metals, Ni-Ti alloys are classified as intermetallics with properties akin to both metals and ceramics. For instance, like metals, they are electrically conductive but they tend to be brittle like ceramics. When properly processed, they have high hardness, low elastic modulus and an extensive elastic deformation range that imparts extraordinarily high resilience and resistance to denting. New alloy compositions enable simpler thermal processing and machining and intensive microstructural analyses have helped elucidate the materials science mechanisms governing hardness. In this paper, the application of state-of-art in NiTi alloys for aerospace bearings and mechanical components is explored. In addition to reviewing future trends and remaining challenges, the unique approaches and methods of tailoring bearing design to accommodate NiTis unique properties is discussed.

  9. Calorimetric evaluation of commercial Ni-MH cells and charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric C.; Hughes, Brent M.

    1995-01-01

    The test objectives are to evaluate the electrical and thermal performance of commercial Ni-MH cells and to evaluate the effectiveness of commercial charge control circuits. The ultimate design objectives are to determine which cell designs are most suitable for scale-up and to guide the design of future Shuttle and Station based battery chargers.

  10. Some Notes on the Locative -Ni in Swahili.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knappert, Jan

    1967-01-01

    The ending "-ni," a productive morpheme which can be affixed to Swahili nouns, has been called the "locative" by most grammarians. While the author does not object to this term, he does not agree with Sacleux and Seidel, who call it a case. In some Indo-European and Altaic languages, the author argues, the locative is a case in…

  11. High Tc YBCO superconductor deposited on biaxially textured Ni substrate

    DOEpatents

    Budai, John D.; Christen, David K.; Goyal, Amit; He, Qing; Kroeger, Donald M.; Lee, Dominic F.; List, III, Frederick A.; Norton, David P.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Sales, Brian C.; Specht, Eliot D.

    1999-01-01

    A superconducting article includes a biaxially-textured Ni substrate, and epitaxial buffer layers of Pd (optional), CeO.sub.2 and YSZ, and a top layer of in-plane aligned, c-axis oriented YBCO having a critical current density (J.sub.c) in the range of at least 100,000 A/cm.sup.2 at 77 K.

  12. Crystallinity of Fe-Ni Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Le, Loan

    2008-01-01

    The main long-term goal of this research is to understand the physical conditions in the early solar nebula through the detailed characterization of a key class of mineral present in all primitive materials: Fe-Ni sulfides [1&2]. Fe-Ni sulfides can take dozens of structures, depending on the temperature of formation, as well as other physico-chemical factors which are imperfectly understood. Add to this the additional varying factor of Ni content, and we have a potentially sensitive cosmothermometer [3]. Unfortunately, this tool requires exact knowledge of the crystal structure of each grain being considered, and there have been few (none?) studies of the detailed structures of sulfides in chondritic materials. We report here on coordinated compositional and crystallographic investigation of Fe-Ni sulfides in diverse carbonaceous chondrites, initially Acfer 094 (the most primitive CM2 [4]) Tagish Lake (a unique type C2 [5]), a C1 lithology in Kaidun [6], Bali (oxidized CV3 [7]), and Efremovka (reduced CV3 [7]).

  13. El Niño and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Kovats, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the best known example of quasi-periodic natural climate variability on the interannual time scale. It comprises changes in sea temperature in the Pacific Ocean (El Niño) and changes in atmospheric pressure across the Pacific Basin (the Southern Oscillation), together with resultant effects on world weather. El Niño events occur at intervals of 2-7 years. In certain countries around the Pacific and beyond, El Niño is associated with extreme weather conditions that can cause floods and drought. Globally it is linked to an increased impact of natural disasters. There is evidence that ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases in specific geographical areas where weather patterns are linked with the ENSO cycle and disease control is limited. This is particularly true for malaria, but associations are also suggested in respect of epidemics of other mosquito-borne and rodent-borne diseases that can be triggered by extreme weather conditions. Seasonal climate forecasts, predicting the likelihood of weather patterns several months in advance, can be used to provide early indicators of epidemic risk, particularly for malaria. Interdisciplinary research and cooperation are required in order to reduce vulnerability to climate variability and weather extremes. PMID:11019461

  14. Thermodynamic controls of the Atlantic Niño.

    PubMed

    Nnamchi, Hyacinth C; Li, Jianping; Kucharski, Fred; Kang, In-Sik; Keenlyside, Noel S; Chang, Ping; Farneti, Riccardo

    2015-11-26

    Prevailing theories on the equatorial Atlantic Niño are based on the dynamical interaction between atmosphere and ocean. However, dynamical coupled ocean-atmosphere models poorly simulate and predict equatorial Atlantic climate variability. Here we use multi-model numerical experiments to show that thermodynamic feedbacks excited by stochastic atmospheric perturbations can generate Atlantic Niño s.d. of ∼0.28±0.07 K, explaining ∼68±23% of the observed interannual variability. Thus, in state-of-the-art coupled models, Atlantic Niño variability strongly depends on the thermodynamic component (R(2)=0.92). Coupled dynamics acts to improve the characteristic Niño-like spatial structure but not necessarily the variance. Perturbations of the equatorial Atlantic trade winds (∼±1.53 m s(-1)) can drive changes in surface latent heat flux (∼±14.35 W m(-2)) and thus in surface temperature consistent with a first-order autoregressive process. By challenging the dynamical paradigm of equatorial Atlantic variability, our findings suggest that the current theories on its modelling and predictability must be revised.

  15. Thermodynamic controls of the Atlantic Niño

    PubMed Central

    Nnamchi, Hyacinth C.; Li, Jianping; Kucharski, Fred; Kang, In-Sik; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Chang, Ping; Farneti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing theories on the equatorial Atlantic Niño are based on the dynamical interaction between atmosphere and ocean. However, dynamical coupled ocean-atmosphere models poorly simulate and predict equatorial Atlantic climate variability. Here we use multi-model numerical experiments to show that thermodynamic feedbacks excited by stochastic atmospheric perturbations can generate Atlantic Niño s.d. of ∼0.28±0.07 K, explaining ∼68±23% of the observed interannual variability. Thus, in state-of-the-art coupled models, Atlantic Niño variability strongly depends on the thermodynamic component (R2=0.92). Coupled dynamics acts to improve the characteristic Niño-like spatial structure but not necessarily the variance. Perturbations of the equatorial Atlantic trade winds (∼±1.53 m s−1) can drive changes in surface latent heat flux (∼±14.35 W m−2) and thus in surface temperature consistent with a first-order autoregressive process. By challenging the dynamical paradigm of equatorial Atlantic variability, our findings suggest that the current theories on its modelling and predictability must be revised. PMID:26608398

  16. Investigation of coercivity for electroplated Fe-Ni thick films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, T.; Eguchi, K.; Koda, K.; Kaji, J.; Aramaki, H.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    We have already reported Fe-Ni firms with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In our previous studies, we prepared the Fe-Ni films from citric-acid-based baths (CA-baths) and ammonium-chloride-based ones (AC-baths), and confirmed that the coercivity for the AC-baths was lower than that for the CA-baths. In the present study, we investigated reasons for the lower coercivity for the AC-baths to further improve the soft magnetic properties. From an observation of magnetic domains of the Fe22Ni78 films, we found that Fe22Ni78 film for AC-bath had a magnetic anisotropy in the width direction, and also found that the coercivity in the width direction was lower than the longitudinal one for the AC-bath. As an annealing for a stress relaxation in the films reduced the difference in the coercivity, we considered that the anisotropy is attributed to the magneto-elastic effect.

  17. Very massive neutron stars in Ni's theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that in Ni's theory of gravity, which is identical to general relativity in the post-Newtonian limit, neutron stars of arbitrarily large mass are possible. This result is independent, within reasonable bounds, of the equation of state of matter at supernuclear densities.

  18. Ni-H2 cell characterization for INTELSAT programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunnet, Andrew F.; Earl, Martin W.

    1994-01-01

    Various Ni/H2 cell designs manufactured for INTELSAT Programs during the past decade have been characterized electrically as a function of temperature. The resulting data for these INTELSAT V, VI, VII and VIIA cells are assembled in a manner which allows ready comparison of performance. Also included is a detailed description of each design.

  19. Improving the low temperature ductility of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guha, Sumit; Munroe, Paul R.; Baker, Ian

    1989-01-01

    As part of a study aimed at developing a ductile NiAl-based alloy, ingots of Ni-Fe-Al alloys were cast and hot extruded to rods. The purpose of the iron additions was two-fold viz; to produce a change in the slip vector from 001 to 111 line and, in one alloy, to add a L1(2)-structured ductile second phase. Extruded Ni-20Al-30Fe was two-phase, containing a pro-eutectic B2 phase in a fine lamellar structure of B2+L1(2) phases. Room temperature tensile testing of both single extruded and double extruded alloys resulted in 8-percent and 22-percent plastic elongation and yield stresses of 850 and 760 MPa, respectively. Fracture in both cases occurred by ductile tearing of the eutectic and transgranular cleavage of the proeutectic phase at 1350 MPa. The ductility in double extruded condition is higher than that reported earlier in rapidly solidified wires by Inoue et al. (1984). By comparison, extruded single-phase B2-structured Ni-30Al-20Fe exhibited a fracture strength of 780 MPa, no plasticity, and a mixture of intergranular fracture and transgranular cleavage. This is contrast to earlier work by Inoue et al. where a yield stress of 400 MPa, 5 percent plastic strain, and a mixture of dimple and intergranular fracture was reported.

  20. Ni-Ti Next Generation Bearings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    NASA applications challenge traditional bearing materials. The rigors of launch often include heavy shock loads and exposure to corrosive environments (e.g., salt spray). Unfortunately, ball and roller bearings made from hardened steels are vulnerable to Brinell denting and rust which can limit performance and life. Ceramic materials can eliminate corrosion concerns but their high stiffness and extreme hardness actually makes denting problems worse. In this presentation, an emerging superelastic alloy, NiTi, is introduced for rolling element bearing applications. Through a decade of RD, NiTi alloy bearings have been put through a comprehensive series of life and performance tests. Hardness, corrosion, strength, stiffness, and rolling contact fatigue tests have been conducted and reported. Ball bearings ranging in size from 12 to 50mm bore have been successfully engineered and operated over a wide range of speeds and test conditions including being submerged in water. The combination of high hardness, moderate elastic modulus, low density, and intrinsic corrosion immunity provide new possibilities for mechanisms that operate under extreme conditions. Recent preliminary tests indicate that bearings can be made from NiTi alloys that are easily lubricated by conventional oils and greases and exhibit acceptable rolling contact fatigue resistance. This presentation introduces the NiTi materials systems and shows how NASA is using it to alleviate several specific problems encountered in advanced space applications.

  1. Tensile Creep of Polycrystalline Near-Stoichiometric NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2002-01-01

    Long term tensile creep studies were conducted on binary NiAl in the temperature range 700-1200 K with the objectives of characterizing and understanding the creep mechanisms. Inverse and normal primary creep curves were observed depending on stress and temperature. It was concluded that the creep of NiAl is limited by dislocation mobility. The stress exponent for creep, n, increased from 5.5 at 1200 K to 13.9 at 700 K. The true activation energy for creep, Qc, was constant and equal to about 400 kJ per mole between 20 and 50 MPa but decreased to a constant value of 250 kJ per mole between 50 and 110 MPa. The activation energy was observed to be stress dependent above 110 MPa. The tensile creep results reported in this investigation were compared with compression creep data reported in the literature. A detailed discussion of the probable dislocation creep mechanisms governing compressive and tensile creep of NiAl is presented. It is concluded that the non-conservative motion of jogs on screw dislocations influenced the nature of the primary creep curves, where the climb of these jogs involves either the next nearest neighbor or the six-jump cycle vacancy diffusion mechanism. The probable nature of the atom vacancy exchange that occur within the core of an edge dislocation undergoing climb in NiAl are schematically examined.

  2. Enhanced catalytic behavior of Ni alloys in steam methane reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeongpil; Kim, Hanmi; Lee, Jaichan

    2017-08-01

    The dissociation process of methane on Ni and Ni alloys are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) in terms of catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition. Examining the dissociation to CH3, CH2, CH, C, and H is not sufficient to properly predict the catalytic efficiency and carbon deposition, and further investigation of the CO gas-evolving reaction is required to completely understand methane dissociation in steam. The location of alloying element in Ni alloy needed be addressed from the results of ab-inito molecular dynamics (MD). The reaction pathway of methane dissociation associated with CO gas evolution is traced by performing first-principles calculations of the adsorption and activation energies of each dissociation step. During the dissociation process, two alternative reaction steps producing adsorbed C and H or adsorbed CO are critically important in determining coking inhibition as well as H2 gas evolution (i.e., the catalytic efficiency). The theoretical calculations presented here suggest that alloying Ni with Ru is an effective way to reduce carbon deposition and enhance the catalytic efficiency of H2 fueling in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

  3. Ballistic magnetoresistance over 3000% in Ni nanocontacts at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Harsh Deep; Hua, Susan Z.

    2002-06-01

    This paper reports ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR) measurements in Ni nanocontacts made by electrodeposition. BMR in excess of 3000% is observed at room temperature and the observed large values of BMR are obtained in switching fields of only a few hundred oersteds. The results are attributed to spin-dependent electron transport across nanometer sharp domain walls within the nanocontacts.

  4. Novel reactions of homodinuclear Ni2 complexes [Ni(RNPyS4)]2 with Fe3(CO)12 to give heterotrinuclear NiFe2 and mononuclear Fe complexes relevant to [NiFe]- and [Fe]-hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Cheng; Cao, Meng; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2015-04-21

    The homodinuclear complexes [Ni(RNPyS4)]2 (; RNPyS4 = 2,6-bis(2-mercaptophenylthiomethyl)-4-R-pyridine; R = H, MeO, Cl, Br, i-Pr) were found to be prepared by reactions of the in situ generated Li2[Ni(1,2-S2C6H4)2] with 2,6-bis[(tosyloxy)methyl]pyridine and its substituted derivatives 2,6-bis[(tosyloxy)methyl]-4-R-pyridine. Further reactions of with Fe3(CO)12 gave both heterotrinuclear complexes NiFe2(RNPyS4)(CO)5 () and mononuclear complexes Fe(RNPyS4)(CO) (), unexpectedly. Interestingly, complexes and could be regarded as models for the active sites of [NiFe]- and [Fe]-hydrogenases, respectively. All the prepared complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, and particularly for some of them, by X-ray crystallography. In addition, the electrochemical properties of and as well as the electrocatalytic H2 production catalyzed by and were investigated by CV techniques.

  5. Development of a high capacity toroidal Ni/Cd cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Foos, J. S.; Avery, J. W.; Feiman, V.

    1981-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery design which can offer better thermal management, higher energy density and much lower cost than the state-of-the-art is emphasized. A toroidal Ni/Cd cell concept is described. It was critically reviewed and used to develop two cell designs for practical implementation. One is a double swaged and the other a swaged welded configuration.

  6. CO2 Hydrogenation to Formic Acid on Ni(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Guowen; Sibener, S. J.; Schatz, George C.

    2012-03-06

    Hydrogen (H) in the subsurface of transition-metal surfaces exhibits unique reactivity for heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogenation reactions. Here, we explore the potential of subsurface H for hydrogenating carbon dioxide (CO2) on Ni(110). The energetics of surface and subsurface H reacting with surface CO2 to form formate, carboxyl, and formic acid on Ni(110) is systematically studied using self-consistent, spin-polarized, periodic density functional theory (DFT-GGA-PW91) calculations. We show that on Ni(110), CO2 can be hydrogenated to formate by surface H. However, further hydrogenation of formate to formic acid by surface H is hindered by a larger activation energy barrier. The relative energetics ofmore » hydrogenation barriers is reversed for the carboxyl-mediated route to formic acid.We suggest that the energetics of subsurface H emerging to the surface is suitable for providing the extra energy needed to overcome the barrier to formate hydrogenation. CO2 hydrogenation to formic acid could take place on Ni(110) when subsurface H is available to react with CO2. Additional electronic-structure based dynamic calculations would be needed to elucidate the detailed reaction paths for these transformations.« less

  7. Electrochemical oxygen reduction catalysed by Ni 3(hexaiminotriphenylene) 2

    DOE PAGES

    Miner, Elise M.; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Sheberla, Dennis; ...

    2016-03-08

    Control over the architectural and electronic properties of heterogeneous catalysts poses a major obstacle in the targeted design of active and stable non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we introduce Ni 3(HITP) 2 (HITP=2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11-hexaiminotriphenylene) as an intrinsically conductive metal-organic framework which functions as a well-defined, tunable oxygen reduction electrocatalyst in alkaline solution. Ni 3(HITP) 2 exhibits oxygen reduction activity competitive with the most active non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts and stability during extended polarization. The square planar Ni-N 4 sites are structurally reminiscent of the highly active and widely studied non-platinum groupmore » metal electrocatalysts containing M-N 4 units. Ni 3(HITP) 2 and analogues thereof combine the high crystallinity of metal-organic frameworks, the physical durability and electrical conductivity of graphitic materials, and the diverse yet well-controlled synthetic accessibility of molecular species. As a result, such properties may enable the targeted synthesis and systematic optimization of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts as components of fuel cells and electrolysers for renewable energy applications.« less

  8. Electrochemical oxygen reduction catalysed by Ni3(hexaiminotriphenylene)2

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Elise M.; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Sheberla, Dennis; Sun, Lei; Surendranath, Yogesh; Dincă, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    Control over the architectural and electronic properties of heterogeneous catalysts poses a major obstacle in the targeted design of active and stable non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we introduce Ni3(HITP)2 (HITP=2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11-hexaiminotriphenylene) as an intrinsically conductive metal-organic framework which functions as a well-defined, tunable oxygen reduction electrocatalyst in alkaline solution. Ni3(HITP)2 exhibits oxygen reduction activity competitive with the most active non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts and stability during extended polarization. The square planar Ni-N4 sites are structurally reminiscent of the highly active and widely studied non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts containing M-N4 units. Ni3(HITP)2 and analogues thereof combine the high crystallinity of metal-organic frameworks, the physical durability and electrical conductivity of graphitic materials, and the diverse yet well-controlled synthetic accessibility of molecular species. Such properties may enable the targeted synthesis and systematic optimization of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts as components of fuel cells and electrolysers for renewable energy applications. PMID:26952523

  9. Precipitation in 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu maraging steels

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, K.; Haettestrand, M.; Danoix, F.

    1998-11-02

    Two maraging steels with the compositions 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu-4Mo (wt%) and 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu and with small additions of Al and Ti were investigated using atom probe field ion microscopy. Tomographic atom probe investigations were performed to clarify the spatial distribution of elements in and close to the precipitates. Materials heat treated at 475 C for 5, 25 min, 1, 2, 4 and 400 h were analyzed. Precipitates in the Mo-rich material were observed already after 5 min of aging, while in the material without MO, precipitation started later. In both materials precipitation begins with the formation of Cu-rich particles which work as nucleationmore » sites for a Ni-rich phase of type Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al). A Mo-rich phase was detected in the Mo-rich steel after 2 h of aging. The distribution of alloying elements in the precipitates, their role in the precipitation process, and the mechanism of hardening in the two materials are discussed.« less

  10. High Temperature coatings based on β-NiAI

    SciTech Connect

    Severs, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB 2 composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  11. Temperature dependence of 63Ni-Si betavoltaic microbattery.

    PubMed

    Yunpeng, Liu; Xiao, Guo; Zhangang, Jin; Xiaobin, Tang

    2018-05-01

    This paper theoretically presented the temperature effects on the 63 Ni-Si betavoltaic microbattery irradiated by a source with different thicknesses and activity densities at a temperature range 170-340K. Temperature dependences of the monolayer and interbedded 63 Ni-Si betavoltaics at 213.15-333.15K were tested with respect to calculations. Results showed that the higher the thickness, activity density, and average energy of the source, the lower is the betavoltaic performance responds to temperature. With the increase in temperature, the V oc and P max of the upper, lower, and interbedded betavoltaics decreased linearly at low temperatures and decreased exponentially at high temperatures in the experiment. As predicted, the measured V oc and P max sensitivities of the lower betavoltaic with 4.90mCi/cm 2 63 Ni, -2.230mV/K and -1.132%, respectively, were lower than those with 1.96mCi/cm 2 63 Ni, -2.490mV/K and -1.348%, respectively. Compared with the calculated results, the prepared betavoltaics had lower V oc sensitivity and higher P max sensitivity. In addition, the measured V oc sensitivity of the interbedded betavoltaic in series is equal to the sum of those of the upper and lower ones as predicted. Moreover, the measured P max sensitivity of the interbedded betavoltaic is equal to the average of those of the two monolayers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoscale design of Ni-Al shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, Arun K; Sun, C T

    2009-02-25

    Nanoscale design of Ni-Al alloys was performed to optimize the phase transformation behavior. The distribution of nickel and aluminum atoms was identified as a key parameter in the phase transformation process. A design criterion based on thermal expansion asymmetry was proposed. The effectiveness of the design criterion was validated using molecular dynamics simulations.

  13. Constructing Multifunctional Metallic Ni Interface Layers in the g-C3N4 Nanosheets/Amorphous NiS Heterojunctions for Efficient Photocatalytic H2 Generation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Zhang, Hongdan; Zhang, Aiping; Liu, Yingju; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin

    2017-04-26

    The construction of exceptionally robust and high-quality semiconductor-cocatalyst heterojunctions remains a grand challenge toward highly efficient and durable solar-to-fuel conversion. Herein, novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanosheets decorated with multifunctional metallic Ni interface layers and amorphous NiS cocatalysts were fabricated via a facile three-step process: the loading of Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets, high-temperature H 2 reduction, and further deposition of amorphous NiS nanosheets. The results demonstrated that both robust metallic Ni interface layers and amorphous NiS can be utilized as electron cocatalysts to markedly boost the visible-light H 2 evolution over g-C 3 N 4 semiconductor. The optimized g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalyst containing 0.5 wt % Ni and 1.0 wt % NiS presented the highest hydrogen evolution of 515 μmol g -1 h -1 , which was about 2.8 and 4.6 times as much as those obtained on binary g-C 3 N 4 -1.0%NiS and g-C 3 N 4 -0.5%Ni, respectively. Apparently, the metallic Ni interface layers play multifunctional roles in enhancing the visible-light H 2 evolution, which could first collect the photogenerated electrons from g-C 3 N 4 , and then accelerate the surface H 2 -evolution reaction kinetics over amorphous NiS cocatalysts. More interestingly, the synergetic effects of metallic Ni and amorphous NiS dual-layer electron cocatalysts could also improve the TEOA-oxidation capacity through upshifting the VB levels of g-C 3 N 4 . Comparatively speaking, the multifunctional metallic Ni layers are dominantly favorable for separating and transferring photoexcited charge carriers from g-C 3 N 4 to amorphous NiS cocatalysts owing to the formation of Schottky junctions, whereas the amorphous NiS nanosheets are mainly advantageous for decreasing the thermodynamic overpotentials for surface H 2 -evolution reactions. It is hoped that the implantation of multifunctional metallic interface layers can provide a versatile approach to enhance the

  14. Cu and Ni solubility in high-temperature aqueous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watenphul, A.; Scholten, L.; Beermann, O.; Kavner, A.; Alraun, P.; Falkenberg, G.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.; Schmidt, C.

    2013-12-01

    Copper and nickel are generally associated in magmatic sulfide ores formed by immiscibility in mafic and ultramafic magmas. In contrast, hydrothermal Cu-Ni deposits are uncommon and these elements usually occur in separate Cu-Fe-sulfide and Ni-Co-Ag-Bi-As-S mineralizations. Among the porphyry-type deposits formed at high temperatures to about 700 °C, there are many copper but no nickel deposits [1], pointing to a higher solubility of Cu relative to Ni in aqueous fluids at such conditions. The aim of this study is to measure the solubilities of Cu and Ni sulfides in high-temperature hydrothermal fluids in-situ using synchrotron-radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Synthetic CuS or NiS crystals were partly dissolved in aqueous NaCl, NaCl+HCl, or CaCl2 solutions at temperatures of 400 to 600 °C and pressures between 70 and 900 MPa using a modified hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell with a recess in one diamond [2]. Consecutive XRF spectra of the fluid in the recess were collected in a confocal mode to exclude signal contributions from the crystals in the sample chamber [3]. Equilibrium was assumed if the determined concentrations of the dissolved metals indicated that a steady state was attained. The measured dissolved Cu concentrations ranged between 22 ppm at 70 MPa, 500 °C and 235 ppm at 306 MPa, 600 °C in 0.5 to 1.6 m NaCl solutions. We observed a decrease in Cu concentration with increasing pressure at constant temperature, and for 1.6 m NaCl an increase by a factor of two along an isochore from 120 MPa, 500 °C to 306 MPa, 600 °C. Higher Cu solubilities were determined in more concentrated solutions. A preliminary run with a more acidic NaCl+HCl solution (pH ~1) revealed a dramatic increase in the dissolved Cu concentration to 7898 ppm at 170 MPa, 500 °C. The measured dissolved Ni concentrations ranged between 3 ppm at 200 MPa, 500 °C in a 1 m NaCl solution and 33 ppm at 411 MPa, 500 °C in a 0.75 m CaCl2 solution. A solubility maximum at 500

  15. Hierachical Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles through epitaxial growth of γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on in situ formed Ni nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Herzberger, Jana; Natalio, Filipe; Köhler, Oskar; Branscheid, Robert; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Panthöfer, Martin; Kolb, Ute; Frey, Holger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water.One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water. Electronic supplementary

  16. Investigations in Producing Porous NiAl by Combustion Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Songming

    In recent years, nickel aluminide (NiAl) intermetallic foam, which combines the advantages of nickel-based alloy and metallic foam, has attracted great attention due to its extraordinary properties. In this present work, nickel aluminide (NiAl) foam has been reactively processed from elemental powder (nickel and aluminium) with different types and percentage of volume of a foaming agent (TiH2 or CaCO3), using a combustion synthesis (CS) approach. Most of the previous research has focused on producing close-cell NiAl intermetallic foam; however, this paper presents a new combustion synthesis process to fabricate a hybrid open-cell and close-cell NiAl intermetallic foam. Mixed elemental powder was compacted at moderate pressure generating closed and open porosity with green compact; as a result, part of the liberated gas could escape from the sample, which resulted in producing open-cell pores, in addition, closed cell pores in the product. The effect of foaming agent type and volume percentage on the product is discussed. An increase in volume percentage of TiH2 was found to have beneficial effects on increasing porosity; however, with the increase of volume percentage of CaCO3, there is a big drop in porosity because the low viscosity under high temperature makes more liberated gas escape and pores collapse. According to XRD and EDX analysis, despite the present of multiple phases in samples, NiAl was still the major phase. Hardness measurement shows that high hardness value was obtained at sample of low grain size, hardness value increases with decreasing grain size.

  17. Performance of NiTi endodontic instrument under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Yahata, Yoshio; Ebihara, Arata; Atmeh, Amre R; Bakhsh, Turki; Suda, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test nickel titanium (NiTi) instrument performance under different surrounding temperatures. Twenty-four superelastic NiTi instruments with a conical shape comprising a 0.30-mm-diameter tip and 0.06 taper were equally divided into 3 groups according to the temperature employed. Using a specially designed cyclic fatigue testing apparatus, each instrument was deflected to give a curvature 10 mm in radius and a 30° angle. This position was kept as the instrument was immersed in a continuous flow of water under a temperature of 10, 37, or 50 °C for 20 s to calculate the deflecting load (DL). In the same position, the instrument was then allowed to rotate at 300 rpm to fracture, and the working time was converted to the number of cycles to fracture (NCF). The statistical significance was set at p = 0.05. The mean DL (in N) and NCF (in cycles) of the groups at 10, 37, and 50 °C were 10.16 ± 1.36 and 135.50 ± 31.48, 13.50 ± 0.92 and 89.20 ± 16.44, and 14.70 ± 1.21 and 65.50 ± 15.90, respectively. The group at 10 °C had significantly the lowest DL that favorably resulted in the highest NCF. Within the limitations of this study, the surrounding temperature influences the cyclic fatigue resistance and DL of the superelastic NiTi instruments. Lower temperatures are found to favorably decrease the DL and extend the lifetime of the superelastic NiTi instrument. Further NiTi instrument failure studies should be performed under simulated body temperature.

  18. Power on the move NiCd and NiMH small sealed rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Puglisi, V.J.

    1995-12-31

    Society is becoming increasingly addicted to life on the go. Both at home and on the job, we expect to have a full range of electrical and electronic devices available no matter where we are. Meeting this demand for mobility has spurred growth in small rechar