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Sample records for kentucky gaseous diffusion

  1. Site-specific earthquake response analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, D.W.; Davis, J.J.

    1993-08-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated under contract by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., is located southwest of Paducah, Kentucky. An aerial photograph and an oblique sketch of the plant are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. The fenced portion of the plant consists of 748 acres. This plant was constructed in the 1950`s and is one of only two gaseous diffusion plants in operation in the United States; the other is located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The facilities at PGDP are currently being evaluated for safety in response to natural seismic hazards. Design and evaluation guidelines to evaluate the effects of earthquakes and other natural hazards on DOE facilities follow probabilistic hazard models that have been outlined by Kennedy et al. (1990). Criteria also established by Kennedy et al. (1990) classify diffusion plants as ``moderate hazard`` facilities. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was tasked to calculate the site response using site-specific design earthquake records developed by others and the results of previous geotechnical investigations. In all, six earthquake records at three hazard levels and four individual and one average soil columns were used.

  2. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  4. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, Richard S.

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  5. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  6. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.K.

    1995-03-01

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.

  7. Environmental investigations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, McCracken County, Kentucky: Volume 1 -- Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report details the results of four studies into environmental and cultural resources on and near the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) located in Western Kentucky in McCracken County, approximately 10 miles west of Paducah, KY. The area investigated includes the PGDP facility proper, additional area owned by DOE under use permit to the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA), area owned by the Commonwealth of Kentucky that is administered by the WKWMA, area owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Metropolis Lake State Nature preserve and some privately held land. DOE requested the assistance and support of the US Army Engineer District, Nashville (CEORN) in conducting various environmental investigations of the area. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) provided technical support to the CEORN for environmental investigations of (1) wetland resources, (2) threatened or endangered species and habitats, and (3) cultural resources. A floodplain investigation was conducted by CEORN.

  8. Reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake- induced settlements at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, D.W.; Yule, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report documents a reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake-induced settlements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located southwest of Paducah, KY. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was authorized to conduct this study from FY91 to FY94 by the DOE, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), Oak Ridge, TN, through Inter- Agency Agreement (IAG) No. DE-AI05-91OR21971. The study was conducted under the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report (GDP SAR) Program.

  9. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  10. Utilization of 4-Dimensional Data Visualization Modeling to Evaluate Burial Ground Contaminants at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Brindley, T. L.; Tarantino, J. J.; Locke, A. L.; Dollins, D. W.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes how 4-Dimensional (4D) Data Visualization Modeling was used to evaluate historical data and to help guide the decisions for the sampling necessary to complete a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the burial ground sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). DOE at the Paducah Site is primarily involved in environmental cleanup and landlord activities. The scope of this project was to prepare a work plan for identifying the data available and the data required to conduct an RI/FS for the Burial Ground Operable Unit (BGOU) located within and near PGDP. The work plan focuses on collecting existing information about contamination in and around the burial grounds and determining what additional data are required to support an assessment of risks to human health and the environment and to support future decisions regarding actions to reduce these risks. (authors)

  11. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  12. Gaseous diffusion system

    DOEpatents

    Garrett, George A.; Shacter, John

    1978-01-01

    1. A gaseous diffusion system comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of said diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof.

  13. 78 FR 30342 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... COMMISSION United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Renewal of its Certificate of Compliance (CoC) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The... uranium enrichment facility in Paducah, Kentucky, using the gaseous diffusion process. The USEC requests...

  14. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  15. ENZYME ACTIVITY PROBE AND GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POTENTIAL AEROBIC COMETABOLISM OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE NORTHWEST PLUME, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; M. Hope Lee, M; S. K. Hampson, S

    2008-06-27

    The overarching objective of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) enzyme activity probe (EAP) effort is to determine if aerobic cometabolism is contributing to the attenuation of trichloroethene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents in the contaminated groundwater beneath PGDP. The site-specific objective for the EAP assessment is to identify if key metabolic pathways are present and expressed in the microbial community--namely the pathways that are responsible for degradation of methane and aromatic (e.g. toluene, benzene, phenol) substrates. The enzymes produced to degrade methane and aromatic compounds also break down TCE through a process known as cometabolism. EAPs directly measure if methane and/or aromatic enzyme production pathways are operating and, for the aromatic pathways, provide an estimate of the number of active organisms in the sampled groundwater. This study in the groundwater plumes at PGDP is a major part of a larger scientific effort being conducted by Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and North Wind Inc. in which EAPs are being applied to contaminated groundwater from diverse hydrogeologic and plume settings throughout the U.S. to help standardize their application as well as their interpretation. While EAP data provide key information to support the site specific objective for PGDP, several additional lines of evidence are being evaluated to increase confidence in the determination of the occurrence of biodegradation and the rate and sustainability of aerobic cometabolism. These complementary efforts include: (1) Examination of plume flowpaths and comparison of TCE behavior to 'conservative' tracers in the plume (e.g., {sup 99}Tc); (2) Evaluation of geochemical conditions throughout the plume; and (3) Evaluation of stable isotopes in the contaminants and their daughter products throughout the plume. If

  16. A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT WATER POLICY BOUNDARY AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-13

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The

  17. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes for trichloroethylene and technetium-99 in the Northeast and Northwest plumes at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, J.L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Abrajano,T.

    1997-11-25

    NA processes such as biodegradation, sorption, dilution dispersion, advection, and possibly sorption and diffusion are occurring in the Northeast and Northwest plumes. However, the overall biological attenuation rate for TCE within the plumes is not sufficiently rapid to utilize as remedial option. The mobility and toxicity of {sup 99}Tc is not being reduced by attenuating processes within the Northwest Plume. The current EPA position is that NA is not a viable remedial approach unless destructive processes are present or processes are active which reduce the toxicity and mobility of a contaminant. Therefore, active remediation of the dissolved phase plumes will be necessary to reduce contaminant concentrations before an NA approach could be justified at PGDP for either plume. Possible treatment methods for the reduction of dissolved phase concentrations within the plumes are pump-and-treat bioaugmentation, biostimulation, or multiple reactive barriers. Another possibility is the use of a regulatory instrument such as an Alternate Concentration Limit (ACL) petition. Biodegradation of TCE is occurring in both plumes and several hypothesis are possible to explain the apparent conflicts with some of the geochemical data. The first hypothesis is active intrinsic bioremediation is negligible or so slow to be nonmeasurable. In this scenario, the D.O., chloride, TCE, and isotopic results are indicative of past microbiological reactions. It is surmised in this scenario, that when the initial TCE release occurred, sufficient energy sources were available for microorganisms to drive aerobic reduction of TCE, but these energy sources were rapidly depleted. The initial degraded TCE has since migrated to downgradient locations. In the second scenario, TCE anaerobic degradation occurs in organic-rich micro-environments within a generally aerobic aquifer. TCE maybe strongly absorbed to organic-rich materials in the aquifer matrix and degraded by local Immunities of microbes

  18. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  19. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  20. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  1. Diffusion method of seperating gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-01-01

    A method of effecting a relatively large change in the relative concentrations of the components of a gaseous mixture by diffusion which comprises separating the mixture into heavier and lighter portions according to major fraction mass recycle procedure, further separating the heavier portions into still heavier subportions according to a major fraction mass recycle procedure, and further separating the lighter portions into still lighter subportions according to a major fraction equilibrium recycle procedure.

  2. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  3. Radiant Extinction of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, Sean; Atreya, Arvind; Everest, David; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1999-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu-g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and mu-g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames, flame spread over solids, droplet combustion, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (1) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation; and (2) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the "weak" (low burning rate per unit flame area) mu-g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in mu-g will burn indefinitely. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the mu-g experiments and modeling because: (1) It reduces the complexity by making the problem one

  4. Radiant Extinction Of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Atreya, A.; Baum, Howard R.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2003-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu:g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and :g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames [1, 2], flame spread over solids [3, 4], droplet combustion [5,6], and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the Aweak@ (low burning rate per unit flame area) :g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in :g will burn indefinitely [1]. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the :g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem

  5. Bioavailability study for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to assess the bioavailability of metals in the continuous and intermittent outfalls. The results may be used to determine alternative metal limits that more appropriately measure the portion of metal present necessary for toxicity to aquatic life. These limits must remain protective of in-stream aquatic life; thus, the highest concentration of metal in the water will be determined concurrently with an assessment of acute or chronic toxicity on laboratory tests. Using the method developed by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW), biomonitoring results and chemical data will be used to recommend alternative metal limits for the outfalls of concern. The data will be used to meet the objectives of the study: (1) evaluate the toxicity of continuous outfalls and intermittent outfalls at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (2) determine the mean ratio of dissolved to Total Recoverable metal for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the continuous and intermittent outfalls; (3) determine whether the concentration of total recoverable metal discharged causes toxicity to fathead minnows and /or Ceriodaphnia; and (4) determine alternative metal limits for each metal of concern (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn).

  6. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  7. Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

  8. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  9. THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM ISOTOPES BY GASEOUS DIFFUSION: A LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    URANIUM, ISOTOPE SEPARATION), (*GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION, LINEAR PROGRAMMING ), (* LINEAR PROGRAMMING , GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, GAS FLOW, NUCLEAR REACTORS, OPERATIONS RESEARCH

  10. Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

  11. Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

  12. Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF{sub 6} and other gases are evacuated. The UF{sub 6} is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF{sub 3} gas at subatmospheric pressure and at {approx} 75{degree}F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.

  13. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  14. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  15. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  16. Numerical investigations of gaseous spherical diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.

    Spherical diffusion flames have several unique characteristics that make them attractive from experimental and theoretical perspectives. They can be modeled with one spatial dimension, which frees computational resources for detailed chemistry, transport, and radiative loss models. This dissertation is a numerical study of two classes of spherical diffusion flames: hydrogen micro-diffusion flames, emphasizing kinetic extinction, and ethylene diffusion flames, emphasizing sooting limits. The flames were modeled using a one-dimensional, time-accurate diffusion flame code with detailed chemistry and transport. Radiative losses from products were modeled using a detailed absorption/emission statistical narrow band model and the discrete ordinates method. During this work the code has been enhanced by the implementation of a soot formation/oxidation model using the method of moments. Hydrogen micro-diffusion flames were studied experimentally and numerically. The experiments involved gas jets of hydrogen. At their quenching limits, these flames had heat release rates of 0.46 and 0.25 W in air and in oxygen, respectively. These are the weakest flames ever observed. The modeling results confirmed the quenching limits and revealed high rates of reactant leakage near the limits. The effects of the burner size and mass flow rate were predicted to have a significant impact on the flame chemistry and species distribution profiles, favoring kinetic extinction. Spherical ethylene diffusion flames at their sooting limits were also examined. Seventeen normal and inverse spherical flames were considered. Initially sooty, these flames were experimentally observed to reach their sooting limits 2 s after ignition. Structure of the flames at 2 s was considered, with an emphasis on the relationships among local temperature, carbon to oxygen atom ratio (C/O), and scalar dissipation rate. A critical C/O ratio was identified, along with two different sooting limit regimes. Diffusion flames

  17. Radiant extinction of gaseous diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, Arvind; Agrawal, Sanjay; Shamim, Tariq; Pickett, Kent; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Baum, Howard R.

    1995-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal-gravity and microgravity flames have been reported during droplet combustion, flame spread over solids, candle flames, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence time and higher concentration of combustion products create a thermochemical environment which changes the flame chemistry. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored under normal gravity, become very important and sometimes even controlling. This is particularly true for conditions at extinction of a microgravity diffusion flame. Under normal-gravity, the buoyant flow, which may be characterized by the strain rate, assists the diffusion process to transport the fuel and oxidizer to the combustion zone and remove the hot combustion products from it. These are essential functions for the survival of the flame which needs fuel and oxidizer. Thus, as the strain rate is increased, the diffusion flame which is 'weak' (reduced burning rate per unit flame area) at low strain rates is initially 'strengthened' and eventually it may be 'blown-out'. Most of the previous research on diffusion flame extinction has been conducted at the high strain rate 'blow-off' limit. The literature substantially lacks information on low strain rate, radiation-induced, extinction of diffusion flames. At the low strain rates encountered in microgravity, flame radiation is enhanced due to: (1) build-up of combustion products in the flame zone which increases the gas radiation, and (2) low strain rates provide sufficient residence time for substantial amounts of soot to form which further increases the flame radiation. It is expected that this radiative heat loss will extinguish the already 'weak' diffusion flame under certain conditions. Identifying these conditions (ambient atmosphere, fuel flow rate, fuel

  18. An introduction to technetium in the gaseous diffusion cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.W.

    1996-09-01

    The radioisotope technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) was introduced into the gaseous diffusion plants (GDP) as a contaminant in uranium that had been reprocessed from spent nuclear reactor fuel. {sup 99}Tc is a product of the nuclear fission of uranium-235 ({sup 235}U). The significantly higher emitted radioactivity of {sup 99}Tc generates concern in the enrichment complex and warrants increased attention (1) to the control of all site emissions, (2) to worker exposures and contamination control when process equipment requires disassembly and decontamination, and (3) to product purity when the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) product is marketed to the private sector. A total of 101,268 metric tons of RU ({approximately}96% of the total) was fed at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) between FY1953 and FY1976. An additional 5600 metric tons of RU from the government reactors were fed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), plus an approximate 500 tons of foreign reactor returns. Only a small amount of RU was fed directly at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The slightly enriched PGDP product was then fed to either the ORGDP or PORTS cascades for final enrichment. Bailey estimated in 1988 that of the 606 kg of Tc received at PGDP from RU, 121 kg was subsequently re-fed to ORGDP and 85 kg re-fed to PORTS.

  19. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  20. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  1. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Counce-Brown, D.

    1991-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Environmental Report for 1990, is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  2. Environmental protection facilities safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this Safety Study is to examine the existing facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are dedicated to environmental protection. Seven separate, numbered facilities and five unnumbered continuous air sampling stations are identified as the fixed facilities to protect the environment. Each is examined from the standpoint of hazardous materials, monitoring and protection systems, confinement systems, ventilation systems, criticality control systems, fire protection systems, waste disposal systems, and safety systems.

  3. Overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.J.; Stoddart, W.C.; Burnett, W.A.; Beavers, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the Department of Energy (DOE). The overview describes the original design, the seismic evaluations performed for the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) issued in 1985, and current evaluations and designs to address revised DOE requirements. Future plans to ensure changes in requirements and knowledge are addressed.

  4. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

  5. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Counce-Brown, D.

    1991-09-01

    This calendar year 1990 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the summary, discussion, and conclusions (Part 1) and the data presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are as follows: report 1990 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (when appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance.

  6. Countercurrent Gaseous Diffusion Model of Oxidation Through a Porous Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.

    1996-07-01

    A countercurrent gaseous diffusion model was developed to describe oxidation through porous coatings and scales. The specific system modeled involved graphite oxidized through a porous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) overcoat between 570 C (1,058 F) and 975 C (1,787 F). The model separated the porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating into two gas diffusion regions separated by a flame front, where oxygen (O{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO) react to form carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the outer region O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} counterdiffused. In the inner region, CO{sub 2} and CO counterdiffused. Concentration gradients of each gaseous specie in the pores of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were determined, and the oxidation rate was calculated. The model was verified by oxidation experiments using graphite through various porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overcoats. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overcoats ranged in fractional porosity and in average pore radius from 0.077 {micro}m (3.0 x 10{sup -6} in., Knudsen diffusion) to 10.0 {micro}m (3.9 x 10{sup -4} in., molecular diffusion). Predicted and measured oxidation rates were shown to have the same dependence upon porosity, pore radius, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure (P{sub O{sub 2}}). Use of the model was proposed for other oxidation systems and for chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This work was part of the U.S. Bureau of Mines corrosion research program.

  7. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  8. Seismic issues at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E. )

    1989-11-01

    A seismic expert workshop was held at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on March 13--15, 1989. the PGDP is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). During the last twenty years the design criteria for natural phenomenon hazards has steadily become more demanding at all of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) sites. The purpose of the two-day workshop was to review the seismic vulnerability issues of the PGDP facilities. Participants to the workshop included recognized experts in the fields of seismic engineering, seismology and geosciences, and probabilistic analysis, along with engineers and other personnel from Energy Systems. A complete list of the workshop participants is included in the front of this report. 29 refs.

  9. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. ); McGinnis, B. )

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This two-part environmental report is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. 36 refs.

  11. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  12. Mortality patterns among Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant workers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Caroline; Hughes, Therese S; Muldoon, Susan; Aldrich, Tim; Rice, Carol; Hornung, Richard; Brion, Gail; Tollerud, David J

    2010-07-01

    To determine whether Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant workers had mortality patterns that differed from the general US population and to investigate whether mortality patterns were associated with job title or workplace exposures. A retrospective occupational cohort mortality study was conducted on 6759 workers. Standardized mortality ratio analyses compared the cohort with the referent US population. Internal comparisons producing standardized rate ratios were conducted by job title, metal exposure, and cumulative internal and external radiation exposures. Overall mortality and cancer rates were lower than the referent population, reflecting a strong healthy worker effect. Individual not significant standardized mortality ratios and standardized rate ratios were noted for cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue. Although relatively low exposures to radiation and metals did not produce statistically significant health effects, no significant elevations for lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers were consistent with previous studies of nuclear workers.

  13. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

  14. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Laase, A.D.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 {micro}g/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields.

  15. Innovative Decontamination Technology for Use in Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.J.; Norton, C.J.; Fraikor, G.B.; Potter, G.L.; Chang, K.C.

    2006-07-01

    The results of bench scale tests demonstrated that TechXtract{sup R} RadPro{sup TM} technology (hereinafter referred to as RadPro{sup R}) can provide 100% coverage of complex mockup gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) equipment and can decontaminate uranium (U) deposits with 98% to 99.99% efficiency. Deployment tests demonstrated RadPro{sup R} can be applied as foam, mist/fog, or steam, and fully cover the internal surfaces of complex mockup equipment, including large piping. Decontamination tests demonstrated that two formulations of RadPro{sup R}, one with neutron attenuators and one without neutron attenuators, could remove up to 99.99% of uranyl fluoride deposits, one of the most difficult to remove deposits in GDP equipment. These results were supplemented by results from previous tests conducted in 1994 that showed RadPro{sup R} could remove >97% of U and Tc-99 contamination from actual GDP components. Operational use of RadPro{sup R} at other DOE and commercial facilities also support these data. (authors)

  16. Impacts from PCB accumulation on amphibians inhabiting streams flowing from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

    PubMed

    DeGarady, C J; Halbrook, R S

    2003-11-01

    Contamination at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky, has been under evaluation for many years. We studied amphibians in selected outfalls (drainage ditches) flowing from the PGDP to determine if PCBs were accumulating in their tissues and how this might affect local populations. We determined relative amphibian species richness and abundance among seven outfalls and three reference streams by listening to their calls during audio surveys. We also captured amphibians from each study site during the summers of 2000 and 2001 and analyzed their carcasses for PCBs (Aroclor 1260 and 34 congeners) and livers for ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, a biomarker of PCBs and other organic contamination. Ten species were heard across study sites, and abundance and richness at outfalls were similar to those observed at reference sites. However, there were significant differences in abundance (p = 0.001) and richness (p = 0.048) of amphibians between continuously flowing and intermittent outfalls. There were no significant differences in PCB concentrations (p = 0.113) in amphibians captured from study sites, although Aroclor 1260 concentrations tended to be higher in amphibians collected from one outfall (outfall 12) on the east side of the plant (x = 1260 microg/kg) compared with all other study sites (x = 489 microg/kg). EROD activity measured in the liver was not indicative of Aroclor 1260 concentrations in amphibians at the PGDP, and EROD did not differ by study site, species, age class, or gender. PCB concentrations measured in amphibians at the PGDP were similar to concentrations measured at reference sites and did not appear to negatively affect individual amphibians or abundance and richness.

  17. 78 FR 65389 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... review. SUMMARY: On April 2, 2013, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) filed an...

  18. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Huffer, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  19. Prediction of external corrosion for steel cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Application of an empirical method

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, B.F.

    1996-02-01

    During the summer of 1995, ultrasonic wall thickness data were collected for 100 steel cylinders containing depleted uranium (DU) hexafluoride located at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The cylinders were selected for measurement to assess the condition of the more vulnerable portion of the cylinder inventory at PGDP. The purpose of this report is to apply the method used in Lyon to estimate the effects of corrosion for larger unsampled populations as a function of time. The scope of this report is limited and is not intended to represent the final analyses of available data. Future efforts will include continuing analyses of available data to investigate defensible deviations from the conservative assumptions made to date. For each cylinder population considered, two basic types of analyses were conducted: (1) estimates were made of the number of cylinders as a function of time that will have a minimum wall thickness of either 0 mils (1 mil = 0.00 1 in.) or 250 mils and (2) the current minimum wall thickness distributions across cylinders were estimated for each cylinder population considered. Additional analyses were also performed investigating comparisons of the results for F and G yards with the results presented in Lyon (1995).

  20. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe past, present, and future activities undertaken to implement Environmental Restoration and Waste Management goals at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The SSP is presented in sections emphasizing Environmental Restoration description of activities, resources, and milestones.

  1. Real Time Demonstration Project XRF Performance Evaluation Report for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AOC 492

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert L

    2008-04-03

    This activity was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of market-available XRF instruments to quantify metal concentrations relative to background and risk-based action and no action levels in Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) soils. As such, the analysis below demonstrates the capabilities of the instruments relative to soil characterization applications at the PGDP.

  2. OH, HO2, and ozone gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Andrey V; Trakhtenberg, Sofia; Bertram, Allan K; Gershenzon, Yulii M; Molina, Mario J

    2007-03-08

    The diffusion of OH, HO2, and O3 in He, and of OH in air, has been investigated using a coated-wall flow tube reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The diffusion coefficients were determined from measurements of the loss of the reactive species to the flow tube wall as a function of pressure. On the basis of the experimental results, D(OH-He) = 662 +/- 33 Torr cm2 s-1, D(OH-air) = 165 +/- 20 Torr cm2 s-1, D(HO2-He) = 430 +/- 30 Torr cm2 s-1, and D(O3-He) = 410 +/- 25 Torr cm2 s-1 at 296 K. We show that the measured values for OH and HO2 are in better agreement with measured values of their polar analogues (H2O and H2O2) compared with measured values of their nonpolar analogues (O and O2). The measured value for OH in air is 25% smaller than that for O (the nonpolar analogue). The difference between the measured value for HO2 and O2 (the nonpolar analogue) in air is expected to be even larger. Also we show that calculations of the diffusion coefficients based on Lennard-Jones potentials are in excellent agreement with the measurements. This gives further confidence that these calculations can be used to estimate accurate diffusion coefficients for conditions where laboratory data currently do not exist.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Gaseous Diffusion in Unsaturated Porous Media under Variable Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. F.; Or, D.; Jones, S.; Sukop, M.

    2004-05-01

    Liquid distribution in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational forces and resulting gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. Different fluid behavior in plant growth media under microgravity conditions as compared to earth presents a challenge to plant growth in long duration space exploration missions. Our primary objective was to provide qualitative description and quantitative measures of the role of reduced gravity on hydraulic and gaseous transport properties in simulated porous media. We implemented a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann code for equilibrium distribution of liquid in an idealized two-dimensional porous medium under microgravity and "normal" gravity conditions. The information was then used to provide boundary conditions for simulation of gaseous diffusion through the equilibrium domains (considering diffusion through liquid phase negligibly small). The models were tested by comparison with several analytical solutions to the diffusion equation, with excellent results. The relative diffusion coefficient for both series of simulations (with and without gravity) as functions of air-filled porosity was in good agreement with established models of Millington-Quirk. Liquid distribution under earth's gravity featured increased water content at the lower part of the medium relative to the distribution in reduced gravity, which resulted in decreased gas diffusion through a vertically oriented column of a porous medium. Simulation results for larger domains under various orientations will be presented.

  4. In situ carbonyl extraction of Ni from gaseous diffusion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Visnapuu, A.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Bundy, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the use of carbonyl processing technology for recovery of nickel from uranium isotope separation diffusion cells, and potential applications to recover nickel, iron, chromium, cobalt, and other carbonyl forming metals from nuclear waste while reducing the volume of the high level residue for more economic disposal. Nickel powder was carbonylated under static and dynamic conditions using only carbon monoxide to determine if the nickel powder would react rapidly enough to require no promoter. Nickel to Ni(CO){sub 4} conversion was realized in all cases and nickel metal was vapor deposited in the thermal decomposer, but the conversion rates in all cases the reaction were too slow for practical recovery. Addition of hydrogen sulfide gas as a promoter increased the conversion rate more than 500-fold over conversion with no promoter. Test summaries are provided in the paper; results indicate that promoter activated carbonylation is a viable approach for recovery of nickel from uranium isotope diffusion cells.

  5. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  6. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  7. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  8. Radiative Extinction of Gaseous Spherical Diffusion Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa, K. J.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Radiative extinction of spherical diffusion flames was investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments involved microgravity spherical diffusion flames burning ethylene and propane at 0.98 bar. Both normal (fuel flowing into oxidizer) and inverse (oxidizer flowing into fuel) flames were studied, with nitrogen supplied to either the fuel or the oxygen. Flame conditions were chosen to ensure that the flames extinguished within the 2.2 s of available test time; thus extinction occurred during unsteady flame conditions. Diagnostics included color video and thin-filament pyrometry. The computations, which simulated flow from a porous sphere into a quiescent environment, included detailed chemistry, transport and radiation, and yielded transient results. Radiative extinction was observed experimentally and simulated numerically. Extinction time, peak temperature, and radiative loss fraction were found to be independent of flow rate except at very low flow rates. Radiative heat loss was dominated by the combustion products downstream of the flame and was found to scale with flame surface area, not volume. For large transient flames the heat release rate also scaled with surface area and thus the radiative loss fraction was largely independent of flow rate. Peak temperatures at extinction onset were about 1100 K, which is significantly lower than for kinetic extinction. One observation of this work is that while radiative heat losses can drive transient extinction, this is not because radiative losses are increasing with time (flame size) but rather because the heat release rate is falling off as the temperature drops.

  9. APPLICATION OF THE LASAGNA{trademark} SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY AT THE DOE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Barry D.; Tarantino, Joseph J., P. E.

    2003-02-27

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), has been enriching uranium since the early 1950s. The enrichment process involves electrical and mechanical components that require periodic cleaning. The primary cleaning agent was trichloroethene (TCE) until the late 1980s. Historical documentation indicates that a mixture of TCE and dry ice were used at PGDP for testing the integrity of steel cylinders, which stored depleted uranium. TCE and dry ice were contained in a below-ground pit and used during the integrity testing. TCE seeped from the pit and contaminated the surrounding soil. The Lasagna{trademark} technology was identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) as the selected alternative for remediation of the cylinder testing site. A public-private consortium formed in 1992 (including DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Monsanto, DuPont, and General Electric) developed the Lasagna{trademark} technology. This innovative technology employs electrokinetics to remediate soil contaminated with organics and is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils. This technology uses direct current to move water through the soil faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods. Electrokinetics moves contaminants in soil pore water through treatment zones comprised of iron filings, where the contaminants are decomposed to basic chemical compounds such as ethane. After three years of development in the laboratory, the consortium field tested the Lasagna{trademark} process in several phases. CDM installed and operated Phase I, the trial installation and field test of a 150-square-foot area selected for a 120-day run in 1995. Approximately 98 percent of the TCE was removed. CDM then installed and operated the next phase (IIa), a year-long test on a 600-square-foot site. Completed in July 1997, this test removed 75 percent of the total volume of TCE down to a

  10. Measurements of uranium holdup in an operating gaseous diffusion enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, R.H.; Walton, R.B.; Harris, R.; Harbarger, W.; Hicks, J.; Timmons, G.; Shissler, D.; Tayloe, R.; Jones, S.; Fields, L.

    1983-01-01

    Holdup of nuclear material in process equipment is one of the major sources of uncertainty in materials balances, particularly for high-throughput facilities with large equipment and extensive piping, such as gaseous diffusion uranium-enrichment plants. Locating and measuring the holdup while the plant is operating is a challenging problem because of background from the process material and the neighboring equipment. This paper reports NDA measurements performed at the Goodyear Atomic Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio, on enrichment equipment at the higher enrichment and (>10% /sup 235/U isotopic abundance) of the cascade. Both neutron and gamma-ray measurements were made to locate anomalously large deposits in converters and compressors and, within the limitations of the techniques, to quantify the amount of the deposit.

  11. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Brock, W.R.; Denton, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.

  12. Site-Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    PAPER Miscellaneous Paper GL-93-13 August 1993 Site-Specific Earthquke Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio by David...been predicted . The use of other computer models may be necessary to define peak response values. 68. Six different figures and various tables are used...NJ, pg 85. Zen, K. and Higuchi, Y. 1984. " Prediction of Vibratory Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio for Cohesive Soils, Proc.. Eighth Int’l Conference

  13. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-09-20

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested.

  14. Introduction to the nuclear criticality safety evaluation of facility X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-08-16

    This report is the first in a series of documents that will evaluate nuclear criticality safety in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. It provides an overview of the facility, categorizes its functions for future analysis, reviews existing NCS documentation, and explains the follow-on effort planned for X-705. A detailed breakdown of systems, subsystems, and operational areas is presented and cross-referenced to existing NCS documentation.

  15. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an overview of the major Environmental Restoration (ER) concerns at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The identified solid waste management units at PGDP are listed. In the Department of Energy (DOE) Five Year Plan development process, one or more waste management units are addressed in a series of activity data sheets (ADSs) which identify planned scope, schedule, and cost objectives that are representative of the current state of planned technical development for individual or multiple sites.

  16. Uranium deposit removal from the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant K-25 Building

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, L.D.; Stinnett, E.C. Jr.; Hale, J.R. ); Haire, M.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant went into operation as the first plant to separate uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. It was built during World War II as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Project. Its war-time code name was K-25, which was also the name of the first uranium separation building constructed at the installation. The K-25 building was considered an engineering miracle at the time of its construction. Built in a U shape [approximately]1 mile long and 400 ft wide, it housed complex and unique separation equipment. Despite its size and complexity, it was made fully operational within <2 yr after construction began. The facility operated successfully for more than 20 yr until it was placed in a standby mode in 1964. It is now clear the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant will never again be used to enrich uranium. The U.S. Department of Energy, therefore, has initiated a decontamination and decommission program. This paper discusses various procedures and techniques for addressing critical mass, uranium deposits, and safeguards issues.

  17. Linking drainage front morphology with gaseous diffusion in unsaturated porous media: a lattice Boltzmann study.

    PubMed

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani

    2006-11-01

    The effect of drainage front morphology on gaseous diffusion through partially saturated porous media is analyzed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Flow regimes for immiscible displacement in porous media have been characterized as stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering. The dominance of a flow regime is associated with the relative magnitudes of gravity, viscous, and capillary forces, quantifiable via the Bond number Bo, capillary number Ca, and their difference, Bo-Ca . Forced drainage from an initially saturated two-dimensional (2D) porous medium was simulated and the resulting flow patterns were analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions and experimental results. The LBM simulations reproduced expected flow morphologies for a range of drainage velocities and gravitational forces (i.e., a range of capillary and Bond numbers). Furthermore, measures of drainage front width as a function of the dimensionless difference Bo-Ca correspond well with scaling laws derived from percolation theory. Effects of flow morphology on residual fluid entrapment and gaseous diffusion were assessed by running LBM diffusion simulations through the partially saturated domain for a range of water contents. The effective diffusion coefficient as a function of water content was estimated for three regimes: stable drainage front, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering. Significant reductions in gaseous diffusion coefficient were found for viscous fingering relative to stable displacement, and to a lesser extent for capillary fingering, indicating that wetting phase distribution with a high degree of fingering in the 2D domain severely restricts connectivity of gas diffusion pathways through the medium. The study lends support for the use of LBM in design and management of fluids in porous media under variable gravity, and enhances the understanding of the role of dynamic fluid behavior on macroscopic transport properties of partially saturated

  18. Characterisation of gaseous and particulate atmospheric pollutants in the East Mediterranean by diffusion denuder sampling lines.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Catrambone, M; Esposito, G; Lahav, D; Mamane, Y

    2009-05-01

    A field study aimed to characterize atmospheric pollutants in the gaseous and the particulate phases was conducted during the fall-winter of 2004 and the summer of 2005 in the Ashdod area, Israel. The site is influenced by both anthropogenic sources (power plants, refineries, chemical and metal industries, a cargo port, road traffic) and natural sources (sea-spray and desert dust). The use of diffusion lines--a series of annular diffusion denuders for sampling gaseous compounds followed by a cyclone and a filter pack for determining PM(2.5) composition--allowed a good daily characterization of the main inorganic compounds in both the gaseous (HCl, HNO(3), SO(2), NH(3)) and the particulate phase (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(=), NH(4)(+), and base cations). During the summer campaign two other activities were added: an intensive 3-h sampling period and the determination of PM(2.5) bulk composition. The results were interpreted on the basis of meteorological condition, especially the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere as determined by monitoring the natural radioactivity due to Radon progeny, a good proxy of the atmospheric ability to dilute pollutants. Several pollution episodes were identified and the predominance of different sources was highlighted (sea-spray, desert dust, secondary photochemical pollutants). During the summer period a considerable increase of nitric acid and particulate sulphate was observed. Secondary inorganic pollutants (nitrate, sulphate and ammonium) constituted, on the average, 57% of the fine particle fraction, organic compounds 20%, primary anthropogenic compounds 14%, natural components (sea-spray and crustal elements) 9%. The advantages of the diffusion lines in determining gaseous and particulate N- and S- inorganic compounds are discussed.

  19. Simulation of gaseous diffusion in partially saturated porous media under variable gravity with lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.; Steinberg, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.

  20. Simulation of gaseous diffusion in partially saturated porous media under variable gravity with lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.; Steinberg, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.

  1. Simulation of gaseous diffusion in partially saturated porous media under variable gravity with lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.

    2005-08-01

    Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (Drel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in Drel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.

  2. Simulation of gaseous diffusion in partially saturated porous media under variable gravity with lattice Boltzmann methods.

    PubMed

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C

    2005-08-01

    Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.

  3. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented.

  4. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  5. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) formerly operated two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium and maintained a third shutdown GDP. These plants maintain a large inventory of dichlorotetrafluorethane (CFC-114), a cholorofluorocarbon (CFC), as a coolant. The paper evaluates the global impacts of four alternatives to modify GDP coolant system operations for a three-year period beginning in 1996. Interim modification of GDP coolant system operations has the potential to reduce stratospheric ozone depletion from GDP coolant releases while a permanent solution is studied.

  6. On the structure of gaseous confined laminar diffusion flames: Numerical investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawid, M. A.; Bulzan, D. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The structure and characteristics of gaseous confined laminar diffusion flames are investigated by numerically solving the time-dependent two-dimensional axisymmetric conservation equations. The numerical model accounts for the important chemical and physical processes involved, including axial diffusion, viscous effects, radial convection, and finite-rate chemistry. The numerical results clearly show that the flame has a finite thickness and leakage of fuel vapor into the flame zone is possible. The effect of heat release is found to induce some radial flow. Predicted flame shape and dimensions are compared to the classical Burke-Schumann flame. The numerically calculated flame is observed to be about 15 percent taller and 5 percent narrower than that of the Burke-Schumann solution under the same conditions.

  7. A multispectral scanner survey of the United States Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area were acquired during late spring 1990. This survey was conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) which is operated by EG G Energy Measurements (EG G/EM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office. It was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Audit Team which was reviewing environmental conditions at the facility. The objectives of this survey were to: (1) Acquire 12-channel, multispectral scanner data of the PGDP from an altitude of 3000 feet above ground level (AGL); (2) Acquire predawn, digital thermal infrared (TIR) data of the site from the same altitude; (3) Collect color and color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs over the facilities; and (4) Illustrate how the analyses of these data could benefit environmental monitoring at the PGDP. This report summarizes the two multispectral scanner and aerial photographic missions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Selected examples of the multispectral data are presented to illustrate its potential for aiding environmental management at the site. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. )

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  9. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  10. Development of NF3 Deposit Removal Technology for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; McNamara, B.K.; Rapko, B.M.; Edwards, M.K.; Kozelisky, A.E.; Daniel, R.C.; McSweeney, T.I.; Maharas, S.J.; Weaver, P.J.; Iwamasa, K.J.; Kefgen, R.B.

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes the Battelle, Stoller, and WASTREN (BSW) team's efforts, to date, in support of the United States Department of Energy's plans to remove uranium and technetium deposits before decommissioning the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The BSW team investigated nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}) as a safer yet effective alternative gaseous treatment to the chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3})-elemental fluorine (F{sub 2}) treatment currently used to remove uranium and technetium deposits from the uranium enrichment cascade. Both ClF{sub 3} and F{sub 2} are highly reactive, toxic, and hazardous gases, while NF{sub 3}, although toxic [1], is no more harmful than moth balls [2]. BSW's laboratory thermo-analytical and laboratory-scale prototype studies with NF{sub 3} established that thermal NF{sub 3} can effectively remove likely and potential uranium (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and UF{sub 4}) and technetium deposits (a surrogate deposit material, TcO{sub 2}, and pertechnetates) by conversion to volatile compounds. Our engineering evaluations suggest that NF{sub 3}'s effectiveness could be enhanced by combining with a lesser concentration of ClF{sub 3}. BSW's and other's studies indicate compatibility with Portsmouth materials of construction (aluminum, copper, and nickel). (authors)

  11. High-pressure soot formation and diffusion flame extinction characteristics of gaseous and liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatas, Ahmet Emre

    High-pressure soot formation and flame stability characteristics were studied experimentally in laminar diffusion flames. For the former, radially resolved soot volume fraction and temperature profiles were measured in axisymmetric co-flow laminar diffusion flames of pre-vaporized n-heptane-air, undiluted ethylene-air, and nitrogen and carbon dioxide diluted ethylene-air at elevated pressures. Abel inversion was used to re-construct radially resolved data from the line-of-sight spectral soot emission measurements. For the latter, flame extinction strain rate was measured in counterflow laminar diffusion flames of C1-4 alcohols and hydrocarbon fuels of n-heptane, n-octane, iso-octane, toluene, Jet-A, and biodiesel. The luminous flame height, as marked by visible soot radiation, of the nitrogen- and helium-diluted n-heptane and nitrogen- and carbon dioxide-diluted ethylene flames stayed constant at all pressures. In pure ethylene flames, flame heights initially increased with pressure, but changed little above 5 atm. The maximum soot yield as a function of pressure in nitrogen-diluted n-heptane diffusion flames indicate that n-heptane flames are slightly more sensitive to pressure than gaseous alkane hydrocarbon flames at least up to 7 atm. Ethylene's maximum soot volume fractions were much higher than those of ethane and n-heptane diluted with nitrogen (fuel to nitrogen mass flow ratio is about 0.5). Pressure dependence of the peak carbon conversion to soot, defined as the percentage of fuel's carbon content converted to soot, was assessed and compared to previous measurements with other gaseous fuels. Maximum soot volume fractions were consistently lower in carbon dioxide-diluted flames between 5 and 15 atm but approached similar values to those in nitrogen-diluted flames at 20 atm. This observation implies that the chemical soot suppression effect of carbon dioxide, previously demonstrated at atmospheric pressure, is also present at elevated pressures up to 15 atm

  12. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals.

  13. Staff management of security personnel at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. , Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-25

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Security and Police Operations Department is responsible for protecting the US Department of Energy interests at the Portsmouth Plant from theft, sabotage, and other hostile acts that may adversely affect national security, the public health and safety, or property at the Department of Energy facility. This audit's purpose was to evaluate Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.'s staff management at the Portsmouth Plant Security Department. The Portsmouth Plant Security Department could reduce operating cost up to an estimated $4.4 million over 5 years by: (1) Eliminating up to 14 unnecessary staff positions, and (2) reducing the length of relief breaks. These economies could be realized through implementing written operating procedures and negotiating removal of certain labor union restrictions. 2 tabs.

  14. Seismically-induced soil amplification at the DOE Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, D.W.; Haynes, M.E. . Geotechnical Lab.); Brock, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Shaffer, K.E. )

    1991-01-01

    A site-specific earthquake site response (soil amplification) study is being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This study is pursuant to an upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report in accordance with requirements specified by DOE. The seismic hazard at PGDP is dominated by the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Site-specific synthetic earthquake records developed by others were applied independently to four soil columns with heights above baserock of about 325 ft. The results for the 1000-year earthquake event indicate that the site period is between 1.0 and 1.5 sec. Incident shear waves are amplified at periods of motion greater than 0.15 sec. The peak free-field horizontal acceleration, occurring at very low periods, is 0.28 g. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  15. A probabilistic safety analysis of UF{sub 6} handling at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Summitt, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    A probabilistic safety study of UF{sub 6} handling activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has recently been completed. The analysis provides a unique perspective on the safety of UF{sub 6} handling activities. The estimated release frequencies provide an understanding of current risks, and the examination of individual contributors yields a ranking of important plant features and operations. Aside from the probabilistic results, however, there is an even more important benefit derived from a systematic modeling of all operations. The integrated approach employed in the analysis allows the interrelationships among the equipment and the required operations to be explored in depth. This paper summarizes the methods used in the study and provides an overview of some of the technical insights that were obtained. Specific areas of possible improvement in operations are described.

  16. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals.

  17. Gaseous Species Measurements of Alternative Jet Fuels in Sooting Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabeti, Parham

    The gaseous species concentration of Jet A-1, GTL, CTL and a blend of 80 vol.% GTL and 20 vol.% hexanol jet fuels in laminar coflow diffusion flames have been measured and studied. These species are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, methane, ethane, ethylene, propylene, and acetylene. Benzene and propyne concentrations were also detected in CTL flames. 1-Butene has been quantified for the blend of GTL and hexanol flame. The detailed experimental setup has been described and results from different flames are compared. The CO is produced in a same amount in all the flames. The CTL flame had the largest and GTL/hexanol flame had lowest CO2 concentrations. The results indicate that GTL and GTL hexanol blend flames produce similar concentrations for all the measured hydrocarbon species and have the highest concentration among all the jet fuels. The experimental results from Jet A-1 fuel are also compared with numerical studies by Saffaripour et al .

  18. Local drainage analyses of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

    1993-11-01

    Local drainage analyses have been performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm having an approximate 10,000-yr recurrence interval. This review discusses the methods utilized to accomplish the analyses in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) design and evaluation guidelines, and summarizes trends, results, generalizations, and uncertainties applicable to other DOE facilities. Results indicate that some culverts may be undersized, and that the storm sewer system cannot drain the influx of precipitation from the base of buildings. Roofs have not been designed to sustain ponding when the primary drainage system is clogged. Some underground tunnels, building entrances, and ground level air intakes may require waterproofing.

  19. Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.E.; Londergan, J.T.; Pickens, J.F.

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE facilities are situated in areas of sand and gravel which have become polluted with dense, non-aqueous phase liquids or DNAPLs, such as chlorinated solvents, from the various industrial operations at these facilities. The presence of such DNAPLs in sand and gravel aquifers is now recognized as the principal factor in the failure of standard ground-water remediation methods. The principal objective of this study, as stated in the Statement of Work of the contract (DE-AC21-92MC29111), is to demonstrate that multi-component DNAPLs can be readily solubilized in sand and gravel aquifers by dilute surfactant solutions. The specific objectives of the contract are: to identify dilute surfactants or blends of surfactants in the laboratory that will efficiently extract multi-component DNAPLs from sand and gravel aquifers by micellar solubilization (Phase 1); 2. to test the efficacy of the identified surfactants or blends of surfactants to solubilize in situ perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) DNAPLs by the injection and the subsequent extraction through an existing well or wells at a government-owned contaminated site (Phase 1); and 3. to demonstrate the full-scale operation of this remedial technology at a government-owned contaminated site (Phase 2). Specific objective number 1 has been completed and reported to DOE. However, the results of the test referred to in specific objective number 2, conducted at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in 1994, were inconclusive. Following this first test, it was decided by DOE and INTERA to move the test site elsewhere due to difficulties with obtaining core samples of the sand and gravel aquifer containing the DNAPL and with ascertaining the location of the DNAPL relative to the injection well. The solubilization test at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) will constitute the second test of Phase 1 of this contract.

  20. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  1. MELCOR source term evaluation for UF{sub 6} release event in a gaseous diffusion plant feed facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Lombardi, D.; Schmidt, R.; Keith, K.

    1998-09-01

    An assessment of UF{sub 6} release accidents was conducted for the feed facility of a gaseous diffusion plant. The MELCOR code was utilized for simulating the reactions of UF{sub 6} with moisture and the consequent transport of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and HF vapor through the building and to the environment.

  2. Options for Kentucky's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    Three important imperatives are being pursued by the Commonwealth of Kentucky: ? Developing a viable economic future for the highly trained and experienced workforce and for the Paducah area that today supports, and is supported by, the operations of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Currently, the PGDP is scheduled to be taken out of service in May, 2013. ? Restructuring the economic future for Kentucky’s most abundant indigenous resource and an important industry – the extraction and utilization of coal. The future of coal is being challenged by evolving and increasing requirements for its extraction and use, primarily from the perspective of environmental restrictions. Further, it is important that the economic value derived from this important resource for the Commonwealth, its people and its economy is commensurate with the risks involved. Over 70% of the extracted coal is exported from the Commonwealth and hence not used to directly expand the Commonwealth’s economy beyond the severance taxes on coal production. ? Ensuring a viable energy future for Kentucky to guarantee a continued reliable and affordable source of energy for its industries and people. Today, over 90% of Kentucky’s electricity is generated by burning coal with a delivered electric power price that is among the lowest in the United States. Anticipated increased environmental requirements necessitate looking at alternative forms of energy production, and in particular electricity generation.

  3. Effect of dynamic diffusion of air, nitrogen, and helium gaseous media on the microhardness of ionic crystals with juvenile surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyavin, O. V.; Fedorov, V. Yu.; Chernov, Yu. M.; Shpeizman, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    The load dependences of the microhardness of surface layers of NaCl and LiF ionic single crystals with juvenile surfaces and surfaces exposed to air for a long time measured in the air, nitrogen, and helium gaseous media have been investigated. It has been found that there is a change in the sign of the derivative of the microhardness as a function of the load for LiF crystals indented in helium and after their aging in air, as well as a weaker effect of the nitrogen and air gaseous media on the studied dependences as compared to NaCl crystals. It has also been found that, after the aging of the surface of NaCl crystals in air, there is a change in the sign of the derivative of the microhardness in the nitrogen and air gaseous media, as well as a pronounced change in the microhardness as a function of the time of aging the samples in air as compared to the weaker effect of the gaseous medium for LiF crystals. The obtained data have been analyzed in terms of the phenomenon of dislocation-dynamic diffusion of particles from the external medium into crystalline materials during their plastic deformation along the nucleating and moving dislocations. It has been shown that this phenomenon affects the microhardness through changes in the intensity of dislocation multiplication upon the formation of indentation rosettes in different gaseous media. The performed investigation of the microhardness of the juvenile surface of NaCl and LiF crystals in different gaseous media has revealed for the first time a different character of dislocation-dynamic diffusion of these media in a "pure" form.

  4. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Socolof, M.L.; McCold, L.N.; Saylor, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium maintain a large inventory of chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114) as a coolant. To address the continued use of CFC-114, an ozone-depleting substance, the US Department of Energy (DOE) considered introducing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) by the end of 1995. These PFCs would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but would be larger contributors to global warming than would CFC-114. The paper reports the results of an assessment of the global impacts of four alternatives for modifying GDP coolant system operations over a three-year period beginning in 1996. The overall contribution of GDP coolant releases to impacts on ozone depletion and global warming were quantified by parameters referred to as ozone-depletion impact and global-warming impact. The analysis showed that these parameters could be used as surrogates for predicting global impacts to all resources and could provide a framework for assessing environmental impacts of a permanent coolant replacement, eliminating the need for subsequent resource-specific analyses.

  5. Application of a Kalman filter to UF sub 6 gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, F.R.

    1992-03-01

    A signal is required to control the flow of UF{sub 6} in gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems. The original strategy envisioned for deriving a flow signal was to take the derivative of the freezer/sublimer weigh cell signal. However, the derivative of the digitized weight signal is noisy, preventing good control. In addition, a bias is introduced into the weight derivative signal because a refrigerant is circulated through a shell-and-tube heat exchanger inside the freezer/sublimer. The weight of the refrigerant is included in the weight measured by the weigh cell. If the circulation rate of the refrigerent is not steady state, a bias exists. Measurements of upstream pressure, vessel pressure, and output to the system control valve are available to the control system. Thus, if the flow through the control valve is characterized properly by the measurements, a Kalman filter can be used in conjunction with these auxiliary inputs and the weigh cell input to overcome the noise and bias problem and provide an improve estimate of flow rate. A discussion of the development and the current status of a Kalman filter used for this application is given. 5 refs.

  6. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Namdoo Moon

    2007-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

  7. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  8. INTERNAL EXPOSURE TO URANIUM IN A POOLED COHORT OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jeri L.; Apostoaei, A. Iulian; Yiin, James H.; Fleming, Donald A.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Chen, Pi-Hsueh

    2015-01-01

    Intakes and absorbed organ doses were estimated for 29 303 workers employed at three former US gaseous diffusion plants as part of a study of cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence in uranium enrichment workers. Uranium urinalysis data (>600 000 urine samples) were available for 58 % of the pooled cohort. Facility records provided uranium gravimetric and radioactivity concentration data and allowed estimation of enrichment levels of uranium to which workers may have been exposed. Urine data were generally recorded with facility department numbers, which were also available in study subjects’ work histories. Bioassay data were imputed for study subjects with no recorded sample results (33 % of pooled cohort) by assigning department average urine uranium concentration. Gravimetric data were converted to 24-h uranium activity excretion using department average specific activities. Intakes and organ doses were calculated assuming chronic exposure by inhalation to a 5-µm activity median aerodynamic diameter aerosol of soluble uranium. Median intakes varied between 0.31 and 0.74 Bq d−1 for the three facilities. Median organ doses for the three facilities varied between 0.019 and 0.051, 0.68 and 1.8, 0.078 and 0.22, 0.28 and 0.74, and 0.094 and 0.25 mGy for lung, bone surface, red bone marrow, kidneys, and liver, respectively. Estimated intakes and organ doses for study subjects with imputed bioassay data were similar in magnitude. PMID:26113578

  9. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant proposed pilot pump-and-treat project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Huff, D.D.; Jones, K.S.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    On March 23, 1992, R.C. Sleeman of the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office requested that a Groundwater Corrective Actions Team be assembled to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. In addition to other suggestions, the Team recommended that further characterization data be obtained for the plume. In the Fall of 1993 additional, temporary well points were installed so that groundwater samples from the shallow groundwater system and the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) could be obtained to provide a three-dimensional view of groundwater contamination in the region of the plume. The results indicate that pure-phase DNAPL (trichloroethylene [TCE]) probably are present in the source area of the plume and extend in depth to the base of the RGA. Because the DNAPL likely will represent a source of a dissolved phase plume for decades it is essential that source containment take place. The Team recommends that although effective hydraulic containment can be achieved, other alternatives should be considered. For example, recent advances in emplacing low permeability barrier walls to depths of 100 to 150 ft make it possible to consider encirclement of the source of the Northwest plume.

  10. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  11. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

  12. Infrared absorption strengths of potential gaseous diffusion plant coolants and related reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Angel, E.C.

    1993-05-01

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is scheduled for production curtailment within the next few years, a search for substitutes is underway, and apparently workable alternatives have been found and are under testing. The presently favored substitutes, FC-c3l8 and FC-3110, satisfy ozone depletion and operational chemical compatibility concerns, but will be long-lived greenhouse gases, and thus may be regulated on that basis in the future. A further search is therefore underway for compounds with shorter atmospheric lifetimes which could otherwise satisfy operational physical and chemical requirements. A number of such candidates are in the process of being screened for chemical compatibility in a fluorinating environment. This document presents infrared spectral data developed and used in that study for candidates recently examined, and also for many of their fluorination reaction products. The data include gas-phase infrared spectra, quantitative peak intensities as a function of partial pressure, and integrated absorbance strength in the IR-transparent atmospheric window of interest to global warming modeling. Combining this last property with literature or estimated atmospheric lifetimes, rough estimates of global warming potential for these compounds are also presented.

  13. Sediment contamination in streams surrounding the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.

    1986-05-01

    Approximately 180 surface-sediment grab samples and three sediment cores were obtained from the Clinch River-Poplar Creek system around the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and screened for metal, organic, and radioisotope contamination. The results of this scoping study were evaluated to identify potential sources of contamination. Data from this study indicate that Hg, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co originate from sources outside K-25. External sources also contribute uranium and miscellaneous organic contamination. Within K-25, the K1700 stream, K901A chromate pond, K710A powerhouse, and K1007B pond appear to be the major areas of contamination. Principal contaminants detected in these areas as a result of this survey were U, Cr, Ni, Cu, Ag, and PCBs. Although the major areas of contamination have been identified, this report does not attempt to identify the specific sources within K-25 nor to quantify the impact of K-25 sources on the major streams.

  14. Characteristics of Gaseous Diffusion Flames with High Temperature Combustion Air in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaderi, M.; Gupta, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of gaseous diffusion flames have been obtained using high temperature combustion air under microgravity conditions. The time resolved flame images under free fall microgravity conditions were obtained from the video images obtained. The tests results reported here were conducted using propane as the fuel and about 1000 C combustion air. The burner included a 0.686 mm diameter central fuel jet injected into the surrounding high temperature combustion air. The fuel jet exit Reynolds number was 63. Several measurements were taken at different air preheats and fuel jet exit Reynolds number. The resulting hybrid color flame was found to be blue at the base of the flame followed by a yellow color flame. The length and width of flame during the entire free fall conditions has been examined. Also the relative flame length and width for blue and yellow portion of the flame has been examined under microgravity conditions. The results show that the flame length decreases and width increases with high air preheats in microgravity condition. In microgravity conditions the flame length is larger with normal temperature combustion air than high temperature air.

  15. Instructional Technology in Appalachian Kentucky 1929-2011: Countering the Pervasive Narrative of Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleton, Kimberely Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    The prevalent public narrative based on Roger's (2003) model of innovation diffusion categorizes teachers as laggards; rigidly entrenched in outdated practices and unwilling to change. As new instructional technologies failed to be adopted into classrooms, this public narrative served as a pervasive explanation, widely accepted as characteristic…

  16. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.; Green, D.J.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio, is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched uranium than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the is documented in Reference 4.

  17. Internal exposure to uranium in a pooled cohort of gaseous diffusion plant workers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeri L; Apostoaei, A Iulian; Yiin, James H; Fleming, Donald A; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Chen, Pi-Hsueh

    2016-03-01

    Intakes and absorbed organ doses were estimated for 29 303 workers employed at three former US gaseous diffusion plants as part of a study of cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence in uranium enrichment workers. Uranium urinalysis data (>600 000 urine samples) were available for 58 % of the pooled cohort. Facility records provided uranium gravimetric and radioactivity concentration data and allowed estimation of enrichment levels of uranium to which workers may have been exposed. Urine data were generally recorded with facility department numbers, which were also available in study subjects' work histories. Bioassay data were imputed for study subjects with no recorded sample results (33 % of pooled cohort) by assigning department average urine uranium concentration. Gravimetric data were converted to 24-h uranium activity excretion using department average specific activities. Intakes and organ doses were calculated assuming chronic exposure by inhalation to a 5-µm activity median aerodynamic diameter aerosol of soluble uranium. Median intakes varied between 0.31 and 0.74 Bq d(-1) for the three facilities. Median organ doses for the three facilities varied between 0.019 and 0.051, 0.68 and 1.8, 0.078 and 0.22, 0.28 and 0.74, and 0.094 and 0.25 mGy for lung, bone surface, red bone marrow, kidneys, and liver, respectively. Estimated intakes and organ doses for study subjects with imputed bioassay data were similar in magnitude. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Modeling and analyses of postulated UF{sub 6} release accidents in gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.; Carter, J.C.; Dyer, R.H.

    1995-10-01

    Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a postulated accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. UF{sub 6} undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} as well as HF during a postulated UF{sub 6} release accident in a process building. In the postulated accident scenario, {approximately}7900 kg (17,500 lb) of hot UF{sub 6} vapor is released over a 5 min period from the process piping into the atmosphere of a large process building. UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. MELCOR model was first used to develop a single volume representation of a process building and its results were compared with those from past lumped parameter models specifically developed for studying UF{sub 6} release accidents. Preliminary results indicate that MELCOR predicted results (using a lumped formulation) are comparable with those from previously developed models.

  19. In Situ Chemical Oxidation Through Lance Permeation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.Z.

    2003-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation through lance permeation (ISCO-LP) is an emerging remediation technology in which chemical oxidants (such as potassium or sodium permanganate) are delivered to the subsurface using vertical lance-like injectors. It is applicable to sites with oxidizable contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons. Because vertical lance injections can be deployed at relatively close spacing, ISCO-LP potentially can be used to clean-up contamination in low-permeability media. This document provides information that can help potential users determine whether ISCO-LP would apply to a particular environmental management problem. It contains a general description of the technology (Section 2), performance data from a field demonstration (Section 3), an assessment of technology applicability (Section 4), a summary of cost elements (Section 5), and a list of regulatory, environmental safety and health issues (Section 6). It is patterned after the Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSR) published by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology under the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA). As in the previously published ITSRs, the technology described in this report was developed through funding from SCFA. Most of the information contained in this report was obtained from a field demonstration of ISCO-LP conducted in July-August 2000 at DOE's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The field test was not completed due to an accident that caused a field worker serious injuries. Although performance assessment data are very limited, the field test highlighted important health and safety issues that must be considered by site managers and technology vendors interested in implementing ISCO-LP.

  20. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks (Reference 3). Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a tram of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4.

  1. Final report. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant PCB sediment survey: Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Laboratory analysis of collected samples along drainage features at PGDP. Report documents levels of PCB contamination and considers locations of contamination and known releases to theorize probable sources to further investigate.

  2. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  3. Health risk from earthquake caused releases of UF{sub 6} at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W; Lu, S.; Chen, J.C.; Roehnelt, R.; Lombardi, D.

    1998-05-01

    The health risk to the public and workers from potential exposure to the toxic materials from earthquake caused releases of uranium hexafluoride from the Paducah gaseous Diffusion Plant are evaluated. The results of the study show that the health risk from earthquake caused releases is small, and probably less than risks associated with the transportation of hydrogen fluoride and other similar chemicals used by industry. The probability of more than 30 people experiencing health consequences (injuries) from earthquake damage is less than 4xlO{sup 4}/yr.

  4. Thaumatin Crystallization Aboard the International Space Station Using Liquid-Liquid Diffusion in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig; Barnes, Cindy L.; Snell, Edward H.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results from the first biological crystal growth experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Crystals of thaumatin were grown using liquid-liquid diffusion in Tygon tubing transported in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Different Volume ratios and concentrations of protein and precipitant were used to test different adaptations of the vapor diffusion crystallization recipe to the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The EGN warmed up from -196 C to 0 C in about four days, about the same time it took to warm from 0 C to 20 C. The temperature within the EGN was 20 - 24 C for the majority of the experiment. Air gaps that blocked liquid-liquid diffusion formed in the tubes. Nonetheless, crystals were grown. Synchrotron diffraction data collected from the best space grown crystal extended to 1.28 Angstroms, comparable to previous studies of space-grown thaumatin crystals. The resolution of the best ground control crystal was only 1.47 Angstroms. It is not clear if the difference in diffraction limit is due to factors other than crystal size. Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space grown crystals that diffract to high resolution.

  5. Thaumatin crystallization aboard the International Space Station using liquid-liquid diffusion in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN).

    PubMed

    Barnes, Cindy L; Snell, Edward H; Kundrot, Craig E

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports results from the first biological crystal-growth experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Crystals of thaumatin were grown using liquid-liquid diffusion in Tygon tubing transported in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Different volume ratios and concentrations of protein and precipitant were used to test different adaptations of the vapor-diffusion crystallization recipe to the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The EGN warmed up from 77 to 273 K in about 4 d, about the same time it took to warm from 273 to 293 K. The temperature within the EGN was 293-297 K for the majority of the experiment. Air gaps that blocked liquid-liquid diffusion formed in the tubes. Nonetheless, crystals were grown. Synchrotron diffraction data collected from the best space-grown crystal extended to 1.28 A, comparable to previous studies of space-grown thaumatin crystals. The resolution of the best ground-control crystal was only 1.47 A. It is not clear if the difference in diffraction limit arises from factors other than crystal size. Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that the EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space-grown crystals that diffract to high resolution.

  6. Thaumatin Crystallization Aboard the International Space Station Using Liquid-Liquid Diffusion in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig; Barnes, Cindy L.; Snell, Edward H.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results from the first biological crystal growth experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Crystals of thaumatin were grown using liquid-liquid diffusion in Tygon tubing transported in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Different Volume ratios and concentrations of protein and precipitant were used to test different adaptations of the vapor diffusion crystallization recipe to the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The EGN warmed up from -196 C to 0 C in about four days, about the same time it took to warm from 0 C to 20 C. The temperature within the EGN was 20 - 24 C for the majority of the experiment. Air gaps that blocked liquid-liquid diffusion formed in the tubes. Nonetheless, crystals were grown. Synchrotron diffraction data collected from the best space grown crystal extended to 1.28 Angstroms, comparable to previous studies of space-grown thaumatin crystals. The resolution of the best ground control crystal was only 1.47 Angstroms. It is not clear if the difference in diffraction limit is due to factors other than crystal size. Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space grown crystals that diffract to high resolution.

  7. Issues and recommendations related to replacement of CFC-114 at the uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plant. Task title: Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Program Review, Final report, August 1, 1991--October 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.L.; Banaghan, E.

    1993-03-31

    The operating uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) in Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, which are operated for the United States Department for Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), currently use a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-114) as the primary process stream coolant. Due to recent legislation embodied in the Clean Air Act, the production of this and other related chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) are to be phased out with no production occurring after 1995. Since the plants lose approximately 500,000 pounds per year of this process stream coolant through various leaks, the GDPs are faced with the challenge of identifying a replacement coolant that will allow continued operation of the plants. MMES formed the CFC Task Team to identify and solve the various problems associated with identifying and implementing a replacement coolant. This report includes a review of the work performed by the CFC Task Team, and recommendations that were formulated based on this review and upon original work. The topics covered include; identifying a replacement coolant, coolant leak detection and repair efforts, coolant safety concerns, coolant level sensors, regulatory issues, and an analytical decision analysis.

  8. Gamma radiological surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, 1990-1993, and overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smyre, J.L.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    Three gamma radiological surveys have been conducted under auspices of the ER Remote Sensing Program: (1) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (1992), (2) Clinch River (1992), and (3) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) (1993). In addition, the Remote Sensing Program has acquired the results of earlier surveys at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) (1990) and PORTS (1990). These radiological surveys provide data for characterization and long-term monitoring of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contamination areas since many of the radioactive materials processed or handled on the ORR, PGDP, and PORTS are direct gamma radiation emitters or have gamma emitting daughter radionuclides. High resolution airborne gamma radiation surveys require a helicopter outfitted with one or two detector pods, a computer-based data acquisition system, and an accurate navigational positioning system for relating collected data to ground location. Sensors measure the ground-level gamma energy spectrum in the 38 to 3,026 KeV range. Analysis can provide gamma emission strength in counts per second for either gross or total man-made gamma emissions. Gross count gamma radiation includes natural background radiation from terrestrial sources (radionuclides present in small amounts in the earth`s soil and bedrock), from radon gas, and from cosmic rays from outer space as well as radiation from man-made radionuclides. Man-made count gamma data include only the portion of the gross count that can be directly attributed to gamma rays from man-made radionuclides. Interpretation of the gamma energy spectra can make possible the determination of which specific radioisotopes contribute to the observed man-made gamma radiation, either as direct or as indirect (i.e., daughter) gamma energy from specific radionuclides (e.g., cesium-137, cobalt-60, uranium-238).

  9. Evaluation of passive diffusion bag samplers in selected wells at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Louisville, Kentucky, July 1999 to January 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2001-01-01

    Passive diffusion bag samplers were tested in 11 wells at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Louisville, Kentucky, by comparing the volatile organic compound concentrations obtained from passive diffusion bag samplers to volatile organic compound concentrations obtained by pumping the wells. The wells were screened in poorly permeable formations, including overburden, shale, and limestone. In five of the tested wells containing detectable volatile organic compound contamination, the data suggest that the diffusion samplers accurately reflected ambient contaminant concentrations (wells 1-NEC-15-P, 1-NEC-MW17-S, 1-NEMW23-S, 1-NW-MW24-S, and 1-NW-MW24-P). Comparison of a third well (1-NEC-MW34-S), in which the passive diffusion bag samplers produced higher concentrations than the pumped sample, is less certain because the passive diffusion bag sampler had passed through a layer of light non-aqueous phase liquid during deployment, suggesting the possibility of carryover contamination. In two wells (1-NE-MW23-P and 1-NEC-MW15-S), it was unclear whether concentrations obtained by using the passive diffusion bag samplers adequately represented in situ concentrations because the comparison of concentrations obtained by using the samplers and the pump was inconsistent between sampling events and/or between volatile organic compounds. In one well (1-NEC-MW34-P), the methodologies matched poorly, with volatile organic compound concentrations obtained by using the passive diffusion bag sampler substantially lower than those obtained by using the pump. Two of the tested wells (1-NW-MW6-I and 1-SE-MW13-I) contained no detectable contaminants in water obtained from either method. Data from wells where multiple passive diffusion bag samplers were deployed showed the lowest volatile organic compound concentrations adjacent to the vuggy limestone and higher volatile organic compound concentrations deeper in the limestone, supporting colloidal-borescope data that indicate the vuggy

  10. The Mailbox Computer System for the IAEA verification experiment on HEU downlending at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

    2000-07-31

    IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA.

  11. An interim report to the manager of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant from the Paducah Environmental Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.D.

    1987-10-01

    The Paducah Environmental Advisory Committee was formed as: (1) an outgrowth of other Environmental Advisory Committees already in existence at Oak Ridge and other Martin Marietta Energy Systems plants; (2) a result of public concern following significant nuclear incidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl; (3) a result of the new direction and commitment of the management of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant following contract acquisition by Martin Marietta Energy Systems; and (4) a means of reducing and/or preventing local and/or public concern regarding the activities of and potential risks created by PGDP. This report discusses the following issues and concerns of the Committee arrived at through a series of meetings: (1) groundwater monitoring; (2) long-range tails storage; C-404, scrap yrads, and PCB and TCE cleanup; nuclear criticality plan and alarm systems; documentation of historical data regarding hazardous waste burial grounds; dosimeter badges; and asbestos handling and removal.

  12. A long-term mortality study of workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

    PubMed

    Godbold, J H; Tompkins, E A

    1979-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether mortality from respiratory cancer among workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) differed from that of workers at the same plant with no record of occupational exposure to metallic nickel or any nickel compound. A cohort of ,14 nickel-exposed workers and one of 1600' controls were identified. The members of both cohorts had a minimum follow-up period of 19 years. Mortality from respiratory cancer and from other causes was examined in both groups. The data showed no evidence of an increased risk of mortality due to respiratory cancer among the nickel-exposed workers. The exposed cohort experienced lower mortality than the controls, both in deaths due to respiratory cancer and in deaths due to all causes, although neither of these differences was statistically significant.

  13. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) [sup 99]Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD.

  14. Dispersion of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol and HF vapor in the operating floor during winter ventilation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.; Carter, J.C.

    1996-12-30

    The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF{sub 6} is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area.

  15. Effect of Normobaric versus Hypobaric Oxygenation on Gaseous Microemboli Removal in a Diffusion Membrane Oxygenator: An In Vitro Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Schuldes, Matthew; Riley, Jeffrey B.; Francis, Stephen G.; Clingan, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Gaseous microemboli (GME) are an abnormal physiological occurrence during cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Several studies have correlated negative sequelae with exposure to increased amounts of GME. Hypobaric oxygenation is effective at eliminating GME in hollow-fiber microporous membrane oxygenators. However, hollow-fiber diffusion membrane oxygenators, which are commonly used for ECMO, have yet to be validated. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypobaric oxygenation, compared against normobaric oxygenation, can reduce introduced GME when used on diffusion membrane oxygenators. Comparison of a sealed Quadrox-iD with hypobaric sweep gas (.67 atm) vs. an unmodified Quadrox-iD with normal atmospheric sweep gas (1 atm) in terms of GME transmission during continuous air introduction (50 mL/min) in a recirculating in vitro circuit, over a range of flow rates (3.5, 5 L/min) and crystalloid prime temperatures (37°C, 28°C, and 18°C). GME were measured using three EDAC Doppler probes positioned pre-oxygenator, post-oxygenator, and at the arterial cannula. Hypobaric oxygenation vs. normobaric oxygenation significantly reduced hollow-fiber diffusion membrane oxygenator GME transmission at all combination of pump flows and temperatures. There was further significant reduction in GME count between the oxygenator outlet and at the arterial cannula. Hypobaric oxygenation used on hollow-fiber diffusion membrane oxygenators can further reduce GME compared to normobaric oxygenation. This technique may be a safe approach to eliminate GME during ECMO. PMID:27729706

  16. 77 FR 3255 - Notice of 229 Boundary Revision at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... or dangerous instruments likely to produce substantial injury or damage to persons or property, as... Diffusion Plant located in McCracken County, KY, approximately 6,000 feet North of Woodville Road (State Route 725) and approximately 6,300 feet West of Metropolis Lake Road. The primary security interest...

  17. The diffusion coefficients of gaseous and volatile species during the irradiation of uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. A.; Friskney, C. A.; Findlay, J. R.; Johnson, F. A.; Walter, A. J.

    1982-06-01

    Measurements of release for rare gas fission products from single and polycrystalline uranium dioxide during irradiation are described. The fuel samples were enriched to 20% in 235U to avoid uncertainties in the fission rate due to plutonium production. The surface area of the single crystals was determined optically to provide a reference of known surface-to-volume ratio for the determination of diffusion coefficients for the rare gases and their halogen precursors. The initial part of the experiment was isothermal, during which the time dependence of release was observed and the polycrystalline material developed extensively interlinked grain-boundary porosity. Subsequently the temperature dependence of the release process was studied. It is concluded that the diffusion of rare gas atoms in UO 2 during irradiation is a complex process involving more than one rate-controlling mechanism and bears a close similarity to cation self-diffusion. In both cases, the low-temperature kinetics are radically affected by irradiation damage. The present results are well represented by a composite diffusion coefficient containing three terms — one representing high-temperature intrinsic behaviour whilst the other two represent the effect of irradiation enhancement. This equation should be modified to take account of intragranular bubbles at all temperatures for stable gas release, and at high temperatures in the case of unstable species.

  18. Kentucky Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvey, R. Gerald

    This book, printed for new adult readers, is about folk culture and folklore in Kentucky. The book, printed in large easy-to-read type and geared for intermediate readers, discusses folk culture and rural lifestyle. It differentiates between folk or traditional culture from elite and popular cultures. The first chapter looks at folk speech,…

  19. Diffusion-based process for carbon dioxide uptake and isoprene emission in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors by photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Fiona K; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis for the generation of fuels and chemicals from cyanobacteria and microalgae offers the promise of a single host organism acting both as photocatalyst and processor, performing sunlight absorption and utilization, as well as CO(2) assimilation and conversion into product. However, there is a need to develop methods for generating, sequestering, and trapping such bio-products in an efficient and cost-effective manner that is suitable for industrial scale-up and exploitation. A sealed gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor was designed and applied for the photosynthetic generation of volatile isoprene (C(5)H(8)) hydrocarbons, which operates on the principle of spontaneous diffusion of CO(2) from the gaseous headspace into the microalgal or cyanobacterial-containing aqueous phase, followed by photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation and isoprene production by the transgenic microorganisms. Volatile isoprene hydrocarbons were emitted from the aqueous phase and were sequestered into the gaseous headspace. Periodic replacement (flushing) of the isoprene (C(5)H(8)) and oxygen (O(2)) content of the gaseous headspace with CO(2) allowed for the simultaneous harvesting of the photoproducts and replenishment of the CO(2) supply in the gaseous headspace. Reduction in practice of the gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor is offered in this work with a fed-batch and a semi-continuous culturing system using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 heterologously expressing the Pueraria montana (kudzu) isoprene synthase (IspS) gene. Constitutive isoprene production was observed over 192 h of experimentation, coupled with cyanobacterial biomass accumulation. The diffusion-based process in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors has the potential to be applied to other high-value photosynthetically derived volatile molecules, emanating from a variety of photosynthetic microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of measured and calculated uranium isotopic concentrations in cascade streams at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blumkin, S.

    1982-06-16

    A test has been performed at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in connection with studies for the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency on the possibility of utilizing measurements of the concentrations of the minor uranium isotopes in /sup 235/U enrichment cascade external streams as a safeguards technique (MIST). This is the fourth plant test that has been performed in connection with the MIST studies, the first three having been done at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The main objectives of the test were to measure the isotopic composition and flow rates of the plant external streams over a period of time; to design an appropriate plant model in the manner an IAEA safeguards team might do it and calculate the isotopic compositions of the plant streams; and to compare the calculated isotopic values with the measured ones. The calculated /sup 235/U to /sup 234/U concentration ratios in the product and tails streams did not match the average measured values in the high-power period as well as they did for the low-power period, when the same isotopic composition for natural U was assumed at both power levels - the actual composition of the natural U fed to the plant during the test not having been measured. Recalculation of the /sup 235/U to /sup 234/U concentrations with another assumed value for the /sup 234/U concentration in natural U, that is still within the range of reported observed values for it, resulted in better agreement with the measured plant stream values: + 0.7% for the product stream and + 0.2% in the tails stream for the single-cascade model and + 0.8% and - 0.7% respectively for a two-cascade plant model. The record on sources of the natural U that was fed during the test supports the assumption that the average /sup 234/U concentration in the natural U fed was probably different during the two operating periods.

  1. Application of a Kalman filter to UF{sub 6} gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, F.R.

    1992-03-01

    A signal is required to control the flow of UF{sub 6} in gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems. The original strategy envisioned for deriving a flow signal was to take the derivative of the freezer/sublimer weigh cell signal. However, the derivative of the digitized weight signal is noisy, preventing good control. In addition, a bias is introduced into the weight derivative signal because a refrigerant is circulated through a shell-and-tube heat exchanger inside the freezer/sublimer. The weight of the refrigerant is included in the weight measured by the weigh cell. If the circulation rate of the refrigerent is not steady state, a bias exists. Measurements of upstream pressure, vessel pressure, and output to the system control valve are available to the control system. Thus, if the flow through the control valve is characterized properly by the measurements, a Kalman filter can be used in conjunction with these auxiliary inputs and the weigh cell input to overcome the noise and bias problem and provide an improve estimate of flow rate. A discussion of the development and the current status of a Kalman filter used for this application is given. 5 refs.

  2. Source term evaluation for UF{sub 6} release event in feed facility at gaseous diffusion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1997-01-30

    An assessment of UF{sub 6} release accidents was conducted for the feed facility of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP). Release rates from pig-tail connections were estimated from CYLIND code predictions, whereas, MELCOR was utilized for simulating reactions of UF{sub 6} with moisture and consequent transport of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and HF vapor through the building and to the environment. Two wind speeds were utilized. At the high end (Case 1) a wind speed of {approximately} 1 m/s (200 fpm) was assumed to flow parallel to the building length. At the low end (Case 2) to represent stagnant conditions a corresponding wind speed of 1 cm/s (2 fpm) was utilized. A further conservative assumption was made to specify no closure of crane and train doors at either end of the building. Relaxation of this assumption should provide for additional margins. Results indicated that, for the high (200 fpm) wind speed, close to 66% of the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and 100% of the HF gas get released to the environment over a 10-minute period. However, for the low (2 fpm) wind speed, negligible amount ({approximately} 1% UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) of aerosols get released even over a 2 hour period.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics tracking of UF{sub 6} reaction products release into a gaseous diffusion plant cell housing

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed using CFDS-FLOW3D Version 3.3 to model the transport of aerosol products formed during a release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process building. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a one-dimensional (1-D) analysis of aerosol/vapor transport following such an hypothesized severe accident is being performed. The objective of this study is to supplement the 1-D analysis with more detailed 3-D results. Specifically, the goal is to quantify the distribution of aerosol passing out of the process building during the hypothetical accident. This work demonstrates a useful role for CFD in large 3-D problems, where some experimental data are available for calibrating key parameters and the desired results are global (total time-integrated aerosol flow rates across a few boundary surfaces) as opposed to local velocities, temperatures, or heat transfer coefficients.

  4. Nuclear criticality safety controls for uranium deposits during D and D at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Jollay, L.J. III; Dahl, T.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management has issued a challenge to complete DOE environmental cleanup within a decade. The response for Oak Ridge facilities is in accordance with the DOE ten-year plan which calls for completion of > 95% of environmental management work by the year 2006. This will result in a 99% risk reduction and in a significant savings in base line costs in waste management (legacy waste); remedial action (groundwater, soil, etc.); and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). It is assumed that there will be long-term institutional control of cascade equipment, i.e., there will be no walk away from sites, and that there will be firm radioactivity release limits by 1999 for recycle metals. An integral part of these plants is the removal of uranium deposits which pose nuclear criticality safety concerns in the shut down of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. DOE has initiated the Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program to improve nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger uranium deposits from unfavorable geometry equipment. Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements have identified the location of these deposits. The objective of the K-25 Site Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program is to remove and place uranium deposits into safe geometry storage containers to meet the double contingency principle. Each step of the removal process results in safer conditions where multiple controls are present. Upon completion of the Program, nuclear criticality risks will be greatly reduced.

  5. A retrospective cohort mortality study among workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel powder at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

    PubMed

    Cragle, D L; Hollis, D R; Newport, T H; Shy, C M

    1984-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) employed over 800 white male workers between 1 January 1948, and 31 December 1953, in the manufacture of "barrier" material that required metallic nickel powder in its production. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine whether persons working with metallic nickel powder have a higher mortality from cancers of the respiratory tract than non-nickel workers. A comparison group was defined as all white males employed at ORGDP sometime between 1 January 1948, and 31 December 1953, who had no indications of occupational involvement in barrier production. This group comprised over 7 500 workers. Vital status determination has been completed up to 31 December 1977, allowing at least 24 years of follow-up for all persons in the study. Death certificates were available for 97% of the deaths among the nickel workers and non-nickel worker groups. End-points of interest were selected site-specific cancers and the general overall pattern of disease-specific mortality. Mortality rates in the nickel workers and non-nickel worker groups were compared with those for the white male population of the United States and with each other. There was no evidence of increased mortality due to lung cancers or nasal sinus cancers in nickel workers. Increases (not statistically significant) in mortality due to cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, and of the digestive system were observed in the nickel worker group, compared with the non-nickel worker group.

  6. Modified technique of in-place fungicide treatment of cooling towers as used at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.F.; Warriner, B.G.

    1982-02-01

    A modified technique of in-place fungicide treatment of cooling towers has been developed by Union Carbide Corporation, Paducah, Kentucky. The technique enables the fungicide user to treat towers safely without endangering the personnel applying the fungicide. The technique is time saving and effective in obtaining complete coverage of the plenum areas and the decking.

  7. Source term evaluation during seismic events in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Schmidt, R.W.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-30

    The 00 buildings are expected to collapse (per guidance from structure evaluation) during a seismic event in which acceleration level exceeds 0.15g. All roof beams may slip off supports, and collapse. Equipment may slip off from supports and fall onto the floor. The cell floor is also supposed to collapse due to structural instability and distortion due to excessive acceleration forces. Following structure collapse, expansion joints in the process piping and joints between the piping and equipment are expected to fail. Preliminary analysis showed that converters are likely to remain intact. The UF{sub 6} gas released from the break will rapidly interact with moisture in the air to produce UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF with exothermic energy released of {approximately}0.32 MJ/kg of UF{sub 6} reacted. Depending on the degree of mixing between UF{sub 6} gas, its reaction products, air and freon (R-114), there may occur a strong buoyancy force to disperse UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol particles that are subjected to the gravitational force for settling. Such a chemical reaction will also occur inside the converters. A substantial amount of UF{sub 6} must be stagnated at the bottom of the converters. At the interface between this stagnated UF{sub 6} and air, UF{sub 6} gas will diffuse into the air, undergo the chemical reaction with moisture there, and eventually be released through the break. Furthermore, lubricant oil fire in the building, if it occurs, will enhance the UF{sub 6} release into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to evaluate source term (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF) during such a seismic event. This study takes an approach using multiple steps as follows: (1) Source term evaluation at the break due to mixing between UF{sub 6} and air along with thermal buoyancy induced by chemical reaction energy, (2) Evaluation of additional source term from the converters in which a substantial UF{sub 6} vapor remains, and (3) Source term evaluation with lubricant oil

  8. Kentucky History and Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckinridge County Board of Education, Hardinsburg, KY.

    Designed for use in grades 6, 7, and 8, this curriculum guide provides 11 individual units for teaching Kentucky history and geography with the recommended text "Kentucky Heritage" published by Steck-Vaughn. Unit titles are The Blue Grass State, Early Explorations of Kentucky, Development of the Government of Kentucky, The Constitution…

  9. Kentucky History and Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckinridge County Board of Education, Hardinsburg, KY.

    Designed for use in grades 6, 7, and 8, this curriculum guide provides 11 individual units for teaching Kentucky history and geography with the recommended text "Kentucky Heritage" published by Steck-Vaughn. Unit titles are The Blue Grass State, Early Explorations of Kentucky, Development of the Government of Kentucky, The Constitution…

  10. Phased implementation of in situ chemical oxidation for a large TCE DNAPL source Area at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, P.E.; Thompson, S.L.; Haskins, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) remediation being implemented for the the X-701B groundwater plume at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). Modified Fenton's reagent is the principal oxidant for the remedy, and Direct Push Technology (DPT) is being used for delivery of the oxidant. Trichloroethene (TCE) is the primary contaminant of concern and is present within the unit as a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). A phased approach is being implemented to optimize the type, location, and mass of the oxidant injections. During Phase I, a unique near-real time monitoring approach was utilized to observe the transient effects of the oxidant injections on the formation. As a result of the positive results from Phase I, Ohio EPA has approved the final work plan for the remedy, and the approach is now being applied to the source area of the plume. The results from Phase I and the layout for the first series of Phase II injections are presented in this paper. Previous testing at the site has shown that the shallow, water-bearing formation is primarily composed of silty gravel and clay, and is both heterogeneous and anisotropic. These factors have significantly compromised earlier attempts to remediate the unit. A patented ISCO process from In-Situ Oxidative Technologies, Inc. (ISOTEC) was selected for the remediation of the plume. Phase I results indicate that oxidant delivery via DPT is feasible for the unit. Contaminant reduction to date has been minimal due to the small quantity of oxidant injected during Phase I. Contaminant rebound in the aqueous phase remains a concern and will be monitored closely during the remedy. (authors)

  11. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  12. Hispanic Administrators in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Hispanic administrators in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The data was obtained from Kentucky school Superintendents or their designees in 175 public school districts. The Hispanic survey contained six questions. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on April 21, 2008. A follow-up survey…

  13. Modeling the Effect of Long-term Diffusive Infiltration of Reactive Water on Seal Integrity: Case Study of Lower Paleozoic Strata, Illinois Basin, Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, A. J.; Parris, T. M.; Bowersox, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sealing formations overlying CO2 sequestration targets will be variably affected by geochemical interactions and mechanical forces. Chemically, the rocks are subject to acidified water produced from the dissolution of injected CO2 in the formation water. Mechanically, the rocks are subject to increased fluid pressure that could induce fracturing. Both of these processes affect seal properties. The driving forces and the time scales of these geochemical and mechanical processes are interdependent, i.e., coupled nonlinear processes: chemical diagensis can change rock mechanical properties and peremeability, and fractures can induce rapid change in the water composition as water and solutes are expelled from the rock. However, the two processes are sufficiently distinct and can be addressed individually to assess their effects on long-term integrity of seals. In this study the effect of 1D vertical solute diffusion and the attendant reactions in a carbon storage reservoir and overlying confining layers are modeled using Sym.8, a reactive-transport and water-rock interaction simulator. The open-system simulator uses elemental mass-conservation equations and thermodynamic equilibrium reaction expressions to solve mass-transfer processes, speciation among solutes, and kinetic reactions among solutes and minerals. The simulator uses a composite porous media model to describe textural and compositional evolution of rocks as water-rock interactions progress. Water-saturated pore space and isothermal configurations are used in this study. Inputs for the model are based on a robust subsurface geologic data set collected from the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group dolostones, a potential sequestration target in Kentucky, which are overlain by Ordovician limestone and shale of the Black River (secondary seal) and Maquoketa Formations (primary seal), respectively. The data set includes stratigraphic, petrographic, and water data collected from Blan No. 1 well, in Hancock County

  14. Rate of Contamination Removal of Two Phyto-remediation Sites at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, A.C.; Baird, D.R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes applications of phyto-remediation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility that enriched uranium from the early 1950's until 2000. Phyto-remediation has been implemented to assist in the removal of TCE (trichloroethylene) in the groundwater at two locations at the PORTS facility: the X-740 area and the X-749/X-120 area. Phyto-remediation technology is based on the ability of certain plants species (in this case hybrid poplar trees) and their associated rhizo-spheric microorganisms to remove, degrade, or contain chemical contaminants located in the soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, and possibly even the atmosphere. Phyto-remediation technology is a promising clean-up solution for a wide variety of pollutants and sites. Mature trees, such as the hybrid poplar, can consume up to 3,000 gallons of groundwater per acre per day. Organic compounds are captured in the trees' root systems. These organic compounds are degraded by ultraviolet light as they are transpired along with the water vapor through the leaves of the trees. The phyto-remediation system at the X-740 area encompasses 766 one-year old hybrid poplar trees (Populus nigra x nigra, Populus nigra x maximowiczii, and Populus deltoides x nigra) that were planted 10 feet apart in rows 10 feet to 20 feet apart, over an area of 2.6 acres. The system was installed to manage the VOC contaminant plume. At the X749/X-120 area, a phyto-remediation system of 2,640 hybrid poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) was planted in seven areas/zones to manage the VOC contaminant plume. The objectives of these systems are to remove contamination from the groundwater and to prevent further migration of contaminants. The goal of these remediation procedures is to achieve completely mature and functional phyto-remediation systems within two years of the initial planting of the hybrid poplar trees at each planting location. There is a direct

  15. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPORAL GROUNDWATER MONITORING VARIABILITY IN MW66 AND NEARBY WELLS, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2012-08-28

    Evaluation of disposal records, soil data, and spatial/temporal groundwater data from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 7 indicate that the peak contaminant concentrations measured in monitoring well (MW) 66 result from the influence of the regional PGDP NW Plume, and does not support the presence of significant vertical transport from local contaminant sources in SWMU 7. This updated evaluation supports the 2006 conceptualization which suggested the high and low concentrations in MW66 represent different flow conditions (i.e., local versus regional influences). Incorporation of the additional lines of evidence from data collected since 2006 provide the basis to link high contaminant concentrations in MW66 (peaks) to the regional 'Northwest Plume' and to the upgradient source, specifically, the C400 Building Area. The conceptual model was further refined to demonstrate that groundwater and the various contaminant plumes respond to complex site conditions in predictable ways. This type of conceptualization bounds the expected system behavior and supports development of environmental cleanup strategies, providing a basis to support decisions even if it is not feasible to completely characterize all of the 'complexities' present in the system. We recommend that the site carefully consider the potential impacts to groundwater and contaminant plume migration as they plan and implement onsite production operations, remediation efforts, and reconfiguration activities. For example, this conceptual model suggests that rerouting drainage water, constructing ponds or basin, reconfiguring cooling water systems, capping sites, decommissioning buildings, fixing (or not fixing) water leaks, and other similar actions will potentially have a 'direct' impact on the groundwater contaminant plumes. Our conclusion that the peak concentrations in MW66 are linked to the regional PGDP NW Plume does not imply that there TCE is not present in SWMU

  16. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.

    2012-06-01

    This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for the DOE Paducah C-746-U Landfill. A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines. The ORISE-derived soil guidelines are specifically applicable to the Landfill at the end of its operational life. A suggested 'upper bound' multiple of the derived soil guidelines for individual shipments is provided.

  17. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  18. Source term evaluation for postulated UF{sub 6} release accidents in gaseous diffusion plants -- Summer ventilation mode (non-seismic cases)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Wendel, M.W.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.; Carter, J.C.; Dyer, R.H.

    1996-12-30

    Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a postulated accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. For the current study, gaseous UF{sub 6} is assumed to get released in the cell housing atmosphere through B-line break at 58.97 kg/s for 10 min and 30 min duration at the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants. The released UF{sub 6} undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) while it disperses throughout the process building. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} as well as HF during a postulated UF{sub 6} release accident in a process building. UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. To characterize leakage flow through the cell housing wall, 3-D CFD tool (CFDS-FLOW3D) was used. About 57% of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} was predicted to be released into the environment. Since HF was treated as vapor, close to 100% was estimated to get released into the environment.

  19. A nested case-control study of multiple myeloma risk and uranium exposure among workers at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

    PubMed

    Yiin, James H; Anderson, Jeri L; Daniels, Robert D; Seel, Evelyn A; Fleming, Donald A; Waters, Kathleen M; Chen, Pi-Hsueh

    2009-06-01

    The primary risk factors of multiple myeloma are age, race and sex, but several studies have found an association between radiological hazards and multiple myeloma. The purpose of this nested case-control study was to investigate whether workers with chronic low-level exposure to internally deposited uranium at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in eastern Tennessee were at higher risk of dying of multiple myeloma than those without occupational exposure to uranium, with the consideration of potential confounders of external ionizing radiation and occupational chemical hazards such as mercury, nickel and trichloroethylene. The main analyses were carried out using conditional logistic regression on 98 cases and 490 controls (five controls matched to each case on gender, race and age at risk). Our study showed a weak association between internal uranium dose estimated from urinalysis results and multiple myeloma risk: OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.00-1.09) at 10 microGy with the inclusion of other risk factors. The parameter estimates and the corresponding odds ratios were very similar when internal doses were imputed for subjects without urine samples. Further studies that include updating this cohort and combining with workers from other gaseous diffusion plants are needed to investigate the relationship between multiple myeloma risk and radiation or other chemical exposures.

  20. State summaries: Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Anderson, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Kentucky mines coal, limestone, clay, sand and gravel. Coal mining operations are carried out mainly in the Western Kentucky Coal Field and the Eastern Kentucky Coal field. As to nonfuel minerals, Mississippian limestones are mined in the Mississippian Plateaus Region and along Pine Mountain in southeastern Kentucky. Ordovician and Silurian limestones are mined from the central part of the state. Clay minerals that are mined in the state include common clay, ceramic and ball clays, refractory clay and shale. Just like in 2004, mining activities in the state remain significant.

  1. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

  2. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) {sup 99}Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD.

  3. Forests of Kentucky, 2013

    Treesearch

    Christopher Oswalt

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry. These estimates, along...

  4. Forests of Kentucky, 2012

    Treesearch

    C.M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry....

  5. Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard R. Cooper; Gayanath W. Fernando; S. Beiden; A. Setty; E.H. Sevilla

    2004-07-02

    Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste).

  6. Gaseous detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Nettleton, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Focusing predominantly on safety problems in handling combustible gas or dust mixtures with air or oxygen, the book is a reference on gaseous detonations. Topics covered include: unidimensional models, structure of detonation fronts, and interaction of a detonation with confinement.

  7. Carbon isotope exchange between gaseous CO2 and thin solution films: Artificial cave experiments and a complete diffusion-reaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Maximilian; Scholz, Denis; Froeschmann, Marie-Louise; Schöne, Bernd R.; Spötl, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Speleothem stable carbon isotope (δ13C) records provide important paleoclimate and paleo-environmental information. However, the interpretation of these records in terms of past climate or environmental change remains challenging because of various processes affecting the δ13C signals. A process that has only been sparsely discussed so far is carbon isotope exchange between the gaseous CO2 of the cave atmosphere and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) contained in the thin solution film on the speleothem, which may be particularly important for strongly ventilated caves. Here we present a novel, complete reaction diffusion model describing carbon isotope exchange between gaseous CO2 and the DIC in thin solution films. The model considers all parameters affecting carbon isotope exchange, such as diffusion into, out of and within the film, the chemical reactions occurring within the film as well as the dependence of diffusion and the reaction rates on isotopic mass and temperature. To verify the model, we conducted laboratory experiments under completely controlled, cave-analogue conditions at three different temperatures (10, 20, 30 °C). We exposed thin (≈0.1 mm) films of a NaHCO3 solution with four different concentrations (1, 2, 5 and 10 mmol/l, respectively) to a nitrogen atmosphere containing a specific amount of CO2 (1000 and 3000 ppmV). The experimentally observed temporal evolution of the pH and δ13C values of the DIC is in good agreement with the model predictions. The carbon isotope exchange times in our experiments range from ca. 200 to ca. 16,000 s and strongly depend on temperature, film thickness, atmospheric pCO2 and the concentration of DIC. For low pCO2 (between 500 and 1000 ppmV, as for strongly ventilated caves), our time constants are substantially lower than those derived in a previous study, suggesting a potentially stronger influence of carbon isotope exchange on speleothem δ13C values. However, this process should only have an

  8. Kentucky's nursery situation

    Treesearch

    Raymond J. Swatzyna

    1980-01-01

    The Kentucky Division of Forestry operates three tree nurseries producing approximately 12.5 million seedlings. Production is 60% hardwoods and shrubs and 40% pine. Production could be increased to 18 million and species added to meet demand.

  9. Kentucky's forests, 2004

    Treesearch

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2008-01-01

    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  10. Validity of the Ruff-MKW boiling point method: Vapor pressures, diffusion coefficients in argon and helium, and viscosity coefficients for gaseous cadmium and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlbeck, P. G.; Myers, D. L.; Truong, V. V.

    1985-09-01

    The Ruff-MKW boiling point method is used to determine equilibrium vapor pressures greater than 660 Pa (5 Torr). Samples are vaporized from a Ruff cell, which has a capillary exit, in the presence of an inert gas. Viscosity coefficients and gaseous interdiffusion coefficients may be determined also. This is a second study of the method using Cd(l) and Zn(l) as samples. For the first study with CsCl(l), see J. Chem. Phys. 81, 915 (1984). Vapor pressure data are in good agreement with previous data and gave a third-law ΔsubH0(298) for Cd(s) of 111.95±0.42 kJ/mol and for Zn(s) of 130.65±0.48 kJ/mol. Analyses of the diffusion coefficients gave atomic diameters of 4.06×10-10 m for Cd and 3.46×10-10 m for Zn; these values are somewhat larger than previously measured values. In these experiments when the equilibrium vapor pressures were greater than 13 000 Pa (100 Torr), the need to consider heat transfer from the furnace to the vaporizing sample was noted, i.e., sample cooling occured due to rapid vaporization. Validity of the MKW analysis was found.

  11. Recommendations for a Kalman filter to estimate and control freeze and sublime rates of gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, F.R.

    1992-09-01

    A signal is required to control the flow of UF{sub 6} in gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems. The original strategy envisioned for deriving a flow signal was to take the derivative of the freezer/sublimer weigh cell signal. However, the derivative of the digitized weight signal is noisy, preventing good control. In addition, a disturbance is introduced into the weight derivative signal because a refrigerant is circulated through a shell-and-tube heat exchanger inside the freezer/sublimer. The weight of the refrigerant is included in the weight measured by the weigh cell. If the circulation rate of the refrigerant is not steady state, a disturbance exists. Measurements of upstream pressure, vessel pressure, and output to the system control valve are available to the control system. Thus, if the flow through the control valve is characterized properly by these measurements, a Kalman filter can be used in conjunction with these auxiliary inputs and the weigh cell input to overcome the noise and disturbance problem and provide an improved estimate of flow rate. A discussion of the development of a Kalman filter that could be used for this application is given, and recommendations are given for its implementation.

  12. Modification and expansion of X-7725A Waste Accountability Facility for storage of polychlorinated biphenyl wastes at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) must manage wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in accordance with Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requirements and as prescribed in a Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) between DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PCB-containing wastes are currently stored in the PORTS process buildings where they are generated. DOE proposes to modify and expand the Waste Accountability facility (X-7725A) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio, to provide a central storage location for these wastes. The proposed action is needed to eliminate the fire and safety hazards presented by the wastes. In this EA, DOE considers four alternatives: (1) no action, which requires storing wastes in limited storage areas in existing facilities; (2) modifying and expanding the X-7725A waste accountability facility; (3) constructing a new PCB waste storage building; and (4) shipping PCB wastes to the K-25 TSCA incinerator. If no action is taken, PCB-contaminated would continue to be stored in Bldgs X-326, X-330, and X-333. As TSCA cleanup activities continue, the quantity of stored waste would increase, which would subsequently cause congestion in the three process buildings and increase fire and safety hazards. The preferred alternative is to modify and expand Bldg. X-7725A to store wastes generated by TSCA compliance activities. Construction, which could begin as early as April 1996, would last approximately five to seven months, with a total peak work force of 70.

  13. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  14. Potential Hazards Relating to Pyrolysis of c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} in Selected Gaseous Diffusion Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-01

    As part of a program intended to replace the present evaporative coolant at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) with a non-ozone-depleting alternate, a series of investigations of the suitability of candidate substitutes in under way. One issue concerning a primary candidate, c-C4F8, is the possibility that it might produce the highly toxic perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in high temperature environments. This study was commissioned to determine the likelihood and severity of decomposition under two specific high temperature thermal environments, namely the use of a flame test for the presence of coolant vapors and welding in the presence of coolant vapors. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate available data to provide information that will allow the technical and industrial hygiene staff at the GDPs to perform appropriate safety evaluations and to determine the need for field testing or experimental work. The scope of this study included a literature search and an evaluation of the information developed therefrom. Part of that evaluation consists of chemical kinetics modeling of coolant decomposition in the two operational environments. The general conclusions are that PFIB formation is unlikely in either situation but that it cannot be ruled out completely under extreme conditions. The presence of oxygen, moisture, and combustion products will tend to lead to formation of oxidation products (COF2, CO, CO2, and HF) rather than PFIB.

  15. Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter and evaluation of previous pumping tests at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report, June 15, 1992--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.C.; Julian, S.C.; Neton, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Multi-well pumping tests have been concluded at wells MW79, MW108, and PW1 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to determine the hydraulic properties of the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). Soil cores suggest that the RGA consists of a thin sandy facies (2 to 6 feet) at the top of a thicker (> 10 feet) gravelly facies. Previous analyses have not considered any permeability contrast between the two facies. To assess the accuracy of this assumption, TVA personnel conducted borehole flowmeter tests at wells MW108 and PW1. Well MW79 could not be tested. The high K sand unit is probably 10 times more permeable than comparable zone in the gravelly portion of the RGA. Previous analyses of the three multi-well aquifer tests do not use the same conceptual aquifer model. Data analysis for one pumping test assumed that leakance was significant. Data analysis for another pumping test assumed that a geologic boundary was significant. By collectively analyzing all three tests with the borehole flowmeter results, the inconsistency among the three pumping tests can be explained. Disparity exists because each pumping test had a different placement of observation wells relative to the high K zone delineating by flowmeter testing.

  16. Kentucky Hispanic School Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Kentucky Hispanic school board members. The data was obtained from Kentucky school superintendents or their designees in the 174 public school districts through a survey mailed in the spring, 2009. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on March 12, 2009. The follow-up survey was mailed…

  17. RCRA Facility Investigation Plan K-1004 Area Lab Drain and the K-1007-B Pond - Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    ORGDP, Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc.

    1988-12-01

    Within the confines of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) are hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; some are in operation while others are no longer in use. these solid waste management units (SWMUs) are subject to assessment by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) Plans are scheduled to be submitted for all units during calendar years 1987 and 1988. The RFI Plan - General Document (K/HS-132) includes information applicable to all the ORGDP SMWUs and serves as a reference document for the site-specific RFI plans. This document is the site-specific RFI Plan for the K-1004 Area Lab Drain (ALD) and the K-1007-B Pond. This plan is based upon requirements described in the draft document, RFI Guidance, Vols. I-IV, December 1987 (EPA 530/SW-87-001). This unit is regulated by Section 3004(u) of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Contained within this document are geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological data specific to the K-1004 ALD and the K-1007-B Pond. The potential for release of contamination through the various media to receptors is addressed. A sampling plan is proposed to further determine the extent (if any) of release of contamination to the surrounding environment. Included are health and safety procedures to be followed when implementing the sampling plan. Quality control (QC) procedures for remedial action occurring on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are presented in 'The Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (ESH/Sub/87-21706/1), and quality assurance (QA) guidelines for ORGDP investigations are contained in The K-25 Remedial Actions Program Quality Assurance Plan, K/HS-231.

  18. Phased Implementation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for a Large TCE DNAPL Source Area at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, Paul E.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) remediation being implemented for the X-701B groundwater plume at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). Modified Fenton's reagent is the principal oxidant for the remedy, and Direct Push Technology (DPT) is being used for delivery of the oxidant. Trichloroethene (TCE) is the primary contaminant of concern and is present within the unit as a dense non - aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). A phased approach is being implemented to optimize the type, location, and mass of the oxidant injections. During Phase I, a unique near-real time monitoring approach was utilized to observe the transient effects of the oxidant injections on the formation. As a result of the positive results from Phase I, Ohio EPA has approved the final work plan for the remedy, and the approach is now being applied to the source area of the plume. The results from Phase I and the layout for the first series of Phase II injections are presented in this paper. Previous testing at the site has shown that the shallow, water-bearing formation is primarily composed of silty gravel and clay, and is both heterogeneous and anisotropic. These factors have significantly compromised earlier attempts to remediate the unit. A patented ISCO process from In-Situ Oxidative Technologies, Inc. (ISOTEC) was selected for the remediation of the plume. Phase I results indicate that oxidant delivery via DPT is feasible for the unit. Contaminant reduction to date has been minimal due to the small quantity of oxidant injected during Phase I. Contaminant rebound in the aqueous phase remains a concern and will be monitored closely during the remedy. (author)

  19. Forests of Kentucky, 2014

    Treesearch

    Thomas Brandeis; Andy Hartsell; KaDonna Randolph; Sonja Oswalt; Consuelo Brandeis

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kentucky based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. The estimates presented in this update are...

  20. A Kentucky Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Tack

    1983-01-01

    The rapid expansion of Appalachian Computer Services (ACS), a small Kentucky firm, was possible because of help from the state's Private Industry Councils (PICs). Federally funded, the PICs provided the necessary business-government-training partnership to recruit and train unemployed and economically disadvantaged workers for ACS' high-technology…

  1. Kentucky and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Kentucky and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead the…

  2. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  3. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  4. Forest statistics of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1952-01-01

    The Forest Survey is conducted in the various regions by the forest experiment stations of the Forest Service. In Kentucky the project is directed by the Central States Forest Experiment Station with headquarters in Columbus, Ohio. This Survey Release presents the more significant preliminary statistics on the forest area, timber volume, timber growth, and timber drain...

  5. Kentucky's Automotive Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Vocational Education.

    The state of Kentucky recognized a need to standardize automotive mechanics training throughout the state and to establish minimum guidelines for the quality of instruction in such programs. To meet these needs, the Office of Vocational Education selected the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) and began the certification…

  6. Fissible Deposit Characterization at the Former Oak Ridge K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant by {sup 252}CF-Source-Driven Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, T.F.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.; Wyatt, M.S.

    1998-05-01

    The Deposit Removal Project was undertaken with the support of the U. S. Department of Energy at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) formerly the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The project team performed the safe removal of the hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits from the K-29 Building of the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The deposits had developed as a result of air leakage into UF{sub 6} gas process pipes; UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} became hydrated by moisture from the air and deposited inside the pipes. The mass, its distribution, and the hydrogen content [that is, the ratio of H to U (H/U)], were the key parameters that controlled the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Earlier gamma-ray spectrometry measurements in K-29 had identified the largest deposits in the building. The first and third largest deposits in the building were measured in this program. The first deposit, found in the Unit 2, Cell 7, B-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Hockey Stick'') was about 1,300 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.34 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-}50% uncertainty) and according to the gamma-ray spectroscopy was uniformly distributed. The second deposit (the third-largest deposit in the building), found in the Unit 2, Cell 6, A-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Tee-Pipe''), had a uranium deposit estimated to be about 240 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.4 wt % {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-} 20% uncertainty). Before deposit removal activities began, the Deposit Removal Project team needed to survey the inside of the pipes intrusively to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Therefore, the spatial distribution of the deposits, the total uranium deposit mass, and the moderation level resulting from hydration of the deposits, all of which affect nuclear criticality safety were required. To perform the task safely and effectively, the Deposit Removal Project team requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) characterize the two

  7. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  8. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  9. Kentucky tar sand project

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.N.; Jones, H.D. II; Lewis, F.W.

    1985-03-01

    Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion barrels of oil are in Kentucky tar sand deposits alone. In the 22,000 acres, estimated reserves are over 100 million barrels of recoverable heavy oil. The oil-impregnated section of the deposit ranges in heavy oil content from five gallons per ton to over fifteen gallons per ton. The ore body is up to thirty-five feet thick and the overall stripping ratio for a commercial plant is estimated to be one cubic yard of undisturbed overburden material per ton of tar sand ore. A shovel and truck-type strip mining operation would be used to provide feedstock to the plant.

  10. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, Jr., Howard W.

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  11. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  12. The timber resources of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner

    1968-01-01

    The McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of 1928 authorizes the U. S. Forest Service to complete a statewide forest inventory of Kentucky at approximate 10-year intervals as part of the nationwide program of maintaining a current account of our timber resources. The Division of Forestry of the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources and the U. S. Forest Service...

  13. Forest statistics of eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1952-01-01

    The Forest Survey is conducted in the various regions by the forest experiment stations of the Forest Service. In Kentucky the project is directed by the Central States Forest Experiment Station with headquarters in Columbus, Ohio. This Survey Release presents the more significant preliminary statistics on the forest area and timber volume for the Eastern Kentucky...

  14. Forest statistics of central Kentucky

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1950-01-01

    This Survey Release presents the more significant preliminary statistics on the forest area and timber volume for each of the four regions of Central Kentucky. A similar report has been published for the Western Kentucky region and a release for the eastern region will be issued as soon as field work and tabulations are completed. Later an analytical report for the...

  15. TROUBLESOME ROADLESS AREA, KENTUCKY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigleo, W.R.; Hammack, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey identified resources of coal, oil and gas, sandstone, and shale in the Troublesome Roadless Area, Kentucky. Demonstrated resources of approximately 429,100 short tons of coal in an area of substantiated resource potential are contained in two major coal beds more than 28 in. thick and the area also contains an additional 483,900 short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. A probable potential for oil and gas is assigned to the entire area as these fuels may be present in underlying rocks of Mississippian age. Sandstone for silica sand, construction sand, and dimension stone, and shale for structural clay products occur in the area, but these commodities also occur in abundance outside the roadless area. A geochemical survey indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in the roadless area.

  16. A Teacher's Guide to Kentucky Folklife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Arts Council, Frankfort.

    From 1997-2001, the Kentucky Historical Society and the Kentucky Arts Council have cosponsored an annual Kentucky Folklife Festival to celebrate the traditions of diverse groups from across the state. Folklife, or folklore, includes traditions that are shared by a group of people who have a mutual background or interest. Folklore can be expressed…

  17. Kentucky College and University Enrollments, Fall 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Statistical information on Kentucky college and university enrollments for the fall of 1987 are provided, including listings of the membership of the Commonwealth of Kentucky Council on Higher Education, and the presidents of Kentucky's senior colleges and universities, junior and community colleges, seminaries, and business colleges. The 41…

  18. Kentucky Handbook for Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Program Development.

    This handbook provides incentives for individuals to improve the quality of life in Kentucky communities by becoming involved in community education. An effective community education program provides educational, recreational, social, and cultural services which work toward improving community life. The school often plays a key role in the…

  19. On Teaching Biotechnology in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dan C.; Kemp, Michael C.; Hall, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    One study surveyed 187 Kentucky teachers (36% agriculture, 32% science, 32% technology education); they rated importance of content organizers, topics, transferable skills, and delivery methods for biotechnology. A second study received responses from 70 of 150 teachers; 45 thought science teachers or an integrated team should teach biotechnology;…

  20. The timber industries of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Chauncey J. Lohr

    1977-01-01

    The 1974 timber-industry survey in Kentucky showed that, since 1969: Total timber output has increased 1 percent to 98.1 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined less than ½ percent to 489 million board feet. Pulpwood production has increased 69 percent to 133 thousand cords. Veneer-log production has declined 10 percent to 6.3 million board feet....

  1. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  2. On Teaching Biotechnology in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dan C.; Kemp, Michael C.; Hall, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    One study surveyed 187 Kentucky teachers (36% agriculture, 32% science, 32% technology education); they rated importance of content organizers, topics, transferable skills, and delivery methods for biotechnology. A second study received responses from 70 of 150 teachers; 45 thought science teachers or an integrated team should teach biotechnology;…

  3. Forest statistics of western Kentucky

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1950-01-01

    This Survey Release presents the more significant preliminary statistics on the forest area and timber volume for the western region of Kentucky. Similar reports for the remainder of the state will be published as soon as statistical tabulations are completed. Later, an analytical report for the state will be published which will interpret forest area, timber volume,...

  4. Kentucky Writing and Math Portfolios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Kim; Overton, June

    Teachers in Kentucky are using portfolios to determine strengths and weaknesses of individual students. Consequently, instruction is centered totally around the student. The implementation of portfolios sends the message to students that their first efforts should not be their last. Revision is part of improvement, and students are expected to…

  5. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  6. A Kentucky Journey. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort.

    The Kentucky History Center (Frankfort), a 20,000-square-foot museum facility, is a walk through time, complete with the sights, sounds, and smells of the past. The museum's eight chronological areas feature artifacts, images, and life-size environments that evoke places in time. A ready-made reference area in the center of the exhibit provides a…

  7. Lessons-Learned from D and D Activities at the Five Gaseous Diffusion Buildings (K-25, K- 27, K-29, K-31 and K-33) East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN - 13574

    SciTech Connect

    Kopotic, James D.; Ferri, Mark S.; Buttram, Claude

    2013-07-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the site of five former gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings that were used to enrich uranium from 1945 to 1985. The process equipment in the original two buildings (K-25 and K-27) was used for the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), while that in the three later buildings (K-29, K-31 and K-33) produced low enriched uranium (LEU). Equipment was contaminated primarily with uranium and to a lesser extent technetium (Tc). Decommissioning of the GDP process buildings has presented several unique challenges and produced many lessons-learned. Among these is the importance of good, up-front characterization in developing the best demolition approach. Also, chemical cleaning of process gas equipment and piping (PGE) prior to shutdown should be considered to minimize the amount of hold-up material that must be removed by demolition crews. Another lesson learned is to maintain shutdown buildings in a dry state to minimize structural degradation which can significantly complicate characterization, deactivation and demolition efforts. Perhaps the most important lesson learned is that decommissioning GDP process buildings is first and foremost a waste logistics challenge. Innovative solutions are required to effectively manage the sheer volume of waste generated from decontamination and demolition (D and D) of these enormous facilities. Finally, close coordination with Security is mandatory to effectively manage Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and classified equipment issues. (authors)

  8. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  9. Solid and Gaseous Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Hyman; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids and methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels. The review covers from October 1986, to September 1988. (MVL)

  10. Solid and Gaseous Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Hyman; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids and methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels. The review covers from October 1986, to September 1988. (MVL)

  11. Environmental Inventory Upper Cumberland River, Harlan, Kentucky.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Kentucky Nature Preserve- List of Rare Elements of Natural Diversity have been docu- mented in Harlan County (Appendices 3 and 4). No species included... rare . Between 1971 and 1976, there were 151 reported cases of encephalitis in Ken- tucky. The worst outbreak of encephalitis in Kentucky occurred in...steadily since 1950 and is rare in Kentucky (Center for Disease Control 1978; Kappus 1979). The nearest epicenter of incidence is in Arkansas (Center for

  12. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  13. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PLAN FOR DESIGNATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SOUTHWEST GROUNDWATER PLUME AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-05-31

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  14. 78 FR 11796 - Kentucky Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 917 Kentucky Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public comment... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), are announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the Kentucky...

  15. County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

  16. 76 FR 50436 - Kentucky Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... proposed bonding revisions to the Kentucky Revised Statutes (KRS) as authorized by House Bill 385 (HB 385), which passed during the State's regular 2011 legislative session. HB 385 amends the Kentucky Revised... administrative regulation that includes all bond requirements, including the bond amount; HB 385 also...

  17. Reduction in Force in Rural Eastern Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, R. L.; And Others

    This paper examines factors related to the reduction of certified school personnel in Eastern Kentucky rural school districts. The economy of Eastern Kentucky has relied heavily on the coal industry, which during the past several years has suffered losses resulting in job layoffs and closure of companies. Economic distress caused a declining…

  18. 76 FR 12849 - Kentucky Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 917 Kentucky Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Final rule; approval of... ``Kentucky program'') under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA or the Act...

  19. A Kentucky Response to the ADA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klee, Ed; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a program and curriculum in American Sign Language developed by the state government of Kentucky in cooperation with Eastern Kentucky University that was used with hearing state employees so they could communicate more effectively with those with hearing impairments. (JOW)

  20. Kentucky's Vocational Beginning Teacher Testing Program Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Vocational Education.

    This handbook is designed to provide teacher applicants and vocational educators with general information about Kentucky's Beginning Vocational Teacher Testing Program. Information is provided on amended chapter 396 of Kentucky's Revised Statute, which stipulates that all new/beginning teachers successfully complete appropriate written tests and…

  1. Kentucky Performance Assessment of Reading: Valid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Sue; Sexton, Larry C.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers surveyed Kentucky high school seniors to collect data on and compare the results of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) open-response reading results and ACT reading multiple-choice format. Results found a great deal of disagreement between the KIRIS and ACT reading results. (SM)

  2. Reduction in Force in Rural Eastern Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, R. L.; And Others

    This paper examines factors related to the reduction of certified school personnel in Eastern Kentucky rural school districts. The economy of Eastern Kentucky has relied heavily on the coal industry, which during the past several years has suffered losses resulting in job layoffs and closure of companies. Economic distress caused a declining…

  3. Kentucky's Unified Court of Justice. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Program Development.

    Resource materials and learning activities to help secondary students in Kentucky learn about their state's court system are provided. The guide begins by providing a history of the Kentucky Court of Justice. Discussed are the qualification of judges, the Retirement and Removal Commission, the Judicial Nominating Commission, and juries. Background…

  4. 40 CFR 81.411 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kentucky. 81.411 Section 81.411 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.411 Kentucky. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  5. Highlights of Early Teacher Training in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford, Ellis Ford

    1974-01-01

    This speech surveys the development of teacher education from the earliest concerns of the pioneers until the establishment of the University of Kentucky College of Education in 1923. In the search for a system of education, three theories influenced Kentucky leaders. They were the Lancasterian plan of organization and instruction (i.e., the…

  6. 21 CFR 808.67 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.67 Kentucky. The following Kentucky medical device requirement is...

  7. 21 CFR 808.67 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.67 Kentucky. The following Kentucky medical device requirement is...

  8. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and compensation in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T.

    1993-04-01

    Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis has been a compensable disease since the 1960s. In 1987 the Kentucky Workers' Compensation Law was changed to provide reduced benefits for coal miners with radiographic evidence of Black Lung Disease, but little or no respiratory impairment. This paper reports a typical case of Black Lung today and discusses the status of workers' compensation for this disease in Kentucky.

  9. County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

  10. Kentucky, 2011-forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2013-01-01

    This science update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of...

  11. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Principals (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. A stress survey (Appendix C) was sent to randomly selected elementary, middle, and high school principals located in the Eastern Kentucky region serviced by Morehead State University…

  12. Gaseous reference standards of formaldehyde from trioxane.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul J; di Meane, Elena Amico; Vargha, Gergely M; Brown, Richard J C; Milton, Martin J T

    2013-04-15

    We have developed a dynamic reference standard of gaseous formaldehyde based on diffusion of the sublimate of trioxane and thermal conversion to formaldehyde in the gas phase. We have also produced a gravimetric standard for formaldehyde in a nitrogen matrix, also by thermal conversion of the sublimate of trioxane. Analysis of the gravimetric standard with respect to the dynamic standard has confirmed the comparability of the static and dynamic gravimetric values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gaseous wire detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1997-08-01

    This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations.

  14. Parental vaccine concerns in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J; Woods, Charles R; Marshall, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of parents are questioning the safety and necessity of routine childhood immunizations. Locally produced vaccine risk communication materials may be effective in reassuring these parents. However, little is known about specific vaccine safety concerns in the state of Kentucky. An Internet-based survey focusing on parental vaccine safety concerns and potential vaccine risk communication strategies was sent to all members of the Kentucky Chapter of the Amerian Academy of Pediatrics. There were 121 respondents who routinely administered childhood vaccines. Of these, 85% reported parental concern about the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Concerns about the influenza and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were also frequent. Of the respondents, 46% noted parental skepticism about all vaccines in general. However, refusal of all vaccines was uncommon in most practices (median 1%, interquartile range 1%-3%). The belief that vaccines cause autism was the most prevalent parental concern, reported by 70% of pediatricians. Physicians also reported that a list of reliable vaccine information Websites and pamphlets addressing common vaccine safety concerns would be the most helpful materials to use during their discussions with concerned parents. These findings suggest that specific information about the MMR, influenza, and HPV vaccines, as well as data refuting the putative link between vaccines and autism would be useful to physicians who administer vaccinations. Respondents were especially interested in reliable vaccine information on the Internet. The Websites listed below offer accurate scientific information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent.

  15. Potential Hazards Relating to Pyrolysis of c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O, n-C{sub 4}F{sub 10}, and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} in Selected Gaseous Diffusion Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2000-03-29

    As part of a program intended to replace the present evaporative coolant at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) with a non-ozone-depleting alternate, a series of investigations of the suitability of candidate substitutes is under way. This report summarizes studies directed at estimating the chemical and thermal stability of three candidate coolants, c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, n-C{sub 4}F{sub 10}, and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O, in a few specific environments to be found in gaseous diffusion plant operations. One issue concerning the new coolants is the possibility that they might produce the highly toxic compound perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in high-temperature environments. Two specific high-temperature thermal environments are examined, namely the use of a flame test for the presence of coolant vapors and welding in the presence of coolant vapors. A second issue relates to the thermal or chemical decomposition of the coolants in the gaseous diffusion process environment. The primary purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate available data to provide information that will allow the technical and industrial hygiene staff at the GDPs to perform appropriate safety evaluations and to determine the need for field testing or experimental work. The scope of this study included a literature search and an evaluation of the information developed therefrom. Part of that evaluation consists of chemical kinetics modeling of coolant decomposition in the two operational environments. The general conclusions are that PFIB formation is unlikely in either situation but that it cannot be ruled out completely under extreme conditions. The presence of oxygen, moisture, and combustion products will tend to lead to the formation of CF{sub 4} and oxidation products (COF{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HF) rather than PFIB.

  16. GASEOUS DISPOSAL PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, R.F.; Thomasson, F.R.; Hicks, J.H.

    1963-01-22

    A method is described of removing gaseous radioactive Xe and Kr from water containing O. The method consists in stripping the gases from the water stream by means of H flowing countercurrently to the stream. The gases are then heated in a deoxo bed to remove O. The carrier gas is next cooled and passed over a charcoal adsorbent bed maintained at a temperature of about --280 deg F to remove the Xe and Kr. (AEC)

  17. Gaseous fuel reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews studies dealing with the concept of a gaseous fuel reactor and describes the structure and plans of the current NASA research program of experiments on uranium hexafluoride systems and uranium plasma systems. Results of research into the basic properties of uranium plasmas and fissioning gases are reported. The nuclear pumped laser is described, and the main results of experiments with these devices are summarized.

  18. Libraries in Kentucky: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bowling Green WESTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY Dept. of Library Public Services/WKU Libraries 1906 College Heights Blvd #11067 BOWLING GREEN, KY 42101-1067 270-745-3912 http:// ...

  19. The Kentucky Earth System Science Education Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, J. M.; Siewers, F. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Kentucky Earth Systems Education Project is a partnership between Western Kentucky University and Morehead State University to deliver the Earth Systems Science Alliance (ESSEA) courses via the Kentucky Virtual University to classroom teachers in Kentucky and beyond. One goal of the project has been to integrate the courses into the teacher preparation programs at both institutions, as well as providing professional development to practicing K-12 teachers. This presentation will highlight how team teaching courses with professors from different institutions at opposite ends of the state, as well as teaching in a different way, has brought new challenges and its own rewards. The instructors will present their own experiences and lessons learned that resulted in more effective ways of communicating and engaging students in the study of Earth Systems. They will also discuss how teaching strategies used in the course has changed their own teaching and student reactions to their online experience learning earth systems science.

  20. Streamflow, specific-conductance, and temperature data for Bayou and Little Bayou Creeks near Paducah, Kentucky, August 15 and 16, 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evaldi, R.D.; McClain, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Discharge, temperature, and specific conductance measurements were made August 15 and 16, 1989, at 74 main channel sites and seven flowing tributaries on Bayou and Little Bayou Creeks, Kentucky in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These measurements were made during base flow conditions to provide data for analysis of the interaction of surface and groundwater. The discharge of Bayou Creek was 0.30 cfs at the most upstream site, and 5.8 cfs at the most downstream site. Total measured tributary inflow of Bayou Creek was 5.7 cfs. Specific conductance values in the Bayou Creek watershed ranged from 208 to 489 microsiemens/cm, and water temperature ranged from 20.0 to 32.6 C. The discharge of Little Bayou Creek was 0.65 cfs at the most upstream site, and 1.8 cfs at the most downstream site. Total measured tributary inflow of Little Bayou Creek was 0.38 cfs. Specific conductance values in the Little Bayou Creek watershed ranged from 211 to 272 microsiemens/cm, and water temperature ranged from 14.5 to 24.9 C. (USGS)

  1. 78 FR 33784 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky: Kentucky Portion of Cincinnati...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... organic compounds for Northern Kentucky to account for changes in the emissions model and vehicle miles... Cincinnati-Hamilton, Supplement Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget Update AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.... Kentucky's August 9, 2012, SIP revision proposes to update the motor vehicle emissions budget using...

  2. 78 FR 33726 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky: Kentucky Portion of Cincinnati...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... NAAQS includes the counties of Boone, Campbell and Kenton in Kentucky (hereafter also referred to as... Northern Kentucky [Boone, Campbell and Kenton Counties] 2015 (tpd) 2020 (tpd) NOX 14.40 13.27 VOC 9.76 10... nonattainment area date * * * * * * * MVEB Update for the 1997 8-hour Boone, Campbell, 8/9/12 6/5/13 [Insert...

  3. Study of Nursing Manpower Requirements and Resources in Kentucky, 1981 and 1985. Kentucky Nursing Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Council on Higher Education, Frankfort.

    The Kentucky Nursing Manpower Requirements and Resources Study (1981 and 1985) is one segment of a nursing project designed to develop a coordinated statewide system of nursing education in Kentucky. The study determined the number and types of nurses needed and compared current and anticipated nursing manpower supply and demand. Calculations of…

  4. Trends in Adolescent Childbearing in Kentucky: 1970-1977. Kentucky Women: Challenges and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Verna; Garkovich, Lorraine

    This report analyzes trends in childbearing among Kentucky's adolescents from 1970 through 1977 and reviews childbearing patterns in Kentucky and in the United States for adolescents aged 10-14 and 15-19 to identify several factors associated with adolescent pregnancy. The fact that adolescent women are reaching biological maturity at an earlier…

  5. Trends in Adolescent Childbearing in Kentucky: 1970-1977. Kentucky Women: Challenges and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Verna; Garkovich, Lorraine

    This report analyzes trends in childbearing among Kentucky's adolescents from 1970 through 1977 and reviews childbearing patterns in Kentucky and in the United States for adolescents aged 10-14 and 15-19 to identify several factors associated with adolescent pregnancy. The fact that adolescent women are reaching biological maturity at an earlier…

  6. Study of Nursing Manpower Requirements and Resources in Kentucky, 1981 and 1985. Kentucky Nursing Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Council on Higher Education, Frankfort.

    The Kentucky Nursing Manpower Requirements and Resources Study (1981 and 1985) is one segment of a nursing project designed to develop a coordinated statewide system of nursing education in Kentucky. The study determined the number and types of nurses needed and compared current and anticipated nursing manpower supply and demand. Calculations of…

  7. Lessons from Kentucky. [All Children Can Learn Conference (Louisville, Kentucky, December 7-9, 2000)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cynthia

    In response to a state supreme court decision that the state's system of schooling was unconstitutional, the Kentucky legislature passed the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990. In December, 2000, a Louisville conference brought together educators, policymakers, and researchers to discuss research findings and lessons learned during 10 years of…

  8. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  9. GASEOUS SCINTILLATION COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Eggler, C.; Huddleston, C.M.

    1959-04-28

    A gaseous excitation counter for detecting the presence amd measuring the energy of subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation is described. The counter includes a gas-tight chamber filled with an elemental gas capable of producing ultra-violet excitation quanta when irradiated with subatomic particles and electromagnetic radiation. The gas has less than one in a thousand parts ultra-violet absorbing contamination. When nuclear radiation ps present the ultra-violet light produced by the gas strikes a fluorescent material within the counter, responsive to produce visible excitation quanta, and photo-sensitive counting means detect the visible emission.

  10. Downhole gaseous liquid flow agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilos, N.; Kennedy, D.D.; Lederhos, L.J. Jr.

    1989-03-14

    An apparatus is described for agitating and mixing of a gaseous phase and a liquid phase comprising: a first tube having non-blocking internal threads within the first tube to agitate a liquid phase adhering thereto with a gaseous phase passing therethrough, whereby a uniform gaseous phase and liquid phase mixture is formed; and a second tube connected to an end of the first tube having non-blocking internal threads of opposite handedness.

  11. Migration in Kentucky: Will the Circle Be Unbroken?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Michael

    This chapter examines Kentucky's history of net migration, the age and education of recent in-migrants and out-migrants, and implications of these trends for Kentucky in the next century. Kentucky's migration history for much of the 20th century reveals the departure of young adults from the state, an exodus from rural areas, and an attraction of…

  12. Perceived Effects of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel M.; And Others

    In 1994, as part of an ongoing study of the quality and effects of large-scale educational assessments, RAND began a series of studies of Kentucky's assessment, the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). KIRIS is a cornerstone of Kentucky's education reform program. It exemplifies several key themes of current assessment-based…

  13. Consumer Competencies of Kentucky High School Graduates. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Rose M.

    Strengths and weaknesses of consumer competencies of Kentucky high school graduates were studied. The sample consisted of 193 students selected from required freshmen English classes at three universities and three community colleges in Kentucky. (Of the 193 students, 122 were Kentucky 1976 high school graduates, thirty-one graduated from Kentucky…

  14. Kentucky's Parent and Child Education (PACE) Program. Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Kevin M.

    A lack of education is a major cause of poverty among many Kentucky citizens. In 1986, Kentucky's dropout rate was the second highest of the 50 states. That same year, Kentucky established the Parent and Child Education (PACE) Program in an effort to combat the problems of insufficient education and poverty that tend to be perpetuated from…

  15. Technically recoverable Devonian shale gas in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Sedwick, K.B.; Thompson, K.B.; Wicks, D.E.

    1985-05-01

    This report evaluates the natural gas potential of the Devonian Age shales of Kentucky. For this, the study: (1) compiles the latest geologic and reservoir data to establish the gas in-place; (2) analyzes and models the dominant gas production mechanisms; and (3) examines alternative well stimulation and production strategies for most efficiently recovering the in-place gas. The major findings of the study include the following: (1) The technically recoverable gas from Devonian shale (Lower and Upper Huron, Rhinestreet, and Cleveland intervals) in Kentucky is estimated to range from 9 to 23 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). (2) The gas in-place for the Devonian shales in eastern Kentucky is 82 Tcf. About one half of this amount is found in the Big Sandy gas field and its immediate extensions. The remainder is located in the less naturally fractured, but organically rich area to the west of the Big Sandy. (3) The highly fractured shales in the Big Sandy area in southeast Kentucky and the more shallow shales of eastern Kentucky respond well to small-scale stimulation. New, larger-scale stimulation technology will be required for the less fractured, anisotropic Devonian shales in the rest of the state. 44 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Water use in Kentucky, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sholar, C.J.; Wood, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Water-use information for 1990 was collected and reported, by county, for eight major categories of use. Seven of the categories were offstream uses, which included public supply, commercial, domestic, industrial, mining, thermoelectric, and agricultural uses. The agricultural category was subdivided into irrigation and livestock water use. Instream water- use data also were collected for hydroelectric-power generation. Estimated average water use in Kentucky exceeded 4,300 million gallons per day during 1990 for all offstream uses. About 94 percent of this amount was from surface-water sources, and about 6 percent was from ground-water sources. Per capita use for all offstream uses was almost 1,200 gallons per day. Estimated average consumptive use was 309 million gallons per day. Estimated average instream water use for hydroelectric-power generation was 83,000 million gallons per day. Ninety-seven percent of the offstream water withdrawals during 1990 were withdrawn for thermoelectric, public supply, and industrial use. Cooling water used in the production of thermoelectric power accounted for about 80 percent of the total offstream water use during 1990. Water withdrawn for public supplies was second largest at almost 10 percent of the total, and industrial water withdrawals were about 7 percent of the total. Thermoelectric, domestic, and livestock uses accounted for almost 90 percent of the consumptive use during 1990. The thermoelectric category accounted for almost two-thirds of the total consumptive use in the State for all uses.

  17. GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gow, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    An extremely compact two-terminal gaseous discharge device is described that is capable of producing neutrons in copious quantities, relatively high energy ions, intense x rays, and the like. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a crossed electric-magnetic field region in the discharge envelope that traps electrons and accelerates them to very high energies to provide an intense ionizing medium adjacent the anode of the device for ionizing gas therein with extremely high efficiency. In addition, the crossed-field trapping region holds the electrons close to the anode whereby the acceleration of ions to the cathode is not materially effected by the electron sheath and the ions assume substantially the full energy of the anodecathode potential drop. (auth)

  18. Ethylene Oxide Gaseous Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Robert R.; Shull, James J.

    1962-01-01

    The duration of the equilibration period between admission of water vapor and subsequent introduction of gaseous ethylene oxide to an evacuated sterilizer chamber was studied with respect to its effect on the inactivation of spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger under simulated practical conditions. Introduction of a water-adsorbing cotton barrier between the spores and an incoming gas mixture of water vapor and ethylene oxide caused a marked increase in the observed thermochemical death time of the spore populations. This effect was negated by admission of water vapor one or more minutes prior to introduction of ethylene oxide gas. Increases in temperature and relative humidity of the system promoted passage of water vapor through the cotton barriers and diminished their effect. PMID:13890660

  19. The floods of December 1978 in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullavan, J.N.; Quinones, F.; Flint, Richard Foster

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, severe flooding throughout the State of Kentucky occurred from December 3-10 as a result of intense precipitation from two storms. The storms of December 3-5 and December 7-10 produced record peak discharges in several areas throughout central and eastern Kentucky, resulting in damages of nearly 50 million dollars and the loss of five lives. This report summarizes data collected during the floods by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, and other Federal and State agencies in Kentucky. The data include precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data (including suspended sediment). Estimates of property damages in selected basins are also provided. The information is preliminary and subject to revisions. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Site Specific Metal Criteria Developed Using Kentucky Division of Water Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Phipps, T.L.

    1999-10-09

    Alternative limits for Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were developed for treated wastewater from four outfalls at a Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Guidance from the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) was used to (1) estimate the toxicity of the effluents using water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae; (2) determine total recoverable and dissolved concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn ; (3) calculate ratios of dissolved metal (DM) to total recoverable metal (TRM); and (4) assess chemical characteristics of the effluents. Three effluent samples from each outfall were collected during each of six test periods; thus, a total of 18 samples from each outfall were evaluated for toxicity, DM and TRM. Subsamples were analyzed for alkalinity, hardness, pH, conductivity, and total suspended solids. Short-term (6 or 7 d), static renewal toxicity tests were conducted according to EPA methodology. Ceriodaphnia reproduction was reduced in one test of effluent from Outfall A , and effluent from Outfall B was acutely toxic to both test species during one test. However, the toxicity was not related to the metals present in the effluents. Of the 18 samples from each outfall, more than 65% of the metal concentrations were estimated quantities. With the exception of two total recoverable Cu values in Outfall C, all metal concentrations were below the permit limits and the federal water quality criteria. Ranges of TR for all outfalls were: Cd, ,0.1-0.4 {micro}g/L; Cr,1.07-3.93 {micro}g/L; Cu, 1.59-7.24 {micro}g/L; Pb, <0.1-3.20 {micro}g/L; Ni, 0.82-10.7 {micro}g/L, Zn, 4.75-67.3 {micro}g/L. DM:TRM ratios were developed for each outfall. The proportion of dissolved Cu in the effluents ranged from 67 to 82%; the proportion of dissolved Ni ranged from 84 to 91%; and the proportion of dissolved Zn ranged from 74 to 94%. The proportion of dissolved Pb in the effluents was considerably lower (37-51%). TRM and/or DM concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn differed significantly

  1. Japan's research on gaseous flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niioka, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Although research studies on gaseous flames in microgravity in Japan have not been one-sided, they have been limited, for the most part, to comparatively fundamental studies. At present it is only possible to achieve a microgravity field by the use of drop towers, as far as gaseous flames are concerned. Compared with experiments on droplets, including droplet arrays, which have been vigorously performed in Japan, studies on gaseous flames have just begun. Experiments on ignition of gaseous fuel, flammability limits, flame stability, effect of magnetic field on flames, and carbon formation from gaseous flames are currently being carried out in microgravity. Seven subjects related to these topics are introduced and discussed herein.

  2. Southern Illinois and Western Kentucky, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-81-194 (22 June 1973) --- This view of southern Illinois and Western Kentucky (37.0N, 88.5W), with the winding Ohio River in between also illustrates the rich agriculture potential of the flood plains in the river bottom lands. To the east are the waters of Lake Kentucky and Lake Barkley which flow into the Ohio at Paducah, KY and may be seen stretching for several miles. Except for the Land Between the Lakes State Park, Extensive agriculture may be seen throughout the area. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Towards developing Kentucky's landscape change maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zourarakis, D.P.; Lambert, S.C.; Palmer, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Kentucky Landscape Snapshot Project, a NASA-funded project, was established to provide a first baseline land cover/land use map for Kentucky. Through this endeavor, change detection will be institutionalized, thus aiding in decision-making at the local, state, and federal planning levels. 2002 Landsat 7 imaginery was classified following and Anderson Level III scheme, providing an enhancement over the 1992 USGS National Land Cover Data Set. Also as part of the deliverables, imperviousness and canopy closure layers were produced with the aid of IKONOS high resolution, multispectral imagery.

  5. Water use in Kentucky, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sholar, C.J.; Lee, V.D.

    1988-01-01

    Water use information for 1985 was collected and reported by county for eight major categories of use. Seven of the categories were offstream uses, which included (1) public supply , (2) commercial, (3) domestic, (4) industrial, (5) mining, (6) thermoelectric, and (7) agricultural uses. The agricultural uses category was separated into irrigation and livestock water use. Instream water-use data also were collected for hydroelectric power generation. Water use in Kentucky was estimated to average 4,200 million gallons per day (M gal/d) during 1985 for all offstream uses. About 95% of this amount was from surface water sources, and about 5% was from groundwater sources. Per capita use for all offstream uses was about 1,100 gal/day. About 260 M gal/d was consumed (not returned to the surface--or groundwater system). Instream water use for hydroelectric power generation was estimated to be 91,000 M gal/d. Almost 97% of the offstream water withdrawals in 1985 were withdrawn for thermoelectric, public supply, and industrial use. Cooling water used in the production of thermoelectric power accounted for about 81% of the total offstream water use in 1985. Water withdrawn for public supplies was the second largest offstream use at about 10 % of the total, and industrial water use was almost 6%. Thermoelectric, domestic, and livestock uses accounted for almost 90% of the consumptive use in 1985. Consumptive use in the thermoelectric category was almost one-half of the total amount consumed in the State for all uses. (USGS)

  6. Generation of sub-part-per-billion gaseous volatile organic compounds at ambient temperature by headspace diffusion of aqueous standards through decoupling between ideal and nonideal Henry's law behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-05-21

    In the analysis of volatile organic compounds in air, the preparation of their gaseous standards at low (sub-ppb) concentration levels with high reliability is quite difficult. In this study, a simple dynamic headspace-based approach was evaluated as a means of generating vapor-phase volatile organic compounds from a liquid standard in an impinger at ambient temperature (25 °C). For a given sampling time, volatile organic compound vapor formed in the headspace was swept by bypassing the sweep gas through the impinger and collected four times in quick succession in separate sorbent tubes. In each experiment, a fresh liquid sample was used for each of the four sampling times (5, 10, 20, and 30 min) at a steady flow rate of 50 mL min(-1). The air-water partitioning at the most dynamic (earliest) sweeping stage was established initially in accord with ideal Henry's law, which was then followed by considerably reduced partitioning in a steady-state equilibrium (non-ideal Henry's law). The concentrations of gaseous volatile organic compounds, collected after the steady-state equilibrium, reached fairly constant values: for instance, the mole fraction of toluene measured at a sweeping interval of 10 and 30 min averaged 1.10 and 0.99 nmol mol(-1), respectively (after the initial 10 min sampling). In the second stage of our experiment, the effect of increasing the concentrations of liquid spiking standard was also examined by collecting sweep gas samples from two consecutive 10 min runs. The volatile organic compounds, collected in the first and second 10 min sweep gas samples, exhibited ideal and nonideal Henry's law behavior, respectively. From this observation, we established numerical relationships to predict the mole fraction (or mixing ratio) of each volatile organic compound in steady-state equilibrium in relation to the concentration of standard spiked into the system. This experimental approach can thus be used to produce sub-ppb levels of gaseous volatile organic

  7. Ethylene Oxide Gaseous Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Robert R.; Shull, James J.

    1962-01-01

    The relationships of reaction temperature and concentration of gaseous ethylene oxide to the time required for inactivation of air-dried Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores are more complex than previously reported. A plot of temperature vs. the logarithm of “thermochemical death time” (TCDT) resulted in a straight line between 18 and 57 C for systems of “high” ethylene oxide concentration. The TCDT values were independent of ethylene oxide concentrations above certain temperature-dependent limits. A given ethylene oxide concentration produced a TCDT curve identical in the upper temperature regions with that for higher concentrations. As the temperature was lowered beyond a critical point, this curve diverged from that for higher concentrations, as a straight line of lesser slope. Thus, a series of curves exists for a range of ethylene oxide concentrations. They are characterized by two segments, both logarithmic, intersecting at a critical temperature for each concentration. The intersecting point is at a temperature inversely related to the ethylene oxide gas concentration. The temperature quotient for the high temperature segments of all systems was 1.8. This value was characteristic for ethylene oxide concentrations of 440 and 880 mg/liter at temperatures above 40.6 and 33.4 C, respectively. Below these critical temperatures, the Q10 values for the respective systems were 3.2 and 2.3. PMID:13890659

  8. Water resources activities in Kentucky, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, conducts three major types of activities in Kentucky in order to provide hydrologic information and understanding needed for the best management of Kentucky 's and the Nation 's water resources. These activities are: (1) Data collection and dissemination; (2) Water-resources appraisals (interpretive studies); and (3) Research. Activities described in some detail following: (1) collection of surface - and groundwater data; (2) operation of stations to collect data on water quality, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation; (3) flood investigations; (4) water use; (5) small area flood hydrology; (6) feasibility of disposal of radioactive disposal in deep crystalline rocks; (7) development of a groundwater model for the Louisville area; (8) travel times for streams in the Kentucky River Basin; (9) the impact of sinkholes and streams on groundwater flow in a carbonate aquifer system; (10) sedimentation and erosion rates at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Burial site; and (11) evaluation of techniques for evaluating the cumulative impacts of mining as applied to coal fields in Kentucky. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. County Data Book 1996: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky children on a state-wide, county, and school district basis. An introductory essay finds a strong link between the percentage of adults completing high school in a given school district and various indicators: As the percentage of adults completing high school increases, the…

  10. Media Utilization by Teachers of Appalachian Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfleet, Morris; Burkett, Leonard

    In Appalachian Kentucky, the adoption rate of new ideas and new practices in education tends to be slower because of the provincialism and isolationism of the region. The objectives of this study were to determine which of the media--radio, television, or reading material--is used most frequently by the elementary and secondary teachers in…

  11. Kentucky's Children: County Data Book, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This report provides a statistical portrait of Kentucky children's well-being, by county and in the state overall. Part 1 of the report, "Young Families in Peril," profiles poverty in the state, noting that the vast majority of poor families are working, married-couple households; however, families with household heads younger than 30…

  12. The timber industries of Kentucky, 1986

    Treesearch

    Eric H. Wharton; Stephen C. Kayse; Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Nevel

    1992-01-01

    A statistical report based on a survey of primary wood manufacturers using wood from Kentucky. Contains statistics on production and consumption of industrial forest products by species, geographic units, and state; and production and disposition of manufacturing residues. Includes graphics and statistical tables showing current and historical data.

  13. Kentucky Beefs up Its CTE Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helphinstine, Myra; Helphinstine, Larry; King, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Employers are looking to career and technical education (CTE) programs to supply a workforce possessing academic and employability skills to complement the technical component. In Kentucky, the state has instituted assessment standards to ensure that CTE programs are working to increase student achievement. The program assessment standards bring…

  14. East Kentucky Bioenergy Capacity Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J. Michael; Montross, Michael; Mark, Tyler

    2013-03-31

    When you look across the landscape of Kentucky you will find a very diverse topography. In the western portions of the state you will find fertile and gently rolling soils that are prime land for traditional row crop production. As you move east towards the Appalachian Mountains the terrain becomes increasing roughed and less productive soils. One of the primary objectives of Morehead State University is to serve the eastern Kentucky population of Kentucky. Fitting within that mission is identifying new opportunities for people living in this region. With the passing of the Renewable Fuels Standard in 2005 there was a focus put on the production of biomass crops that can be used in the production of ethanol and cellulosic ethanol. The majority of US ethanol production is derived from corn. The eastern portion of Kentucky is not well suited for corn production, but might be a location for other biomass crops to be produced. Additionally, many farmers in the region were looking for alternative crops to tobacco that might be well suited for the region.

  15. Evaluation of Kentucky's Extended School Services Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda

    The Extended School Services (ESS) program was established in 1990 as part of the Kentucky Education Reform Act. The program extends the school day, week, or year for students at risk of academic failure, providing them with additional instructional time to help them meet academic goals. An evaluation of ESS in 2001 utilized statewide surveys and…

  16. 75 FR 28311 - Kentucky Disaster #KY-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 05/01/2010 and continuing.. Effective Date: 05/11/2010. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 07/12/2010. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date:...

  17. Environmental Conditions in Kentucky's Penal Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Irving

    1974-01-01

    A state task force was organized to identify health or environmental deficiencies existing in Kentucky penal institutions. Based on information gained through direct observation and inmate questionnaires, the task force concluded that many hazardous and unsanitary conditions existed, and recommended that immediate action be given to these…

  18. READiscover Kentucky: A Children's Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. for Libraries and Archives, Frankfort.

    This manual for children's librarians was produced in conjunction with the Kentucky bicentennial and is intended to help find ways for children to experience the past; to stimulate ideas about book-related programs suited to individual communities and resources; and to suggest history-related activities. The manual is presented in seven sections:…

  19. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  20. 40 CFR 81.411 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.411 Kentucky. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Mammoth Cave NP 51,303 69-283 USDI-NPS ...

  1. Kentucky, 2007 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Christopher R. King; Tony G. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    This science update provides an overview of the forest resource attributes of Kentucky. The overview is based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. The inventory, along with Web-posted supplemental tables, will be updated annually.

  2. County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

  3. Appalachian English Stereotypes: Language Attitudes in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhman, Reid

    1990-01-01

    Employs the matched guise technique to compare attitudes in Kentucky about Appalachian English and Standard American English held by speakers of both language varieties. The study suggests that speakers of Appalachian English partially accept low status evaluation of their dialect, but reject other negative stereotypes about their community…

  4. Environmental Conditions in Kentucky's Penal Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Irving

    1974-01-01

    A state task force was organized to identify health or environmental deficiencies existing in Kentucky penal institutions. Based on information gained through direct observation and inmate questionnaires, the task force concluded that many hazardous and unsanitary conditions existed, and recommended that immediate action be given to these…

  5. 77 FR 17560 - Kentucky Disaster #KY-00045

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-4057-DR), dated 03/16/2012. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 02/29/2012 through 03/03/2012.

  6. 76 FR 56860 - Kentucky Disaster #KY-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-4008-DR), dated 09/01/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/19/2011 through 06/23/2011.

  7. Forest Statistics for Kentucky - 1975 and 1988

    Treesearch

    Carol L. Alerich

    1990-01-01

    A statistical report on the fourth forest survey of Kentucky (1988). Findings are displayed in 204 tables containing estimates of forest area, number of trees, timber volume, tree biomass, and timber products output. Data are presented at three levels: state, geographic unit, and county.

  8. Guide to the University of Kentucky Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Univ. Libraries.

    This collection of instructional materials comprises the third section of the 1975-76 annual report on library orientation and instruction at the University of Kentucky. (See IR 003 815 for the first two parts.) General guides and instructional materials include: (1) an introduction to learning resources and services prepared for the orientation…

  9. New Directions - New Dimensions: Mathematics in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Russell; And Others

    This booklet is one of a series devoted to changes in major curricular areas in the school systems of Kentucky. Included are twenty-one articles written by administrative and teaching personnel who are involved in mathematics programs of an experimental or innovative nature. The articles describe programs dealing with modern mathematics, computer…

  10. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  11. 20 CFR 30.214 - How does a claimant establish that the employee is a member of the Special Exposure Cohort?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... February 1, 1992, at a gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; or Oak Ridge... one gaseous diffusion plant. (c) Proof of employment by the DOE or a DOE contractor, or an...

  12. 20 CFR 30.214 - How does a claimant establish that the employee is a member of the Special Exposure Cohort?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... February 1, 1992, at a gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; or Oak Ridge... one gaseous diffusion plant. (c) Proof of employment by the DOE or a DOE contractor, or an...

  13. 20 CFR 30.214 - How does a claimant establish that the employee is a member of the Special Exposure Cohort?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... February 1, 1992, at a gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; or Oak Ridge... one gaseous diffusion plant. (c) Proof of employment by the DOE or a DOE contractor, or an...

  14. 20 CFR 30.214 - How does a claimant establish that the employee is a member of the Special Exposure Cohort?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... February 1, 1992, at a gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; or Oak Ridge... one gaseous diffusion plant. (c) Proof of employment by the DOE or a DOE contractor, or an...

  15. 20 CFR 30.214 - How does a claimant establish that the employee is a member of the Special Exposure Cohort?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... February 1, 1992, at a gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; or Oak Ridge... one gaseous diffusion plant. (c) Proof of employment by the DOE or a DOE contractor, or an...

  16. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and South Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. (USGS)

  17. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Rick

    2002-03-18

    The accompanying report, manual and assimilated data represent the initial preparation for submission of an Application for Primacy under the Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) program on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in Kentucky law and regulation that would prevent the Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas from receiving approval of primacy of the UIC program, currently under control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Atlanta, Georgia.

  18. 76 FR 32387 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    .... Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): Kentucky: Elliott, Floyd, Hancock, Johnson, Knott, Letcher, Martin, Morgan, Muhlenberg, Ohio. Illinois: Alexander. Indiana: Spencer, Vanderburgh, Warrick. Virginia...

  19. 77 FR 16316 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...: Jefferson, Switzerland. Kentucky: Bourbon, Clark, Fleming, Gallatin, Henry, Lewis, Nicholas, Owen, Pike... unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Joseph P. Loddo,...

  20. View of Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky border area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky border area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The clock is in the most southerly corner of the picture. Interstate 81 under construction extends northeast-southwest across the bottom portion of the photograph. The larger urban area nearest the center of the picture is Kingsport, Tennessee. On the southern side of I-80 and east of Kingsport is the city of Bristol, Tennessee-Virginia. Johnson City, Tennessee is the urban area near the edge of the picture southeast of Kingsport. The Holston RIver, a tributary of the Tennessee River, meanders through the Kingsport area. The characteristic ridge and valley features in the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia are clearly visible. Forests (dark green) occur on the ridges and clearly outline the folded and faulted rock formations. Agricultur

  1. Water resources data, Kentucky, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, Dennis L.; Moses, Clifford R.; Darnell, Roy S.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 131 stream-stations. It also includes water-quality data for 15 stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at 7 stations, and continuous water-quality at 11 stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 22 partial record sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval are published for two sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  2. Kentucky harvest and utilization study, 2007

    Treesearch

    Jason A. Cooper; James W. Bentley

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a harvest and utilization study was conducted on 53 operations in Kentucky. There were 1,310 total trees measured: 263 or 20 percent were softwood, while 1,047 or 80 percent were hardwood. Results from this study showed that 82 percent of the total softwood volume measured was utilized for a product, and 18 percent was left as logging residue. Seventy-two...

  3. Commercial scale gasification test with Kentucky coal

    SciTech Connect

    Roeger, A.; Jones, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    The paper describes in some detail the coal testing programme carried out by Tri-State Synfuels. One of the major elements in the programme was a commercial-scale gasification test with Kentucky 9 coal in a Lurgi dry-bottom gasifier. This was carried out at the Sasol One plant in Sasolburg, S. Africa, in 1981. Other parts of the programme included coal selection, characterisation, stockpile weatherability, corrosion testing, by-product characterisation and waste water treatability.

  4. The forest-land owners of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas S. Powell

    1978-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of the commercial forest land in Kentucky--11 million acres--is in the hands of some 455,600 private owners. Ninety-four percent of these owners are individuals. The "average" individual owner is in late middle age, has little formal education, receives a modest income, has a farm or rural background, has owned his woodland more than 10...

  5. Kentucky DOE EPSCoR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grulke, Eric; Stencel, John

    2011-09-13

    The KY DOE EPSCoR Program supports two research clusters. The Materials Cluster uses unique equipment and computational methods that involve research expertise at the University of Kentucky and University of Louisville. This team determines the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of nanostructured materials and examines the dominant mechanisms involved in the formation of new self-assembled nanostructures. State-of-the-art parallel computational methods and algorithms are used to overcome current limitations of processing that otherwise are restricted to small system sizes and short times. The team also focuses on developing and applying advanced microtechnology fabrication techniques and the application of microelectrornechanical systems (MEMS) for creating new materials, novel microdevices, and integrated microsensors. The second research cluster concentrates on High Energy and Nuclear Physics. lt connects research and educational activities at the University of Kentucky, Eastern Kentucky University and national DOE research laboratories. Its vision is to establish world-class research status dedicated to experimental and theoretical investigations in strong interaction physics. The research provides a forum, facilities, and support for scientists to interact and collaborate in subatomic physics research. The program enables increased student involvement in fundamental physics research through the establishment of graduate fellowships and collaborative work.

  6. Diffuser Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-13

    Tests begun at Stennis Space Center's E Complex Sept. 13 evaluated a liquid oxygen lead for engine start performance, part of the A-3 Test Facility Subscale Diffuser Risk Mitigation Project at SSC's E-3 Test Facility. Phase 1 of the subscale diffuser project, completed Sept. 24, was a series of 18 hot-fire tests using a 1,000-pound liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen thruster to verify maximum duration and repeatability for steam generation supporting the A-3 Test Stand project. The thruster is a stand-in for NASA's developing J-2X engine, to validate a 6 percent scale version of A-3's exhaust diffuser. Testing the J-2X at altitude conditions requires an enormous diffuser. Engineers will generate nearly 4,600 pounds per second of steam to reduce pressure inside A-3's test cell to simulate altitude conditions. A-3's exhaust diffuser has to be able to withstand regulated pressure, temperatures and the safe discharge of the steam produced during those tests. Before the real thing is built, engineers hope to work out any issues on the miniature version. Phase 2 testing is scheduled to begin this month.

  7. Kentucky`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Lowe, L.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from Kentucky`s forests totaled more than 186 million cubic feet, 35 percent more than in 1986. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 84 percent to 110 million cubic feet. More than 94 percent of the plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 161 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 20 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 435 in 1986 to 401 in 1995. Total receipts increased 43 percent to almost 212 million cubic feet.

  8. Geotechnical properties of Kentucky`s AML landslides and slope failure evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Bhatt, S.K.; Sefton, J.

    1995-12-31

    A large body of geotechnical data, obtained from the U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) and the Kentucky Division of Abandoned Lands, is analyzed in this paper. The analysis includes causes of subsurface failures, phreatic levels, soil profiles, and soil composition data. Soil properties calculated from laboratory procedures and stability analysis techniques were also reviewed. Employing prudent engineering practices and parameters, seven failed slopes were subjected to back analysis for estimating realistic factors of safety. Important factors affecting landslides in eastern Kentucky are presented with appropriate examples.

  9. A guidance document for Kentucky`s oil and gas operations: July 1-September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This technical report is a summary of the progress made on `A guidance Document for Kentucky`s Oil and Gas Operator`s`. During this quarter, the document received continued review and editing in an electronic format to satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Comments received from oil and gas operators reviewing this document prompted contact to be made with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to develop an addendum section to provide better explanation of USEPA requirements for Class 11 injection wells.

  10. Entropy of gaseous boron monobromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Wang, Chao-Wen; Jia, Chun-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    We present an explicit representation of molar entropy for gaseous boron monobromide in terms of experimental values of only three molecular constants. Fortunately, through comparison of theoretically calculated results and experimental data, we find that the molar entropy of gaseous boron monobromide can be well predicted by employing the improved Manning-Rosen oscillator to describe the internal vibration of boron monobromide molecule. The present approach provides also opportunities for theoretical predictions of molar entropy for other gases with no use of large amounts of experimental spectroscopy data.

  11. NMR investigation of gaseous SF6 confinement into EPDM rubber.

    PubMed

    Neutzler, Sven; Terekhov, Maxim; Hoepfel, Dieter; Oellrich, Lothar Rainer

    2005-02-01

    The confinement process of gaseous sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) in ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubber was investigated by spectroscopic and spatially resolved NMR techniques. A strong elongation of T1 relaxation time of SF6 and a decrease of the diffusion coefficient were found. A possible explanation may be the strong restriction of molecular mobility due to interactions between SF6 and active centers of the EPDM.

  12. The impact of health on Kentucky's economy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Danielle; Asher, Linda M; Whitler, Elmer; Wilson, Emery A

    2008-07-01

    All states are strongly committed to economic development policies and activities as participants in national and global competition. However, a sometimes overlooked and perhaps under appreciated influence on economic development is the health of a state's citizens. This study focuses on how the health status of Kentucky profoundly influences its economy, workforce, productivity, and general quality of life. If Kentucky's economy is to improve significantly, as compared to other states, significant improvements in the health status of its citizens must be achieved in the near future and sustained over time. In an era of growing concern about rising health insurance costs and maintaining a reliable and productive workforce, employers are increasingly likely to locate in communities where measures of health status are strongly positive. The latest report from the United Health Foundation indicates that in 2007 Kentucky had the 8th worst health status in the nation based on a set of risk factors and outcomes. These risk factors include personal behaviors, community and environment, and public health policies that culminate in key health outcomes related to quality of life and longevity. While it is a serious challenge, our research demonstrates that many of these risk factors can be lowered through relatively low cost and effective interventions that produce substantial improvements in health and Kentucky's rank. Health education is very effective when it begins early in life and continues to emphasize the importance of healthy behaviors, such as not smoking, healthy diets and exercise, and weight control. Preventive health services that identify and treat diseases and conditions that lead to premature death increase both longevity and economic growth through lower treatment costs for chronic diseases and an increase in human capital. Policy changes, such as primary enforcement of motor vehicle seat belt use and encouragement of the use of safety equipment at work

  13. Diffuse mass transport in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, F. G.

    1981-08-01

    Variational methods are used to investigate the problems of diffusive mass transport in a porous medium. Calculations of the effective diffusivities are performed for a model pore structure generated by randomly placed, freely overlapping solid spheres all of the same radius. Effects of the tortuosity of the diffusion paths are considered. Numerical evaluations are used to test some approximate engineering models. For gaseous transition region diffusion the mean free path kinetic theory is used to derive a variational upper bound on the effective transition region diffusivity. For the simultaneous liquid or gas phase Fickian bulk diffusion in the void and Fickian surface diffusion on the pore wall surface, an analytical expression for effective diffusion coefficient is obtained and compared with the usual engineering model of parallel surface and void diffusion. The simultaneous gaseous transition region diffusion in the void and the Fickian surface diffusion on the pore wall surface are examined numerically.

  14. A Guide to the Kentucky System of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Department of Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Kentucky System of Intervention (KSI) is a framework for providing systematic, comprehensive services to address academic and behavioral needs for all students, preschool through grade 12. The Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) has developed this guidance document to provide resources in planning and decision making as districts and…

  15. Evolution of the Primary Program in Six Kentucky Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes from the Field: Education Reform in Rural Kentucky, 1998

    1998-01-01

    As part of an 8-year study of education reform in rural Kentucky, this report examines the primary program that has evolved in six rural elementary schools as a result of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA), which requires that grades K-3 be replaced by a nongraded program. This change aimed to eliminate failure in the first 2 years of…

  16. Improvement of drought and salt tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a high polyploidy, apomictic, self-incompatible, perennial grass, Kentucky bluegrass has such complex genetic architecture that conducting standard Mendelian genetic selection is currently impossible. Our lab is trying to improve the quality and color of Kentucky bluegrass under water deficits c...

  17. The Implementation of Kentucky's School-Based Decision Making Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Inst. on Education Reform.

    This report describes what schools and educators across Kentucky are doing to implement school reform in school-based decision-making based on the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990 (KERA). The School-Based Decision Making (SBDM) component of KERA is a decentralized governance structure that vests great authority in SBDM councils operating at…

  18. Evaluating reforestation success on a surface mine in eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Claudia Cotton; Christopher Barton; John Lhotka; Patrick N. Angel; Donald Graves

    2012-01-01

    Reclamation through reforestation is becoming more common in Kentucky as studies uncover what treatments are most effective for successful tree establishment. “Success” is defined by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in terms of height and survival percentage of outplanted and naturally regenerated species. While this definition of success provides a measure of site...

  19. Kentucky Information Dissemination System. Fall Dissemination Conference Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Communication Services.

    Describing a state conference on information dissemination held in November 1979 in Frankfort, Kentucky, this report contains conference materials and evaluations of the mini-seminars and awareness sessions conducted there. Materials include a final agenda, seminar and roundabout topics, a description of the Kentucky Department of Education…

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Kentucky Extended School Services Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Kimberly S.; Meehan, Merrill L.; Finch, Nicole; Chadwick, Kristine; Howley, Caitlin; Riffle, Joy; Blake, Jennifer; Ermolov, Lisa

    The Extended School Services (ESS) program was established in 1990 as part of the Kentucky Education Reform Act. Designed specifically to address the needs of Kentuckys at-risk student population, ESS is an aggressive, proactive program for addressing academic problems before they become ingrained. This report summarizes findings from 24 site…

  1. Child Care in Kentucky: Current Status and Future Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Michael T.

    This report is designed to inform the Kentucky Governor, the General Assembly, and the public about the quality of child care in the state. Chapter 1 presents data suggesting that at least one third of Kentucky preschoolers are currently in child care, more children are likely to enter childcare as female labor force participation increases and…

  2. Literacy Content Knowledge Expertise among Adult Education Providers in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Laurie A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a literacy content knowledge survey and assessment administered to adult education providers in Kentucky (n=520). This descriptive study focused on two main goals: 1) to obtain a description of Kentucky adult education programs including instructors' backgrounds, professional preparation, and teaching…

  3. It's Up to Us! Broad Form Deeds in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuercher, Melanie A., Ed.

    This adult literacy curriculum best serves groups of students, but is also effective for one-on-one tutoring methods. The material covers the history of broad form deeds in Kentucky (instruments with which coal rights, but not the farmlands above the coal, were sold to mining companies) and includes four personal narratives of Kentucky residents…

  4. 77 FR 47062 - Kentucky Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kentucky Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Kentucky Municipal Power Agency filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive...

  5. 77 FR 61595 - Kentucky Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kentucky Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Filing Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Kentucky Municipal Power Agency filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed...

  6. New and Emerging Occupations in Existence in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Angela

    This report provides information from a project that surveyed new and emerging, technical, and nontraditional occupations in Kentucky. The information is intended for use by those developing and conducting programs to serve displaced homemakers. First, a definition of new and emerging occupations in Kentucky is provided. Next, survey information…

  7. Farm Crisis in Kentucky: What Can We Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilvento, Thomas W.; Christenson, James A.

    1986-01-01

    A new era of farming is evolving in Kentucky. Resulting primarily from the loss of medium-sized operations, there has been a decline in the total number of farms. The real value of farmland dropped 16% in Kentucky between 1981 and 1985. More farmers are seeking off-farm employment in order to continue family operations. Similarly, more farmers…

  8. From the lab bench: Overcoming limitations of bermudagrass in Kentucky

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written on the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing bermudagrass as a pasture forage in Kentucky. Bermudagrass is a warm-season perennial with a short growth distribution in Kentucky - May to the first light freeze. There is concern about sensitivity of the subtropical grass to c...

  9. Kentucky Mine Safety Training Program. Trainee Handbook--Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Bureau of Vocational Education.

    This trainee handbook is designed for a course to prepare workers with safety competencies in order to meet Kentucky mandatory mine safety requirements before entering mines in Kentucky; it is also intended for workers who have been on the job less than 90 days. The guide is organized into 14 chapters. Topics covered in the mine safety training…

  10. Teacher Retention in Appalachian Schools: Evidence from Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Butler, J. S.; Fowles, Jacob; Streams, Megan E.; Toma, Eugenia F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze teacher attrition from Appalachian school districts over nearly twenty years of data. We employ a unique panel of public K-12 teachers active in Kentucky between 1986 and 2005, and discern several patterns of interest to scholars and policymakers. Inter-district mobility is rare in Kentucky, and rarer still among…

  11. Globally Competitive, Locally Engaged: The Case of Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Aims C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky, a state with among the lowest levels of per capita income and education attainment in the United States, embarked on an ambitious set of higher education reforms in 1997 aimed at elevating the state to the national average of educational attainment by 2020. At the time of their enactment, the Kentucky reforms were…

  12. Kentucky Education Reform: Towards the Practice of Multiculturalism in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    This position paper suggests ways in which the practice of multiculturalism in teaching could be enhanced within the context of Kentucky's school reform. The Kentucky Education Reform Plan advocated high educational goals for students; developed an accountability system that rewarded schools which improved the success of students and intervened in…

  13. Kentucky, 2010—forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry. These...

  14. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  15. Teacher Retention in Appalachian Schools: Evidence from Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Butler, J. S.; Fowles, Jacob; Streams, Megan E.; Toma, Eugenia F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze teacher attrition from Appalachian school districts over nearly twenty years of data. We employ a unique panel of public K-12 teachers active in Kentucky between 1986 and 2005, and discern several patterns of interest to scholars and policymakers. Inter-district mobility is rare in Kentucky, and rarer still among…

  16. Scholarly Teaching--Application of Bloom's Taxonomy in Kentucky's Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This study examined the lesson plans of 67 teacher interns in Kentucky to determine the extent to which their lesson objectives were designed to develop higher order thinking skills in their students. Copies of the first lesson plans submitted by first year teachers in one large Kentucky school system for a 3-year period, 1995-1998, constituted…

  17. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  18. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey randomly selected Eastern Kentucky Superintendents to collect data about stress in public schools. This was the third year of a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix A) was sent to…

  19. Kentucky Environmental Education Council Goals in Kentucky Elementary Schools: A Descriptive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Education (EE) refers to a broad array of approaches in which an instructor uses the environment as a means to integrate various subjects and real world learning. Research supported the idea that EE instruction had a positive correlation to academic achievement. Under the Kentucky Education Cabinet of the Department of Education, the…

  20. Seismic Hazard Assessment for Western Kentucky, Northeastern Kentucky and Southeastern Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, James C; Wang, Zhenming; Woolery, Edward W; Kiefer, John D

    2002-07-01

    Earthquakes pose a seismic hazards and risk to the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Furthermore, the seismic hazards and risk vary throughout the Commonwealth. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the seismic hazard maps developed by the US Geological Survey for seismic safety regulation for nuclear facilities. Under current US Geological Survey's seismic hazard assessment it is economically unfeasible to build a new uranium plant near Paducah relative to the Portsmouth, Ohio site. This is not to say that the facility cannot be safely engineered to withstand the present seismic load, but enormously expensive to do so. More than 20 years observations and research at UK have shown that the US Geological Survey has overestimated seismic hazards in western Kentucky, particularly in the Jackson Purchase area that includes Paducah. Furthermore, our research indicates underestimated seismic hazards in northeastern Kentucky and southeastern Ohio. Such overestimation and underestimation could jeopardize possible site selection of PGDP for the new uranium plant. The existing database, research experience, and expertise in UK's Kentucky Geological Survey and Department of Geological Science put this institution in a unique position to conduct a comprehensive seismic hazard evaluation.

  1. Instructional and Assessment Accommodations in Kentucky. State Assessment Series, Maryland/Kentucky Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Ysseldyke, Jim; Bielinski, John; House, Allison; Trimble, Scott; Insko, Bill; Owens, Cindy

    This study examined the relationship between instructional and assessment accommodations for students with and without disabilities participating in the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). The study evaluated the educational records of 78 students with disabilities and 51 students from the general population. Results are…

  2. Kentucky Environmental Education Council Goals in Kentucky Elementary Schools: A Descriptive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Education (EE) refers to a broad array of approaches in which an instructor uses the environment as a means to integrate various subjects and real world learning. Research supported the idea that EE instruction had a positive correlation to academic achievement. Under the Kentucky Education Cabinet of the Department of Education, the…

  3. Kentucky Demographics: Demographic and Economic Impacts of Migration in Kentucky, 1975-80. No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Michael

    This analysis of demographic and economic impacts of migration compared samples of nonmigrants, inmigrants, and outmigrants for Kentucky from 1975 to 1980. Age, gender, race, birth place, educational attainment, income, and labor force characteristics were compared for the three groups. Inmigrants, including intrastate migrants, were compared on…

  4. 77 FR 15179 - Kentucky Disaster #KY-00044; Disaster Declaration for Kentucky

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA--4057--DR), dated 03/ 06/2012. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 02/29/2012 through 03/03/2012.

  5. Kentucky Demographics: Demographic and Economic Impacts of Migration in Kentucky, 1975-80. No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Michael

    This analysis of demographic and economic impacts of migration compared samples of nonmigrants, inmigrants, and outmigrants for Kentucky from 1975 to 1980. Age, gender, race, birth place, educational attainment, income, and labor force characteristics were compared for the three groups. Inmigrants, including intrastate migrants, were compared on…

  6. Transfer of advanced manufacturing technologies to eastern Kentucky industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gillies, J.A.; Kruzich, R.

    1988-05-01

    This study concludes that there are opportunities to provide assistance in the adoption of manufacturing technologies for small- and medium-sized firms in eastern Kentucky. However, the new markets created by Toyota are not adequate to justify a directed technology transfer program targeting the auto supply industry in eastern Kentucky because supplier markets have been determined for some time, and manufacturers in eastern Kentucky were not competitive in this early selection process. The results of the study strongly reinforce a reorientation of state business-assistance programs. The study also concludes that the quality and quantity of available labor is a pervasive problem in eastern Kentucky and has particular relevance as the economy changes. The study also investigated what type of technology-transfer programs would be appropriate to assist manufacturing firms in eastern Kentucky and if there were a critical number of firms to make such a program feasible.

  7. Implementation and Effects of LDC and MDC in Kentucky Districts. Policy Brief No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joan; Epstein, Scott; Leon, Seth; Matrundola, Deborah La Torre; Reber, Sarah; Choi, Kilchan

    2015-01-01

    Kentucky has been a leader in the movement to more rigorous college and career ready standards to support their students' success in the 21st century. Kentucky was the first state to adopt new college and career ready standards (CCRS)--termed the Kentucky Core Academic Standards. Many of Kentucky's districts have moved proactively and…

  8. Cancer Mortality in Rural Appalachian Kentucky. Appalachian Data Bank Report #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Thomas C.; And Others

    This report compares cancer mortality rates in rural Appalachian Kentucky with rates for rural non-Appalachian Kentucky and the U.S. white population. Rural Appalachian Kentucky differs from the rest of rural Kentucky in having a younger, poorer, less educated population with greater employment in mining as opposed to agriculture, and with less…

  9. Writing Whirligigs: The Art and Assessment of Writing in Kentucky State Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Shelby A.; McIver, Monette C.

    In 1990, the state of Kentucky created a new school system through the Kentucky Educational Reform Act (KERA). While KERA mandates wide-ranging progressive reform, testing through the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) makes sure teachers get the job done. Though all Kentucky teachers are involved in writing, those at the…

  10. Geography for Life and Standards-Based Education in the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, David A.; Mountain, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Public education in Kentucky schools was fundamentally changed in 1990 with the passage of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). This educational reform--mandated by the Kentucky Supreme Court ruling that funding for Kentucky public school districts was neither adequate nor equitably distributed--established a platform on which standards-based…

  11. Cancer Mortality in Rural Appalachian Kentucky. Appalachian Data Bank Report #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Thomas C.; And Others

    This report compares cancer mortality rates in rural Appalachian Kentucky with rates for rural non-Appalachian Kentucky and the U.S. white population. Rural Appalachian Kentucky differs from the rest of rural Kentucky in having a younger, poorer, less educated population with greater employment in mining as opposed to agriculture, and with less…

  12. Kentucky's Evaluation System for Tech Prep Programs and Data Reported by Secondary and Postsecondary Kentucky Tech Prep Programs in 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Joyce; Briscoe, Melissa

    The Kentucky Tech Prep Evaluation system was developed to establish and maintain a database and data analysis for assessment of the effectiveness of tech prep programs in achieving specific goals and in helping schools improve cognitive and noncognitive performance as reflected in the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS)…

  13. Performance Assessment & KERA. Proceedings of a Conference of the Kentucky Educational Research Association (Lexington, Kentucky, April 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Center for Professional Development.

    In April 1991, members of the Kentucky Educational Research Association (KERA), held a conference to discuss performance assessment and its use in Kentucky schools. The following papers from the conference are included: (1) "Our Conference and the Performance Assessment Committee" (S. Kifer); (2) "Performance Assessment: A National…

  14. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River Basin, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and south Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. 205 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  16. View of Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky border area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    SL3-88-053 (July-September 1973) --- A near vertical view of the Tennessee-Virginia-Kentucky border area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch Earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The clock is in the most southerly corner of the picture. Interstate 81 under construction extends northeast-southwest across the bottom portion of the photograph. The larger urban area nearest the center of the picture is Kingsport, Tennessee. On the southern side of I-80 and east of Kingsport is the city of Bristol, Tennessee-Virginia. Johnson City, Tennessee is the urban area near the edge of the picture southeast of Kingsport. The Holston River, a tributary of the Tennessee River, meanders through the Kingsport area. The characteristic ridge and valley features in the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia are clearly visible. Forests (dark green) occur on the ridges and clearly outline the folded and faulted rock formations. The valleys (light) were formed in the softer rocks as a result of erosion. Agricultural areas are indicated by the characteristic rectangular patterns. Coal production is an important industry of this area; and it is mined by surface open pit operations. The irregular light areas in the Kentucky-Virginia border area are the strip mines which follow the contour of the land. Reclamation of the strip mine areas is aided through accurate knowledge of the mine and drainage systems. Dr. Ronald Brooks of the Wolf Research and Development Corporation can use this photograph in study of strip mine areas in the east central U.S. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior’s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

  17. Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

    1999-07-01

    A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

  18. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOEpatents

    Nierenberg, William A.; Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-08-10

    1. The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane.

  19. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  20. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  1. Recent work on gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettleton, M. A.

    The paper reviews recent progress in the field of gaseous detonations, with sections on shock diffraction and reflection, the transition to detonation, hybrid, spherically-imploding, and galloping and stuttering fronts, their structure, their transmission and quenching by additives, the critical energy for initiation and detonation of more unusual fuels. The final section points out areas where our understanding is still far from being complete and contains some suggestions of ways in which progress might be made.

  2. Recent topics on gaseous detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    2010-11-01

    Started in the late sixties by the invention of the multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC), the development of modern gaseous detectors has continued for decades and is still blooming, with the introduction of new generations of innovative devices having superior position accuracy, time resolutions and rate capability. Motivated mostly by the requirements of high energy physics, the novel devices find however applications in many other fields, such as astrophysics and medical diagnostics.

  3. Planar Reflection of Gaseous Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Jason Scott

    Pipes containing flammable gaseous mixtures may be subjected to internal detonation. When the detonation normally impinges on a closed end, a reflected shock wave is created to bring the flow back to rest. This study built on the work of Karnesky (2010) and examined deformation of thin-walled stainless steel tubes subjected to internal reflected gaseous detonations. A ripple pattern was observed in the tube wall for certain fill pressures, and a criterion was developed that predicted when the ripple pattern would form. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook material properties; the pressure loading created by reflected gaseous detonations was accounted for with a previously developed pressure model. The residual plastic strain between experiments and computations was in good agreement. During the examination of detonation-driven deformation, discrepancies were discovered in our understanding of reflected gaseous detonation behavior. Previous models did not accurately describe the nature of the reflected shock wave, which motivated further experiments in a detonation tube with optical access. Pressure sensors and schlieren images were used to examine reflected shock behavior, and it was determined that the discrepancies were related to the reaction zone thickness extant behind the detonation front. During these experiments reflected shock bifurcation did not appear to occur, but the unfocused visualization system made certainty impossible. This prompted construction of a focused schlieren system that investigated possible shock wave-boundary layer interaction, and heat-flux gauges analyzed the boundary layer behind the detonation front. Using these data with an analytical boundary layer solution, it was determined that the strong thermal boundary layer present behind the detonation front inhibits the development of reflected shock wave bifurcation.

  4. Closing Kynect and Restructuring Medicaid Threaten Kentucky's Health and Economy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Charles B; Vanderford, Nathan L

    2017-08-01

    Following passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States, the Kentucky Health Benefit Exchange, Kynect, began operating in Kentucky in October 2013. Kentucky expanded Medicaid eligibility in January 2014. Together, Kynect and Medicaid expansion provided access to affordable health care coverage to hundreds of thousands of individuals in Kentucky. However, following the Kentucky gubernatorial election in 2015, the newly inaugurated governor moved to dismantle Kynect and restructure the Medicaid expansion, jeopardizing public health gains and the state economy. As the first state to announce both the closure and restructuring of a state health insurance marketplace and Medicaid expansion, Kentucky may serve as a test case for the rest of the nation for reversal of ACA-related health policies. This article describes Kynect and the Kentucky Medicaid expansion and examines the potential short-term and long-term impacts that may occur following changes in state health policy. Furthermore, this article will offer potential strategies to ameliorate the expected negative impacts of disruption of both Kynect and the Medicaid expansion, such as the creation of a new state insurance marketplace under a new governor, the implementation of a private option, and increasing the state minimum wage for workers. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  5. Hydrology of the Princeton area, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plebuch, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Princeton area comprises about 155 square miles in western Kentucky and includes parts of Caldwell, Crittenden, and Lyon Counties. The area is in the Mississippi Plateau region of Kentucky and lies within the drainage basin of the Cumberland River and Tradewater River basins. In 1974 municipal water-supply systems utilized about 1,115,000 gal of water per day from Barkley Lake. This use is expected to nearly double by the year 2000. Rural water supplies are obtained primarily from three geologic units - the Ste. Genevieve Limestone and the upper and lower members of the St. Louis Limestone. All three units can yield sufficient water for domestic and stock purposes , but the Ste. Genevieve at Princeton has yielded as much as 150 gal/min to individual wells. The chemical quality of both surface and ground water is generally good, except that the basal part of the lower member of the St. Louis Limestone may yield water high in sulfate and hydrogen sulfide. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  7. Higher Education: Foundation for Kentucky Farms. A Primer for Students, Teachers, and Counselors. Research Memorandum No. 482.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Lola Williamson; Risch, Daniel J.

    Through site visits to the agricultural programs at five of the Kentucky state universities (University of Kentucky, Kentucky State University, Morehead State University, Murray State University, and Western Kentucky University) and a meeting with representatives of the program at Eastern Kentucky University, this guide was created which describes…

  8. Kentucky State Primer. A Primer on Developing Kentucky's Landfill Gas-to-Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    Throughout the country, the number of landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) projects is growing. Recovering methane gas at solid waste landfills provides significant environmental and economic benefits by eliminating methane emissions while capturing the emissions energy value. The methane captured from landfills can be transformed into a cost-effective fuel source for generating electricity and heat, firing boilers, or even powering vehicles. Permits, incentive programs, and policies for LFGTE project development vary greatly from state to state. To guide LFGTE project developers through the state permitting process and to help them to take advantage of state incentive programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) has worked with state agencies to develop individual primers for states participating in the State Ally Program. By presenting the latest information on federal and state regulations and incentives affecting LFGTE projects in this primer, the LMOP and Kentucky state officials hope to facilitate development of many of the landfills listed in Table A. To develop this primer, the Commonwealth of Kentucky identified all the permits and funding programs that could apply to LFGTE projects developed in Kentucky. It should be noted, however, that the regulations, agencies, and policies described are subject to change. Changes are likely to occur whenever a state legislature meets, or when the federal government imposes new directions on state and local governments. LFGTE project developers should verify and continuously monitor the status of laws and rules that might affect their plans or the operations of their projects.

  9. DNA fingerprinting of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars and hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a high polyploidy, apomictic, self-incompatible, perennial grass, Kentucky bluegrass has such complex genetic architecture that conducting standard Mendelian genetic selection is currently impossible. One large hurdle is the inability to differentiate true hybrids from other apomictic progenies....

  10. College to High School: Kentucky's Dual Enrollment Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of results from a recent qualitative study of two Middle College High Schools in Kentucky. The qualitative study utilized Rapid Assessment Process to identify essential elements needed to implement and maintain educational partnerships.

  11. College to High School: Kentucky's Dual Enrollment Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of results from a recent qualitative study of two Middle College High Schools in Kentucky. The qualitative study utilized Rapid Assessment Process to identify essential elements needed to implement and maintain educational partnerships.

  12. Western Kentucky University. Facing the No-Growth Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John

    1974-01-01

    Western Kentucky University, once a small teachers college, is adjusting to the no growth philosophy. However, the legislators and taxpayers will also have to appreciate the "quality not quantity" brand of education. (Author/PG)

  13. 75 FR 29370 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 05/01/2010 and continuing.

  14. Young women's perspectives on cervical cancer prevention in Appalachian Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Head, Katharine J; Cohen, Elisia L

    2012-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coupled with routine Papanicolaou (Pap) tests can prevent pervasive HPV infections causing cervical cancer. However, both HPV vaccination rates and Pap testing rates in Appalachian Kentucky are lower among all age groups than the rest of the United States. We recruited 19 young women residing in Appalachian Kentucky from university-based and rural clinical settings for group and individual interviews. After considering an integrated behavioral framework, we illustrate these women's perspectives by detailing five themes, including (a) experiential beliefs pose barriers to performing behaviors, (b) three vaccine doses complicate vaccination intention, (c) women have misunderstandings about HPV and the HPV vaccination function, (d) normative influences cue action (and inaction), and (e) specific environmental and contextual barriers exist to performing cervical cancer prevention behaviors in Appalachian Kentucky. These findings related to cervical cancer prevention in Appalachian Kentucky have implications for health-message design and clinical practice.

  15. View of Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky border area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky border area, as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. The long, narrow ridge is Pine Mountain; and it is crossed by U.S. 25E as it passes through the famed Cumberland Gap which at 1,600 feet elevation crosses Cumberland Mountain. Kingsport, Tennessee is located east of Cumberland Gap near the center of the picture. Interstate 81 under construction can be seen southeast of Kingsport. Bristol, Tennessee-Virginia is further east. Greenville and Elizabethton, Tennessee can also be seen in this photograph. The clouds across the southeast edge of the picture are over the Blue Ridge Mountains.

  16. Injuries to tobacco farmers in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Struttmann, Tim W; Reed, Donna K

    2002-08-01

    Like all types of farming, raising tobacco has many hazards that may lead to injury, disability, or death. Burley tobacco farming is a multistep process that is not highly mechanized. An 8-year emergency department surveillance system in Kentucky identified 674 injury cases related to the production of burley tobacco. Most of the injuries were a result of a fall, cutting and piercing instruments, or sprains and strains. More than 90% of the injured patients were treated as outpatients, and the average charge for emergency room services was $402 (range, $0 to $14,729). One quarter of the patients were uninsured. Injuries to Hispanic workers increased over the 8-year period. Estimated hospital charge per acre of tobacco produced ranged from $1.28 to $1.74. Low-cost interventions such as gloves and chaps could reduce the injuries incurred in burley tobacco farming.

  17. Trends in cigarette smoking and obesity in Appalachian Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Huang, Bin; Seshadri, Srihari; Tucker, Thomas C

    2015-03-01

    The southern region of the United States, particularly central and southern Appalachia, has long been identified as an area of health inequities. An updated and more complete understanding of the association among the leading risk factors for such health inequities allows researchers, clinicians, and policymakers to focus their efforts on the most effective strategies to minimize these risks. Using the most recent survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined 10-year trends in rates of cigarette smoking and obesity in Appalachian Kentucky, comparing these trends with national and non-Appalachian Kentucky rates. Women and men from Appalachian Kentucky smoke cigarettes at rates 1.8 times and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than their national counterparts. Although rates of smoking in Appalachian Kentucky, non-Appalachian Kentucky, and the United States have decreased, such decreases among Appalachian Kentucky women have been minimal. Adding to these concerning trends, obesity rates in Appalachian adults are much higher than in non-Appalachian Kentucky or the United States overall, although Appalachian Kentucky smokers are less likely to be obese than nonsmokers. Low socioeconomic status and impeded access to health care characterize the Appalachian communities in which these risk behaviors occur and likely account for the prevalence of these most risky behaviors. A continuum of approaches to address smoking and obesity is warranted. Such approaches range from ensuring access to smoking cessation programs to implementing community- and state-level policies to curb smoking and unhealthy energy balance (eg, smoke-free policies and increases in tobacco and "junk food" taxes) and culturally appropriate individual-level interventions (evidence-based smoking cessation and weight-loss programming).

  18. Water supplies in western Kentucky during 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sholar, C.J.; Wood, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    An inventory was conducted between April and October 1985 of 101 major public supply systems and of self-supplied commercial and industrial water systems in a 27-county area in western Kentucky. These systems, because they withdraw at least 10,000 gal/day (gpd), are regulated by the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Projection Cabinet (Division of Water) through a permitting program. The major purpose of the inventory was to evaluate the adequacy of these water systems to meet demands during times of drought. The inventory indicated that these systems withdrew 116.3 million gpd in 1984. The study showed that public facilities supplied 33.1 mil gpd to 471,500 people. Bowling Green Municipal Utilities in the Green River basin was the largest single public supplier. It supplied 5.05 million gpd to 48,000 people, and also sold over 1.7 million gpd to about 30 ,000 people through the Warren County Water System. Comparisons of ground- and surface-water use indicated the Lower Ohio River basin had the highest percentage of surface-water use at 97%, and the Mississippi River basin had the highest percentage of groundwater use at 41%. Sources of water were generally adequate throughout the study area. Sources for two industries, also in the Green River basin, are inadequate. Six systems may have potential problems with their treatment plant capacities because they are operating at > 80% of design capacity. Three of these systems are in the Green River basin, two are in the Lower Cumberland River basin, and one is in the Tennessee River basin. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  20. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Castleberry, Kim N.

    1998-01-01

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value.

  1. Community Visions for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ormsbee, Lindell e; Kipp, James A

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on assessing community preferences for the future use of the PGDP site, given the site's pending closure by US DOE. The project approach fostered interaction and engagement with the public based on lessons learned at other complex DOE environmental cleanup sites and upon the integration of a number of principles and approaches to public engagement from the Project Team's local, state, regional and international public engagement experience. The results of the study provide the community with a record of the diversity of values and preferences related to the environmental cleanup and future use of the site.

  2. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site environmental report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.G.; Jett, T.G.

    1989-05-01

    Quantities of nonradiological chemical emissions are not included in this report this year. An addendum that will include the information will be published after the Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III report is issued on July 1, 1989. When the addendum is published, probably in late July, a summary of the SARA Title III 313 report will be included. The SARA report provides the community with the opportunity to lean about estimated quantities of certain toxic chemicals used at a facility that are routinely or accidentally released into the environment. The addendum that will be published after the SARA report will summarize the SARA report and is expected to include some additional large quantity'' chemicals used or stored at the facilities that are not required to be reported by SARA Title III but are known to be emitted from the facilities. The addendum will not be all inclusive but will provide emissions information on the major chemical emissions to the air, water, or land from processes at the facilities.

  3. Breached cylinder incident at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boelens, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    On June 16, 1990, during an inspection of valves on partially depleted product storage cylinders, a 14-ton partially depleted product cylinder was discovered breached. The cylinder had been placed in long-term storage in 1977 on the top row of Portsmouth`s (two rows high) storage area. The breach was observed when an inspector noticed a pile of green material along side of the cylinder. The breach was estimated to be approximately 8- inches wide and 16-inches long, and ran under the first stiffening ring of the cylinder. During the continuing inspection of the storage area, a second 14-ton product cylinder was discovered breached. This cylinder was stacked on the bottom row in the storage area in 1986. This breach was also located adjacent to a stiffening ring. This paper will discuss the contributing factors of the breaching of the cylinders, the immediate response, subsequent actions in support of the investigation, and corrective actions.

  4. Mortality Patterns Among Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Caroline; Hughes, Therese S; Muldoon, Susan; Aldrich, Tim; Rice, Carol; Hornung, Richard; Brion, Gail; Tollerud, David J

    2010-01-01

    Objective Determine if PGDP workers had mortality patterns that differed from the general U.S. population, and investigate if mortality patterns were associated with job title or workplace exposures. Methods A retrospective occupational cohort mortality study was conducted on 6759 workers. Standardized mortality ratio analyses compared the cohort to the referent U.S. population. Internal comparisons producing standardized rate ratios were conducted by job title, metal exposure, and cumulative internal and external radiation exposures. Results Overall mortality and cancer rates were lower than the referent population, reflecting a strong healthy worker effect. Individual non-significant SMRs and SRRs were noted for cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue. Conclusions Although relatively low exposures to radiation and metals did not produce statistically significant health effects, non-significant elevations for lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers were consistent with previous studies of nuclear workers. PMID:20595915

  5. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOEpatents

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1998-06-16

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

  6. Gaseous sulfur in the Venusian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San'ko, N. F.

    1980-07-01

    It is shown that the increased extinction of solar radiation scattered in the Venusian atmosphere, recorded by scanning spectrophotometers on board Venera 11 and 12, may be explained by the presence of gaseous sulfur in the lower atmosphere of the planet. A model of the vertical distribution of gaseous sulfur with respect to allotropic states is proposed.

  7. Gaseous emissions from waste combustion.

    PubMed

    Werther, Joachim

    2007-06-18

    An overview is given on methods and technologies for limiting the gaseous emissions from waste combustion. With the guideline 2000/76/EC recent European legislation has set stringent limits not only for the mono-combustion of waste in specialized incineration plants but also for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants. With increased awareness of environmental issues and stepwise decrease of emission limits and inclusion of more and more substances into the network of regulations a multitude of emission abatement methods and technologies have been developed over the last decades. The result is the state-of-the-art waste incinerator with a number of specialized process steps for the individual components in the flue gas. The present work highlights some new developments which can be summarized under the common goal of reducing the costs of flue gas treatment by applying systems which combine the treatment of several noxious substances in one reactor or by taking new, simpler routes instead of the previously used complicated ones or - in the case of flue gas desulphurisation - by reducing the amount of limestone consumption. Cost reduction is also the driving force for new processes of conditioning of nonhomogenous waste before combustion. Pyrolysis or gasification is used for chemical conditioning whereas physical conditioning means comminution, classification and sorting processes. Conditioning yields a fuel which can be used in power plants either as a co-fuel or a mono-fuel and which will burn there under much better controlled conditions and therefore with less emissions than the nonhomogeneous waste in a conventional waste incinerator. Also for cost reasons, co-combustion of wastes in coal-fired power stations is strongly pressing into the market. Recent investigations reveal that the co-firing of waste can also have beneficial effects on the operating behavior of the boiler and on the gaseous emissions.

  8. Experiential Learning at the Gatton Academy of Mathematics and Science in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link; Breedlove, Lynette; Strode, Derick B.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the model for The Gatton Academy of Mathematics and Science in Kentucky where Kentucky's young people can extend their learning through university classes, global experiences, and research.

  9. 77 FR 27626 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of Kentucky; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...; Regional Haze State Implementation Plan; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...) submitted by the Commonwealth of Kentucky through the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Division for...

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  11. Notice of Issuance of the draft Permit – University of Kentucky – KYD 000 830 851

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA proposes to issue a Hazardous Waste Management Permit for the University of Kentucky, located at Cooper Drive, Lexington, Kentucky. This Permit contains provisions addressing the land disposal restrictions and controls for fugitive organic air

  12. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2013-03-15

    production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. Bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol due to its lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion. Thus, to be a viable alternative, a bio-fuel firstly should be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. In this aspect, larger quantity supplies of cellulose biomass are likely viable alternatives. U. S. Congress has introduced an initiative and subsequently rolled into the basic energy package, which encourages the production of fuel from purely renewable resources, biomass. Secondly, a bio-fuel should also provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits and be economically competitive. In this aspect, bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol. The commonwealth of Kentucky is fortunate to have a diverse and abundant supply of renewable energy resources. Both Kentucky Governor Beshear in the energy plan for Kentucky "Intelligent Energy Choices for Kentucky's Future", and Kentucky Renewable Energy Consortium, outlined strategies on developing energy in renewable, sustainable and efficient ways. Smart utilization of diversified renewable energy resources using advanced technologies developed by Kentucky public universities, and promotion of these technologies to the market place by collaboration between universities and private industry, are specially encouraged. Thus, the initially question answering Governor's strategic plan is if there is any economical way to make utilization of larger quantities of cellulose and hemicellulose for production of bio-fuels, especially bio-diesel. There are some possible options of commercially available technologies to convert cellulose based biomass energy to bio-fuels. Cellulose based biomass can be firstly gasified to obtain synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}), which is followed up by being converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels or oxygenate hydrocarbon fuel

  13. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    SciTech Connect

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  14. 78 FR 67361 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Surface Water Treatment. The EPA has determined that Kentucky's rules are no less stringent than the... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky AGENCY: U.S... that the Commonwealth of Kentucky is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  15. 40 CFR 81.194 - South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.194 South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  16. Child Day Care in Kentucky: A Survey of All Licensed Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunnelley, Jeanette C.; Grever, Elizabeth A.

    Community Coordinated Child Care of Louisville and Jefferson County, in cooperation with the Kentucky Cabinet for Human Resources and the University of Kentucky, conducted a survey of all licensed child day care facilities in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The study was intended to provide information for use in planning for child day care needs.…

  17. 30 CFR 917.21 - Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land... STATE KENTUCKY § 917.21 Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) The... Abandoned Mine Reclamation Amendment, submitted to OSM on March 25, 1985, is approved. Copies may be...

  18. 30 CFR 917.21 - Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land... STATE KENTUCKY § 917.21 Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) The... Abandoned Mine Reclamation Amendment, submitted to OSM on March 25, 1985, is approved. Copies may be...

  19. 30 CFR 917.20 - Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine... § 917.20 Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan. The Kentucky Abandoned Mine... Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet, Division of Abandoned Lands, 618 Teton Trail, Frankfort...

  20. 30 CFR 917.20 - Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine... § 917.20 Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan. The Kentucky Abandoned Mine... Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet, Division of Abandoned Lands, 618 Teton Trail, Frankfort...

  1. 30 CFR 917.20 - Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine... § 917.20 Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan. The Kentucky Abandoned Mine... Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet, Division of Abandoned Lands, 618 Teton Trail, Frankfort...

  2. 30 CFR 917.20 - Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine... § 917.20 Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan. The Kentucky Abandoned Mine... Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet, Division of Abandoned Lands, 618 Teton Trail, Frankfort...

  3. 30 CFR 917.21 - Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land... STATE KENTUCKY § 917.21 Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) The... Abandoned Mine Reclamation Amendment, submitted to OSM on March 25, 1985, is approved. Copies may be...

  4. A Preliminary Analysis of the Kentucky Distinguished Education Initiative: A New Approach to Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mimi Mitchell; And Others

    The goal of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) of 1990 was that all schools would be successful as measured by the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). The Kentucky Distinguished Educator Program was created to promote the goal. The program sought to create a pool of distinguished educators who would serve in School…

  5. How Well Are the Kentucky Academic Expectations Matched to the KIRIS96 Assessments, CTBS, and CAT?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitko, Anthony J.; Amedahe, Francis; Al-Sarimi, Abdullah; Wang, Shudong; Wingert, Melissa

    Matches between questions in the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System for 1995-96 (KIRIS96), the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, Fourth Edition (CTBS4), and the California Achievement Tests, Fifth Edition (CAT5) and the Kentucky Academic Expectations as they are defined in the Kentucky curriculum framework were studied. Each…

  6. 30 CFR 917.15 - Approval of Kentucky regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Land Restoration, Currently Mined Prime Farmland;” “Kentucky Prime Farmland Revegetation and Crop Production After Mining;” “Estimated Crop Yields on Prime Farmland Soils in Western Kentucky Coalfields;” “Estimated Crop Yields on Prime Farmland Soils in Eastern Kentucky Coalfields”. September 5, 1986 March 9...

  7. 30 CFR 917.15 - Approval of Kentucky regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Land Restoration, Currently Mined Prime Farmland;” “Kentucky Prime Farmland Revegetation and Crop Production After Mining;” “Estimated Crop Yields on Prime Farmland Soils in Western Kentucky Coalfields;” “Estimated Crop Yields on Prime Farmland Soils in Eastern Kentucky Coalfields”. September 5, 1986 March 9...

  8. 40 CFR 81.193 - North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.193 North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  9. 40 CFR 81.194 - South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.194 South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  10. 78 FR 58884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements... Kentucky, through the Kentucky Division for Air Quality (KDAQ) on April 25, 2013, for the purpose of exempting an Enterprise Holdings, Inc., facility from the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) Stage II vapor control...

  11. Occlusal variation in a rural Kentucky community.

    PubMed

    Corruccini, R S; Whitley, L D

    1981-03-01

    Some major theories concerning the etiology of malocclusion and its modern increase in frequency include genetic explanations, such as inbreeding, racial crossing, and accumulation of mutations, as well as such environmental causes as "habits," allergies, and caries causing reduced arch space of premature deciduous tooth loss. Reduction of masticatory stress resulting from modern urbanism is less often considered as an agent. Many examples of acquisition of gross malocclusion in aboriginal peoples immediately following dietary "modernization" contradict the genetic explanations. A rural population from central Kentucky presents several propitious social characteristics for epidemiologic study of occlusion. They have experienced almost no professional dental care, they are highly inbred (but less so during the last 30 years), and their diet included many difficult-to-chew foods until the recent introduction of industry to the area. Occlusion was evaluated according to the criteria of the Treatment Priority Index. The temporal change and correlates of occlusal variation were assessed on wax-bite impressions of thirty-four persons, informant dietary histories, and other information. The older inhabitants raised on more traditional diets show significantly better occlusion. Dietary consistency provides the most powerful explanation for the transition in occlusal variation, through it was not conclusive in these data.

  12. View of Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky border area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-30

    SL3-45-020 (July-September 1973) --- A vertical view of the Virginia-Tennessee-Kentucky border area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. This picture was taken with type 2443 infrared color film. The S190-A experiment is part of the Skylab Earth Resources Experiments Package. The long, narrow ridge is Pine Mountain; and it is crossed by U.S. 25E at Pineville near its southernmost end. Some 25 miles south of Pineville U.S. 25E passes through the famed Cumberland Gap which at 1,600 feet elevation crosses Cumberland Mountain. Kingsport, Tennessee is located east of Cumberland Gap near the center of the picture. Bristol, Tennessee-Virginia is further east. Greenville and Elizabethton, Tennessee can also be seen in this photograph. The clouds across the southeast edge of the picture are over the Blue Ridge Mountains. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Stream Restoration Flow Estimation for Kentucky Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M.; Connelly, A.

    2005-05-01

    Stream restoration analysis and natural stream design include components of channel analysis related to flow magnitude and estimation of bank-full flow return period events. The more frequent flood events, associated with return periods less than 5 years, are important in restoration project planning and channel stability. Concepts proposed by Costa and O'Connor (1995) including components of flow duration, stream power per unit area, flood energy, and other characteristics indicate flood effectiveness as a source of geomorphic change in channels and floodplains. This study considers stream gage sites in the Cumberland, Tennessee and Mississippi watersheds of Kentucky. The magnitude and variability of recorded flood events is described, as well as the frequency of observed peak flow record. The importance of the higher frequency events is presented in the context of channel forming flow, bank-full discharge, effective discharge, and mean annual discharge (FISRWG 1998). Comparison of historical flow records, estimated bank-full flow derived from observed conditions is presented as a link between these information resources.

  14. Oral health status of older adults in Kentucky: results from the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Bush, Heather M; Dickens, Noel E; Henry, Robert G; Durham, Lisa; Sallee, Nancy; Skelton, Judith; Stein, Pam S; Cecil, James C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey (KEOHS) was to assess the oral health status of Kentuckians 65 and older. The KEOHS consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. Recruitment occurred from May 2002 through March 2005 of persons aged 65 and older (n = 1,386) whose functional ability was classified by residential setting. Independent elders living in their own homes were designated as "well-elders," those who lived in skilled nursing facilities and who were functionally dependent were designated as "nursing home elders," and those older adults who were considered frail were designated as "homebound elders." Significant associations were found between the functional ability of the elders and demographic characteristics. While elders who were homebound reported the highest rate of barriers to care, dental insurance, affordability, and transportation were consistently reported as barriers for all groups of elders. This study has established the baseline oral health status of older adults in Kentucky and the data show differences that exist for various community living situations.

  15. Electromagnetic pulse survey of the Kentucky State Emergency Operating Center, Frankfort, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, M.E.; Cole, O.C.; Jones, R.W.; Marshall, D.J.

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop an engineering design package to protect the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) National Radio System (FNARS) facilities against the effects of high-altitude electromagnetic pulses (HEMP). This report refers to the Kentucky State Emergency Operating Center (EOC) in Frankfort, Kentucky. It is highly probable that there will be a heavy dependence upon hf radio for long-haul communications following a nuclear attack on the continental United States, should one occur. To maintain the viability of the FEMA hf radio network during such a situation, the FNARS facilities must take measures to protect against the effects of HEMP that are likely to be created in a nuclear confrontation. The equipment under stress has already been designed and built so that little opportunity exists for equipment design changes that could raise the threshold levels at which malfunctions occur. The solution must then be to reduce HEMP-induced stresses on the system by means of tailored retrofit hardening measures using commercial protection devices when available. 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Oral Health Status of Older Adults in Kentucky: Results from the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Heather M.; Dickens, Noel E.; Henry, Robert G.; Durham, Lisa; Sallee, Nancy; Skelton, Judith; Stein, Pam S.; Cecil, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey (KEOHS) was to assess the oral health status of Kentuckians 65 and older. The KEOHS consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. Recruitment occurred from May 2002 through March 2005 of persons aged 65 and older (n=1386) whose functional ability was classified by residential setting. Independent elders living in their own homes were designated as “well-elders,” those who lived in skilled nursing facilities and who were functionally dependent were designated as “nursing home elders,” and those older adults who were considered frail were designated as “homebound elders.” Significant associations were found between the functional ability of the elders and demographic characteristics. While elders who were homebound reported the highest rate of barriers to care, dental insurance, affordability, and transportation were consistently reported as barriers for all groups of elders. This study has established the baseline oral health status of older adults in Kentucky and the data shows-differences that exist for various community living situations. PMID:20831736

  17. Fiscal Year 1990 program report: Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Barfield, B.J.; Huffsey, R.R.

    1991-08-01

    The Annual Report of the Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute for Fiscal Year 1990 describes the problems and issues facing the Commonwealth of Kentucky. A synopsis of each of the four projects are as follows: 02, Biomonitoring Study of a Constructed Wetland Site, addresses the effectiveness of a constructed wetland in improving water quality from two abandoned mine seeps. Project 03, Kinetics and Mechanisms of Atrazine Adsorption and Desorption in Soils Under No-Till and Conventional Management, studied the biochemical transformations and chemical interactions of atrazine with soil surfaces. Project 04, Use of High-Energy Radiation Sources for Degradation of Environmental Pollutants, is looking into the detoxification of pollutants using high energy radiation. Project 05, Development of a Decision Support System for Drought Characterization and Management: Application to the Kentucky River Basin, anticipates the development of an integrated software system for use in characterizing existing drought conditions.

  18. Regionalization of harmonic-mean streamflows in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Gary R.; Ruhl, Kevin J.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonic-mean streamflow (Qh), defined as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocal daily streamflow values, was determined for selected stream sites in Kentucky. Daily mean discharges for the available period of record through the 1989 water year at 230 continuous record streamflow-gaging stations located in and adjacent to Kentucky were used in the analysis. Periods of record affected by regulation were identified and analyzed separately from periods of record unaffected by regulation. Record-extension procedures were applied to short-term stations to reducetime-sampling error and, thus, improve estimates of the long-term Qh. Techniques to estimate the Qh at ungaged stream sites in Kentucky were developed. A regression model relating Qh to total drainage area and streamflow-variability index was presented with example applications. The regression model has a standard error of estimate of 76 percent and a standard error of prediction of 78 percent.

  19. Kentucky Early Childhood Transition Project. Evaluation Report: Quality and Impact of Transition Training and Technical Assistance Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interdisciplinary Human Development Institute, 2002

    2002-01-01

    The Kentucky Early Childhood Transition Project (KECTP) was funded in 1992 by the Kentucky Department of Education and later expanded with support from the Kentucky Early Intervention System, to provide training and technical assistance to local communities in the state of Kentucky on effective transitions. KECTP was an outgrowth of Project STEPS,…

  20. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stein, William E.

    1980-01-01

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  1. Gaseous phase coal surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  2. Understanding recycling behavior in Kentucky: Who recycles and why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Fred W.; Hughes, Margaret V.

    2006-08-01

    Recycling behavior and the motivations behind recycling are being analyzed in a collaborative study between the Sloan Industry Center for a Sustainable Aluminum Industry, the Center for Aluminum Technology, Secat, and the Gatton College of Business and Economics at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. The goals of this study are to determine why people recycle and to find ways to motivate people to recycle more, using Fayette County, Kentucky, as a sample study. It is hoped that the information gathered through educational and motivational efforts in this county can be used on a larger scale in communities throughout the United States.

  3. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operations

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-11-10

    This technical report is a summary of the progress made for "A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators". During this quarter, the document received continued review and editing in an elec-tronic format to satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Comments received from oil and gas operators reviewing this document prompted contact to be made with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to develop an addendum section to provide better explanation of USEPA requirements for Class II injection wells in Kentucky.

  4. Surface water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, K.D.; Smoot, J.L.; Jackson, J.K.; Choquette, Anne F.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment Program, which at present (1987) is in a pilot phase in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for full implementation of the program in the future. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The preliminary plans for the surface water quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin pilot project are described. The Kentucky River basin drains an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi in east central Kentucky and is underlain by rocks that range in composition from limestone to sandstone and shale. Because greater than 95% of the basin population relies on surface water, surface water quality is of great concern. Land use practices that affect the surface water quality in the basin include agriculture, forestry, oil and gas production, coal mining, and urbanization. Water quality concerns resulting from the various land uses include the effects of: oil and gas field brine discharges; agricultural chemicals; sedimentation caused by coal mining; and trace element impacts from industrial and urban environments. Assessment activity is designed to occur over a 9-year period of time. During the first 3-year period of the cycle, concentrated data acquisition and interpretation will occur. For the next 6 years, sample collection will occur at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This 9-year cycle will then be repeated. Historical data will be evaluated to provide, to the extent possible, a description of existing and past trends in water quality conditions and to develop conceptual models that relate the observed conditions to the sources and causes, both natural and human-controlled. New data will be collected to verify the water quality conditions documented by historic data, to track long-term trends in water quality, to intensify

  5. A detailed numerical investigation of Burke-Schumann gaseous and spray flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawid, M. A.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    The classical Burke-Schumann gaseous diffusion flame, and the effect of introducing fuel in the form of liquid sprays are investigated numerically. The time-dependent two-dimensional, axisymmetric conservation equations are solved for the gas phase. A Lagrangian approach is used for the dispersed phase. The chemical reactions are modeled through the one-step global reaction scheme. The numerical results show that the computed flame structure is significantly different from that given by the analytical solution. The computed flame is about 15 percent longer and 5 percent narrower than the classical Burke-Schumann flame. The predicted flame shape is, however, in better agreement with experimental observations than the Burke-Schumann flame. The effects of introducing liquid sprays is found to produce thinner and longer flames than its counterpart gaseous flame. A detailed comparison of the structures of gaseous and spray flames is made, and the differences are discussed.

  6. The Engine of Reform Gathers Steam: Kentucky Starts from Scratch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1990-01-01

    Charged with overhauling the state's educational system, the Kentucky General Assembly last spring devised a landmark reform scheme that mandates site-based management, abolishes the existing state board of education, and institutes an ambitious system of rewards and sanctions aimed at holding schools accountable for student performance. A sidebar…

  7. A Field Guide to Kentucky Rivers and Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    This field guide was especially developed for Water Watch--a public participation program in Kentucky that encourages citizens to adopt a stream, lake or wetland, and then gain hands-on experience in protecting and enhancing their adopted water resources. Understanding the relationships between life and the environment helps people to appreciate…

  8. Kentucky and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Kentucky's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  9. School Conditions Affecting Implementation of the Primary Program in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Susan H.

    2000-01-01

    A study of two elementary schools identified school conditions affecting implementation of Kentucky state reforms of primary education: innovation advocates, teacher-relevant implementation strategies, and supportive principals. Essential elements were a fit between leadership style and faculty needs and time to develop collaborative working…

  10. The Engine of Reform Gathers Steam: Kentucky Starts from Scratch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1990-01-01

    Charged with overhauling the state's educational system, the Kentucky General Assembly last spring devised a landmark reform scheme that mandates site-based management, abolishes the existing state board of education, and institutes an ambitious system of rewards and sanctions aimed at holding schools accountable for student performance. A sidebar…

  11. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  12. 77 FR 19405 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00045

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... 03/16/2012, is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by the...

  13. 75 FR 35511 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5..., dated 05/11/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by the...

  14. Flow Duration at Selected Stream-Sites in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, F.; Kiesler, J.; Macy, J.

    1980-01-01

    Flow duration characteristics were determined for 195 streamflow stations in Kentucky. The data includes flow duration tables for the period of record of the stations based on mean daily discharges. Seasonal flow durations are also presented from monthly analysis of the data. At sites affected by regulation, tables are published showing both the before and after regulation flow duration data. (USGS)

  15. Kentucky Core Content for Arts and Humanities Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    Using national sources, the Kentucky Core Content development committee defined the arts as creating, performing, and responding to dance, music, theater; the visual arts; and literature. The committee defined the humanities as the beliefs, thoughts, and traditions of humankind as reflected in history; philosophy; religion; dance; music; theater;…

  16. Kentucky Career and Technical Teacher Education Programs/Ongoing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Ed; Stubbs, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    What is Career and Technical Education (CTE)? How does one identify and recognized strong CTE educational programs? And after one has answers to the first two questions, how does one successfully align CTE teacher education (CTTE) programs across large institutions such as colleges within universities, or in Kentucky's endeavor within universities…

  17. How Kentucky's Hardin County Deals With Rural Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dennis A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how one of Kentucky's fastest growing counties handles growth-related problems without zoning ordinances using an innovative Development Guidance System. Discusses the origin and adoption of the system, system procedures, criteria used in granting development permits, and public reaction. (LFL)

  18. Kentucky Migrant Technology Project: External Evaluation Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Robert J.

    During its first year of operation (1997-98), the Kentucky Migrant Technology Project successfully implemented its model, used internal and external evaluations to inform improvement of the model, and began plans for expansion into new service areas. This evaluation report is organized around five questions that focus on the project model and its…

  19. Kentucky State Plan for Federal Depository Library Services, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Library Association, Frankfort. Government Documents Round Table.

    Noting that the purpose and intent of the Federal Depository Library Program, as administered by the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), is to make government information available to the general public, this report presents the fundamental characteristics of the program as it is implemented in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Descriptions of the…

  20. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Kentucky. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

  1. Economic Development and Educational Status in Appalachian Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates competing explanations for the relatively poor educational performance in Appalachian Kentucky. Concludes that substantial economic diversification would probably result in improved educational status. Warns against reliance on extractive industries and presents data showing increased income from mining to be significantly correlated…

  2. Streamflow and basin characteristics at selected sites in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, N.B.; Ruhl, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Common basin and streamflow characteristics for sites in Kentucky are presented. Basin characteristics include quantified drainage basin parameters and statistics on areal rainfall. Streamflow characteristics include tables for mean, high and low flow frequencies and partial duration discharge. The data listed in this report are for continuous and low-flow partial-record sites. (USGS)

  3. The Kentucky Civil Rights Act: Explanation, the Act, Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The Kentucky Civil Rights Act, introduced on January 4, 1966, enacted January 27, 1966 and effective July 1, 1966 is said to meet the requirements of the Federal Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1968, the Act was amended to prohibit housing discrimination. In 1972, the coverage of the Act was extended to prohibit employment discrimination because of…

  4. A Field Guide to Kentucky Rivers and Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    This field guide was especially developed for Water Watch--a public participation program in Kentucky that encourages citizens to adopt a stream, lake or wetland, and then gain hands-on experience in protecting and enhancing their adopted water resources. Understanding the relationships between life and the environment helps people to appreciate…

  5. CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hiett, J.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

  6. 75 FR 33367 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11/2010. Incident: Severe storms, flooding, mudslides, and tornadoes. ] Incident Period: 05/01/2010 and continuing through 06/01/2010. Effective Date: 06/01/2010. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 07/12/2010. EIDL Loan Application Deadline Date: 02/11/2011. ADDRESSES:...

  7. 75 FR 33367 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Deadline Date: 02/11/2011. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business... 05/11/2010, is hereby amended to establish the incident period for this disaster as beginning 05/01... Only for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11/2010. Incident: Severe...

  8. 75 FR 30873 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...: 02/11/2011. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... Only for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 05/01/2010 and continuing. Effective Date:...

  9. 75 FR 30870 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 05/01/2010 and continuing. Effective Date: 05/24/2010. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 07/12/2010. EIDL Loan Application Deadline Date: 02/11/2011. ADDRESSES: Submit completed...

  10. Kentucky Consumer & Homemaking Education. Appendix for Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Helen; And Others

    As the appendix for a series of curriculum guides for consumer and homemaking education on the secondary level in Kentucky, this booklet contains instructional activities for classroom use in conjunction with the units in the comprehensive curriculum guides. Included are games, puzzles, skits, quizzes, survey forms, checklists, and review sheets…

  11. 76 FR 35938 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...: 2011-15138] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12566 and 12567] Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 6. SUMMARY: This is an...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  12. 76 FR 35937 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Doc No: 2011-15136] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12599 and 12600] Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road...

  13. Kentucky's Program for Educationally Deficient School Districts: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Patricia; And Others

    The development and implementation of Kentucky's Program for Educationally Deficient School Districts is examined in this case study. Implemented in 1987, the program required districts to meet certain performance, planning, and reporting criteria. Districts failing to comply could be placed in categories of noncompliance. Data were derived from…

  14. Reform and Reaction: The Political Economy of Education in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Timothy

    Kentucky has a long history of educational problems and of reform efforts that failed because of state neglect. These problems, which deeply affect rural economic development and are closely tied to patterns of unequal development, have become more troublesome as world markets have changed. The roots of these problems are planted in the state's…

  15. Salt tolerance and canopy reflectance of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six cultivars or selections of kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) were grown outdoors from vegetative clones in a gravelly sand medium from Apr. to Sept. 2005 in Riverside, CA, at soil water salinities ranging from 2 to 22 dS/m. Cultivars Baron, Brilliant, Cabernet, Eagleton, Midnight, and the se...

  16. Meningeal worm in a reintroduced elk population in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Jeffery L; Alexy, Karen J; Bolin, David C; Maehr, David S; Cox, John J; Wichrowski, Michael W; Seward, Nathan W

    2003-07-01

    Meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been implicated in the failure of several elk (Cervus elaphus) restoration attempts in the eastern United States. However, limited post-release monitoring and a paucity of published literature prevents a clear understanding of this parasite's role in past failures. During winters of 1997-2001, the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources translocated 1,044 elk from western states to eastern Kentucky (USA) in an effort to restore a free-ranging population. We monitored 521 radio-collared elk over 4 yr to determine the impact meningeal worm had on population establishment. Thirty (23%) of 129 non-capture related mortalities were attributed to meningeal worm. Twenty-two (73%) of these meningeal worm-caused mortalities were animals < 3 yr old. If younger elk born in Kentucky suffer higher mortality rates than older translocated elk, the population growth observed during the initial years of restoration may be temporary. Additional research is necessary to determine the influence meningeal worm will have on elk population growth in Kentucky.

  17. Transitional Course Outline: English IV. Transformations: Kentucky's Curriculum Framework. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    Providing help to teachers and schools attempting to achieve the vision of the Kentucky Educational Reform Act (KERA) which shifts the focus of instruction to student use and application of knowledge, this paper presents a sample course outline as a starting point for course development. The paper begins with one example of a course description…

  18. High Stakes Performance Assessment: Perspectives on Kentucky's Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R., Ed.

    The perspectives in these essays present an examination of the Kentucky educational reform effort, with an examination of its rationale, various facets, and the reactions to its implementation. The ambitious assessment system includes multiple-choice and open-ended items, performance tasks, and portfolio assessments. The following are included:…

  19. Transitional Course Outline: English I. Transformations: Kentucky's Curriculum Framework. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    Providing help to teachers and schools attempting to achieve the vision of the Kentucky Educational Reform Act (KERA) which shifts the focus of instruction to student use and application of knowledge, this paper presents a sample course outline as a starting point for course development. The paper begins with one example of a course description…

  20. Five Years of Education Reform in Rural Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes from the Field: Education Reform in Rural Kentucky, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Since 1990, a long-term study has been following the implementation of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) in 21 schools in 4 rural school districts. This publication summarizes study findings through 1995. Findings across KERA strands suggest that reform would have been unlikely without KERA's extra funding, used to increase teacher…

  1. Transitional Course Outline: English III. Transformations: Kentucky's Curriculum Framework. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    Providing help to teachers and schools attempting to achieve the vision of the Kentucky Educational Reform Act (KERA) which shifts the focus of instruction to student use and application of knowledge, this paper presents a sample course outline as a starting point for course development. The paper begins with one example of a course description…

  2. The Condition of College & Career Readiness 2016: Kentucky Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2016

    2016-01-01

    "The Condition of College and Career Readiness" looks at the progress of the 2016 ACT®-tested graduating class relative to college and career readiness. This state briefing begins with statistics in the following categories for Kentucky: performance, STEM, career readiness, impact, behaviors that impact access and opportunity, pipeline,…

  3. Profile of State College Entrance Exam Policies. Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Kentucky's college entrance exam standards and polices. Some of the categories presented include: (1) College entrance exam policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in college entrance exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) Preparation state offers to students taking…

  4. Evaluation of ground-water quality data from Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprinkle, C.L.; Davis, R.W.; Mull, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The report reviews and summarizes 10,578 chemical analyses, from 2,362 wells and springs in Kentucky. These water-quality data were collected prior to September 30, 1981, and are available in computer files of the U.S. Geological Survey. The principal water-bearing rocks in Kentucky were combined into 10 major groups to aid in data summary preparation and general description of the ground-water quality of the State. Ground water in Kentucky is generally fresh near the outcrop of the rocks comprising the aquifer. Slightly saline to briny water occurs at variable depths beneath the freshwater. Preparation of quadrilinear diagrams revealed three principal geochemical processes in the aquifers of Kentucky: (1) mixing of freshwater and saline water in an interface zone; (2) dedolomitization of the Devonian and Silurian and Lower Mississippian carbonate rocks; (3) sodium for calcium exchange in the freshwater sections of many of the sandstone-shale aquifers. A number of errors and deficiencies were found in the data base. The principal deficiencies were: (1) very few complete analyses which included important field measurements; (2) inadequate definition of the chemistry of the freshwater-saline water interface zone throughout much of the State; (3) no analyses of stable isotopes and dissolved gases; (4) fewer than 10 analyses of most trace metals, radionuclides, and man-made organic chemicals; and (5) no data on bacteria in ground water from any aquifer in the State. (USGS)

  5. Kentucky State Plan for Federal Depository Library Services, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Library Association, Frankfort. Government Documents Round Table.

    Noting that the purpose and intent of the Federal Depository Library Program, as administered by the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), is to make government information available to the general public, this report presents the fundamental characteristics of the program as it is implemented in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Descriptions of the…

  6. Comprehensive School Reform & Student Achievement in Kentucky Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Andris, Melissa; Usui, Wayne M.

    2008-01-01

    This project examines the effects of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models on the achievement of students in Kentucky middle schools. Previous studies exploring the effects of CSR on schools and student achievement have rendered mixed results (Berends, 2000; May & Supovitz, 2006; May, Supovitz, & Perda, 2004; RAND, 2002; Zhang,…

  7. A Guide to the Kentucky System of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Kentucky System of Interventions (KSI) framework emphasizes optimizing instruction through targeted accelerated learning, development of teacher expertise and responsiveness to the needs of all learners. This approach to Response to Intervention (RtI) provides the structures needed for closing achievement gaps, ensuring readiness to learn and…

  8. The Equity of School Facilities Funding: Examples from Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William J.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Aportela, Anabel

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity,…

  9. Botanical survey of Rock Creek Research Natural Area, Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Ralph L. Thompson; Ronald L. Jones; J. Richard Abbott; W. Neal Denton

    2000-01-01

    A 10-year survey of vascular plants was made of Rock Creek Research Natural Area, a 77-ha deep, narrow gorge of old-growth Hemlock-Mixed Mesophytic Forest located in Laurel County, Kentucky, on the Daniel Boone National Forest. The study documented 350 specific and infraspecific taxa in 223 genera and 93 families. Thirteen are nonindigenous naturalized species....

  10. Assessing Meso-Scale Equivalent Temperature in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younger, K.; Mahmood, R.; Goodrich, G. B.; Pielke, R., Sr.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate meso-scale equivalent temperatures (TE) in Kentucky and potential land cover influences. There is a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind in Kentucky because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 65 research grade in situ weather and climate observing stations across the commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high quality observations from 34 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet also offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than any of the previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (TE-T) were greatest in summer, with averages of 40ºC, and smallest in winter, with averages of 10ºC. The higher TE values in the summer are attributed to increased atmospheric moisture content. Spatial patterns of these differences were also analyzed by season. In general, the differences were found to be larger in the Loess Plains (far western KY), Crawford-Mammoth Cave Uplands (western and south central KY), Western Highland Rim (western KY), and Eastern Highland Rim (south central KY). These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture. Results of this research will improve understanding of how land use/land cover potentially affects meso-scale atmospheric heat content. Additionally, these results can be applied to areas located in similar climate zones, with comparable land cover attributes that do not have a comprehensive mesonet to conduct this type of research.

  11. Economic Development and Educational Status in Appalachian Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates competing explanations for the relatively poor educational performance in Appalachian Kentucky. Concludes that substantial economic diversification would probably result in improved educational status. Warns against reliance on extractive industries and presents data showing increased income from mining to be significantly correlated…

  12. Needs Assessment of Hospitality/Tourism Industry in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Shirley

    This report of an assessment of the hospitality/tourism industry in Kentucky begins with a history/description of the hospitality/tourism industry written from research; the hospitality/tourism training programs conducted by various institutions in the state are also described. For the assessment itself, two survey instruments were prepared and…

  13. Aquifer characterization proposed SRC-I facility, Newman, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Dames and Moore conducted a two-phase groundwater supply and aquifer characterization study on a portion of the proposed Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) Demonstration Plant site at Newman, Kentucky. The objectives were to assess the transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storability of the aquifer in the vicinity of the test well, and to determine the aquifer characteristics beneath the proposed facility.

  14. Kentucky Consumer & Homemaking Education. Food & Nutrition Curriculum Guide, Semester Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Karen; And Others

    Intended for use by teachers at the high school level, this curriculum guide, which is one in a series of guides for consumer and homemaking education in Kentucky, outlines a semester special interest course in food management. The two units, comprehensive I and II, which are prerequisites for this course are found in a separate guide (CE 017…

  15. 75 FR 32820 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E...

  16. 76 FR 37166 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7... of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  17. 76 FR 38263 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12566 and 12567 Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster...

  18. 76 FR 31671 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  19. 76 FR 31671 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate...

  20. 76 FR 38262 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5... Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster...

  1. Expedited Permanency Planning: Evaluation of the Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mavin H.; Barbee, Anita P.; Antle, Becky F.; Sar, Bibhuti

    2002-01-01

    Presents evaluation findings of a 3-year Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project. Notes that a majority of children had one or both parents coping with multiple risk factors including mental illness, substance abuse, mental retardation, or family violence. Discusses major barriers to permanency, as well as policy and practice implications in the…

  2. Elementary State Studies in Kentucky and Contiguous States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffner, Rosalyn

    1987-01-01

    Describes the curriculum used in Kentucky to study the history, geography, economics, and politics of that state. Gives information about state studies in the contiguous states of Illinois, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, focusing primarily on state-authorized curriculum guides. (RKM)

  3. Origin of Kentucky College and University Enrollments. Fall 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Council on Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Data on geographic origins of students in Kentucky's public and independent colleges and universities are reported. All higher education institutions, including two-year colleges, four-year colleges, and universities, are included. Tables present information on total and first-time freshman enrollment by county and state of student origin for each…

  4. "No Excuses": School Reform Efforts in Exemplary Schools of Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Shelby; Borko, Hilda; McIver, Monette; Elliott, Rebekah

    This report follows two elementary and two middle schools in Kentucky where educators not only talked about what they needed to do to meet the needs of the state's educational reform program, but also acted on their ideas, creating a "no excuses" atmosphere. Images of reform suggest that resource decisions are often based on human…

  5. A Field Guide to Kentucky Lakes and Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    Lakes and wetlands make up that part of Kentucky's water bodies commonly referred to as standing waters. These waters serve many purposes for the people of the state and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. This field guide was designed to provide useful background information and reference material for the study of these…

  6. An Examination of Superintendent Salaries and Compensation Packages in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The salaries and compensation packages of women in the United States fall short of those to men holding similar employment positions. This study will look specifically at the salaries and compensation packages of current Kentucky school superintendents and investigate whether or not there exists discrepencies among them along gender lines. The…

  7. 77 FR 24553 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00045

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-4057-DR), dated 03/16/2012. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 02/29/2012 through 03/03/2012.

  8. 76 FR 37391 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1976-DR), dated 05/19/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding. Incident Period: 04/12/2011 through 05/20/2011.

  9. 75 FR 37488 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 05/01/2010 through 06/01/2010.

  10. 75 FR 29370 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Kentucky (FEMA-1912-DR), dated 05/11/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 05/01/2010 and continuing.

  11. Expedited Permanency Planning: Evaluation of the Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mavin H.; Barbee, Anita P.; Antle, Becky F.; Sar, Bibhuti

    2002-01-01

    Presents evaluation findings of a 3-year Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project. Notes that a majority of children had one or both parents coping with multiple risk factors including mental illness, substance abuse, mental retardation, or family violence. Discusses major barriers to permanency, as well as policy and practice implications in the…

  12. Kentucky County Data Book. Resource Development Series 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Ralph J.; Warner, Paul D.

    Providing information by counties, grouped according to Extension Areas and Area Development Districts, this data book is designed as an aid to identification of Kentucky problems. Included are definitions of terms, explanations of comparability of 1960 and 1970 figures, suggested uses, and exemplary uses. Tables provide 1960 and 1970 figures on:…

  13. ACT Profile Report: State. Graduating Class 2016. Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report provides information about the performance of Kentucky's 2016 graduating seniors who took the ACT as sophomores, juniors, or seniors; and self-reported at the time of testing that they were scheduled to graduate in 2016. Beginning with the Graduating Class of 2013, all students whose scores are college reportable, both standard and…

  14. Kentucky Teacher Preparation and Certification Handbook. 1981 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This handbook sets forth the regulations of the Kentucky State Board of Education that relate to teacher education and certification. The following topics are covered: (1) selected statutory provisions relating to teacher education and certification; (2) teacher certification procedures; (3) ranking of teacher qualifications; (4) procedures for…

  15. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  16. Origin of Kentucky College and University Enrollments. Fall 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    A detailed description about the origin of students in Kentucky state-supported and independent institutions of higher education is features. Information about county and state of origin for all students, first-time freshmen, and professional students is included as well as definitions of terms. Lists of the membership in the Commonwealth of…

  17. An Examination of Superintendent Salaries and Compensation Packages in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The salaries and compensation packages of women in the United States fall short of those to men holding similar employment positions. This study will look specifically at the salaries and compensation packages of current Kentucky school superintendents and investigate whether or not there exists discrepencies among them along gender lines. The…

  18. Kentucky Consumer & Homemaking Education. Clothing Management. Curriculum Guide, Semester Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Betty C.

    Intended for use by teachers at the high school level, this curriculum guide, which is one in a series of guides for consumer and homemaking education in Kentucky, outlines a semester special interest course in clothing management. As the concluding course of a curriculum on this subject which commences on the junior high level in a separate guide…

  19. Lessons from Kentucky about School-Based Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark

    1996-01-01

    Kentucky's school-based decision-making councils now function in 66% of the state's schools. Since 1991-92, these schools have learned that their councils must represent their local constituencies, gain the support of local political structures, shun legalism, concentrate on substantive education issues, and develop a democratically based…

  20. Engineering the Kentucky River: The Commonwealth’s Waterway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    ecotourism boosters have compared the Kentucky’s environmental charms to Arizona’s spectacular Grand Canyon or Europe’s magnificent Rhine River. Like the...preserve the rugged and uniqu~ environment and also to enhance " ecotourism ./I At Lock No. 10 adjacent to Fort Boonesborough State Park, the Authority