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Sample records for kenya post-election crisis

  1. Delivery of HIV care during the 2007 post-election crisis in Kenya: a case study analyzing the response of the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) program.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Suzanne; Ndege, Samson; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Some, Hosea; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula; Sidle, John E; Sitienei, Jackline; Owino, Regina; Chesoli, Cleophas; Gichunge, Catherine; Komen, Fanice; Ojwang, Claris; Sang, Edwin; Siika, Abraham; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2013-12-01

    Widespread violence followed the 2007 presidential elections in Kenya resulting in the deaths of a reported 1,133 people and the displacement of approximately 660,000 others. At the time of the crisis the United States Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (USAID-AMPATH) Partnership was operating 17 primary HIV clinics in western Kenya and treating 59,437 HIV positive patients (23,437 on antiretroviral therapy (ART)). This case study examines AMPATH's provision of care and maintenance of patients on ART throughout the period of disruption. This was accomplished by implementing immediate interventions including rapid information dissemination through the media, emergency hotlines and community liaisons; organization of a Crisis Response leadership team; the prompt assembly of multidisciplinary teams to address patient care, including psychological support staff (in clinics and in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP)); and the use of the AMPATH Medical Records System to identify patients on ART who had missed clinic appointments. These interventions resulted in the opening of all AMPATH clinics within five days of their scheduled post-holiday opening dates, 23,949 patient visits in January 2008 (23,259 previously scheduled), uninterrupted availability of antiretrovirals at all clinics, treatment of 1,420 HIV patients in IDP camps, distribution of basic provisions, mobilization of outreach services to locate missing AMPATH patients and delivery of psychosocial support to 300 staff members and 632 patients in IDP camps. Key lessons learned in maintaining the delivery of HIV care in a crisis situation include the importance of advance planning to develop programs that can function during a crisis, an emphasis on a rapid programmatic response, the ability of clinics to function autonomously, patient knowledge of their disease, the use of community and patient networks, addressing staff needs and developing effective

  2. Delivery of HIV care during the 2007 post-election crisis in Kenya: a case study analyzing the response of the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread violence followed the 2007 presidential elections in Kenya resulting in the deaths of a reported 1,133 people and the displacement of approximately 660,000 others. At the time of the crisis the United States Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (USAID-AMPATH) Partnership was operating 17 primary HIV clinics in western Kenya and treating 59,437 HIV positive patients (23,437 on antiretroviral therapy (ART)). Methods This case study examines AMPATH’s provision of care and maintenance of patients on ART throughout the period of disruption. This was accomplished by implementing immediate interventions including rapid information dissemination through the media, emergency hotlines and community liaisons; organization of a Crisis Response leadership team; the prompt assembly of multidisciplinary teams to address patient care, including psychological support staff (in clinics and in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP)); and the use of the AMPATH Medical Records System to identify patients on ART who had missed clinic appointments. Results These interventions resulted in the opening of all AMPATH clinics within five days of their scheduled post-holiday opening dates, 23,949 patient visits in January 2008 (23,259 previously scheduled), uninterrupted availability of antiretrovirals at all clinics, treatment of 1,420 HIV patients in IDP camps, distribution of basic provisions, mobilization of outreach services to locate missing AMPATH patients and delivery of psychosocial support to 300 staff members and 632 patients in IDP camps. Conclusion Key lessons learned in maintaining the delivery of HIV care in a crisis situation include the importance of advance planning to develop programs that can function during a crisis, an emphasis on a rapid programmatic response, the ability of clinics to function autonomously, patient knowledge of their disease, the use of community and patient networks, addressing

  3. Time Series Analysis of Sexual Assault Case Characteristics and the 2007–2008 Period of Post-Election Violence in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Anastario, Michael P.; Adhiambo Onyango, Monica; Nyanyuki, Joan; Naimer, Karen; Muthoga, Rachel; Sirkin, Susannah; Barrick, Kelle; van Hasselt, Martijn; Aruasa, Wilson; Kibet, Cynthia; Omollo, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the declaration that President Mwai Kibaki was the winner of the Kenyan presidential election held on December 27, 2007, a period of post-election violence (PEV) took place. In this study, we aimed to identify whether the period of PEV in Kenya was associated with systematic changes in sexual assault case characteristics. Methods and Findings Medical records of 1,615 patients diagnosed with sexual assault between 2007 and 2011 at healthcare facilities in Eldoret (n = 569), Naivasha (n = 534), and Nakuru (n = 512) were retrospectively reviewed to examine characteristics of sexual assault cases over time. Time series and linear regression were used to examine temporal variation in case characteristics relative to the period of post-election violence in Kenya. Key informant interviews with healthcare workers at the sites were employed to triangulate findings. The time series of sexual assault case characteristics at these facilities were examined, with a specific focus on the December 2007–February 2008 period of post-election violence. Prais-Winsten estimates indicated that the three-month period of post-election violence was associated with a 22 percentage-point increase in cases where survivors did not know the perpetrator, a 20 percentage-point increase in cases with more than one perpetrator, and a 4 percentage-point increase in cases that had evidence of abdominal injury. The post-election violence period was also associated with an 18 percentage-point increase in survivors waiting >1 month to report to a healthcare facility. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that these characteristics were specific to the post-election violence time period. Conclusion These results demonstrate systematic patterns in sexual assault characteristics during the PEV period in Kenya. PMID:25170917

  4. Outward Peace, Inward Pieces: A Case of the Effect of the Kenya Post-Election Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng', Josephine Atieno

    2010-01-01

    In December 2007, unprecedented violence erupted in Kenya following the announcement of disputed presidential election results. The electorate was divided along ethnic lines and tribal clashes bordering on ethnic cleansing escalated. Those supporting opposing camps found themselves on the wrong side of the political divide leading to killings,…

  5. Outward Peace, Inward Pieces: A Case of the Effect of the Kenya Post-Election Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng', Josephine Atieno

    2010-01-01

    In December 2007, unprecedented violence erupted in Kenya following the announcement of disputed presidential election results. The electorate was divided along ethnic lines and tribal clashes bordering on ethnic cleansing escalated. Those supporting opposing camps found themselves on the wrong side of the political divide leading to killings,…

  6. Mortality and health among internally displaced persons in western Kenya following post-election violence, 2008: novel use of demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Adazu, Kubaje; Obor, David; Ogwang, Sheila; Vulule, John; Hamel, Mary J; Laserson, Kayla

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate mortality and morbidity among internally displaced persons (IDPs) who relocated in a demographic surveillance system (DSS) area in western Kenya following post-election violence. Methods In 2007, 204 000 individuals lived in the DSS area, where field workers visit households every 4 months to record migrations, births and deaths. We collected data on admissions among children < 5 years of age in the district hospital and developed special questionnaires to record information on IDPs. Mortality, migration and hospitalization rates among IDPs and regular DSS residents were compared, and verbal autopsies were performed for deaths. Findings Between December 2007 and May 2008, 16 428 IDPs migrated into the DSS, and over half of them stayed 6 months or longer. In 2008, IDPs aged 15–49 years died at higher rates than regular residents of the DSS (relative risk, RR: 1.34; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.004–1.80). A greater percentage of deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurred among IDPs aged ≥ 5 years (53%) than among regular DSS residents (25–29%) (P < 0.001). Internally displaced children < 5 years of age did not die at higher rates than resident children but were hospitalized at higher rates (RR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.44–3.58). Conclusion HIV-infected internally displaced adults in conflict-ridden parts of Africa are at increased risk of HIV-related death. Relief efforts should extend to IDPs who have relocated outside IDP camps, particularly if afflicted with HIV infection or other chronic conditions. PMID:20680125

  7. Mortality and health among internally displaced persons in western Kenya following post-election violence, 2008: novel use of demographic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Feikin, Daniel R; Adazu, Kubaje; Obor, David; Ogwang, Sheila; Vulule, John; Hamel, Mary J; Laserson, Kayla

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate mortality and morbidity among internally displaced persons (IDPs) who relocated in a demographic surveillance system (DSS) area in western Kenya following post-election violence. In 2007, 204 000 individuals lived in the DSS area, where field workers visit households every 4 months to record migrations, births and deaths. We collected data on admissions among children < 5 years of age in the district hospital and developed special questionnaires to record information on IDPs. Mortality, migration and hospitalization rates among IDPs and regular DSS residents were compared, and verbal autopsies were performed for deaths. Between December 2007 and May 2008, 16 428 IDPs migrated into the DSS, and over half of them stayed 6 months or longer. In 2008, IDPs aged 15-49 years died at higher rates than regular residents of the DSS (relative risk, RR: 1.34; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.004-1.80). A greater percentage of deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurred among IDPs aged > or = 5 years (53%) than among regular DSS residents (25-29%) (P < 0.001). Internally displaced children < 5 years of age did not die at higher rates than resident children but were hospitalized at higher rates (RR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.44-3.58). HIV-infected internally displaced adults in conflict-ridden parts of Africa are at increased risk of HIV-related death. Relief efforts should extend to IDPs who have relocated outside IDP camps, particularly if afflicted with HIV infection or other chronic conditions.

  8. Resilience in the face of post-election violence in Kenya: the mediating role of social networks on wellbeing among older people in the Korogocho informal settlement, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Older people in slum settings are a vulnerable sub-group during crises, yet have received minimal attention in the development discourse. This paper examines the protective role of different types of social networks for older slum dwellers' wellbeing during adversity by investigating the relationship between social networks, the Kenyan 2007/08 post-election violence, and dimensions of wellbeing namely self-rated health, life satisfaction and happiness amongst older people in the Korogocho slum, Nairobi. The analyses are based on conditional change logistic regression models using data from a unique longitudinal survey of the health and wellbeing of older people. The results show that maintaining or increasing formal local networks reduced the detrimental effects of the post-election violence for older people's wellbeing, whilst household environment and informal local and non-local networks did not influence the relationship. Consequently, the paper provides evidence that supporting inclusive community organisations which are accessible to older people can be valuable in promoting the resilience of this population group.

  9. Childrearing Violence and Child Adjustment Following Exposure to Kenyan Post-election Violence

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Ann T.; Oburu, Paul; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bacchini, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines parents' and children's exposure to short-term political violence and the relation between childrearing violence and child adjustment following widespread violence that erupted in Kisumu, Kenya after the disputed presidential election in December 2007. Method Mothers of 100 Luo children (mean age = 8.46 years, 61% female) reported on their own use of childrearing violence at Time 1, approximately 4 months after the disputed election, and again at Times 2 (n = 95) and 3 (n = 95), approximately 12 and 24 months later, respectively. At Time 2, mothers reported about post-election violence directed at them and about their children's exposure to post-election violence. Children reported about their own externalizing behaviors at Times 1, 2, and 3. Results Children's exposure to post-election violence was related to Time 2 externalizing behavior, and childrearing violence at Time 1 predicted child externalizing behavior at Time 2. Exposure to post-election violence was not directly related to either childrearing violence or children's externalizing behavior by Time 3, although children's externalizing at Time 2 predicted more childrearing violence at Time 3. Conclusion These results support earlier work that links childrearing violence and children's exposure to political violence with increases in child externalizing behavior, but examined these links in the under-studied area of short-term political violence. Even though sudden and severe political violence may subside significantly in weeks or months, increased attention to long-term effects on parenting and child adjustment is warranted. PMID:24639914

  10. Kenya.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Attention in this discussion of Kenya is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between Kenya and the US. In 1987, the population was estimated at 21.6 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 4.1%. Traditional herders, Arab Muslims, and cosmopolitan residents of Nairobi all contribute to the culture of Kenya. The standard of living in major cities is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Fossils located in east Africa suggest that protohumans roamed the area more than 20 million years ago. Recent anthropological finds near Kenya's Lake Turkana indicate that the "Homo" genus of humans lived in the area 2.6 million years ago. Kenya's colonial history dates from the Berlin conference of 1885. In 1895, the British government established the East African Protectorate and, soon after, opened the fertile highlands to white settlers. The settlers were allowed a voice in government before it officially was made a British colony in 1920, but Africans were not permitted any direct political participation until 1944. Kenya became independent on December 12, 1963, and in 1964 assumed the status of a republic within the Commonwealth. The president is elected by the National Assembly to serve a 5-year term, but if the president dissolves the assembly, a new presidential election must be held. Since independence, Kenya has maintained remarkable stability during many changes within the democratic system. Kenya's major political challenge is to reinvigorate its economy, which has suffered from a combination of problems such as government deficit spending, a chronic shortage of foreign exchange, and the rising cost of oil imports. Economic growth has declined since 1973, and real gross domestic product (GDP) has grown only by about 2.75% for the 1980-86 period. One of Kenya's basic problems is its population growth rate. With less than 20% of the land classified as potentially arable and

  11. Educational Change Following Conflict: Challenges Related to the Implementation of a Peace Education Programme in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritzen, Solvor Mjøberg

    2016-01-01

    Following the post-election violence in Kenya an attempt to bring about educational change through a peace education programme was launched by the MoE, UNICEF and UNHCR. The programme, which was aimed at building peace at the grassroots level, targeted the areas most affected by the post-election violence. Teaching plans were designed for all…

  12. Educational Change Following Conflict: Challenges Related to the Implementation of a Peace Education Programme in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritzen, Solvor Mjøberg

    2016-01-01

    Following the post-election violence in Kenya an attempt to bring about educational change through a peace education programme was launched by the MoE, UNICEF and UNHCR. The programme, which was aimed at building peace at the grassroots level, targeted the areas most affected by the post-election violence. Teaching plans were designed for all…

  13. Kenya.

    PubMed

    Obura, D O

    2001-12-01

    The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5 degrees S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterized by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25 degrees C and 31 degrees C during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and

  14. Facing Kenya's energy predicament

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, P.; Shakow, D.

    1980-06-01

    Kenya's bleak economic future is not helped by its dependence on foreign oil and lack of fossil-fuel reserves. At a conference on Kenya's energy needs, held in May 1979, options for averting a fuel-food crisis were considered. Recognition of Kenya's resource poverty and the immediate need to establish wood-fuel production products, charcoal conversion, conservation projects, and a research agenda were the main themes of that conference and the bases for a Kenyan energy policy.

  15. CRISIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Richard M.; Kyte, Nancy S.

    1977-01-01

    Examines some different ways that a client's crisis affects the social worker who is attempting to help him resolve his crisis, the agency or facility within which the worker operates, and the community in which all three function. (Author/RK)

  16. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Olack, Beatrice; Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R; Talley, Leisel E; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March-4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p < 0.01), and older children were significantly (p < 0.0001) stunted compared to younger children. In the third year of life, girls were more likely than boys to be wasted (p < 0.01). The high prevalence of chronic malnutrition suggests that stunting is a sustained problem within this urban

  17. Impact of Checklist Use on Wellness and Post-Elective Surgery Appointments in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Weir, Heather; Kogan, Lori R

    2016-10-25

    Cognitive functioning is often compromised with increasing levels of stress and fatigue, both of which are often experienced by veterinarians. Many high-stress fields have implemented checklists to reduce human error. The use of these checklists has been shown to improve the quality of medical care, including adherence to evidence-based best practices and improvement of patient safety. Although it has been recognized that veterinary medicine would likely demonstrate similar benefits, there have been no published studies to date evaluating the use of checklists for improving quality of care in veterinary medicine. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of checklists during wellness and post-elective surgery appointments conducted by fourth-year veterinary students within their Community Practice rotation at a US veterinary teaching hospital. Students were randomly assigned to one of two groups: those who were specifically asked to use the provided checklists during appointments, and those who were not asked to use the checklists but had them available. Two individuals blinded to the study audiotaped and reviewed all appointments in each study group to determine the amount and type of medical information offered by veterinary students. Students who were specifically asked to use the checklists provided significantly more information to owners, with the exception of keeping the incision clean. Results indicate the use of checklists helps students provide more complete information to their clients, thereby potentially enhancing animal care.

  18. Hypertensive Crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... 18,2017 Know the two types of HBP crisis to watch for A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) ...

  19. Myasthenic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, Linda C.; Levine, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenic crisis is a complication of myasthenia gravis characterized by worsening of muscle weakness, resulting in respiratory failure that requires intubation and mechanical ventilation. Advances in critical care have improved the mortality rate associated with myasthenic crisis. This article reviews the epidemiology of myasthenic crisis and discusses patient evaluation. Therapeutic options including mechanical ventilation and pharmacological and surgical treatments are also discussed. PMID:23983833

  20. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    The Austrian Program for Suicide Prevention defines as Point 2: "Support and treatment". The suicide-preventive outcome of the development of psychotherapeutic-psychosocial care in Austria has been proved. This means, that the further development of institutions with focus on crisis intervention is a central agenda of Suicide prevention Austria (SUPRA). First, in this article are defined the terms crisis and crisis intervention, also the close connection to programs of suicide prevention is pointed out. Furthermore general aims and standards for crisis intervention are defined and the current situation of crisis intervention in Austria is described. Finally recommendations for practical aims and their implementation in the context of SUPRA are made.

  1. [Crisis intervention].

    PubMed

    Sonneck, G

    1986-10-31

    The main aspects of crisis intervention are an immediate onset without time-consuming referrals, activities of the helper always keeping in mind the biopycho-social context, and assistance for selfhelp. Helping people in crises minds to find out and develop the possibilities of the afflicted person aiming that he can overcome his crisis by himself, gaining maturity and reaching a less crisis-prone life style.

  2. English Language Teaching Profile: Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English instruction in Kenya is outlined. The Kenyan educational system, the role of English in Kenya as a whole, English instruction within the educational system, teacher supply and training, textbook availability and use, British and American support for English instruction in Kenya, and current research are described.…

  3. Television by Children in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Carla W.

    There are two categories of children's television in Kenya: television "for" children, most of which is imported, and television "by" children, all of which is produced in Kenya. Most of the television by children is produced and broadcast by Voice of Kenya television, much of it made up of programs growing out of…

  4. Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Mary Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that women experiencing a midlife crisis pass through five recognizable stages: (1) feeling trapped, (2) the first change, (3) multiple changes, (4) rational planning, and (5) implementing the plan. (NKA)

  5. Hyperglycemic crisis.

    PubMed

    Van Ness-Otunnu, Ronald; Hack, Jason B

    2013-11-01

    Hyperglycemic crisis is a metabolic emergency associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus that may result in significant morbidity or death. Acute interventions are required to manage hypovolemia, acidemia, hyperglycemia, electrolyte abnormalities, and precipitating causes. Despite advances in the prevention and management of diabetes, its prevalence and associated health care costs continue to increase worldwide. Hyperglycemic crisis typically requires critical care management and hospitalization and contributes to global health expenditures. Diagnostic and resolution criteria and management strategies for diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic crisis are provided. A discussion of prevalence, mortality, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management considerations for hyperglycemic crisis are included. Emergency physicians confront the most severe sequelae of uncontrolled diabetes and provide crucial, life-saving management. With ongoing efforts from diabetes societies to incorporate the latest clinical research to refine treatment guidelines, management and outcomes of hyperglycemic crisis in the emergency department continue to improve. We provide an overview of the evaluation and treatment of hyperglycemic crisis and offer a concise, targeted management algorithm to aid the practicing emergency physician. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparing for a crisis: crisis team development.

    PubMed

    Calarco, C

    1999-02-01

    Emergency preparedness in the school setting necessitates the formation and development of a Crisis Team that will be prepared to assume critical roles in the event of a crisis. This paper discusses the school Crisis Team, including member identification and responsibilities, and the relationship of the Crisis Team to the school crisis plan and policies.

  7. Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-29

    If you live in Europe and buy roses, the chance is good that they were grown in Kenya -- specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Image from NASA Terra satellite.

  8. Cultural Policies in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opondo, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the challenges that arise when government policies are implemented with the goal of promoting culture, tradition, heritage, and identity in society. Focuses specifically on music education. Examines the impact and effects of the post-independence cultural policies in Kenya. Provides recommendations for restructuring present cultural…

  9. Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    If you live in Europe and buy roses, there is a good chance that they were grown in Kenya specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Some 25% of Europe's cut flowers come from Kenya. After a tentative start in the 1980s the industry is now the country's third-largest foreign-currency earner, bringing in $120m a year. But the recent violence in Kenya is having a major impact on the flower growers. A local trade union says 3,000 of the 30,000 workers employed in Naivasha's flower farms have abandoned their jobs. Kenya emerged as a flower power when Israel scaled down its own industry. It has since lost business to neighboring Ethiopia, which offers tax breaks and better security, but Naivasha's perfect intensity of sunlight and days of near-constant length should keep it on top.

    The ASTER image was acquired February 2, 2008, covers an area of 25 x 26.6 km, and is located near 0.8 degrees south latitude, 36.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Unsafe abortion in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, Ann

    2008-11-01

    Though pregnancy termination is highly restricted in Kenya, induced abortion remains common. Illegal abortion is often unsafe, putting women at risk of death or severe complications. In eastern Africa as a whole, an estimated 14% of all pregnancies end in abortion, and nearly one in five maternal deaths are due to unsafe abortion.

  11. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…

  12. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…

  13. The geoid in Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lwangasi, Alphonse S.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of geoidal undulations is given and after summarizing the methods of determination of the geoid, computed geoidal undulations by some of the methods for several points in Kenya are compared to the results obtained by the satellite gravimetric solutions. Results from astrogeodetic levelling and satellite altimetry show some reasonable agreement with the satellite gravimetric geoids while results by Doppler satellite positioning indicate that good agreement can be obtained if the orthometric heights for the points are adjusted to a uniform system.

  14. Crisis Inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    involved Egypt and Israel on opposing sides, as well as other opposing pairs such as Syria and Israel . The advantage of organ- izing the cases in...West municipalities. An agreement to end the blockade was reached in May 1949. Crisis: Costa Rica- Nicaragua Dates: 12/3/48-1/30/49 Country Pair...Costa Rica- Nicaragua In the midst of domestic political turmoil in Costa Rica, Rafael Calderon - previously a Presidential candidate in Costa Rica

  15. Crisis behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Grinspoon, L.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

  16. Surgery in western Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Branicki, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Experience gained during 2 1/2 years' work as chief government surgeon for Nyanza Province, Kenya, is outlined. The wide variety of surgical conditions encountered and the problems posed in dealing with these by a chronic shortage of essential drugs, instruments, hospital facilities, and fully qualified staff are emphasised. It is suggested that at present the solution must lie in wider instruction in surgical techniques for general duties officers and clinical officers together with energetic community health, family planning, and preventive medicine programmes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. A Fig. 4 PMID:7271194

  17. Crisis Paper No. 33. The Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This Crisis Paper is thirty-third in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multi-national view of the issue by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers and journals of several countries. A brief introduction outlines the history and background of the energy crisis, emphasizing the underestimated…

  18. Crisis Paper No. 33. The Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Information Centre for Teachers, London (England).

    This Crisis Paper is thirty-third in a series which expands the analysis of the crisis under discussion to provide a multi-national view of the issue by quoting comment from a selection of newspapers and journals of several countries. A brief introduction outlines the history and background of the energy crisis, emphasizing the underestimated…

  19. Is Sexual Abuse a Part of War? A 4-Year Retrospective Study on Cases of Sexual Abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, Lilian; Olando, Yvonne; Makenyengo, Margaret; Bukusi, David

    2013-01-01

    The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009). Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC) form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363) form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict. PMID:28299094

  20. The seismicity of Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, P. K. H.; Shah, E. R.; Pointing, A. J.; Cooke, P. A. V.; Khan, M. A.; Swain, C. J.

    The Kenya Rift Valley, part of the East African Rift System, which extends from Lake Turkana in the north to Lake Magadi in the south, is seismically active. It is surprisingly free of teleseismic events compared to the Western Rift, but experiences considerable microseismic activity releasing the elastic strain energy. This is consistent with the crust having a low tensile strength, probably due to raised geotherms beneath the rift valley arising from lithospheric aattenuation. The microseismicity suggests presently active rifting occurs as far north as 2.5°N. This is consistent with recent seismic reflection results in this region which show deep half-grabens beneath Lake Turkana. There is also a broad zone of seismicity subparalleling the rift and displaced about 150 km to the east. This may be associated with a second culmination of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In order to obtain a better understanding of the rifting process in Kenya it is suggested that a microseismic study be carried out in the Turkana region, whose near surface 3-dimensional morphology has already been examined via the seismic reflection method.

  1. Kenya's Plans for Its Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chege, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    This article looks into the reasons behind Kenya's rapidly declining fertility rates over the last decade. Examines such factors as economic conditions, Westernization, contraceptive use, and formal education programs. (LZ)

  2. [Crisis and crisis therapy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Culberg, J

    1978-02-01

    A psychic crisis is defined as a reaction to external events where the individual is unable to cope with these events by means of his usual adaptive mechanisms and earlier experiences. Examples of a traumatic crisis is the death of a near relative, the sudden onset of a severe illness, a sudden infidelity in marriage etc. So called transitional life situations may also elicit crisis reaction, i.e. the birth of a first child, retirement from work etc. A psychic crisis is often overdetermined from experiences in early childhood. The more "pure" crisis reactions are often seen in medical or surgical clinics while the psychiatrists usually meet the overdetermined crisis reaction. Four different phases of the crisis reaction are described. The goal of crisis therapy is to support the individual's and his surroundings own resources. It is not to replace the loss or to help the individual deny the emotional impact of what has happened. The function of the therapist can often be described in terms of "containing function" and "vicarious hope". Listening to a client in acute crisis often evokes feelings of anxiety and helplessness in the therapist. He often feels seduced to behave omnipotently, helping the patient to suppress the feelings of sorrow and anger. He may also be overprotective or may avoid discussing the pertinent feelings. The antitherapeutic risks of crisis psychotherapy are discussed and also illustrated with examples from the author's research on reactions of mothers to the birth of stillborn children.

  3. Sickle Cell Crisis (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Sickle Cell ... drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  4. Arbovirus prevalence in mosquitoes, Kenya.

    PubMed

    LaBeaud, A Desiree; Sutherland, Laura J; Muiruri, Samuel; Muchiri, Eric M; Gray, Laurie R; Zimmerman, Peter A; Hise, Amy G; King, Charles H

    2011-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006-2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools tested, 22% were positive for Rift Valley fever virus, 18% were positive for West Nile virus, and 3% were positive for both. Estimated mosquito minimum infection rates did not differ between locations. Our data demonstrate the local abundance of mosquitoes that could propagate arboviral infections in Kenya and the high prevalence of vector arbovirus positivity during a Rift Valley fever outbreak.

  5. Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Laura J.; Muiruri, Samuel; Muchiri, Eric M.; Gray, Laurie R.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Hise, Amy G.; King, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006–2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools tested, 22% were positive for Rift Valley fever virus, 18% were positive for West Nile virus, and 3% were positive for both. Estimated mosquito minimum infection rates did not differ between locations. Our data demonstrate the local abundance of mosquitoes that could propagate arboviral infections in Kenya and the high prevalence of vector arbovirus positivity during a Rift Valley fever outbreak. PMID:21291594

  6. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  7. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  8. Images for Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffan, James

    1984-01-01

    Most take canoeing, leadership, first aid, CPR and other courses to help cope when something happens, but there is more to dealing with crisis than learning proper procedures and techniques. Three areas of concern interlock to form the Crisis Management Triangle: knowledge and skill, preventive awareness, and crisis management planning. (ERB)

  9. Teaching Crisis Creatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, JoAnne Howland

    1982-01-01

    Describes a creative approach to teaching the application of crisis theory to nursing students. Students experience crisis themselves, evaluate their own and others' coping mechanisms, and learn to recognize the various physical and psychological symptoms of people in crisis. (Author/CT)

  10. The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Gbary, Akpa Raphael; Muthuri, Lenity Kainyu; Nyoni, Jennifer; Seddoh, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Background Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA); (ii) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA); and (iii) to describe other losses from brain drain. Methods The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years) and the age of retirement (62 years) in recipient countries. Results The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is US$ 65,997; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about US$ 517,931 worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is US$ 43,180; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about US$ 338,868 worth of returns from investment. Conclusion Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals) from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious circle of ill

  11. [Cholera++ epidemic in Kenya].

    PubMed

    Paugam, H

    1999-03-01

    A cholera epidemic in 1997 followed on the heels of the 1992 epidemic that claimed thousands of victims in Kenya. This time, it emerged in the Migori district near the Tanzanian border, when a woman who had married in Tanzania brought her five-month-old baby to visit her parents. The infant, who contracted serious diarrhea and vomiting, died before the mother could reach a dispensary. During the funeral, a perfect opportunity for the disease to spread, those attending observed the traditional ritual of touching the corpse, and then ate and drank with the next of kin. Many developed symptoms of cholera, and several died in the next few days, even before first aid could be administered. At the Public Health Laboratory in Nairobi, analyses confirmed the presence of the Ogawa strain of Vibrio cholerae. Given the global reputation of Médecins Sans Frontières [Doctors Without Borders] in the field of cholera, the head of public health for Homa Bay District issued a call for help in August 1997, asking the team to provide preventive solutions and assess the gravity of the situation. Despite intense logistical, technical and health initiatives, the epidemic spread like wildfire. Five months after the initial outbreak, in February 1998, two Canadian nurses working for MSF in Homa Bay hurriedly surveyed the situation in Nyanza Province, which has a population of three million. The author accompanied one of these nurses, Joceline Roy, a Quebecer in her forties, on a tour that lasted more than 15 hours. Roy worked conscientiously, with great precision and energy. This narrative conveys much more than the fatigue and hazards of travel in the developing world; it tells the story of an important, but little publicized, aspect of nursing.

  12. The Mentorship of Kenya Ayers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Being a college president has been Kenya Ayers' goal since she started in higher education in the late 1990s. "I'm really clear," she says. "I want to do this." Ayers is well on her way. She's been a provost, an academic dean and an administrative one, and an associate vice president of academic affairs at colleges in…

  13. Malaria early warning in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hay, S I; Rogers, D J; Shanks, G D; Myers, M F; Snow, R W

    2001-02-01

    Kenya displays large spatiotemporal diversity in its climate and ecology. It follows that malaria transmission will reflect this environmental heterogeneity in both space and time. In this article, we discuss how such heterogeneity, and its epidemiological consequences, should be considered in the development of early warning systems for malaria epidemics.

  14. Malaria early warning in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Rogers, David J.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Myers, Monica F.; Snow, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Kenya displays large spatiotemporal diversity in its climate and ecology. It follows that malaria transmission will reflect this environmental heterogeneity in both space and time. In this article, we discuss how such heterogeneity, and its epidemiological consequences, should be considered in the development of early warning systems for malaria epidemics. PMID:11228016

  15. The Mentorship of Kenya Ayers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Being a college president has been Kenya Ayers' goal since she started in higher education in the late 1990s. "I'm really clear," she says. "I want to do this." Ayers is well on her way. She's been a provost, an academic dean and an administrative one, and an associate vice president of academic affairs at colleges in…

  16. Xerophthalmia and measles in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jacques, J; Sauter, M

    1976-10-15

    In many African countries measles is considered to be an important cause of blindness. On the basis of his observations in Kenya and Tanzania in 1972 Franken presumed, however, that in the majority of these cases xerophthalmia was the real cause of blindness, precipitated by the "catalyst" measles. In order to gain a better understanding of this important complicated problem, we performed in the first half of 1974 an investigation in Kenya into the prevalence of xerophthalmia. In December 1974 we had the opportunity to evaluate our Kenyan findings on Java, in the company of Dr. J. ten Doesschate and Professor H.A.P.C. Oomen. The results of this investigation in Kenya and Indonesia are presented in this thesis. (see article) 1. Xerophthalmia occurred nearly everywhere in Kenya in 1974. This demonstrates the prevalence of xerophthalmia in communities which - do not have rice but - have maize for their staplefood. 2. Xerophthalmia appears to be the main cause of blindness in Kenyan children. 3. Measles often plays - by means of local and general "catalysing" effects - an important role in the development of blindness caused by xerophthalmia. 4. In well-nourished children measles is of no consequence as a cause of blindness. 5. Vital staining by 1% rose bengal or 1% lissamine green appears to be a real asset for the early diagnosis of xerophthalmia in Health Centres and in field surveys. This method is therefore of great importance for the prevention of severe, blindness inducing vitamin A deficiency.

  17. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  18. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  19. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    Nairobi, Kenya. 6 Shashank, Bengali . How Kenya’s Election Was Rigged, the McClatchy Newspapers. January 31, 2008. Kenya: Current Conditions and the...back a single candidate against Moi. The opposition learned from its mistakes, and in 2002 it succeeded in forming and holding together a coalition...party did not stop an opposition victory in Kenya. The lessons learned from the 2002 Kenyan elections are many and could strengthen democracy

  20. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  1. Combating Transnational Terrorism in Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-17

    is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This thesis examines the Kenyan government’s (GoK’s) increasingly responsive strategy, and...TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM THREAT IN THE COUNTRY by Hared H. Adan, Kenya Army, 84 pages. This thesis examines the Kenyan government’s (GoK’s) increasingly...terrorism. Thesis Question This thesis will attempt to answer the following question: Is the Kenyan government’s efforts to fight terrorism

  2. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  3. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  4. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  5. Creativity in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Glenn

    This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

  6. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  7. When a Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keebler, Barbara A.

    1989-01-01

    Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis…

  8. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  9. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  10. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  11. When Crisis Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    School crises may be categorized as emergency situations, human-made crises, natural events, medical emergencies, and mechanical crises. Central to any successful crisis-management plan are onsite and district-level crisis response teams. Plans should specify staff responsibilities; provide for communication codes, devices, and procedures;…

  12. Educational Technology in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainholc, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of the historical epistemological path is needed to understand and reconsider the discipline of Educational Technology in articulation to contributions of rupturistic theorists in order to reach to a critical proposal and a revision of its field. This field is facing a deep crisis within a time of world crisis, specially in the…

  13. Crisis, grief and loss.

    PubMed

    Evans, J V

    1993-09-01

    At one time or another, many of us experience a life-threatening crisis that proves to be a turning point in our lives. I had such a crisis while working as a medic on the oil-rig Vinland, offshore of Nova Scotia, in 1984.

  14. Creativity in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Glenn

    This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…

  15. Girls' Attitudes towards Science in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  17. Processes of Secondary Curriculum Innovation in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Kevin M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with reform of secondary school curricula in Kenya in the period immediately after independence. Follows the course of two innovations--School Mathematics of East Africa (SMEA) and the Africanization of the literature curriculum--and discusses various reasons for their failure and for Kenya's continued dependence on…

  18. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  19. Husserl's Crisis as a crisis of psychology.

    PubMed

    Feest, Uljana

    2012-06-01

    This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time.

  20. Vermont School Crisis Guide, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Vermont School Crisis Guide has been revised to improve its use by School Crisis Teams and Public Safety Committees. The Guide is now organized by roles so users can quickly locate their responsibilities in a crisis. The Crisis Guide pages can be used to document pertinent information (time, witnesses) immediately after an emergency…

  1. Crisis intervention for nurses.

    PubMed

    Chase, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Cancer diagnoses and treatments can be crisis-causing events that overwhelm the usual coping abilities of patients and their families. Oncology nurses constantly are observing and attending to patients' diverse needs, ranging from biomedical to emotional, social, and psychological. Nurses have the chance to be first responders in times of patient crises, as they are in the position to recognize the crisis, respond effectively, and transform the crisis into a pivotal learning experience. This article discusses a way to think about patient and family crises that empowers nurses to respond in a manner appropriate to the cultural context and respectful of the individual space of the patient.

  2. Kenya's plans for its children.

    PubMed

    Chege, N

    1995-01-01

    At 4%, Kenya's growth rate a decade ago was thought to be the highest in the world. The latest Demographic and Health Survey, however, records a 33% decline in the country's total fertility rate over 15 years, which is one of the most precipitous declines ever measured. This decline was caused by several factors. Traditionally, Kenyans associated large families with wealth, prosperity, and old-age security. Now the traditional family has been reshaped by Western influences such as monogamy, Western medicine, and an emphasis on expensive formal education. The Kenyan government began to try to foster a demographic transition since 1948, but by 1977 only 7% of married women used contraceptives. Once family planning (FP) programs began to decentralize and find more effective ways of distributing contraceptives, however, that figure rose to 34%. With the spread of AIDS, the condom has become an important contraceptive, but the most popular methods are oral and injectable contraceptives. To reach the population with unmet needs (26% of women would like to space their children and 52% wish to stop child bearing), the government has adopted a program of community-based distribution which also used IEC (information, education, and communication) techniques to provide sex education to adolescents. The goals of increasing access to formal education and increasing the length of primary education have also contributed to smaller family sizes. While success has undoubtedly been made, further changes in Kenya's FP program, including providing services to adolescents and targeting men, will broaden its reach. The situation in Kenya has shown that FP progress need not await economic prosperity.

  3. Cancer of asians in kenya.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S A; Linsell, C A; Peers, F G; Chopra, F S

    1975-04-15

    The frequency of various cancers among Indian immigrants in Kenya was compared to corresponding data among native Africans and Indians in the regions of India from which most of the studied population originally migrated. The Kenyan Indians do not have the cancer pattern of their home country nor do they have the cancer pattern of indigenous Africans. They have instead, like Europeans and North Americans, a higher risk of cancer of the lung, breast and the large intestine. It is suggested that this is related to enbironmental factors and variations in living habits.

  4. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  5. Midlife crisis: a debate.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alexandra M; Ritter, Johannes O

    2009-01-01

    Without doubt, the midlife crisis is the most popular concept describing middle adulthood. Facing the limitation of the time until death, men in particular are believed to pause from actively pursuing their goals and review their achievements, take stock of what they have and have not yet accomplished, at times taking drastic measures to fulfill their dreams. This paper critically discusses the concept of a midlife crisis and the relevant empirical evidence, presenting arguments for and against a strict, a moderate, and a lenient conceptualization of the midlife crisis. Although a strict and even moderate definition of the midlife crisis does not seem tenable on empirical and theoretical grounds, a lenient conceptualization has the potential to stimulate new research directions exemplifying processes of the interaction of social expectations on the one hand and personal goals on the other, and their importance for developmental regulation.

  6. Phaeochromocytoma [corrected] crisis.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, B C; Prague, J K; Mustafa, O G; Schulte, K-M; Hopkins, P A; Gilbert, J A; McGregor, A M; Aylwin, S J B

    2014-01-01

    Phaeochromocytoma [corrected] crisis is an endocrine emergency associated with significant mortality. There is little published guidance on the management of phaeochromocytoma [corrected] crisis. This clinical practice update summarizes the relevant published literature, including a detailed review of cases published in the past 5 years, and a proposed classification system. We review the recommended management of phaeochromocytoma [corrected] crisis including the use of alpha-blockade, which is strongly associated with survival of a crisis. Mechanical circulatory supportive therapy (including intra-aortic balloon pump or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation) is strongly recommended for patients with sustained hypotension. Surgical intervention should be deferred until medical stabilization is achieved. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Literature of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark S.

    1971-01-01

    Examines current books and articles on educational problems, which the author refers to as literature of crisis," and concludes that these works should be read along with other genres of literature which examine human problems of communication and commitment. (VJ)

  8. The geothermal fields of the Kenya rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaroh, Don; Okoth, William

    1994-09-01

    From the standpoint of geothermal energy, Kenya's resources are due to the presence of the Kenya rift which is part of the East African rift system. Geological, geophysical and geothermal studies indicate that Neogene volcanic activity has led to the presence of near surface heat generating sources. Geothermal fields of the Kenya rift occur in two types of environments. The main geothermal fields are associated with Quaternary volcanoes. The second type is associated with fissures that are related to active fault zones. In either case, these fields are dissected by numerous rift faults that give rise to a number of geothermal springs and fumaroles.

  9. Crisis -- A Leadership Opportunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    true. Crisis develops as an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, or behavior becomes incongruent with its operating environment. A leader, who is...an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, and behaviors ; while the other reflects its changing environment. In the beginning, as the plates...a random, cataclysmic event that can strike without warning. However, crisis occurs when an organization’s values, beliefs, culture, or behaviors

  10. Crisis management strategies.

    PubMed

    Koster, Maria C; Politis-Norton, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the different facets of crisis as experienced within the pharmaceutical industry but which are also prevalent throughout other industries. It highlights the importance of early identification and management of crises and issues, which in return are strongly intertwined with a fundamental positive internal corporate climate. A corporate philosophy should always embrace crisis management with the attitude of 'when' and not 'if'; therefore, a company should act today and not tomorrow once a crisis is on its doorstep. Preparation is of utmost importance and there are several items that can be addressed even before a crisis has arisen. Further, this paper also provides guidance on how to deal with the media, what to do and what not to do, and how to appoint the appropriate spokesperson. In this era of fast exchange of information, crisis, which previously may have stayed behind corporate doors, may not do so any longer. Image is very important and should therefore not be risked. Crisis and issue management should therefore be integrated in every company's philosophy and standard operating procedures.

  11. When families fail: shifting expectations of care among people living with HIV in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eileen; Igonya, Emmy Kageha

    2014-01-01

    The availability of free antiretroviral treatment in public health facilities since 2004 has contributed to the increasing biomedicalization of AIDS care in Kenya. This has been accompanied by a reduction of funding for community-based care and support organizations since the 2008 global economic crisis and a consequent donor divestment from HIV projects in Africa. This paper explores the ways that HIV interventions, including support groups, home-based care and antiretroviral treatments have shaped expectations regarding relations of care in the low-income area of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya, over the last decade. Findings are based on 20 months of ethnographic research conducted in Nairobi between January 2011 and August 2013. By focusing on three eras of HIV treatment – pre-treatment, treatment scale-up, and post-crisis – the authors illustrate how family and community-based care have changed with shifts in funding. Many support groups that previously provided HIV care in Kibera, where the state is largely absent and family networks are thin, have been forced to cut services. Large-scale HIV treatment programmes may allow the urban poor in Nairobi to survive, but they are unlikely to thrive. Many care needs continue to go unmet in the age of treatment, and many economically marginal people who had found work in care-oriented community-based organizations now find themselves jobless or engaged in work not related to HIV. PMID:25175290

  12. When families fail: shifting expectations of care among people living with HIV in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Eileen; Igonya, Emmy Kageha

    2014-01-01

    The availability of free antiretroviral treatment in public health facilities since 2004 has contributed to the increasing biomedicalization of AIDS care in Kenya. This has been accompanied by a reduction of funding for community-based care and support organizations since the 2008 global economic crisis and a consequent donor divestment from HIV projects in Africa. This paper explores the ways that HIV interventions, including support groups, home-based care and antiretroviral treatments have shaped expectations regarding relations of care in the low-income area of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya, over the last decade. Findings are based on 20 months of ethnographic research conducted in Nairobi between January 2011 and August 2013. By focusing on three eras of HIV treatment--pre-treatment, treatment scale-up, and post-crisis--the authors illustrate how family and community-based care have changed with shifts in funding. Many support groups that previously provided HIV care in Kibera, where the state is largely absent and family networks are thin, have been forced to cut services. Large-scale HIV treatment programmes may allow the urban poor in Nairobi to survive, but they are unlikely to thrive. Many care needs continue to go unmet in the age of treatment, and many economically marginal people who had found work in care-oriented community-based organizations now find themselves jobless or engaged in work not related to HIV.

  13. Retinoblastoma Referral Pattern in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nyamori, Joseph M.; Kimani, Kahaki; Njuguna, Margaret W.; Dimaras, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Kenya is a large country with a widely dispersed population. As retinoblastoma requires specialized treatment, we determined the referral pattern for patients with retinoblastoma in Kenya to facilitate the formulation of a national policy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed for retinoblastoma patients who presented from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007. Data were collected on the referral process from presenting health facility to the hospital where patient was treated. Data were also collected on the time interval when the first symptoms were noticed to the time of presentation at a health facility (lag time). For cases that could be traced to a referral hospital, the time delay due to referral (referral lag time) was recorded. Results: There were 206 patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in 51 Kenyan and 2 foreign healthcare facilities, and they received final treatment at a Kenyan hospital. Mean lag time was 6.8 months (±6.45). Of all patients, 18% (38/206) were treated at the hospital where they first presented and 82% (168/206) were referred elsewhere. Of those referred, 35% (58/168) were lost to follow-up. The mean referral lag time was 1.7 months (±2.5). Conclusions: A significant proportion of cases presented late, and either delayed seeking further treatment or were lost after initial referral. We recommend the implementation of a national strategy that emphasizes early detection, documentation and follow up of retinoblastoma patients. PMID:25371638

  14. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-06

    January 2008 in Nairobi, Kenya. 8 Shashank, Bengali . How Kenya’s Election Was Rigged, the McClatchy Newspapers. January 31, 2008. 9 European Union...against Moi. The opposition learned from its mistakes, and in 2002 it succeeded in forming and holding together a coalition, known as NARC (National...clout of a ruling party did not stop an opposition victory in Kenya. The lessons learned from the 2002 Kenyan elections are many and could strengthen

  15. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-09

    government officials. January 2008 in Nairobi, Kenya. 8 Shashank, Bengali . How Kenya’s Election Was Rigged, the McClatchy Newspapers. January 31, 2008. 9...single candidate against Moi. The opposition learned from its mistakes, and in 2002 it succeeded in forming and holding together a coalition, known...the entrenched clout of a ruling party did not stop an opposition victory in Kenya. The lessons learned from the 2002 Kenyan elections are many and

  16. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    interview with several Kenyan opposition and government officials. January 2008 in Nairobi, Kenya. 6 Shashank, Bengali . How Kenya’s Election Was Rigged, the...single candidate against Moi. The opposition learned from its mistakes, and in 2002 it succeeded in forming and holding together a coalition, known as...the power of incumbency and the entrenched clout of a ruling party did not stop an opposition victory in Kenya. The lessons learned from the 2002

  17. Vulnerability to food insecurity in urban slums: experiences from Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, E W; Schofield, L; Wekesah, F; Mohamed, S; Mberu, B; Ettarh, R; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C; Ezeh, A

    2014-12-01

    Food and nutrition security is critical for economic development due to the role of nutrition in healthy growth and human capital development. Slum residents, already grossly affected by chronic poverty, are highly vulnerable to different forms of shocks, including those arising from political instability. This study describes the food security situation among slum residents in Nairobi, with specific focus on vulnerability associated with the 2007/2008 postelection crisis in Kenya. The study from which the data is drawn was nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS), which follows about 70,000 individuals from close to 30,000 households in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. The study triangulates data from qualitative and quantitative sources. It uses qualitative data from 10 focus group discussions with community members and 12 key-informant interviews with community opinion leaders conducted in November 2010, and quantitative data involving about 3,000 households randomly sampled from the NUHDSS database in three rounds of data collection between March 2011 and January 2012. Food security was defined using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) criteria. The study found high prevalence of food insecurity; 85% of the households were food insecure, with 50% being severely food insecure. Factors associated with food security include level of income, source of livelihood, household size, dependence ratio; illness, perceived insecurity and slum of residence. The qualitative narratives highlighted household vulnerability to food insecurity as commonplace but critical during times of crisis. Respondents indicated that residents in the slums generally eat for bare survival, with little concern for quality. The narratives described heightened vulnerability during the 2007/2008 postelection violence in Kenya in the perception of slum residents. Prices of staple foods like maize flour doubled and simultaneously household

  18. The Roman Empire - The Third Century Crisis and Crisis Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-04

    Tacitus. Hoboken: John Wiley And Sons, 2012. Putra , Fadillah. "Crisis Management In Public Administration." Planning Forum. 12, (2009, January 01...Fadillah Putra , "Crisis Management In Public Administration," Planning Forum 12, (2009, January 01). 12. "Crisis Of The Third Century: Ad 200-285

  19. Doctrine Development Process in the Kenya Army: Bridging the Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    DOCTRINE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN THE KENYA ARMY: BRIDGING THE GAP A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command...by ROBA B. WARIO, MAJ, KENYA ARMY Diploma, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2014-01...Doctrine Development Process in the Kenya Army: Bridging the Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  20. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  1. When Crisis Strikes on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann, Ed.

    This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…

  2. Crisis Management in Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsis, Thomas M.

    The way in which a school community deals with a crisis situation is a test of its sense of community. This guidebook, intended for Catholic-school principals, presents a detailed plan to help schools establish crisis-management teams and offers directions for their operation. Chapter 1 presents an overview of crisis management and focuses on how…

  3. Keeping Cool in a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2006-01-01

    Many schools are able to avoid disasters by creating a strong, deliberate crisis plan and knowing how to implement it effectively. Good crisis preparedness requires leadership from the top, a critical mass of trained staff members, careful planning, and excellent communication. This article discusses how to prepare for a crisis.

  4. Heat flow in the Kenya rift zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheildon, J.; Morgan, Paul; Williamson, K. H.; Evans, T. R.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1994-09-01

    An understanding of the processes of continental rifting is fundamental to understanding the evolution of the continents. Considerable evidence exists to suggest that continental rift zones are associated with high heat flow and elevated lithospheric geotherms, but direct heat-flow measurements from young rifts do not clearly define surface heat-flow anomalies associated with deep-seated thermal processes in these rifts. The first detailed compilation of heat-flow data from the Neogene Kenya rift is presented here. Heat-flow data are presented from traditional heat-flow determinations in water drill-holes, from bottom-hole-temperature measurements in oil wells, and from heat-flow estimates from groundwater silica data. These data define generally low heat flow on the flanks of the Kenya rift, with high, but variable heat flow on the rift floor. There is a spatial association among high heat-flow values, Quaternary volcanism and faulting, and hydrothermal manifestations on the rift floor. We interpret these results to suggest that any deep-seated thermal anomaly associated with the Kenya rift has not yet been conducted to the surface. The high heat-flow values are interpreted to result from heat advected into the axial rift zone with local redistribution of this heat by hydrothermal convection. Normal to moderately high heat flow was measured in eastern Kenya between the rift zone and the coast. The regional heat flow in eastern Kenya is interpreted to be normal, with local shallow modification by groundwater flow eastward from the Kenya dome. These interpretations support a model of relatively young evolution of the asthenospheric anomaly beneath the Kenya rift zone, with the age of heating of the mantle at the Mono no older than about 10 Ma.

  5. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  6. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Guto, John Abuga; Bii, Christine C; Denning, David W

    2016-08-31

    Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009. Of Kenya's population of ~40 million, 43% are under 15 years old and approximately 594,660 Kenyan women get >4 episodes Candida vulvovaginitis annually (2,988/100,000). The HIV/AIDS population at risk of opportunistic infections (OI) is 480,000 and the OI estimates include 306,000 patients with oral thrush (768/100,000), 114,000 with oesophageal candidiasis (286/100,000), 11,900 with cryptococcal meningitis (29/100,000) and 17,000 patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (42/100,000). Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis following TB has a prevalence of 10,848 cases (32/100,000). The adult asthma prevalence is 3.1% and assuming 2.5% have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis then 17,696 (44/100,000) are affected.  Invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia and Candida peritonitis are probably uncommon. Tinea capitis infects 9.6% of children in Kenya, while fungal keratitis and otomycoses are difficult to estimate. At any one time, about 7% of the Kenyan population suffers from a significant fungal infection, with recurrent vaginitis and tinea capitis accounting for 82% of the infections. These estimates require further epidemiological studies for validation.

  7. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  8. The Coming Accounting Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Tim V.

    2007-01-01

    The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…

  9. Crisis in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Solomon J.

    1990-01-01

    The health care crisis faced by African Americans must be addressed by the nation as a whole with the same energy that erupts when a natural disaster occurs. On an individual basis, blacks can improve their own health with attention to child nurturing and personal nutrition. (SLD)

  10. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  11. Communications and Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Robert L.

    At a time of urban crisis, it becomes essential for people to learn about the special problems and needs of other people in the same community. If not actual experience, then visual experience through television can provide a good view into the perspective of other cultures. Television has an obligation to provide education of this sort,…

  12. Ghosts of Crisis Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

  13. Nursing in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age and…

  14. Crisis in the Cafeteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…

  15. Wanted: Crisis President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…

  16. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

    2002-01-01

    School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

  17. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  18. Crisis in the Cafeteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…

  19. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  20. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  1. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  2. The Phony Funding Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, James W.; Peng, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…

  3. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  4. Scleroderma Renal Crisis.

    PubMed

    Guillevin, Loïc; Mouthon, Luc

    2015-08-01

    Scleroderma renal crisis is a rare complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc) that remains severe. Prompt recognition and initiation of therapy with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor offer the best chance to achieve a good outcome. SSc prevalence is poorly known, with disparities among countries.

  5. Managing a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Planning ahead, practicing your response for various scenarios, being open and honest, showing empathy and respect for other peoples' perspectives and assuring stakeholders that you have the situation covered are the foundations of communicating successfully during a crisis, experts say. This article provides strategies for Community College…

  6. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akenhead, James; Andreani, Alan

    2002-01-01

    School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)

  7. Managing a Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Planning ahead, practicing your response for various scenarios, being open and honest, showing empathy and respect for other peoples' perspectives and assuring stakeholders that you have the situation covered are the foundations of communicating successfully during a crisis, experts say. This article provides strategies for Community College…

  8. Coping with Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways to manage crises such as homicides, suicides, natural calamities, and improprieties to minimize their negative impact and enhance the school's reputation. Suggestions include developing and practicing a crisis plan, keeping people informed, remembering the victims, and dealing with the media. (JOW)

  9. Ghosts of Crisis Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.; Champagne, Audrey B.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the history of school science curriculum reform from the Sputnik era to 1990. The relationship between the crisis in the 1950s and 1990 is addressed. A list of curriculum development programs for all levels and special needs students is included. (KR)

  10. Crisis, Meaning and Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Bijan

    This paper suggests that all life is polar because polarity is the underlying context of life. The idea of polarity is based on two halves that originally belonged together to form a whole. These two halves are constantly trying to come together to regain their wholeness. The philosophical view of crisis presented in this paper is that the…

  11. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  12. Wanted: Crisis President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…

  13. Adolescent Experience of Menstruation in Rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.

  14. [Crisis intervention with elderly people].

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives an overview about the most important aspects of crisis intervention, with special emphasis on crisis intervention with elderly people. First a review of the development of crisis intervention is given, including of some of the major concepts, with particular emphasis on psychoanalytic aspects of crisis intervention. Then a clinical case example of a crisis intervention with an elderly woman following a suicide attempt is given and discussed. The focus lies on the description of the transference-countertransference relationship, with attempts of pressing the therapist to comply with superficial, denying and minimizing fantasies. Peculiarities of crisis intervention with elderly people are highlighted: it is necessary to emphasize that elderly people are underrepresented in most crisis services, whereby they represent the group with the highest suicide risk. Peculiarities of elderly people still are not sufficiently met and they are created by a particularly wide range of aspects.

  15. Spatial determinants of poverty in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okwi, Paul O; Ndeng'e, Godfrey; Kristjanson, Patti; Arunga, Mike; Notenbaert, An; Omolo, Abisalom; Henninger, Norbert; Benson, Todd; Kariuki, Patrick; Owuor, John

    2007-10-23

    This article investigates the link between poverty incidence and geographical conditions within rural locations in Kenya. Evidence from poverty maps for Kenya and other developing countries suggests that poverty and income distribution are not homogenous. We use spatial regression techniques to explore the effects of geographic factors on poverty. Slope, soil type, distance/travel time to public resources, elevation, type of land use, and demographic variables prove to be significant in explaining spatial patterns of poverty. However, differential influence of these and other factors at the location level shows that provinces in Kenya are highly heterogeneous; hence different spatial factors are important in explaining welfare levels in different areas within provinces, suggesting that targeted propoor policies are needed. Policy simulations are conducted to explore the impact of various interventions on location-level poverty levels. Investments in roads and improvements in soil fertility are shown to potentially reduce poverty rates, with differential impacts in different regions.

  16. Girl domestic workers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mzungu, M

    1999-03-01

    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  17. Double Fire Tragedy of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lester; Orosco, Rowena; Milner, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Within days of each other, 2 catastrophic fires occurred in Kenya. On January 28, 2009, a busy supermarket was destroyed in downtown Nairobi. Shortly thereafter on February 2, an overturned petrol tanker exploded near the village of Molo, 200 km from the capital. These 2 disasters, in an urban and a rural setting, respectively, illustrate the lack of disaster readiness on a local and national level. Methods: A call for assistance was responded to by the James Jordan Foundation, which sponsored a team from the United States to provide consultation and patient care. Subsequent to this team's experiences, a review of medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital, interactions with government health officials, and investigation of public media resources, the following observations are reported. Results: Twenty-six victims died in the supermarket fire, and 20 who were admitted to local hospitals later succumbed. At Molo, 91 lives were claimed at the scene; 178 patients were admitted to various hospitals, 40 of whom died. Conclusion: The fires brought to light factors contributing to these events and their outcomes. In addition, it produced improvised solutions for resuscitation of mass casualties and the performance of emergency surgery with inadequate equipment and facilities. PMID:20076785

  18. Post-Election Apprehension, Activism, and Educational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catone, Keith C.

    2017-01-01

    Following the election of Donald Trump, the author, his wife, and colleagues from the Annenberg Institute for Social Reform (AISR) experienced different forms of apprehension: "anxious" apprehension, which can also be a moment of activist birth that sets the stage for a new level of consciousness to be awakened; "critical"…

  19. 5 CFR 870.203 - Post-election BIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amount of insurance left after the effective date of the Living Benefit election. This amount is the... the date OFEGLI receives the completed Living Benefit application (the “pre-election” BIA), reduced by... employee could have received if he/she elected a full Living Benefit; this amount is rounded up or down...

  20. Poland in Crisis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    between the regime and Solidarity; simultaneously, the Church’s institutional prerogatives expanded. In the wake of Solidarity’s activism , much of the...Solidarity, meeting in its own Congress in September, to assume a more active approach to a solution of the crisis. Solidarity’s leaders also responded to...by Polish security and military forces on December 13, 1981, was largely bloodless, in part because Solidarity was not prepared for active resistance

  1. Solving the Antibiotic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gerard D

    2015-02-13

    Antibiotics are essential for both treating and preventing infectious diseases. Paradoxically, despite their importance as pillars of modern medicine, we are in danger of losing antibiotics because of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms throughout all pathogenic microbes. This fact, coupled with an inability to bring new drugs to market at a pace that matches resistance, has resulted in a crisis of global proportion. Solving this crisis requires the actions of many stakeholders, but chemists, chemical biologists, and microbiologists must drive the scientific innovation that is required to maintain our antibiotic arsenal. This innovation requires (1) a deep understanding of the evolution and reservoirs of resistance; (2) full knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic action and resistance; (3) the discovery of chemical and genetic probes of antibiotic action and resistance; (4) the integration of systems biology into antibiotic discovery; and (5) the discovery of new antimicrobial chemical matter. Addressing these pressing scientific gaps will ensure that we can meet the antibiotic crisis with creativity and purpose.

  2. Nivolumab induced myxedema crisis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Uqba; Rizvi, Humaira; Sano, Dahlia; Chiu, Jane; Hadid, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treatment with nivolumab presented with diffuse facial and tongue swelling, slurred speech, depressed mentation, fatigue and weakness. Initial evaluation revealed severe hypothyroidism with thyroid stimulating hormone of 237 micro Unit/mL (Normal Reference range: 0.27-4.20 micro unit/mL) and undetectable free T4. Patient was diagnosed with nivolumab induced myxedema crisis. She was treated successfully with levothyroxine with complete resolution of her symptoms. Nivolumab was safely restarted once the symptoms of myxedema resolved. Nivolumab can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies including thyroiditis, hypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus. High index of suspicion and periodic measurement of thyroid function tests are recommended in patients receiving nivolumab therapy. Our case also suggests that once the myxedema crisis is treated and symptoms are resolved, nivolumab can be safely re-challenged.

  3. The Harambee Institutes of Technology in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Judith L.

    1981-01-01

    After providing background information on Kenya, examines the history of the country's educational system. Describes the administrative and pedagogical organization and goals of the Harambee Institutes of Technology, designed to train middle-level technicians. Discusses the institutes' financial support problems and issues faced in adapting the…

  4. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  5. Curriculum Unit: Kenya and Tanzania, Tourist Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This curriculum guide is designed to enable teachers and ninth grade students to develop a clearer understanding of the countries of Kenya and Tanzania and the economic needs of their citizens. A pretest-posttest examination with 20 true or false questions, 2 essay questions, and a list of 50 vocabulary words is provided. Brief descriptions of the…

  6. Multilingual Education in Kenya: Debunking the Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwenjo, Daniel Ochieng

    2012-01-01

    Arguments that have been advanced against multilingual education in Kenya and Africa in general are not new. Most post-colonial African governments have stuck to the pre-colonial education policies which have no relevance to the present day Africa and were, at best, guided by the interests of the colonial power. Unfortunately, most of the claims…

  7. The Current Status of the Kenya Capsian.

    PubMed

    Wilshaw, Alex

    East Africa is home to a rich array of stone-tool traditions that span human prehistory. It is unsurprising, therefore, that the region attracted pioneer prehistorians in the early twentieth century, including L. S. B. Leakey, E. J. Wayland and T. P. O'Brien, who created the first cultural framework for East African prehistory during the 1930s. Although aspects of this framework remain relevant today, others have become misunderstood relics of an old classification system that hinders current research. This is particularly evident in the classification of a Later Stone Age (LSA) culture - the Kenya (East African) Aurignacian, later known as Kenya (East African) Capsian. Although this cultural entity was redressed during the 1970s and 1980s and redefined as the Eburran industry, there is still mystique surrounding the current status of the Kenya Capsian, its original scope and definition, the relationship with the Eburran and its position within a modern understanding of the East African LSA. This is largely due to paradigmatic shifts in researcher attitudes, leading to the use of the Eburran as a false proxy. It is necessary now to completely remove the term Kenya Capsian as an indication of similarity among the different LSA technologies. However, there also needs to be less emphasis on the importance of the Eburran and recognition that it is just one example of a multitude of diverse localised LSA industries. This will open the way for future research into the LSA and facilitate our greater understanding of recent prehistory in East Africa.

  8. Sharing Special Education Strategies in Rural Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamberger, Cynthia T.

    2014-01-01

    As a former special education teacher at the elementary, middle and high school levels, many unique and complex learning situations were encountered. The author, who was a junior faculty member on her initial trip to Kenya, experienced a very challenging, yet rewarding, learning opportunity with teachers gathered in a community located in rural…

  9. Tracking and tracing tobacco products in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana

    2017-04-29

    This report evaluates the effectiveness of various measures to control the size of illicit cigarette trade in Kenya. It is based on a literature review, a review of conference proceedings/materials, online searches, and analyses of data from the National Statistical Office of Kenya, ERC, and Euromonitor. I used both published and grey literature, official government reports, and online news articles. In response to the presence of illicit cigarettes in the market in the early 2000s, Kenya adopted numerous measures to reduce tobacco tax evasion, with varying degrees of success. The latest solution involving a tracking and tracing system accompanied by electronic cargo monitoring of export seems to be the most effective, as it reduced the size of the illicit cigarette market and increased tax revenue. In addition, it seems to be more resistant to tampering. The experience of Kenya highlights the importance of consistency and comprehensiveness of the system addressing tax evasion, because piecemeal measures have only short-term effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The HIV and AIDS Tribunal of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Established under Section 25 of the HIV Prevention and Control Act of 2006, the HIV and AIDS Tribunal of Kenya is the only HIV-specific statutory body in the world with the mandate to adjudicate cases relating to violations of HIV-related human rights. Yet, very limited research has been done on this tribunal. Based on findings from a desk research and semi-structured interviews of key informants conducted in Kenya, this article analyzes the composition, mandate, procedures, practice, and cases of the tribunal with the aim to appreciate its contribution to the advancement of human rights in the context of HIV. It concludes that, after a sluggish start, the HIV and AIDS Tribunal of Kenya is now keeping its promise to advance the human rights of people living with and affected by HIV in Kenya, notably through addressing barriers to access to justice, swift ruling, and purposeful application of the law. The article, however, highlights various challenges still affecting the tribunal and its effectiveness, and cautions about the replication of this model in other jurisdictions without a full appraisal. PMID:27781008

  11. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  12. Relationship Transitions among Youth in Urban Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shelley; Kabiru, Caroline; Mathur, Rohini

    2010-01-01

    The process of courtship and marriage in sub-Saharan Africa has changed remarkably. These changes, however, have received scant attention because recent research has focused on adolescent relationships' links to HIV/AIDS rather than to marriage. Drawing on detailed reports of 1,365 romantic and sexual partnerships from youths in Kisumu, Kenya, we…

  13. Developing a Nursing Database System in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Patricia L; Vindigni, Stephen M; Arudo, John; Waudo, Agnes N; Kamenju, Andrew; Ngoya, Japheth; Oywer, Elizabeth O; Rakuom, Chris P; Salmon, Marla E; Kelley, Maureen; Rogers, Martha; St Louis, Michael E; Marum, Lawrence H

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial findings, and implications of a national nursing workforce database system in Kenya. Principal Findings Creating a national electronic nursing workforce database provides more reliable information on nurse demographics, migration patterns, and workforce capacity. Data analyses are most useful for human resources for health (HRH) planning when workforce capacity data can be linked to worksite staffing requirements. As a result of establishing this database, the Kenya Ministry of Health has improved capability to assess its nursing workforce and document important workforce trends, such as out-migration. Current data identify the United States as the leading recipient country of Kenyan nurses. The overwhelming majority of Kenyan nurses who elect to out-migrate are among Kenya's most qualified. Conclusions The Kenya nursing database is a first step toward facilitating evidence-based decision making in HRH. This database is unique to developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Establishing an electronic workforce database requires long-term investment and sustained support by national and global stakeholders. PMID:17489921

  14. Relationship Transitions among Youth in Urban Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shelley; Kabiru, Caroline; Mathur, Rohini

    2010-01-01

    The process of courtship and marriage in sub-Saharan Africa has changed remarkably. These changes, however, have received scant attention because recent research has focused on adolescent relationships' links to HIV/AIDS rather than to marriage. Drawing on detailed reports of 1,365 romantic and sexual partnerships from youths in Kisumu, Kenya, we…

  15. Broadcasting Development and Research in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldevin, G. O.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the development and use of educational broadcasting, notably radio, in Kenya since its independence. Published and unpublished reports, a 1978 survey, numerous interviews with educational radio and television officials, mass media seminars, and field visits to schools and broadcast facilities are used to analyze the major projects. (CHC)

  16. Assessment of quality and relevance of curricula development in health training institutions: a case study of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mumbo, Hazel M; Kinaro, Joyce W

    2015-08-13

    The World Health Organization lists Kenya among African countries experiencing health workforce crisis catalysed through immigration, underproduction, inconsistent quality of production and unequal distribution. Strengthening health training institutions to increase production of high-quality health workers is acknowledged as a measure to mitigate the crisis.IntraHealth International's USAID-funded FUNZOKenya Project (2012-2017) undertook an assessment to identify the bottlenecks to increasing the number and quality of pre-service graduates in Kenya. The assessment, a cross-sectional descriptive study, collected data through structured respondent interviews among faculty, students in health training institutions, key informants and desk review. The assessment purposively selected 14 institutions from 18 institutions identified for initial collaboration with the project towards strengthening health workforce training. The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) application helped analyse quantitative data and quotes used to illustrate perceptions on the quality of curricula.The findings revealed major gaps in quality and adequacy of curricula in the training institutions. A national standard framework to guide curricula review process is lacking. Further, curricula did not adequately prepare students for clinical placement, as most failed to directly respond to national health needs. The study recommended reviews of curricula to ensure their responsiveness to emerging issues in the health sector, the formation of curriculum committees to review curricula, development of official curricula review standards and an integrated mechanism to disseminate policies and guidelines.

  17. Civil unrest and birthweight: an exploratory analysis of the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Prata, Ndola; Lahiff, Maureen; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-05-01

    For decades, Africa has been plagued by political and ethnic conflict, the health ramifications of which are often not investigated. A crisis occurred recently in Kenya following the 2007 presidential election. Ethnic violence ensued, targeting the incumbent President Kibaki's Kikuyu people. The violence occurred primarily in Nairobi and the Rift Valley of Kenya. We sought to examine the association between exposure to the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis and birthweight. Using the 2008/2009 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), we compared birthweights of infants in utero or not yet conceived during the 15 months after the political turmoil following the 2007 presidential election (exposed) to those who were born before the crisis (unexposed). There were 663 "exposed" and 687 "unexposed" infants. Multivariate regression was used. We examined the possibility of two-way and three-way interactions between exposure status, ethnicity (Kikuyu versus non-Kikuyu), and region (violent region versus not). Overall, exposure to the Kenyan Crisis was associated with lower birthweight. Kikuyu women living in a violent region who were exposed during their 2nd trimester had the greatest difference in birthweight in comparison to all unexposed infants: 564.4g lower (95% CI 285.1, 843.6). Infants of Kikuyu exposed during the 2nd trimester and living in a violent region weighed 603.6g less (95% CI 333.6, 873.6) than Kikuyu infants born during the unexposed period. Political unrest may have implications for the birthweight of infants, particularly among targeted populations. Given the adverse sequelae associated with lowered birthweight, these results suggest that particular attention should be paid to pregnant women and targeted ethnic groups following such events.

  18. Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    This guide offers suggestions to college administrators for dealing with a variety of emergency or crisis situations that could affect a community college's effectiveness. The authors used the Institute for Crisis Management's (ICM) four types of crises in higher education as the framework for the guide. The four types of crises are: (1) sudden;…

  19. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism).

  20. School Buildings in Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

  1. A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

  2. A Crisis of Legendary Proportions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)

  3. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  4. Crisis Intervention: A Model Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Clyde H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A model workshop for training campus personnel in crisis intervention skills is described. This workshop combined theoretical presentations with interventions in crises simulated by student actors and actresses. The crisis interventions were videotaped and processed. Problems and issues that arose are discussed. (Author)

  5. School Buildings in Today's Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…

  6. Thyrotoxic crisis presenting with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, R D S S; Luke, W A N V; Sebastiampillai, B S; Gunathilake, M P M L; Premaratna, R

    2016-06-23

    Thyrotoxic crisis is a medical emergency requiring early diagnosis and urgent management, which can be challenging due to its diverse clinical presentations. While common presentations include fever, sweating, palpitations, tremors and confusion, presence of jaundice is rare. We report a 35-year-old male who presented with jaundice due to cholestasis along with other features of thyrotoxic crisis due to Graves' disease. He had a good clinical recovery with resolution of cholestasis following treatment for thyrotoxic crisis. Jaundice can be a rare manifestation of thyrotoxic crisis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when other clinical features of thyrotoxic crisis are present. However secondary causes of jaundice should be looked into and excluded.

  7. The UN in crisis?

    PubMed

    Anstee, M J

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations (UN), the principal role of which is dealing with crises, has been in almost perpetual crisis since its foundation. The situation has become worse in the 1990s, a time when the need for an effective UN has been greater than ever, to cope with issues such as climate-change, pollution and the consequences of globalization. The current crisis has various aspects. Politically there have been widely publicized failures in peacekeeping, largely due to the Security Council being a body of compromise, while successes in peacekeeping have been largely ignored. In the economic and social field, influence has passed to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Development aid has plummeted, despite its key role in peace and security, and so an integrated approach to development and security is urgently needed. The UN has been constantly under-funded, with the failure of the United States (US) to pay its dues a key factor. Reform of the UN is vital, but the vested interests of member states make root-and-branch reform virtually impossible. Public pressure for reform can come from non-governmental organizations, perhaps coordinated through the Internet.

  8. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  9. The malpractice liability crisis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, R James; Smith, John J

    2004-01-01

    Most medical malpractice cases are tried under the civil tort of negligence and are often triggered by adverse outcomes. These proceedings are aimed primarily at determining whether the conduct of a health care provider was reasonable. Such legal actions have mostly been subject to state jurisdiction. Increasingly, a number of factors are converging that are threatening the continued practice of medicine in some states and hence patients' access to care. These include higher amounts of monetary damages awarded to successful plaintiffs, consequent rising malpractice premiums, and the threatened economic insolvency of medical liability insurance carriers as a result of the broader economic downturn. The result is a serious public health dilemma. The national scope of the problem has been considered a crisis, which has prompted unprecedented federal legislative proposals directed toward providing new and preemptive parameters for capitated noneconomic damages, restrictions on certain civil procedures affecting lawsuit outcomes, and methods for attorney compensation, which some states have either not previously addressed or found unconstitutional. A survey of different states' problems and common issues should assist the reader in understanding the nature of the crisis and proposed solutions.

  10. Kenya and UNESCO-IHP Coordinated research Projects on Water Resources Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omondi, C. J.; Mbugua, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The 2011-2012 Horn of Africa drought crisis affected Kenya, resulting in destruction of livelihoods and weakening of traditional drought coping mechanisms and reduced capacities for humanitarian agencies. In response to this catastrophe and in line with the Nairobi Declaration of the Heads of States Summit regarding the crisis, and building on the experience and expertise of its International Hydrological programme, UNESCO launched the Groundwater Resources Investigation for Drought Mitigation in Africa Programme (GRIDMAP). Through GRIDMAP the Turkana groundwater Survey was implemented. The approach comprised of integrating existing ancillary field data, satellite imagery and ground-truthing. High resolution maps identifying groundwater occurrence, soil textures and recharge areas were constructed. Exploratory wells were drilled in some of the identified aquifers.A network of shallow aquifers was identified to spread across the area, only hidden by a few meters of the overburden below the surface. Presently 5 boreholes have been drilled within this aquifer and the average yield per borehole is about 80cu m/hour. The large paleo lake Lotikipi Basin aquifer covers a surface of 4146sq.km and hosts over 248 BCM in its 3-km deep graben structure. These deep aquifer-bearing structures comprise highly permeable Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine deposits interlayed with volcanic ash layers reworked by nearby rivers. Groundwater in these aquifers is partly static and partly dynamic in the graben-like structures. In view of these findings, the Government of Kenya and UNESCO Nairobi office have signed a cooperative framework agreement in May 2015 to continue with these groundwater assessments in a phased approach but eventually to cover the whole country. In addition and following UNESCO-IHP strategic plan-VIII: Water Security: Responses to Local, Regional, and Global Challenges (2014-2021) under theme 2: Groundwater in a changing environment, Kenya and Tanzania

  11. [Reforms and demographic crisis].

    PubMed

    Velichkovskiĭ, B T

    2002-01-01

    During reformation years all basic medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes in Russia. Since 1992 there has been a steady-state decrease in the population due to the fact that mortality rates are extremely greater than birth ones. In 2001, the Russian population reduced in number by nearly a million. The birth rates are twice less than that requires for a simple reproduction of generations. Extremely high death rates remain among the population, in able-bodied males. The main reasons for the demographic crisis are the negative consequences of the implemented reforms rather than the transition from traditional to the new present-day reproduction of the population. It is problematic now to correct the situation via active migration of Russian-speaking persons. This requires enormous funds to provide comers with jobs and dwelling. It is unreal to diminish annual departure of 100 thousand persons, mainly young educated professionals from the country, though it is joust not only a demographic, but a strategic problem. In 2001 there was a some rise in birth rates. But this is the most illusive way of solving the demographic crisis. Just in the USSR, the high educational level of the population, the socioeconomic emancipation of females and progress in medicine gave rise to the transition to the present-day reproduction of the population, which is characterized by low birth and death rates. So the population is unlikely to be replenished by high birth rates. The main way of overcoming the demographic crisis is to reduce mortality and not to allow young people to die prematurely. For this it is necessary to know the biological mechanisms responsible for extremely high mortality. It is most likely to be due to breakdown in the dynamic stereotype of higher nervous performance, as stated by I. P. Pavlov. Today it is insufficient to control alcoholism, traumatism, and smoking by healthy lifestyle propaganda in order to reduce death rates in Russian. All

  12. Worldwide spreading of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Argyrakis, Panos; Rozenblat, Céline; Tomassini, Marco; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-11-01

    We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between a given pair of countries and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis that originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, such as the recent crisis. Surprisingly, we also show that countries with a much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the k-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of 'centrality' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central ones. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12, only six are large economies, while the other six are medium/small ones, a result that could not have been otherwise anticipated. Furthermore, we use our model to predict the crisis spreading potential of countries belonging to different shells according to the crisis magnitude.

  13. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  14. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  15. Energy Diversity and Development in Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    and is expected to grow. This excessive demand for wood fuel continues to lead to deforestation , forest fragmentation, and land degradation, and...electricity generating capacity currently available. The project is of significant strate- gic benefit to Kenya and, at a cost of KSh75 billion ($893...the most wide- spread source of energy in the rural areas. It is the major cause of deforestation , with great adverse effects on the environment and

  16. Area Handbook Series Kenya, A Country Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    were srmall undertakings, the first producing onions and chili peppers , the second essentially a pilot cot- ton-growing project. Their operations have...protested to the Kenyans about the activities of Ugandan refugees in Kenya attached to the anti -Obote Uganda Freedom Move- ment (UFM). The Kenyan government...Development-Political Participation and Evolu- than-The Mau Mau Emergency-The Resumption of Afican Political Activity -Development of the Independence Con- I

  17. National Food Strategy: Kenya’s Approach to the Problem of Feeding the Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Nestle, Switzerland Ivory Coast COCOA PRODUCTS: Cadbury Schweppes, UK Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria Gill & Duffus, UK Ghana Interfood, Switzerland Ivory Coast...Japan Kenya, Ghana, Mauritius Kellogg’s, USA Somalia SOFT DRINKS CONCENTRATES: Beecham, UK Nigeria Cadbury Schweppes, UK Zambia, Zimbabwe Lonrho...CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS: Cadbury Schweppes, UK Kenya, Tanzania Nestle, Switzerland Ivory Coast Standard Brands, USA Zimbabwe Wrigley, USA Kenya BEER: Allied

  18. Unrelieved pain: a crisis.

    PubMed

    Sessle, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Despite many recent advances in the past 40 years in the understanding of pain mechanisms, and in pain diagnosis and management, considerable gaps in knowledge remain, with chronic pain present in epidemic proportions in most countries. It is often unrelieved and is associated with significant socioeconomic burdens. Several opportunities and approaches to address this crisis are identified in the present article. Most crucial is the need to increase pain awareness, enhance pain education, improve access to pain care and increase pain research resources. Given the variability among countries in health care policies and programs, resources and educational programs, many of the approaches and strategies outlined will need to be tailored to each country's socioeconomic and educational situation.

  19. The Role of Social Media in Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way: an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR ...The Role of Social Media in Crisis Agenda • Contributors List • Definitions • Lessons From Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way...an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR + Platform and Services • Conclusions Best Paper Award Paper

  20. Partnerships creating postgraduate family medicine in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pust, Ronald; Dahlman, Bruce; Khwa-Otsyula, Barasa; Armstrong, Janice; Downing, Raymond

    2006-10-01

    Culminating a decade-long process, the first family medicine residency program in Kenya, among the first in Africa outside Nigeria and South Africa, was launched in 2005. Three diverse stakeholders are collaborating in their individual and joint missions: Moi University Faculty of Health Sciences (MUFHS), educating medical students to serve rural Kenyans; the Institute of Family Medicine (Infa-Med), a church hospital-based non-governmental organization aiming to introduce family medicine in Kenya; and the Ministry of Health (MoH), working to create an efficient government health care workforce for 32 million Kenyans. MUFHS brings central facilities, enthusiastic academic leadership, and long-term vision. Infa-Med contributes start-up resources, expatriate family medicine faculty, and well-established hospitals for training. MoH is giving political support to the new specialty as well as scholarships to MoH medical officers entering the 3-year residency program leading to the degree of Master of Medicine in Family Health. Among the lessons learned through this process are the importance of melding the missions of all partners, of integrating clinical with community care of the underserved, and of deriving curriculum from African and international evidence on how to marshal available resources to meet Kenya's national needs. Opportunities continue for internal and international collaboration.

  1. Children of Kenya face serious survival challenges.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Survey findings pointing to the worsening health situation for children in Kenya that were highlighted during the National Dissemination Seminar for the 1998 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). The survey indicates that currently, 1 in 9 Kenyan children does not live to his or her 5th birthday. Under-five mortality stands at 112 deaths per 1000 live births, a 24% increase over the last decade. The high prevalence of childhood mortality is associated with a short preceding birth interval, a low level of maternal education, and rural location (under-five mortality is 23% higher in rural than in urban areas). Moreover, the risk of children dying varies greatly across provinces. A comparison between the results of the 1993 and 1998 KDHS also indicates recent setbacks in the fight against vaccine preventable diseases. Full vaccination coverage has fallen from 79% in 1993 to 65% in 1998. One of the more positive findings is the continuing decline in total fertility rate from 8.1 children per woman in the mid-1970s to current levels of 4.7 children per woman. In addition, knowledge and use of family planning has continued to rise in Kenya. Lastly, participants in the seminar also discussed the need for further dissemination of findings and further analysis of projects.

  2. The Impending Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raymond L.; Burgess, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    When you are ill and consult a physician for his or her expertise, many times laboratory testing is part of the clinical workup. This testing is critical to the physician’s ability to diagnose the patient’s condition. What if testing was not available … because there was no one to do the testing? Although seemingly far-fetched, this scenario could play itself out in the next ten years due to an impending manpower crisis in laboratory medicine. The profession of Medical Technology, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is experiencing a shortage of qualified individuals for a variety of reasons – not the least of which is the closure of almost 70% of the schools teaching this critical profession. Health care workers (HCW) rely on accurate and timely clinical laboratory results in order to make decisions for their patients. Because ∼ 70% of patient care decisions are based on clinical laboratory results, it is important to have a well-trained supply of laboratory professionals. This article will give an overview of the situation and the possible causes of this shortage, and pose challenges to our profession as to how this crisis can be averted. Visibility of this profession must be a prime focus of this effort in order for the population in general to be aware of the role Clinical Laboratory Scientists play in the health care consortium. This effort should begin early in the educational process, potentially as early as Middle School (junior high school), bringing awareness of the profession not only to students but to educators as well. PMID:23653714

  3. Unresolved crisis in medical education.

    PubMed

    Monif, G R; Severin, M J

    1994-01-01

    A crisis exists in medical education. Changes in methodology have diverted attention from synthesis to mass accumulation of factual data. The response to this crisis has been largely focused on a shell game involving new pathways and curriculum changes without addressing the critical issue of what constitutes education. The ultimate problem in medical education is a crisis of leadership. Until education is given a priority status and the obligations to teach on the part of medical educators and to learn on the part of students are translated into a creative policy by those who can lead, the wheels of learning will continue to spin without significant progress.

  4. Success factors for community-based natural resource management (CBNRM): lessons from Kenya and Australia.

    PubMed

    Measham, Thomas G; Lumbasi, Jared A

    2013-09-01

    Recent concerns over a crisis of identity and legitimacy in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) have emerged following several decades of documented failure. A substantial literature has developed on the reasons for failure in CBNRM. In this paper, we complement this literature by considering these factors in relation to two successful CBNRM case studies. These cases have distinct differences, one focusing on the conservation of hirola in Kenya on community-held trust land and the other focusing on remnant vegetation conservation from grazing pressure on privately held farm land in Australia. What these cases have in common is that both CBNRM projects were initiated by local communities with strong attachments to their local environments. The projects both represent genuine community initiatives, closely aligned to the original aims of CBNRM. The intrinsically high level of "ownership" held by local residents has proven effective in surviving many challenges which have affected other CBNRM projects: from impacts on local livelihoods to complex governance arrangements involving non-government organizations and research organizations. The cases provide some signs of hope among broader signs of crisis in CBNRM practice.

  5. Success Factors for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM): Lessons from Kenya and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measham, Thomas G.; Lumbasi, Jared A.

    2013-09-01

    Recent concerns over a crisis of identity and legitimacy in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) have emerged following several decades of documented failure. A substantial literature has developed on the reasons for failure in CBNRM. In this paper, we complement this literature by considering these factors in relation to two successful CBNRM case studies. These cases have distinct differences, one focusing on the conservation of hirola in Kenya on community-held trust land and the other focusing on remnant vegetation conservation from grazing pressure on privately held farm land in Australia. What these cases have in common is that both CBNRM projects were initiated by local communities with strong attachments to their local environments. The projects both represent genuine community initiatives, closely aligned to the original aims of CBNRM. The intrinsically high level of "ownership" held by local residents has proven effective in surviving many challenges which have affected other CBNRM projects: from impacts on local livelihoods to complex governance arrangements involving non-government organizations and research organizations. The cases provide some signs of hope among broader signs of crisis in CBNRM practice.

  6. Growing Up in Kenya: Rural Schooling and Girls. Rethinking Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungai, Anne M.

    This book examines the education of rural girls in Kenya and reports on a study of factors influencing girls' educational success or failure. Three chapters provide background on traditional values and practices affecting girls' education; describe Kenya's education system, including preprimary, primary (grades 1-8), secondary, university,…

  7. Instructional Supervision in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzare, Zachariah

    2012-01-01

    This article reports some findings of study regarding practices and procedures of internal instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Kenya. The findings are part of a large-scale project undertaken in Kenya to determine the perceptions of headteachers, teachers and senior government education officers regarding the practices of…

  8. Instructional Supervision in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzare, Zachariah

    2012-01-01

    This article reports some findings of study regarding practices and procedures of internal instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Kenya. The findings are part of a large-scale project undertaken in Kenya to determine the perceptions of headteachers, teachers and senior government education officers regarding the practices of…

  9. Globalisation and Higher Education Funding Policy Shifts in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies, examines and discusses higher education funding policy shifts that have taken place in Kenya. The paper argues that even though Kenya's higher education funding policy shifts, from free higher education to cost-sharing, and privatisation and commercialisation, are (to a greater extent) products of the country's encounter…

  10. Growing Up in Kenya: Rural Schooling and Girls. Rethinking Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungai, Anne M.

    This book examines the education of rural girls in Kenya and reports on a study of factors influencing girls' educational success or failure. Three chapters provide background on traditional values and practices affecting girls' education; describe Kenya's education system, including preprimary, primary (grades 1-8), secondary, university,…

  11. Early Childhood Education Programs in Kenya: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nganga, Lydiah W.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood education in Kenya serves the critical purpose of preparing young children for primary education. Notwithstanding the associated benefits for society as a whole, the government of Kenya is involved minimally. Indeed, parents are responsible for planning, developing and managing different early childhood programs. Consequently,…

  12. Towards a Practical Proposal for Multilingualism in Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduor, Jane A. N.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes multilingualism in education, where indigenous languages are used alongside English as the media of instruction in schools to eventually promote their use in Kenya. It begins by stating Kenya's language policy in education. It then states the responses given by some primary and secondary school teachers who were interviewed…

  13. Crisis Intervention in an Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaufarb, Herbert; Levine, Jules

    1972-01-01

    This article describes the crisis intervention techniques used by the San Fernanco Valley Child Guidance Clinic to help families deal with the traumatic events experienced in the 1971 earthquake in California. (Author)

  14. Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

  15. Technology Education Tackles Energy Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)

  16. On the crisis of conscience.

    PubMed

    Lachter, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the crisis of conscience as portrayed in the biblical story of Abraham and Isaac. The perspective of allegory allows intense emotion to be contained, and placed in a socio-cultural context, which may work against bloodshed.

  17. Does a quarterlife crisis exist?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Nicole E; Mebert, Carolyn J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined quarterlife crisis, defined in the popular press as an identity crisis that leaves recent college graduates depressed, anxious, and full of doubt. To determine if a unique crisis exists, 4 groups of young adults (recent high school [n = 23] and college [n = 117] graduates in the workforce, present undergraduate [n = 75], and graduate [n = 57] students) completed self-report measures assessing identity development, future time perspective, social support, coping, depression, anxiety, and job and life satisfaction. No support was found for a quarterlife crisis among these 4 groups. Working high school graduates displayed the highest anxiety, followed by present undergraduates. Depression was predicted by family support and identity commitment. Job satisfaction was associated with income and support from friends. Life satisfaction was associated with income, social support from friends and family, and identity commitment.

  18. Institutional Characteristics Influencing Bachelor of Science Nursing Student Performance in the Nursing Council of Kenya Licensure Examinations in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanga, Anne Asiko; Ogur, John Okoth; Arudo, John

    2017-01-01

    Kenya has seen a paradigm shift in nursing education sector recording high rates of enrolment of students to training while their performance in Nursing Council of Kenya (NCK) examination remained variable and unpredictable. This study evaluated performance of BSc nursing students in NCK examinations by examining institutional characteristics in…

  19. Pulmonary Edema in Myasthenic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Uttara Swati; Arulneyam, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    We report a previously asymptomatic 50-year-old lady who came with myasthenic crisis as initial presentation of myasthenia gravis. She developed pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration and had ischemic changes in ECG and left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. She improved with diuretics, dobutamine, and fluid restriction alone. This is the first report in English-language medical literature describing the association between myasthenic crisis and likely takotsubo cardiomyopathy-related pulmonary edema following intravenous immunoglobulin administration. PMID:24829832

  20. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  1. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma.

  2. Coral reefs in crisis.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the crisis facing reefs throughout the world and the struggle to save them. Coral reefs, one of the biological wonders of the world, are among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on earth, having been evolved between 200 and 450 million years ago. Located mostly in the Pacific region, most established coral reefs are now dead and only the upper layer is covered by a thin changeable skin of living coral. Reefs, over the years, have been the main source of animal protein for over 1 billion people in Asia. Countries near the coastlines, which relied on the seas, have resorted to dynamite fishing, poisoning and other illegal and dangerous techniques. Overpopulation and pollution has caused the deteriorating conditions of the 600,000 sq. km of coral reefs worldwide. Despite these conditions, the government has ignored this problem as they struggle to develop their economies at the expense of common resources. In addition, this article narrates the efforts that are exerted by governments in promoting coral reef protection and management of these coastal resources, setting the Apo Island in the Philippines as an example of good management and sustainability.

  3. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  4. The freshwater biodiversity crisis.

    PubMed

    Brautigam, A

    1999-01-01

    This article concerns the threat on freshwater ecosystems, which harbor a disproportionate amount of the world's biodiversity. In many parts of the world, freshwater ecosystems are already degraded from a range of human activities, including water extraction, pollution and physical alteration. The data that showed a biodiversity crisis in ecosystems included species loss and breakdown of the ecological processes and resources. Furthermore, several case studies were cited to illustrate the status of freshwater diversity. Numerous reasons for freshwater biodiversity loss were mentioned, which included pollution from pesticides and agricultural and mine run-off, and physical alteration through channelization and impoundments that affected the hydrology and benthic habitat. Despite the successful establishment of institutions to conserve water birds and wetland habitats, there was a lower priority for conservation of freshwater biodiversity in terms of species and habitats. This bias has had important and serious implications for allocation of resources to increase the knowledge and understanding of freshwater ecosystems, as well as for the adequacy of impact assessments for development projects affecting them.

  5. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nguta, J M; Mbaria, J M; Gakuya, D W; Gathumbi, P K; Kiama, S G

    2010-03-24

    Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented the species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus (Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret. (Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Senecio syringitolius O. Hoffman. (Compositae), Ocimum suave Willd (Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further

  6. Nutrition Transition in Rural Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keding, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper. The literature review revealed an average of 10% of children in urban areas of Kenya and Tanzania with overweight and obesity, which is an alarming trend, and it is suggested that interventions need to start not only at school but also with adolescent girls and pregnant women to target the '1,000-day window'. From own study data, dietary patterns were generated that included a 'purchase' pattern dominated by bought and processed foods, indicating a possible nutrition transition even in the rural areas of both countries. Vegetable and especially fruit consumption was low in both countries. In addition, in Kenya, study participants exceeded the suggested maximum level of sugar consumption per day, which will most likely contribute to increasing levels in overweight and obesity prevalence and other noncommunicable diseases in general. As sugar was mainly consumed in combination with black tea, next to eating habits, changing drinking habits is also an important part of the nutrition transition and needs to receive more attention. A 'healthy eating at school and at home strategy' is suggested, which needs the support of both schools and parents/caregivers. In general, to take countermeasures against the negative trends of nutrition transition, joint efforts from all players in the field - not only those in nutrition, health and medicine, but also those in education and agriculture

  7. Crisis at the summit.

    PubMed

    Parsons, George D; Pascale, Richard T

    2007-03-01

    An unrecognized affliction is striking certain gifted performers at the top of their game. Its cause, paradoxically, is success itself. These stars, who thrive on conquering new challenges, can lose their bearings and question their purpose once a job has been mastered. A vague dissatisfaction gives way to confusion and then to inner turmoil. Left unattended, this summit syndrome can derail promising careers. The syndrome has three phases. In the approach phase, when most of the challenges of a current job have been met, sufferers tend to push harder in a vain attempt to recapture the adrenaline rush of the climb. Then, in the plateauing phase, when virtually all the challenges have been conquered, these individuals, who are incapable of coasting, bear down to try to produce ever more stellar results, but to less effect and greater dissatisfaction. This leads to the terminal descending phase, when performance slips noticeably. As their superstar status fades, they jump ship, accept demotions, or take lateral transfers. It's a terrible waste, for if the syndrome is recognized, steps can be taken before performance slips to dispel the confusion and set the stage for productive growth to the next assignment. There are four parts to this process: First, understand your "winning formula"--the characteristic way you approach a situation--and the vital part it plays in feeling stale or losing your edge. Second, reconnect with your core purpose in life. Third, recast your current, or future, job to better align your inner aspirations with the external requirements of your work. And fourth, create a developmental path by honing a handful of core leadership competencies. None of this is easy, but for talented individuals--and the organizations that rely on them--the vaccine of preventive awareness is far better than gambling on an after-the-fact cure once the crisis is full-blown.

  8. Hypercalcemic crisis: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shazia; Kuraganti, Gayatri; Steenkamp, Devin

    2015-03-01

    Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic perturbation. However, hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency, with little clinical scientific data to support therapeutic strategy. We review the relevant scientific English literature on the topic and review current management strategies after conducting a PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar search for articles published between 1930 and June 2014 using specific keywords: "hypercalcemic crisis," "hyperparathyroid crisis," "parathyroid storm," "severe primary hyperparathyroidism," "acute hyperparathyroidism," and "severe hypercalcemia" for articles pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment strategies. Despite extensive clinical experience, large and well-designed clinical studies to direct appropriate clinical care are lacking. Nonetheless, morbidity and mortality rates have substantially decreased since early series reported almost universal fatality. Improved outcomes can be attributed to modern diagnostic capabilities, leading to earlier diagnosis, along with the recognition that primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common etiology for hypercalcemic crisis. Hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency that portends excellent outcomes if rapid diagnosis, medical treatment, and definitive surgical treatment are expedited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities.

  10. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  11. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  12. K-12 School Leaders and School Crisis: An Exploration of Principals' School Crisis Competencies and Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    On any given day, principals could find themselves faced with a situation that could define their roles as crisis leaders. This dissertation research offers an exploratory study in the field of crisis response and educational leadership. From experts in the field of crisis response, the author compiled a list of crisis management competencies…

  13. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  14. Initiatives: Kenya. Puppets say it better.

    PubMed

    Mworogo, P

    1996-04-01

    It is taboo in Africa to discuss sexual issues with strangers and even trained family planning providers often feel uncomfortable discussing reproductive health issues with groups of people, especially men. In the wake of the successful use of puppets to teach audiences in South Africa about AIDS, the Family Planning Association of Kenya used puppets to teach men about family planning, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS. Trained puppetry troops now perform regularly in Kenya at male-dominated institutions in Nakuru and Kakamega. The approach has proved highly effective in drawing crowds of men to listen to reproductive health information. Puppetry represents real life, but remains one step removed from the real world. As such, puppets can be used to break down racial, social, and political barriers and stereotypes; they can say more on controversial issues than can a live actor without offending the audience; and they are highly portable and adaptable. Puppets offer the viewer and listener a nonthreatening opportunity to look and laugh at themselves.

  15. Geology and the environment in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathu, E. M.; Davies, T. C.

    1996-11-01

    Kenya is in a unique environmental setting by virtue of its geographical location, range of altitudes and perhaps most importantly, the Great Rift System that traverses it. The country displays virtually every facet of environmental geological phenonmena — seismicity, volcanism, mass-movements, the impact of mining, mineral processing and geothermal energy resources development, soil and beach erosion, desertification, air, water and soil pollution, etc. A significant mass of data on these topics already exists, but it lies scattered in various journals and agency reports, some of which are not readily available to environmental researchers and country-planners. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to highlight some features of geology and the environment in Kenya and to set the scene for the subsequent papers in this issue, which examine more deeply various aspects of the subject. The uniqueness of the country's environmental setting is emphasised throughout, since it gives it a special appeal to geomorphologists, geophysicists, hydrologists and land-use planners. A comprehensive list of references is given at the end of this paper in order to aid the search process of those who seek additional information on areas covered in this review.

  16. Geothermal energy research in Kenya: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tole, Mwakio P.

    1996-11-01

    Geothermal energy for electricity generation is likely to become increasingly important in Kenya in the future. There are numerous centres of thermal activity in Kenya, particularly within the Rift Valley, although aridity and, consequently, availability of water may be a constraint to the development of large scale natural hydrothermal systems. Geothermal resources in the islands of Lake Turkana and those close to other rift lakes deserve further investigation as they do not suffer from the constraints of a shortage of water. The experience gained so far at Oikaria shows that environmental problems can be adequately addressed, though constant monitoring is necessary. H 2S emissions preclude the setting up of permanent residences within about 5 km of the geothermal power stations. Trace elements and radiation from geothermal fluids need to be monitored with respect to their impacts on plants and animals. The impact on the local hydrogeology also requires close observation. Multistage uses of geothermal fluids will greatly increase the benefits derived from this resource.

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey of Samburu district, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nanyingi, Mark O; Mbaria, James M; Lanyasunya, Adamson L; Wagate, Cyrus G; Koros, Kipsengeret B; Kaburia, Humphrey F; Munenge, Rahab W; Ogara, William O

    2008-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical pharmacopoeia is confidently used in disease intervention and there is need for documentation and preservation of traditional medical knowledge to bolster the discovery of novel drugs. The objective of the present study was to document the indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and their extinction threats in Samburu District, Kenya. Methods Field research was conducted in six divisions of Samburu District in Kenya. We randomly sampled 100 consented interviewees stratified by age, gender, occupation and level of education. We collected plant use data through semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus groups discussions. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were collected and deposited at University of Nairobi's botany herbarium. Results Data on plant use from the informants yielded 990 citations on 56 medicinal plant species, which are used to treat 54 different animal and human diseases including; malaria, digestive disorders, respiratory syndromes and ectoparasites. Conclusion The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the study area for treatment of both human and veterinary diseases. The local population has high ethnobotanical knowledge and has adopted sound management conservation practices. The major threatening factors reported were anthropogenic and natural. Ethnomedical documentation and sustainable plant utilization can support drug discovery efforts in developing countries. PMID:18498665

  18. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  19. New approaches to crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Motto, J A

    1979-01-01

    Constant efforts to improve crisis services have led to many innovative programs. Some have proven their feasibility and become established procedures. Others are now in a developing stage and still others represent new approaches. A survey of 50 suicide prevention and crisis services around the world provides evidence of a trend toward a broadening range of services, a more active case-finding approach, greater visibility, increased integration into the community care system, and creative leadership by newer and smaller centers as well as the well-established ones. This is being accomplished without relinquishing the traditional respect for anonymity, ever-present availability, and a nonjudgmental regard for each person's need.

  20. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  1. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  2. The Course and Duration of Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Psychological tests were administered to a crisis group undergoing surgery for cancer and to a comparison group on the night before surgery and thereafter at three-week intervals. Results indicated significant psychological changes only in the crisis group. Duration of crisis was greater than six weeks but less than seven months. (Author)

  3. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  4. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  5. "Regional Crisis": A Simplified Teaching Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, B. David

    A simulation designed for an introductory college-level international politics and comparative foreign policy course is described. Regional Crisis requires student decision-maker diplomats, grouped in teams, to respond to a Middle Eastern crisis that has substantial potential for escalation. In response to an initial crisis scenario, student teams…

  6. Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Haemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    INFECTIOUS DISEASES, KENYA, LABORATORIES, MORTALITY RATES, PUBLIC HEALTH, RATS, RIFT VALLEY FEVER , SURVIVAL(PERSONNEL), THREATS, VETERINARY MEDICINE, WEST AFRICA , YEASTS, YELLOW FEVER , ZAIRE...EPIDEMIOLOGY, *VIRUSES, *VIRUS DISEASES, AFRICA , CONVALESCENCE, DISEASES, ECOLOGY, EQUATORIAL REGIONS, FEVERS , HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS , HUMANS, ILLNESS

  7. Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-30

    Virus Research Centre (VRC) permitting the safe handling of specimens suspected to contain haemorrhagic fever viruses . Incidence and prevalence rates of...in Kenya Research work done in Kenya has shown that three naemorrnagic fever viruses occur in the country. These are Rift Valley Fever Virus , Crimean... viruses are nazardous to culture and handle in conventional type I and two oiohazard hoods. It wds therefore necessary to construct an absolute virus

  8. National Security Implications of 1984 Drought in Kenya.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Jomo 0 13 Kenyatta , told the people that we had to work hard together in order to have progress and prosperity in Kenya. Many outsiders had thought that...Kenya would be in turmoil after independence in 1963, but to their astonishment, Kenyatta led the country to great heights. Furthermore, after his...has the "harambee" and "nyayo" philosophies. If Mzee Kenyatta had not instituted the "harambee" spirit of pulling together, things would probably

  9. Hungry Kids: The Solvable Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felling, Christy

    2013-01-01

    The numbers speak for themselves in terms of the crisis of hunger among kids in the United States: More than 16 million children--one in five--live in households that struggle to put food on the table. Nearly half of all food stamp recipients are children. But, argues Felling, the battle against childhood hunger can be won; the United States has…

  10. Hungry Kids: The Solvable Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felling, Christy

    2013-01-01

    The numbers speak for themselves in terms of the crisis of hunger among kids in the United States: More than 16 million children--one in five--live in households that struggle to put food on the table. Nearly half of all food stamp recipients are children. But, argues Felling, the battle against childhood hunger can be won; the United States has…

  11. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  12. Crisis Debriefing Teams' Manager's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Everett E.

    This guide for crisis debriefing teams (CDTs) in the Aurora public schools (APS) in Colorado is intended to provide immediate guidelines for schools to access trained support to deal with crises (such as serious injury or death) that can affect school communities. It is intended for use by counselors, psychologists, nurses, social workers, and…

  13. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  14. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  15. Technology Use in Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrodicasa, Jeanna

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…

  16. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  17. The Crisis of the Professoriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the academic profession is discussed: its ambivalent situation of having benefitted from postwar expansion of higher education, but of having been content to maintain the status quo. The worldwide nature of the crisis is noted. Available from AAPSS, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104. (MSE)

  18. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed…

  19. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  20. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Crisis in Extramural Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Joel

    2011-01-01

    When "crisis" and "extramural funding" are mentioned, most academics think about problems such as the low percentage of proposals funded by federal agencies (now approaching single digits in many fields) or inadequate indirect-cost recovery rates that fail to reimburse universities for all costs of research. These are great problems draining…

  2. Systematics and the biodiversity crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A Crisis in Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2016

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis in American civic education. Survey after survey shows that recent college graduates are alarmingly ignorant of America's history and heritage. They cannot identify the term lengths of members of Congress, the substance of the First Amendment, or the origin of the separation of powers. They do not know the Father of the…

  4. Addressing the world water crisis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  5. California Faces a Curriculum Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    School administrators in California are getting greater flexibility in how they spend more than $300 million intended for instructional materials, along with encouragement to use some free digital textbooks for high school courses, as a result of cost-cutting measures brought on by the state's budget crisis. Extensive changes to the state's…

  6. The circular migration of smallholders in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bigsten, A

    1996-01-01

    Circular migration is a central phenomenon in the lives of smallholders in East Africa. Many migration decisions are not individual decisions, but rather household decisions in which the household allocates its labor force among activities to maximize household utility. A probit model which incorporates circular migration and takes into account contacts, information, and indivisibilities is used to analyze migration among 763 farm households in the Central and Nyanza provinces of Kenya. Study data are from a 1982 survey. The pull of high urban wages appears to be a far more important determinant of migration decision outcomes than the push of land scarcity, while a strong local nonagricultural economy does not seem to restrict migration. Networks of personal contacts were found to be highly significant determinants of migration. These findings suggest that rural development will probably not reduce the flow of migration.

  7. The eradication of Simulium neavei from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, J. P.; Highton, R. B.; Goiny, H.

    1958-01-01

    S. neavei, the vector of onchocerciasis, has been virtually eradicated from Kenya by larviciding measures in which DDT was used. Only a very small area remains infested and this is in the course of being treated by the Uganda medical authorities as it is part of a much larger focus occurring in that country. An account is given of the various surveys which have been carried out during the last ten years in Nyanza Province, involving 15 000 square miles (about 40 000 km2), and survey techniques are described. An account is given of the eradication measures carried out in North and South Nyanza, and techniques in connexion with dosing and checking operations are described. Costs for both surveys and eradication schemes are given, and minimum requirements for transport are indicated. PMID:13585062

  8. RELATIONSHIP TRANSITIONS AMONG YOUTH IN URBAN KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shelley; Kabiru, Caroline; Mathur, Rohini

    2010-01-01

    The process of courtship and marriage in sub-Saharan Africa has changed remarkably. These changes, however, have received scant attention, as recent research has focused on adolescent relationships’ links to HIV/AIDS rather than to marriage. Drawing on detailed reports of 1,365 romantic and sexual partnerships from youths in Kisumu, Kenya, we find that marital aspirations, school enrollment, emotional attraction, pregnancy, and independence from kin are all predictors of getting engaged or married. Furthermore, though men and women are much more likely to marry partners they believe are sexually exclusive, men who have multiple partners are actually more likely to get married. By focusing on the contemporary process of marriage, this paper offers an alternative portrayal of premarital relationships in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20885992

  9. The Murang'a landslide, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. C.; Nyambok, I. O.

    1993-04-01

    On 15 May 1991, a landslide occurred at Gacharage Village in the Murang'a District of Kenya; it buried a house near the toe of a cliff, killing all eight residents in their sleep. The principal determining factors of the slide were a high, mechanically unstable slope of deeply weathered volcanic soil and a high sorption capacity of the surface soil layer. The slide was triggered by rapid saturation of the soil following a heavy downpour. Based on field investigations and laboratory studies, this paper discusses the physical properties and environmental factors that affected slope stability at Murang'a. It also points out the economic and social impact of landslides in the region and suggests remedial measures.

  10. The basic radiological system experience in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kitonyi, J M

    1993-12-01

    While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

  11. Establishing a One Health office in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mbabu, Murithi; Njeru, Ian; File, Sarah; Osoro, Eric; Kiambi, Stella; Bitek, Austine; Ithondeka, Peter; Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome; Sharif, Shanaaz; Gogstad, Eric; Gakuya, Francis; Sandhaus, Kaitlin; Munyua, Peninah; Montgomery, Joel; Breiman, Robert; Rubin, Carol; Njenga, Kariuki

    2014-01-01

    A One Health (OH) approach that integrates human,animal and environmental approaches to management of zoonotic diseases has gained momentum in the last decadeas part of a strategy to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases. However, there are few examples of howan OH approach can be established in a country. Kenya establishment of an OH office, referred to asthe Zoonotic Disease Unit (ZDU) in 2011. The ZDU bridges theanimal and human health sectors with a senior epidemiologist deployed from each ministry; and agoal of maintaining collaboration at the animal and human health interface towards better prevention and control of zoonoses. The country is adding an ecologist to the ZDU to ensure that environmental risks are adequately addressed in emerging disease control. PMID:25722779

  12. The experiences of women refugees in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, J

    1999-01-01

    This report brings together testimonies of two women refugees from Rwanda and Ethiopia who suffered violations during their countries¿ civil war and during their flight to Kenya. Emphasized in this report is rape, which is a grave violation of women's human rights. Overall, it is noted that the human rights of these women were violated within their countries of origin and in the countries where they sought refuge. These women were separated from their families, and also have witnessed the killings of their parents and other loved ones. From the testimonies, it is clear that rigorous measures must be taken by all States concerned to fulfill their obligation to protect citizens that are enshrined in various human rights instruments, as well as International Humanitarian Law. Moreover, it shows that the UN High Commission for Refugees and the Kenyan government, which is the host country, must do more to promote and protect the rights of refugees.

  13. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  14. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  15. Schoolgirl pregnancy in Kenya: the continuing saga.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A G

    1989-01-01

    This discussion of the results of an October 1988 mini-survey on class enrollments and pregnancy drop-out rates for the year in Kenya, uses data from a March 1988 school girl pregnancy survey. The results of the 1st survey, including drop-out rates for 1985-86 were: 1) between 1985- 87 10,000 girls dropped out of school because of pregnancy; 2) the Harambee secondary schools had the highest drop-out rates; 3) Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces had the highest regional drop-out rates for primary and secondary levels; 4) the exit classes had the highest drop- out rates and 5) drop-outs were older and had poorer academic records than their classmates. 90 schools submitted returns (44 primary and 46 secondary) and included 16,489 girls from Standard 6 to Form 6. Data from the 1985-87 were abstracted for this sub-set of schools and the drop-out rates were re-calculated and compared with those for the 1988 returns. Results demonstrated that drop-out rates increased for both primary and secondary schools in 1988. An estimated 8000 teenage girls dropped out of school because of pregnancy-related reasons. The 16 Harambee secondary schools doubled to 25.1/1000 in 1988 after showing a decline in 1985 and 1987. The most dramatic results were increases in the rates in Central Province (from 5.4 to 15.1/1000) and Nyanza (18.7/1000) with declines in Rift Valley to 9/1000. In spite of all this information, and the known risk factors, nothing is being done to lower the high incidence of teenage pregnancy drop-outs in Kenya. (Author's modified).

  16. Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project: evaluation results.

    PubMed

    Oxford, R L

    1985-01-01

    The Kenya Radio Language Arts Project (RLAP), which has just been completed, documents the effectiveness of interactive radio-based educational instruction. Analyses in the areas of listening, reading, speaking, and writing show that children in radio classrooms consistently scored better than children in nonradio classrooms in every test. An evaluation of the project was conducted with the assistance of the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL). Evaluation results came from a variety of sources, including language tests, observations, interviews, demographic and administrative records, and an attitude survey. A large proportion of the project's students were considerably transient. Only 22% of the total student population of 3908 were "normal progression" students -- that is, they advanced regularly through their education during the life of the project. Students who moved from the area, failed a standard (grade), dropped out, or were otherwise untrackable, comprised the remaining 78% of the total. 7 districts were included in the project. Tests were developed for listening and reading in Standards 1, 2, and 3 and in speaking and writing in Standards 2 and 3. The achievement tests were based on the official Kenya curriculum for those standards, so as to measure achievement against the curriculum. Nearly all the differences were highly significant statistically, with a probability of less than 1 in 1000 that the findings could have occurred by chance. Standard 1 radio students scored nearly 8 points higher than did their counterparts in the control group. Standard 2 and 3 radio students outperformed the control students by 4 points. The radio group consistently outperformed the control group in reading, writing, and speaking. Unstructured interviews and observations were conducted by the RLAP field staff. Overwhelmingly positive attitudes about the project prevailed among project teachers and headmasters. The data demonstrate that RLAP works. In fact, it works so

  17. Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Kenya, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Bitek, Austine; Osoro, Eric; Pieracci, Emily G.; Muema, Josephat; Mwatondo, Athman; Kungu, Mathew; Nanyingi, Mark; Gharpure, Radhika; Njenga, Kariuki; Thumbi, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Zoonotic diseases have varying public health burden and socio-economic impact across time and geographical settings making their prioritization for prevention and control important at the national level. We conducted systematic prioritization of zoonotic diseases and developed a ranked list of these diseases that would guide allocation of resources to enhance their surveillance, prevention, and control. Methods A group of 36 medical, veterinary, and wildlife experts in zoonoses from government, research institutions and universities in Kenya prioritized 36 diseases using a semi-quantitative One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with slight adaptations. The tool comprises five steps: listing of zoonotic diseases to be prioritized, development of ranking criteria, weighting criteria by pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchical process, scoring each zoonotic disease based on the criteria, and aggregation of scores. Results In order of importance, the participants identified severity of illness in humans, epidemic/pandemic potential in humans, socio-economic burden, prevalence/incidence and availability of interventions (weighted scores assigned to each criteria were 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.17 and 0.17 respectively), as the criteria to define the relative importance of the diseases. The top five priority diseases in descending order of ranking were anthrax, trypanosomiasis, rabies, brucellosis and Rift Valley fever. Conclusion Although less prominently mentioned, neglected zoonotic diseases ranked highly compared to those with epidemic potential suggesting these endemic diseases cause substantial public health burden. The list of priority zoonotic disease is crucial for the targeted allocation of resources and informing disease prevention and control programs for zoonoses in Kenya. PMID:27557120

  18. [The crisis of medicine or the antimedicine crisis].

    PubMed

    Foucault, M

    1976-01-01

    In this lecture, Professor Michel Foucault makes an in-depth study of the problems currently afflicting medical institutions and the medical practice. He deals with the thesis set forth by Ivan Illich in his book Medical Nemesis--The expropriation of Health, as well as the 1942 Beveridge Plan, but goes even further back in history to discover the origin of the medical crisis common throughout the world--back to the XVIII century roots of the social practice of medicine. He also describes the phases through which medical activity has passed from then until now and deals with what he calls the political economy of medicine. Finally, he reaches the conclusion that what matters is not so much the present crisis of medicine, which he considers to be a false concept, but the discipline's historical model dating from the XVIII century and serving to determine to what extent it can be modified.

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  2. Malaria, Leishmaniasis and Shistosomiasis Vector Ecology, Transmission, Immunology and Prophylaxis in Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-06

    year at 2 sites in.western Kenya. InKisian. a site on the shores of Lake Victoria containing extensive papyrus swamp, collections included 20,910...Medical Faculty, Nairobi, Kenya. An indigenous adult male from Baringo District, Kenya developed kala- azar. His village lies within foci of kala-azar

  3. Determinants of Secondary School Learners Performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan Sub County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akaranga, Stephen; Simiyu, Patrick Cheben

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, Christian Religious Education is taught and examined by the Kenya National Examinations Council in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education at the end of the four years of Secondary Education cycle. The teaching of this subject in Secondary Schools ensures that learners are offered an opportunity to develop morally and spiritually…

  4. THREE DAY CRISIS RESOLUTION UNIT

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Stephen E.; Ananth, Jambur; Bajwa-Goldsmith, Balbir; Stuller, Sue; Lewis, Cathy; Miller, Milton; Hoel, Noreen; Fernandez, Louise

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper describes a three day crisis resolution unit within the confines of the psychiatric emergency service of a general hospital. It utilizes a crisis model of acute intervention, time limited psychotherapeutic approach combined with family therapy, and psychotropic medications when indicated. 136 consecutive admissions were reviewed, 49% were discharged within 72 hours, and 51 % required further hospitalization. 77% of the patient's discharged had involved families (significant others) in the treatment process,-in comparison with only 28 % family involvement with those patients who needed further hospitalization. This may be even more significant for psychotic patients who were discharged (14/18 family involvement) versus those who needed long hospitalization (13/50 Family involvement). PMID:21927122

  5. Migration, crisis and theoretical conflict.

    PubMed

    Bach, R L; Schraml, L A

    1982-01-01

    The nature of the distinction between the equilibrium and historical-structuralist positions on migration is examined. Theoretical and political differences in the two positions are considered both historically and in the context of the current global economic crisis. The proposal of Wood to focus on households as a strategy for integrating the two perspectives and for achieving a better understanding of migration and social change is discussed.

  6. Trauma surgery: discipline in crisis.

    PubMed

    Green, Steven M

    2009-02-01

    Throughout the past quarter century, there have been slow but dramatic changes in the nature and practice of trauma surgery, and this field increasingly faces potent economic, logistic, political, and workforce challenges. Patients and emergency physicians have much to lose by this budding crisis in our partner discipline. This article reviews the specific issues confronting trauma surgery, their historical context, and the potential directions available to this discipline. Implications of these issues for emergency physicians and for trauma care overall are discussed.

  7. Analytic optimizations in crisis stability

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Second strikes are dominated by submarine launched missiles in the absence of defenses, but shift to aircraft at modest levels of defense. Defenses protect some retaliatory missiles, but not enough to retaliate strongly. With defenses, missiles should be vestigial and could be eliminated without penalty. Then aircraft could also be significantly reduced without impacting stability. The combination of parameters that maximizes cost effectiveness also maximizes midcourse effectiveness and crisis stability. 15 refs., 20 figs.

  8. School Crisis Management Manual: Guidelines for Administrators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judie

    This three-part manual is intended for principals and other administrators responsible for developing and managing school crisis plans. Part 1, preparation for a school crisis, includes sections on the selection and training of members of the school crisis team, steps in developing a school crisis plan, and four crisis scenarios to train team…

  9. Hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Yanhong; Zhao, Liling; Mo, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hyperthyroidism is one of the major clinical causes of hypercalcaemia, however, hyperthyroidism-related hypercalcemic crisis is rare, only 1 case have been reported. The potential mechanisms are still not too clear. It may be related that thyroid hormone stimulate bone turnover, elevate serum calcium, increase urinary and fecal calcium excretion. Patient concerns: A 58-year-old female patient was found to have Graves’ disease, a marked elevated serum calcium level (adjusted serum calcium: 3.74 mmol/L), and reduced parathyroid hormone level. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis. Interventions: Treatment with methimazole to correct the hyperthyroidism and treatment of the patient's hypercalcaemia was achieved by physiological saline, salmon calcitonin and furosemide. Outcomes: After treatment for hypercalcaemia and hyperthyroidism, her symptoms and serum calcium levels quickly returned to normal. Lessons: hyperthyroid-associated hypercalcaemia crisis is rare, however, the diagnosis should pay attention to screening for other diseases caused by hypercalcemia. Timely treatment of hypercalcaemia is a critical step for rapidly control of symptoms, and treatment of hyperthyroidism is beneficial to relief the symptoms and maintain the blood calcium level. PMID:28121960

  10. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-10-08

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs have significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls, and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. A case has also been reported of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a patient with a large ingestion of peppers and chili peppers the day before. We present a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day. This case describes an unusual pattern of arterial hypertensive crisis due to capsaicin.

  11. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  12. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  13. An Evaluation of Crisis Hotline Outcomes. Part 1: Nonsuicidal Crisis Callers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Kleinman, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of telephone crisis services/hotlines, examining proximal outcomes as measured by changes in callers' crisis state from the beginning to the end of their calls to eight centers in the U.S. and intermediate outcomes within 3 weeks of their calls, was evaluated. Between March 2003 and July 2004, 1,617 crisis callers were assessed…

  14. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  15. Twitter in the Cross Fire—The Use of Social Media in the Westgate Mall Terror Attack in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Leykin, Dmitry; Adini, Bruria

    2014-01-01

    On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for dispersing

  16. Twitter in the cross fire--the use of social media in the Westgate Mall terror attack in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Leykin, Dmitry; Adini, Bruria

    2014-01-01

    On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for dispersing

  17. [Midlife crisis: crisis in the middle of life].

    PubMed

    Laemmel, K

    1991-12-17

    Since ancient times man tried to understand the roots of his obviously often irrational behaviour. According to the prevailing "Zeitgeist", hypotheses for it ranged from demonical possession, psychological schools of thought to the role of transmitter substances at the synaptic level. For ages it has been observed and described, that men goes in his development through typical and predictable phases with their typical crises. Poets knew and wrote about it since the dawn of culture but science got interested in it only in this century. Elliot coined the term "midlife crisis" in 1965, turning attention to an age-group which was before practically ignored by psychology. He pointed out that due to a collision between developmental factors and a static identity a crisis occurred in human beings, characterized by a feeling of despair, goallessness, fatigue and consciousness of significant basic anxiety. In response to such pressures a change of comportment takes place which puzzles the people closest to the stricken. Established patterns of behaviour seem to dissipate in favour of unusual, unexpected, adolescent or even crazy actions. Many examples from history, ranging from Dante to Gauguin seem to prove the point. Realizing the presence of the crisis and its origin and interpreting it as a call for change, reorientation and new definition of priorities present a great chance to adjust one's life at this important turn. It is of great importance to recognize, that changes must take place in one's inner values and that trying to escape into frenzied activities leads nowhere.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Observations on the epidemiology of lumpy skin disease in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Davies, F G

    1982-02-01

    Lumpy skin disease virus strains isolated in Kenya over a period of some 20 years have proved to be serologically identical. They were indistinguishable by indirect fluorescent antibody and serum neutralization test from the South African Neethling and West African serotypes. These two serological methods proved of value in studying the antibody responses to infection. While epizootic spread of LSD has occurred in Kenya, most cases are of a sporadic nature and are thought to be the result of accidental contacts with a maintenance cycle. There is evidence of antibody to LSD in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in those areas where LSD is considered to be enzootic in Kenya, and also in small numbers of domestic cattle. No buffalo or bovine sera contained antibody to cowpox virus. An area enzootic for LSD is proposed and it is suggested that the maintenance cycle involves the buffalo. No antibody was found in the other wild ruminant species examined.

  19. Snake bites in Kenya: a preliminary survey of four areas.

    PubMed

    Coombs, M D; Dunachie, S J; Brooker, S; Haynes, J; Church, J; Warrell, D A

    1997-01-01

    Primary data were collected on the incidence, severity and species responsible for snake bites in 4 areas of Kenya: (i) Kakamega and western Kenya, (ii) Lake Baringo and Laikipia, (iii) Kilifi and Malindi, and (iv) northern Kenya. The overall average frequency of snake bite was 13.8 per 100,000 population per year (range 1.9-67.9). The minimum rate of snake bite mortality was 0.45/100,000/year. Thirty-four of the 50 units visited reported no knowledge of death from snake bite in the last 5 years. Possible reasons for the low estimates are discussed. Traditional treatments were common, especially the use of herbal remedies and incisions at the wound site.

  20. Seismicity near Lake Bogoria in the Kenya Rift valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Philippa; Maguire, Peter; Evans, Russ; Laffoley, Nicholas

    An analysis of a local earthquake data set from within the Kenya Rift Valley has provided constraints on the crustal structure and rheology of the Rift as a whole. A 15 station seismic network operated for three months near Lake Bogoria in the central trough of the Kenya Rift (Fig.1). The project was part of the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project of 1985 (KRISP 85). The principal aim of the network was to record local seismicity. The network covered a 20 × 20 km2 area including the southern part of Lake Bogoria and had a station spacing of approximately 5 km. This extended abstract of a forthcoming paper [P.A.V. Cooke et al.,unpublished ms.] describes activity which occurred within an area of about 70 km diameter centred on the network.

  1. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  2. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  3. Kenya: the development of private services and the role of the Kenya Veterinary Association.

    PubMed

    Chema, S; Gathuma, J M

    2004-04-01

    Private veterinary practice has existed in Kenya for more than half a century. Between the early 1930s and the mid-1960s, provision of clinical and advisory services almost entirely involved servicing commercial ranches and dairy farms. The Department of Veterinary Services (VSD) was mainly responsible for providing regulatory services in these areas. Until the mid-1960s, public sector veterinary responsibilities were predominantly associated with the prevention of notifiable diseases outside the commercial farming areas. In a major agrarian reform programme initiated in 1954, Kenya initiated an aggressive campaign promoting the dairy industry in the wetter areas of the country among small-scale farmers. In an effort to encourage dairy development, the VSD decided to provide some services, mainly tick control and subsidised artificial insemination. This support had a great positive impact on the 'smallholder' dairy industry. After the end of the colonial administration in 1963, most private practitioners left the country. A decision was therefore taken to transfer the responsibility of providing services of a 'private goods' nature, such as clinical services, temporarily to the public sector through the VSD. This was accompanied by significant expansion of training and the deployment of both professional veterinarians and para-professionals. By 1988, personnel costs had escalated to over 80% of the recurrent budget, leaving little for operational costs. This necessitated a policy change, which led to decreased government involvement in the delivery of animal health services. The private sector, as expected, responded appropriately to the change in policy. The Kenya Veterinary Association (KVA) launched a privatisation scheme (the Kenya Veterinary Association Privatisation Scheme) in 1994 to provide members with credit to set up private practices. The first phase of the scheme (1994-1996) was rated a success, with 100% loan repayments. The second phase of the

  4. [Crisis management in clinical nursing practice: a case analysis].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Hua; Yen, Miaofen

    2006-02-01

    The clinical medical environment is highly changeable. Hospital administrators must face and resolve various kinds of crisis. Effective crisis management can preempt or reduce negative impacts on an organization, as well as reduce unnecessary costs and bolster an organization's reputation. This article uses actual cases to describe crisis management with reference to four stages of crisis development and 6M models, providing instruction from experience, Educational growth, and enhanced crisis handling and crisis management skills.

  5. [Retinoblastoma in Kenya: survival and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Gichigo, E N; Kariuki-Wanyoike, M M; Kimani, K; Nentwich, M M

    2015-03-01

    In industrialized nations a curative therapy of retinoblastoma can be achieved in a large number of patients due to timely diagnosis and therapy. In developing countries the survival rates are much lower and very little data have been published especially from Africa. This study was performed to investigate the survival and prognostic factors of retinoblastoma patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral hospital in Kenya. In this study all records of patients admitted with retinoblastoma from January 2000 to December 2004 were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, intraoperative findings and histology reports were recorded and the patients or their relatives were contacted during follow-up to investigate the outcome and survival. Files of 160 patients (86 males and 74 females) were retrieved for this study. Data on 3-year survival could be acquired from 105 patients and the cumulative 3-year survival rate was 26.6 %. Factors significantly influencing survival were age at presentation less than 12 months, early disease at presentation (leukocoria only), no extraocular growth and total delay of management ≤ 5 months. Proptosis and tumor recurrence were associated with a 3-year mortality of 100 %. The main reasons for poor outcome were late presentation and recurrent disease after initial treatment elsewhere, extraocular growth and delay between initial presentation and treatment. Awareness of the public and of healthcare workers should be increased in order to reduce the time delay until diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Female genital mutilation in Kenya and Sudan.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Female genital mutilation is still practiced in 28 African countries despite international calls for its abolishment. A 1991 survey of 1365 14-year-old girls undertaken by a nongovernmental organization in Kenya revealed that 90% had suffered mutilation ranging from the least mutilating form, "sunna" to excision to infibulation. Most of the procedures had taken place when the girls were aged 10-14 years as part of a ritual where the same unsterile knife was used on several girls. Whereas 65% of respondents stated that they approved of female genital mutilation, a little more than a third would abolish the practice. In Sudan, a 1989-90 Demographic and Health Survey of 5860 ever married women aged 15-49 included a number of questions related to female genital mutilation. 89% of respondents were mutilated, and 82% of these had suffered infibulation. This prevalence rate showed a decrease from the 96% level recorded in 1977-78. Among younger women, the incidence of sunna is increasing. Most of these procedures were performed by medical workers such as trained midwives or traditional birth attendants. 79% of the respondents favored continuation of the procedure, but women with a secondary-level education and urban women showed strong opposition. Most women cite tradition as the reason for their approval, and almost half of the women who disapprove cite medical complications. This survey provided the necessary data to implement a policy of eradication of this harmful practice through increasing women's education and provoking open discussion about the procedure.

  7. Khat consumption in Masalani town, northeastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, John; Olieva, Salim; Muruka, Charles; Owek, Collins

    2013-01-01

    Khat is widely consumed in Kenya. It contains cathinone, a psychoactive alkaloid, whose health effects are similar to those of amphetamine. A descriptive study was done among men in a remote Kenyan town on consumption of khat. We administered semi-structured questionnaires. Of those interviewed, 68% chewed khat, and of those who chewed, half did so on a daily basis. Most prefer to chew it in the company of their friends and age mates, accompanied by soda, sweet tea, and cigarettes. Those employed were three times more likely to chew khat compared to those unemployed (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.03-7.6). A plausible reason is that they have regular sources of income to buy khat. Most respondents were knowledgeable about the health effects of khat, with a third reporting mental health problems. The major social consequences of khat chewing reported were negligence of responsibility by men, family break-up, promiscuity, and impotence. The consumption of khat may increase in the near future, given that a high proportion of the males in this district are below 19 years. This cohort will gradually finish school and gain employment. There may be need to put in place health education programs and provide recreational facilities targeting this group and those already chewing khat in this resource-limited setting.

  8. Challenges in regulation of biomedical research: The case of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, M

    2015-12-01

    Unregulated biomedical research has previously caused untold suffering to humankind. History is full of examples of abuse of animal and human subjects for research. Several codes and instruments have been formulated to regulate biomedical research. In Kenya, the Science, Technology and Innovation Act, 2014, together with the Constitution of Kenya, 2010, provide a fairly robust legal framework. Possible challenges include capacity building, overlap of functions of institutions, monitoring and evaluation, scientific/technological advances, intellectual property rights, funding for research, and dispute resolution. It is hoped that the new legislation will adequately address these challenges.

  9. [Financial crisis and mental health].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2010-01-01

    Most studies investigating the effects of the economic crisis on the quality of life indicate a correlation between unemployment or other economic indexes and the general levels of death rates, depression, and suicide tendencies. The most common effects of an economic crisis are unemployment, spending power cuts, general insecurity and public spending retrenchment, including health related budget cuts. Under conditions of economic crisis, the poor represent a high risk group since they are the first ones to be put at risk. At the same time, due to their pre-existing functionality reduction, individuals already experiencing psychiatric diseases also represent a high risk group, thus creating a vice circle where poverty nurtures psychiatric disorders and vice-versa. For every country in the midst of a recession, protecting high risk target groups is the first priority. In these cases, research showcases that social security networks' reinforcement represents the first strategic priority. Other factors, for instance personality features related to increased vulnerability to psychosocial threat -such as low tolerance to frustration or low self esteem- also play an important role. At the organizational level, one has to research practices and policies that employers use to respond to changing conditions. An economic recession is a chance to revamp essential services toward weaker populations that need to be protected. This translates into a buttressing of the social welfare system while promoting timely interventions. Amongst others, the registration of high risk population groups, the rehabilitation and social inclusion of unemployed individuals and individuals with psychiatric problems, the training of first responders and primary care physicians, the tracing and curing of depression and other usual disorders, as well as an improved access to the psychiatric-health provision system.

  10. Out of the healthcare crisis.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2011-01-01

    W Edwards Deming's Out of the Crisis, was first published almost three decades ago.(1) It was a bestseller and remains a classic text written by one of the foremost quality improvement experts of the 20th century. It is a book which certainly warrants re-examination in light of today's challenges for health care. This discussion paper reviews what Deming can teach us about causes of failure in management, including health care, what can be done to remedy them and how to avert problems in future.

  11. Improving decision making in crisis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy; Freedman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The most critical activity during emergencies or crises is making decisions about what to do next. This paper provides insights into the challenges that people face in making decisions at any time, but particularly during emergencies and crises. It also introduces the reader to the concept of different sense-making/decision-making domains, the human behaviours that can adversely affect decision making - decision derailers - and ways in which emergency responders can leverage this knowledge to make better decisions. While the literature on decision making is extensive, this paper is focused on those aspects that apply particularly to decision making in emergencies or times of crisis.

  12. Crisis and Loss: Information for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    During a crisis, parents can do a great deal to help their child deal with grief and anxiety. This special issue provides information and promising practices that might be helpful in dealing with various crisis situations. Provides the following articles: (1) "Children Killing Children" (Kevin Dwyer); (2) "Disaster: Helping Children…

  13. School Crisis Aftermath: Care for the Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Cathy Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    "Professional" crisis caregivers (e.g., emergency responders, mental health providers, medical professionals, victim assistance counselors, and faith leaders) are trained to handle exposure to images of destruction and loss and to help victims or survivors cope with the impact of a crisis. They try to help individuals, schools, and communities…

  14. Recognizing and Responding to a Suicide Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; Maltsberger, John T.; Lipschitz, Alan; Haas, Ann Pollinger; Kyle, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Data from therapists who were treating 26 patients when they committed suicide were utilized to identify warning signs. Problems in communication between patient and therapist were identified as factors interfering with crisis recognition. Evaluation of the identified affects and behaviors may help therapists recognize a suicide crisis. (BF)

  15. The Midlife Crisis and Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Leon

    Following a brief summary of research relating to midlife crisis, a theory of the midlife crisis is presented that is based on the philosophical insights of Plato and Heidegger: The emotional pain at midlife is associated with a collapse of a person's ontic field (relationships with others, to things, and to institutions) or a stagnation of a…

  16. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  17. The Midlife Crisis and Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Leon

    Following a brief summary of research relating to midlife crisis, a theory of the midlife crisis is presented that is based on the philosophical insights of Plato and Heidegger: The emotional pain at midlife is associated with a collapse of a person's ontic field (relationships with others, to things, and to institutions) or a stagnation of a…

  18. Crisis Communications in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being…

  19. Do You Have a Crisis Management Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleviak, Walter; Milkevitch, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Although certain crises cannot be prevented, reactions to many can be planned. A crisis-management team should be organized for each building. Critical crisis-plan elements include telephone trees, forms, reference articles, sample letters, and processes for dealing with local media. Spokespersons should have facts straight before speaking. (MLH)

  20. The Leading Edge: Enduring a Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeser, James

    2003-01-01

    On June 2003, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) faced a frightening crisis when an employee was diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). In this article, the author looks back and identifies four factors that enabled the university to navigate this crisis. These factors were: (1) leadership at every level; (2)…

  1. Crisis and Loss: Information for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Crisis intervention is a vital component of any comprehensive approach to maintaining psychological well being. An active school-based crisis intervention team can make a powerful contribution to a school's sense of community and commitment to taking care of each other. This special edition presents promising practices that may be helpful to…

  2. Crisis and Loss: Information for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    During a crisis, parents can do a great deal to help their child deal with grief and anxiety. This special issue provides information and promising practices that might be helpful in dealing with various crisis situations. Provides the following articles: (1) "Children Killing Children" (Kevin Dwyer); (2) "Disaster: Helping Children…

  3. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  4. Crisis Management's New Role in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainey, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to the financial debacle, it is clear to the educational community that crises know no boundaries. Far from a passing fad, crisis planning must be an integrated part of effective school district leadership. Two studies explore the status of crisis management in selected public school systems and offer recommendations for…

  5. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Evolving Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)

  6. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  7. Content Knowledge--The Real Reading Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Manning, Maryann

    2007-01-01

    The perceived crisis in reading achievement may be misplaced--the real crisis may be what is ignored in the curriculum. People are alarmed at the lack of emphasis being placed on teaching content knowledge in many of today's classrooms. They laugh when Jay Leno takes to the street, interviewing teenagers and young adults who do not have the…

  8. Network Centric Information Structure - Crisis Information Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    information management during emergency and crisis. The paper presents a prioritized set of important information elements that would be of value during a crisis or a rescue mission. It suggests how the information should be collected, stored and distributed, and it suggests information distribution methods supporting a network centric information structure concept. The work is funded by Teleplan and the Norwegian Research

  9. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  10. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…

  11. Crisis Management- Operational Logistics & Asset Visibility Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    greatly increase the effectiveness of future crisis response operations. The proposed logistics framework serves as a viable solution for common...increase the effectiveness of future crisis response operations. The proposed logistics framework serves as a viable solution for common logistical...FRAMEWORK............................................................29 A. INTEGRATED COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK MODEL ................29 B. INTEGRATED

  12. Content Knowledge--The Real Reading Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Manning, Maryann

    2007-01-01

    The perceived crisis in reading achievement may be misplaced--the real crisis may be what is ignored in the curriculum. People are alarmed at the lack of emphasis being placed on teaching content knowledge in many of today's classrooms. They laugh when Jay Leno takes to the street, interviewing teenagers and young adults who do not have the…

  13. Crisis Communications in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being…

  14. The Leading Edge: Enduring a Campus Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeser, James

    2003-01-01

    On June 2003, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) faced a frightening crisis when an employee was diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). In this article, the author looks back and identifies four factors that enabled the university to navigate this crisis. These factors were: (1) leadership at every level; (2)…

  15. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  16. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Evolving Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medland, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)

  17. The Financial Crisis in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John

    The author examines the financial crisis in community colleges on a national scale in this first paper in a projected long-range study of this crucial topic. Economic causes contributing to the crisis include inflation, rising enrollments, and such labor-intensive aspects as spiraling labor and security costs, and increasing demands for funds by…

  18. Creating Your School's Crisis Management Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Bruce T.

    2001-01-01

    Schools can reduce their vulnerability to violence and other hazards by analyzing foreseeable risks, assembling a broad-based crisis-management team (CMT), providing adequate staff training, and developing a crisis manual. Common response problems concerning decision-making authority, communication, and performance expectations for CMTs are…

  19. Crisis Intervention: A Review of Outcome Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Kilmann, Peter R.

    1977-01-01

    Crisis intervention studies conducted in suicide prevention/crisis intervention programs, in psychiatric settings, and with surgical patients are critically evaluated, and the methodological shortcomings of studies in each of these settings are discussed. Available from: Order Department, American Psychological Association, Inc., 1200 Seventeenth…

  20. Crisis and Loss: Information for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Andrea, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Crisis intervention is a vital component of any comprehensive approach to maintaining psychological well being. An active school-based crisis intervention team can make a powerful contribution to a school's sense of community and commitment to taking care of each other. This special edition presents promising practices that may be helpful to…

  1. School Crisis Aftermath: Care for the Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Cathy Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    "Professional" crisis caregivers (e.g., emergency responders, mental health providers, medical professionals, victim assistance counselors, and faith leaders) are trained to handle exposure to images of destruction and loss and to help victims or survivors cope with the impact of a crisis. They try to help individuals, schools, and communities…

  2. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  3. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…

  4. Pakistan's Education Crisis: The Real Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naviwala, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan suffers from an extensive education crisis. Millions of Pakistani children do not attend school, and those that do must deal with absent teachers and poor learning environments, among other challenges. While this crisis is frequently discussed in Pakistan and beyond, it is often misunderstood. This new Wilson Center report, based on…

  5. Crisis Management's New Role in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainey, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to the financial debacle, it is clear to the educational community that crises know no boundaries. Far from a passing fad, crisis planning must be an integrated part of effective school district leadership. Two studies explore the status of crisis management in selected public school systems and offer recommendations for…

  6. Resource Guide for Crisis Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Richard T.; And Others

    A crisis can occur at any time, whether or not a school's staff plans for it. This resource guide is a compilation of user-friendly examples of policies, procedures, guidelines, checklists, and forms to help Virginia schools develop and implement a systematic crisis-management plan. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the essential…

  7. Organisational socialisation in a crisis context.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the dimensions characterising the socialisation process in a crisis context. Based on the definition of organisational socialisation advanced by Van Maanen and Schein (1979) and employed later by Jones (1986), a crisis is presented as a passage from a 'normal' situation to an 'exceptional' situation. A crisis represents a socialisation context in the sense that it is a novel state in which actors must develop a different way of mobilising their knowledge, utilising their skills, and practicing their trade or profession. The paper discusses certain findings that have emerged from the literature on organisational socialisation, as well as from the testimony of actors who participated in efforts to manage the Quebec ice-storm crisis of early 1998. It is hoped that this exploratory study's data will give rise to fruitful interaction between the field of organisational socialisation and that of crisis management.

  8. Spousal communication about HIV prevention in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate

    2011-11-01

    High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.

  9. E-Learning Readiness in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouma, Gordon O.; Awuor, Fredrick M.; Kyambo, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As e-learning becomes useful to learning institutions worldwide, an assessment of e-learning readiness is essential for the successful implementation of e-learning as a platform for learning. Success in e-learning can be achieved by understanding the level of readiness of e-learning environments. To facilitate schools in Kenya to implement…

  10. Successful Community Nutrition Programming: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannotti, Lora; Gillespie, Stuart

    This report on the key findings from a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons learned from the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. The report is divided into eight chapters: (1)…

  11. Women and Higher Education Leadership in Kenya: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George

    2011-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to…

  12. Teacher Training for Early Childhood Development and Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Tata

    2009-01-01

    The training of early childhood development and education (ECDE) teachers in Kenya remains a priority in recognition of the vital role well-trained professionals play in the quality of early childhood experiences for children ages 0+ to 5+. This article provides a detailed overview of the current structure and training of ECDE professionals,…

  13. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  14. Cultural Interface Theory in the Kenya Context and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maakrun, Julie; Maher, Marguerite

    2016-01-01

    Yunkaporta's (2009) pedagogical "eight ways" conceptual framework, inspired by Nakata's (2007) cultural interface theory, provided the platform for interpretation of the data in the current study. Here we considered the transferability of the framework to a current initiative in Kenya and its usefulness in preparation for an expansion of…

  15. Teacher Training for Early Childhood Development and Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Tata

    2009-01-01

    The training of early childhood development and education (ECDE) teachers in Kenya remains a priority in recognition of the vital role well-trained professionals play in the quality of early childhood experiences for children ages 0+ to 5+. This article provides a detailed overview of the current structure and training of ECDE professionals,…

  16. Didactic Competencies among Teaching Staff of Universities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Florah Katanu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the levels and types of didactic competencies that exist among teaching staff in universities in Kenya, giving recognition to curriculum development, pedagogical attributes and quality assurance competencies. The study was carried out in two phases among two samples of the teaching staff population. The first…

  17. Comrades' Power: Student Representation and Activism in Universities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macharia, Mwangi J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, student politics and governance of universities in Kenya and in other African countries have undergone a tremendous transformation. The unprecedented expansion and massification of public universities, the introduction of "Module 2" programmes, the admission of private, "parallel" and…

  18. Enrolment Trends in Youth Polytechnics in West Pokot County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Luyali E.; Maureen, Olel A.; Lucas, Othuon

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Youth Polytechnics (YPs) was started as village polytechnics in 1968 by the National Christian Council of Kenya (N.C.C.K.).They are managed by local communities, Non-Governmental Organizations, the government and religious bodies. The YPs offer a route for acquisition of technical and entrepreneurship skills in line with TIVET. In…

  19. African Journal: Schooling and Politics in Rural Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, York University awarded an honorary doctorate to Phoebe Asiyo, a former Kenyan member of Parliament, in recognition of her impressive human rights work. The author learned at the time that Ms. Asiyo's family provided major support to Wikondiek School (located near their home in western Kenya), many of whose students were AIDS orphans.…

  20. School Leadership Challenges along Kenya's Borabu-Sotik Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaya, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multi-case study carried out in southwestern Kenya along the border areas of Nyanza and Rift Valley province. The purpose of the research was to examine the challenges public secondary school principals faced in their leadership roles and suggest efforts they might adopt to minimize the effects of these…

  1. Towards Free Day Secondary Schooling in Kenya: Exposing the Impediments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamau Njoroge, John; Wambugu, Beth N.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary education provides a vital link between basic education and the world of work, on one hand, and further training on the other. It is therefore an important sub-sector of education in the preparation of human capital for development and provision of life opportunities. Secondary education in Kenya takes four years to complete, catering…

  2. Communicating Nutrition to High School Students in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of various combinations of teacher expertise and teacher-audience similarity in improving the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of high school students in Kenya, East Africa. Both teacher-audience similarity and teacher expertise were found to be important. (CJ)

  3. Maternal Education and Immunization Status Among Children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onsomu, Elijah O; Abuya, Benta A; Okech, Irene N; Moore, DaKysha; Collins-McNeil, Janice

    2015-08-01

    Child morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases continues to be a major threat and public health concern worldwide. Although global vaccination coverage reached 90 % for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP3) across 129 countries, Kenya and other sub-Saharan countries continue to experience under-vaccination. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between maternal education and child immunization (12-23 months) in Kenya. This study used retrospective cross-sectional data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for women aged 15-49, who had children aged 12-23 months, and who answered questions about vaccination in the survey (n = 1,707). The majority of the children had received vaccinations, with 77 % for poliomyelitis, 74 % for measles, 94 % for tuberculosis, and 91 % for diphtheria, whooping cough (pertussis), and tetanus. After adjusting for other covariates, women with primary, secondary, and college/university education were between 2.21 (p < 0.01) and 9.10 (p < 0.001) times more likely to immunize their children than those who had less than a primary education. Maternal education is clearly crucial in ensuring good health outcomes among children, and integrating immunization knowledge with maternal and child health services is imperative. More research is needed to identify factors influencing immunization decisions among less-educated women in Kenya.

  4. Financing Higher Education in Kenya: Student Perceptions and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngolovoi, Mary S.

    2008-01-01

    In response to declining governmental funding, cost-sharing in higher education and dual-track tuition policies were introduced in the 1990s in Kenya. The decline of government funding in higher education was a result of slow economic growth, competing public needs (such as health, elementary education, and infrastructure), and pressure to reduce…

  5. Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbithi, Esther K

    2014-01-01

    Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative…

  6. The Free Education Policy in Kenya: A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limukii, Kaberia E.; Mualuko, Ndiku J.

    2012-01-01

    Educational reforms are crucial in a country if the reforms benefit the intended target group. One of the educational reforms in Kenya was the introduction of Free Primary Education. This was informed by the need to improve access and equity in provision of education. Informed by the need to eradicate ignorance, poverty and disease, the…

  7. Cultural Interface Theory in the Kenya Context and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maakrun, Julie; Maher, Marguerite

    2016-01-01

    Yunkaporta's (2009) pedagogical "eight ways" conceptual framework, inspired by Nakata's (2007) cultural interface theory, provided the platform for interpretation of the data in the current study. Here we considered the transferability of the framework to a current initiative in Kenya and its usefulness in preparation for an expansion of…

  8. "Chwuech": Sustained Art Education among Luo Women of Western Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadende, Akinyi

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study on the "Bang' jomariek," a women's group in West Reru in Western Kenya who engage in the production of indigenous arts and crafts (pots, baskets, and architecture) to generate income and explore politics, medicine, and other matters that affect them and their community. The women…

  9. Academic Achievement of Girls in Rural Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungai, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two family factors (financial, social capital) and school factors on students' achievement. One hundred eighty two, seventh-grade female students from nine schools in Muranga district, Kenya, were studied. The statistical procedures included logit regression, cross-tabulations, frequency counting and chi-square…

  10. Capacity Building of a District Education System: Insights from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Dipankar; Phillip, Serene; Verma, Prashant Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Both (a) in-school factors such as over-focus on academic performance, absence of uniform, and corporal punishment, and (b) out-of school factors such as caring for ailing parents, child labor, etc., hinder participation of orphan and vulnerable children (PVC) in Free Primary Education (FOE) system in Nyasa Province, Kenya. In this context Concern…

  11. Mycobacteriosis in the lesser flamingos of Lake Nakuru, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sileo, L; Grootenhuis, J G; Tuite, C H; Hopcraft, J B

    1979-07-01

    In 1974, 51 debilitated lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) were easily captured at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Nineteen (37%) of these had extensive mycobacterial lesions. Two years later it was difficult to locate any debilitated flamingos and no evidence of mycobacterial infection was found. Possible reasons for the high prevalence of mycobacteriosis in the 1974 collection are discussed.

  12. Right to Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the current inclusive education system in Kenya, and how those practices relate to Article 24 of the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Local laws and international instruments are presented to shed light on the extent to which students with disabilities have a right to inclusive…

  13. Capacity Building of a District Education System: Insights from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Dipankar; Phillip, Serene; Verma, Prashant Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Both (a) in-school factors such as over-focus on academic performance, absence of uniform, and corporal punishment, and (b) out-of school factors such as caring for ailing parents, child labor, etc., hinder participation of orphan and vulnerable children (PVC) in Free Primary Education (FOE) system in Nyasa Province, Kenya. In this context Concern…

  14. The Education of Women in Kenya, 1975-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshiwani, G. S.

    The extent to which the educational system reaches women in Kenya will in some measure dictate the pace of national development. Data indicate that significant progress was made in the area of education for Kenyan women during the 1975-1984 decade. This was particularly so at the primary school level where near-parity was achieved in the…

  15. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David

    2000-01-01

    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

  16. Professional Counseling in Kenya: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, Jane E. Atieno; Kimemia, Muthoni

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the history and development of the counseling profession in Kenya. This profession is deeply rooted in responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the emergence of mental health needs created by the impact of political and community-based violence, increasing student unrest in public institutions, and government efforts to provide…

  17. Communicaton of Curriculum Content in Universities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macharia, Juliet W.

    2008-01-01

    The history of Education in most developing Countries shows that higher education has grown tremendously. In 1960's a Country such as Kenya had only one University but today, she boasts of seven public Universities and very many private ones. With expansion, student's numbers have increased. As a result of the needs and demands of a growing…

  18. "Chwuech": Sustained Art Education among Luo Women of Western Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadende, Akinyi

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study on the "Bang' jomariek," a women's group in West Reru in Western Kenya who engage in the production of indigenous arts and crafts (pots, baskets, and architecture) to generate income and explore politics, medicine, and other matters that affect them and their community. The women…

  19. PVO / NGO initiatives, Africa. Women Fighting AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK).

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Women Fighting AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK) was founded in order to improve the effectiveness of existing AIDS services delivered to women in Kenya. Founded by both seropositive and seronegative women, WOFAK is unique in that it is the only AIDS support organization (ASO) in Kenya run by and for women. WOFAK contributes to the empowerment of HIV positive women and girls by assisting them in gaining control over their own health and serostatus, to live positively with the infection, and to protect their families and communities from becoming infected. WOFAK founders feel that existing ASOs address women's issues as only a small part of their programs and that most existing programs aimed at women focus on commercial sex workers. Whenever possible, WOFAK provides psychological and material support for women affected by HIV/AIDS. They conduct training in home-based care techniques and visit hospitalized members to offer counseling and support. WOFAK conducts HIV/AIDS education and outreach in schools, churches, commercial centers, and rural areas. All activities center around a network of positive women from all parts of society responding to the community and advocating for stronger responses by the government and other agencies providing HIV/AIDS prevention and care services. They stress the basic human rights of HIV positive women such as their right to marriage and reproduction, proper medical care, housing, and jobs. For more information, please contact Dorothy Odhiambo, WOFAK, PO Box 58428, Nairobi, Kenya; tel: +1 254 2 217039; fax: +1 254 2 243164.

  20. Right to Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the current inclusive education system in Kenya, and how those practices relate to Article 24 of the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Local laws and international instruments are presented to shed light on the extent to which students with disabilities have a right to inclusive…

  1. Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbithi, Esther K

    2014-01-01

    Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative…

  2. Delivery of Open, Distance, and E-Learning in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyerere, Jackline Anyona; Gravenir, Frederick Q.; Mse, Godfrey S.

    2012-01-01

    The increased demand and need for continuous learning have led to the introduction of open, distance, and e-learning (ODeL) in Kenya. Provision of this mode of education has, however, been faced with various challenges, among them infrastructural ones. This study was a survey conducted in two public universities offering major components of ODeL,…

  3. Higher Education as an Instrument of Economic Growth in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyangau, Josiah Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to identify the main challenges facing Kenya's public higher education system and to propose plausible and, concrete steps policy makers and educational leaders can take to address those challenges to ensure the country's higher education system prepares the human capital, which is necessary for the construction…

  4. Universalising Primary Education in Kenya: The Elusive Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerset, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Since Independence in 1963, Kenya has launched three Free Primary Education programmes: the first in 1974, the second in 1979 and the most recent in 2003. Using historical data, this paper first outlines each initiative in turn, and discusses why, in the case of the earlier initiatives, impressive initial gains in improved access proved difficult…

  5. School Leadership Challenges along Kenya's Borabu-Sotik Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaya, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multi-case study carried out in southwestern Kenya along the border areas of Nyanza and Rift Valley province. The purpose of the research was to examine the challenges public secondary school principals faced in their leadership roles and suggest efforts they might adopt to minimize the effects of these…

  6. Teacher-Trainees Attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…

  7. Needs Assessment for Guidance and Counselling in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumuti, Sammy

    Formal guidance and counseling in Kenya is recognized more than ever. The development of effective guidance and counseling programs will be guided by needs assessment. This study used data from a larger study on guidance and counseling needs assessment of primary school pupils of Gachika Sub-location, Nyeri Town, and Nairobi City. Differences in…

  8. Language Planning and Literacy in Kenya: Living with Unresolved Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthwii, Margaret Jepkirui

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a critique of the interaction between language planning and literacy in Kenya. It demonstrates that, contrary to the reasons given at independence for not favouring indigenous languages as languages of instruction or as languages for communication in public discourse, the very things that the language policy was meant to safeguard…

  9. Women and Higher Education Leadership in Kenya: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George

    2011-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to…

  10. Women Aspiring to Administrative Positions in Kenya Municipal Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combat, Victor F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Even though female teachers in Kenya municipal primary schools are majority and highly qualified, they fill fewer administrative positions than men. This study assesses the extent of women's participation in leadership positions, society's perception of female leaders, selection criteria of educational administrators, and barriers that affect or…

  11. E-Learning Readiness in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouma, Gordon O.; Awuor, Fredrick M.; Kyambo, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As e-learning becomes useful to learning institutions worldwide, an assessment of e-learning readiness is essential for the successful implementation of e-learning as a platform for learning. Success in e-learning can be achieved by understanding the level of readiness of e-learning environments. To facilitate schools in Kenya to implement…

  12. Status of E-Learning in Public Universities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makokha, George L.; Mutisya, Dorothy N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the status of e-learning in public universities in Kenya. Data were collected using questionnaires administered to both students and lecturers randomly sampled from seven public universities. Questionnaire responses were triangulated with interviews from key informants and focus group discussions (FGDs).…

  13. Towards Near Real-time Convective Rainfall Observations over Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoedjes, Joost; Said, Mohammed; Becht, Robert; Kifugo, Shem; Kooiman, André; Limo, Agnes; Maathuis, Ben; Moore, Ian; Mumo, Mark; Nduhiu Mathenge, Joseph; Su, Bob; Wright, Iain

    2013-04-01

    The existing meteorological infrastructure in Kenya is poorly suited for the countrywide real-time monitoring of precipitation. Rainfall radar is not available, and the existing network of rain gauges is sparse and challenging to maintain. This severely restricts Kenya's capacity to warn for, and respond to, weather related emergencies. Furthermore, the lack of accurate rainfall observations severely limits Kenya's climate change adaptation capabilities. Over the past decade, the mobile telephone network in Kenya has expanded rapidly. This network makes extensive use of terrestrial microwave (MW) links, received signal level (RSL) data from which can be used for the calculation of rainfall intensities. We present a novel method for the near-real time observation of convective rainfall over Kenya, based on the combined use of MW RSL data and Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data. In this study, the variable density rainfall information derived from several MW links is scaled up using MSG data to provide full rainfall information coverage for the region surrounding the links. Combining MSG data and MW link derived rainfall data for several adjacent MW links makes it possible to make the distinction between wet and dry pixels. This allows the disaggregation of the MW link derived rainfall intensities. With the distinction between wet and dry pixels made, and the MW derived rainfall intensities disaggregated, these data can then be used to develop instantaneous empirical relationships linking rainfall intensities to cloud physical properties. These relationships are then used to calculate rainfall intensities for the MSG scene. Since both the MSG and the MW data are available at the same temporal resolution, unique empirical coefficients can be determined for each interval. This approach ensures that changes in convective conditions from one interval to the next are taken into account. Initial results from a pilot study, which took place from November 2012

  14. Male circumcision programmes in Kenya: lessons from the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007.

    PubMed

    Mwandi, Zebedee; Bunnell, Rebecca; Cherutich, Peter; Mermin, Jonathan; Kim, Andrea A; Gichangi, Anthony; Mureithi, Patrick; Kellogg, Timothy A; Oluoch, Tom; Muttunga, James; Ngare, Carol; Kim, Evelyn; Kaiser, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    To provide guidance for male circumcision programmes in Kenya by estimating the population of uncircumcised men and investigating the association between circumcision and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with particular reference to uncircumcised, HIV-uninfected men. Data on men aged 15 to 64 years were derived from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey, which involved interviews and blood collection to test for HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). The prevalence of HIV infection and circumcision in Kenyan provinces was calculated and the demographic characteristics and sexual behaviour of circumcised and uncircumcised, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men were recorded. The national prevalence of HIV infection in uncircumcised men was 13.2% (95% confidence interval, CI: 10.8-15.7) compared with 3.9% (95% CI: 3.3-4.5) among circumcised men. Nyanza province had the largest estimated number of uncircumcised, HIV-uninfected men (i.e. 601 709), followed by Rift Valley, Nairobi and Western Province, respectively, and most belonged to the Luo ethnic tribe. Of these men, 77.8% did not know their HIV status and 33.2% were HSV-2-positive. In addition, 65.3% had had unprotected sex with a partner of discordant or unknown HIV status in the past 12 months and only 14.7% consistently used condoms with their most recent partner. However, only 21.8% of the uncircumcised, HIV-uninfected men aged 15 to 19 years were sexually active. The Kenyan male circumcision strategy should focus on the provinces with the highest number of uncircumcised, HIV-uninfected men and target young men before or shortly after sexual debut.

  15. 'The crisis in psychoanalysis': what crisis are we talking about?

    PubMed

    Garza-Guerrero, César

    2002-02-01

    In this paper the author argues that the so-called crisis in psychoanalysis, often blamed on various external factors, is in fact an internal crisis brought about by intrinsic incongruities between the explicit intention of its educational model, which aspires to educate and train in a professional and scientific discipline, and its organisational structure, locally and internationally inextricable. Its isolated basic units of ecumenical control--its traditional 'societies/institutes of psychoanalysis'--implicitly and explicitly co-impose the monastic transmission of a preponderantly doctrinaire education and clinical practice. The dysfunctional elongation of our historical organisational syncretism continues to force us, one century later, to amalgamate in and superimpose on an endogamous supraordaining system (i.e. our International Psychoanalytic Association) prerogatives and functions so contradictory that they are ordinarily considered irreconcilable, such as: education and scientific research (tasks of universities); societal and political (tasks of an ordinary society of professionals and technicians); and 'as if' certification and accreditation (tasks of external, local, interinstitutional collegiate bodies and independent, multirepresentative, national coalitions and consortia, as well as of local governmental legislation). The pervasive collective regressive phenomena derived from this homogamous and secluding organisational and educational syncretism has had a retardatory impact along all the hierarchy of our institutional activities. The future of psychoanalysis as a science and a clinical discipline must be nothing other than one of evolution and transformation. The survival of its legendary psychoanalytic institutes and societies, as well as its local and international organisation, with its inherited but now untenable syncretism, is that which is being questioned (that is, psychoanalysis as a 'movement' and a 'cause').

  16. Managing up in times of financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Demers, R F

    2001-10-01

    The use of managing up in an institution's time of financial crisis is described. The goals of crisis management include survival, maintaining quality and service, learning issues and impacts, supporting the team, and preparing for the aftermath as the crisis subsides. Survival calls for a commitment by leaders to remain focused, and to maintain and support the management team. Pharmacy directors must be able to adapt to chaos and to the limited information disseminated by senior leadership. Identifying the underlying cause of the crisis, which may not be directly related to the measures taken to resolve it, is also critical to survival. Among the keys to maintaining quality and service are keeping the staff focused on patient care and maintaining credibility by sharing all information that is available. Pharmacy directors need to maintain the confidence of their staff members and to encourage them to do the best they can with the resources available. Taking the initiative to acquire appropriate data, to translate that data into relevant information, and to seek benchmarks for comparison is also important. Once the crisis has passed, attention must be given to updating and maintaining databases, supporting the staff, and improving morale. Scenario planning can help identify measures that might be taken if another crisis should develop. Using principles of managing up can prepare pharmacy directors for optimal response to an institutional financial crisis.

  17. Towards a psychological model of midlife crisis.

    PubMed

    Oles, P K

    1999-06-01

    Midlife crisis in men is seen as a process of intensive and subjectively difficult transition of the self dealing with a reinterpretation of time perspective, the confrontation with death as a future personal event, the re-evaluation of life values and goals, and planning the second half of life. Midlife crisis arises on the relationships between the changing sociopsychological situation and internal predispositions. This study was conducted in Poland, using a sample of 144 men (aged 35-45 years). Measures were the Midlife Crisis Questionnaire, the Time Orientation Scale, the Adjective Check List, the modified version of the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Value crisis Questionnaire. The findings indicated that the midlife crisis consists of three relatively independent dimensions, extracted by factor analysis, namely, (i) intensity of symptoms focused on changes in the self-concept, (ii) psychological maturity, and (iii) acceptance of time passing and death. Necessary and sufficient conditions of the crisis appeared to be (1) value crisis, understood as difficulties in hierarchization, integration, and realization of values, (2) emotion-focused coping versus problem-focused coping, (3) past versus future time orientation and lack of goals for the future, (4) sense of time pressure, (5) some conscientiousness, introversion, and openness to experience.

  18. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  19. Communicating through Crisis: A Strategy for Organizational Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that crisis communication should be a part of the larger issues of communication policy and strategy. Builds a case for the need to consider crisis communication in a larger context. Proposes a model of crisis communication content that may serve as a framework for research into the efficacy of communication during crisis episodes. (RS)

  20. Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty,…

  1. Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty,…

  2. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  3. Impending United States energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R L

    1987-03-20

    The U.S. oil and gas industry has been dramatically weakened by the recent oil price collapse. Domestic drilling activity reached a new post-World War II low during the summer of 1986. Given a weak, unstable oil price outlook, U.S. capability will continue to deteriorate. In the last year U.S. imports of foreign oil have risen significantly, and if market forces alone dominate, U.S. dependence is expected to rise from 32% in 1983 to the 50 to 70% level in the not-too-distant future. The 1973 oil embargo and the subsequent attempts to improve U.S. energy security vividly demonstrated the huge costs and long periods of time required to change our energy system. These facts, coupled with the nation's generally short-term orientation, suggest a strong likelihood of a new U.S. energy crisis in the early to middle 1990s.

  4. Electronic gaming and the obesity crisis.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L; Staiano, Amanda E; Bond, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children's physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes.

  5. [Pediatric emergency: adrenal insufficiency and adrenal crisis].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Alicia; Pasqualini, Titania; Stivel, Mirta; Heinrich, Juan Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is defined by impaired secretion of adrenocortical hormones. It is classified upon the etiology in primary and secondary. Rapid recognition and therapy of adrenocortical crisis are critical to survival. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms: anorexia, vomiting, weakness, fatigue and lethargy. They are followed by hypotension, shock, hypoglicemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. All patients with adrenal insufficiency require urgent fluid reposition, correction of hypoglycemia and glucocorticoid replacement, in order to avoid serious consequences of adrenal crisis. After initial crisis treatment, maintenance dose of corticoids should be indicated. Mineralocorticoids replacement, if necessary, should also be initiated.

  6. Partnerships for effective campus crisis responses.

    PubMed

    Ingemann, Mira; Jackson, LaTrelle; Pittman, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Violence on college campuses has spurred administrators and campus safety officials to devise effective crisis management and threat assessment strategies. The college community lends itself to a systematic multi-component model of crisis intervention primarily due to its self-contained and widespread interconnected social networks. The CISM model for a crisis response is an empirically supported program that would inform practice prior to, during, and following university-based crises. Ultimately, best practices in the world of academia should rest on a foundation of detailed preparation, interdepartmental collaboration and coordination, extensive specialized training, and periodic review of campus protocols to assess for systemic changes.

  7. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and increase consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages that are low in nutritional value. Electronic games, however, may increase children’s physical activity and expose them to healthier foods. We examine the role of electronic games in the pediatric obesity crisis and their contribution to more favorable health outcomes. PMID:23483693

  8. [Suicide crisis, psychological suffering and advanced age].

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Bordage, Catherine; Cornec, Gwenole; Berrouiguet, Sofian; Walter, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Bound to the idea of a crisis and the brutal intrusion of psychological suffering, the suicide drama rarely lends itself to a direct analysis which can highlight the different stages of its process. Taking into account increasing quantities of scientific data from current research and the spirit of crisis interventions is fundamental for allowing hopes of effective prevention. Speaking the same language by using the same conceptual basis, that of the suicide crisis, is a prerequisite in pedagogical terms for the current care management of suicidal patients.

  9. Classification problems of Mount Kenya soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuma, Evans; Csorba, Ádám; Wawire, Amos; Dobos, Endre; Michéli, Erika

    2017-04-01

    Soil sampling on the agricultural lands covering 1200 square kilometers in the Eastern part of Mount Kenya was carried out to assess the status of soil organic carbon (SOC) as a soil fertility indicator, and to create an up-to-date soil classification map. The geology of the area consists of volcanic rocks and recent superficial deposits. The volcanic rocks are related to the Pliocene time; mainly: lahars, phonolites, tuffs, basalt and ashes. A total of 28 open profiles and 49 augered profiles with 269 samples were collected. The samples were analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, particle size distribution, percent bases, cation exchange capacity and pH among other parameters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the variability of SOC in different Reference Soil Groups (RGS) and to compare the determined classification units with the KENSOTER database. Soil classification was performed based on the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources 2014. Based on the earlier surveys, geological and environmental setting, Nitisols were expected to be the dominant soils of the sampled area. However, this was not the case. The major differences to earlier survey data (KENSOTER database) are the presence of high activity clays (CEC value range 27.6 cmol/kg - 70 cmol/kg), high silt content (range 32.6 % - 52.4 %) and silt/clay ratio (range of 0.6 - 1.4) keeping these soils out of the Nitisols RSG. There was good accordance in the morphological features with the earlier survey but failed the silt/clay ratio criteria for Nitisols. This observation calls attention to set new classification criteria for Nitisols and other soils of warm, humid regions with variable rate of weathering to avoid difficulties in interpretation. To address the classification problem, this paper further discusses the taxonomic relationships between the studied soils. On the contrary most of the diagnostic elements (like the presence Umbric horizon, Vitric and Andic properties) and the some

  10. The Impact of Out-Migration on the Nursing Workforce in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jessica M; Rogers, Martha F; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Oywer, Elizabeth; Wambua, David; Kamenju, Andrew; Arudo, John; Riley, Patricia L; Higgins, Melinda; Rakuom, Chris; Kiriinya, Rose; Waudo, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of out-migration on Kenya's nursing workforce. Study Setting This study analyzed deidentified nursing data from the Kenya Health Workforce Informatics System, collected by the Nursing Council of Kenya and the Department of Nursing in the Ministry of Medical Services. Study Design We analyzed trends in Kenya's nursing workforce from 1999 to 2007, including supply, deployment, and intent to out-migrate, measured by requests for verification of credentials from destination countries. Principle Findings From 1999 to 2007, 6 percent of Kenya's nursing workforce of 41,367 nurses applied to out-migrate. Eighty-five percent of applicants were registered or B.Sc.N. prepared nurses, 49 percent applied within 10 years of their initial registration as a nurse, and 82 percent of first-time applications were for the United States or United Kingdom. For every 4.5 nurses that Kenya adds to its nursing workforce through training, 1 nurse from the workforce applies to out-migrate, potentially reducing by 22 percent Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training. Conclusions Nurse out-migration depletes Kenya's nursing workforce of its most highly educated nurses, reduces the percentage of younger nurses in an aging nursing stock, decreases Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training, and represents a substantial economic loss to the country. PMID:21413982

  11. Potential Applications of LANDSAT Data in Energy Management Associated with Kenya's Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghenda, M. M.; Bloemer, H. L.; Brumfield, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    LANDSAT can be effectively used to monitor the extent and magnitude of forest cover change in Kenya in order to evaluate the potential for energy supply. Digital processing of LANDSAT data provides a reliable monitoring technique for forest resource management in Kenya. Data analysis was used to illustrate that Kenya's forests are indeed diminishing. A model used to make projections for the availability of fuelwood as an energy source is presented. The resulting figures imply that Kenya's forest will all but disappear around the end of the 20th century. Analysis of LANDSAT data for Mau East substantiates these alarming findings.

  12. Potential Applications of LANDSAT Data in Energy Management Associated with Kenya's Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghenda, M. M.; Bloemer, H. L.; Brumfield, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    LANDSAT can be effectively used to monitor the extent and magnitude of forest cover change in Kenya in order to evaluate the potential for energy supply. Digital processing of LANDSAT data provides a reliable monitoring technique for forest resource management in Kenya. Data analysis was used to illustrate that Kenya's forests are indeed diminishing. A model used to make projections for the availability of fuelwood as an energy source is presented. The resulting figures imply that Kenya's forest will all but disappear around the end of the 20th century. Analysis of LANDSAT data for Mau East substantiates these alarming findings.

  13. The Organization's Role in Managing Midlife Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Philip I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describing some of the causes of midlife crisis and reasons why organizations should offer help to their employees, the authors suggest these actions: continuing education, retraining, mentoring, autonomy, support groups, counseling, and sabbaticals. (SK)

  14. Energy Crisis Spurs Congress Into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses legislation recently passed by Congress in response to the energy crisis, and the Nixon Administration's proposal for creating a new Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and a Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC). (JR)

  15. The Energy Crisis: What Physicists Can Contribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tay Yong

    1976-01-01

    Divides the components of the energy crisis into those which demand immediate, moderate term, and long term research efforts. Delineates specific topics in each category and solicits physicists' efforts in these areas. (CP)

  16. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  17. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  18. Student Unrest and Crisis Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Edwin M.

    1969-01-01

    How the administrator might anticipate student-initiated reform is examined by observing present school practices, crisis condition influence on the decision process, and implications of alternative administrative action. (LN)

  19. What kind of crisis for capitalism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    This week's meeting of the International Monetary Fund at Toronto will avoid an immediate crisis. But more international credit will not allow rich and poor to behave as if they live on different planets.

  20. Cross-National Crisis Indicators Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    between interstate and intrastate crises. The final chapter emphasizes the importance of ’crossing’ levels of analysis and attempting to anchor crisis theory within a more general international relations theoretical edifice.

  1. Energy Crisis Spurs Congress Into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses legislation recently passed by Congress in response to the energy crisis, and the Nixon Administration's proposal for creating a new Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and a Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC). (JR)

  2. The Energy Crisis: A Continuing Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, David

    1976-01-01

    To school business managers, the energy crisis is a continuing economic disaster as energy costs continue to climb and schools are without money to make necessary renovations to reduce energy consumption. (Author/IRT)

  3. Energy crisis: Unresolved issues and enduring legacies

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The energy crisis of 1973--1974 was a pivotal event in twentieth-century American history. In the wake of the Vietnam War, it exposed the nation`s economic vulnerability to foreign powers and precipitated an awareness of limits to the exploitation of natural resources. Further, it forced Americans and the American government in particular to think about the future of energy production and consumption in novel ways and made such thinking more imperative than ever. Twenty years later, questions about the energy crisis persist. What were the underlying causes of the crisis. What has been learned from it. How has it affected current energy policies. Will another energy crisis occur in the future. In the book, David Lewis Feldman brings together a wide range of energy policy experts to address these questions and explore the appropriate role of governments and markets in ensuring a stable, economical, and sustainable energy supply.

  4. Thyrotoxic crisis presenting as status epilepticus.

    PubMed Central

    Safe, A. F.; Griffiths, K. D.; Maxwell, R. T.

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year old male patient with thyrotoxic crisis presenting as status epilepticus is reported. The aetiology, manifestations and management of this medical emergency are discussed. The importance of prompt, vigorous and comprehensive treatment of thyrotoxic crisis is emphasized. Rapid control of hyperthyroidism as well as other supportive measures are essential if the high fatality rate is to be reduced. Comprehensive management reduces mortality from 90% to 20%. PMID:2349191

  5. Extensive expertise in endocrinology. Adrenal crisis.

    PubMed

    Allolio, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening emergency contributing to the excess mortality of patients with adrenal insufficiency. Studies in patients on chronic replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency have revealed an incidence of 5-10 adrenal crises/100 patient years and suggested a mortality rate from adrenal crisis of 0.5/100 patient years. Patients with adrenal crisis typically present with profoundly impaired well-being, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, and fever responding well to parenteral hydrocortisone administration. Infections are the major precipitating causes of adrenal crisis. Lack of increased cortisol concentrations during infection enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine release and sensitivity to the toxic effects of these cytokines (e.g. tumour necrosis factor alpha). Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines may impair glucocorticoid receptor function aggravating glucocorticoid deficiency. Treatment of adrenal crisis is simple and highly effective consisting of i.v. hydrocortisone (initial bolus of 100  mg followed by 200  mg over 24  h as continuous infusion) and 0.9% saline (1000  ml within the first hour). Prevention of adrenal crisis requires appropriate hydrocortisone dose adjustments to stressful medical procedures (e.g. major surgery) and other stressful events (e.g. infection). Patient education is a key for such dose adjustments but current education concepts are not sufficiently effective. Thus, improved education strategies are needed. Every patient should carry an emergency card and should be provided with an emergency kit for parenteral hydrocortisone self-administration. A hydrocortisone pen would hold a great potential to lower the current barriers to hydrocortisone self-injection. Improved patient education and measures to facilitate parenteral hydrocortisone self-administration in impending crisis are expected to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from adrenal crisis. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Pheochromocytoma crisis is not a surgical emergency.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Anouk; Cisco, Robin M; Vriens, Menno R; Cohen, Jenny K; Mitmaker, Elliot J; Liu, Chienying; Tyrrell, J Blake; Shen, Wen T; Duh, Quan-Yang

    2013-02-01

    Pheochromocytoma crisis is a feared and potentially lethal complication of pheochromocytoma. We sought to determine the best treatment strategy for pheochromocytoma crisis patients and hypothesized that emergency resection is not indicated. Retrospective cohort study (1993-2011); literature review (1944-2011). Tertiary referral center. There were 137 pheochromocytoma patients from our center and 97 pheochromocytoma crisis patients who underwent adrenalectomy from the literature. Medical management of pheochromocytoma crisis; adrenalectomy. Perioperative complications, conversion, and mortality. In our database, 25 patients (18%) presented with crisis. After medical stabilization and α-blockade, 15 patients were discharged and readmitted for elective surgery and 10 patients were operated on urgently during the same hospitalization. None underwent emergency surgery. Postoperatively, patients who underwent elective surgery had shorter hospital stays (1.7 vs 5.7 d, P = 0.001) and fewer postoperative complications (1 of 15 [7%] vs 5 of 10 [50%], P = 0.045) and were less often admitted to the intensive care unit (1 of 15 [7%] vs 5 of 10 [50%], P = 0.045) in comparison with urgently operated patients. There was no mortality. Review of the literature (n = 97) showed that crisis patients who underwent elective or urgent surgery vs emergency surgery had less intraoperative (13 of 31 [42%] vs 20 of 25 [80%], P < 0.001) and postoperative complications (15 of 45 [33%] vs 15 of 21 [71%], P = 0.047) and a lower mortality (0 of 64 vs 6 of 33 [18%], P = 0.002). Management of patients presenting with pheochromocytoma crisis should include initial stabilization of the acute crisis followed by sufficient α-blockade before surgery. Emergency resection of pheochromocytoma is associated with high surgical morbidity and mortality.

  7. Analyzing Crisis in Global Financial Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Deo, Nivedita

    We apply the Random Matrix Theory and complex network techniques to 20 global financial indices and study the correlation and network properties before and during the financial crisis of 2008 respectively. We find that the largest eigenvalue deviate significantly from the upper bound which shows a strong correlation between financial indices. By using a sliding window of 25 days we find that largest eigenvalue represent the collective information about the correlation between global financial indices and its trend indicate the market conditions. It is confirmed that eigenvectors corresponding to second largest eigenvalue gives useful information about the sector formation in the global financial indices. We find that these clusters are formed on the basis of the geographical location. The correlation network is constructed using threshold method for different values of threshold θ in the range 0 to 0.9, at θ=0.2 the network is fully connected. At θ=0.6, the Americas, Europe and Asia/Pacific form different clusters before the crisis but during the crisis Americas and Europe are strongly linked. If we further increase the threshold to 0.9 we find that European countries France, Germany and UK consistently constitute the most tightly linked markets before and during the crisis. We find that the structure of Minimum Spanning Tree before the crisis is more star like whereas during the crisis it changes to be more chain like. Using the multifractal analysis, we find that Hurst exponents of financial indices increases during the period of crisis as compared to the period before the crisis. The empirical results verify the validity of measures, and this has led to a better understanding of complex financial markets.

  8. Urbanization eases water crisis in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

  9. Crisis management during anaesthesia: recovering from a crisis

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, A; Morris, R; Runciman, W; Currie, M

    2005-01-01

    Preventing harm to the patient is the priority during a crisis. After a major incident, and especially when a patient has been harmed, there are a number of matters to be addressed: the ongoing care of the patient; documentation of the incident; investigation of the root causes; completion of reports; interviews with the patient and/or the next of kin, together with apologies and expression of regret; updates and ongoing support for friends and relatives; a word of thanks to the staff involved for their assistance; formal debriefing of staff for quality assurance and possibly ongoing support and a separate debriefing for psychological purposes; ensuring that the recommendations of the root cause analysis are carried out; or, failing that, that the issues are logged on a risk register. The extent and depth of the follow up protocol depends on what, if any, harm may have been done. This may constitute completion of an incident report; notification of an equipment failure to a federal regulatory authority; arranging consultations with a mental health professional to manage psychological sequelae (especially following an awareness episode); follow up during weeks of intensive care treatment; or, when a death has occurred, a full medico-legal and/or coronial set of procedures. A précis is appended in an action card format. PMID:15933299

  10. Timing crisis information release via television.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information.

  11. Organizational Cultural Factors Hindering Women Ascending to Top Management Positions in Public Universities in Kenya: A Case of Moi University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makori, Rebecca S.; Onyango, Maria; Attyang, Judith Miguda; Bantu, Edward; Onderi, Peter Omae

    2016-01-01

    It is observed that the major setback to economic development in Kenya is stagnation in industrial development. To overcome these, Kenya plans to be a middle level income nation by the year 2030. These plans are to be realized through "Vision 2030." To achieve these goals, Kenya requires gender mainstreamed team of highly skilled workers…

  12. Improving medical education in Kenya: an international collaboration*†

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a partnership between the University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences (CHS) Library and the University of Maryland Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL). The libraries are collaborating to develop best practices for the CHS Library as it meets the challenge of changing medical education information needs in a digital environment. The collaboration is part of a Medical Education Partnership Initiative. The library project has several components: an assessment of the CHS Library, learning visits in the United States and Kenya, development of recommendations to enhance the CHS Library, and ongoing evaluation of the program's progress. Development of new services and expertise at the CHS Library is critical to the project's success. A productive collaboration between the HS/HSL and CHS Library is ongoing. A successful program to improve the quality of medical education will have a beneficial impact on health outcomes in Kenya. PMID:24860265

  13. Soil Quality and Human Migration in Kenya and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark L.

    2011-01-01

    Soil degradation is widely considered to be a key factor undermining agricultural livelihoods in the developing world and contributing to rural out-migration. To date, however, few quantitative studies have examined the effects of soil characteristics on human migration or other social outcomes for potentially vulnerable households. This study takes advantage of a unique longitudinal survey dataset from Kenya and Uganda containing information on household-level soil properties to investigate the effects of soil quality on population mobility. Random effects multinomial logit models are used to test for effects of soil quality on both temporary and permanent migration while accounting for a variety of potential confounders. The analysis reveals that soil quality significantly reduces migration in Kenya, particularly for temporary labor migration, but marginally increases migration in Uganda. These findings are consistent with several previous studies in showing that adverse environmental conditions tend to increase migration but not universally, contrary to common assumptions about environmentally-induced migration. PMID:22016577

  14. Soil Quality and Human Migration in Kenya and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark L

    2011-05-01

    Soil degradation is widely considered to be a key factor undermining agricultural livelihoods in the developing world and contributing to rural out-migration. To date, however, few quantitative studies have examined the effects of soil characteristics on human migration or other social outcomes for potentially vulnerable households. This study takes advantage of a unique longitudinal survey dataset from Kenya and Uganda containing information on household-level soil properties to investigate the effects of soil quality on population mobility. Random effects multinomial logit models are used to test for effects of soil quality on both temporary and permanent migration while accounting for a variety of potential confounders. The analysis reveals that soil quality significantly reduces migration in Kenya, particularly for temporary labor migration, but marginally increases migration in Uganda. These findings are consistent with several previous studies in showing that adverse environmental conditions tend to increase migration but not universally, contrary to common assumptions about environmentally-induced migration.

  15. HIV type 1 sequence diversity and dual infections in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Steain, Megan C; Wang, Bin; Yang, Chunfu; Shi, Ya-Ping; Nahlen, Bernard; Lal, Renu B; Saksena, Nitin K

    2005-10-01

    As vertical transmission of HIV-1 is an ongoing problem in East Africa, we analyzed HIV-1 strains of infected mothers, from Kisumu, Kenya. We sequenced the gag and gp120 regions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 15 HIV-infected mothers attending an antenatal clinic. PCR, cloning, bootscanning, using the program Simplot, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to assign subtypes and identify recombinants. Our analyses showed two dual infections from patients who had infections with pure subtypes and recombinants subtype D. In addition, we also noted the presence of subsubtype A1 and A2, as well as unique recombinants in this area. These results imply that the HIV epidemic in western Kenya is a dynamic one and is continually evolving. Therefore, continued monitoring of the epidemic in this region is necessary if a vaccine for the area is to be developed.

  16. A new species of Letheobia (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Malonza, Patrick K; Bauer, Aaron M; Ngwava, Jacob M

    2016-03-20

    A new species of blind snake in the genus Letheobia (L. mbeerensis sp. nov.) is described from the Mbeere area on the extreme lower slopes of southeastern Mt. Kenya. It is an attenuate blind snake, superficially similar to Letheobia lumbriciformis but with 20 midbody scale rows and 670 middorsal scales. It has a total length of 280 mm with the proportionally longest tail in the genus (2.9% of total length), a broad rostral, eyes barely visible and in life it is pink in color. The new species is known from only a single specimen collected at Siakago, in Mbeere-Embu, which lies at an elevation of about 1200m. It is a burrowing species and like many other blind snakes it is likely to be nocturnal and rarely encountered on the soil surface. The new species is incorporated into a key to the scolecophidian snakes of Kenya.

  17. Cholera outbreak in Homa Bay County, Kenya, 2015.

    PubMed

    Githuku, Jane Njoki; Boru, Waqo Gufu; Hall, Casey Daniel; Gura, Zeinab; Oyugi, Elvis; Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Semali, Innocent; Farhat, Ghada Nadim; Mattie Park, Meeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is among the re-emerging diseases in Kenya. Beginning in December 2014, a persistent outbreak occurred involving 29 out of the 47 countries. Homa Bay County in Western Kenya was among the first counties to report cholera cases from January to April 2015. This case study is based on an outbreak investigation conducted by FELTP residents in Homa Bay County in February 2015. It simulates an outbreak investigation including laboratory confirmation, active case finding, descriptive epidemiology and implementation of control measures. This case study is designed for the training of basic level field epidemiology trainees or any other health care workers working in public health-related fields. It can be administered in 2-3 hours. Used as adjunct training material, the case study provides the trainees with competencies in investigating an outbreak in preparation for the actual real-life experience of such outbreaks.

  18. Improving medical education in Kenya: an international collaboration.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Alexa

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a partnership between the University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences (CHS) Library and the University of Maryland Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL). The libraries are collaborating to develop best practices for the CHS Library as it meets the challenge of changing medical education information needs in a digital environment. The collaboration is part of a Medical Education Partnership Initiative. The library project has several components: an assessment of the CHS Library, learning visits in the United States and Kenya, development of recommendations to enhance the CHS Library, and ongoing evaluation of the program's progress. Development of new services and expertise at the CHS Library is critical to the project's success. A productive collaboration between the HS/HSL and CHS Library is ongoing. A successful program to improve the quality of medical education will have a beneficial impact on health outcomes in Kenya.

  19. Hydrochemistry of the Lake Magadi basin, Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Eugster, H.P.; Rettig, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    New and more complete compositional data are presented for a large number of water samples from the Lake Magadi area, Kenya. These water samples range from dilute inflow (300 g/kg dissolved solids). Five distinct hydrologic stages can be recognized in the evolution of the water compositions: dilute streamflow, dilute ground water, saline ground water (or hot spring reservoir), saturated brines, and residual brines. Based on the assumption that chloride is conserved in the waters during evaporative concentration, these stages are related to each other by the concentration factors of about 1:28:870:7600:16,800. Dilute streamflow is represented by perennial streams entering the Rift Valley from the west. All but one (Ewaso Ngiro) of these streams disappear in the alluvium and do not reach the valley floor. Dilute ground water was collected from shallow pits and wells dug into lake sediments and alluvial channels. Saline ground water is roughly equivalent to the hot springs reservoir postulated by Eugster (1970) and is represented by the hottest of the major springs. Saturated brines represent surficial lake brines just at the point of saturation with respect to trona (Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2O), while residual brines are essentially interstitial to the evaporite deposit and have been subjected to a complex history of precipitation and re-solution. The new data confirm the basic hydrologic model presented by Eugster (1970) which has now been refined, particularly with respect to the early stages of evaporative concentration. Budget calculations show that only bromide is conserved as completely as chloride. Sodium follows chloride closely until trona precipitation, whereas silica and sulfate are largely lost during the very first concentration' step (dilute streamflow-dilute ground water). A large fraction of potassium and all calcium plus magnesium are removed during the first two concentration steps (dilute streamflow-dilute ground water-saline ground water). Carbonate and

  20. Kenya: The December 2007 Elections and the Challenges Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-17

    that the organizers forgot to include the National Anthem in the program.5 CRS-4 6 Shashank, Bengali . How Kenya’s Election Was Rigged, the McClatchy...of the opposition to back a single candidate against Moi. The opposition learned from its mistakes, and in 2002 it succeeded in forming and holding...For example, the power of incumbency and the entrenched clout of a ruling party did not stop an opposition victory in Kenya. The lessons learned from

  1. Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    vertebrates and/or invertebrates as reservoirs of Haemorrhagic fever viruses particularly Marburg virus . The final results of this particular investigation...Research work done in Kenya has shown that three haemorrhagic fever viruses occur in the country. These are Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVF), Crimean...members for serology and or virus isolation. 2. Virus Isolation Attempts in VRC Haemorrhagic fever viruses are hazardous to culture and handle in

  2. TDRS satellite over African Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This post deploy view of a TDRS satellite shows a segment of the African Rift Valley near Lake Baringo, Kenya, Africa (3.0S, 36.0E). The African Rift Valley system is a geologic fault having its origins in southern Turkey, through the near east forming the bed of the Jordan River, Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea and down through east Africa. The line of lakes and valleys of east Africa are the result of the faulting activity.

  3. Kenya: The December 2007 Elections and the Challenges Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-04

    Kenya had a relatively open political system. Kenya’s first president was Jomo Kenyatta , an independence advocate from Kenya’s largest ethnic group...son of Jomo Kenyatta , for the presidency with a 62% majority. Moi had designated Kenyatta as the KANU candidate for president in October 2002...leader Kibaki defeated Uhuru Kenyatta , the leader of KANU. On December 27, 2007, millions of Kenyans went to the polls in Kenya’s fourth multi-party

  4. Kenya Women in Physics: Societal, Cultural, and Professional Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baki, Paul; Wabwile, Ruth L.; Nyamwandha, Cecilia A.; Odongo, Diana A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the challenges Kenyan women physicists face in their educational and career engagements as a result of social-cultural stigma, cultural prejudices, and balancing family and work demands. We also discuss steps being taken in Kenya to address gender inequality in almost all spheres of public and private workplaces and the benefits to a prosperous developing nation of educating the girl child.

  5. Seismicity distribution from temporary earthquake recording networks in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongue, J. A.; Maguire, P. K. H.; Young, P. A. V.

    1992-03-01

    The seismic activity associated with the Cenozoic rift valley in Kenya generally consists of seismic events of magnitudes ML < 3, whilst that associated with the western branch of the East African Rift System includes many higher magnitude ( Ms > 4) events, indicating a difference in the manner of energy release between the eastern and western branches. This paper combines the results from recent temporary seismic networks within Kenya and analyses the coverage of small-scale seismicity to date. The seismicity distribution derived from temporary local networks is primarily associated with the Kenya Rift and the east-west-trending Nyanza trough on the western flank of the Kenya dome. There is a scattered distribution to the east of the Rift, apparently originating in regions suffering recent volcanism and possibly associated with a shallowing of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The principal concentrations of activity are in the Nyanza trough, the Suguta valley and its continuation to the north into southern Lake Turkana, and in the Lake Bogoria region where the activity appears to be linked to the large-scale structural features of the rift. Generally, the activity can be correlated with geothermal and volcanic regions and the large-scale structural features of the main rift. The Lake Bogoria area has a higher frequency of events than other areas of the rift and has a lower b value, indicating an area of higher stress concentration. In order to determine the local fault kinematics to constrain models of the rifting process, accurate determination of the focal mechanisms of the larger events is required. This can only be achieved by deploying a larger-scale network on a more permanent basis.

  6. [Acute malaria in an Israeli tourist to Kenya].

    PubMed

    Zamir, D; Zamir, C; Storch, S; Litmanovich, M; Weiner, P

    1999-04-02

    Malaria is 1 of the main causes of death in third world countries. It has become extinct in Israel and imported cases are rare, since most visitors to endemic countries take anti-malarial prophylaxis. We report an Israeli tourist to Kenya infected with falciparum malaria complicated by severe metabolic acidosis, renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. After intensive care treatment this preventable condition improved.

  7. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities.

  8. Crisis in the Curriculum? New Counselors' Crisis Preparation, Experiences, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carrie A. Wachter; Minton, Casey A. Barrio

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors are responsible for providing crisis assessment, referral, and intervention (Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, 2009); however, little is known about their preparation and experiences in these areas. This study examined new professional counselors' (N= 193) crisis intervention…

  9. Helping Crisis Managers Protect Reputational Assets: Initial Tests of the Situational Crisis Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, W. Timothy; Holladay, Sherry J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains a comprehensive, prescriptive, situational approach for responding to crises and protecting organizational reputation: the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT). Notes undergraduate students read two crisis case studies from a set of 13 cases and responded to questions following the case. Validates a key assumption in SCCT and…

  10. Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeger, Matthew W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…

  11. Expanding the Crisis Planning Function: Introducing Elements of Risk Communication to Crisis Communication Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.; Olaniran, Bolanle A.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests use of elements of risk communication by crisis communication practitioners facing increasing industrial reliance on new technologies which might be associated with potential health/environment harm. Studies a small company crisis which reveals that elements of anticipation, public involvement/trust, technological comparison, and media…

  12. Crisis in the Curriculum? New Counselors' Crisis Preparation, Experiences, and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carrie A. Wachter; Minton, Casey A. Barrio

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors are responsible for providing crisis assessment, referral, and intervention (Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, 2009); however, little is known about their preparation and experiences in these areas. This study examined new professional counselors' (N= 193) crisis intervention…

  13. Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeger, Matthew W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…

  14. Vanadium grossular from the Mozambique metamorphic rocks, south Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Kanenori; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Agata, Takashi

    Green vanadium grossulars occur as porphyroblasts in calc-silicate-graphite gneiss associated with marble, pelitic-psammitic gneiss and granitoid gneiss in the Mozambique metamorphic belt, south Kenya. Calc-silicate-graphite gneiss contains scapolite, vanadian zoisite, vanadian diopside, vanadian sphene and vanadian magnetite, in addition to vanadium grossular. The vanadium grossular porphyroblasts are mantled by a kelyphitic rim that consists mainly of symplectic intergrowth of fine-grained scapolite, vanadium grossular, vanadian diopside, vanadian sphene, vanadian magnetite, plagioclase, calcite and quartz. Vanadian minerals (vanadian muscovite, vanadian zoisite, vanadian sphene and vanadian rutile) also occur in the marble. The occurrence of scapolite and the enrichment in vanadium suggest that the protolith of calc-silicate-graphite gneiss was evaporite or related sediment. The mode of occurrence of vanadium grossular in Kenya is quite similar to that in the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica. The vanadium-grossular-bearing gneisses in Kenya might be correlated with those in Antarctica, since the Sør Rondane Mountains had continued from the Mozambique metamorphic belt before the breakup of Gondwanaland.

  15. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  16. A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015.

    PubMed

    Ndhine, Edwardina Otieno; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Olsen, Katja N; Rugutt, Moses; Wanjohi, Cathryn W; Mwanda, Walter; Kinyagia, Benson Mburu; Steenhard, Nina R; Hansen, John-Erik Stig

    2016-01-01

    A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

  17. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Kenya, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kathleen N; Kim, Andrea A; Umuro, Mamo; Drobenuic, Jan; Williamson, John M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry S; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2016-08-03

    Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI was 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4-3.1%), corresponding to approximately 398,000 (CI = 261,000-602,000) with CHBI. CHBI is a major public health problem in Kenya, affecting approximately 400,000 persons. Knowing the HBV infection prevalence at baseline is important for planning and public health policy decision making and for monitoring the impact of viral hepatitis prevention programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Composition of the crust beneath the Kenya rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Christensen, N.I.

    1994-01-01

    We infer the composition of the crust beneath and on the flanks of the Kenya rift based on a comparison of the KRISP-90 crustal velocity structure with laboratory measurements of compressional-wave velocities of rock samples from Kenya. The rock samples studied, which are representative of the major lithologies exposed in Kenya, include volcanic tuffs and flows (primarily basalts and phonolites), and felsic to intermediate composition gneisses. This comparison indicates that the upper crust (5-12 km depth) consists primarily of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and schists similar to rocks exposed on the flanks of the rift, whereas the middle crust (12-22 km depth) consists of more mafic, hornblende-rich metamorphic rocks, probably intruded by mafic rocks beneath the rift axis. The lower crust on the flanks of the rift may consist of mafic granulite facies rocks. Along the rift axis, the lower crust varies in thickness from 9 km in the southern rift to only 2-3 km in the north, and has a seismic velocity substantially higher than the samples investigated in this study. The lower crust of the rift probably consists of a crust/mantle mix of high-grade metamorphic rocks, mafic intrusives, and an igneous mafic residuum accreted to the base of the crust during differentiation of a melt derived from the upper mantle. ?? 1994.

  19. Recentralization within decentralization: County hospital autonomy under devolution in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Manyara, Anthony M.; Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2013, Kenya transitioned into a devolved system of government with a central government and 47 semi-autonomous county governments. In this paper, we report early experiences of devolution in the Kenyan health sector, with a focus on public county hospitals. Specifically, we examine changes in hospital autonomy as a result of devolution, and how these have affected hospital functioning. Methods We used a qualitative case study approach to examine the level of autonomy that hospitals had over key management functions and how this had affected hospital functioning in three county hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data by in-depth interviews of county health managers and hospital managers in the case study hospitals (n = 21). We adopted the framework proposed by Chawla et al (1995) to examine the autonomy that hospitals had over five management domains (strategic management, finance, procurement, human resource, and administration), and how these influenced hospital functioning. Findings Devolution had resulted in a substantial reduction in the autonomy of county hospitals over the five key functions examined. This resulted in weakened hospital management and leadership, reduced community participation in hospital affairs, compromised quality of services, reduced motivation among hospital staff, non-alignment of county and hospital priorities, staff insubordination, and compromised quality of care. Conclusion Increasing the autonomy of county hospitals in Kenya will improve their functioning. County governments should develop legislation that give hospitals greater control over resources and key management functions. PMID:28771558

  20. Observations on the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The epizootic range of Rift Valley fever in Kenya is defined from the results of virus isolations during epizootics, and form an extensive serological survey of cattle which were exposed during an epizootic. A study of the sera from a wide range of wild bovidae sampled immediately after the epizootic, showed that they did not act as reservoir or amplifying hosts for RVF. Virus isolation attempts from a variety of rodents proved negative. Rift Valley fever did not persist between epizootics by producing symptomless abortions in cattle in areas within its epizootic range. A sentinel herd sampled annually after an epizootic in 1968 revealed not one single seroconversion from 1969 to 1974. Certain forest and forest edge situations were postulated as enzootic for Rift Valley fever, and a small percentage of seroconversions were detected in cattle in these areas, born four years after the last epizootic. This has been the only evidence for the persistence of the virus in Kenya since 1968, and may be a part of the interepizootic maintenance cycle for Rift Valley fever in Kenya, which otherwise remains unknown. PMID:1058243

  1. Evolutionary sequences and hydrocarbon potential of Kenya sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Cregg, A.K. )

    1991-03-01

    Kenya basins have evolved primarily through extension related to episodic continental rifting. In eastern Kenya, thick accumulations of sediments formed within grabens during the prerift phase (Precambrian to Carboniferous) of the Gondwana breakup. Synrift sedimentation (Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic) occurred within a north-south rift system, which included the Mandera basin, South Anza basin, and Lamu embayment. During the Early Jurassic, a marine transgression invaded the margins of the eastern Kenya rift basins, resulting in the deposition of platform carbonates and shales. A Callovian-aged salt basin formed in the offshore regions of the Lamu embayment. Intermittent tectonic activity and eustatic sea-level changes controlled sedimentation, which produced marine shales, carbonates or evaporites, and fluvio-deltaic to lacustrine sandstones. From the Early Cretaceous to recent, continental sediments were deposited within the North Anza and Turkana basins. These fluvial-lacustrine sediments are similar to the Lower Cretaceous sequences that have produced oil in the Mesozoic Sudanese Abu Gabra rift. Although exploration activities began in the early 1950s, significant occurrences of potential reservoir, source, and seal lithologies as well as trapping configurations remain in many areas. Favorable structures and sequences of reservoir sandstones and carbonates overlain by potentially sealing lacustrine or marine shales, evaporites, or volcanics have been noted. Potential source beds are believed to be present within shales of the lacustrine or marine depositional environments.

  2. Seismicity of the northern part of the Kenya Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pointing, A. J.; Maguire, P. K. H.; Khan, M. A.; Francis, D. J.; Swain, C. J.; Shah, E. R.; Griffiths, D. H.

    1985-07-01

    During the first eight months of 1981 earthquake data were recorded during a passive seismic experiment (KRISP 81) in northern Kenya. An eight station, small aperture, short period seismic array was located on the eastern margin of the Rift at 1.7°N, 37.3°E. Two single-point, three component stations were also located north and west of the array, forming a triangular network with approximately 150 km length sides. 2329 events were recorded during the 231 days of recording. A preliminary micro-earthquake seismicity map of the central and northern parts of the country has been produced, using a uniform half space velocity model derived from the analysis of apparent velocities, azimuths and P-S times of event arrivals at the small aperture array. Events located within the Rift show a marked north-south linearity extending from Lakes Bogoria and Baringo in the south, into the Sugata Valley to the north. Around the southern part of Lake Turkana the seismicity becomes more diffuse. However, there is little seismic activity associated with the broad zone of splay faulting that exists in northern Kenya. The seismicity observed along the axis of the Rift suggests a continuation to about 2.5°N of the tectonic style observed over the apex of the Kenya dome. A relatively quiet zone separates the activity within the Rift from a second, diffuse, north-south zone of seismicity approximately 150 km further to the east.

  3. [Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals.

  4. Estimating maize production in Kenya using NDVI: Some statistical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, J.E.; Rowland, J.; Nadeau , A.

    1998-01-01

    A regression model approach using a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has the potential for estimating crop production in East Africa. However, before production estimation can become a reality, the underlying model assumptions and statistical nature of the sample data (NDVI and crop production) must be examined rigorously. Annual maize production statistics from 1982-90 for 36 agricultural districts within Kenya were used as the dependent variable; median area NDVI (independent variable) values from each agricultural district and year were extracted from the annual maximum NDVI data set. The input data and the statistical association of NDVI with maize production for Kenya were tested systematically for the following items: (1) homogeneity of the data when pooling the sample, (2) gross data errors and influence points, (3) serial (time) correlation, (4) spatial autocorrelation and (5) stability of the regression coefficients. The results of using a simple regression model with NDVI as the only independent variable are encouraging (r 0.75, p 0.05) and illustrate that NDVI can be a responsive indicator of maize production, especially in areas of high NDVI spatial variability, which coincide with areas of production variability in Kenya.

  5. Childhood Disability Risk Factors in Kenya: Impact of Poverty and Other Socio-Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugoya, George C. T.; Mutua, Kagendo N.

    2015-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of maternal and infant/child health indices that have an established link to childhood disability (CHD) and their association with socio-economic status (SES) in Kenya. Data were drawn from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive and weighted Pearson's…

  6. Books and Reading in Kenya. Studies on Books and Reading No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakava, Henry

    Intended for use by those interested in promoting books and reading in the world, this report describes the state of books and reading in Kenya. Following a brief description of Kenya, major sections of the report deal with authorship, publishing, physical production, distribution, reading habits, professional training, and legal and institutional…

  7. China's Cooperation in Education and Training with Kenya: A Different Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    This is the first detailed study of the character and particularity of China's rapidly growing education and training cooperation with Kenya. Set against the 50-year history of Kenya's engagement with China, it pays special attention to the human resources targets of the Forum for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) from 2000. It argues that the…

  8. Rationale for Critical Pedagogy of Decolonization: Kenya as a Unit of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatimu, M. Wangeci

    2009-01-01

    In December 2007, political violence erupted in Kenya after a general election. Both Kenya and the international community were confronted with the question as to why citizens of a hitherto peaceful nation would engage in acts of hooliganism and violence after exercising a democratic right in a national election. This paper examines how new…

  9. Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…

  10. Occurrence, diversity and pattern of damage of Oplostomus species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), honey bee pests in Kenya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several arthropod pests including the hive beetles Aethina tumida and Oplostomus haroldi and the ectoparasite Varroa destructor have recently been identified as associated with honey bee colonies in Kenya. Here, we report the first documentation of O. fuligineus in Kenya, a related scarab of O. haro...

  11. Physiologic specialization of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Kenya in 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 12 collections of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici were obtained from Kenya during 2011. Collections were made around Mount Kenya and in wheat growing areas southwest towards Nakuru in the Rift Valley. Four collections were made from the international stem rust screening nursery in Njoro....

  12. Mitochondrial markers to distinguish two species of Aedes Neomelaniconion (Diptera: Culicidae) from Kenya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aedes mcintoshi and Ae circumluteolus are two common flood water mosquito species collected in Kenya. Both belong to the Aedes subgenus Neomelaniconion, a relatively large subgenus with representative species in the Ethiopian, Oriental, Australian and Palearctic regions. In Kenya, both have been imp...

  13. Expanding Circles within the Outer Circle: The Rural Kisii in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michieka, Martha M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates a range of factors that have contributed to the limited spread of English to rural Kisii, Kenya, making the presence of English in this non-urban context fall closer to an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) or Expanding Circle continuum than to the expected English as a Second Language (ESL) context. Kenya is an Outer Circle…

  14. Factors Affecting Subsidized Free Day Secondary Education in Enhancing Learners Retention in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Asena Muganda; Simiyu, Aggrey Mukasa; Riechi, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Learners are the key stakeholders of a school for it to be registered by the Department of Education. However the retention of these learners in Kenya's Secondary Level Education is a great challenge in Kenya. Every secondary school dropout signifies unfulfilled objective, goal and aim for the individual as well as the community at large. The…

  15. The Cascade Model of Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Kenya: A Time for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bett, Harry Kipkemoi

    2016-01-01

    Kenya is one of the countries whose teachers the UNESCO (2015) report cited as lacking curriculum support in the classroom. As is the case in many African countries, a large portion of teachers in Kenya enter the teaching profession when inadequately prepared, while those already in the field receive insufficient support in their professional…

  16. Rate of Financial Return to University Schooling among Lecturers in Two Public Universities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugar, T. O.; Ayodo, T. M. O.; Agak, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Influence of education on earnings among workers is well documented. However, the level of relationship that exists between earnings and schooling among lecturers in public universities in Kenya remain undetermined. The purpose of this study was to establish the financial profitability of university schooling in Kenya. The study was based on the…

  17. Matching Intended and Actual French Curriculum Objectives in Secondary Schools in Western Province, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omusonga, T. O.; Kazadi, I. M.; Indoshi, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    Intended French curriculum objectives refer to four official objectives of teaching and learning French in secondary schools in Kenya as laid down in syllabuses; namely, to equip learners with basic communicative skills, give learners access to oral and written materials, facilitate further studies, and promote global peace (Republic of Kenya,…

  18. Malaria Prevention and Treatment Using Educational Animations: A Case Study in Kakamega County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello-Bravo, Julia; Namatsi Lutomia, Anne; Madela, Lawrence Mbhekiseni; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2017-01-01

    Despite worldwide efforts to prevent malaria, the disease continues to take its strongest toll in sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya is no exception, with millions of cases and thousands of deaths reported annually. This pilot study looks at knowledge on malaria prevention and treatment among peri-urban communities in Western Kenya. Through a study on the…

  19. Conformity and Change: Community Effects on Female Genital Cutting in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Sarah R.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I analyze women's decisions to have their daughters circumcised based on data from 7,873 women in Kenya collected in the 1998 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. I use multilevel models to assess the degree to which women's decisions are correlated with the decisions of other women in their community, in addition to studying the…

  20. The Contextual Impact on School Leadership in Kenya and Need for Trust Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaya, Joel; Normore, Anthony H.

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative case study carried out along the Nyanza-Rift Valley Provinces border in Southwestern Kenya. The purpose of this paper is to examine the context in which school leader's work and operate in southwestern Kenya. We further postulate how best the influence of these contexts can be minimized through the formation…

  1. Responding to the Special Needs of Children: Educating HIV/AIDs Orphans in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Tata

    2004-01-01

    In America, as elsewhere in the developing world, education is viewed as the most prominent public policy issue, involving an interplay of national budget allocation and foreign assistance. In Kenya, education is considered the pillar of all development activities (Odiwour, 2000). The guiding philosophy for Kenya's education is the belief that…

  2. The Contribution of the Secondary School Curriculum to Peace in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiriswa, Andika Patrick; Thinguri, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Kenya Government recognizes the role of peace in socio economic development as emphasized in the national anthem while the national goals of education endeavour to promote national unity, sustainable development, peace, respect for diversity, and international consciousness among others. The Kenya vision 2030 underscores the need for peace and…

  3. Rationale for Critical Pedagogy of Decolonization: Kenya as a Unit of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatimu, M. Wangeci

    2009-01-01

    In December 2007, political violence erupted in Kenya after a general election. Both Kenya and the international community were confronted with the question as to why citizens of a hitherto peaceful nation would engage in acts of hooliganism and violence after exercising a democratic right in a national election. This paper examines how new…

  4. In Search of Remedy to Secondary School Dropout Pandemic in Kenya: Role of the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achoka, J. S. K.

    2007-01-01

    As a nation, Kenya hopes to achieve Education for All (EFA) by the year 2015. This is an uphill task given the various challenges in the education sector. The year 2015 is also significant globally because it is the target year for the fulfillment of the eight-millennium goals. Kenya looks forward to have her people achieve the millennium goals…

  5. Digitized Ethnic Hate Speech: Understanding Effects of Digital Media Hate Speech on Citizen Journalism in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimotho, Stephen Gichuhi; Nyaga, Rahab Njeri

    2016-01-01

    Ethnicity in Kenya permeates all spheres of life. However, it is in politics that ethnicity is most visible. Election time in Kenya often leads to ethnic competition and hatred, often expressed through various media. Ethnic hate speech characterized the 2007 general elections in party rallies and through text messages, emails, posters and…

  6. Effectiveness of Communication on Students Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2009-01-01

    The influence of communication on student discipline in secondary schools is an issue of continued debate in Kenya. This study was necessitated by the growing concern by education stakeholders in Kenya over the rising reports of student indiscipline in secondary schools. The study utilized qualitative approach with questionnaires, interviews and…

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed in...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed in...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed in...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed in...

  11. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  12. The Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  13. Gender Factor in Decision Making: Challenges Facing Women Leadership Development in Primary Schools' Management in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choge, Jepkemboi Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The degree of attention given to women leadership in Education in Kenya has increased considerably in the recent years especially after the government introduced the affirmative action for both girls and women in education and employment in support of Millennium Development Goals, World Conventions, the Kenya Vision 2030 blue print for economic…

  14. Educational Marginalization: Examining Challenges and Possibilities for Improving Educational Outcomes in Northeastern Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okilwa, Nathern S. A.

    2015-01-01

    As a developing country in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya has fared comparatively well in educating its young people. The new constitution of Kenya and various acts of parliament identify education as a fundamental human right and mandates the government to provide basic education for all. Consistent with the government's "Vision 2030," most…

  15. Influence of Examinations Oriented Approaches on Quality Education in Primary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of the influence of examinations oriented approaches on quality education in primary schools in Kenya. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of examination oriented teaching approaches on learning achievement among primary school pupils in Kakamega County, Kenya. It explored the assumptions…

  16. Effectiveness of Communication on Students Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2009-01-01

    The influence of communication on student discipline in secondary schools is an issue of continued debate in Kenya. This study was necessitated by the growing concern by education stakeholders in Kenya over the rising reports of student indiscipline in secondary schools. The study utilized qualitative approach with questionnaires, interviews and…

  17. Conformity and Change: Community Effects on Female Genital Cutting in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Sarah R.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I analyze women's decisions to have their daughters circumcised based on data from 7,873 women in Kenya collected in the 1998 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. I use multilevel models to assess the degree to which women's decisions are correlated with the decisions of other women in their community, in addition to studying the…

  18. In Search of Remedy to Secondary School Dropout Pandemic in Kenya: Role of the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achoka, J. S. K.

    2007-01-01

    As a nation, Kenya hopes to achieve Education for All (EFA) by the year 2015. This is an uphill task given the various challenges in the education sector. The year 2015 is also significant globally because it is the target year for the fulfillment of the eight-millennium goals. Kenya looks forward to have her people achieve the millennium goals…

  19. Getting "Entangled": A Focus on the Hotel and Hospitality Curriculum Implementation in Public Universities in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukolwe, Eunice; Cheloti, Isabela Mapelu

    2016-01-01

    Universities play a critical role in achieving Kenya Vision 2030 and the sustainable development goals. The demand for university education in Kenya has significantly increased and continues to swell. Many secondary school graduates and the working class look for opportunities to pursue university education, yet the process of curriculum…

  20. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  1. The Abolition of Secondary School Fees in Kenya: Responses by the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohba, Asayo

    2011-01-01

    Following the 2007 presidential election, the Government of Kenya abolished secondary school fees in 2008. In the context of this significant change in policy, this study examines the effect of fees on transition to secondary schooling by following 109 primary school leavers in rural Kenya after the fee abolition, starting in 2007. The study draws…

  2. Childhood Disability Risk Factors in Kenya: Impact of Poverty and Other Socio-Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugoya, George C. T.; Mutua, Kagendo N.

    2015-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of maternal and infant/child health indices that have an established link to childhood disability (CHD) and their association with socio-economic status (SES) in Kenya. Data were drawn from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive and weighted Pearson's…

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  4. China's Cooperation in Education and Training with Kenya: A Different Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    This is the first detailed study of the character and particularity of China's rapidly growing education and training cooperation with Kenya. Set against the 50-year history of Kenya's engagement with China, it pays special attention to the human resources targets of the Forum for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) from 2000. It argues that the…

  5. Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…

  6. Distribution of the main malaria vectors in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main Anopheles malaria vectors in Kenya should guide national vector control strategies. However, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant Anopheles vectors including Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles merus, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles nili are lacking. The methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in Kenya are presented here. Method Primary empirical data from published and unpublished sources were identified for the period 1990 to 2009. Details recorded for each source included the first author, year of publication, report type, survey location name, month and year of survey, the main Anopheles species reported as present and the sampling and identification methods used. Survey locations were geo-positioned using national digital place name archives and on-line geo-referencing resources. The geo-located species-presence data were displayed and described administratively, using first-level administrative units (province), and biologically, based on the predicted spatial margins of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in Kenya for the year 2009. Each geo-located survey site was assigned an urban or rural classification and attributed an altitude value. Results A total of 498 spatially unique descriptions of Anopheles vector species across Kenya sampled between 1990 and 2009 were identified, 53% were obtained from published sources and further communications with authors. More than half (54%) of the sites surveyed were investigated since 2005. A total of 174 sites reported the presence of An. gambiae complex without identification of sibling species. Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus were the most widely reported at 244 and 265 spatially unique sites respectively with the former showing the most ubiquitous distribution nationally. Anopheles gambiae

  7. Spatial modelling and mapping of female genital mutilation in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. Methods The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15–49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. Results The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural–urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p < 0.001). Conclusion This suggests that the

  8. Seismic structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the Kenya rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Gordon R.; Mechie, J.; Braile, L.W.; Mooney, W.D.; Prodehl, C.

    1994-01-01

    A major goal of the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP) 1990 experiment was the determination of deep lithospheric structure. In the refraction/wide-angle reflection part of the KRISP effort, the experiment was designed to obtain arrivals to distances in excess of 400 km. Phases from interfaces within the mantle were recorded from many shotpoints, and by design, the best data were obtained along the axial profile. Reflected arrivals from two thin (< 10 km), high-velocity layers were observed along this profile and a refracted arrival was observed from the upper high-velocity layer. These mantle phases were observed on record sections from four axial profile shotpoints so overlapping and reversed coverage was obtained. Both high-velocity layers are deepest beneath Lake Turkana and become more shallow southward as the apex of the Kenya dome is approached. The first layer has a velocity of 8.05-8.15 km/s, is at a depth of about 45 km beneath Lake Turkana, and is observed at depths of about 40 km to the south before it disappears near the base of the crust. The deeper layer has velocities ranging from 7.7 to 7.8 km/s in the south to about 8.3 km/s in the north, has a similar dip as the upper one, and is found at depths of 60-65 km. Mantle arrivals outside the rift valley appear to correlate with this layer. The large amounts of extrusive volcanics associated with the rift suggest compositional anomalies as an explanation for the observed velocity structure. However, the effects of the large heat anomaly associated with the rift indicate that composition alone cannot explain the high-velocity layers observed. These layers require some anisotropy probably due to the preferred orientation of olivine crystals. The seismic model is consistent with hot mantle material rising beneath the Kenya dome in the southern Kenya rift and north-dipping shearing along the rift axis near the base of the lithosphere beneath the northern Kenya rift. This implies lithosphere

  9. Spatial modelling and mapping of female genital mutilation in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O

    2014-03-25

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural-urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p<0.001). This suggests that the fight against FGM/C in Kenya is not yet over

  10. Blindness and eye disease in Kenya: ocular status survey results from the Kenya Rural Blindness Prevention Project.

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, R; Schwab, L; Ross-Degnan, D; Steinkuller, P; Swartwood, J

    1990-01-01

    A series of eight regional eye surveys were conducted in Kenya as part of the Kenya Rural Blindness Prevention Project. Each survey consisted of clinical examinations of about 1800 individuals selected by a random cluster sampling technique in geographically distinct and culturally homogeneous rural areas; 13,803 examinations were completed in all. Together these surveys provide the basis for national estimates of the prevalence and aetiology of visual loss and ocular pathology. The results showed that 0.7% of rural Kenyans are blind in the better eye by WHO standards, and another 2.5% suffer significant visual impairment. Rates of visual loss tend to increase five-fold in each 20-year age cohort. Females have higher prevalence of visual loss than males over age 20, and certain geographical areas have markedly higher rates. The commonest cause of both blindness and visual impairment is cataract, accounting for 38% of all visual loss. Trachoma (a localised problem), glaucoma, macular degeneration, and severe refractive errors follow cataract as leading causes of blindness in the better eye. Trauma, corneal scars of various causes, phthisis, and staphyloma are important causes of monocular blindness. Nutritional eye disease does not appear to be a problem of any magnitude in rural Kenya. PMID:2378839

  11. Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008-09 Kenya demographic and health survey.

    PubMed

    Kimani, James K; Ettarh, Remare; Warren, Charlotte; Bellows, Ben

    2014-03-31

    The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Data came from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15-49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p < 0.01) and North Eastern (OR = 0.1; p < 0.5) provinces were less likely to be insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups.

  12. Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008–09 Kenya demographic and health survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Methods Data came from the 2008–09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15–49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Results Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p < 0.01) and North Eastern (OR = 0.1; p < 0.5) provinces were less likely to be insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. Conclusions As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups. PMID:24678655

  13. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease.

  14. The Technology Crisis in Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Justin B; Barr, William B

    2017-08-01

    Neuropsychology has fallen reliant on outdated and labor intensive methods of data collection that are slow, highly inefficient, and expensive, and provide relatively data-poor estimates of human behavior despite rapid technological advance in most other fields of medicine. Here we present a brief historical overview of current testing practices in an effort to frame the current crisis, followed by an overview of different settings in which technology can and should be integrated. Potential benefits of laboratory based assessments, remote assessments, as well as passive and high-frequency data collection tools rooted in technology are discussed, along with several relevant examples and how these technologies might be deployed. Broader issues of data security and privacy are discussed, as well as additional considerations to be addressed within each setting. Some of the historical barriers to adoption of technology are also presented, along with a brief discussion of the remaining uncertainties. While by no means intended as a comprehensive review or prescriptive roadmap, our goal is to show that there are a tremendous number of advantages to technologically driven data collection methods, and that technology should be embraced by the field. Our predictions are that the comprehensive assessments of the future will likely entail a combination of lab-based assessments, remote assessments, and passive data capture, and leading the development of these efforts will cement the role of neuropsychology at the forefront of cognitive and behavioral science. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Crisis homes for adult psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Freiesleben, Michael; Foldager, Leslie

    2008-05-01

    Inspired by the Crisis Home programme in Madison, we have adapted and evaluated the programme at the Community Mental Health (CMH) Centre in Tønder, Denmark. Procedures and schedules from the Crisis Home programme were applied in this open trial. Questionnaire data concerning satisfaction with the stay and registration data concerning the admissions and bed days two years before and two years after the first stay were obtained. During four years, 52 different patients had a total of 187 stays in a crisis home. Twenty (38.5%) of the patients were attached to the ACT team. The average duration of the stays was 4.0 days. The number of readmissions and bed days after the first stay showed a significant downward tendency for the subgroup of patients with a more severe mental disorder, but not for the whole group. The patients, the crisis homes families and the referrers were very satisfied with the programme and the treatment. Crisis home stays represent a quality improvement in the treatment package, especially for patients with a more severe mental disorder. Further documentation will require a controlled study.

  16. Economic crisis and nursing in Spain.

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, Adelaida; Cabrera, Esther

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe the economic context in Spain and its impact on the health care sector and in nursing schools. The global economic crisis is affecting nursing in Spain. This study analyses and compares indicators related to health care and nursing schools among European countries. Some new strategies to cope with the challenges arising from the health care crisis are suggested. Health care costs are increasing as a result of the ageing of the Spanish population, immigration, chronicity of health problems and new medical technology. Nursing education has changed in 2010 from a 3-year diploma programme to a 4-year University degree in Nursing. This change requires new resources involving staff, facilities and equipment, all of which are lacking because of the economic crisis in Spain. The worldwide economic crisis has affected Spain more than it has other European Union (EU) countries. This global crisis has an impact on the health care sector as well on nursing schools. It is essential for nursing management to develop creative approaches to maintain cost effective patient care. New programmes and technology must be carefully evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness before being implemented. All health care professionals should be well informed and have a solid understanding of this situation.

  17. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis.

  18. Crisis management teams in health organisations.

    PubMed

    Canyon, Deon V

    2012-01-01

    Crisis management teams (CMT) are necessary to ensure adequate and appropriate crisis management planning and response to unforeseen, adverse events. This study investigated the existence of CMTs, the membership of CMTs, and the degree of training received by CMTs in Australian health and allied health organisations. This cross-sectional study draws on data provided by executive decision makers in a broad selection of health and allied health organisations. Crisis management teams were found in 44.2 per cent of the health-related organisations surveyed, which is ten per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. Membership of these CMTs was not ideal and did not conform to standard CMT membership profiles. Similarly, the extent of crisis management training in health-related organisations is 20 per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. If organisations do not become pro-active in their crisis management practices, the onus is on government to improve the situation through regulation and the provision of more physical, monetary and skill resources to ensure that the health services of Australia are sufficiently prepared to respond to adverse events.

  19. Models of care for orphaned and separated children and upholding children's rights: cross-sectional evidence from western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Lonnie; Ayuku, David; Kamanda, Allan; Atwoli, Lukoye; Ayaya, Samuel; Vreeman, Rachel; Nyandiko, Winstone; Gisore, Peter; Koech, Julius; Braitstein, Paula

    2014-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to approximately 55 million orphaned children. The growing orphan crisis has overwhelmed many communities and has weakened the ability of extended families to meet traditional care-taking expectations. Other models of care and support have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa to address the growing orphan crisis, yet there is a lack of information on these models available in the literature. We applied a human rights framework using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child to understand what extent children's basic human rights were being upheld in institutional vs. community- or family-based care settings in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The Orphaned and Separated Children's Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being Project is a 5-year cohort of orphaned children and adolescents aged ≤18 year. This descriptive analysis was restricted to baseline data. Chi-Square test was used to test for associations between categorical /dichotomous variables. Fisher's exact test was also used if some cells had expected value of less than 5. Included in this analysis are data from 300 households, 19 Charitable Children's Institutions (CCIs) and 7 community-based organizations. In total, 2871 children were enrolled and had baseline assessments done: 1390 in CCI's and 1481 living in households in the community. We identified and described four broad models of care for orphaned and separated children, including: institutional care (sub-classified as 'Pure CCI' for those only providing residential care, 'CCI-Plus' for those providing both residential care and community-based supports to orphaned children , and 'CCI-Shelter' which are rescue, detention, or other short-term residential support), family-based care, community-based care and self-care. Children in institutional care (95%) were significantly (p < 0.0001) more likely to have their basic material needs met in comparison to those in family-based care (17%) and institutions were

  20. Consumer experience of formal crisis-response services and preferred methods of crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle

    2014-08-01

    The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences.