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Sample records for kepler space mission

  1. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Parallel Observations Supporting the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, J.; Borucki, W.

    1999-09-01

    Kepler will detect Earth-like planets by monitoring 100,000 stars over four years for planetary transits. The required photometric precision is one part in 100.000. It is expected that if such ``Earths" are common, about 200 will be detected. In order to achieve the necessary precision, Kepler will be intentionally unfocussed, spreading the light of a single star over an area of 25 pixels. This will minimize the effect of space-craft jitter on photon counting. However, it will also allow the possibility of confusion with background objects which may be in the line of sight to a Kepler target. The greatest concern is that there may be a distant eclipsing binary star which could introduce a photometric signature that is similar to a planetary transit. For the brightest stars in Kepler's intended magnitude range, which is 9 to 14 mv, this will not be serious, because the profiles are different: eclipses have a ``V" shape, transits are flat-bottomed, and Kepler will differentiate the two. However, in this magnitude range, the number of stars per magnitude doubles at each fainter magnitude. More than half of Kepler's discoveries will be in the magnitude which is the faintest in which the precision of the photometry will be able to reveal a transit. That is, most of the discoveries will be low signal to noise events, in which the reality of a small decrease in the light from the region of the target star is certain, but the details of the decrease are not. Hubble Space Telescope images indicate there will be, on average, 0.5 background objects in the magnitude range that could be a problem for Kepler in the 25 pixel blur region of Kepler's optics. Approximately half of the stars will be binaries. The probability that a binary will be eclipsing is the same as that a planetary orbit will be transitting. In order to reduce the chance of a misidentification, various strategies can be used. Rather than integrating the signal over the 25 pixels and returning only the sum, the

  3. Lessons Learned from the Kepler Mission and Space Telescope Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned over the course of several space telescope mission and instrument developments spanning two decades. These projects involved astronomical telescopes developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and were designed to further our understanding of the Universe. It is hoped that the lessons drawn from these experiences may be of use to future mission developers.

  4. Kepler's Third Law and NASA's "Kepler Mission"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Alan; Komatsu, Toshi; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Koch, David

    2015-01-01

    NASA's "Kepler Mission" has been wildly successful in discovering exoplanets. This paper summarizes the mission goals, briefly explains the transit method of finding exoplanets and design of the mission, provides some key findings, and describes useful education materials available at the "Kepler" website.

  5. Kepler's Third Law and NASA's "Kepler Mission"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Alan; Komatsu, Toshi; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Koch, David

    2015-01-01

    NASA's "Kepler Mission" has been wildly successful in discovering exoplanets. This paper summarizes the mission goals, briefly explains the transit method of finding exoplanets and design of the mission, provides some key findings, and describes useful education materials available at the "Kepler" website.

  6. Kepler's Third Law and NASA's Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Alan; Komatsu, Toshi; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Koch, David

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission (Fig. 1) has been wildly successful in discovering exoplanets. This paper summarizes the mission goals, briefly explains the transit method of finding exoplanets and design of the mission, provides some key findings, and describes useful education materials available at the Kepler website.

  7. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLE STARS IN THE ASTEROSEISMOLOGY PROGRAM OF THE KEPLER SPACE MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Blomme, J.; Debosscher, J.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Gilliland, R. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Brown, T. M.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J. M.; Stello, D.; Derekas, A.; Stevens, I. R.; Suran, M. D.

    2010-04-20

    We present the first results of the application of supervised classification methods to the Kepler Q1 long-cadence light curves of a subsample of 2288 stars measured in the asteroseismology program of the mission. The methods, originally developed in the framework of the CoRoT and Gaia space missions, are capable of identifying the most common types of stellar variability in a reliable way. Many new variables have been discovered, among which a large fraction are eclipsing/ellipsoidal binaries unknown prior to launch. A comparison is made between our classification from the Kepler data and the pre-launch class based on data from the ground, showing that the latter needs significant improvement. The noise properties of the Kepler data are compared to those of the exoplanet program of the CoRoT satellite. We find that Kepler improves on CoRoT by a factor of 2-2.3 in point-to-point scatter.

  8. Kepler Mission: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bryson, S.; Natalie, B.; Caldwell, D. A.; DeVore, E.; Jenkins, J. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cochran, W. D.; Dunham, E. W.; Gautier, T. N.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Sasselov, D.; Gilliland, R. L.; Gould, A.; Howell, S. B.; Monet, D. G.

    2007-12-01

    Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The instrument consists of a high precision photometer with Schmidt-type optics and a focal plane containing 95 million pixels to monitor over 100,000 stars to search for patterns of transits generated by planets as small as Mars. The recent reduction in the mission duration is discussed with regard to the impact on the expected science product and null statistics. Both terrestrial and giant planets discoveries will be followed up with ground-based Doppler-velocity observations to determine mass and density. The first meeting of Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium was held in Paris to organize an international team to analyze the Kepler data to determine the characteristics of the brighter target stars including their size and age. Stellar size determinations accurate to a few percent are expected. These will allow very accurate planet sizes to be determined from the depth of the transit signals. NASA HQ received thirty six proposals for the Participating Scientist Program and chose several new members to join the Science Team. Both the 0.95 m Schmidt corrector and 1.4 m aperture primary mirror have been completed and delivered for integration into the photometer. The focal plane with forty-two science CCD detectors and their processing electronics has been assembled and tested. The spacecraft assembly has begun with the mounting of the reaction control system, reaction wheels, attitude determination & control system, and power systems. Both the photometer and spacecraft are nearing final assembly with all subsystems having passed their environmental and performance testing. The photometer to spacecraft integration will begin this spring. The Mission is on schedule for a launch in February 2009. The Kepler Mission is funded by the NASA Astrophysics Division, Science Mission Directorate.

  9. KEPLER Mission Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Transiting Extrasolar Planets Workshop ASP Conference Series, Vol. 366, 2007 C. Afonso, D. Weldrake and Th. Henning KEPLER Mission Status W. J...first discoveries of extrasolar planets around normal stars in 1995, approximately 200 such planets have been discovered. At least 6% of solar-like stars...result if none are found. Nevertheless, some assumptions about the frequency and distri- butions of extrasolar planets must be made to assess the

  10. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA`s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  11. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.; Duren, R.; Frerking, M.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the Sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  12. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  13. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  14. Planet Detection: The Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    and another 1100 pixels containing virtual smear measurements used to remove artifacts caused by the lack of a shutter and a finite 0.51-s readout time; and 1070 trailing black measurements that monitor the bias voltage presented at the input of the analog-to-digital converter so that the zero point can be restored to the digitized data during processing [24]. There are a total of up to 6,092,680 pixels containing the stellar and collateral data collected for each LC, with 48 LCs/day. While only 512 SC targets are defined at any given time, there are 30 SC intervals for each LC interval, and an average of 85 pixels are allocated for each SC target star. Smear and black-level measurements are collected for each SC target, but only for the rows and columns occupied by SC stellar target pixels. Approximately 21% of the pixel data returned by Kepler are SC data. The total data rate for both LC and SC data is 1.3 GB/day when the data are expanded to 4 bytes/pixel from the compressed bit stream. Raw pixel data are downlinked at monthly intervals through National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN) and routed through the ground system to the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center. The SOC performs a number of critical functions for the mission, including management of the target definitions which specify the pixels needed for each stellar target and the compression tables that allow a ˜5:1 compression of the science data onboard the SSR (from 23 bits/pixel to 4.6 bits/pixel), but its two major tasks are to: 1. Process raw pixel data to produce archival science data products, including calibrated pixels, measurements of the location or centroid of each star in each frame, flux time series representing the brightness of each star in each data frame, and systematic error-corrected flux time series that have instrumental artifacts removed. 2. Search each target-star light curve to identify transit-like features

  15. NASA's Kepler Mission Announces Latest Discoveries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Scientists from NASA's Kepler mission have been busy recently. The team has announced the discovery of Kepler-22b, its first confirmed planet in the habitable zone of its solar system, 600 light ye...

  16. Comparison of the Kepler and Eddington Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Kepler and Eddington missions are spaceborne photometric missions with similar apertures. Both are capable of finding Earth-size extrasolar planets and both can detect p-mode oscillations in stars. The Kepler mission is optimized to find Earth-size planets in the habitability zone of Solar-like stars and does astroseismology only as incidental science. The Eddington mission appears to be optimized for astroseismology. The Kepler design provides a very large field of view, a low measurement cadence, a heliocentric orbit, and a long mission duration. The demand for a large field-of-view results in a Schmidt design with a massive corrector. However, the use of the corrector allows a 105 square degree FOV and thereby provides 15 times the number of stars at a given magnitude than does the optical design used in Eddington. Because Kepler stares at a single FOV throughout the mission, it does much less astroseismology than Eddington. Other comparisons are also discussed.

  17. The Kepler Project: Mission Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The instrument consists of a 0.95 m aperture photometer designed to obtain high precision photometric measurement of > 100,000 stars to search for patterns of transits. The focal plane of the Schmidt-telescope contains 42 CCDs with at total of 95 mega pixels that cover 116 square degrees of sky. The photometer was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit on March 6, 2009, finished its commissioning on May 12, and is now in the science operations mode. During the commissioning of the Kepler photometer, data were obtained at a 30 minute cadence for 53,000 stars for 9.7 days. Although the data have not yet been corrected for the presence of systematic errors and artifacts, the data show the presence of hundreds of eclipsing binary stars and variable stars of amazing variety. To provide some estimate of the capability of the photometer, a quick analysis of the photometric precision was made. Analysis of the commissioning data also show transits, occultations and light emitted from the known exoplanet HAT-P7b. The data show a smooth rise and fall of light: from the planet as it orbits its star, punctuated by a drop of 130 +/- 11 ppm in flux when the planet passes behind its star. We interpret this as the phase variation of the dayside thermal emission plus reflected light from the planet as it orbits its star and is occulted. The depth of the occultation is similar in amplitude to that expected from a transiting Earth-size planet and demonstrates that the Mission has the precision necessary to detect such planets.

  18. KEPLER Mission Spacecraft Concept Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Miller, D. D.; Harvey, A. C.

    2004-05-01

    The Kepler Discovery Mission has been developed to monitor a large star field for four years and directly detect Earth-like planets through differential photometry. The mission is launched on a Delta II and flies in a heliocentric orbit. The 903-Kg flight segment consists of a CCD-based photometer instrument and a spacecraft bus. The spacecraft bus is at the base of the flight segment and provides structural support to the photometer. The spacecraft is 3-axis-stablized and uses fine guidance sensors to provide accurate pointing throughout the mission to better than 18.4 arcsec. Reaction wheels are used for attitude adjustments with a cold-gas reaction control system for wheel desaturations. Spacecraft thermal control is largely passive with some active heaters. The spacecraft avionics is based on redundant RAD 750 computers with a throughput of 119 MIPS. The power system produces 812 W EOL using a fixed solar array with a direct energy transfer architecture. Primary data downlink is via a Ka-band HGA to the DSN 34-m antennas.

  19. Kepler Mission Website: Portal to the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; DeVore, E.; Gould, A.; Koch, D.

    2008-05-01

    The 400th anniversary of Galileo's telescope is an opportunity to turn the public's eyes skyward and to the universe beyond the solar system. The Kepler Mission, launching in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) will is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone, using the transit method of detection. The habitable zone encompasses the distances from a star where liquid water can exist on a planet's surface. Results from this mission will allow us to place our solar system within the continuum of planetary systems in the Galaxy. The Kepler Mission is a NASA Discovery Program Mission. The Kepler Mission website http://www.kepler.arc.nasa.gov/ offers classroom activity lesson plans Detecting Planet Transits, The Human Orrery, and Morning Star and Evening Star. The activities are suitable for the informal science education realm. The spacecraft paper model and LEGO model orrerey can be used in the classroom by teachers or at home by families. The mission simulation and animation, as well as lessons and models highlight the science concepts critical to employing the transit method of detection, Kepler's Laws. The Send Your Name to Space on Kepler Spacecraft provides a certificate of participation for all individuals that submit there name to be listed on a DVD placed on the spacecraft. This poster will provide details on each of the items described.

  20. Kepler Mission: A Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a Discovery-class mission designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. It is a wide field of view photometer Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs. It has a 0.95 m aperture and 1.4 m primary and is designed to attain a photometric precision of 2 parts in 10(exp 5) for 12th magnitude solar-like stars for a 6 hr transit duration. It will continuously observe 100,000 main-sequence stars from 9th to 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation for a period of four years with a cadence of 4/hour. An additional 250 stars can be monitored at a cadence of l/minute to do astro-seismology of stars brighter than 11.5 mv. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. A ground-based program to classify all 225,000 stars in the FOV and to do a detailed examination of a subset of the stars that show planetary companions is also planned.

  1. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, E. K.; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the Name In Space project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The Kepler Star Wheel (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AGU. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://Kepler.NASA.gov.

  2. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Edna; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P.

    2009-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the "Name In Space” project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The "Kepler Star Wheel” (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AAS. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://kepler.nasa.gov. Funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA's Kepler Mission.

    PubMed

    Batalha, Natalie M

    2014-09-02

    The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system.

  4. Take off with NASA's Kepler Mission!: The Search for Other "Earths"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David; DeVore, Edna K.; Gould, Alan; Harman, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Humans have long wondered about life in the universe. Are we alone? Is Earth unique? What is it that makes our planet a habitable one, and are there others like Earth? NASA's Kepler Mission seeks the answers to these questions. Kepler is a space-based, specially designed 0.95 m aperture telescope. Launching in 2009, Kepler is NASA's first mission…

  5. Take off with NASA's Kepler Mission!: The Search for Other "Earths"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David; DeVore, Edna K.; Gould, Alan; Harman, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Humans have long wondered about life in the universe. Are we alone? Is Earth unique? What is it that makes our planet a habitable one, and are there others like Earth? NASA's Kepler Mission seeks the answers to these questions. Kepler is a space-based, specially designed 0.95 m aperture telescope. Launching in 2009, Kepler is NASA's first mission…

  6. Management and Systems Engineering of the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James; Livesay, Leslie; Frerking, Margaret; Cooke, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Kepler is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zones around stars other than the sun. Selected for implementation in 2001 and launched in 2009, Kepler seeks to determine whether Earth-like planets are common or rare in the galaxy. The investigation requires a large, space-based photometer capable of simultaneously measuring the brightnesses of 100,000 stars at part-per-million level of precision. This paper traces the development of the mission from the perspective of project management and systems engineering and describes various methodologies and tools that were found to be effective. The experience of the Kepler development is used to illuminate lessons that can be applied to future missions.

  7. Management and Systems Engineering of the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James; Livesay, Leslie; Frerking, Margaret; Cooke, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Kepler is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zones around stars other than the sun. Selected for implementation in 2001 and launched in 2009, Kepler seeks to determine whether Earth-like planets are common or rare in the galaxy. The investigation requires a large, space-based photometer capable of simultaneously measuring the brightnesses of 100,000 stars at part-per-million level of precision. This paper traces the development of the mission from the perspective of project management and systems engineering and describes various methodologies and tools that were found to be effective. The experience of the Kepler development is used to illuminate lessons that can be applied to future missions.

  8. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James; Frerking, Margaret; Duren, Riley

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earthsize planets orbiting in Habitable Zone of Sun-like stars. Objective is to measure how frequently planets of various sizes and orbits form around stars in the Milky Way. Kepler detects planets by measuring drop in brightness of star due to "transit" of a planet Earth-size planet transiting Sunlike star causes drop in brightness of only 84 parts per million

  9. Kepler Mission: A Search for Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was selected by NASA as one of the next two Discovery Missions. The mission design is based on the search for Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars, but does not preclude the discovery of larger or smaller planets in other orbits of non-solar-like stars. An overview of the mission, the scientific goals and the anticipated results will be presented.

  10. Kepler as a Binary Star Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, Rosanne

    2010-12-01

    The Kepler observatory was designed to discover transits by Earth-like planets orbiting Sun-like stars. Its first major discoveries, however, are hot objects in close orbits around main-sequence stars. These are likely to be white-dwarf remnants of stars that have transferred mass to the present-day main sequence stars. These particular main-sequence stars are among the Kepler targets because they are bright. The question is: how many of the other Kepler target stars are also orbited by white dwarfs? We have shown that several hundred white dwarfs are likely to transit the Kepler target stars during the mission. In some cases, the signature will be dominated by gravitational lensing, producing distinctive ``antitransits''. Neutron stars and black holes may also be discovered this way. The lensing signature provides a measurement of the gravitational mass of the compact object. Through the discovery of both transits and antitransits caused by white dwarfs, Kepler will discover and study binaries that have already experienced a phase of mass transfer or a common envelope phase. Thus, Kepler will become a premier tool for the study of interacting binaries. During the next phase of interaction, some of the Kepler binaries may become nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and may be candidates for Type Ia supernovae or accretion-induced collapse.

  11. Eclipsing Binaries from the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Cochran, William; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a photometric space mission that will continuously observe a single 100 sq deg field of view (FOV) of greater than 100,000 stars in the Cygnus-Lyra region for 4 or more years with a precision of 14 ppm (R=12). The primary goal of the mission is to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. In the process, many eclipsing binaries (EB) will also be detected. Prior to launch, the stellar characteristics will have been detennined for all the stars in the FOV with R<16. As part of the verification process, stars with transits <5% will need to have follow-up radial velocity observations performed to determine the component masses and thereby separate transits caused by stellar companions from those caused by planets. The result will be a rich database on EBs. The community will have access to the archive for uses such as for EB modeling of the high-precision light curves. A guest observer program is also planned for objects not already on the target list.

  12. KEPLER MISSION STELLAR AND INSTRUMENT NOISE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Miglio, Andrea; Dunham, Edward W.; Argabright, Vic S.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Koch, David G.; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Basri, Gibor; Buzasi, Derek L.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Welsh, William F.

    2011-11-01

    Kepler mission results are rapidly contributing to fundamentally new discoveries in both the exoplanet and asteroseismology fields. The data returned from Kepler are unique in terms of the number of stars observed, precision of photometry for time series observations, and the temporal extent of high duty cycle observations. As the first mission to provide extensive time series measurements on thousands of stars over months to years at a level hitherto possible only for the Sun, the results from Kepler will vastly increase our knowledge of stellar variability for quiet solar-type stars. Here, we report on the stellar noise inferred on the timescale of a few hours of most interest for detection of exoplanets via transits. By design the data from moderately bright Kepler stars are expected to have roughly comparable levels of noise intrinsic to the stars and arising from a combination of fundamental limitations such as Poisson statistics and any instrument noise. The noise levels attained by Kepler on-orbit exceed by some 50% the target levels for solar-type, quiet stars. We provide a decomposition of observed noise for an ensemble of 12th magnitude stars arising from fundamental terms (Poisson and readout noise), added noise due to the instrument and that intrinsic to the stars. The largest factor in the modestly higher than anticipated noise follows from intrinsic stellar noise. We show that using stellar parameters from galactic stellar synthesis models, and projections to stellar rotation, activity, and hence noise levels reproduce the primary intrinsic stellar noise features.

  13. Kepler Mission Discovers Trove of Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Kepler discovery mission is collecting more than just pennies from heaven. Results from the first 4 months of science operations of the Kepler space telescope, announced on 2 February, include the discovery of 1235 candidate planets orbiting 997 stars in a small portion of the Milky Way galaxy examined by the telescope. Follow-up observations likely could confirm about 80% of the candidates as actual planets rather than false positives, according to researchers. This new trove of possible exoplanets could greatly expand the number of known planets outside of our solar system.

  14. Kepler Mission's focal plane characterization models implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christopher; Klaus, Todd; Jenkins, Jon

    2010-07-01

    The Kepler Mission photometer is an unusually complex array of CCDs. A large number of time-varying instrumental and systematic effects must be modeled and removed from the Kepler pixel data to produce light curves of sufficiently high quality for the mission to be successful in its planet-finding objective. After the launch of the spacecraft, many of these effects are difficult to remeasure frequently, and various interpolations over a small number of sample measurements must be used to determine the correct value of a given effect at different points in time. A library of software modules, called Focal Plane Characterization (FC) Models, is the element of the Kepler Science Data Pipeline (hereafter "pipeline") that handles this. FC, or products generated by FC, are used by nearly every element of the SOC processing chain. FC includes Java components: database persistence classes, operations classes, model classes, and data importers; and MATLAB code: model classes, interpolation methods, and wrapper functions. These classes, their interactions, and the database tables they represent, are discussed. This paper describes how these data and the FC software work together to provide the pipeline with the correct values to remove non-photometric effects caused by the photometer and its electronics from the Kepler light curves. The interpolation mathematics is reviewed, as well as the special case of the sky-to-pixel/pixel-to-sky coordinate transformation code, which incorporates a compound model that is unique in the SOC software.

  15. Data Processing and Archiving Software for the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swam, M. S.; Swade, D.; Sontag, C.; Heller-Boyer, C.; Gaffney, N.; Kidwell, R.

    2007-10-01

    The Kepler Mission, a NASA Discovery mission scheduled for launch in 2008 November, will survey a 105 deg^2 field of view in the Cygnus-Lyra region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone. The Kepler Data Management Center at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) will provide the data processing and archiving functions for the mission. Data processing consists of converting spacecraft telemetry into FITS data products, populating header keywords, and basic calibration of the data. The archive will save the original telemetry and science data products in several different forms to serve the principal investigator, guest observers, and the astronomical community at large. Extensive re-use of proven, multi-mission data processing and archive systems developed at STScI for the Hubble Space Telescope project will greatly reduce the development effort for the Kepler mission, and should result in fewer operational problems. This paper will discuss the software architecture and re-use plans for these systems.

  16. Kepler & K2: One spacecraft, Two Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    This year, we mark twenty years of exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems orbiting main sequence stars. Exoplanet discoveries spill into the thousands, and the sensitivity boundaries continue to expand. NASA's Kepler Mission unveiled a galaxy replete with small planets and revealed populations that don't exist in our own solar system. The mission has yielded a sample sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, and host star properties. We've learned that every late-type star has at least one planet on average, that terrestrial-sized planets are more common than larger planets within 1 AU, and that the nearest, potentially habitable earth-sized planet is likely within 5pc. After four years of continuous observations, the Kepler prime mission ended in May 2013 with the loss of a second reaction wheel. Thanks to innovative engineering, the spacecraft gained a second lease on life and emerged as the ecliptic surveyor, K2. In many regards, K2 is a distinctly new mission, not only by pointing at new areas of the sky but also by focusing on community-driven goals that diversify the science yield. For exoplanets, this means targeting bright and low mass stars -- the populations harboring planets amenable to dynamical and atmospheric characterization. To date, the mission has executed 7 observing campaigns lasting ~80 days each and has achieved a 6-hour photometric precision of 30 ppm. A couple dozen planets have been confirmed, including two nearby (< 50 pc) systems on the watch-list for future JWST campaigns. While Kepler prime is setting the stage for the direct imaging missions of the future, K2 is easing us into an era of atmospheric characterization -- one spacecraft, two missions, and a bright future for exoplanet science.

  17. Variable Stars with the Kepler Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, L.; Szabó, R.; Plachy, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Kepler space telescope has revolutionized our knowledge about exoplanets and stars and is continuing to do so in the K2 mission. The exquisite photometric precision, together with the long, uninterrupted observations opened up a new way to investigate the structure and evolution of stars. Asteroseismology, the study of stellar oscillations, allowed us to investigate solar-like stars, and to peer into the insides of red giants and massive stars. But many discoveries have been made about classical variable stars, too, ranging from pulsators like Cepheids and RR Lyraes to eclipsing binary stars and cataclysmic variables, and even supernovae. In this review, which is far from an exhaustive summary of all results obtained with Kepler, we collected some of the most interesting discoveries, and ponder on the role for amateur observers in this golden era of stellar astrophysics.

  18. Latest Results from the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Kepler Mission Team

    2012-10-01

    As the Kepler Mission completes the end of its third year of science observations, calibrated time series data of increasing length are becoming available that make possible the detection of planetary candidates smaller than Earth and candidates with orbital periods nearing one year. Further, the greater capability and sophistication of the pipeline analyses improve the completeness of the results and provide better estimates of the parameter distributions. The most recent data release on 28 July 2012 (Quarters 6 through 9) adds an additional ¾ year of observations so that most planetary candidates with orbital periods as long as 273 days now show at least 3 transits. Data for an additional year (i.e., Quarters 10 through 13) are scheduled to be released on 28 October 2012. A first look at the size, period, and semi-major axis distributions of these data will be presented. Summaries of the planets confirmed, candidates that are being actively analyzed, and the methods being used to verify and confirm planets will be discussed. The Extended Kepler Mission operations begin on 1 October 2012 and many changes in mission focus and operations, data release, and science community participation are being implemented and will be outlined. Funding for this Discovery mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Planet Hunters in the Kepler Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, C. J.; Fischer, D.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Lynn, S.; Parrish, M.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R.; Smith, A. M.; Orosz, J. A.; Carter, J. A.; Howard, A.; Torres, G.; Crepp, J. R.; Keel, W. C.; Welsh, W. F.; Kaib, N. A.; Terrell, D.; Gagliano, R.; Jek, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org), part of the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) collection of online citizen science projects, uses the World Wide Web to enlist the general public to identify transits in the Kepler light curves. Volunteers are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits, with multiple independent classifiers reviewing a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler's ~160,000 target stars. Since December 2010, more than 170,000 members of the general public have participated in Planet Hunters contributing over 13 million classifications. With the start of the Kepler extended mission, Planet Hunters has entered a new phase. We will detail the upgrades and new features added to the project, highlighting in particular our search for circumbinary planets (planets orbiting both stars in binary) in the the extended mission Quarterly data releases. We will also report on our latest planet candidates, including the characterization of our first confirmed planet candidate, a circumbinary planet in a four star system. Acknowledgements: MES is supported by a National Science Foundation Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1003258 and in part by an American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant.

  20. Testing the asymptotic relation for period spacings from mixed modes of red giants observed with the Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysschaert, B.; Beck, P. G.; Corsaro, E.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Aerts, C.; Arentoft, T.; Kjeldsen, H.; García, R. A.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Degroote, P.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Dipole mixed pulsation modes of consecutive radial order have been detected for thousands of low-mass red-giant stars with the NASA space telescope Kepler. These modes have the potential to reveal information on the physics of the deep stellar interior. Aims: Different methods have been proposed to derive an observed value for the gravity-mode period spacing, the most prominent one relying on a relation derived from asymptotic pulsation theory applied to the gravity-mode character of the mixed modes. Our aim is to compare results based on this asymptotic relation with those derived from an empirical approach for three pulsating red-giant stars. Methods: We developed a data-driven method to perform frequency extraction and mode identification. Next, we used the identified dipole mixed modes to determine the gravity-mode period spacing by means of an empirical method and by means of the asymptotic relation. In our methodology we consider the phase offset, ɛg, of the asymptotic relation as a free parameter. Results: Using the frequencies of the identified dipole mixed modes for each star in the sample, we derived a value for the gravity-mode period spacing using the two different methods. These values differ by less than 5%. The average precision we achieved for the period spacing derived from the asymptotic relation is better than 1%, while that of our data-driven approach is 3%. Conclusions: Good agreement is found between values for the period spacing derived from the asymptotic relation and from the empirical method. The achieved uncertainties are small, but do not support the ultra-high precision claimed in the literature. The precision from our data-driven method is mostly affected by the differing number of observed dipole mixed modes. For the asymptotic relation, the phase offset, ɛg, remains ill defined, but enables a more robust analysis of both the asymptotic period spacing and the dimensionless coupling factor. However, its estimation might

  1. Scientific Issues Addressed by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourcki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Kepler Mission uses a wide field-of-view telescope to photometrically monitor 100,000 main-sequence stars for evidence of planetary transits. Because of the large number of stars monitored and because the mission is designed with a precision (0.002%) sufficient to readily recognize Earth-size planets transiting solar-like stars, several hundred Earth-size planets should be found. Based on the the Dopper velocity observations that find 2% of the main-sequence stars have Jupiter-size planets in short-period orbits, the Kepler mission is also expected to detect about 2000 giant planets. Several questions about the association of planet types and stellar characteristics can be investigated. For example; Are small planets found when Jupiter-mass planets are also present in inner orbits? What is the frequency of small planets compared to Jupiter-mass planets? What is the frequency and distribution of planets intermediate in size and mass to that of Earth and Jupiter? What correlations exist between planet size, distribution, and frequency with the characteristics of the stars they orbit? A comparison between model predictions and observation should be a useful step in evolving better models of planetary system formation and help put the formation of our Solar System in perspective.

  2. Kepler Mission: A Search for Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D.; Borucki, W.; Jenkens, J.; Dunham, E.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a search for terrestrial planets by monitoring a large ensemble of stars for the periodic transits of planets. The mission consists of a 95-cm aperture photometer with 105 square deg field of view that monitors 100,000 dwarf stars for four years. The mission is unique in its ability to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of other stars in the extended solar neighborhood. An Earth-size transit of a solar-like star causes a change in brightness of about 100 ppm. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that a total system noise level of 20 ppm is readily achievable on the timescale of transits. Earth-like transits have been created and reliably measured in an end-to-end system test that has all known sources of noise including, spacecraft jitter. To detect Earth-size planets, the photometer must be spaceborne; this also eliminates the day-night and seasonal cycle interruptions of ground-based observing. The photometer will stare at a single field of stars for four years, with an option to continue for two more years. This allows for detection of four transits of planets in Mars-like orbits and detection of planets even smaller than Earth especially for short period orbits, since the signal to noise improves as the square root of the number of transits observed. In addition to detection of planets, Kepler data are also useful for understanding the activity cycles and rotation rates of the stars observed. For the 3,000 stars brighter than mv= 11.4 p-mode oscillations are measured. The mission has been selected as one of three candidates for NASA's next Discovery mission.

  3. The Kepler Mission and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Jenkins, Jon; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D.; Devore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N., III; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Gould, Alan; Jenkins, Jon; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey; Monet, David; Sasselov, Dimitar; Boss, Alan; Caldwell, John; Dupree, Andrea K.; Howell, Steve B.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Meibom, Søren; Morrison, David; Tarter, Jill; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Rowe, Jason F.; van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Buzasi, Derek; Charbonneau, David; Doyle, Lau-Rance; Ford, Eric; Fortney, Jonathan; Holman, Matthew; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason; Welsh, William

    Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The instrument consists of a 0.95 m aperture photometer designed to obtain high-precision photometric measurement for more than 3.5 years of more than 100,000 stars to search for patterns of transits of exoplanets. The focal plane of the Schmidt telescope contains 42 CCDs with a total of 95 megapixels that cover 115 square degrees of sky. The single star field will be viewed for the entire duration of the mission. The photometer was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit on March 6, 2009, finished its commissioning on May 12, and is now in the science operations mode. The bases for a number of the design choices are described. Although the data have not yet been fully corrected for the presence of systematic errors and artifacts, the data show the presence of thousands of eclipsing binaries and variable stars of amazing variety. The character of stellar variability allows us to distinguish dwarf stars from giants. Astrometric stability at the sub-millipixel level of the photocenters of stars allows us in many cases to distinguish transit candidates from background eclipsing binaries. Analysis of the early data shows transits, occultations and even visible light emission from the hot exoplanet HAT-P-7b. The latest results on exoplanet detections from Kepler will be presented. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. The Kepler Mission and Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Cochran, William; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a photometric mission with a precision of 14 ppm (at R=12) that is designed to continuously observe a single field of view (FOV) of greater 100 sq deg in the Cygnus-Lyra region for four or more years. The primary goal of the mission is to monitor greater than 100,000 stars for transits of Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. In the process, many eclipsing binaries (EB) will also be detected and light curves produced. To enhance and optimize the mission results, the stellar characteristics for all the stars in the FOV with R less than 16 will have been determined prior to launch. As part of the verification process, stars with transit candidates will have radial velocity follow-up observations performed to determine the component masses and thereby separate eclipses caused by stellar companions from transits caused by planets. The result will be a rich database on EBs. The community will have access to the archive for further analysis, such as, for EB modeling of the high-precision light curves. A guest observer program is also planned to allow for photometric observations of objects not on the target list but within the FOV, since only the pixels of interest from those stars monitored will be transmitted to the ground.

  5. The Kepler Mission and Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Cochran, William; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a photometric mission with a precision of 14 ppm (at R=12) that is designed to continuously observe a single field of view (FOV) of greater 100 sq deg in the Cygnus-Lyra region for four or more years. The primary goal of the mission is to monitor greater than 100,000 stars for transits of Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. In the process, many eclipsing binaries (EB) will also be detected and light curves produced. To enhance and optimize the mission results, the stellar characteristics for all the stars in the FOV with R less than 16 will have been determined prior to launch. As part of the verification process, stars with transit candidates will have radial velocity follow-up observations performed to determine the component masses and thereby separate eclipses caused by stellar companions from transits caused by planets. The result will be a rich database on EBs. The community will have access to the archive for further analysis, such as, for EB modeling of the high-precision light curves. A guest observer program is also planned to allow for photometric observations of objects not on the target list but within the FOV, since only the pixels of interest from those stars monitored will be transmitted to the ground.

  6. Kepler Team Marks Five Years in Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-07

    On March 6, 2009, NASA Kepler Space Telescope rocketed into the night skies above Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida to find planets around other stars, called exoplanets, in search of potentially habitable worlds.

  7. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Multiple Planets Orbiting Twin Suns

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first transiting circumbinary system -- multiple planets orbiting two suns -- 4,900 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Cygnus, proving that more t...

  8. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2002-01-01

    Kepler Mission to detect Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy was approved by NASA in December 2001 for a 4-5 year mission. The launch is planned in about 5 years. The Kepler observatory will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit. The unique feature of the Kepler Mission is its ability to detect Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars at a distance similar to that of Earth (from our Sun); such an orbit could provide an environment suitable for supporting life as we know it. The Kepler observatory accomplishes this feat by looking for the transits of planetary object in front of their suns; Kepler has a photometric precision of 10E-5 (0.00001) to achieve such detections. Other ongoing planetary detection programs (based mostly on a technique that looks for the shifting of spectral lines of the primary star due to its planetary companions' motions around it) have detected massive planets (with masses in the range of Jupiter); such massive planets are not considered suitable for supporting life. If our current theories for the formation of planetary systems are valid, we expect to detect about 50 Earth-like planets during Kepler's 4-year mission (assuming a random distribution of the planetary orbital inclinations with respect to the line of sight from Kepler). The number of detection will increase about 640 planets if the planets to be detected are Jupiter-sized.

  9. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2003-01-01

    Kepler Mission to detect Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy was approved by NASA in December 2001 for a 4-5 year mission. The launch is planned in about 5 years. The Kepler observatory will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit. The unique feature of the Kepler Mission is its ability to detect Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars at a distance similar to that of Earth (from our Sun); such an orbit could provide an environment suitable for supporting life as we know it. The Kepler observatory accomplishes this feat by looking for the transits of planetary object in front of their suns; Kepler has a photometric precision of 10E-5 (0.00001) to achieve such detections. Other ongoing planetary detection programs (based mostly on a technique that looks for the shifting of spectral lines of the primary star due to its planetary companions' motions around it) have detected massive planets (with masses in the range of Jupiter); such massive planets are not considered suitable for supporting life. If our current theories for the formation of planetary systems are valid, we expect to detect about 50 Earth-like planets during Kepler's 4-year mission (assuming a random distribution of the planetary orbital inclinations with respect to the line of sight from Kepler). The number of detection will increase about 640 planets if the planets to be detected are Jupiter-sized.

  10. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2002-01-01

    Kepler Mission to detect Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy was approved by NASA in December 2001 for a 4-5 year mission. The launch is planned in about 5 years. The Kepler observatory will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit. The unique feature of the Kepler Mission is its ability to detect Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars at a distance similar to that of Earth (from our Sun); such an orbit could provide an environment suitable for supporting life as we know it. The Kepler observatory accomplishes this feat by looking for the transits of planetary object in front of their suns; Kepler has a photometric precision of 10E-5 (0.00001) to achieve such detections. Other ongoing planetary detection programs (based mostly on a technique that looks for the shifting of spectral lines of the primary star due to its planetary companions' motions around it) have detected massive planets (with masses in the range of Jupiter); such massive planets are not considered suitable for supporting life. If our current theories for the formation of planetary systems are valid, we expect to detect about 50 Earth-like planets during Kepler's 4-year mission (assuming a random distribution of the planetary orbital inclinations with respect to the line of sight from Kepler). The number of detection will increase about 640 planets if the planets to be detected are Jupiter-sized.

  11. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2003-01-01

    Kepler Mission to detect Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy was approved by NASA in December 2001 for a 4-5 year mission. The launch is planned in about 5 years. The Kepler observatory will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit. The unique feature of the Kepler Mission is its ability to detect Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars at a distance similar to that of Earth (from our Sun); such an orbit could provide an environment suitable for supporting life as we know it. The Kepler observatory accomplishes this feat by looking for the transits of planetary object in front of their suns; Kepler has a photometric precision of 10E-5 (0.00001) to achieve such detections. Other ongoing planetary detection programs (based mostly on a technique that looks for the shifting of spectral lines of the primary star due to its planetary companions' motions around it) have detected massive planets (with masses in the range of Jupiter); such massive planets are not considered suitable for supporting life. If our current theories for the formation of planetary systems are valid, we expect to detect about 50 Earth-like planets during Kepler's 4-year mission (assuming a random distribution of the planetary orbital inclinations with respect to the line of sight from Kepler). The number of detection will increase about 640 planets if the planets to be detected are Jupiter-sized.

  12. The search for ZZ Ceti stars in the original Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Hermes, J. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Bell, Keaton J.; Raddi, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Breedt, E.; Ramsay, G.; Koester, D.; Carter, P. J.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of 42 white dwarfs in the original Kepler mission field, including nine new confirmed pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (ZZ Ceti stars). Guided by the Kepler-Isaac Newton Telescope Survey, we selected white dwarf candidates on the basis of their U - g, g - r, and r - Hα photometric colours. We followed up these candidates with high-signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy from the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. Using ground-based, time series photometry, we put our sample of new spectroscopically characterized white dwarfs in the context of the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. Prior to our search, only two pulsating white dwarfs had been observed by Kepler. Ultimately, four of our new ZZ Cetis were observed from space. These rich data sets are helping initiate a rapid advancement in the asteroseismic investigation of pulsating white dwarfs, which continues with the extended Kepler mission, K2.

  13. Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA’s Kepler Mission

    PubMed Central

    Batalha, Natalie M.

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85–90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system. PMID:25049406

  14. Exoplanet Science from NASA’s Kepler Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason

    2012-09-12

    NASA's exoplanet mission is the world's premier instrument for the discovery and study of planets orbiting distant stars. As the nominal mission comes to a close, Kepler has discovered nearly 2500 planet candidates, confirmed dozens of multi-planet systems, provided important insights into the orbital architectures of planetary systems, identified specific systems that challenge theories of planet formation and dynamical evolution, has revolutionized our understanding of stellar interiors, and is gearing to measure the frequency of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars in its extended mission phase. I present the most recent results from the Kepler mission.

  15. Kepler Planet-Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Caldwell, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Cochran, William D.; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; /Lowell Observ. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet's surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the Neptune-sized Kepler-4b is similar to that of Neptune and GJ 436b, even though the irradiation level is 800,000 times higher. Kepler-7b is one of the lowest-density planets ({approx}0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.

  16. Kepler planet-detection mission: introduction and first results.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Caldwell, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W; Dupree, Andrea K; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Kondo, Yoji; Latham, David W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Meibom, Søren; Kjeldsen, Hans; Lissauer, Jack J; Monet, David G; Morrison, David; Sasselov, Dimitar; Tarter, Jill; Boss, Alan; Brownlee, Don; Owen, Toby; Buzasi, Derek; Charbonneau, David; Doyle, Laurance; Fortney, Jonathan; Ford, Eric B; Holman, Matthew J; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason H; Welsh, William F; Rowe, Jason; Anderson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars; Ciardi, David; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Sherry, William; Horch, Elliott; Isaacson, Howard; Everett, Mark E; Fischer, Debra; Torres, Guillermo; Johnson, John Asher; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip; Bryson, Stephen T; Dotson, Jessie; Haas, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Twicken, Joseph D; Quintana, Elisa V; Clarke, Bruce D; Allen, Christopher; Li, Jie; Wu, Haley; Tenenbaum, Peter; Verner, Ekaterina; Bruhweiler, Frederick; Barnes, Jason; Prsa, Andrej

    2010-02-19

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet's surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the Neptune-sized Kepler-4b is similar to that of Neptune and GJ 436b, even though the irradiation level is 800,000 times higher. Kepler-7b is one of the lowest-density planets (approximately 0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.

  17. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Morrison, David; Rowe, Jason; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and rocky planets in and near the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. The HZ is defined to be the region of space where a rocky planet could maintain liquid water on its surface. Kepler is the 10th competitively-selected Discovery Mission and was launched on March 6, 2009. Since completing its commissioning, Kepler has observed over 156,000 stars simultaneously and near continuously to search for planets that periodically pass in front of their host star (transit). The photometric precision is approximately 23 ppm for 50% of the 12th magnitude dwarf stars for an integration period of 6.5 hours. During the first 3 months of operation the photometer detected transit-like signatures from more than 200 stars. Careful examination shows that many of these events are false-positives such as small stars orbiting large stars or blends of target stars with eclipsing binary stars. Ground-based follow-up observations confirm the discovery of five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 andl.6 Jupiter radii (R(sub J)) and orbital periods ranging from 3.2 to 4.9 days. Ground-based observations with the Keck 1, Hobby-Ebberly, Hale, WIYN, MMT, Tillinghast, Shane, and Nordic Optical Telescopes are used to vet the planetary candidates and measure the masses of the putative planets. Observations of occultations and phase variations of hot, short-period planets such as HT-P-7b provide a probe of atmospheric properties. Asteroseismic analysis already shows the presence of p-mode oscillations in several stars. Such observations will be used to measure the mean stellar density and infer the stellar size and age. For stars too dim to permit asteroseismology, observations of the centroid motion of target stars will be used to measure the parallax and be combined with photometric measurements to estimate stellar sizes. Four open clusters are being observed to determine stellar rotation rates as a function of age and

  18. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Morrison, David; Rowe, Jason; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie; Haas,Michael; Gautier, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and rocky planets in and near the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. The HZ is defined to be the region of space where a rocky planet could maintain liquid water on its surface. Kepler is the 10th competitively-selected Discovery Mission and was launched on March 6, 2009. Since completing its commissioning, Kepler has observed over 156,000 stars simultaneously and near continuously to search for planets that periodically pass in front of their host star (transit). The photometric precision is approximately 23 ppm for 50% of the 12th magnitude dwarf stars for an integration period of 6.5 hours. During the first 3 months of operation the photometer detected transit-like signatures from more than 200 stars. Careful examination shows that many of these events are false-positives such as small stars orbiting large stars or blends of target stars with eclipsing binary stars. Ground-based follow-up observations confirm the discovery of five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 andl.6 Jupiter radii (R(sub J)) and orbital periods ranging from 3.2 to 4.9 days. Ground-based observations with the Keck 1, Hobby-Ebberly, Hale, WIYN, MMT, Tillinghast, Shane, and Nordic Optical Telescopes are used to vet the planetary candidates and measure the masses of the putative planets. Observations of occultations and phase variations of hot, short-period planets such as HT-P-7b provide a probe of atmospheric properties. Asteroseismic analysis already shows the presence of p-mode oscillations in several stars. Such observations will be used to measure the mean stellar density and infer the stellar size and age. For stars too dim to permit asteroseismology, observations of the centroid motion of target stars will be used to measure the parallax and be combined with photometric measurements to estimate stellar sizes. Four open clusters are being observed to determine stellar rotation rates as a function of age and

  19. Kepler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Kepler mission recently announced over 1200 exoplanet candidates. While some are common Hot Jupiters, a large number are Neptune size and smaller, transit depths suggest sizes down to the radius of Earth. The Kepler project has a fairly high confidence that most of these candidates are real exoplanets. Many analysis steps and lessons learned from Kepler light curves are used during the vetting process. This talk will cover some new results in the areas of stellar variability, solar systems with multiple planets, and how transit-like signatures are vetted for false positives, especially those indicative of small planets.

  20. Spacing of Kepler Planets: Sculpting by Dynamical Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bonan; Wu, Yanqin

    2015-07-01

    We study the orbital architecture of multi-planet systems detected by the Kepler transit mission using N-body simulations, focusing on the orbital spacing between adjacent planets in systems showing four or more transiting planets. We find that the observed spacings are tightly clustered around 12 mutual Hill radii, when transit geometry and sensitivity limits are accounted for. In comparison, dynamical integrations reveal that the minimum spacing required for systems of similar masses to survive dynamical instability for as long as 1 billion yr is ∼10 if all orbits are circular and coplanar and ∼12 if planetary orbits have eccentricities of ∼0.02 (a value suggested by studies of planet transit-time variations). This apparent coincidence, between the observed spacing and the theoretical stability threshold, leads us to propose that typical planetary systems were formed with even tighter spacing, but most, except for the widest ones, have undergone dynamical instability, and are pared down to a more anemic version of their former selves, with fewer planets and larger spacings. So while the high-multiple systems (five or more transiting planets) are primordial systems that remain stable, the single or double planetary systems, abundantly discovered by the Kepler mission, may be the descendants of more closely packed high-multiple systems. If this hypothesis is correct, we infer that the formation environment of Kepler systems should be more dissipative than that of the terrestrial planets.

  1. Calibrating Observations made with the NASA Kepler Discovery Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, Jay; Howell, Steven B.; Mighell, Ken; Sherry, William; Everett, Mark

    2008-08-01

    The NASA Kepler Discovery Mission will be launched in early 2009 and begin its search for transiting Earth-like planets. The mission aims to last 4 years during which time it will collect high precision light curves of 100,000 or more stars. Attempting to reach precisions of 1 part in 10^5 per measurement (the level needed to recognize an Earth transit across a sun-like star), proper monitoring and absolute calibration of the focal plane detectors and obtained relative light curves is of prime importance.The Kepler mission science team intends to use spectrophotometric standards (i.e., WDs) to monitor the focal plane health and properly flux calibrate the light curves in an absolute sense. An essential part of this effort involves the use of DA white dwarfs that can be found within the single Kepler field of view. We therefore seek U-band photometric observations covering the Kepler field to locate additional DA white dwarfs to serve as potential Kepler calibration standards.

  2. The Kepler Mission and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; DeVore, E.; Gould, A.; Koch, D.

    2008-05-01

    Johannes Kepler was one of Galileo's contemporaries, publishing New Astronomy defining his first two laws, nearly 400 years ago, in 1609. It is a fitting tribute that the Kepler Mission launches in 2009. Kepler continued his studies of motion and made observations of satellites of Jupiter, and published his third law. We now recognize Kepler's laws as 1. Planets move in elliptical; 2. The planets move such that the line between the Sun and the Planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time no matter where in the orbit; and 3. The square of the period of the orbit of a planet is proportional to the mean distance from the Sun cubed. Kepler's laws were deduced empirically from the motions of the planet Mars in the early 17th century, before Newton deduced the law of gravity and his laws of motion. The Kepler Mission, a NASA Discovery mission, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The habitable zone encompasses the distances from a star where liquid water can exist on a planet's surface. Results from this mission will allow us to place our solar system within the continuum of planetary systems in the Galaxy. The Mission Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Program has developed a Night Sky Network (NSN) outreach kit, Shadows and Silhouettes. This NSN kit is used by amateur astronomers at school and public observing events to illustrate a transit, and explain eclipses.

  3. The Kepler Mission: Search for Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Likins, B.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets orbiting main-sequence stars is of great interest and importance. Current ground-based methods are only capable of detecting objects about the size or mass of Jupiter or larger. The difficulties encountered with direct imaging of Earth-size planets from space are expected to be resolved in the next twenty years. Spacebased photometry of planetary transits is currently the only viable method for detection of terrestrial planets (30-600 times less massive than Jupiter). This method searches the extended solar neighborhood, providing a statistically large sample and the detailed characteristics of each individual case. A robust concept has been developed and proposed as a Discovery-class mission. Its capabilities and strengths are presented.

  4. DISCOVERY OF A ZZ CETI IN THE KEPLER MISSION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Mullally, Fergal; Howell, Steve B.; Oestensen, R. H.; Bloemen, S.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Telting, John; Southworth, John; Everett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of the first identified pulsating DA white dwarf, WD J1916+3938 (Kepler ID 4552982), in the field of the Kepler mission. This ZZ Ceti star was first identified through ground-based, time-series photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy confirms that it is a hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf with T {sub eff} = 11,129 {+-} 115 K and log g = 8.34 {+-} 0.06, placing it within the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. The object shows up to 0.5% amplitude variability at several periods between 800 and 1450 s. Extended Kepler observations of WD J1916+3938 could yield the best light curve, to date, of any pulsating white dwarf, allowing us to directly study the interior of an evolved object representative of the fate of the majority of stars in our Galaxy.

  5. The Kepler Mission on Two Reaction Wheels is K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Michael R.; Barclay, T.; Batalha, N. M.; Bryson, S.; Caldwell, D. A.; Campbell, J.; Coughlin, J.; Howell, S. B.; Jenkins, J. M.; Klaus, T. C.; Mullally, F.; Sanderfer, D. T.; Sobeck, C. K.; Still, M. D.; Troeltzsch, J.; Twicken, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Although data collection for the original Kepler mission is complete, a repurposed Kepler has the potential to discover many hundreds of new, small exoplanets around low-mass stars located in or near the ecliptic plane. This repurposing of the Kepler spacecraft, dubbed “K2,” seeks to maximize photometric performance using its two operational reaction wheels by observing in the ecliptic plane where solar torques can be carefully balanced to minimize boresight roll. The K2 mission shows great promise and, once approved, will observe many different fields during a sequence of two- to three-month campaigns over the next few years. Like the original Kepler mission, K2 has many challenges, but is anticipated to be well worth the climb scientifically. K2 can observe many thousands of new sources during each campaign and hundreds of thousands of new sources over its lifetime. In addition to its continued search for exoplanets, the K2 mission will provide access to a wide variety of scientifically interesting targets that include young and variable stars, open clusters of differing ages, star-forming regions, supernovae, white dwarfs, microlensing events, solar system objects, AGNs, normal galaxies, and the Galactic Center. Performance testing began in September, 2013, and has continued throughout the fall and early winter. The results of the first ecliptic-plane tests are described and used to predict photometric performance. A trade study reveals the likely number of targets, cadence durations, initial fields of view, and planned observing strategies. K2 is an exciting new mission that addresses a wide variety of scientific questions with expanded opportunities for community participation.

  6. On the abundance of extraterrestrial life after the Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandel, Amri

    2015-07-01

    The data recently accumulated by the Kepler mission have demonstrated that small planets are quite common and that a significant fraction of all stars may have an Earth-like planet within their habitable zone. These results are combined with a Drake-equation formalism to derive the space density of biotic planets as a function of the relatively modest uncertainty in the astronomical data and of the (yet unknown) probability for the evolution of biotic life, F b. I suggest that F b may be estimated by future spectral observations of exoplanet biomarkers. If F b is in the range 0.001-1, then a biotic planet may be expected within 10-100 light years from Earth. Extending the biotic results to advanced life I derive expressions for the distance to putative civilizations in terms of two additional Drake parameters - the probability for evolution of a civilization, F c, and its average longevity. For instance, assuming optimistic probability values (F b~F c~1) and a broadcasting longevity of a few thousand years, the likely distance to the nearest civilizations detectable by searching for intelligent electromagnetic signals is of the order of a few thousand light years. The probability of detecting intelligent signals with present and future radio telescopes is calculated as a function of the Drake parameters. Finally, I describe how the detection of intelligent signals would constrain the Drake parameters.

  7. Spitzer Space Telescope mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.; Garcia, Mark D.; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Long, Stacia M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the mission design, launch, orbit, and navigation results for the Spitzer space telescope mission. The Spitzer telescope was launched by the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit. This orbit is flown for the first time and will be used by several future astronomical missions such as Kepler, SIM, and LISA. This paper describes the launch strategy for a winter versus a summer launch and how it affects communications. It also describes how the solar orbit affects the design and operations of the Observatory. It describes the actual launch timeline, launch vehicle flight performance, and the long term behavior of the as flown orbit. It also provides the orbit knowledge from in-flight navigation data.

  8. Kepler Mission: Detecting Earth-sized Planets in Habitable Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Kepler Mission, which is presently in Phase A, is being proposed for launch in 5 years for a 4-year mission to determine the frequency of Earth-sized or larger planets in habitable zones in our galaxy. Kepler will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit to provide stable physical environments for the sensitive scientific instruments. The satellite is equipped with a photometric system with the precision of 10E-5, which should be sufficient for detecting the transits of Earth-sized or larger planets in front of dwarf stars similar to the Sun. Approximately 100,000 or more sun-like stars brighter than the 14th apparently magnitude will be monitored continuously for 4 years in a preselected region of the sky, which is about 100 square degrees in size. In addition, Kepler will have a participating scientist program that will enable research in intrinsic variable stars, interacting binaries including cataclysmic stars and X-ray binaries, and a large number of solar analogs in our galaxy. Several ten thousand additional stars may be investigated in the guest observer program open to the whole world.

  9. Kepler Mission: Detecting Earth-sized Planets in Habitable Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Kepler Mission, which is presently in Phase A, is being proposed for launch in 5 years for a 4-year mission to determine the frequency of Earth-sized or larger planets in habitable zones in our galaxy. Kepler will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit to provide stable physical environments for the sensitive scientific instruments. The satellite is equipped with a photometric system with the precision of 10E-5, which should be sufficient for detecting the transits of Earth-sized or larger planets in front of dwarf stars similar to the Sun. Approximately 100,000 or more sun-like stars brighter than the 14th apparently magnitude will be monitored continuously for 4 years in a preselected region of the sky, which is about 100 square degrees in size. In addition, Kepler will have a participating scientist program that will enable research in intrinsic variable stars, interacting binaries including cataclysmic stars and X-ray binaries, and a large number of solar analogs in our galaxy. Several ten thousand additional stars may be investigated in the guest observer program open to the whole world.

  10. The Kepler Mission: A Photometric Search for Earthlike Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Borucki, William; Koch, David; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    If Earth lies in or near the orbital plane of an extrasolar planet, that planet passes in front of the disk of its star once each orbit as viewed from Earth. Precise photometry can reveal such transits, which can be distinguished from rotationally-modulated starspots and intrinsic stellar variability by their periodicity, square-well shapes and relative spectral neutrality. Transit observations would provide the size and orbital period of the detected planet. Although geometrical considerations limit the fraction of planets detectable by this technique, many stars can be surveyed within the field of view of one telescope, so transit photometry is quite efficient. Scintillation in and variability of Earth's atmosphere limit photometric precision to roughly one-thousandth of a magnitude, allowing detection of transits by Jupiter-sized planets but not by Earth-sized planets from the ground. The COROT spacecraft will be able to detect Uranus-sized planets orbiting near stars. The Kepler Mission, which is being proposed to NASA's Discovery Program this year, will have a photometer with a larger aperture (1 meter) than will COROT, so it will be able to detect transits by planets as small as Earth. Moreover, the Kepler mission will examine the same star field for four years, allowing confirmation of planets with orbital periods of a year. If the Sun's planetary system is typical for single stars, Kepler should detect approximately 480 terrestrial planets. Assuming the statistics from radial velocity surveys are typical, Kepler should also detect transits of 150 inner giant planets and reflected light variations of 1400 giant planets with orbital periods of less than one week.

  11. The Kepler Mission: A Photometric Search for Earthlike Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Borucki, William; Koch, David; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    If Earth lies in or near the orbital plane of an extrasolar planet, that planet passes in front of the disk of its star once each orbit as viewed from Earth. Precise photometry can reveal such transits, which can be distinguished from rotationally-modulated starspots and intrinsic stellar variability by their periodicity, square-well shapes and relative spectral neutrality. Transit observations would provide the size and orbital period of the detected planet. Although geometrical considerations limit the fraction of planets detectable by this technique, many stars can be surveyed within the field of view of one telescope, so transit photometry is quite efficient. Scintillation in and variability of Earth's atmosphere limit photometric precision to roughly one-thousandth of a magnitude, allowing detection of transits by Jupiter-sized planets but not by Earth-sized planets from the ground. The COROT spacecraft will be able to detect Uranus-sized planets orbiting near stars. The Kepler Mission, which is being proposed to NASA's Discovery Program this year, will have a photometer with a larger aperture (1 meter) than will COROT, so it will be able to detect transits by planets as small as Earth. Moreover, the Kepler mission will examine the same star field for four years, allowing confirmation of planets with orbital periods of a year. If the Sun's planetary system is typical for single stars, Kepler should detect approximately 480 terrestrial planets. Assuming the statistics from radial velocity surveys are typical, Kepler should also detect transits of 150 inner giant planets and reflected light variations of 1400 giant planets with orbital periods of less than one week.

  12. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2005-01-01

    Kepler Mission has been approved and funded for launch into an Earth-trailing orbit in 2007. The satellite observatory is designed to detect Earth-like planets in the Cygnus region of the sky (one hundred square degrees). If all goes as planned, we expect to detect some 60 Earth-like planets, plus a greater number of larger planets. None of the planets that have been discovered so far are not Earth-like; they are mostly Jupiter-sized, large planets.

  13. KEPLER MISSION STELLAR AND INSTRUMENT NOISE PROPERTIES REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Chaplin, William J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2015-10-15

    An earlier study of the Kepler Mission noise properties on timescales of primary relevance to detection of exoplanet transits found that higher than expected noise followed, to a large extent, from the stars rather than instrument or data analysis performance. The earlier study over the first six quarters of Kepler data is extended to the full four years ultimately comprising the mission. Efforts to improve the pipeline data analysis have been successful in reducing noise levels modestly as evidenced by smaller values derived from the current data products. The new analyses of noise properties on transit timescales show significant changes in the component attributed to instrument and data analysis, with essentially no change in the inferred stellar noise. We also extend the analyses to timescales of several days, instead of several hours to better sample stellar noise that follows from magnetic activity. On the longer timescale there is a shift in stellar noise for solar-type stars to smaller values in comparison to solar values.

  14. RADIUS DETERMINATION OF SOLAR-TYPE STARS USING ASTEROSEISMOLOGY: WHAT TO EXPECT FROM THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Stello, Dennis; Bruntt, Hans; Bedding, Timothy R.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Creevey, Orlagh L.; Jimenez-Reyes, Sebastian J.; Garcia-Hernandez, Antonio; Moya, Andres; Suarez, Juan-Carlos; Monteiro, Mario J. P. F. G.; Sousa, Sergio G.; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Arentoft, Torben; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Appourchaux, Thierry; Ballot, Jerome; Fletcher, Stephen T.; Garcia, Rafael A.

    2009-08-01

    For distant stars, as observed by the NASA Kepler satellite, parallax information is currently of fairly low quality and is not complete. This limits the precision with which the absolute sizes of the stars and their potential transiting planets can be determined by traditional methods. Asteroseismology will be used to aid the radius determination of stars observed during NASA's Kepler mission. We report on the recent asteroFLAG hare-and-hounds Exercise no. 2, where a group of 'hares' simulated data of F-K main-sequence stars that a group of 'hounds' sought to analyze, aimed at determining the stellar radii. We investigated stars in the range 9 < V < 15, both with and without parallaxes. We further test different uncertainties in T {sub eff}, and compare results with and without using asteroseismic constraints. Based on the asteroseismic large frequency spacing, obtained from simulations of 4 yr time series data from the Kepler mission, we demonstrate that the stellar radii can be correctly and precisely determined, when combined with traditional stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalogue. The radii found by the various methods used by each independent hound generally agree with the true values of the artificial stars to within 3%, when the large frequency spacing is used. This is 5-10 times better than the results where seismology is not applied. These results give strong confidence that radius estimation can be performed to better than 3% for solar-like stars using automatic pipeline reduction. Even when the stellar distance and luminosity are unknown we can obtain the same level of agreement. Given the uncertainties used for this exercise we find that the input log g and parallax do not help to constrain the radius, and that T {sub eff} and metallicity are the only parameters we need in addition to the large frequency spacing. It is the uncertainty in the metallicity that dominates the uncertainty in the radius.

  15. Radius Determination of Solar-type Stars Using Asteroseismology: What to Expect from the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stello, Dennis; Chaplin, William J.; Bruntt, Hans; Creevey, Orlagh L.; García-Hernández, Antonio; Monteiro, Mario J. P. F. G.; Moya, Andrés; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Sousa, Sergio G.; Suárez, Juan-Carlos; Appourchaux, Thierry; Arentoft, Torben; Ballot, Jerome; Bedding, Timothy R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Elsworth, Yvonne; Fletcher, Stephen T.; García, Rafael A.; Houdek, Günter; Jiménez-Reyes, Sebastian J.; Kjeldsen, Hans; New, Roger; Régulo, Clara; Salabert, David; Toutain, Thierry

    2009-08-01

    For distant stars, as observed by the NASA Kepler satellite, parallax information is currently of fairly low quality and is not complete. This limits the precision with which the absolute sizes of the stars and their potential transiting planets can be determined by traditional methods. Asteroseismology will be used to aid the radius determination of stars observed during NASA's Kepler mission. We report on the recent asteroFLAG hare-and-hounds Exercise#2, where a group of "hares" simulated data of F-K main-sequence stars that a group of "hounds" sought to analyze, aimed at determining the stellar radii. We investigated stars in the range 9 < V < 15, both with and without parallaxes. We further test different uncertainties in T eff, and compare results with and without using asteroseismic constraints. Based on the asteroseismic large frequency spacing, obtained from simulations of 4 yr time series data from the Kepler mission, we demonstrate that the stellar radii can be correctly and precisely determined, when combined with traditional stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalogue. The radii found by the various methods used by each independent hound generally agree with the true values of the artificial stars to within 3%, when the large frequency spacing is used. This is 5-10 times better than the results where seismology is not applied. These results give strong confidence that radius estimation can be performed to better than 3% for solar-like stars using automatic pipeline reduction. Even when the stellar distance and luminosity are unknown we can obtain the same level of agreement. Given the uncertainties used for this exercise we find that the input log g and parallax do not help to constrain the radius, and that T eff and metallicity are the only parameters we need in addition to the large frequency spacing. It is the uncertainty in the metallicity that dominates the uncertainty in the radius.

  16. KEPLER MISSION DESIGN, REALIZED PHOTOMETRIC PERFORMANCE, AND EARLY SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; DeVore, Edna; Jenkins, Jon; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Gould, Alan; Kondo, Yoji; Monet, David

    2010-04-20

    The Kepler Mission, launched on 2009 March 6, was designed with the explicit capability to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars using the transit photometry method. Results from just 43 days of data along with ground-based follow-up observations have identified five new transiting planets with measurements of their masses, radii, and orbital periods. Many aspects of stellar astrophysics also benefit from the unique, precise, extended, and nearly continuous data set for a large number and variety of stars. Early results for classical variables and eclipsing stars show great promise. To fully understand the methodology, processes, and eventually the results from the mission, we present the underlying rationale that ultimately led to the flight and ground system designs used to achieve the exquisite photometric performance. As an example of the initial photometric results, we present variability measurements that can be used to distinguish dwarf stars from red giants.

  17. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  18. Confirmation and Characterization of Kepler Mission Exoplanets: The Era of Rock and Ice Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, David; Borucki, William; Brown, Timothy; Deming, Drake; Ford, Eric; Fortney, Jonathan; Gilliland, Ronald; Knutson, Heather; Latham, David; Seager, Sara

    2008-12-01

    In the past 4 years, the combination of ground-based transit surveys and the remarkable stability of the Spitzer Space Telescope permitted the direct investigation of the atmospheres of one specific class of exoplanet, namely the Hot Jupiters. The power of the NASA Kepler Mission will be to discover dozens of transiting exoplanets that are not detectable from the ground either due to the shallow transit depth or the low transit frequency resulting from their longer orbital periods. Kepler will find large numbers of transiting hot Neptunes and hot SuperEarth exoplanets, as well as cooler Jupiters, each of which are nonetheless amenable to direct study of their infrared emission. We propose to use Spitzer to observe Kepler-detected exoplanets and candidates to pursue two goals. First, we will measure the two-color planetary emission for 20 representative members of these previously inaccessible cexoplanets. Such observations will permit the first opportunity to directly test theoretical models of exoplanetary atmospheres of varying compositions (notably SuperEarths and Neptunes) and under differing levels of irradiation (cooler Jovian companions). The same data will permit an estimate of the orbital eccentricities, thus providing a test of models of the orbital migration, and tidal dissipation for these various types of exoplanets. Second, we will use Spitzer to follow up Kepler-identified candidate terrestrial exoplanets to prove that these signals are indeed planetary in origin. By gathering single color time series spanning times of primary transit, we will exclude a significant source of astrophysical false positives (resulting from blends of triple stars systems containing an eclipsing binary) that will precisely mimic an exoplanetary signature in the Kepler data. These infrared data will provide a crucial step in confirming the planetary nature of many of the most exciting candidates, namely the planets with the smallest radii that are likely rocky in

  19. Advanced solar space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The space missions in solar physics planned for the next decade are similar in that they will have, for the most part, distinct, unifying science objectives in contrast to the more general 'exploratory' nature of the Orbiting Solar Observatory and Skylab/ATM missions of the 1960's and 70's. In particular, the strategy for advanced solar physics space missions will focus on the quantitative understanding of the physical processes that create and control the flow of electromagnetic and particulate energy from the sun and through interplanetary space at all phases of the current sunspot cycle No. 21. Attention is given to the Solar Maximum Mission, the International Solar Polar Mission, solar physics on an early Shuttle mission, principal investigator class experiments for future spacelabs, the Solar Optical Telescope, the Space Science Platform, the Solar Cycle and Dynamics Mission, and an attempt to send a spacecraft to within 4 solar radii of the sun's surface.

  20. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D.; Basri, G.; Batalha, N. M.; Brown, T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Caldwell, J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cochran, W.; DeVore, E.; Dunham, E.; Dupree, A.; Gautier, T.; Geary, J.; Gilliland, R.; Gould, A.; Howell, S.; Jenkins, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kondo, Y.; Latham, D.; Lissauer, J.; Marcy, G.; Meibom, S.; Monet, D.; Morrison, D.; Sasselov, D.; Tarter, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and terrestrial size planets in and near the HZ of solar-like stars. It was competitively selected as Discovery Mission #10 and launched on March 6, 2009. Since completion of commissioning, it has continuously observed over 145,000 main sequence stars. The photometric precision reaches 20 ppm for 12th magnitude stars on the least noisy detectors in 6.5 hours. During the first month of operation, the photometer detected transit-like signatures from over 100 stars. Careful examination of these events shows many of them to be false-positives such as background eclipsing binaries. However ground-based follow up observations confirm the discovery of exoplanets with sizes ranging from 0.6 Rj to1.5Rj and orbital periods ranging from 3 to 9 days. Observations at Keck, Hobby-Eberly, Harlan-Smith, WIYN, MMT, Tillighast, Shane, and Nordic Optic telescopes are vetting many of the candidates and measuring their masses. Discovery of the HAT-P7b occultation will be used to derive atmospheric properties and demonstrates the precision necessary to detect Earth-size planets. Asteroseismic analyses of several stars show the presence of p-mode oscillations that can be used to determine stellar size and age. This effort is being organized by the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium at Aarhus University in Denmark. Stellar parallaxes are determined from the centroid motion of the stellar images and will be combined with photometric measurements to get the sizes of stars too dim for asteroseismic measurement. Four open clusters are being observed to determine rotation rates with stellar age and spectral type. Many types of stellar variability are observed with unprecedented precision and over long continuous time periods. Examples of many of these discoveries are presented. Funding by the Exoplanet Exploration Program of the NASA Astrophysics Division is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT KEPLER MISSION EXOPLANET CANDIDATE HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Mark E.; Silva, David R.; Howell, Steve B.; Szkody, Paula

    2013-07-10

    Stellar properties are measured for a large set of Kepler mission exoplanet candidate host stars. Most of these stars are fainter than 14th magnitude, in contrast to other spectroscopic follow-up studies. This sample includes many high-priority Earth-sized candidate planets. A set of model spectra are fitted to R {approx} 3000 optical spectra of 268 stars to improve estimates of T{sub eff}, log (g), and [Fe/H] for the dwarfs in the range 4750 {<=} T{sub eff} {<=} 7200 K. These stellar properties are used to find new stellar radii and, in turn, new radius estimates for the candidate planets. The result of improved stellar characteristics is a more accurate representation of this Kepler exoplanet sample and identification of promising candidates for more detailed study. This stellar sample, particularly among stars with T{sub eff} {approx}> 5200 K, includes a greater number of relatively evolved stars with larger radii than assumed by the mission on the basis of multi-color broadband photometry. About 26% of the modeled stars require radii to be revised upward by a factor of 1.35 or greater, and modeling of 87% of the stars suggest some increase in radius. The sample presented here also exhibits a change in the incidence of planets larger than 3-4 R{sub Circled-Plus} as a function of metallicity. Once [Fe/H] increases to {>=} - 0.05, large planets suddenly appear in the sample while smaller planets are found orbiting stars with a wider range of metallicity. The modeled stellar spectra, as well as an additional 84 stars of mostly lower effective temperatures, are made available to the community.

  2. Classical variables in the era of space photometric missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, L.; Plachy, E.; Szabó, R.; Benkő, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The space photometric missions like CoRoT and Kepler transformed our view of pulsating stars, including the well-known RR Lyrae and Cepheid classes. The K2, TESS and PLATO missions will expand these investigations to larger sample sizes and to specific stellar populations.

  3. A Bewildering and Dynamic Picture of Exoplanetary Systems Identified by the Kepler Mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    notion of the habitable zone for single stars and static planetary system configurations. This talk will provide an overview of the science results from the Kepler Mission and the work ahead to derive the frequency of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars from the treasure trove of Kepler data. NASA's quest for exoplanets continues with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, slated for launch in May 2017 by NASA's Explorer Program. TESS will conduct an all- sky transit survey to identify the 1000 best small exoplanets in the solar neighborhood for follow up observations and characterization. TESS's targets will include all F, G, K dwarfs from +4 to +12 magnitude and all M dwarfs known within ~200 light-years. 500,000 target stars will be observed over two years with ~500 square degrees observed continuously for a year in each hemisphere in the James Webb Space Telescopes continuously viewable zones. Since the typical TESS target star is 5 magnitudes brighter than that of Kepler and 10 times closer, TESS discoveries will afford significant opportunities to measure the masses of the exoplanets and to characterize their atmospheres with JWST, ELTs and other exoplanet explorers. TESS' discoveries will raise new questions regarding habitability that will be open to investigation through active efforts to characterize their atmospheres and search for biomarkers. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers First Earth-size Planet in Habitable Zone of Another Star (Reporter Package)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-17

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first Earth-size planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a star outside our solar system. The newly discovered planet is called Kepler-186f and is about 10 percent larger than Earth.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler Mission. VII. Eclipsing binaries in DR3 (Kirk+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, B.; Conroy, K.; Prsa, A.; Abdul-Masih, M.; Kochoska, A.; Matijevic, G.; Hambleton, K.; Barclay, T.; Bloemen, S.; Boyajian, T.; Doyle, L. R.; Fulton, B. J.; Hoekstra, A. J.; Jek, K.; Kane, S. R.; Kostov, V.; Latham, D.; Mazeh, T.; Orosz, J. A.; Pepper, J.; Quarles, B.; Ragozzine, D.; Shporer, A.; Southworth, J.; Stassun, K.; Thompson, S. E.; Welsh, W. F.; Agol, E.; Derekas, A.; Devor, J.; Fischer, D.; Green, G.; Gropp, J.; Jacobs, T.; Johnston, C.; Lacourse, D. M.; Saetre, K.; Schwengeler, H.; Toczyski, J.; Werner, G.; Garrett, M.; Gore, J.; Martinez, A. O.; Spitzer, I.; Stevick, J.; Thomadis, P. C.; Vrijmoet, E. H.; Yenawine, M.; Batalha, N.; Borucki, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog lists the stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) augmented by: primary and secondary eclipse depth, eclipse width, separation of eclipse, ephemeris, morphological classification parameter, and principal parameters determined by geometric analysis of the phased light curve. The previous release of the Catalog (Paper II; Slawson et al. 2011, cat. J/AJ/142/160) contained 2165 objects, through the second Kepler data release (Q0-Q2). In this release, 2878 objects are identified and analyzed from the entire data set of the primary Kepler mission (Q0-Q17). The online version of the Catalog is currently maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu/. A static version of the online Catalog associated with this paper is maintained at MAST https://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/eclipsing_binaries.html. (10 data files).

  6. Confirmation and Characterization of Kepler Mission Exoplanets: The Era of Rock and Ice Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Heather; Charbonneau, D.

    2009-05-01

    In the past 4 years, the combination of ground-based transit surveys and the remarkable stability of the Spitzer Space Telescope permitted the direct investigation of the atmospheres of one specific class of exoplanet, namely the Hot Jupiters. The NASA Kepler mission (scheduled for launch early this year) will have the ability to discover dozens of transiting exoplanets that are not currently detectable from the ground, including large numbers of transiting hot Neptune and hot Super-Earth exoplanets, as well as cooler Jupiters. Our Exploration Science program will measure the two-color planetary emission for 20 representative members of these previously inaccessible exoplanets, providing the first opportunity to directly test theoretical models of exoplanetary atmospheres of varying compositions (notably Super-Earths and Neptunes) and under differing levels of irradiation (cooler Jovian companions). The same data will permit an estimate of the orbital eccentricities, thus providing a test of models of the orbital migration and tidal dissipation for these various types of exoplanets. We will also use Spitzer to follow up Kepler-identified candidate terrestrial exoplanets to prove that these signals are indeed planetary in origin. By gathering single color time series spanning times of primary transit, we will exclude a significant source of astrophysical false positives (resulting from blends of triple star systems containing an eclipsing binary) that can precisely mimic an exoplanetary signature in the Kepler data. These infrared data will provide a crucial confirmation of the planetary nature of the most exciting terrestrial-planet candidates.

  7. Space Qualified Building Blocks For NASA Explorer-class Optical Telescopes And Instruments: Heritage Technology Used In WISE, JWST Kepler, Spitzer And Other Contemporary Spaceborne Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Schwalm, M.; Clarkson, A.; Barentine, J.

    2011-05-01

    Spaceborne missions require that all flight components be rated at a high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to control risk, schedule and cost. Highest TRL ratings are given to hardware that has been flown successfully. L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS, comprised of the former Tinsley, SSG and Brashear) has participated development of a significant number of successful optical telescope assemblies and optical instruments for exacting spaceborne requirements and environments. From these come established methods and hardware elements that references this IOS flight experience with associated high TRL, and which may be partially or wholly used for future missions.

  8. Planetary and Stellar Data Products Expected From The Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Koch, David G.; Basri, Gibor; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Kondo, Yoji; Latham, David; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a Discovery-class mission scheduled to be launched in the 2006-2007 time frame. It is a wide field of view photometer with a 95 m aperture designed to attain a photometric precision of 2 parts in 10^5 for the 12th magnitude stars. It will continually observe 100,000 main-sequence stars from 9th to 14th magnitude for a period of four years with a cadence of 4/hour. This database should be unique in its photometric precision, cadence, and duration of observations. Several hundred terrestrial-size planets will be detected if they are common around solar-like stars. Based on the current results of Doppler-velocity searches, over a thousand giant planets will also be found. A guest investigator program is planned that would provide the opportunity to observe thousands of other objects in the 105 square degree FOV. Such objects could include stars with micro-variability, other intrinsic variables, cataclysmic variables, eclipsing binaries (including x-ray binaries), and possibly AGN. A ground-based program to classify all 225,000 stars in the FOV and to do a detailed examination of a subset of the stars that show planetary companions is planned. Doppler-velocity observations will be made to find the presence of giant planets not seen in transit. The data will be rapidly released to the community for follow up observations and for changes to the guest investigator program.

  9. Validating and Characterizing Transiting Exoplanets from Space with EPOXI, Kepler, and Warm Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    My thesis work comprises analyses of transiting exoplanets with observations from three space-based instruments. The Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization (EPOCh) component of the EPOXI mission repurposed the Deep Impact Spacecraft to gather photometry of six known transiting exoplanet systems. I systematically searched the EPOXI light curves for additional transiting planets, and identified one such candidate in the exoplanet system GJ 436. I gathered Warm Spitzer light curves of GJ 436 during a predicted transit of this putative planet: while I ruled out the presence of the hypothesized planet, I developed a novel reduction technique for Warm Spitzer observations and demonstrated the sensitivity of that instrument to sub-Earth-sized transiting planets. I next applied these techniques to a sample of super-Earth-sized planetary candidates identified by the Kepler mission. In the absence of radial velocity confirmation (challenging for such low-mass planets), it is nonetheless possible to make a statistical argument for the planetary nature of the candidate, if the combined likelihood of all false positive scenarios is sufficiently smaller than the planet scenario. An authentic planet will exhibit an achromatic transit depth, as measured in the optical with Kepler and near-infrared with Warm Spitzer. The eclipse from a stellar blend, in contrast, would likely vary with wavelength. I presented the discovery of the Kepler-19 system, applying Warm Spitzer observations toward validation of the transiting 2.2 REarth planet, Kepler-19b. I identified systematic variations in the transit times of Kepler-19b, which led to the first robust detection of a non-transiting planet using the transit timing variation method: Kepler-19c. Support for EPOXI was provided by NASA's Discovery Program via Agreement NNX08AB64A. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Support for Spitzer observations is provided by NASA through an award issued

  10. Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was arguably the most innovative astronomical theorist in the millennium and a half from Claudius PTOLEMY's Almagest (c. AD 150) to Isaac NEWTON's Principia (1687). Before Kepler, planetary and lunar theory had consisted in combining circular motions, either strictly uniform or angularly uniform about an off-center `equant' point, so as to `save the appearances'. T...

  11. Spitzer, Planck and Kepler Extended by NASA Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-05

    From left to right, artist concepts of the Spitzer, Planck and Kepler space telescopes. NASA extended Spitzer and Kepler for two additional years; and the U.S. portion of Planck, a European Space Agency mission, for one year.

  12. Kepler: NASA's First Mission Capable of Finding Earth-Size Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Kepler, a NASA Discovery mission, is a spaceborne telescope designed to search a nearby region of our galaxy for Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars like our sun. The habitable zone is that region around a start where the temperature permits water to be liquid on the surface of a planet. Liquid water is considered essential forth existence of life. Mission Phases: Six mission phases have been defined to describe the different periods of activity during Kepler's mission. These are: launch; commissioning; early science operations, science operations: and decommissioning

  13. Hubble Space Telescope High-Resolution Imaging of Kepler Small and Cool Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.; Kalas, Paul; Wright, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution imaging is an important tool for follow-up study of exoplanet candidates found via transit detection with the Kepler mission. We discuss here Hubble Space Telescope imaging with the WFC3 of 23 stars that host particularly interesting Kepler planet candidates based on their small size and cool equilibrium temperature estimates. Results include detections, exclusion of background stars that could be a source of false positives for the transits, and detection of physically associated companions in a number of cases providing dilution measures necessary for planet parameter refinement. For six Kepler objects of interest, we find that there is ambiguity regarding which star hosts the transiting planet(s), with potentially strong implications for planetary characteristics. Our sample is evenly distributed in G, K, and M spectral types. Albeit with a small sample size, we find that physically associated binaries are more common than expected at each spectral type, reaching a factor of 10 frequency excess in M. We document the program detection sensitivities, detections, and deliverables to the Kepler follow-up program archive. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Its Smallest Habitable Zone Planets (Reporter Pkg)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-18

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered two new planetary systems that include three super-Earth-size planets in the 'habitable zone,' the range of distance from a star where the surface temperature of an orbiting planet might be suitable for liquid water. Scientists do not know whether life could exist on the newfound planets, but their discovery signals we are another step closer to finding a world similar to Earth around a star like our sun. Kepler-62 and -69 systems

  15. Spitzer Observations of Exoplanets Discovered with the Kepler K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles; Livingston, John; Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Krick, Jessica; Deck, Katherine; Knutson, Heather; Wong, Ian; Petigura, Erik; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Greene, Thomas P.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Line, Mike; Crossfield, Ian; Howard, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan

    2016-05-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe two transiting planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars discovered in the Kepler K2 mission. The system K2-3 (EPIC 201367065) hosts three planets, while K2-26 (EPIC 202083828) hosts a single planet. Observations of all four objects in these two systems confirm and refine the orbital and physical parameters of the planets. The refined orbital information and more precise planet radii possible with Spitzer will be critical for future observations of these and other K2 targets. For K2-3b we find marginally significant evidence for a transit timing variation between the K2 and Spitzer epochs.

  16. The Kepler Mission: A Transit-Photometry Mission to Discover Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Devore, Edna; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Thomas; Geary, John; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve; Jenkins, Jon

    The Kepler Mission is a NASA Discovery-class mission designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 main sequence stars to detect the transit of Earth-size and larger planets. It is a wide field of view photometer with a Schmidt-type telescope and an array of 42 CCDs covering the 100 sq. degree field-of-view (FOV). It has a 0.95 m aperture and a 1.4 m primary and is designed to attain a photometric precision of 20 parts per million (ppm) for 12th magnitude solar-like stars for a 6.5-hour transit duration. It will continuously observe 100,000 main sequence stars from 9th to 15th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation for a period of four years with a cadence of 4 measurements per hour. Kepler is Discovery Mission #10 and is on schedule for launch in 2007 into heliocentric orbit. A ground-based program to classify all 450,000 stars brighter than 15th magnitude in the FOV and to conduct a detailed examination of a subset of the stars that show planetary companions is also planned. Hundreds of Earth-size planets should be detected if they are common around solarlike stars. Ground-based spectrometric observations of those stars with planetary companions will be made to determine the dependences of the frequency and size of terrestrial planets on stellar characteristics such as type and metallicity. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets are rare.

  17. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  18. An Introduction to Exoplanets and the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2014-01-01

    A quarter century ago, the only planets known to humanity were the familiar objects that orbit our Sun. But improved observational techniques allowed astronomers to begin detecting planets around other stars in the 1990s. The first extrasolar planets (often referred to as exoplanets) to be discovered were quite exotic and unfamiliar objects. Most were giant objects that are hundreds of times as massive as the Earth and orbit so close to their star that they are hotter than pizza ovens. But as observational capabilities improved, smaller and cooler planets were found. The most capable planet-hunting tool developed to date is NASA's Kepler telescope, which was launched in 2009. Kepler has found that planets similar in size to our Earth are quite abundant within our galaxy. Results of Kepler's research will be summarized and placed into context within the new and growing discipline of exoplanet studies.

  19. The Kepler Mission: A Search for Terrestrial Planets - Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, W.; Mayer, D.; Caldwell, D.; Jenkens, J.; Dunham, E.; Geary, J.; Bachtell, E.; Deininger, W.; Philbrick, R.

    2003-01-01

    We have embarked on a mission to detect terrestrial planets. The space mission has been optimized to search for earth-size planets (0.5 to 10 earth masses) in the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. Given this design, the mission will necessarily be capable of not only detecting Earth analogs, but a wide range of planetary types and characteristics ranging from Mercury-size objects with orbital periods of days to gas-giants in decade long orbits that have undeniable signatures even with only one transit detected. The mission is designed to survey the full range of spectral-type dwarf stars. The approach is to detect the periodic signal of transiting planets. Three or more transits of a star exceeding a combined threshold of eight sigma with a statistically consistent period, brightness change and duration provide a rigorous method of detection. From the relative brightness change the planet size can be calculated. From the period the orbital size can be calculated and its location relative to the HZ determined. Presented here are: the mission goals, the top level system design requirements derived from these goals that drive the flight system design, a number of the trades that have lead to the mission concept, expected photometric performance dependence on stellar brightness and spectral type based on the system 'noise tree' analysis. Updated estimates are presented of the numbers of detectable planets versus size, orbit, stellar spectral type and distances based on a planet frequency hypothesis. The current project schedule and organization are given.

  20. The Kepler Mission: A Search for Terrestrial Planets - Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, W.; Mayer, D.; Caldwell, D.; Jenkens, J.; Dunham, E.; Geary, J.; Bachtell, E.; Deininger, W.; Philbrick, R.

    2003-01-01

    We have embarked on a mission to detect terrestrial planets. The space mission has been optimized to search for earth-size planets (0.5 to 10 earth masses) in the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. Given this design, the mission will necessarily be capable of not only detecting Earth analogs, but a wide range of planetary types and characteristics ranging from Mercury-size objects with orbital periods of days to gas-giants in decade long orbits that have undeniable signatures even with only one transit detected. The mission is designed to survey the full range of spectral-type dwarf stars. The approach is to detect the periodic signal of transiting planets. Three or more transits of a star exceeding a combined threshold of eight sigma with a statistically consistent period, brightness change and duration provide a rigorous method of detection. From the relative brightness change the planet size can be calculated. From the period the orbital size can be calculated and its location relative to the HZ determined. Presented here are: the mission goals, the top level system design requirements derived from these goals that drive the flight system design, a number of the trades that have lead to the mission concept, expected photometric performance dependence on stellar brightness and spectral type based on the system 'noise tree' analysis. Updated estimates are presented of the numbers of detectable planets versus size, orbit, stellar spectral type and distances based on a planet frequency hypothesis. The current project schedule and organization are given.

  1. Hubble space telescope high-resolution imaging of Kepler small and cool exoplanet host stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Wright, Jason T.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution imaging is an important tool for follow-up study of exoplanet candidates found via transit detection with the Kepler mission. We discuss here Hubble Space Telescope imaging with the WFC3 of 23 stars that host particularly interesting Kepler planet candidates based on their small size and cool equilibrium temperature estimates. Results include detections, exclusion of background stars that could be a source of false positives for the transits, and detection of physically associated companions in a number of cases providing dilution measures necessary for planet parameter refinement. For six Kepler objects of interest, we find that there is ambiguity regarding which star hosts the transiting planet(s), with potentially strong implications for planetary characteristics. Our sample is evenly distributed in G, K, and M spectral types. Albeit with a small sample size, we find that physically associated binaries are more common than expected at each spectral type, reaching a factor of 10 frequency excess in M. We document the program detection sensitivities, detections, and deliverables to the Kepler follow-up program archive.

  2. Kepler Mission Moved: Forwarding Address RA=19h 22m 40s, Dec=+44° 30‧ 00″

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Chandrasekaran, H.; Caldwell, D. A.; Batalha, N. M.; Silva, N.; Koch, D. G.; Gautier, T. N.

    2005-08-01

    A trade study was conducted to quantify the benefits of moving NASA Discovery's Kepler Mission to a higher galactic latitude, b=+13.28° . We examined the extent of the background binary confusion problem relative to the number of primary target stars: those stars for which Kepler can detect transiting habitable planets ≥ 1; Rearth. A Monte Carlo model of the Field of View (FOV) was constructed with the stellar population modeled using the Besançon galactic model (Robin et al. 2003). The number of primary target stars decreases by 4% and 7% from the original FOV center for a +5° and a +10° increase in b, respectively. We chose late, main sequence stars with 8.5≤ R ≤ 16.5 as target stars. For each target, background stars were placed randomly in the star's photometric aperture and half were selected as binaries. The orbital period and eccentricity were defined as per Duquennoy and Mayor (1991), with the remaining orbital elements chosen randomly. False positives were determined as those binaries that injected a detectable photometric signal for which none of the following were observed: disparities between secondary and primary eclipse depths, durations or epoch timings, or motion of the photocenter. The number of expected false positives drops precipitously with increasing b. For the new FOV we expect no false positives mimicking habitable, Earth-sized planets. We do expect ˜18 short-period (P<3 days) false positives. A few false positives with radii >;1.4; Rearth are expected for P;>;3 days. Finally, candidates identified in the Kepler Mission data will be subjected to both ground-based and space-based follow-up observations, which should eliminate most of these remaining false positives. Support for this work came from the Kepler Mission Science Office at NASA Ames Research Center.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler Mission. II. Eclipsing binaries in DR2 (Slawson+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, R. W.; Prsa, A.; Welsh, W. F.; Orosz, J. A.; Rucker, M.; Batalha, N.; Doyle, L. R.; Engle, S. G.; Conroy, K.; Coughlin, J.; Gregg, T. A.; Fetherolf, T.; Short, D. R.; Windmiller, G.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Howell, S. B.; Jenkins, J. M.; Uddin, K.; Mullally, F.; Seader, S. E.; Thompson, S. E.; Sanderfer, D. T.; Borucki, W.; Koch, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Kepler Mission (launched in 2009 March) provides nearly continuous monitoring of ~156000 objects with unprecedented photometric precision. Coincident with the first data release, we presented a catalog of 1879 eclipsing binary systems identified within the 115deg2 Kepler field of view (FOV). Here, we provide an updated catalog from paper I (Prsa et al. 2011, Cat. J/AJ/141/83) augmented with the second Kepler data release which increases the baseline nearly fourfold to 125 days. Three hundred and eighty-six new systems have been added, ephemerides and principal parameters have been recomputed. We have removed 42 previously cataloged systems that are now clearly recognized as short-period pulsating variables and another 58 blended systems where we have determined that the Kepler target object is not itself the eclipsing binary. A number of interesting objects are identified. We present several exemplary cases: four eclipsing binaries that exhibit extra (tertiary) eclipse events; and eight systems that show clear eclipse timing variations indicative of the presence of additional bodies bound in the system. We have updated the period and galactic latitude distribution diagrams. With these changes, the total number of identified eclipsing binary systems in the Kepler FOV has increased to 2165, 1.4% of the Kepler target stars. (4 data files).

  4. Kepler Mission Design, Realized Photometric Performance, and Early Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-20

    precise, extended, continuous flux time series. Results from many of these fields in turn tie back into the interpretation of exoplanet science. Kepler was...length of at least three years. 2.2. Number of Stars to Observe Transit photometry requires that the orbital plane of the exoplanet must be aligned...than the shot noise. 5. EARLY RESULTS AND PROSPECTS 5.1. Exoplanets Results from the first 43 days of data include detection of five transiting

  5. SPECKLE CAMERA OBSERVATIONS FOR THE NASA KEPLER MISSION FOLLOW-UP PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Sherry, William; Horch, Elliott; Ciardi, David R.

    2011-07-15

    We present the first results from a speckle imaging survey of stars classified as candidate exoplanet host stars discovered by the Kepler mission. We use speckle imaging to search for faint companions or closely aligned background stars that could contribute flux to the Kepler light curves of their brighter neighbors. Background stars are expected to contribute significantly to the pool of false positive candidate transiting exoplanets discovered by the Kepler mission, especially in the case that the faint neighbors are eclipsing binary stars. Here, we describe our Kepler follow-up observing program, the speckle imaging camera used, our data reduction, and astrometric and photometric performance. Kepler stars range from R = 8 to 16 and our observations attempt to provide background non-detection limits 5-6 mag fainter and binary separations of {approx}0.05-2.0 arcsec. We present data describing the relative brightness, separation, and position angles for secondary sources, as well as relative plate limits for non-detection of faint nearby stars around each of 156 target stars. Faint neighbors were found near 10 of the stars.

  6. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Multiple Planets Orbiting Twin Suns (Reporter Pkg)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-28

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first transiting circumbinary system -- multiple planets orbiting two suns -- 4,900 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Cygnus, proving that more than one planets can form and survive in orbit around a binary star.

  7. Ensemble asteroseismology of solar-type stars with the NASA Kepler mission.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, W J; Kjeldsen, H; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Basu, S; Miglio, A; Appourchaux, T; Bedding, T R; Elsworth, Y; García, R A; Gilliland, R L; Girardi, L; Houdek, G; Karoff, C; Kawaler, S D; Metcalfe, T S; Molenda-Żakowicz, J; Monteiro, M J P F G; Thompson, M J; Verner, G A; Ballot, J; Bonanno, A; Brandão, I M; Broomhall, A-M; Bruntt, H; Campante, T L; Corsaro, E; Creevey, O L; Doğan, G; Esch, L; Gai, N; Gaulme, P; Hale, S J; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Huber, D; Jiménez, A; Mathur, S; Mazumdar, A; Mosser, B; New, R; Pinsonneault, M H; Pricopi, D; Quirion, P-O; Régulo, C; Salabert, D; Serenelli, A M; Silva Aguirre, V; Sousa, S G; Stello, D; Stevens, I R; Suran, M D; Uytterhoeven, K; White, T R; Borucki, W J; Brown, T M; Jenkins, J M; Kinemuchi, K; Van Cleve, J; Klaus, T C

    2011-04-08

    In addition to its search for extrasolar planets, the NASA Kepler mission provides exquisite data on stellar oscillations. We report the detections of oscillations in 500 solar-type stars in the Kepler field of view, an ensemble that is large enough to allow statistical studies of intrinsic stellar properties (such as mass, radius, and age) and to test theories of stellar evolution. We find that the distribution of observed masses of these stars shows intriguing differences to predictions from models of synthetic stellar populations in the Galaxy.

  8. Kepler Planet-Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-19

    weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from...and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the...supporting online material (SOM) text, section 1, and (5–11). Here we describe the detection of five new exoplanets of varying size and orbital period

  9. Kepler Mission: A Mission to Find Earth-size Planets in the Habitable Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a Discovery-class mission designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. It is a wide field of view photometer Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs. It has a 0.95 m aperture and 1.4 m primary and is designed to attain a photometric precision of 2 parts in 10(exp 5) for 12th magnitude solar-like stars for a 6 hr transit duration. It will continuously observe 100,000 main-sequence stars from 9th to 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation for a period of four years with a cadence of 4/hour. An additional 250 stars can be monitored at a cadence of l/minute to do astro-seismology of stars brighter than 11.5 mv. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. When combined with ground-based spectrometric observations of these stars, the positions of the planets relative to the habitable zone can be found. The spectra of the stars are also used to determine the relationships between the characteristics of terrestrial planets and the characteristics of the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will also be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of Earth-size planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ are very rare and that life might also be quite rare.

  10. Towards Automatic Classification of Exoplanet-Transit-Like Signals: A Case Study on Kepler Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valizadegan, Hamed; Martin, Rodney; McCauliff, Sean D.; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Catanzarite, Joseph; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2015-08-01

    Building new catalogues of planetary candidates, astrophysical false alarms, and non-transiting phenomena is a challenging task that currently requires a reviewing team of astrophysicists and astronomers. These scientists need to examine more than 100 diagnostic metrics and associated graphics for each candidate exoplanet-transit-like signal to classify it into one of the three classes. Considering that the NASA Explorer Program's TESS mission and ESA's PLATO mission survey even a larger area of space, the classification of their transit-like signals is more time-consuming for human agents and a bottleneck to successfully construct the new catalogues in a timely manner. This encourages building automatic classification tools that can quickly and reliably classify the new signal data from these missions. The standard tool for building automatic classification systems is the supervised machine learning that requires a large set of highly accurate labeled examples in order to build an effective classifier. This requirement cannot be easily met for classifying transit-like signals because not only are existing labeled signals very limited, but also the current labels may not be reliable (because the labeling process is a subjective task). Our experiments with using different supervised classifiers to categorize transit-like signals verifies that the labeled signals are not rich enough to provide the classifier with enough power to generalize well beyond the observed cases (e.g. to unseen or test signals). That motivated us to utilize a new category of learning techniques, so-called semi-supervised learning, that combines the label information from the costly labeled signals, and distribution information from the cheaply available unlabeled signals in order to construct more effective classifiers. Our study on the Kepler Mission data shows that semi-supervised learning can significantly improve the result of multiple base classifiers (e.g. Support Vector Machines, Ada

  11. ATV Engineering Support Team Safety Console Preparation for the Johannes Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, R.; Oliefka, L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the improvements to be implemented in the Safety console position of the Engineering Support Team(EST) at the Automated Transfer Vehicle(ATV) Control Centre(ATV-CC) for the upcoming ATV Johannes Kepler mission. The ATV missions to the International Space Station are monitored and controlled from the ATV-CC in Toulouse, France. The commanding of ATV is performed by the Vehicle Engineering Team(VET) in the main control room under authority of the Flight Director. The EST performs a monitoring function in a room beside the main control room. One of the EST positions is the Safety console, which is staffed by safety engineers from ESA and the industrial prime contractor, Astrium. The function of the Safety console is to check whether the hazard controls are available throughout the mission as required by the Hazard Reports approved by the ISS Safety Review Panel. Safety console preparation activities were limited prior to the first ATV mission due to schedule constraints, and the safety engineers involved have been working to improve the readiness for ATV 2. The following steps have been taken or are in process, and will be described in this paper: • review of the implementation of Operations Control Agreement Documents(OCADs) that record the way operational hazard controls are performed to meet the needs of the Hazard Reports(typically in Flight Rules and Crew Procedures), • crosscheck of operational control needs and implementations with respect to ATV's first flight observations and post flight evaluations, with a view to identifying additional, obsolete or revised operational hazard controls, • participation in the Flight Rule review and update process carried out between missions, • participation in the assessment of anomalies observed during the first ATV mission, to ensure that any impacts are addressed in the ATV 2 safety documentation, • preparation of a Safety console handbook to provide lists of important safety aspects to be

  12. Validating the First Habitable-Zone Planet Candidates Identified by the NASA Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fressin, Francois; Ballard, Sarah; Borucki, William; Latham, David; Gilliland, Ronald; Seager, Sara; Knutson, Heather; Fortney, Jonathan; Brown, Timothy; Ford, Eric; Deming, Drake; Torres, Guillermo

    2011-05-01

    At the beginning of Cycle 8, the NASA Kepler Mission will have completed two years of science observations, the minimum baseline sufficient to identify candidate transiting exoplanets orbiting within the habitable-zones of Sun-like stars. The principal task that lies ahead is to reject from this sample the false positives (blends of eclipsing binaries that precisely mimic the signal of a transiting exoplanet), and to confirm the planetary nature of the remaining candidates. For planets more massive than Neptune, the direct confirmation of their planetary status can be accomplished by radial-velocity measurements. However, such planets possess primordial envelopes of hydrogen and helium that make them unsuitable to life as we know it. The most exciting candidates -- and the ones that Kepler is specifically tasked with finding -- are super-Earth and Earth-sized planets orbiting within their stellar habitable zones. Kepler has just begun to identify such planet candidates, and it will identify many more as its baseline increases throughout the coming year. While the Kepler team has developed powerful tools to weed out the impostors, Spitzer possesses the unique ability to provide the final validation of these candidates as planets, namely by measuring the depth of the transit at infrared wavelengths. By combining the infrared and optical measurements of the transit depth with models of hypothetical stellar blends, we can definitively test the stellar-blend hypothesis. We propose to observe the transits of 20 candidate habitable-zone super-Earths to be identified by the Kepler Mission. The results from this Exploration Science Program will be twofold: First, we will definitively validate the first potentially habitable planets ever identified. Second, we will determine the rate of occurrence of impostors. This rate of false positives can then be applied to the much larger sample of candidates identified by Kepler, to deduce the true rate of planetary companions.

  13. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  14. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  15. Results of CCD Transit Photometry Testing for the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Witteborn, F.; Dunham, E.; Jenkins, J.; Borucki, W.; Webster, L.

    1999-12-01

    Transit signals produced by Earth-size planets in orbit around solar-like stars are of the order of 8e-5 and have durations from 4 to 16 hours for planets in or near the habitable zone. A mission to search for habitable planets has been proposed (Koch, et al., 1998). At the heart of the mission is an array of CCDs used to continuously measure the relative brightness variations of 100,000 dwarf stars for transits. A testbed facility has been constructed to determine the effects of various induced noise sources on the capability of a CCD photometer to maintain an instrument relative precision of better than 1e-5. The photometry facility includes: a simulated star field with an approximate solar spectrum, fast optics to simulate the space borne telescope, a thinned back-illuminated CCD similar to those to be used on the spacecraft operating at 1 Mpix/sec read rate, and shutterless operation. The test facility is thermally and mechanically isolated. Each source of noise is introduced in a controlled fashion and evaluated. Pointing noise or changing thermal conditions in the spacecraft can cause star-image motion at the milli-pixel level. These motions are imposed by piezo-electric devices that move the photometer relative to the star field. Transit signals as small as Earth-size transits of solar-like stars are generated and measured. This is accomplished by electrical self-heating and expansion of fine wires placed across many of the star apertures. The small decrease in stellar brightness is used to demonstrate that Earth-size planets can be detected under realistic noise conditions and at the shot-noise-limited level. The effects of imposing several noise sources are shown and the resulting detectability of planets is presented. This work is supported in part by the NASA Discovery program and NASA Ames. Koch, D., Borucki, W., Webster, L., Dunham, E., Jenkins, J., Marriott, J. and Reitsema, H. SPIE Conf. on Space Telescopes and Instruments V, 3356, 599-607 (1998)

  16. Kepler Mission: a mission to find Earth-size planets in the habitable zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Devore, Edna; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Thomas; Geary, John; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve; Jenkins, Jon

    2003-10-01

    The Kepler Mission is a NASA Discovery-class mission designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 main sequence stars to detect the transit of Earth-size and larger planets. It is a wide field of view photometer with a Schmidt-type telescope and an array of 42 CCDs covering the 100 sq. degree field-of-view (FOV). It has a 0.95 m aperture and a 1.4 m primary and is designed to attain a photometric precision of 20 parts per million (ppm) for 12th magnitude solar-like stars for a 6.5-hour transit duration. It will continuously observe 100,000 main sequence stars from 9th to 15th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation for a period of four years with a cadence of 4 measurements per hour. The photometer is scheduled to be launched in 2007 into heliocentric orbit. A ground-based program to classify all 450,000 stars brighter than 15th magnitude in the FOV and to conduct a detailed examination of a subset of the stars that show planetary companions is also planned. Hundreds of Earth-size planets should be detected if they are common around solar-like stars. Ground-based spectrometric observations of those stars with planetary companions will be made to determine the dependences of the frequency and size of terrestrial planets on stellar characteristics such as type and metallicity. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets are rare.

  17. Analysis of selected Kepler Mission planetary light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Budding, E.

    2014-06-01

    We have modified the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program CurveFit to the form WinKepler and applied it to 16 representative planetary candidate light curves found in the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu, with an aim to compare different analytical approaches. WinKepler has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity-brightening and structural parameters derived from the relevant Radau equation. We tested our best-fitting parameter-sets for formal determinacy and adequacy. A primary aim is to compare our parameters with those listed in the NEA. Although there are trends of agreement, small differences in the main parameter values are found in some cases, and there may be some relative bias towards a 90∘ value for the NEA inclinations. These are assessed against realistic error estimates. Photometric variability from causes other than planetary transits affects at least 6 of the data-sets studied; with small pulsational behaviour found in 3 of those. For the false positive KOI 4.01, we found that the eclipses could be modelled by a faint background classical Algol as effectively as by a transiting exoplanet. Our empirical checks of limb-darkening, in the cases of KOI 1.01 and 12.01, revealed that the assigned stellar temperatures are probably incorrect. For KOI 13.01, our empirical mass-ratio differs by about 7 % from that of Mislis and Hodgkin (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 422:1512, 2012), who neglected structural effects and higher order terms in the tidal distortion. Such detailed parameter evaluation, additional to the usual main geometric ones, provides an additional objective for this work.

  18. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  19. ACS and WFPC2 Stellar Photometry in the Kepler Mission Target Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William

    2004-07-01

    We will observe three regions at the Galactic Equator {GE} to determine the number of stars in the magnitude range from 18 to 25 in the target field of the NASA Kepler mission. This mission will search for Earth-size planets orbiting other stars. The field is a twelve by twelve degree square in Cygnus. It abuts the GE. The detection technique is to search photometrically for planetary transits. Faint eclipsing binaries that are not spatially resolved from the target star by Kepler may cause confusion, leading to false positive detections. The HST is uniquely capable of determining the potential magnitude of the issue in the region of the GE, where stellar densities are extremely high.

  20. The Space Technology 8 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Stephen F.; Ku, Jentung; Spence, Brian; McEachen, Mike; White, Steve; Samson, John; Some, Rafael; Zsoldos, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    the Space Technology 8 (ST8) mission is the latest in NASA's New Millenium Program technology demonstration missions. ST8 includes a spacecraft bus built by industry, flying four new technology payloads in low Earth orbit. This paper will describe each payload, along with a brief description of the mission and spacecraft.

  1. The Space Technology 8 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Stephen F.; Ku, Jentung; Spence, Brian; McEachen, Mike; White, Steve; Samson, John; Some, Rafael; Zsoldos, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    the Space Technology 8 (ST8) mission is the latest in NASA's New Millenium Program technology demonstration missions. ST8 includes a spacecraft bus built by industry, flying four new technology payloads in low Earth orbit. This paper will describe each payload, along with a brief description of the mission and spacecraft.

  2. Exoplanet studies. Spectral confirmation of photometric exoplanet candidates discovered by the "Kepler" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadelshin, D. R.; Valyavin, G. G.; Yushkin, M. V.; Semenko, E. A.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Maryeva, O. V.; Valeev, A. F.; Lee, Byeong-Cheol

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic confirmation of exoplanet candidates from the "Kepler" space mission catalog. We used the NES spectrometer of the 6-m Russian BTA telescope to investigate the Doppler variability of the radial velocities of the host stars of KOI-974.01, KOI-2687.01/02, and KOI-2706.01. According to the derived upper limits, KOI-2706.01 has a mass significantly smaller than 12 Jupiter masses, which directly indicates its planetary nature. We show that KOI-2687.01 and KOI-2687.02, which have Earth-size or white dwarf-size radii according to photometric data, cannot be white dwarfs, and are therefore exoplanets. Radial velocity analysis for KOI-974, an F-type star, has shown noticeable variations with a half-amplitude of 400 ms-1, which correlate poorly with the phase of its orbital rotation. This can indicate a presence of other massive planets in the system, with orbits closer or farther from the host star than the orbit of KOI-974.01, or a low mass star in a distant outer orbit. Using the method of synthetic spectra, we obtained more accurate atmospheric parameter and radius estimates for all the program host stars, which, in turn, allowed us to refine the radii of the studied exoplanet candidates.

  3. Spitzer Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the Kepler Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Onaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope was used for observations of the Kepler supernova remnant, with all four instrument modules targeted on the bright infrared knot located at 17h30m35.80s,-21d28m54.0s (J2000). The low spectral resolution modules data show a dust continuum spectrum consistent with dust grains heated by high-energy electrons, while the high resolution modules data show atomic emission line ratios consistent with excitation by a high velocity shock of greater than 100 kilometers per second and electron densities of approximately 1,000 per centimeter. The abundance ratios for the six detected elements show signs of heavy-element enhancement. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Support for this work was provided by NASA's Office of Space Science.

  4. Systems engingeering for the Kepler Mission : a search for terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duren, Riley M.; Dragon, Karen; Gunter, Steve Z.; Gautier, Nick; Koch, Dave; Harvey, Adam; Enos, Alan; Borucki, Bill; Sobeck, Charlie; Mayer, Dave; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Kepler mission will launch in 2007 and determine the distribution of earth-size planets (0.5 to 10 earth masses) in the habitable zones (HZs) of solar-like stars. The mission will monitor > 100,000 dwarf stars simultaneously for at least 4 years. Precision differential photometry will be used to detect the periodic signals of transiting planets. Kepler will also support asteroseismology by measuring the pressure-mode (p-mode) oscillations of selected stars. Key mission elements include a spacecraft bus and 0.95 meter, wide-field, CCD-based photometer injected into an earth-trailing heliocentric orbit by a 3-stage Delta II launch vehicle as well as a distributed Ground Segment and Follow-up Observing Program. The project is currently preparing for Preliminary Design Review (October 2004) and is proceeding with detailed design and procurement of long-lead components. In order to meet the unprecedented photometric precision requirement and to ensure a statistically significant result, the Kepler mission involves technical challenges in the areas of photometric noise and systematic error reduction, stability, and false-positive rejection. Programmatic and logistical challenges include the collaborative design, modeling, integration, test, and operation of a geographically and functionally distributed project. A very rigorous systems engineering program has evolved to address these challenges. This paper provides an overview of the Kepler systems engineering program, including some examples of our processes and techniques in areas such as requirements synthesis, validation & verification, system robustness design, and end-to-end performance modeling.

  5. Systems engingeering for the Kepler Mission : a search for terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duren, Riley M.; Dragon, Karen; Gunter, Steve Z.; Gautier, Nick; Koch, Dave; Harvey, Adam; Enos, Alan; Borucki, Bill; Sobeck, Charlie; Mayer, Dave; Jenkins, Jon; Thompson, Rick; Bachtell, Eric; Peters, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The Kepler mission will launch in 2007 and determine the distribution of earth-size planets (0.5 to 10 earth masses) in the habitable zones (HZs) of solar-like stars. The mission will monitor > 100,000 dwarf stars simultaneously for at least 4 years. Precision differential photometry will be used to detect the periodic signals of transiting planets. Kepler will also support asteroseismology by measuring the pressure-mode (p-mode) oscillations of selected stars. Key mission elements include a spacecraft bus and 0.95 meter, wide-field, CCD-based photometer injected into an earth-trailing heliocentric orbit by a 3-stage Delta II launch vehicle as well as a distributed Ground Segment and Follow-up Observing Program. The project is currently preparing for Preliminary Design Review (October 2004) and is proceeding with detailed design and procurement of long-lead components. In order to meet the unprecedented photometric precision requirement and to ensure a statistically significant result, the Kepler mission involves technical challenges in the areas of photometric noise and systematic error reduction, stability, and false-positive rejection. Programmatic and logistical challenges include the collaborative design, modeling, integration, test, and operation of a geographically and functionally distributed project. A very rigorous systems engineering program has evolved to address these challenges. This paper provides an overview of the Kepler systems engineering program, including some examples of our processes and techniques in areas such as requirements synthesis, validation & verification, system robustness design, and end-to-end performance modeling.

  6. Space Shuttle mission extension capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Space Shuttle missions are currently limited to 11 days, primarily due to depletion of the power reactants (hydrogen and oxygen). A power system Mission Extension Kit (MEK) is described which could provide the capability to stay on orbit 10 additional days. These extra days would benefit Space Station construction and missions such as materials processing, earth and celestial observation, and life science studies (Spacelab). Other constraints to longer missions which may dictate minor Orbiter modifications will be discussed. The power system MEK is particularly desirable because of its existing flight qualified hardware which can be delivered within 3 to 4 years.

  7. Science and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about the science goals of various deep space missions? Or why scientists want such seemingly complicated spacecraft and operations scenarios? With a focus on outer planets) this talk will cover the scientific goals and results of several recent and future missions) how scientists approach a requirements flow down) and how the disparate needs of mission engineers and scientists can come together for mission success. It will also touch on several up and coming technologies and how they will change mission architectures in the future.

  8. Photometric Analysis for the Kepler Mission: Optimal Aperture Photometry and Difference Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Gilliland, R. L.; Chandrasekaran, H.; Bryson, S. T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Borucki, W. J.

    2006-12-01

    The science processing pipeline for the Kepler Science Operations Center will use two different approaches for developing stellar flux time series from the pixels downlinked from the spacecraft: Difference Image Analysis (DIA) Photometry and Optimal Aperture Photometry (OAP). We have prototyped both approaches and applied them to artificial data sets containing a wealth of realistic astrophysical phenomena including transiting planets, stellar variability, background eclipsing binaries and differential velocity aberration (DVA). These data sets were furnished using the Kepler End to End Model (see Bryson et al., this session). The primary purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of DVA on the ability of the Kepler processing pipeline to: 1) obtain high precision, high fidelity stellar flux time series, 2) to detect signatures of transiting planets in the data set, and 3) to reject false positives represented by background eclipsing binary systems. OAP photometry is an extension of the optimal pixel weighting photometry introduced by Jenkins et al. 2000 (ProcSPIE 4013) and is motivated by the slow drift of the stars on the CCDs by up to 0.6 pixels over three months compared to the tight pointing requirements for the attitude control system (0.01 = 1 σ at 15 minutes). The photometry from OAP consists of taking a weighted sum of the pixels in each target's aperture, where the weights are functions of the change in position of the target and hence, can mitigate the large apparent changes in stellar flux for simple aperture photometry. The results of the study indicate that DIA and OAP produce comparable photometric time series, and furthermore, that DVA does not interfere with the ability of Kepler to detect such planets or to reject false positives from background eclipsing binaries. The Kepler Mission is funded by NASA's Discovery Program.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler Mission. VIII. 285 false positives (Abdul-Masih+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Masih, M.; Prsa, A.; Conroy, K.; Bloemen, S.; Boyajian, T.; Doyle, L. R.; Johnston, C.; Kostov, V.; Latham, D. W.; Matijevic, G.; Shporer, A.; Southworth, J.

    2016-08-01

    The Kepler mission was launched in 2009 and provided photometric data for ~200000 objects in the 105deg2 contained in the Kepler field of view (FOV; Batalha et al. 2013, Cat. J/ApJS/204/24). Each of the 95 million Kepler pixels cover 3.98*3.98'' and are designed to maximize the number of resolvable stars with magnitudes brighter than 15. There are approximately 500000 objects in the Kepler FOV that are brighter than V=16; however, only ~200000 were assigned as targets for observation, leaving many bright objects in the field unobserved. Since the main goal of Kepler is to find Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the targets that were chosen for observation were those with the highest potential for terrestrial planet detection. Thus, many objects in the Kepler FOV have not been observed. Due to the proximity of some of these unobserved objects to the identified targets, the possibility of contaminated signals arises. Of the observed targets, 2772 eclipsing binaries have been found and cataloged in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (http://keplerebs.villanova.edu/; see also Kirk et al. 2016, Cat. J/AJ/151/68). A false positive is a case where the signal from a binary object in close proximity to a target contaminates the aperture pixels, causing the target light curve to show a binary signal. This means that the incorrect object is being identified as the source of the binary signal. Once the source of the binary signal is identified, a new light curve can be extracted. The re-extraction process is comprised of several automated steps and results in three new light curves generated for the true source of the binary signal for each quarter of available data. These light curves are generated by optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N light curve), percent eclipse depth (PED light curve), and flux eclipse depth (FED light curve). Before re-extracting the new light curves, we obtain the S/N, the PED, and the FED for the original false

  10. NASA's Kepler Reveals Potential New Worlds - Raw Video New File

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-19

    This is a video file, or a collection of unedited video clips for media usage, in support of the Kepler mission's latest discovery announcement. Launched in 2009, the Kepler space telescope is our first mission capable of identifying Earth-size planets around other stars. On Monday, June 19, 2017, scientists announced the results from the latest Kepler candidate catalog of the mission at a press conference at NASA's Ames Research Center.

  11. Heritage of the Kepler mission: Special object KIC 8462852 and criticism of the cometary hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.; Tavrov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Paradoxical properties of the KIC 8462852 object discovered in the course the Kepler mission are considered. It has been shown that the assumptions about the nature of the object as a swarm of cometary bodies, fragments resulting from catastrophic collisions of asteroids, or the KIC 8462852b exoplanet meet serious problems and even contradict the Kepler laws, if the eclipsing object is considered as a physical body orbiting a central star. According the energy and other requirements, the hypothetical orbit of KIC 8462852b does not meet the Dyson sphere conception either. In the paper, we used the materials of the study by Boyajian et al. (2015) and the subsequent publications on this theme.

  12. Advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitas, R. A., Jr.; Healy, T. J.; Long, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE Summer Study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: (1) An intelligent earth-sensing information system, (2) an autonomous space exploration system, (3) an automated space manufacturing facility, and (4) a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by century's end.

  13. Advanced automation for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, R.A., Jr.; Healy, T.J.; Long, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE summer study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: an intelligent earth-sensing information system; an autonomous space exploration system; an automated space manufacturing facility; and a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by the century's end. 18 references.

  14. DETECTION OF POTENTIAL TRANSIT SIGNALS IN THE FIRST 12 QUARTERS OF KEPLER MISSION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Seader, Shawn; Burke, Christopher J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Girouard, Forrest R. [Orbital Sciences Corporation and others

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in the first three years of photometry data acquired by the Kepler mission. The targets of the search include 112,321 targets that were observed over the full interval and an additional 79,992 targets that were observed for a subset of the full interval. From this set of targets we find a total of 11,087 targets that contain at least one signal that meets the Kepler detection criteria: periodicity of the signal, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, and three tests that reject false positives. Each target containing at least one detected signal is then searched repeatedly for additional signals, which represent multi-planet systems of transiting planets. When targets with multiple detections are considered, a total of 18,406 potential transiting planet signals are found in the Kepler mission data set. The detected signals are dominated by events with relatively low signal-to-noise ratios and by events with relatively short periods. The distribution of estimated transit depths appears to peak in the range between 20 and 30 parts per million, with a few detections down to fewer than 10 parts per million. The detections exhibit signal-to-noise ratios from 7.1{sigma}, which is the lower cutoff for detections, to over 10,000{sigma}, and periods ranging from 0.5 days, which is the shortest period searched, to 525 days, which is the upper limit of achievable periods given the length of the data set and the requirement that all detections include at least three transits. The detected signals are compared to a set of known transit events in the Kepler field of view, many of which were identified by alternative methods; the comparison shows that the current search recovery rate for targets with known transit events is 98.3%.

  15. KEPLER-15b: A HOT JUPITER ENRICHED IN HEAVY ELEMENTS AND THE FIRST KEPLER MISSION PLANET CONFIRMED WITH THE HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Cochran, William D.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Rowe, Jason; Lucas, Phillip; Isaacson, Howard; Bryson, Steve; Howell, Steve B.; Borucki, William J.; Caldwell, Douglas; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hansen, Terese; Ciardi, David R.; Everett, Mark; Ford, Eric B.; and others

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of Kepler-15b (KOI-128), a new transiting exoplanet detected by NASA's Kepler mission. The transit signal with a period of 4.94 days was detected in the quarter 1 (Q1) Kepler photometry. For the first time, we have used the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) to determine the mass of a Kepler planet via precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. The 24 HET/HRS RVs and 6 additional measurements from the Fibre-fed Echelle Spectrograph spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope reveal a Doppler signal with the same period and phase as the transit ephemeris. We used one HET/HRS spectrum of Kepler-15 taken without the iodine cell to determine accurate stellar parameters. The host star is a metal-rich ([Fe/H] = 0.36 {+-} 0.07) G-type main-sequence star with T{sub eff} = 5515 {+-} 124 K. The semi-amplitude K of the RV orbit is 78.7{sup +8.5}{sub -9.5} m s{sup -1}, which yields a planet mass of 0.66 {+-} 0.1 M{sub Jup}. The planet has a radius of 0.96 {+-} 0.06 R{sub Jup} and a mean bulk density of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 g cm{sup -3}. The radius of Kepler-15b is smaller than the majority of transiting planets with similar mass and irradiation level. This suggests that the planet is more enriched in heavy elements than most other transiting giant planets. For Kepler-15b we estimate a heavy element mass of 30-40 M{sub Circled-Plus }.

  16. Kepler-15b: A Hot Jupiter Enriched in Heavy Elements and the First Kepler Mission Planet Confirmed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Cochran, William D.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Rowe, Jason; Lucas, Phillip; Isaacson, Howard; Bryson, Steve; Howell, Steve B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hansen, Terese; Borucki, William J.; Caldwell, Douglas; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David R.; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Everett, Mark; Ford, Eric B.; Haas, Michael R.; Holman, Matthew J.; Horch, Elliott; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David J.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Machalek, Pavel; Still, Martin; Welsh, William F.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Seader, Shawn E.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of Kepler-15b (KOI-128), a new transiting exoplanet detected by NASA's Kepler mission. The transit signal with a period of 4.94 days was detected in the quarter 1 (Q1) Kepler photometry. For the first time, we have used the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) to determine the mass of a Kepler planet via precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. The 24 HET/HRS RVs and 6 additional measurements from the Fibre-fed Échelle Spectrograph spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope reveal a Doppler signal with the same period and phase as the transit ephemeris. We used one HET/HRS spectrum of Kepler-15 taken without the iodine cell to determine accurate stellar parameters. The host star is a metal-rich ([Fe/H] = 0.36 ± 0.07) G-type main-sequence star with T eff = 5515 ± 124 K. The semi-amplitude K of the RV orbit is 78.7+8.5 -9.5 m s-1, which yields a planet mass of 0.66 ± 0.1 M Jup. The planet has a radius of 0.96 ± 0.06 R Jup and a mean bulk density of 0.9 ± 0.2 g cm-3. The radius of Kepler-15b is smaller than the majority of transiting planets with similar mass and irradiation level. This suggests that the planet is more enriched in heavy elements than most other transiting giant planets. For Kepler-15b we estimate a heavy element mass of 30-40 M ⊕. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  17. Target Characterization and Follow-Up Observations in Support of the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of experiments were carried out to investigate the number and characteristics of the stars to be included in the Kepler Input Catalog. One result of this work was the proposal that the 2MASS Catalog of astrometry and photometry in the infrared be used as the primary source for the initial selection of candidate target stars, because this would naturally decrease the number of unsuitable hot blue stars and would also increase the number of desirable solar-type dwarf stars. Another advantage of the 2MASS catalogue is that the stellar positions have more than adequate astrometric accuracy for the Kepler target selection. The original plan reported in the Concept Study Report was to use the parallaxes and multi-band photometry from the FAME mission to provide the information needed for reliable separation of giants and dwarfs. As a result of NASA's withdrawal of support for FAME an alternate approach was needed. In November 2002 we proposed to the Kepler Science Team that a ground-based multi-band photometric survey could help alleviate the loss of the FAME data. The Science Team supported this proposal strongly, and we undertook a survey of possible facilities for such a survey. We concluded that the SAO's 4Shooter CCD camera on the 1.2-m telescope at the Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona, showed promise for this work.

  18. Hands-On Universe Teacher Courses and the NASA Kepler Mission Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Kepler mission has elements that serve a variety of audiences: formal education (elementary, secondary, and colleges), informal education (planetarium shows and museum exhibits), and public outreach (broadcast TV, radio, website, CD-ROM, and toolkit for amateur astronomers). The Kepler Cam program will provide minority colleges with CCD cameras and training systems for ground-based observations of exoplanet transits. Kepler Cam is closely tied with the Hands-On Universe (HOU) project that aims to have high school students actively involved in research projects such as asteroid discovery, supernova searches, cataclysmic variable observations, and studies of the moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Last fall (2003), HOU completed an NSF funded study in the relative effectiveness of online and face-to-face professional development courses. The evaluator for the project was TIMSS (Third International Math and Science Study). Findings, based on student performance, indicate that online teacher courses are as effective as face-to-face courses in teacher professional development. Details are in this paper.

  19. Group interactions during space missions.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Nick

    2004-07-01

    Previous anecdotal reports from space and results from space simulation studies on Earth have suggested that the group interactions of crewmembers during space missions can be problematic in ways that can negatively affect crew safety and the accomplishment of mission goals. To assess the interpersonal environment of space crewmembers, we used a set of standard questionnaires that were completed by 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 58 American and Russian mission control personnel who participated in the Shuttle/Mir Program. Although we did not find strong evidence supporting predicted decrements in tension and cohesion during the second half of the missions, we did find that both crewmembers and mission control personnel displaced unpleasant emotions to monitoring personnel outside of their group. We also found significant differences between Americans and Russians in terms of measures of satisfaction with their interpersonal and work environments. These findings suggest a number of countermeasures to help future space crews deal with potential maladaptive group interactions. These countermeasures address issues at the time of selection, during prelaunch training, during the mission itself, and after the crew returns to Earth.

  20. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  1. HD 24355 observed by the Kepler K2 mission: a rapidly oscillating Ap star pulsating in a distorted quadrupole mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Smalley, Barry; Saio, Hideyuki; Handler, Gerald; Murphy, Simon J.; Lehmann, Holger

    2016-10-01

    We present an analysis of the first Kepler K2 mission observations of a rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star, HD 24355 (V = 9.65). The star was discovered in SuperWASP broad-band photometry with a frequency of 224.31 d-1 (2596.18 μHz; P = 6.4 min) and an amplitude of 1.51 mmag, with later spectroscopic analysis of low-resolution spectra showing HD 24355 to be an A5 Vp SrEu star. The high-precision K2 data allow us to identify 13 rotationally split sidelobes to the main pulsation frequency of HD 24355. This number of sidelobes combined with an unusual rotational phase variation show this star to be the most distorted quadrupole roAp pulsator yet observed. In modelling this star, we are able to reproduce well the amplitude modulation of the pulsation, and find a close match to the unusual phase variations. We show this star to have a pulsation frequency higher than the critical cut-off frequency. This is currently the only roAp star observed with the Kepler spacecraft in short cadence mode that has a photometric amplitude detectable from the ground, thus allowing comparison between the mmag amplitude ground-based targets and the μmag spaced-based discoveries. No further pulsation modes are identified in the K2 data, showing this star to be a single-mode pulsator.

  2. DISCOVERY OF A NOVA-LIKE CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE IN THE KEPLER MISSION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; De Martino, Domitilla; Silvotti, Roberto; Bruni, Ivan; Dufour, Patrick; Riecken, Thomas S.; Kronberg, Martin; Mukadam, Anjum; Handler, G.

    2010-06-15

    We announce the identification of a new cataclysmic variable (CV) star in the field of the Kepler Mission, KIC J192410.81+445934.9. This system was identified during a search for compact pulsators in the Kepler field. High-speed photometry reveals coherent large-amplitude variability with a period of 2.94 hr. Rapid, large-amplitude quasi-periodic variations are also detected on time scales of {approx}1200 s and {approx}650 s. Time-resolved spectroscopy covering one half photometric period shows shallow, broad Balmer and He I absorption lines with bright emission cores as well as strong He II and Bowen blend emission. Radial velocity variations are also observed in the Balmer and He I emission lines that are consistent with the photometric period. We therefore conclude that KIC J192410.81+445934.9 is a nova-like (NL) variable of the UX UMa class in or near the period gap, and it may belong to the rapidly growing subclass of SW Sex systems. Based on Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and companion star models, we place a lower limit on the distance to the system of {approx}500 pc. Due to limitations of our discovery data, additional observations including spectroscopy and polarimetry are needed to confirm the nature of this object. Such data will enable further understanding of the behavior of NL variables in the critical period range of 3-4 hr, where standard CV evolutionary theory finds major problems. The presence of this system in the Kepler Mission field of view also presents a unique opportunity to obtain a continuous photometric data stream of unparalleled length and precision on a CV system.

  3. Discovery of a Nova-like Cataclysmic Variable in the Kepler Mission Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kurtis A.; de Martino, Domitilla; Silvotti, Roberto; Bruni, Ivan; Dufour, Patrick; Riecken, Thomas S.; Kronberg, Martin; Mukadam, Anjum; Handler, G.

    2010-06-01

    We announce the identification of a new cataclysmic variable (CV) star in the field of the Kepler Mission, KIC J192410.81+445934.9. This system was identified during a search for compact pulsators in the Kepler field. High-speed photometry reveals coherent large-amplitude variability with a period of 2.94 hr. Rapid, large-amplitude quasi-periodic variations are also detected on time scales of ≈1200 s and ≈650 s. Time-resolved spectroscopy covering one half photometric period shows shallow, broad Balmer and He I absorption lines with bright emission cores as well as strong He II and Bowen blend emission. Radial velocity variations are also observed in the Balmer and He I emission lines that are consistent with the photometric period. We therefore conclude that KIC J192410.81+445934.9 is a nova-like (NL) variable of the UX UMa class in or near the period gap, and it may belong to the rapidly growing subclass of SW Sex systems. Based on Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and companion star models, we place a lower limit on the distance to the system of ~500 pc. Due to limitations of our discovery data, additional observations including spectroscopy and polarimetry are needed to confirm the nature of this object. Such data will enable further understanding of the behavior of NL variables in the critical period range of 3-4 hr, where standard CV evolutionary theory finds major problems. The presence of this system in the Kepler Mission field of view also presents a unique opportunity to obtain a continuous photometric data stream of unparalleled length and precision on a CV system.

  4. Spectroscopic Follow-Up Observations of Transiting Planet Candidates Identified by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, David; Sasselov, D. D.; Szentgyorgyi, A. H.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission is expected to identify many hundreds of transiting planet candidates in four years of continuous photometric monitoring of 100 square degrees in Cygnus and Lyra. To sort out true planets from eclipsing stellar systems that are masquerading as transiting planets, a variety of follow-up observations are planned. High resolution ground-based spectroscopy at modest signal-to-noise ratio will be used to detect orbital motion induced by stellar companions, for example by small M dwarf secondaries eclipsing solar-type primaries. The most challenging stellar imposters are blends of eclipsing binaries with nearby bright stars; even high-quality spectra may have difficulty resolving such systems. A workhorse for this initial phase of spectroscopic follow up will be TRES, a new fiber-fed echelle spectrograph on the 1.5-m Tillinghast Reflector at the Whipple Observatory. Ultimate confirmation of a transiting planet comes with the solution for a spectroscopic orbit and the derivation of an actual mass of the planet compared to the parent star. A primary goal of the Kepler Mission is to find earth-sized planets in or near the habitable zones of their host stars. The radial-velocity precision needed to derive spectroscopic orbits for the most interesting cases will require considerable improvement beyond 1 m/s. The Geneva Observatory and Harvard University have joined in a collaboration to develop such a capability at a northern site with access to the Kepler field of view. A version of the HARPS spectrograph, now in highly successful operation on the 3.6-m telescope at ESO on La Silla, is being built. Negotiations are underway to site HARPS North at the William Herschel Telescope operated by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes on La Palma. The goal is to achieve velocity performance at the level of 20 cm/s and to push the determination of planetary masses into the terrestrial planet regime.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima of 41 binaries from entire Kepler mission (Gies+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V.; Orosz, J. A.; Peters, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    We embarked on a search for eclipse timing variations among a subset of 41 eclipsing binaries that were identified prior to the start of Kepler observations (see our first paper, Gies et al. 2012, cat. J/AJ/143/137). Our first paper documented the eclipse times in observations made over quarters Q0-Q9 (2009.3-2011.5). Now with the Kepler mission complete with observations through Q17 (ending 2013.4), we present here the eclipse timings for our sample of 41 binaries over the entire duration of the mission. The associated times given in our first paper were based upon UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) while the current set uses TDB (Barycentric Dynamical Time), and here we report the times in reduced Barycentric Julian Date (BJD-2400000 days). We used the Simple Aperture Photometry (SAP) flux except in the case of KIC04678873. The list of targets appears in Table1. The eclipse timing measurements were made in almost the same way as described in our first paper. Our measurements appear in Table2. (2 data files).

  6. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la

  7. Kepler Discovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-02

    A scale model of the Kepler space telescope is seen at a news conference, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Scientists using NASA's Kepler, a space telescope, recently discovered six planets made of a mix of rock and gases orbiting a single sun-like star, known as Kepler-11, which is located approximately 2,000 light years from Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  9. DETECTION OF POTENTIAL TRANSIT SIGNALS IN THE FIRST THREE QUARTERS OF Kepler MISSION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Rowe, Jason F.; Seader, Shawn; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Stumpe, Martin C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Girouard, Forrest R.; Klaus, Todd C. [Orbital Sciences Corporation and others

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in the first three quarters of photometry data acquired by the Kepler mission. The targets of the search include 151,722 stars which were observed over the full interval and an additional 19,132 stars which were observed for only one or two quarters. From this set of targets we find a total of 5392 detections which meet the Kepler detection criteria: those criteria are periodicity of signal, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, and a composition test which rejects spurious detections which contain non-physical combinations of events. The detected signals are dominated by events with relatively low signal-to-noise ratio and by events with relatively short periods. The distribution of estimated transit depths appears to peak in the range between 40 and 100 parts per million, with a few detections down to fewer than 10 parts per million. The detections exhibit signal-to-noise ratios from 7.1{sigma}, which is the lower cutoff for detections, to over 10,000{sigma}, and periods ranging from 0.5 days, which is the lower cutoff used in the procedure, to 109 days, which is the upper limit of achievable periods given the length of the data set and the criteria used for detections. The detected signals are compared to a set of known transit events in the Kepler field of view which were derived by a different method using a longer data interval; the comparison shows that the current search correctly identified 88.1% of the known events. A tabulation of the detected transit signals, examples which illustrate the analysis and detection process, a discussion of future plans and open, potentially fruitful, areas of further research are included.

  10. Space Mission : Y3K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer

  11. Kepler Orrery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation showing all the multiple-planet systems discovered by Kepler as of 2/2/2011; orbits go through the entire mission (3.5 years). Hot colors to cool colors (Red to yellow to green to cyan to...

  12. DETECTION OF POTENTIAL TRANSIT SIGNALS IN 16 QUARTERS OF KEPLER MISSION DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Seader, Shawn; Burke, Christopher J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Girouard, Forrest R. [Orbital Sciences Corporation and others

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in 4 yr of photometry data acquired by the Kepler mission. The targets of the search include 111,800 stars which were observed for the entire interval and 85,522 stars which were observed for a subset of the interval. We found that 9743 targets contained at least one signal consistent with the signature of a transiting or eclipsing object where the criteria for detection are periodicity of the detected transits, adequate signal-to-noise ratio, and acceptance by a number of tests which reject false positive detections. When targets that had produced a signal were searched repeatedly, an additional 6542 signals were detected on 3223 target stars, for a total of 16,285 potential detections. Comparison of the set of detected signals with a set of known and vetted transit events in the Kepler field of view shows that the recovery rate for these signals is 96.9%. The ensemble properties of the detected signals are reviewed.

  13. Kepler Discovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-02

    Douglas Hudgins, a Kepler Program Scientist, speaks during a news conference, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Scientists using NASA's Kepler, a space telescope, recently discovered six planets made of a mix of rock and gases orbiting a single sun-like star, known as Kepler-11, which is located approximately 2,000 light years from Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  14. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-03-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  15. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  16. Precise time series photometry for the Kepler-2.0 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Irwin, M. J.; Lewis, J. R.; Roberts, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The recently approved NASA K2 mission has the potential to multiply by an order of magnitude the number of short-period transiting planets found by Kepler around bright and low-mass stars, and to revolutionize our understanding of stellar variability in open clusters. However, the data processing is made more challenging by the reduced pointing accuracy of the satellite, which has only two functioning reaction wheels. We present a new method to extract precise light curves from K2 data, combining list-driven, soft-edged aperture photometry with a star-by-star correction of systematic effects associated with the drift in the roll angle of the satellite about its boresight. The systematics are modelled simultaneously with the stars' intrinsic variability using a semiparametric Gaussian process model. We test this method on a week of data collected during an engineering test in 2014 January, perform checks to verify that our method does not alter intrinsic variability signals, and compute the precision as a function of magnitude on long-cadence (30 min) and planetary transit (2.5 h) time-scales. In both cases, we reach photometric precisions close to the precision reached during the nominal Kepler mission for stars fainter than 12th magnitude, and between 40 and 80 parts per million for brighter stars. These results confirm the bright prospects for planet detection and characterization, asteroseismology and stellar variability studies with K2. Finally, we perform a basic transit search on the light curves, detecting two bona fide transit-like events, seven detached eclipsing binaries and 13 classical variables.

  17. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  18. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  19. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  20. Possible Space Missions for Solar Research After Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Brown, J. C.; Canfield, R. C.; Harvey, J.; Holzer, T. E.; Hoyng, T. E.; Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.; Linsky, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    This ad hoc panel met in February 1977 to consider the needs of solar physics for space missions after the scheduled flight of Solar Maximum Mission in 1979. We were concerned only with scientific needs and opportunities. Neither budgetary implications nor payload feasibility were considered. This report on the panel deliberations therefore makes suggestions only. We hope it will be a useful input to the more extensive and careful analysis of the appropriate committees, such as the Solar Physics Working Group. We have made no attempt to prioritize our proposed mission. The following possible missions are describes briefly: A Solar Terrestrial Environment Mission; two versions of a Stereo Mission; a Large Scale Solar Structure Mission; a Solar Atmosphere Mission; a Solar Particle Acceleration Mission; and a Solar Pinhole Mission. We also append a brief account of the proposed Solar Probe Mission.

  1. System Engineering Challenges of Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristam Tupper

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the system engineering challenges that face NASA's future space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Future Space Missions; 2) Trends; and 3) Developing System Engineers.

  2. Generating an optimal target list for a space mission dedicated to transit spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingales, Tiziano

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays several space missions and ground-based surveys discovered more than 3000 exoplanets. The characterization of their atmospheres is necessary to understand how were they formed, how do they evolve, how are they affected by starlight, stellar winds and other fundamental questions. ARIEL and Twinkle are two dedicated space mission for the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. ARIEL is one the three candidates for the next ESA medium class mission expected to be launched in 2026. Twinkle, proposed to be launched in 2019, is a small, low-cost mission. In order to draft the target lists of the two missions, it is important to look for the best targets that can be observed with the instrumentationassembled on the two satellites. The final lists have to take into account both the number of already known exoplanets and the number of existing exoplanets still not discovered (thanks to the Kepler space mission we can estimate the occurrence rate of exoplanets around the stars, Fressin et al, 2013). Future space missions (GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, Kepler II and TESS) and ground-based surveys will deliver many new exoplanets in the next decade. For this reason a trustworthy target list of exoplanets for a space mission planned to be launched in 2026 (or 2019) needs to take intoaccount a more complete list than the currently available.

  3. Space Mission Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, W.J. ); Wertz, J.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this second edition is siniflar to the first: to allow you to begin with a blank sheet of paper'' and design a space mission to meet a set of broad, often poorly defined, objectives. You should be able to define the mission in sufficient detail to identify principal drivers and make a preliminary assessment of overan performance, size, cost, and risk. The emphasis of the book is on low-Earth orbit, unmanned spacecraft. However, we hope that the principles are broad enough to be applicable to other n-dssions as well. We intend the book to be a practical guide, rather than a theoretical treatise. As much as possible, we have provided rules of thumb, empirical formulas, and design algorithms based on past experience. We assume that the reader has a general knowledge of physics, math, and basic engineering, but is not necessarily familiar with any aspect of space technology. This book was written by a group of over 50 senior space engineers. It reflects the insight gained from this practical experience, and suggests how things might be done better in the future. From time to time the views of authors and editors conflict, as must necessarily occur given the broad diversity of experience. We believe it is important to reflect this diversity rather than suppress the opinions of individual authors. Similarly, the level of treatment varies among topics, depending both on the issues each author feels is critical and our overan assessment of the level of detail in each topic that is important to the preliminary mission analysis and design process. The book is appropriate as a textbook for either introductory graduate or advanced undergraduate courses, or as a reference for those already working in space technology.

  4. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for exploration of the cosmos in the infrared. The observatory systems are largely performing as expected, and the projected cryogenic lifetime is about five years. Spitzer is thus both a scientific and a technical precursor to the infrared astronomy missions of the future. This very brief paper refers interested readers to several sets of recent publications which describe both the scientific and the technical features of Spitzer in detail. Note that, until 2003 December, Spitzer was known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF).

  5. Emblem - Apollo 9 Space Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-02-06

    S69-18569 (February 1969) --- The insignia of the Apollo 9 space mission. The crew consist of astronauts James A. McDivitt, commander; David R. Scott, command module pilot; and Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot. The Apollo 9 mission will evaluate spacecraft lunar module systems performance during manned Earth-orbital flight. The NASA insignia design for Apollo flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  6. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Long, Knox S.; Patnaude, Daniel; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Williams, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained new HST/WFC3 images of Kepler's supernova remnant in H-alpha (F656N) and [N II] (F658N) emission line filters. The bright radiative shocks in dense clumps are detected in both filters, while non-radiative shocks are seen as faint filaments only in the H-alpha image. Most of these Balmer filaments lie around the periphery of the remnant where the blast wave encounters partially neutral interstellar gas. We compare the new images with HST/ACS images taken nearly 10 years previously, and find that these filaments tracing the forward shock have moved 0.6"-0.9" between the two epochs. Assuming a distance of 4 kpc to the remnant, these proper motions correspond to shock velocities of 1160-1740 km/s, which are consistent with the published values, 1550-2000 km/s (e.g. Blair et al. 1991, ApJ 366, 484). We also find a few Balmer filaments with highly non-radial proper motions. In one particularly interesting case in the projected interior of the remnant, SE of the center, the shock appears to have wrapped around a sharp density enhancement and moved about 0.3" in the period between the observations.The images allow us to study the evolution of the shock around an ejecta knot, which is punching through the remnant boundary in the northwest. The forward shock, visible as an arcuate Balmer filament, has moved about 1". At the trailing edges, the system of radiative knots formed by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities have undergone significant changes - some knots have disappeared, new ones have appeared, and many have changed in brightness. Elsewhere in the remnant we find changes in the relative intensities of many small, bright knots over the 10 year baseline, indicating the short radiative lifetimes of these features.This work has been supported in part by grant HST-GO-12885 to the Universities Space Research Association.

  7. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Jim Fanson, Kepler project manager, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. holds a model of the Kepler spacecraft as he talks about the Kepler mission during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  8. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Bouchy, F.; Hébrard, G.; Deleuil, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonomo, A. S.; Almenara, J.-M.

    2011-10-01

    As CoRoT, the Kepler space mission found a large amount of planetary transit candidates for which radial velocity follow-up is necessary in order to establish the planetary nature and then, to characterize the mass of the transiting companion. We are following up some interesting Kepler candidates with the SOPHIE spectrograph mounted at the 1.93-m telescope in Observatoire de Haute Provence (France). More than one year after the first Kepler release, we will present the strategy used to select the most promising Kepler candidates, within reach of a detection with SOPHIE, using the experience of more than 4 years of CoRoT, SWASP and HAT radial velocity follow-up. We will also highlight the results of the first year of observations that led to the discovery of several new transiting exoplanets and help the understanding of the false positive rate of the Kepler mission.

  9. Detection of Potential Transit Signals in 17 Quarters of Kepler Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seader, Shawn; Jenkins, Jon M.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Morris, Rob; Catanzarite, Joseph; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Cote, Miles T.; Burke, Christopher J.; McCauliff, Sean; Girouard, Forrest R.; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Kamal Uddin, Akm; Zamudio, Khadeejah A.; Sabale, Anima; Henze, Christopher E.; Thompson, Susan E.; Klaus, Todd C.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in the full 17-quarter data set collected during Kepler's primary mission that ended on 2013 May 11, due to the on board failure of a second reaction wheel needed to maintain high precision, fixed, pointing. The search includes a total of 198,646 targets, of which 112,001 were observed in every quarter and 86,645 were observed in a subset of the 17 quarters. For the first time, this multi-quarter search is performed on data that have been fully and uniformly reprocessed through the newly released version of the Data Processing Pipeline. We find a total of 12,669 targets that contain at least one signal that meets our detection criteria: periodicity of the signal, a minimum of three transit events, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, and four consistency tests that suppress many false positives. Each target containing at least one transit-like pulse sequence is searched repeatedly for other signals that meet the detection criteria, indicating a multiple planet system. This multiple planet search adds an additional 7698 transit-like signatures for a total of 20,367. Comparison of this set of detected signals with a set of known and vetted transiting planet signatures in the Kepler field of view shows that the recovery rate of the search is 90.3%. We review ensemble properties of the detected signals and present various metrics useful in validating these potential planetary signals. We highlight previously undetected transit-like signatures, including several that may represent small objects in the habitable zone of their host stars.

  10. The Kepler Mission: A wide-field transit search for terrestrial planets [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Gibor; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David

    2005-11-01

    The Kepler Mission is a NASA Discovery mission which will continuously monitor the brightness of at least 100,000 main sequence stars, to detect the transits of terrestrial and larger planets. It is scheduled to be launched in 2007 into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit. It is a wide-field photometer with a Schmidt-type telescope and array of 42 CCDs covering the 100 square degree field-of-view. It has a 1-m aperture which enables a differential photometric precision of 2 parts in 100,000 for 12th magnitude solar-like stars over a 6.5-hour transit duration. It will continuously observe dwarf stars from 8th to 15th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation, for a period of four years, with a cadence of 4 measurements per hour. Hundreds of terrestrial planets should be detected if they are common around solar-type stars. Ground-based spectrometry of stars with planetary candidates will help eliminate false-positives, and determine stellar characteristics such as mass and metallicity. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets are rare.

  11. Challenges of Space Mission Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Warren L.; Hooke, Adrian J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the international challenges to space mission interoperability. Interoperability is the technical capability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. One of the challenges that is addressed is the problem of spectrum bandwidth, and interference. The key to interoperability is the standardization of space communications services and protocols. Various levels of international cross support are reviewed: harmony, cooperation cross support and confederation cross support. The various international bodies charged with implementing cross support are reviewed. The goal of the Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) is to achieve plug-and-play operations where all that is required is for each of the systems to use an agreed communications medium, after which the systems configure each other for the purpose of exchanging information and subsequently effect such exchange automatically.

  12. Challenges of Space Mission Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Warren L.; Hooke, Adrian J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the international challenges to space mission interoperability. Interoperability is the technical capability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. One of the challenges that is addressed is the problem of spectrum bandwidth, and interference. The key to interoperability is the standardization of space communications services and protocols. Various levels of international cross support are reviewed: harmony, cooperation cross support and confederation cross support. The various international bodies charged with implementing cross support are reviewed. The goal of the Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) is to achieve plug-and-play operations where all that is required is for each of the systems to use an agreed communications medium, after which the systems configure each other for the purpose of exchanging information and subsequently effect such exchange automatically.

  13. Deep space mission integration with the space transportation system. [Galileo mission using Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Galileo mission is the first interplanetary mission scheduled to use the Space Transportation System (STS). Therefore, Galileo is the trailblazer for mission integration of a deep space mission with the STS. A short overview of the Galileo mission is presented as background for the discussion of the mission integration effort. The components of the STS and the mission integration system are defined, documentation requirements explained, the work of the Flight Design Working Group described, and several examples of the types of problems dealt with are given. The steps of mission integration are shown from introducing requirements into the system to resolving conflicts that arise between the payload project and the STS operator. Conclusions are drawn from the Galileo mission integration effort to aid future payload projects in working with the STS.

  14. Detection of Potential Transit Signals in 17 Quarters of Kepler Data: Results of the Final Kepler Mission Transiting Planet Search (DR25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Seader, Shawn E.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Brownston, Lee S.; Burke, Christopher J.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Klaus, Todd C.; Li, Jie; McCauliff, Sean D.; Morris, Robert L.; Wohler, Bill; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Kamal Uddin, Akm; Zamudio, Khadeejah A.; Sabale, Anima; Bryson, Steven T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Haas, Michael R.; Henze, Christopher E.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Thompson, Susan E.

    2016-12-01

    We present results of the final Kepler Data Processing Pipeline search for transiting planet signals in the full 17-quarter primary mission data set. The search includes a total of 198,709 stellar targets, of which 112,046 were observed in all 17 quarters and 86,663 in fewer than 17 quarters. We report on 17,230 targets for which at least one transit signature is identified that meets the specified detection criteria: periodicity, minimum of three observed transit events, detection statistic (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio) in excess of the search threshold, and passing grade on three statistical transit consistency tests. Light curves for which a transit signal is identified are iteratively searched for additional signatures after a limb-darkened transiting planet model is fitted to the data and transit events are removed. The search for additional planets adds 16,802 transit signals for a total of 34,032; this far exceeds the number of transit signatures identified in prior pipeline runs. There was a strategic emphasis on completeness over reliability for the final Kepler transit search. A comparison of the transit signals against a set of 3402 well-established, high-quality Kepler Objects of Interest yields a recovery rate of 99.8%. The high recovery rate must be weighed against a large number of false-alarm detections. We examine characteristics of the planet population implied by the transiting planet model fits with an emphasis on detections that would represent small planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their host stars.

  15. Target Charaterization and Follow-Up Observations in Support of the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, David W.

    2004-01-01

    This report covers work carried out at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory during the period 1 December 2003 to 30 November 2004 to support efforts to prepare the Kepler Input Catalog. The Catalog will be used to select the targets observed for planetary transits by Kepler.

  16. Horizon Missions Technology Study. [for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the HMT Study was to develop and demonstrate a systematic methodology for identifying and evaluating innovative technology concepts offering revolutionary, breadkthrough-type capabilities for advanced space missions and for assessing their potential mission impact. The methodology is based on identifying the new functional, operational and technology capabilities needed by hypothetical 'Horizon' space missions that have performance requirements that cannot be met, even by extrapolating known space technologies. Nineteen Horizon Missions were selected to represent a collective vision of advanced space missions of the mid-21st century. The missions typically would occur beyond the lifetime of current or planned space assets. The HM methodology and supporting data base may be used for advanced technology planning, advanced mission planning and multidisciplinary studies and analyses.

  17. ROTATION PERIODS AND AGES OF SOLAR ANALOGS AND SOLAR TWINS REVEALED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Do Nascimento Jr, J.-D.; Meibom, S.; García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T.; Anthony, F.; Da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Barnes, S. A.

    2014-08-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  18. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  19. Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

  20. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  1. Space station (modular) mission analysis. Volume 1: Mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The mission analysis on the modular space station considers experimental requirements and options characterized by low initial cost and incremental manning. Features that affect initial development and early operating costs are identified and their impacts on the program are assessed. Considered are the areas of experiment, mission, operations, information management, and long life and safety analyses.

  2. STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  3. Kepler Discovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-02

    Jack Lissauer, a planetary scientist and a Kepler science team member at NASA's Ames Research Center, speaks during a news conference, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Scientists using NASA's Kepler, a space telescope, recently discovered six planets made of a mix of rock and gases orbiting a single sun-like star, known as Kepler-11, which is located approximately 2,000 light years from Earth."It’s amazingly compact, it’s amazingly flat, there’s an amazingly large number of big planets orbiting close to their star - we didn’t know such systems could even exist." Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  4. Kepler Discovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-02

    William Borucki, Kepler Science Principal Investigator from NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, speaks during a news conference, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington as Douglas Hudgins, left, Jack Lissauer and Debra Fischer, far right, look on. Scientists using NASA's Kepler, a space telescope, recently discovered six planets made of a mix of rock and gases orbiting a single sun-like star, known as Kepler-11, which is located approximately 2,000 light years from Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  5. OMV servicing missions from Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Wright, Jerome L.; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will provide a means of bringing large observatories to the Space Station for servicing and redeployment to their operating altitudes. However, there are many constraints which must be met in mission planning. The missions must be designed so that propellant consumption is within the usable allowance, but contingency operations can still be accomplished. The vehicle was designed specifically to accommodate such missions, with emphasis upon servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. The OMV has been designed for operations from the Shuttle Orbiter and the Space Station. It will readily accommodate basing at the Space Station and executing observatory retrieval and redeployment missions. Mission profiles have been designed which allow retrieval with contingency hold before descent, and which allow contingency return of the observatory if it fails to reactivate properly. This capability will be a major addition to the Space Transportation System and will increase the utility of the Space Station.

  6. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  7. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  8. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  9. K2flix: Kepler pixel data visualizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentsen, Geert

    2015-03-01

    K2flix makes it easy to inspect the CCD pixel data obtained by NASA's Kepler space telescope. The two-wheeled extended Kepler mission, K2, is affected by new sources of systematics, including pointing jitter and foreground asteroids, that are easier to spot by eye than by algorithm. The code takes Kepler's Target Pixel Files (TPF) as input and turns them into contrast-stretched animated gifs or MPEG-4 movies. K2flix can be used both as a command-line tool or using its Python API.

  10. Kepler Discovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-02

    Debra Fischer, a professor of Astronomy at Yale University, speaks during a news conference, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Scientists using NASA's Kepler, a space telescope, recently discovered six planets made of a mix of rock and gases orbiting a single sun-like star, known as Kepler-11, which is located approximately 2,000 light years from Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  11. Payload and Mission Definition in Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mártínez Pillet, V.; Aparicio, A.; Sánchez, F.

    2011-04-01

    1. The life cycle of an ESA mission and how to get involved Alvaro Gimenez; 2. Design issues for space science missions Yves Langevin; 3. Instrumentation in space X-ray astronomy X. Barcons; 4. EUV and UV imaging and spectroscopy from space Richard Harrison; 5. The luminosity oscillations imager, a space instrument: from design to science Thierry Appourchaux; 6. Hipparcos and Gaia: the development of space astrometry in Europe M. Perryman; 7. Space physics and the space environment A. Balogh; 8. Planetary observations and landers A. Coradini.

  12. Payload and Mission Definition in Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mártínez Pillet, V.; Aparicio, A.; Sánchez, F.

    2005-11-01

    1. The life cycle of an ESA mission and how to get involved Alvaro Gimenez; 2. Design issues for space science missions Yves Langevin; 3. Instrumentation in space X-ray astronomy X. Barcons; 4. EUV and UV imaging and spectroscopy from space Richard Harrison; 5. The luminosity oscillations imager, a space instrument: from design to science Thierry Appourchaux; 6. Hipparcos and Gaia: the development of space astrometry in Europe M. Perryman; 7. Space physics and the space environment A. Balogh; 8. Planetary observations and landers A. Coradini.

  13. Kepler Supernova Remnant: A View from Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-06

    This Spitzer false-color image is a composite of data from the 24 micron channel of Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer (red), and three channels of its infrared array camera: 8 micron (yellow), 5.6 micron (blue), and 4.8 micron (green). Stars are most prominent in the two shorter wavelengths, causing them to show up as turquoise. The supernova remnant is most prominent at 24 microns, arising from dust that has been heated by the supernova shock wave, and re-radiated in the infrared. The 8 micron data shows infrared emission from regions closely associated with the optically emitting regions. These are the densest regions being encountered by the shock wave, and probably arose from condensations in the surrounding material that was lost by the supernova star before it exploded. The composite above (PIA06908, PIA06909, and PIA06910) represent views of Kepler's supernova remnant taken in X-rays, visible light, and infrared radiation. Each top panel in the composite above shows the entire remnant. Each color in the composite represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. Astronomers have color-coded those data so they can be seen in these images. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06910

  14. Psychiatric issues affecting long duration space missions.

    PubMed

    Kanas, N

    1998-12-01

    As we move into the next Millennium, increasing numbers of people will travel into space. Psychological screening methods will be relaxed on near-Earth missions, such as might occur on a space station or a lunar colony. Crewmembers on interplanetary missions such as a trip to Mars will have to deal with psychiatric problems themselves with no possibility of evacuating an affected individual. For these reasons, it is important for support personnel on Earth and crewmembers in space to be knowledgeable about psychiatric difficulties that might occur and their appropriate treatments. Anecdotal reports from long duration manned space missions and studies from space analog environments on Earth were reviewed for information concerning these issues. Psychiatric problems pertinent to the space environment include adjustment and psychosomatic reactions, asthenia, mood and thought disorders, and post-mission personality changes and family problems. Counter-measures to ameliorate these difficulties involve pre-launch selection and training; monitoring, support, and counseling/psychotherapy during the mission; and post-return debriefings with crew members and their families. Psychoactive medications have been useful during space missions, although unclear pharmacokinetic issues related to microgravity need to be taken into account. Although much is known about psychiatric issues related to long duration manned space travel, more empirical work needs to be done during actual space missions.

  15. Space missions in the Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    Since about twenty years ago, artificial satellites for the Arab countries, were manufactured and released by developed countries for TV and communication purposes such as Arabsat, Nilesat, and Soryia. But with the starting of the 21st century, there are few space missions developed by Arab Countries in Cooperation with International Partners, in Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Where: 1. The National Administration of Space Science and Technology in Alger developed two Experimental Space Missions released at November 2002 (AlgerSat-1), and November 2003 (AlgerSat-2). The program is still continuous for developing more space missions with High Technology for different purposes. 2. Space Research Institute in King Abd-Alaziz city for science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia developed three space missions in collaboration with international partners, where the three missions are released for different purposes. 3. The National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) in Cairo-Egypt developed in cooperation with Ukraine a mission Egyptsat-1, by total price 30 million US, for the purpose of studding the desert geology and Environment. It will be released at October 2004. The program will be continued for developing more space mission by high technology. This paper describe in detail Arabian three programs for the three Arabian countries (Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt), and will discuss on what we can expect for the future, focussing on international cooperation in the field of space science and technology.

  16. Mission and space vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, John

    1986-01-01

    A number of top-level considerations which affect Mars and vehicle selection are discussed. Indications are provided of the nature and severity of the impact of these considerations on missions and vehicles. Various types of missions, such as Mars fly-bys, Mars orbiting and landing mission, and missions to the moons of Mars are identified and discussed. Mission trajectories and opportunities are discused briefly. The different types of vehicles required in a Mars program are also discussed. Discussion includes several potential Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicles, Mars surface vehicles, and 2 types of Orbit-to-Orbit (OTO) vehicles. Indications are provided as to preference for some of the concepts discussed.

  17. Photogeologic analysis of impact melt-rich lithologies in Kepler crater that could be sampled by future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhman, Teemu; Kring, David A.

    2012-02-01

    Kepler is a 31 km diameter Copernican age complex impact crater located on the nearside maria of the Moon. We used Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter imagery and topographic data in combination with Kaguya terrain camera and other image data sets to construct a new geomorphologic sketch map of the Kepler crater, with a focus on impact melt-rich lithologies. Most of the interior melt rocks are preserved in smooth and hummocky floor materials. Smaller volumes of impact melt were deposited in rim veneer, interior and exterior ponds, and lobe-like overlapping flows on the upper crater wall. Based on shadow lengths, typical flows of melt-rich material on crater walls and the western rim flank are ˜1-5 m thick, and have yield strengths of ˜1-10 kPa. The melt rock distribution is notably asymmetric, with interior and exterior melt-rich deposits concentrated north and west of the crater center. This melt distribution and the similarly asymmetric ray distribution imply a slightly less than 45° impact trajectory from the southeast. The exposed wall of Kepler displays distinct layering, with individual layers having typical thicknesses of ˜3-5 m. These are interpreted as flows of Procellarum mare basalts in the impact target. From the point of view of exploration, numerous fractures and pits in the melt-rich floor materials not only enable detailed studies of melt-related processes of impact crater formation, but also provide potential shelters for longer duration manned lunar missions.

  18. The little photometer that could: technical challenges and science results from the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Dunnuck, Jeb

    2011-09-01

    The Kepler spacecraft launched on March 7, 2009, initiating NASA's first search for Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars. Since launch, Kepler has announced the discovery of 17 exoplanets, including a system of six transiting a Sun-like star, Kepler-11, and the first confirmed rocky planet, Kepler-10b, with a radius of 1.4 that of Earth. Kepler is proving to be a cornucopia of discoveries: it has identified over 1200 candidate planets based on the first 120 days of observations, including 54 that are in or near the habitable zone of their stars, and 68 that are 1.2 Earth radii or smaller. An astounding 408 of these planetary candidates are found in 170 multiple systems, demonstrating the compactness and flatness of planetary systems composed of small planets. Never before has there been a photometer capable of reaching a precision near 20 ppm in 6.5 hours and capable of conducting nearly continuous and uninterrupted observations for months to years. In addition to exoplanets, Kepler is providing a wealth of astrophysics, and is revolutionizing the field of asteroseismology. Designing and building the Kepler photometer and the software systems that process and analyze the resulting data to make the discoveries presented a daunting set of challenges, including how to manage the large data volume. The challenges continue into flight operations, as the photometer is sensitive to its thermal environment, complicating the task of detecting 84 ppm drops in brightness corresponding to Earth-size planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  19. STS-36 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechelay, Joseph E.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-36 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle and the sixth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, Atlantis. In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-33/LWT-26), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2029), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) (designated as BI-036). The STS-36 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as such, the classified portions of the mission are not discussed. The unclassified sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  20. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    William Borucki, principal investigator for Kepler Science at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., talks about the Kepler mission during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  1. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Jim Fanson, Kepler project manager, center, talks about the Kepler mission as William Borucki, left, and Debra Fischer, right, listen during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  2. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Jim Fanson, Kepler project manager, right, talks about the Kepler mission as William Borucki, left, listens during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  3. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    William Borucki, principal investigator for Kepler Science at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., second from left, is seen through a television camer monitor as he talks about the Kepler mission during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  4. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Jim Fanson, Kepler project manager, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. talks about the Kepler mission during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  5. Space Interferometry Mission: Measuring the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James; Dallas, Saterios; Laskin, Robert; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be the NASA Origins Program's first space based long baseline interferometric observatory. SIM will use a 10 m Michelson stellar interferometer to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute position measurements of stars down to 20th magnitude over its 5 yr. mission lifetime. SIM will also provide technology demonstrations of synthesis imaging and interferometric nulling. This paper describes the what, why and how of the SIM mission, including an overall mission and system description, science objectives, general description of how SIM makes its measurements, description of the design concepts now under consideration, operations concept, and supporting technology program.

  6. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  7. Comet 67P Seen by Kepler

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-07

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission concluded its study of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on Sept. 30, 2016. NASA's planet-hunting Kepler spacecraft observed the comet during the final month of the Rosetta mission, while the comet was not visible from Earth. This animation is composed of images from Kepler of the comet. From Sept. 7 through Sept. 20, the Kepler spacecraft, operating in its K2 mission, fixed its gaze on comet 67P. From the distant vantage point of Kepler, the comet's nucleus and tail could be observed. The long-range view from Kepler complements the closeup view of the Rosetta spacecraft, providing context for the high-resolution investigation Rosetta performed as it descended closer and closer to the comet. During the two-week period of study, Kepler took a picture of the comet every 30 minutes. The animation shows a period of 29.5 hours of observation from Sept. 17 thru Sept. 18. The comet is seen passing through Kepler's field of view from top right to bottom left, as outlined by the diagonal strip. The white dots represent stars and other regions in space studied during K2's tenth observing campaign. As a comet travels through space it sheds a tail of gas and dust. The more material that is shed, the more surface area there is to reflect sunlight. A comet's activity level can be obtained by measuring the reflected sunlight. Analyzing the Kepler data, scientists will be able to determine the amount of mass lost each day as comet 67P travels through the solar system. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21072

  8. STS-81 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    STS-81 was the fifth of nine planned missions to dock with the Russian Mir Space Station and the fourth crewmember transfer mission. The double Spacehab module was carried for the second time, and it housed experiments that were performed by the crew and logistics equipment that was transferred to the Mir.

  9. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  10. Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference: Space Mission Success Through Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences' Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference, 'Space Mission Success Through Testing' provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, program/system testing, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme 'Space Mission Success Through Testing.'

  11. Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference: Space Mission Success Through Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, J.L. III.

    1994-11-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences' Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference, Space Mission Success Through Testing' provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, program/system testing, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme Space Mission Success Through Testing.' Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  12. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  13. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  14. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  15. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  16. The limit passage of space curvature in problems of celestial mechanics with the generalized Kepler and Hooke potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozmishcheva, Tatiana

    2016-09-01

    The connection between the problems of celestial mechanics: the Kepler problem, the two-center problem and the two body problem in spaces of constant curvature with the generalized Kepler and Hooke potentials is investigated. The limit passage in the two-center and two body problems in the Lobachevsky space and on a sphere is carried out as λto0 (λ is the curvature of the corresponding space) for the two potentials. The potentials and metrics in spaces under study are written in the gnomonic coordinates. It is shown that as the curvature radius tends to infinity, the generalized gravitational and elastic potentials transform to the Kepler and Hooke forms in the Euclidean space.

  17. Probing Seismic Solar Analogues Through Observations With The NASA Kepler Space Telescope and Hermes High-Resolution Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P. G.; Salabert, D.; Garcia, R. A.; do Nascimento, J., Jr.; Duarte, T. S. S.; Mathis, S.; Regulo, C.; Ballot, J.; Egeland, R.; Castro, M.; Pérez-Herńandez, F.,; Creevey, O.; Tkachenko, A.; van Reeth, T.; Bigot, L.; Corsaro, E.; Metcalfe, T.; Mathur, S.; Palle, P. L.; Allende Prieto, C.; Montes, D.; Johnston, C.; Andersen, M. F.; van Winckel, H.

    2016-11-01

    Stars similar to the Sun, known as solar analogues, provide an excellent opportunity to study the preceding and following evolutionary phases of our host star. The unprecedented quality of photometric data collected by the Kepler NASA mission allows us to characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology and study diagnostics of stellar evolution, such as variation of magnetic activity, rotation and the surface lithium abundance. In this project, presented in a series of papers by Salabert et al (2016ab) and Beck et al. (2016ab), we investigate the link between stellar activity, rotation, lithium abundance and oscillations in a group of 18 solar-analogue stars through space photometry, obtained with the NASA Kepler space telescope and from currently 50+ hours of ground-based, high-resolution spectroscopy with the Hermes instrument. In these proceedings, we first discuss the selection of the stars in the sample, observations and calibrations and then summarise the main results of the project. By investigating the chromospheric and photospheric activity of the solar analogues in this sample, it was shown that for a large fraction of these stars the measured activity levels are compatible to levels of the 11-year solar activity cycle 23. A clear correlation between the lithium abundance and surface rotation was found for rotation periods shorter than the solar value. Comparing the lithium abundance measured in the solar analogues to evolutionary models with the Toulouse-Geneva Evolutionary Code (TGEC), we found that the solar models calibrated to the Sun also correctly describe the set of solar/stellar analogs showing that they share the same internal mixing physics. Finally, the star KIC3241581 and KIC10644353 are discussed in more detail.

  18. Artificial Neural Network Solutions to Eclipsing Binary Lightcurves from the Kepler Space Telescope Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, Connor; Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, Gal; Guinan, Edward F.

    2017-01-01

    Fully automated methods of data analysis are necessary for surpassing the human bottleneck in astrophysical data processing and maximizing scientific results from the great volume of observations to be taken over the next few decades. Prsa et al. (2008, ApJ, 687:542) addressed this issue by introducing an artificial neural network (ANN) which estimates the principal parameters of detached eclipsing binary (EB) stars. Parameters obtained by the process can be passed on to advanced modeling engines to produce a qualified EB database. The ANN was originally developed and trained for the OGLE EBs. Our project focuses on retraining this ANN for EBs from NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope database and serves as an extension to the eclipsing binaries via artificial intelligence (EBAI) project. The Kepler photometry is much more precise than photometry available from OGLE and other previous ground-based studies.. For our training set, we generated theoretical lightcurves via a Monte Carlo based Python script utilizing PHOEBE which samples EB parameter values according to prior distribution functions. Novel to our analysis is the use of chi-squared statistical tests which serve to qualify the overlap between the calculated exemplars and observed data. This enables the trained ANN to more accurately parameterize each EB. We describe our training process, present principal parameter estimates of Kepler EBs obtained by the ANNs, and discuss ongoing endeavors to refine those solutions. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation grant #1517474 which we gratefully acknowledge.

  19. Use of IPsec by Manned Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is developing its next generation manned space systems for missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon. The Program is embarking on a path towards standards based Internet Protocol (IP) networking for space systems communication. The IP based communications will be paired with industry standard security mechanisms such as Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) to ensure the integrity of information exchanges and prevent unauthorized release of sensitive information in-transit. IPsec has been tested in simulations on the ground and on at least one Earth orbiting satellite, but the technology is still unproven in manned space mission situations and significant obstacles remain.

  20. Use of IPsec by Manned Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is developing its next generation manned space systems for missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon. The Program is embarking on a path towards standards based Internet Protocol (IP) networking for space systems communication. The IP based communications will be paired with industry standard security mechanisms such as Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) to ensure the integrity of information exchanges and prevent unauthorized release of sensitive information in-transit. IPsec has been tested in simulations on the ground and on at least one Earth orbiting satellite, but the technology is still unproven in manned space mission situations and significant obstacles remain.

  1. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  2. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    William Borucki, principal investigator for Kepler Science at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.,, second from left, talks about the Kepler mission during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Joining Borucki at the briefing were Jon Morse, director, Astrophysics Division, NASA Headquarters, Jim Fanson, Kepler project manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Debra Fischer, a professor of Astronomy at San Francisco State University. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  3. A Second Space Gravitational Wave Observation Mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2010-03-01

    The scientific case for early flight of a first space GW mission to observe the signals from massive black hole mergers throughout the universe and from inspirals of stellar mass black holes into galactic center black holes appears to be strong. But, the justification for a second space GW mission will depend strongly on what the first one finds. The Big Bang Observer and DECIGO missions have been proposed, with their objectives including looking for primordial GW signals and helping to determine the cosmological distance scale. However, these missions are extremely challenging, so whether they will be scientifically justified in the future is quite uncertain. Future progress toward achieving similar objectives appears likely from ground observations and from one of the several Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization missions that have been proposed. Two much more modest missions have been suggested for study, in addition to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission and the LISA and DECIGO pathfinder missions. One is called pre-DECIGO, which would combine looking for NS-NS inspirals out to 300 Mpc with technology demonstrations for DECIGO. The other is called the Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna (ALIA), and would extend observations of stellar mass and intermediate mass black hole mergers out to considerably larger redshifts. The suggested baselines are 100 km and 500,000 km, and the required spurious acceleration limits are 1x10-17 and 3x10-16 m/s2/sqrt Hz, respectively.

  4. Benchmark Problems for Space Mission Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Leitner, Jesse A.; Folta, David C.; Burns, Richard

    2003-01-01

    To provide a high-level focus to distributed space system flight dynamics and control research, several benchmark problems are suggested for space mission formation flying. The problems cover formation flying in low altitude, near-circular Earth orbit, high altitude, highly elliptical Earth orbits, and large amplitude lissajous trajectories about co-linear libration points of the Sun-Earth/Moon system. These problems are not specific to any current or proposed mission, but instead are intended to capture high-level features that would be generic to many similar missions that are of interest to various agencies.

  5. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2011-10-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the "snow line", around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at 5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise to 7 years as well as the ?V needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ?V. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy

  6. The VSOP-2 Space VLBI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Murphy, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission, VSOP-2, is currently being planned. Higher observing frequencies, cooled receivers, increased bandwidths and larger telescope diameters will result in gains in resolution and interferometer sensitivity by factors of 10 over the VSOP mission. The use of phase-referencing by fast switching between a calibrator source and the target source is now being studied as this technique allows sources 50-150 times weaker to be observed depending on the frequency band. Such a capability would greatly enhance the VSOP-2 mission. Several other enhancements to the VSOP-2 mission are also presently under investigation including the VSOP-2 spacecraft operating at the same time as a US spacecraft to form what has come to be known as the iARISE (international ARISE) mission.

  7. Biomimetic Approach to Advanced Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, C.; Seidl, T.; Broschart, M.

    This paper proposes and discusses the use of a biomimetic approach to conceive and design novel advanced space technological systems. The paper analyses the different phases of space missions, namely launch, transfer, parking, landing and exploration, and investigates possible advantages of a biomimetic approach for each of them. Bio-inspired technologies currently used in the space field are pointed out and new biomimetic concepts are proposed to conceive new space systems and subsystems both for the short- and long-term future.

  8. Superintegrable Oscillator and Kepler Systems on Spaces of Nonconstant Curvature via the Stäckel Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Ángel; Enciso, Alberto; Herranz, Francisco J.; Ragnisco, Orlando; Riglioni, Danilo

    2011-05-01

    The Stäckel transform is applied to the geodesic motion on Euclidean space, through the harmonic oscillator and Kepler-Coloumb potentials, in order to obtain maximally superintegrable classical systems on N-dimensional Riemannian spaces of nonconstant curvature. By one hand, the harmonic oscillator potential leads to two families of superintegrable systems which are interpreted as an intrinsic Kepler-Coloumb system on a hyperbolic curved space and as the so-called Darboux III oscillator. On the other, the Kepler-Coloumb potential gives rise to an oscillator system on a spherical curved space as well as to the Taub-NUT oscillator. Their integrals of motion are explicitly given. The role of the (flat/curved) Fradkin tensor and Laplace-Runge-Lenz N-vector for all of these Hamiltonians is highlighted throughout the paper. The corresponding quantum maximally superintegrable systems are also presented.

  9. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP (User Datagram Protocol)-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990s, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD (Department of Defense). This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Nack Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) standard.

  10. In Brief: Proposed European space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    New candidates for possible future scientific missions were selected by the European Space Agency's Space Science Advisory Committee at its 17-18 October meeting. Among the eight candidates are four solar system missions. The Laplace mission would perform coordinated observations of Europa, the Jovian satellites, Jupiter's magnetosphere, and its atmosphere and interior. Tandem is a mission that would explore two Saturn satellites-Titan and Enceladus-in situ and from orbit to investigate their origins, interiors, and evolution as well as their astrobiological potential. Cross-Scale, with 12 spacecraft, would make simultaneous measurements of plasma on different scales at shocks, reconnection sites, and turbulent regions in near-Earth space. Marco Polo would characterize a near-Earth object at multiple scales and return with a sample. Among other missions, Plato, a photometry mission, would detect and characterize transiting exoplanets, while Spica, a next-generation infrared observatory, would address planetary formation questions. Ultimately, two missions will be proposed for implementation, with launches planned for 2017 and 2018.

  11. Parametric cost estimation for space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

    2008-07-01

    Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

  12. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  13. On the Performance of Adaptive Data Rate over Deep Space Ka-Bank Link: Case Study Using Kepler Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Future missions envisioned for both human and robotic exploration demand increasing communication capacity through the use of Ka-band communications. The Ka-band channel, being more sensitive to weather impairments, presents a unique trade-offs between data storage, latency, data volume and reliability. While there are many possible techniques for optimizing Ka-band operations such as adaptive modulation and coding and site-diversity, this study focus exclusively on the use of adaptive data rate (ADR) to achieve significant improvement in the data volume-availability tradeoff over a wide range of link distances for near Earth and Mars exploration. Four years of Kepler Ka-band downlink symbol signal-to-noise (SNR) data reported by the Deep Space Network were utilized to characterize the Ka-band channel statistics at each site and conduct various what-if performance analysis for different link distances. We model a notional closed-loop adaptive data rate system in which an algorithm predicts the channel condition two-way light time (TWLT) into the future using symbol SNR reported in near-real time by the ground receiver and determines the best data rate to use. Fixed and adaptive margins were used to mitigate errors in channel prediction. The performance of this closed-loop adaptive data rate approach is quantified in terms of data volume and availability and compared to the actual mission configuration and a hypothetical, optimized single rate configuration assuming full a priori channel knowledge.

  14. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Division Director, left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March asWilliam Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, looks on. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  16. A Probabilistic Mass-Radius Relationship for Sub-Neptune-Sized Planets: Implications for Missions Post-Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Angie; Rogers, Leslie; Ford, Eric B.; Laughlin, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of planets with radii between 1 and 4 R_Earth, paving the way for the first statistical studies of the dynamics, formation, and evolution of planets in a size range where there are no Solar System analogs. Masses are an important physical property for these theoretical studies, and yet the vast majority of Kepler planet candidates do not have theirs measured. Therefore, a key practical concern is how to most accurately map a measured sub-Neptune radius to a mass estimate given the existing observations. This issue is also highly relevant to devising the most efficient follow-up programs of future transiting exoplanet detection missions such as TESS. Here we present a probabilistic mass-radius relationship (M-R relation) evaluated within a hierarchical Bayesian framework, which both accounts for the anticipated intrinsic dispersion in these planets' compositions and quantifies the uncertainties on the M-R relation parameters. Assuming that the M-R relation can be described as a power law with a dispersion that is constant and normally distributed, we find that M/M_Earth = 2.7 (R/R_Earth)^1.3 and a scatter in mass of 1.9 M_Earth is the "best-fit" probabilistic M-R relation for the sample of RV-measured transiting sub-Neptunes (R_pl < 4 R_Earth; Wolfgang, Rogers, & Ford, in review). The probabilistic nature of this M-R relation has several advantages: not only does its use automatically account for a significant source of uncertainty in the comparison between planet formation theory and observation, but it can predict the yield of future transit missions' follow-up programs under the observed range of planet compositions at a given radius. We demonstrate the latter with TESS as a case study, building on Sullivan et al. 2015 to provide the RV semi-amplitude distribution predicted by this more general M-R relation and a more detailed treatment of the underlying planet population as derived from Kepler. The uncertainties in the

  17. A Probabilistic Mass-Radius Relationship for Sub-Neptune-Sized Planets: Implications for Missions Post-Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Angie; Rogers, Leslie A.; Ford, Eric B.; Laughlin, Gregory

    2015-12-01

    The Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of planets with radii between 1 and 4 R_Earth, paving the way for the first statistical studies of the dynamics, formation, and evolution of planets in a size range where there are no Solar System analogs. Masses are an important physical property for these theoretical studies, and yet the vast majority of Kepler planet candidates do not have theirs measured. Therefore, a key practical concern is how to most accurately map a measured sub-Neptune radius to a mass estimate given the existing observations. This issue is also highly relevant to devising the most efficient follow-up programs of future transiting exoplanet detection missions such as TESS. Here we present a probabilistic mass-radius relationship (M-R relation) evaluated within a hierarchical Bayesian framework, which both accounts for the anticipated intrinsic dispersion in these planets' compositions and quantifies the uncertainties on the M-R relation parameters. Assuming that the M-R relation can be described as a power law with a dispersion that is constant and normally distributed, we find that M/M_Earth = 2.7 (R/R_Earth)^1.3 and a scatter in mass of 1.9 M_Earth is the "best-fit" probabilistic M-R relation for the sample of RV-measured transiting sub-Neptunes (R_pl < 4 R_Earth; Wolfgang, Rogers, & Ford, in review). The probabilistic nature of this M-R relation has several advantages: not only does its use automatically account for a significant source of uncertainty in the comparison between planet formation theory and observation, but it can predict the yield of future transit missions' follow-up programs under the observed range of planet compositions at a given radius. We demonstrate the latter with TESS as a case study, building on Sullivan et al. 2015 to provide the RV semi-amplitude distribution predicted by this more general M-R relation and a more detailed treatment of the underlying planet population as derived from Kepler. The uncertainties in the

  18. NASA KEPLER OPENS THE STUDY OF THE GALAXY’S PLANET POPULATION

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-20

    NASA's Kepler mission released its eighth Kepler Candidate Catalog, which contains the best measured and most reliable planet candidates from the space telescope's final survey of the Cygnus Field. In the data are 219 new planet candidates, of which 10 are less than twice the size of the Earth and orbit in the habitable zone.

  19. Mission Success Driven Space System Sparing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among the maintenance resources, the spare parts are the most difficult to predict. Items in the space systems are very different from the point of view of reliability, cost, weight, volume, etc. The different combinations of spares make different contribution to the: mission success, spare investment, volume occupied and weight. Hence, the selection of spares for a mission planned must take into account all of these features. This paper presents the generic mission success driven sparing model developed, for the complex space systems. The mathematical analysis used in the model enables the user to select the most suitable selection of the spare package for the mission planned. The illustrative examples presented clearly demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of the model introduced.

  20. The Kepler Follow-up Observation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Thomas N., III; Borucki, W. J.; Caldwell, D. A.; Koch, D. G.

    2007-07-01

    The Kepler mission will use a space based, 95 cm Schmidt telescope to survey >100,000 late type dwarf stars for transiting Earth-sized planets over a period of 4 years. Up to 2000 such planets might be detected along with a hundred or more transiting giant planets. About 1000 false positive planet detections, due mainly to eclipsing binary stars, are also expected. A ground based follow-up program is planned to observe all of the planet candidates found by Kepler to weed out these false positives and produce a final catalog with a reliability greater than 95%. In addition, follow-up observations will, where possible, measure the mass of confirmed planets and look for any non-transiting giant planets. The Kepler Project is Funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as a Discovery Mission.

  1. STS-80 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The STS-80 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the eightieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102).

  2. Animation: Kepler-11 and Six Orbiting Planets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler space telescope watches a star, Kepler-11. The star appears to blink in a pattern. It dims like clockwork as six "hands" of differing size orbit around it at different rates. Kepler-1...

  3. KIC 11285625: A double-lined spectroscopic binary with a γ Doradus pulsator discovered from Kepler space photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debosscher, J.; Aerts, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Pavlovski, K.; Maceroni, C.; Kurtz, D.; Beck, P. G.; Bloemen, S.; Degroote, P.; Lombaert, R.; Southworth, J.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: We present the first binary modelling results for the pulsating, eclipsing binary KIC 11285625 that was discovered by the Kepler mission. An automated method to disentangle the pulsation spectrum and the orbital variability in high quality light curves was developed and applied. The goal was to obtain accurate orbital and component properties in combination with essential information derived from spectroscopy. Methods: A binary model for KIC 11285625 was obtained, using a combined analysis of high-quality space-based Kepler light curves and ground-based high-resolution HERMES echelle spectra. The binary model was used to separate the pulsation characteristics from the orbital variability in the Kepler light curve in an iterative way. We used an automated procedure based on the JKTEBOP binary modelling code to perform this task, and adapted codes for frequency analysis and prewhitening of periodic signals. Using a disentangling technique applied to the composite HERMES spectra, we obtained a higher signal-to-noise mean spectrum for both the primary and the secondary components. A model grid search method for fitting synthetic spectra was used for fundamental parameter determination for both components. Results: Accurate orbital and component properties of KIC 11285625 were derived, and we have obtained the pulsation spectrum of the γ Dor pulsator in the system. Detailed analysis of the pulsation spectrum revealed amplitude modulation on a timescale of a hundred days, and strong indications of frequency splittings at both the orbital frequency and the rotational frequency derived from spectroscopy. Partly based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, which is operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO

  4. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  5. Blast-Off on Mission: SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Part of NASA's mission is to inspire the next generation of explorers. NASA often reaches children - the inventors of tomorrow - through teachers, reporters, exhibit designers, and other third-party entities. Therefore, when Walt Disney Imagineering, the creative force behind the planning, design, and construction of Disney parks and resorts around the world, approached NASA with the desire to put realism into its Mission: SPACE project, the Agency was happy to offer its insight.

  6. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  7. Kepler Corn Maze Reporter Package for TWAN

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-06

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California, held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme, in this case, the Kepler mission. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of farms that are honoring NASA's achievements called Space Farm 7.

  8. Life sciences space missions. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    It has been known for many years that weightlessness induces changes in numerous physiological systems: the cardiovascular system declines in both aerobic capacity and orthostatic tolerance; there is a reduction in fluid and electrolyte balance, hematocrit, and certain immune parameters; bone and muscle mass and strength are reduced; various neurological responses include space motion sickness and posture and gate alterations. These responses are caused by the hypokinesia of weightlessness, the cephalic fluid shift, the unloading of the vestibular system, stress, and the altered temporal environment.

  9. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  10. Advanced power sources for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  11. Space Shuttle Atlantis Landing / STS-129 Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-27

    PHOTO CREDIT: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - Streams of smoke trail from the main landing gear tires as space shuttle Atlantis touches down on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida after 11 days in space, completing the 4.5-million-mile STS-129 mission on orbit 171. Main gear touchdown was at 9:44:23 a.m. EDT. Nose gear touchdown was at 9:44:36 a.m., and wheels stop was at 9:45:05 a.m. Aboard Atlantis are Commander Charles O. Hobaugh; Pilot Barry E. Wilmore; Mission Specialists Leland Melvin, Randy Bresnik, Mike Foreman and Robert L. Satcher Jr.; and Expedition 20 and 21 Flight Engineer Nicole Stott who spent 87 days aboard the International Space Station. STS-129 is the final space shuttle Expedition crew rotation flight on the manifest. On STS-129, the crew delivered 14 tons of cargo to the orbiting laboratory, including two ExPRESS Logistics Carriers containing spare parts to sustain station operations after the shuttles are retired next year. For information on the STS-129 mission and crew, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts129/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  12. Mars mission effects on Space Station evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Barbara S.; Cook, Stephen G.

    1989-01-01

    The permanently manned Space Station scheduled to be operational in low earth by the mid 1990's, will provide accommodations for science, applications, technology, and commercial users, and will develop enabling capabilities for future missions. A major aspect of the baseline Space Station design is that provisions for evolution to greater capabilities are included in the systems and subsystems designs. User requirements are the basis for conceptual evolution modes or infrastructure to support the paths. Four such modes are discussed in support of a Human to Mars mission, along with some of the near term actions protecting the future of supporting Mars missions on the Space Station. The evolution modes include crew and payload transfer, storage, checkout, assembly, maintenance, repair, and fueling.

  13. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  14. Kepler Discovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-02

    Jack Lissauer, a planetary scientist and a Kepler science team member at NASA's Ames Research Center, speaks during a news conference, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Scientists using NASA's Kepler, a space telescope, recently discovered six planets made of a mix of rock and gases orbiting a single sun-like star, known as Kepler-11, which is located approximately 2,000 light years from Earth. "It’s amazingly compact, it’s amazingly flat, there’s an amazingly large number of big planets orbiting close to their star - we didn’t know such systems could even exist," he said. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  16. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  17. A Kepler Mission, A Search for Habitable Planets: Concept, Capabilities and Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, Jack; Dunham, Edward; Jenkins, Jon; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The detection of extrasolar terrestrial planets orbiting main-sequence stars is of great interest and importance. Current ground-based methods are only capable of detecting objects about the size or mass of Jupiter or larger. The technological challenges of direct imaging of Earth-size planets from space are expected to be resolved over the next twenty years. Spacebased photometry of planetary transits is currently the only viable method for detection of terrestrial planets (30-600 times less massive than Jupiter). The method searches the extended solar neighborhood, providing a statistically large sample and the detailed characteristics of each individual case. A robust concept has been developed and proposed as a Discovery-class mission. The concept, its capabilities and strengths are presented.

  18. A Kepler Mission, A Search for Habitable Planets: Concept, Capabilities and Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, Jack; Dunham, Edward; Jenkins, Jon; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The detection of extrasolar terrestrial planets orbiting main-sequence stars is of great interest and importance. Current ground-based methods are only capable of detecting objects about the size or mass of Jupiter or larger. The technological challenges of direct imaging of Earth-size planets from space are expected to be resolved over the next twenty years. Spacebased photometry of planetary transits is currently the only viable method for detection of terrestrial planets (30-600 times less massive than Jupiter). The method searches the extended solar neighborhood, providing a statistically large sample and the detailed characteristics of each individual case. A robust concept has been developed and proposed as a Discovery-class mission. The concept, its capabilities and strengths are presented.

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS ATTRIBUTED TO GRANULATION AND FACULAE ON SUN-LIKE STARS FROM THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Karoff, C.; Campante, T. L.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Gruberbauer, M.; Garcia, R. A.

    2013-04-10

    Sun-like stars show intensity fluctuations on a number of timescales due to various physical phenomena on their surfaces. These phenomena can convincingly be studied in the frequency spectra of these stars-while the strongest signatures usually originate from spots, granulation, and p-mode oscillations, it has also been suggested that the frequency spectrum of the Sun contains a signature of faculae. We have analyzed three stars observed for 13 months in short cadence (58.84 s sampling) by the Kepler mission. The frequency spectra of all three stars, as for the Sun, contain signatures that we can attribute to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations. The temporal variability of the signatures attributed to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations was analyzed and the analysis indicates a periodic variability in the granulation and faculae signatures-comparable to what is seen in the Sun.

  20. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  1. Next Space Station Crew Previews Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-11

    NASA astronaut Scott Tingle and crewmates Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian space agency Roscosmos and Norishege Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) discussed their upcoming mission to the International Space Station in a news conference on Oct. 11 at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. Tingle, Shkaplerov and Kanai will launch to the space station aboard the Soyuz MS-07 spacecraft on Dec. 17 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. They will join the station’s Expedition 54 crew, and return to Earth in April 2018 as members of Expedition 55. During a planned four-month mission, the station crew members will take part in about 250 research investigations and technology demonstrations not possible on Earth in order to advance scientific knowledge of Earth, space, physical and biological sciences. Science conducted on the space station continues to yield benefits for humanity and will enable future long-duration human and robotic exploration into deep space, including missions past the Moon and Mars. This will be the first spaceflight for Tingle and Kanai, and the third for Shkaplerov.

  2. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  3. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Jon Morse, Director, Astrophysics Division, at NASA Headquarters, left, talks about the Kepler mission during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Morse was joined at the briefing by William Borucki, principal investigator for Kepler Science at Ames Research Center, second left, Jim Fanson, Kepler Project Manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Debra Fischer, professor of Astronomy at San Francisco State University, right. Kepler is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  4. STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

  5. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  6. Helios mission support. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, P. S.; Rockwell, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the Deep Space Network Operations organization in support of the Helios Project from 15 October 1977 through 15 December 1977 are described. Topics covered include: (1) Mark 3 data subsystem testing at the conjoint Deep Space Stations (DSS) 42/43 (Canberra, Australia); (2) MDS implementation at DSS 61/63 (Madrid, Spain); (3) Radio Science update, and (4) other mission-related activities.

  7. Benefits of slush hydrogen for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan; Zubrin, Robert; Hardy, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the benefits of using slush hydrogen instead of normal boiling point liquid hydrogen as a fuel for several space missions. Vehicles considered in the study included the Space Shuttle/Shuttle-C, LEO to GEO transfer vehicles, Lunar and Mars transfer vehicles, and cryogenic depots in low Earth orbit. The advantages of using slush hydrogen were expressed in terms of initial mass differences at a constant payload, payload differences at a constant tank volume, and increases in fuel storage time for cryogenic depots. Both chemical oxygen/hydrogen and hydrogen nuclear thermal rocket propulsion were considered in the study. The results indicated that slush hydrogen offers the potential for significant decreases in initial mass and increases in payload for most missions studied. These advantages increase as the mission difficulty, or energy, increases.

  8. New ideas for affordable space missions

    PubMed

    Eller, E; Roussel-Dupre, D; Weiss, R; Bruegman, O

    1996-04-01

    In September 1995, NASA-Goddard held a workshop on low-cost access to space for science missions. The workshop provided briefings on balloons, sounding rockets, Shuttle payloads, and low-cost free-flyer concepts, to provide options of getting experiments into space. This report is the result of a panel session organized with the aim of generating new ideas beyond those presented in the workshop. In addition to the authors, Orlando Figueroa and Paul Ondrus of NASA-Goddard and Richard Zwirnbaum of Computer Sciences Corp. participated in the discussions. The ideas presented do not necessarily reflect the current thinking of NASA managers. Although the panel discussion was focused on the kinds of science missions usually funded by NASA, most of the ideas that were generated are relevant to military and commercial missions as well.

  9. Optical Communications for Extreme Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charles

    1996-01-01

    A recent study of deep space telecommunications systems was performed in support of NASA's Mission to the Solar System planing activity. The results show that high bandwidth communications (greater than 1Mbps) are feasible at high-value planetary targets provided there are investments in the ground and spacecraft communication infrastructure.

  10. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereno, I.; Carvalho, C. S.; Dinis, J.; Scaramella, R.; Amiaux, J.; Burigana, C.; Cuillandre, J. C.; da Silva, A.; Derosa, A.; Maiorano, E.; Maris, M.; Oliveira, D.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gomez-Alvarez, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Wachter, S.; Wachter

    2014-05-01

    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  11. The space mission MIR'97: operational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ewald, R; Lohn, K; Gerzer, R

    2000-12-01

    A German astronaut visited the MIR space station between 10 February and 2 March 1997. Together with his Russian colleagues, he conducted a series of scientific investigations before, during and after his stay aboard the MIR station. Research performed during this flight was part of a global space life sciences programme and focused on metabolic homeostasis, fluid balance, calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The main goal of the scientific experiments was to use this mission as a milestone to establish international networks of scientific collaboration using space research as a tool for focused research in respective fields. Thus, in most cases the results obtained from the astronaut complemented a series of results obtained on ground and from other flights. In other cases, they extended previous results and opened new fields for future research. Human space flight with astronauts serving as operators and at the same time as test subjects is very complex. Many people, including mission control, a science management team, medical operations, ethics committees and a medical board, participated to harmonize the different requirements, thus making a maximal scientific outcome possible. In summary, this space mission may be seen as a model for focused long-term multidisciplinary international research, and demonstrates that space medicine is no longer adventure but science.

  12. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  13. Reusable space tug concept and mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Stesina, Fabrizio; Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Ferraris, Simona

    2016-11-01

    The paper deals with the conceptual design of a space tug to be used in support to Earth satellites transfer manoeuvres. Usually Earth satellites are released in a non-definitive low orbit, depending on the adopted launcher, and they need to be equipped with an adequate propulsion system able to perform the transfer to their final operational location. In order to reduce the mass at launch of the satellite system, an element pre-deployed on orbit, i.e. the space tug, can be exploited to perform the transfer manoeuvres; this allows simplifying the propulsion requirements for the satellite, with a consequent decrease of mass and volume, in favour of larger payloads. The space tug here presented is conceived to be used for the transfer of a few satellites from low to high orbits, and vice versa, if needed. To support these manoeuvres, dedicated refuelling operations are envisaged. The paper starts from on overview of the mission scenario, the concept of operations and the related architecture elements. Then it focuses on the detailed definition of the space tug, from the requirements' assessment up to the budgets' development, through an iterative and recursive design process. The overall mission scenario has been derived from a set of trade-off analyses that have been performed to choose the mission architecture and operations that better satisfy stakeholder expectations: the most important features of these analyses and their results are described within the paper. Eventually, in the last part of the work main conclusions are drawn on the selected mission scenario and space tug and further utilizations of this innovative system in the frame of future space exploration are discussed. Specifically, an enhanced version of the space tug that has been described in the paper could be used to support on orbit assembly of large spacecraft for distant and long exploration missions. The Space Tug development is an activity carried on in the frame of the SAPERE project (Space

  14. A search for FK Com candidates using Kepler Space Telescope observations: Analogs of HD 199178

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzin, V. B.; Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2017-08-01

    Analysis of collected photometric observations obtained with the Kepler Space Telescope were used to select and study 33 objects with parameters corresponding to those of the FK Com starHD199178; these can be considered candidate stars of this type. In this final study, the four objects with the best light curves, which show the properties of their regular rotational modulation most clearly, were selected for detailed studies. The photometric analysis is based on all data currently available in the Kepler archive (covering almost four years). The rotational periods and estimated parameters of the objects' differential rotation are determined, and the longitudes of the dominant active regions on the surfaces found. For all four stars, the spot coverage is approximately 1% of the visible stellar surface area. The rotational periods and data on the stars'masses and radii fromtheMAST catalog are used to determine the rotation velocities projected onto the line of sight, which ranged from 12 to 21 km/s. Further studies will enable definite conclusions about how these stars are related to FK Com stars. If they are ultimately classified as FK Com stars, this will considerably increase the number of this rare type of star and the also number of rapidly rotating, single, late-type giants.

  15. Psychological considerations in future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Runge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Issues affecting human psychological adjustments to long space missions are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle flight crewmembers will not have extensive flight qualification requirements, the effects of a more heterogeneous crew mixture than in early space flights is considered to create possibilities of social conflicts. Routine space flight will decrease the novelty of a formerly unique experience, and the necessity of providing personal space or other mechanisms for coping with crowded, permanently occupied space habitats is stressed. Women are noted to display more permeable personal space requirements. The desirability of planning leisure activities is reviewed, and psychological test results for female and male characteristics are cited to show that individuals with high scores in both traditionally male and female attributes are most capable of effective goal-oriented behavior and interpersonal relationships. Finally, it is shown that competitiveness is negatively correlated with the success of collaborative work and the social climate of an environment.

  16. STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.

    PubMed

    Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization.

  18. STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-second flight since the return-to-flight, and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). STS-77 was also the last flight of OV-105 prior to the vehicle being placed in the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-78; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037, 2040, and 2038 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-080. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-47, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO47A for the left SRB, and 360TO47B for the right SRB. The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VII, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of Spacehab-4, the SPARTAN 207/inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE), and the Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the experiments of the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), Get-Away-Special (GAS), and GAS Bridge Assembly (GBA). The STS-77 mission was planned as a 9-day flight plus 1 day, plus 2 contingency days, which were available for

  19. Decoder synchronization for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  20. A moderate space mission for optical interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Rayman, M. D.; Shao, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Orbiting Stellar Interferometer (OSI) is a proposed space-based observatory which will open exciting new vistas in astronomy and address fundamental scientific questions by making extremely accurate (3 - 30 microarcsecond) astrometric measurements of the positions of stars, quasars, and other astronomical objects as faint as magnitude 20. In addition, it will be able to image objects with a resolution of 5 milliarcseconds. As the first optical interferometer in space, OSI will provide major advances in astrophysics while demonstrating a powerful concept applicable to major space-based observations of the future. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a preliminary design of OSI to establish its feasibility and to estimate performance that can be achieved in a mission of moderate scale. In this first publication of the results of the first year of study, the science objectives are presented, and the design of the mission, instrument, and spacecraft are discussed.

  1. STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

  2. World Space Observatory Ultraviolet mission: status 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Shustov, Boris; Gómez de Castro, Ana Inés.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 310 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. It is the solution to the problem of future access to UV spectroscopy. Dedicated to spectroscopic and imaging observations of the ultraviolet sky, the World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission is a Russian-Spanish collaboration with potential Mexican minor contribution. This paper provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last SPIE meeting.

  3. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamon, Rob

    1993-01-01

    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  4. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamon, Rob

    1993-01-01

    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  5. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Hogie, Keith; Casasanta, Ralph; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) on applying standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols (IP) can provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, and constellations of spacecraft. A primary component of this work is to design and demonstrate automated end-to-end transport of files in a dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. These functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both Earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively expensive. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end file transfers all the way from instruments to control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with data rates and downlink capabilities from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Many examples are based on designs currently being investigated for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  6. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Hogie, Keith; Casasanta, Ralph; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) on applying standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols (IP) can provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, and constellations of spacecraft. A primary component of this work is to design and demonstrate automated end-to-end transport of files in a dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. These functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both Earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively expensive. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end file transfers all the way from instruments to control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with data rates and downlink capabilities from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Many examples are based on designs currently being investigated for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  7. STS-71, Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frike, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance. STS-71 is the 100th United States manned space flight, the sixty-ninth Space Shuttle flight, the forty-fourth flight since the return-to-flight, the fourteenth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle Atlantis, and the first joint United States (U.S.)-Russian docking mission since 1975. In addition to the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-70; three SSMEs that were designated 2028, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated Bl-072. The RSRMs that were an integral part of the SRBs were designated 360L045A for the left SRB and 360W045B for the right SRB. The STS-71 mission was planned as a 1 0-day plus 1-day-extension mission plus 2 additional days for contingency operations and weather avoidance. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform on-orbit joint U.S.-Russian life sciences investigations, logistical resupply of the Mir Space Station, return of the United States astronaut flying on the Mir, the replacement of the Mir-18 crew with the two-cosmonaut Mir-19 crew, and the return of the Mir-18 crew to Earth. The secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Camera and the Shuttle Amateur Radio experiment-2 (SAREX-2).

  8. ISS Update: Communication Delays During Deep Space Missions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with Jeremy Frank, Autonomous Mission Operations Test Principal Investigator, about how communication delays will affect future deep space missions and...

  9. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment

  10. Training for 21st century space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Frank E.; Holkan, Robert K.

    1988-01-01

    Although specific recommendations are difficult to make about spacecraft and missions not yet designed, several general guidelines are presently formulated concerning the training of future, long-duration space mission crews. Training systems should be embedded in the normal controls and displays of the spacecraft used, so that critical maneuvers can be practiced as often as possible. Some system for computer-based training should be available onboard, in order to maintain the spacecraft system-knowledge of the crew at a high level and deepen understanding of malfunction responses.

  11. Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David Alan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (MPG) is to provide future payload developers/users with sufficient insight to support preliminary SLS mission planning. Consequently, this SLS MPG is not intended to be a payload requirements document; rather, it organizes and details SLS interfaces/accommodations in a manner similar to that of current Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) user guides to support early feasibility assessment. Like ELV Programs, once approved to fly on SLS, specific payload requirements will be defined in unique documentation.

  12. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  13. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-C National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the eleventh Shuttle flight and fifth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Also summarized are the significant problems that occurred during STS 41-C, and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight. The major objectives of flight STS 41-C were to successfully deploy the LDEF (long duration exposure facility) and retrieve, repair and redeploy the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) spacecraft, and perform functions of IMAX and Cinema 360 cameras.

  14. Rotation and magnetic activity of oscillating solar-like stars with the Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Savita; Balliet, Lauren; García, Rafael A.; Salabert, David

    2017-09-01

    For the last few decades the investigation of stellar magnetic activity has been conducted through spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric surveys. This led not only to the detection of magnetic cycles in other stars but also to variable and magnetic activity. For the Sun, the magnetic activity is described as the interaction between convection, rotation, and magnetic field. To study magnetic activity of solar-like stars we need to have the knowledge of the surface rotation period, the properties of magnetic activity, and the structure of the stars. We present the results obtained from the studies of Kepler solarlike targets in terms of rotation periods, magnetic activity proxies and magnetic activity cycles detected. We can then combine this information with asteroseismic studies to have a broader picture of stellar magnetic activity.

  15. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and as the need increases for more network-oriented mission operations. Another element of increasing significance will be the increased cost effectiveness of designing, building, integrating, and operating instruments and spacecraft that will come to the fore as more missions take up the approach of using commodity-level standard communications technologies. This paper describes how an IP (Internet Protocol)-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation

  16. GRANULATION IN RED GIANTS: OBSERVATIONS BY THE KEPLER MISSION AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, S.; Hekker, S.; Trampedach, R.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Buzasi, D.; Garcia, R. A.; Jimenez, A.; Regulo, C.; Mosser, B.; Elsworth, Y.; Chaplin, W. J.; Hale, S. J.; De Ridder, J.; Kinemuchi, K.; Mullally, F.

    2011-11-10

    The granulation pattern that we observe on the surface of the Sun is due to hot plasma rising to the photosphere where it cools down and descends back into the interior at the edges of granules. This is the visible manifestation of convection taking place in the outer part of the solar convection zone. Because red giants have deeper convection zones than the Sun, we cannot a priori assume that their granulation is a scaled version of solar granulation. Until now, neither observations nor one-dimensional analytical convection models could put constraints on granulation in red giants. With asteroseismology, this study can now be performed. We analyze {approx}1000 red giants that have been observed by Kepler during 13 months. We fit the power spectra with Harvey-like profiles to retrieve the characteristics of the granulation (timescale {tau}{sub gran} and power P{sub gran}). We search for a correlation between these parameters and the global acoustic-mode parameter (the position of maximum power, {nu}{sub max}) as well as with stellar parameters (mass, radius, surface gravity (log g), and effective temperature (T{sub eff})). We show that {tau}{sub eff}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -0.89}{sub max} and P{sub gran}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -1.90}{sub max}, which is consistent with the theoretical predictions. We find that the granulation timescales of stars that belong to the red clump have similar values while the timescales of stars in the red giant branch are spread in a wider range. Finally, we show that realistic three-dimensional simulations of the surface convection in stars, spanning the (T{sub eff}, log g) range of our sample of red giants, match the Kepler observations well in terms of trends.

  17. A Distant Mirror: Solar Oscillations Observed on Neptune by the Kepler K2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulme, P.; Rowe, J. F.; Bedding, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Corsaro, E.; Davies, G. R.; Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Garcia, R. A.; Huber, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2014 December, Kepler (K2) observed Neptune continuously for 49 days at a 1-minute cadence. The goals consisted of studying its atmospheric dynamics, detecting its global acoustic oscillations, and those of the Sun, which we report on here. We present the first indirect detection of solar oscillations in intensity measurements. Beyond the remarkable technical performance, it indicates how Kepler would see a star like the Sun. The result from the global asteroseismic approach, which consists of measuring the oscillation frequency at maximum amplitude max velocity and the mean frequency separation between mode overtones delta velocity, is surprising as the max velocity measured from Neptune photometry is larger than the accepted value. Compared to the usual reference max velocity of the sun equal to 3100 microhertz, the asteroseismic scaling relations therefore make the solar mass and radius appear larger by 13.8 plus or minus 5.8 percent and 4.3 plus or minus 1.9 percent, respectively. The higher max velocity is caused by a combination of the value of max velocity of the sun, being larger at the time of observations than the usual reference from SOHO/VIRGO/SPM (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations / on board SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) / Sun PhotoMeters) data (3160 plus or minus 10 microhertz), and the noise level of the K2 time series, being 10 times larger than VIRGO's. The peak-bagging method provides more consistent results: despite a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we model 10 overtones for degrees iota equal 0, 1, 2. We compare the K2 data with simultaneous SOHO/VIRGO/SPM photometry and Bison (Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network) velocity measurements. The individual frequencies, widths, and amplitudes mostly match those from VIRGO and BiSON within 1 sigma, except for the few peaks with the lowest S/N.

  18. Granulation in Red Giants: Observations by the Kepler Mission and Three-dimensional Convection Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, S.; Hekker, S.; Trampedach, R.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Buzasi, D.; García, R. A.; Huber, D.; Jiménez, A.; Mosser, B.; Bedding, T. R.; Elsworth, Y.; Régulo, C.; Stello, D.; Chaplin, W. J.; De Ridder, J.; Hale, S. J.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    The granulation pattern that we observe on the surface of the Sun is due to hot plasma rising to the photosphere where it cools down and descends back into the interior at the edges of granules. This is the visible manifestation of convection taking place in the outer part of the solar convection zone. Because red giants have deeper convection zones than the Sun, we cannot a priori assume that their granulation is a scaled version of solar granulation. Until now, neither observations nor one-dimensional analytical convection models could put constraints on granulation in red giants. With asteroseismology, this study can now be performed. We analyze ~1000 red giants that have been observed by Kepler during 13 months. We fit the power spectra with Harvey-like profiles to retrieve the characteristics of the granulation (timescale τgran and power P gran). We search for a correlation between these parameters and the global acoustic-mode parameter (the position of maximum power, νmax) as well as with stellar parameters (mass, radius, surface gravity (log g), and effective temperature (T eff)). We show that τeffvpropν-0.89 max and P granvpropν-1.90 max, which is consistent with the theoretical predictions. We find that the granulation timescales of stars that belong to the red clump have similar values while the timescales of stars in the red giant branch are spread in a wider range. Finally, we show that realistic three-dimensional simulations of the surface convection in stars, spanning the (T eff, log g) range of our sample of red giants, match the Kepler observations well in terms of trends.

  19. A Distant Mirror: Solar Oscillations Observed on Neptune by the Kepler K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulme, P.; Rowe, J. F.; Bedding, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Corsaro, E.; Davies, G. R.; Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Garcia, R. A.; Huber, D.; Jiménez, A.; Mathur, S.; Mosser, B.; Appourchaux, T.; Boumier, P.; Jackiewicz, J.; Leibacher, J.; Schmider, F.-X.; Hammel, H. B.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Simon, A. A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Guzik, J. A.; Murphy, N.; Silva Aguirre, V.

    2016-12-01

    Starting in 2014 December, Kepler K 2 observed Neptune continuously for 49 days at a 1 minute cadence. The goals consisted of studying its atmospheric dynamics, detecting its global acoustic oscillations, and those of the Sun, which we report on here. We present the first indirect detection of solar oscillations in intensity measurements. Beyond the remarkable technical performance, it indicates how Kepler would see a star like the Sun. The result from the global asteroseismic approach, which consists of measuring the oscillation frequency at maximum amplitude ν max and the mean frequency separation between mode overtones Δν, is surprising as the ν max measured from Neptune photometry is larger than the accepted value. Compared to the usual reference ν max,⊙ = 3100 μHz, the asteroseismic scaling relations therefore make the solar mass and radius appear larger by 13.8 ± 5.8% and 4.3 ± 1.9%, respectively. The higher ν max is caused by a combination of the value of ν max,⊙, being larger at the time of observations than the usual reference from SOHO/VIRGO/SPM data (3160 ± 10 μHz), and the noise level of the K 2 time series, being 10 times larger than VIRGO’s. The peak-bagging method provides more consistent results: despite a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we model 10 overtones for degrees ℓ = 0, 1, 2. We compare the K 2 data with simultaneous SOHO/VIRGO/SPM photometry and BiSON velocity measurements. The individual frequencies, widths, and amplitudes mostly match those from VIRGO and BiSON within 1σ, except for the few peaks with the lowest S/N.

  20. Kepler Field of View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Kepler mission will be looking continuously at over 100,000 stars in one region of the sky, in the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The field of view is extremely large for an astronomical teles...

  1. Planetary mission applications for space storable propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.; Cork, M. J.; Young, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to compare space-storable with earth-storable spacecraft propulsion systems, space-storable with solid kick stages, and several space-storable development options on the basis of benefits received for cost expenditures required. The results show that, for a launch vehicle with performance less than that of Shuttle/Centaur, space-storable spacecraft propulsion offers an incremental benefit/cost ratio between 1.0 and 5.5 when compared to earth-storable systems for three of the four missions considered. In the case of VOIR 83, positive benefits were apparent only for a specific launch vehicle-spacecraft propulsion combination. A space-storable propulsion system operating at thrust of 600 lbf, 355 units of specific impulse, and with blowdown pressurization, represents the best choice for the JO 81 mission on a Titan/Centaur if only spacecraft propulsion modifications are considered. For still higher performance, a new solid-propellant kick stage with space-storable spacecraft propulsion is preferred over a system which uses space-storable propellants for both the kick stage and the spacecraft system.

  2. Manned Mars missions using propellant from space

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Olson, T.S. ); Redd, L.R. )

    1993-01-10

    .A recent discovery (8/14/92) of a near-earth object containing materials potentially useful for space activities could perhaps change the entire way humans access and operate in space. A near-Earth object ([number sign]4015, 1979 VA, comet Wilson-Harrington) contains water ice that could be used for space propulsion. In addition, this type of object may contain structural and lifesustaining materials (complex hydrocarbons, ammonia and/or bound nitrogen compounds) for space structures, manned planetary bases, or planetary surface terraforming. The retrieval and utilization of rocket propellant from near-Earth objects, for manned Mars missions in particular, has been investigated and the benefits of this scenario to over performing a Mars mission with terrestrial propellants have been documented. The results show water extracted from these objects and retrieved to Earth orbit for use in going to Mars may actually enable manned Mars exploration by reducing the number of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) flights or eliminating the need for HLLV's altogether. The mission can perhaps be supported with existing launch vehicles and not required heavy lift capability. Also, the development of a nuclear thermal rocket for this alternate approach may be simplified substantially by reducing the operating temperature required.

  3. Space Shuttle Mission Sequence-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This diagram illustrates the Space Shuttle mission sequence. The Space Shuttle was approved as a national program in 1972 and developed through the 1970s. Part spacecraft and part aircraft, the Space Shuttle orbiter, the brain and the heart of the Space Transportation System (STS), required several technological advances, including thousands of insulating tiles able to stand the heat of reentry over the course of many missions, as well as sophisticated engines that could be used again and again without being thrown away. The airplane-like orbiter has three main engines, that burn liquid hydrogen and oxygen stored in the large external tank, the single largest structure in the Shuttle. Attached to the tank are two solid rocket boosters that provide the vehecile with most of the thrust needed for liftoff. Two minutes into the flight, the spent solids drop into the ocean to be recovered and refurbished for reuse, while the orbiter engines continue burning until approximately 8 minutes into the flight. After the mission is completed, the orbiter lands on a runway like an airplane.

  4. STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

  5. Project trades model for complex space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girerd, Andre R.; Shishko, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    A Project Trades Model (PTM) is a collection of tools/simulations linked together to rapidly perform integrated system trade studies of performance, cost, risk, and mission effectiveness. An operating PTM captures the interactions between various targeted systems and subsystems through an exchange of computed variables of the constituent models. Selection and implementation of the order, method of interaction, model type, and envisioned operation of the ensemble of tools rpresents the key system engineering challenge of the approach. This paper describes an approach to building a PTM and using it to perform top-level system trades for a complex space mission. In particular, the PTM discussed here is for a future Mars mission involving a large rover.

  6. Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

  7. SPACEHAB - Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-107

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-14

    Students display an experiment that will fly in SPACEHAB on Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-107. SPACEHAB's complement of commercial experiments includes six educational experiments designed and developed by students in six different countries under the auspices of Space Technology and Research Students (STARS), a global education program managed by SPACEHAB subsidiary Space Media. The countries represented are Australia, China, Israel, Japan, Liechtenstein and the United States. The student investigators who conceived these experiments will monitor their operations in space. The experiments will be housed in BioServe Space Technologies' Isothermal Containment Module (ICM --a small temperature-controlled facility that provides experiment support such as physical containment, lighting, and video imaging) and stowed in a middeck-size locker aboard the SPACEHAB Research Double Module.

  8. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  9. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  10. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Debra Fischer, a professor of Astronomy at San Francisco State University, talks about the Kepler mission during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  11. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Jon Morse, director, Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters talks about the Kepler mission during a media briefing, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  12. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  13. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  14. Innovative Explorer Mission to Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Gold, R. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Roelof, E. C.; Leary, J. C.; Gloeckler, G.; Koehn, P. L.; Kurth, W. S.; Oleson, S. R.; Fiehler, D.

    A mission to interstellar space has been under discussion for over 25 years. Many fundamental scientific questions about the nature of the surrounding galactic medium and its interaction with the solar system can only be answered by in situ measurements that such a mission would provide. The technical difficulties and budgetary and programmatic realities have prevented implementation of previous studies based on the use of a near-Sun perihelion propulsive maneuver, solar sails, and large fission-reactor-powered nuclear electric propulsion systems. We present an alternative approach - the Innovative Interstellar Explorer - based on Radioisotope Electric Propulsion. A high-energy, current-technology launch of the small spacecraft is followed by long-term, lowthrust, continuous acceleration enabled by a kilowatt-class ion thruster powered by Pu-238 Stirling radioisotope generators. We describe the science, payload, and mission and spacecraft design. We also discuss the role such a mission plays in assessing heliospheric “space climate,” knowledge of which is vital for human exploration to Mars and beyond.

  15. Antimatter Driven Sail for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Jackson, Gerald P.

    2005-02-01

    The concept of the Antimatter Driven Sail (ADS) has been examined in three major areas: Mission Architecture, Subsystem Technologies, and a Technology Roadmap. The Mission Architecture effort has focused on developing an integrated systems model to evaluate the performance of the entire spacecraft for a mission. The Subsystem Technologies investigation examined 1) the fundamental reactions between the antiprotons and the sail material and the subsequent momentum transfer, 2) a concept for storing antihydrogen at high densities, and 3) an entirely new concept for electrical power production. The new electrical-power concept may have applicability to nearer-term space missions as a power supply if the availability of antiprotons becomes common. In developing the Technology Roadmap, we examined the potential 1) for using recent developments in antiproton storage and antihydrogen formation to create a path to ultra-high density antihydrogen storage, and 2) for increasing production of antiprotons by modifying the existing Fermilab facility. Our system analysis indicates that a 10 kg instrument pay load could be sent to 250 AU in 10 years using 30 milligrams of antihydrogen. This amount of antimatter is clearly within the production potential of the US within the next 40 years using currently accepted accelerator technologies. Major aspects of the architecture remain to be investigated but the first-cut assessment of the mission profile, the subsystem technologies, and the technology development path have all been identified. The antimatter driven sail may in-fact allow humanity to consider sending probes to the stars.

  16. Combatting Managerial Complacency in Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Human factors techniques have made significant contributions to the safety of space missions. Physiological models help to monitor crew workload and performance. Empirical studies inform the design of operator interfaces to maximize finite cognitive and perceptual resources. Further progress has been made in supporting distributed situation awareness across multi-national teams and in promoting the resilience of complex, time critical missions. Most of this work has focused on operational performance. In contrast, most space-based mishaps stem from organizational problems and miss-management. In particular, this paper focuses on the dangers of complacency when previous successes are wrongly interpreted as guarantees of future safety. The argument is illustrated by the recent loss of NASA's Nuclear Compton Telescope Balloon; during a launch phase that 'no-one considered to be a potential hazard'. The closing sections argue that all senior executives should read at least one mishap report every year in order to better understand the hazards of complacency.

  17. Developing Fault Models for Space Mission Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P.; Munson, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of fault models for space mission software is shown. The topics include: 1) Goal: Improve Understanding of Technology Fault Generation Process; 2) Required Measurement; 3) Measuring Structural Evolution; 4) Module Attributes; 5) Principal Components of Raw Metrics; 6) The Measurement Process; 7) View of Structural Evolution at the System and Module Level; 8) Identifying and Counting Faults; 9) Fault Enumeration; 10) Modeling Fault Content; 11) Modeling Results; 12) Current and Future Work; and 13) Discussion and Conclusions.

  18. Internet Technology for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor); Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  19. Viking mission support. [Deep Space Network activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Statistics listing the Deep Space Network tracking and command support and the discrepancy report status for 1 January through 28 February 1977 are presented in tables. The initial Viking extended mission period of normal DSN support, following the nonstandard operations during the solar conjunction period is included. Operational testing subsequent to the MK III data system installations at DSS 12, 44, and 62 during this period are also discussed.

  20. STS-35 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-35 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-35/LWT-28), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-038. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the planned operations of the Ultraviolet Astronomy (Astro-1) payload and the Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) payload in a 190-nmi. circular orbit which had an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tablular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter subsystem problem is cited in the applicable subsystem discussion.

  1. High performance techniques for space mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen F.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize current research at Carnegie Mellon University aimed at development of high performance techniques and tools for space mission scheduling. Similar to prior research in opportunistic scheduling, our approach assumes the use of dynamic analysis of problem constraints as a basis for heuristic focusing of problem solving search. This methodology, however, is grounded in representational assumptions more akin to those adopted in recent temporal planning research, and in a problem solving framework which similarly emphasizes constraint posting in an explicitly maintained solution constraint network. These more general representational assumptions are necessitated by the predominance of state-dependent constraints in space mission planning domains, and the consequent need to integrate resource allocation and plan synthesis processes. First, we review the space mission problems we have considered to date and indicate the results obtained in these application domains. Next, we summarize recent work in constraint posting scheduling procedures, which offer the promise of better future solutions to this class of problems.

  2. Avionic Architectures for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutola, Antonio; Martelli, Andrea; Caramia, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents the activities which are in progress in Thales Alenia Space Italia, founded by the internal research, in parallel with several ESA studies, and related to the definition and characterization of an avionic architecture suitable for the future space exploration missions. A significant capability is required both in term of computing power and of communication bandwidth among all the remote terminals belonging to the on-board avionic. The paper focuses on the on-board computer architecture and on the communication links and introduces the avionic demonstrator that has been set up in TAS-I to explore and test the different architectural solutions.

  3. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  4. Space platform reference mission studies overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The design requirements for three major space platform systems are identified. The three were the Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP), the Geostationary Platform (GSP), and the Satellite Power System (SPS). Because the SASP and GSP were assumed to require no advanced technology for their development an advanced version of each was selected on which to base the design requirements. The SPS represented the opposite development state hence a nearer term test article was selected on which to base the requirements. The development period for these missions is estimated.

  5. On the Astron UV space mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpio, E. Yu.; Mironov, A. V.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    The Soviet UV space mission Astron, launched in 1983, had been operational for eight years as the largest ultraviolet space telescope during its lifetime. Astron provided a lot of observational material for various types of astrophysical objects, but unfortunately these data were not widely available and, as a result, unduly forgotten. Here we present some results of our comparison of the Astron data to the modern UV stellar data, such as the NGSL spectral library, discuss the precision and accuracy achieved with Astron, and make some conclusions on potential application areas of these data.

  6. The Kepler Follow-up Observation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, T. N.; Borucki, W. J.; Caldwell, D. A.; Koch, D. G.

    2007-07-01

    The Kepler mission will use a space based, 95-cm Schmidt telescope to survey 100,000 late type dwarf stars for transiting Earth-sized planets over a period of 4 years. Up to ˜ 2000 such planets might be detected along with a hundred or more transiting giant planets. About 1,000 false positive planet detections, due mainly to eclipsing binary stars, will also be found. A ground based follow-up program is planned to observe all of the planet candidates found by Kepler to weed out these false positives and produce a final catalog with a reliability greater than 95%.

  7. Symbiotic structures to significantly enhance space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Andrew D.; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Arritt, Brandon J.

    2007-04-01

    The Department of Defense is actively pursuing a Responsive Space capability that will dramatically reduce the cost and time associated with getting a payload into space. In order to enable that capability, our space systems must be modular and flexible to cover a wide range of missions, configurations, duty cycles, and orbits. This places requirements on the entire satellite infrastructure: payloads, avionics, electrical harnessing, structure, thermal management system, etc. The Integrated Structural Systems Team at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, has been tasked with developing structural and thermal solutions that will enable a Responsive Space capability. This paper details a "symbiotic" solution where thermal management functionality is embedded within the structure of the satellite. This approach is based on the flight proven and structurally efficient isogrid architecture. In our rendition, the ribs serve as fluidic passages for thermal management, and passively activated valves are used to control flow to the individual components. As the paper will explain, our analysis has shown this design to be structurally efficient and thermally responsive to a wide range of potential satellite missions, payloads, configurations, and orbits.

  8. STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

  9. STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

  10. LHS 6343 C: A TRANSITING FIELD BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Apps, Kevin; Gazak, J. Zachary; Crossfield, Ian J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoff W.; Chubak, Carly; Isaacson, Howard

    2011-04-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf that transits one member of the M+M binary system LHS 6343 AB every 12.71 days. The transits were discovered using photometric data from the Kepler public data release. The LHS 6343 stellar system was previously identified as a single high proper motion M dwarf. We use adaptive optics imaging to resolve the system into two low-mass stars with masses 0.370 {+-} 0.009 M{sub sun} and 0.30 {+-} 0.01 M{sub sun}, respectively, and a projected separation of 0.''55. High-resolution spectroscopy shows that the more massive component undergoes Doppler variations consistent with Keplerian motion, with a period equal to the transit period and an amplitude consistent with a companion mass of M{sub C} = 62.7 {+-} 2.4 M{sub Jup}. Based on our analysis of the transit light curve, we estimate the radius of the companion to be R{sub C} = 0.833 {+-} 0.021 R{sub Jup}, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of the radius of a >1 Gyr brown dwarf.

  11. The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) Space Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

    1998-01-01

    For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

  12. Kepler: A Search for Terrestrial Planets - Kepler Data Characterization Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Christiansen, J. L.; Jenkins, J. M.; Caldwell, D. A.; Barclay, T.; Bryson, S. T.; Burke, C. J.; Campbell, J.; Catanzarite, J.; Clarke, B. D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Data Characteristics Handbook (KDCH) provides a description of all phenomena identified in the Kepler data throughout the mission, and an explanation for how these characteristics are handled by the final version of the Kepler Data Processing Pipeline (SOC 9.3).The KDCH complements the Kepler Data Release Notes (KDRNs), which document phenomena and processing unique to a data release. The original motivation for this separation into static, explanatory text and a more journalistic set of figures and tables in the KDRN was for the user to become familiar with the Data Characteristics Handbook, then peruse the short Notes for a new quarter, referring back to the Handbook when necessary. With the completion of the Kepler mission and the final Data Release 25, both the KDCH and the DRN encompass the entire Kepler mission, so the distinction between them is in the level of exposition, not the extent of the time interval discussed.

  13. KEPLER SCIENCE OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Michael R.; Bryson, Steve T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Smith, Marcie; Sobeck, Charles K.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Stober, Jeremy

    2010-04-20

    Kepler's mission design includes a comprehensive plan for commissioning and science operations. The commissioning phase completed all critical tasks and accomplished all mission objectives within a week of the pre-launch plan. Since the start of science data collection, the nominal timeline has been interrupted by two safe-mode events, several losses of fine point, and some small pointing adjustments. The most important anomalies are understood and mitigated, so Kepler's technical performance has improved significantly over this period, and the prognosis for mission success is excellent. The Kepler data archive is established and hosting data for the science team, guest observers, and the public. The first data to become publicly available include the monthly full-frame images and the light curves for targets that are dropped from the exoplanet program or released after publication. Data are placed in the archive on a quarterly basis; the Kepler Results Catalog will be released annually starting in 2011.

  14. Exo-C: A Space Mission for Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl; Belikov, Ruslan; Marley, Mark; Bryden, Geoff; Serabyn, Eugene; Trauger, John; Cahoy, Kerri; Chakrabarti, Supriya; McElwain, Michael; Meadows, Victoria; hide

    2015-01-01

    Exo-C is NASAs first community study of a modest aperture space telescope designed for high contrast observations of exoplanetary systems. The mission will be capable of taking optical spectra of nearby exoplanets in reflected light, discovering previously undetected planets, and imaging structure in a large sample of circumstellar disks. It will obtain unique science results on planets down to super-Earth sizes and serve as a technology pathfinder toward an eventual flagship-class mission to find and characterize habitable Earth-like exoplanets. We present the mission/payload design and highlight steps to reduce mission cost/risk relative to previous mission concepts. Key elements are an unobscured telescope aperture, an internal coronagraph with deformable mirrors for precise wavefront control, and an orbit and observatory design chosen for high thermal stability. Exo-C has a similar telescope aperture, orbit, lifetime, and spacecraft bus requirements to the highly successful Kepler mission (which is our cost reference). The needed technology development is on-course for a possible mission start in 2017. This paper summarizes the study final report completed in January 2015. During 2015 NASA will make a decision on its potential development.

  15. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  16. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  17. The Deep Space 1 and Space Technology 4/Champollion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Champollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  18. New Space at Airbus Defence & Space to facilitate science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boithias, Helene; Benchetrit, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    In addition to Airbus legacy activities, where Airbus satellites usually enable challenging science missions such as Venus Express, Mars Express, Rosetta with an historic landing on a comet, Bepi Colombo mission to Mercury and JUICE to orbit around Jupiter moon Ganymede, Swarm studying the Earth magnetic field, Goce to measure the Earth gravitational field and Cryosat to monitor the Earth polar ice, Airbus is now developing a new approach to facilitate next generation missions.After more than 25 years of collaboration with the scientists on space missions, Airbus has demonstrated its capacity to implement highly demanding missions implying a deep understanding of the science mission requirements and their intrinsic constraints such as- a very fierce competition between the scientific communities,- the pursuit of high maturity for the science instrument in order to be selected,- the very strict institutional budget limiting the number of operational missions.As a matter of fact, the combination of these constraints may lead to the cancellation of valuable missions.Based on that and inspired by the New Space trend, Airbus is developing an highly accessible concept called HYPE.The objective of HYPE is to make access to Space much more simple, affordable and efficient.With a standardized approach, the scientist books only the capacities he needs among the resources available on-board, as the HYPE satellites can host a large range of payloads from 1kg up to 60kg.At prices significantly more affordable than those of comparable dedicated satellite, HYPE is by far a very cost-efficient way of bringing science missions to life.After the launch, the scientist enjoys a plug-and-play access to two-way communications with his instrument through a secure high-speed portal available online 24/7.Everything else is taken care of by Airbus: launch services and the associated risk, reliable power supply, setting up and operating the communication channels, respect of space law

  19. The Deep Space 1 and Space Technology 4/Champollion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Champollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  20. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  1. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  2. Target Analysis for the Twinkle Space Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Malena; Tinetti, Giovanna; Zingales, Tiziano; Twinkle Consortium

    2016-10-01

    Twinkle is a dedicated exoplanet space mission planned for launch in 2019 to observe and characterize the atmospheres of planets around F, G, K, and M type stars. By obtaining high-resolution near-infrared transit spectra (0.5 - 4.5 microns), Twinkle will identify molecules of interest within planetary atmospheres. Twinkle will provide critical data for the characterization of individual exoplanets, leading to an improved understanding of planetary systems as a whole. In this study, we provide an analysis of potential targets for the Twinkle space mission, and we find that the spacecraft will be capable of observing a wide range of planet types, including Earths, Super Earths, Sub Neptunes, Large Neptunes, and Hot Jupiters. We discuss the population distribution of observable targets in terms of planet temperature and radius, host star temperature, and observation time necessary to achieve the desired signal-to-noise ratios. We also include sample Twinkle spectra from a simulated data set, as well as an example retrieval using the TauRex program to retrieve molecules in these simulated spectra. We conclude with a discussion of these results and their implications for the Twinkle mission.

  3. Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

  4. Space Mission Analysis and Design. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, W.J.; Wertz, J.R.

    1992-12-31

    The goal of this second edition is siniflar to the first: to allow you to begin with a ``blank sheet of paper`` and design a space mission to meet a set of broad, often poorly defined, objectives. You should be able to define the mission in sufficient detail to identify principal drivers and make a preliminary assessment of overan performance, size, cost, and risk. The emphasis of the book is on low-Earth orbit, unmanned spacecraft. However, we hope that the principles are broad enough to be applicable to other n-dssions as well. We intend the book to be a practical guide, rather than a theoretical treatise. As much as possible, we have provided rules of thumb, empirical formulas, and design algorithms based on past experience. We assume that the reader has a general knowledge of physics, math, and basic engineering, but is not necessarily familiar with any aspect of space technology. This book was written by a group of over 50 senior space engineers. It reflects the insight gained from this practical experience, and suggests how things might be done better in the future. From time to time the views of authors and editors conflict, as must necessarily occur given the broad diversity of experience. We believe it is important to reflect this diversity rather than suppress the opinions of individual authors. Similarly, the level of treatment varies among topics, depending both on the issues each author feels is critical and our overan assessment of the level of detail in each topic that is important to the preliminary mission analysis and design process. The book is appropriate as a textbook for either introductory graduate or advanced undergraduate courses, or as a reference for those already working in space technology.

  5. The Kepler Mission: A Mission to Determine the Frequency of Inner Planets Neat the Habitable Zone of a Wide Range of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Dunham, E. W.; Jenkins, J. M.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The surprising discovery of giant planets in inner orbits around solar-like stars has brought into question our understanding of the development and evolution of planetary systems, including our solar system. To make further progress, it is critical to detect and obtain data on the frequency and characteristics of Earth-class planets. The Kepler Mission is designed to be a quick, low-cost approach to accomplish that objective. Transits by Earth-class planets produce a fractional change in stellar brightness of 5 x 10(exp -5) to 40 x 10(exp -5) lasting for 4 to 16 hours, From the period and depth of the transits, the orbit and size of the planets can be calculated. The proposed instrument is a one-meter aperture photometer with a 12 deg field-of-view (FOV). To obtain the required precision and to avoid interruptions caused by day-night and seasonal cycles, the photometer will be launched into a heliocentric orbit. It will continuously and simultaneously monitor the flux from 80,000 dwarf stars brighter than 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation. The mission tests the hypothesis that the formation of most stars produces Earth-class planets in inner orbits. Based on this assumption and the recent observations that 2% of the stars have giant planets in inner orbits, several types of results are expected from the mission: 1. From transits of Earth-class planets, about 480 planet detections and 60 cases where two or more planets are found in the same system. 2. From transits of giant planets, about 160 detections of inner-orbit planets and 24 detections of outer-orbit planets. 3. From the phase modulation of the reflected light from giant planets, about 1400 planet detections with periods less than a week, albedos for 160 of these giant planets, and densities for seven planets.

  6. The Kepler Mission: A Mission to Determine the Frequency of Inner Planets Near the Habitable Zone of a Wide Range of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Dunham, E. W.; Jenkins, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The surprising discovery of giant planets in inner orbits around solar-like stars has brought into question our understanding of the development and evolution of planetary systems, including our solar system. To make further progress, it is critical to detect and obtain data on the frequency and characteristics of Earth-class planets. The Kepler Mission is designed to be a quick, low-cost approach to accomplish that objective. Transits by Earth-class planets produce a fractional change. in stellar brightness of 5 x 10(exp -5) to 40 x 10(exp -5) lasting for 4 to 16 hours. From the period and depth of the transits, the orbit and size of the planets can be calculated. The proposed instrument is a one-meter aperture photometer with a 12 deg. field-of-view (FOV). To obtain the required precision and to avoid interruptions caused by day-night and seasonal cycles, the photometer will be launched into a heliocentric orbit. It will continuously and simultaneously monitor the flux from 80,000 dwarf stars brighter than 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation. The mission tests the hypothesis that the formation of most stars produces Earth-class planets in inner orbits. Based on this assumption and the recent observations that 2% of the stars have giant planets in inner orbits, several types of results are expected from the mission: 1. From transits of Earth-class planets, about 480 planet detections and 60 cases where two or more planets are found in the same system. 2. From transits of giant planets, about 160 detections of inner-orbit planets and 24 detections of outer-orbit planets. 3. From the phase modulation of the reflected light from giant planets, about 1400 planet detections with periods less than a week, albedos for 160 of these giant planets, and densities for seven planets.

  7. Kepler Mission: a Discovery-Class Mission Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-Like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Caldwell, Douglas; Kondo, Yoji; hide

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 in aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. Extending the mission to six years doubles the expected number of Earth-size planets in the HZ. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  8. The Kepler Mission: A Mission to Determine the Frequency of Inner Planets Near the Habitable Zone of a Wide Range of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Dunham, E. W.; Jenkins, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The surprising discovery of giant planets in inner orbits around solar-like stars has brought into question our understanding of the development and evolution of planetary systems, including our solar system. To make further progress, it is critical to detect and obtain data on the frequency and characteristics of Earth-class planets. The Kepler Mission is designed to be a quick, low-cost approach to accomplish that objective. Transits by Earth-class planets produce a fractional change. in stellar brightness of 5 x 10(exp -5) to 40 x 10(exp -5) lasting for 4 to 16 hours. From the period and depth of the transits, the orbit and size of the planets can be calculated. The proposed instrument is a one-meter aperture photometer with a 12 deg. field-of-view (FOV). To obtain the required precision and to avoid interruptions caused by day-night and seasonal cycles, the photometer will be launched into a heliocentric orbit. It will continuously and simultaneously monitor the flux from 80,000 dwarf stars brighter than 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation. The mission tests the hypothesis that the formation of most stars produces Earth-class planets in inner orbits. Based on this assumption and the recent observations that 2% of the stars have giant planets in inner orbits, several types of results are expected from the mission: 1. From transits of Earth-class planets, about 480 planet detections and 60 cases where two or more planets are found in the same system. 2. From transits of giant planets, about 160 detections of inner-orbit planets and 24 detections of outer-orbit planets. 3. From the phase modulation of the reflected light from giant planets, about 1400 planet detections with periods less than a week, albedos for 160 of these giant planets, and densities for seven planets.

  9. The Kepler Mission: A Mission to Determine the Frequency of Inner Planets Neat the Habitable Zone of a Wide Range of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Dunham, E. W.; Jenkins, J. M.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The surprising discovery of giant planets in inner orbits around solar-like stars has brought into question our understanding of the development and evolution of planetary systems, including our solar system. To make further progress, it is critical to detect and obtain data on the frequency and characteristics of Earth-class planets. The Kepler Mission is designed to be a quick, low-cost approach to accomplish that objective. Transits by Earth-class planets produce a fractional change in stellar brightness of 5 x 10(exp -5) to 40 x 10(exp -5) lasting for 4 to 16 hours, From the period and depth of the transits, the orbit and size of the planets can be calculated. The proposed instrument is a one-meter aperture photometer with a 12 deg field-of-view (FOV). To obtain the required precision and to avoid interruptions caused by day-night and seasonal cycles, the photometer will be launched into a heliocentric orbit. It will continuously and simultaneously monitor the flux from 80,000 dwarf stars brighter than 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation. The mission tests the hypothesis that the formation of most stars produces Earth-class planets in inner orbits. Based on this assumption and the recent observations that 2% of the stars have giant planets in inner orbits, several types of results are expected from the mission: 1. From transits of Earth-class planets, about 480 planet detections and 60 cases where two or more planets are found in the same system. 2. From transits of giant planets, about 160 detections of inner-orbit planets and 24 detections of outer-orbit planets. 3. From the phase modulation of the reflected light from giant planets, about 1400 planet detections with periods less than a week, albedos for 160 of these giant planets, and densities for seven planets.

  10. Kepler Mission: a Discovery-Class Mission Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-Like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Caldwell, Douglas; Kondo, Yoji; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 in aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. Extending the mission to six years doubles the expected number of Earth-size planets in the HZ. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  11. STS-48 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-48 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-42 (LUT-35); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-046. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L018A for the left SRB and 360L018B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the flight was to successfully deploy the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) payload.

  12. STS-40 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-40 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-first flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-41 (LWT-34), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-044. The primary objective of the STS-40 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Getaway Special (GAS) payloads and the Middeck O-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) payload.

  13. STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

  14. STS-49: Space shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-49 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the first flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavor vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-43 (LWT-36); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's designated as BI-050. The lightweight RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated as 360L022A for the left RSRM and 360L022B for the right RSRM.

  15. STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

  16. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  17. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  18. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

  19. STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  20. Positive psychological effects of space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Ihle, Eva C.; Kanas, Nick

    2005-07-01

    Being in space is a powerful experience that can have an enduring, positive impact on the psychological well-being of astronauts and cosmonauts. We sought to examine the frequency, intensity and distribution of such salutogenic experiences among persons who have flown in space, using a questionnaire we developed based on the scientific literature and first person accounts. All participants reported positive effects of being in space, but the degree of change varied widely, and some experiences were particularly common. Three of our five predicted attitude behavior relationships were supported by the data. Response patterns did not vary according to demographics or time in space. Cluster analysis yielded two groups of participants. One group was generally more reactive and also placed a higher priority on perceptions of space than did the other group. We conclude that positive experiences are common among space travelers and seem to cluster into meaningful patterns that may be consequential for Mars missions. We consider the possible selection, training, and monitoring issues raised by our findings.

  1. Positive psychological effects of space missions.

    PubMed

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Ihle, Eva C; Kanas, Nick

    2005-01-01

    Being in space is a powerful experience that can have an enduring, positive impact on the psychological well-being of astronauts and cosmonauts. We sought to examine the frequency, intensity and distribution of such salutogenic experiences among persons who have flown in space, using a questionnaire we developed based on the scientific literature and first person accounts. All participants reported positive effects of being in space, but the degree of change varied widely, and some experiences were particularly common. Three of our five predicted attitude-behavior relationships were supported by the data. Response patterns did not vary according to demographics or time in space. Cluster analysis yielded two groups of participants. One group was generally more reactive and also placed a higher priority on perceptions of space than did the other group. We conclude that positive experiences are common among space travelers and seem to cluster into meaningful patterns that may be consequential for Mars missions. We consider the possible selection, training, and monitoring issues raised by our findings.

  2. Indian Space Science and Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.

    mission life of ˜ 5 years. Based on an expert report, ISRO has announced its plan to launch the first moon mission (Chandrayaan-1), which could be realised with the existing ISRO capabilities of launch vehicle, satellite and related technologies. The mission has specific scientific goals to study the three-dimensional lunar surface geological features and distribution of elemental and mineralogical species to help understand the origin and evolution of lunar system. The mission goal is to place a lunar-craft, weighing about 525 kg and carrying ˜ 55 kg payload mass, at ˜ 100 km polar orbit of moon for high spatial resolution (5-20 km) mapping. The rationale for selecting these and other future space science missions along with the expected scientific results would be discussed.

  3. Secure Telemetry Demonstrator for Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, P.; Fabry, P.; Akuatse, D.; Carrard, D.

    2007-08-01

    End-to-end security is an emerging need of future space missions for protecting satellite's data from unauthorized access. Trend towards this new necessity is sustained by the growing convenience in making use of open systems and Internet connectivity for the control of shared instruments and for data distribution causing on the other hand an increased vulnerability from the security point of view. In response to that need, Syderal SA in Swit- zerland is developing under an ESA contract a demonstrator of a fundamental building block for providing space mission security services on an end-to- end basis. Specifically, this demonstrator implements all necessary functions on the spacecraft side for pro- viding data link layer security over a space link on a point-to-point basis. At the same time, it provides end-to- end security when used in combination with network layer security between end-users (connected through public networks) and payloads. This development is carried out within the frame of ISO/IEC 15408 standard on Evaluation Criteria for IT security [6], [7] and [8] as well as in accordance to ESA ECSS telemetry and telecommand standards [3] and [4].

  4. STS-75 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-75 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fiftieth flight since the return-to-flight, and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-76; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2029, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-078. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-53, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRMs were designated as 36OW53A for the left SRB, and 36OW053B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Tethered Satellite System-1 R (TSS-1R), and the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3). The secondary objectives were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and to meet the requirements of the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility and the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. Appendix A provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used thorughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  5. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  6. STS-42 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-42 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the fourteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-52 (LWT-45); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-048. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L020A for the left SRM and 360Q020B for the right SRM. The primary objective of the STS-42 mission was to complete the objectives of the first International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1). Secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR); Student Experiment 81-09 (Convection in Zero Gravity); Student Experiment 83-02 (Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media); the Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads carried on the GAS Beam Assembly.

  7. Emergency Communications for NASA's Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Lee, Charles H.; Morabito, David D.; Cesarone, Robert J.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to communicate with spacecraft during emergencies is a vital service that NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) provides to all deep space missions. Emergency communications is characterized by low data rates(typically is approximately10 bps) with the spacecraft using either a low-gain antenna (LGA, including omnidirectional antennas) or,in some cases, a medium-gain antenna (MGA). Because of the use of LGAs/MGAs for emergency communications, the transmitted power requirements both on the spacecraft andon the ground are substantially greater than those required for normal operations on the high-gain antenna (HGA) despite the lower data rates. In this paper, we look at currentand future emergency communications capabilities available to NASA's deep-space missions and discuss their limitations in the context of emergency mode operations requirements.These discussions include the use of the DSN 70-m diameter antennas, the use of the 34-m diameter antennas either alone or arrayed both for the uplink (Earth-to-spacecraft) and the downlink (spacecraft-to-Earth), upgrades to the ground transmitters, and spacecraft power requirements both with unitygain (0 dB) LGAs and with antennas with directivity (>0 dB gain, either LGA or MGA, depending on the gain). Also discussed are the requirements for forward-error-correctingcodes for both the uplink and the downlink. In additional, we introduce a methodology for proper selection of a directionalLGA/MGA for emergency communications.

  8. Using Spitzer to Estimate the Kepler False Positive Rate and to Validate Kepler Candidates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, D.; Fressin, F.; Torres, G.

    2012-01-01

    I present the results from an ongoing large campaign with the Spitzer Space Telescope to gather near-infrared photometric measurements of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI). Our goals are (1) to validate the planetary status of these Kepler candidates, (2) to estimate observationally the false positive rate, and (3) to study the atmospheres of confirmed planets through measurements of their secondary eclipses. Our target list spans of wide range of candidate sizes and periods orbiting various spectral type stars. The Spitzer observations provide constraints on the possibility of astrophysical false positives resulting from stellar blends, including eclipsing binaries and hierarchical triples. The number of possible blends per star is estimated using stellar population synthesis models and observational probes of the KOI close environments from direct imaging (e.g. Adaptive Optics, Speckle images, Kepler centroids). Combining all the above information with the shape of the transit lightcurves from the Kepler photometry, we compute odd ratios for the 34 candidates we observed in order to determine their false positive probability. Our results suggest that the Kepler false positive rate in this subset of candidates is low. I finally present a new list of Kepler candidates that we were able to validate using this method. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer, which is operated by JPL/Caltech, under a contract with NASA. Support was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Irreducible Tests for Space Mission Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As missions extend further into space, the modeling and simulation of their every action and instruction becomes critical. The greater the distance between Earth and the spacecraft, the smaller the window for communication becomes. Therefore, through modeling and simulating the planned operations, the most efficient sequence of commands can be sent to the spacecraft. The Space Mission Sequencing Software is being developed as the next generation of sequencing software to ensure the most efficient communication to interplanetary and deep space mission spacecraft. Aside from efficiency, the software also checks to make sure that communication during a specified time is even possible, meaning that there is not a planet or moon preventing reception of a signal from Earth or that two opposing commands are being given simultaneously. In this way, the software not only models the proposed instructions to the spacecraft, but also validates the commands as well.To ensure that all spacecraft communications are sequenced properly, a timeline is used to structure the data. The created timelines are immutable and once data is as-signed to a timeline, it shall never be deleted nor renamed. This is to prevent the need for storing and filing the timelines for use by other programs. Several types of timelines can be created to accommodate different types of communications (activities, measurements, commands, states, events). Each of these timeline types requires specific parameters and all have options for additional parameters if needed. With so many combinations of parameters available, the robustness and stability of the software is a necessity. Therefore a baseline must be established to ensure the full functionality of the software and it is here where the irreducible tests come into use.

  10. Irreducible Tests for Space Mission Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As missions extend further into space, the modeling and simulation of their every action and instruction becomes critical. The greater the distance between Earth and the spacecraft, the smaller the window for communication becomes. Therefore, through modeling and simulating the planned operations, the most efficient sequence of commands can be sent to the spacecraft. The Space Mission Sequencing Software is being developed as the next generation of sequencing software to ensure the most efficient communication to interplanetary and deep space mission spacecraft. Aside from efficiency, the software also checks to make sure that communication during a specified time is even possible, meaning that there is not a planet or moon preventing reception of a signal from Earth or that two opposing commands are being given simultaneously. In this way, the software not only models the proposed instructions to the spacecraft, but also validates the commands as well.To ensure that all spacecraft communications are sequenced properly, a timeline is used to structure the data. The created timelines are immutable and once data is as-signed to a timeline, it shall never be deleted nor renamed. This is to prevent the need for storing and filing the timelines for use by other programs. Several types of timelines can be created to accommodate different types of communications (activities, measurements, commands, states, events). Each of these timeline types requires specific parameters and all have options for additional parameters if needed. With so many combinations of parameters available, the robustness and stability of the software is a necessity. Therefore a baseline must be established to ensure the full functionality of the software and it is here where the irreducible tests come into use.

  11. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  12. STS-76 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-76 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-first flight since the return-to-flight, and the sixteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-77; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2019 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-079. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-46, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO46A for the left SRB, and 360TO46B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and transfer one U.S. Astronaut to the Mir. A single Spacehab module carried science equipment and hardware, Risk Mitigation Experiments (RME's), and Russian Logistics in support of the Phase 1 Program requirements. In addition, the European Space Agency (ESA) Biorack operations were performed. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  13. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  14. Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

  15. Autonomous Navigation for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (determining where the spacecraft is at any given time, controlling its path to achieve desired targets), performed using ground-in- the-loop techniques: (1) Data includes 2-way radiometric (Doppler, range), interferometric (Delta- Differential One-way Range), and optical (images of natural bodies taken by onboard camera) (2) Data received on the ground, processed to determine orbit, commands sent to execute maneuvers to control orbit. A self-contained, onboard, autonomous navigation system can: (1) Eliminate delays due to round-trip light time (2) Eliminate the human factors in ground-based processing (3) Reduce turnaround time from navigation update to minutes, down to seconds (4) React to late-breaking data. At JPL, we have developed the framework and computational elements of an autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav. It was originally developed as one of the technologies for the Deep Space 1 mission, launched in 1998; subsequently used on three other spacecraft, for four different missions. The primary use has been on comet missions to track comets during flybys, and impact one comet.

  16. Space missions orbits around small worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; dos Santos Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Bertachini de Almeida Prado, Antônio Fernando

    2015-08-01

    Space missions under study to visit icy moons and small worlds in our solar system will requires orbits with low-altitude and high inclinations. These orbits provides a better coverage to map the surface and to analyse the gravitational and magnetic fields. In this context, obtain these orbits has become important in planning of these missions. Celestial bodies like Haumea, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, Titan and Triton are among the objects under study study to receive missions in a near future. In order to obtain low-altitude and high inclined orbits for future exploration of these bodies, this work aims to present an analytical study to describe and evaluate gravitational disturbances over a spacecraft's orbit around a minor body. An analytical model for the third-body perturbation is presented. Perturbations due to the non-sphericity of the minor body are considered. The effects on spacecraft's orbital elements are analyzed to provide the the more useful and desired orbits. The dynamic of these orbits is explored by numerical simulations. The results present good accordance with the literature.

  17. Spreadsheets for Analyzing and Optimizing Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael R.; Agrawal, Anil K.; Czikmantory, Akos J.; Weisbin, Charles R.; Hua, Hook; Neff, Jon M.; Cowdin, Mark A.; Lewis, Brian S.; Iroz, Juana; Ross, Rick

    2009-01-01

    XCALIBR (XML Capability Analysis LIBRary) is a set of Extensible Markup Language (XML) database and spreadsheet- based analysis software tools designed to assist in technology-return-on-investment analysis and optimization of technology portfolios pertaining to outer-space missions. XCALIBR is also being examined for use in planning, tracking, and documentation of projects. An XCALIBR database contains information on mission requirements and technological capabilities, which are related by use of an XML taxonomy. XCALIBR incorporates a standardized interface for exporting data and analysis templates to an Excel spreadsheet. Unique features of XCALIBR include the following: It is inherently hierarchical by virtue of its XML basis. The XML taxonomy codifies a comprehensive data structure and data dictionary that includes performance metrics for spacecraft, sensors, and spacecraft systems other than sensors. The taxonomy contains >700 nodes representing all levels, from system through subsystem to individual parts. All entries are searchable and machine readable. There is an intuitive Web-based user interface. The software automatically matches technologies to mission requirements. The software automatically generates, and makes the required entries in, an Excel return-on-investment analysis software tool. The results of an analysis are presented in both tabular and graphical displays.

  18. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  19. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  20. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  1. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: The Proper Motions of Balmer Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankrit, Ravi; Raymond, John C.; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the proper motions of Balmer-dominated filaments in Kepler’s supernova remnant using high resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by about 10 years. We use the improved proper motion measurements and revised values of shock velocities to derive a distance to Kepler of {5.1}-0.7+0.8 kpc. The main shock around the northern rim of the remnant has a typical speed of 1690 km s-1 and is encountering material with densities of about 8 cm-3. We find evidence for the variation of shock properties over small spatial scales, including differences in the driving pressures as the shock wraps around a curved cloud surface. We find that the Balmer filaments ahead of the ejecta knot on the northwest boundary of the remnant are becoming fainter and more diffuse. We also find that the Balmer filaments associated with circumstellar material in the interior regions of the remnant are due to shocks with significantly lower velocities and that the brightness variations among these filaments trace the density distribution of the material, which may have a disk-like geometry. Based on observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  2. STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

  3. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  4. STS-69 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-69 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-sixth flight since the return-to-flight, and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour(OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-72; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-074. The RSRMS, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL048A for the left SRB, and 36OW048B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirments of Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and SPARTAN-201. The secondary objectives were to perform the operation of the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/GAS Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) and the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Development Flight Test 02 (EDFT-02), the Biological Research in Canister (BRIC) payload, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) payload, the Space Tissue Loss, National Institute of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-CS) payload, and the Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  5. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  6. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  7. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. This position is founded upon continued government investment in research and development in space technology, which is clearly reflected in the Space Situational Awareness capabilities and the longevity of these missions. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by unresponsive and relatively expensive launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV). The EELV systems require an average of six to eight months from positioning on the launch table until liftoff. Access to space requires maintaining a robust space transportation capability, founded on a rigorous industrial and technology base. To assure access to space, the United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. Under the Air Force Policy Directive, the Air Force will establish, organize, employ, and sustain space forces necessary to execute the mission and functions assigned including rapid response to the National Command Authorities and the conduct of military operations across the spectrum of conflict. Air Force Space Command executes the majority of spacelift operations for DoD satellites and other government and commercial agencies. The

  8. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  9. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  10. Space Interferometry Mission starlight and metrology subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Lawrence L.; Barrett, Stephanie D.; Calhoon, Stuart J.; Kvamme, Eric T.; Mason, James E.; Oseas, Jeffrey M.; Pryor, Mark; Schaechter, David B.; Stubbs, David M.

    2003-02-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), planned for launch in 2009, will measure the positions of celestial objects to an unprecedented accuracy of 4.0 microarcseconds. In order to achieve this accuracy, which represents an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous astrometric measurements, a ten-meter baseline interferometer will be flown in space. NASA challenges JPL and its industrial partners, Lockheed Martin and TRW, to develop an affordable mission. This challenge will be met using a combination of existing designs and new technology. Performance and affordability must be balanced with a cost-conscious Systems Engineering approach to design and implementation trades. This paper focuses on the Lockheed Martin-led Starlight (STL) and Metrology (MET) subsystems within the main instrument of SIM. Starlight is collected by 35cm diameter telescopes to form fringes on detectors. To achieve the stated accuracy, the position of these white-light fringes must be measured to 10-9 of a wavelength of visible light. The STL Subsystem consists of siderostats, telescopes, fast steering mirrors, roof mirrors, optical delay lines and beam combiners. The MET Subsystem is used to measure very precisely the locations of the siderostats with respect to one another as well as to measure the distance traveled by starlight from the siderostat mirrors and reference corner cubes through the system to a point very close to the detectors inside the beam combiners. The MET subsystem consists of beam launchers, double and triple corner cubes, and a laser distribution system.

  11. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  12. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March as Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Division Director, left, looks on. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  13. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Others seated include Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Director, Sara Seager, Professor of Planetary Science and Physics at MIT, and Alan Boss, an Astrophysicist at the Carnegie Institution at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in Washington, right. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  14. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, is joined by Jon Morse, left, Sara Seager, and Alan Boss while speaking at a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. Space Missions and Information Technology: Some Thoughts and Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation about information technology and its role in space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Where is the IT on Space Missions? 2) Winners of the NASA Software of the Year Award; 3) Space Networking Roadmap; and 4) 10 (7) -Year Vision for IT in Space.

  16. Space Missions and Information Technology: Some Thoughts and Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation about information technology and its role in space missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Where is the IT on Space Missions? 2) Winners of the NASA Software of the Year Award; 3) Space Networking Roadmap; and 4) 10 (7) -Year Vision for IT in Space.

  17. STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

  18. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Sara Seager, Professor of Planetary Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  19. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Alan Boss, an astrophyscist at the Carnegie Institution at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  20. Radiation shielding for future space exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Joel Michael

    Scope and Method of Study. The risk to space crew health and safety posed by exposure to space radiation is regarded as a significant obstacle to future human space exploration. To countermand this risk, engineers and designers in today's aerospace community will require detailed knowledge of a broad range of possible materials suitable for the construction of future spacecraft or planetary surface habitats that provide adequate protection from a harmful space radiation environment. This knowledge base can be supplied by developing an experimental method that provides quantitative information about a candidate material's space radiation shielding efficacy with the understanding that (1) shielding is currently the only practical countermeasure to mitigate the effects of space radiation on human interplanetary missions, (2) any mass of a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat necessarily alters the incident flux of ionizing radiation on it, and (3) the delivery of mass into LEO and beyond is expensive and therefore may benefit from the possible use of novel multifunctional materials that could in principle reduce cost as well as ionizing radiation exposure. The developed method has an experimental component using CR-39 PNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD that exposes candidate space radiation shielding materials of varying composition and depth to a representative sample of the GCR spectrum that includes 1 GeV 1H and 1 GeV/n 16O, 28Si, and 56Fe heavy ion beams at the BNL NSRL. The computer modeling component of the method used the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA to account for secondary neutrons that were not easily measured in the laboratory. Findings and Conclusions. This study developed a method that quantifies the efficacy of a candidate space radiation shielding material relative to the standard of polyethylene using a combination of experimental and computer modeling techniques. The study used established radiation dosimetry techniques to present an empirical

  1. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

  2. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

  3. Mission planning for the Lidar in Space Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    1995-01-01

    Developing a mission planning system for a Space Shuttle mission is a complex procedure. Several months of preparation are required to develop a plan that optimizes science return during the short operations time frame. Further complicating the scenario is the necessity to schedule around crew activities and other payloads which share Orbiter resources. SpaceTec, Inc. developed the mission planning system for the Lidar In Space Technology Experiment, or LITE, which flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-64 in September of 1994. SpaceTec used a combination of off-th-shelf and in-house developed software to analyze various mission scenarios both premission and real-time during the flight. From this analysis, SpaceTec developed a comprehensive mission plan that met the mission objectives.

  4. Space-time dynamics estimation from space mission tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, D.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Many physical parameters that can be estimated from space mission tracking data influence both the translational dynamics and proper time rates of observers. These different proper time rates cause a variability of the time transfer observable beyond that caused by their translational (and rotational) dynamics. With the near-future implementation of transponder laser ranging, these effects will become increasingly important, and will require a re-evaluation of the common data analysis practice of using a priori time ephemerides, which is the goal of this paper. Methods: We develop a framework for the simultaneous estimation of the initial translational state and the initial proper time of an observer, with the goal of facilitating robust tracking data analysis from next-generation space missions carrying highly accurate clocks and tracking equipment. Using our approach, the influence of physical parameters on both translational and time dynamics are considered at the same level in the analysis, and mutual correlations between the signatures of the two are automatically identified. We perform a covariance analysis using our proposed method with simulated laser data from Earth-based stations to both a Mars and Mercury lander. Results: Using four years of tracking data for the Mars lander simulations, we find a difference between our results using the simultaneous space-time dynamics estimation and the classical analysis technique (with an a priori time ephemeris) of around 0.1% in formal errors and correlation coefficients. For a Mercury lander this rises to around 1% for a one-month mission and 10% for a four-year mission. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we find that using an a priori time ephemeris of representative accuracy will result in estimation errors that are orders of magnitude above the formal error when processing highly accurate laser time transfer data.

  5. A Multi-resolution, Multi-epoch Low Radio Frequency Survey of the Kepler K2 Mission Campaign 1 Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Hancock, P. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Intema, H.; Jagannathan, P.; Mooley, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present the first dedicated radio continuum survey of a Kepler K2 mission field, Field 1, covering the North Galactic Cap. The survey is wide field, contemporaneous, multi-epoch, and multi-resolution in nature and was conducted at low radio frequencies between 140 and 200 MHz. The multi-epoch and ultra wide field (but relatively low resolution) part of the survey was provided by 15 nights of observation using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) over a period of approximately a month, contemporaneous with K2 observations of the field. The multi-resolution aspect of the survey was provided by the low resolution (4‧) MWA imaging, complemented by non-contemporaneous but much higher resolution (20″) observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The survey is, therefore, sensitive to the details of radio structures across a wide range of angular scales. Consistent with other recent low radio frequency surveys, no significant radio transients or variables were detected in the survey. The resulting source catalogs consist of 1085 and 1468 detections in the two MWA observation bands (centered at 154 and 185 MHz, respectively) and 7445 detections in the GMRT observation band (centered at 148 MHz), over 314 square degrees. The survey is presented as a significant resource for multi-wavelength investigations of the more than 21,000 target objects in the K2 field. We briefly examine our survey data against K2 target lists for dwarf star types (stellar types M and L) that have been known to produce radio flares.

  6. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  7. STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as

  8. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  9. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  10. STS-37 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-37 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eighth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-37/LWT-30); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-042. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) payload. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Block 2 version, Radiation Monitoring Experiment-3 (RME-3), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA), and the Crew and Equipment Transfer Aids (CETA) payloads.

  11. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  12. STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

  13. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  14. STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  15. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  16. Space Shuttle Mission STS-61: Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission-01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This press kit for the December 1993 flight of Endeavour on Space Shuttle Mission STS-61 includes a general release, cargo bay payloads and activities, in-cabin payloads, and STS-61 crew biographies. This flight will see the first in a series of planned visits to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The first HST servicing mission has three primary objectives: restoring the planned scientific capabilities, restoring reliability of HST systems and validating the HST on-orbit servicing concept. These objectives will be accomplished in a variety of tasks performed by the astronauts in Endeavour's cargo bay. The primary servicing task list is topped by the replacement of the spacecraft's solar arrays. The spherical aberration of the primary mirror will be compensated by the installation of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera-II and the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement. New gyroscopes will also be installed along with fuse plugs and electronic units.

  17. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  18. Active pixel array devices in space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, G. R.; Purll, D. J.; Abbey, A. F.; Short, A.; Watson, D. J.; Wells, A.

    2003-11-01

    The X-ray Telescope for NASA's Swift mission incorporates a Telescope Alignment Monitor (TAM) to measure thermo-elastic misalignments between the telescope and the spacecraft star tracker. A LED in the X-ray focal plane is imaged on to a position-sensitive detector via two paths, directly and after reflection from the star tracker alignment cube. The separation of the two spots of light on the detector is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a centroiding algorithm. The active element of the TAM is a miniature camera supplied by Sira Electro-Optics Ltd, using an Active Pixel Sensor (APS). The camera was based on similar pointing sensors developed on European Space Agency programmes, such as acquisition sensors for optical inter-satellite links and miniaturized star trackers. The paper gives the background to APS-based pointing sensors, describes the Swift TAM system, and presents test results from the instrument development programme.

  19. The COBRAS/SAMBA space mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mandolesi, N.; Bersanelli, M.; Cesarsky, C.; Danese, L.; Efstathiou, G.; Griffin, M.; Lamarre, J.M.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Pace,O.; Puget, J.L.; Raisanen, A.; Smoot, GF.; Tauber, J.; Volonte, S.

    1996-12-04

    COBRAS/SAMBA is an ESA mission designed for extensive, accurate mapping of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation, with angular sensitivity from sub-degree scales up to and overlapping with the COBE-DMR resolution. This will allow a full identification of the primordial density perturbations which grew to form the large-scale structures observed in the present universe. The COBRAS/SAMBA maps will provide powerful tests for the inflationary model and decisive answers on the origin of cosmic structure. A combination of bolometric and radiometric instrumentation will ensure the sensitivity and spectral coverage required for accurate foreground discrimination, A far-Earth orbit has been selected to minimize the unwanted emission from the Earth. The project is currently in the Phase A study within the European Space Agency M3 program.

  20. Deep Space Mission Emergency Mode Downlink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates telecommunications between a deep space mission satellite and the ground station during an emergency mode. Once emergency is detected, spacecraft is put into a safe mode, i.e., antenna to be used for emergency mode communications is pointed towards the sun and use total available power to transmit. There are many parameters affecting communications in this mode and these should be properly balanced to produce desired results. This paper explores the effectiveness of spacecraft antenna gain pattern in the emergency mode with respect to positions of the spacecraft, earth, Sun Earth Probe (SEP) angle at the receiving antenna, and the range of the spacecraft with respect to the ground station. The paper also provides parabolic reflector antenna diameter that should be used for emergency mode as a function of the satellite to sun range in the solar system.

  1. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  2. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.; Willett, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constrants for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing.

  3. Destination Innovation: Episode 1 Kepler: Discovering New Worlds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-06

    Destination Innovation is a new series that explores the research, science and other projects underway at the NASA Ames Research Center. Episode 1 focuses on the Kepler Mission, a space telescope that is revolutionizing our knowledge of planets outside our Solar System.

  4. Deciphering Kepler's Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithwick, Yoram

    The theory for how planetary systems form and achieve their final configuration remains highly uncertain. Until now, theories could only be tested against a single system -- the solar system. The Kepler mission, with its abundance of planetary systems, will likely prove to be a Rosetta stone. However, much remains to be deciphered. To help realize the potential of the Kepler mission, we propose to pursue the complementary tasks of characterizing the properties of the Kepler systems and developing theories to explain these properties: 1) Characterizing Kepler systems. We will characterize these planets using the transit-time-variation (TTV) signatures obtained by the mission. We have recently derived a simple expression for the TTV, and used it to derive the masses and eccentricities of a couple dozen Kepler planets. We will extend that work by applying it to many more planets, and by deriving higher-order TTV effects that will allow us to obtain more accurate measurements by breaking degeneracies. We will also use the TTV signals, as well as other observables, to infer the intrinsic orbital architecture of Kepler planets. This will form the basis for the following study. 2) Assembling Kepler systems. Informed by our above analysis, we will try to uncover how the Kepler planets were assembled onto their current orbits. Our recent work on the resonant repulsion mechanism suggests that the final assembly was shaped by a dissipative process, and we will explore that mechanism further. We will also run simulations to test the conjecture that planetesimals were the dissipative agent responsible for final assembly -- just as they are thought to be responsible for the assembly of the planets in the outer solar system

  5. Kepler-Daten von V2367 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Lienhard

    2015-01-01

    The highly successful Kepler Mission NASA provides the observer of variable stars extensive and very precise photometric data. On the basis of a BAV program star, the Delta Scuti star V2367 Cyg, it will be shown what lessons are included in the Kepler data. Acknowledgement: This paper makes use of data from the Kepler exoplanetarchive.

  6. Spots and the activity of M dwarfs from observations with the Kepler Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrienko, E. S.; Savanov, I. S.

    2017-02-01

    A method for estimating the spottedness parameter S (the spotted area as a fraction of the surface of an active star) proposed earlier is applied to an analysis of activity in 1570 M dwarf stars. The analysis is based on observational material obtained with the Kepler Space Telescope, as well as data on the fluxes of the studied objects in the near and far ultraviolet (NUV and FUV) based on data from the GALEX space telescope. The variations of S with the ages of the stars are studied (four groups with different ages are distinguished), as well as variations of S with their rotational periods. A diagram characterizing the relationship between S and the Rossby number Ro resembles the classical dependence of the X-ray luminosities of active stars on Ro, and a saturation regime is attained at the same value, Ro = 0.13. Moreover, objects with ages of more than 100 million years do not form a single sequence (and stars older than 900 million years possess surface spottednesses of order 1%). The S-Ro dependence obtained could expand possibilities for analyzing the dependence of the X-ray luminosities of active stars on their Rossby numbers, and could also be applied to refine parameters characterizing the action of dynamo mechanisms, such as the dynamo number N D . A comparison of the GALEX NUV and FUV brightness estimates with the activity parameters of the stars suggests that younger, more rapidly rotating active stars are brighter in the NUV, and that the FUV flux grows and the difference of the FUV and NUV brightnesses decreases with increasing spottedness S.

  7. STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  8. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  9. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The 515-41B National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the sixth operational Shuttle flight and fourth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Since this flight was the first to land at Kennedy Space Center, the vehicle was towed directly to the OPF (Orbiter Processing Facility) where preparations for flight STS-41C, scheduled for early April 1984, began immediately. The significant problems that occurred during STS-41B are summarized and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight is given. None of the problems will affect the STS 41C flight. The major objectives of flight STS-41B were to successfully deploy the Westar satellite and the Indonesian Communications Satellite-B2 (PALAPA-B2); to evaluate the MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) support for EVA (Extravehicular Activities); to exercise the MFR (Manipulator Foot Restraint); to demonstrate a closed loop rendezvous; and to operate the M.R (Monodisperse Latex Reactor), the ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) and the IEF (Isoelectric Focusing) in cabin experiments; and to obtain photographs with the Cinema 360 Cameras.

  10. Detection of a large sample of γ Doradus stars from Kepler space photometry and high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Yakushechkin, A.; Debosscher, J.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Pápics, P. I.; de Vries, B. L.; Lombaert, R.; Hrudkova, M.; Frémat, Y.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2013-08-01

    Context. The launches of the MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler missions opened up a new era in asteroseismology, the study of stellar interiors via interpretation of pulsation patterns observed at the surfaces of large groups of stars. These space missions deliver a huge amount of high-quality photometric data suitable to study numerous pulsating stars. Aims: Our ultimate goal is a detection and analysis of an extended sample of γ Dor-type pulsating stars with the aim to search for observational evidence of non-uniform period spacings and rotational splittings of gravity modes in main-sequence stars typically twice as massive as the Sun. This kind of diagnostic can be used to deduce the internal rotation law and to estimate the amount of rotational mixing in the near core regions. Methods: We applied an automated supervised photometric classification method to select a sample of 69 Gamma Doradus (γ Dor) candidate stars. We used an advanced method to extract the Kepler light curves from the pixel data information using custom masks. For 36 of the stars, we obtained high-resolution spectroscopy with the HERMES spectrograph installed at the Mercator telescope. The spectroscopic data are analysed to determine the fundamental parameters like Teff, log g, vsini, and [M/H]. Results: We find that all stars for which spectroscopic estimates of Teff and log g are available fall into the region of the HR diagram, where the γ Dor and δ Sct instability strips overlap. The stars cluster in a 700 K window in effective temperature; log g measurements suggest luminosity class IV-V, i.e. sub-giant or main-sequence stars. From the Kepler photometry, we identify 45 γ Dor-type pulsators, 14 γ Dor/δ Sct hybrids, and 10 stars, which are classified as "possibly γ Dor/δ Sct hybrid pulsators". We find a clear correlation between the spectroscopically derived vsini and the frequencies of independent pulsation modes. Conclusions: We have shown that our photometric classification based on the

  11. Allocation of Army Resources to the Space Mission Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ALLOCATION OF ARMY RESOURCES TO THE SPACE MISSION AREA by LTC Patrick H. Rayermann U.S. Army COL William Pierce...2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Allocation of Army Resources to the Space Mission Area Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Z39.18 ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: LTC Patrick H. Rayermann TITLE: Allocation of Army Resources to the Space Mission Area FORMAT: Strategy Research

  12. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  13. Validating Kepler Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Torres, G.; Marcy, G.; Brown, T.; Gilliland, R.; Gautier, T. N.; Isaacson, H.; Dupree, A.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Science Team has identified more than 700 transit-like signatures in the first 43 days of data returned from the spacecraft (Borucki et al. 2010, arXiv1006.2799B). However, only 7 of these candidates have been confirmed as planets as of late September 2010. The number of true planets in this sample is clearly far larger than 7, but the sample is also 'contaminated' with false-positives, including many from eclipsing binary stars. Separating the wheat from the chaff requires a careful study of individual candidates using both Kepler photometry and spectroscopic and imaging data from the ground. Techniques that the Science Team is developing to address these issues, which include detailed analysis of the photometric data and follow-up observations with ground-based telescopes, will be presented. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Space Mission Utility and Requirements for a Heat Melt Compactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Lee, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Management of waste on long-duration space missions is both a problem and an opportunity. Uncontained or unprocessed waste is a crew health hazard and a habitat storage problem. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) such as NASA has been developing is capable of processing space mission trash and converting it to useful products. The HMC is intended to process space mission trash to achieve a number of objectives including: volume reduction, biological safening and stabilization, water recovery, radiation shielding, and planetary protection. This paper explores the utility of the HMC to future space missions and how this translates into HMC system requirements.

  15. Infrared Space Astrometry Missions ˜ JASMINE Missions ˜

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.

    2012-08-01

    "JASMINE" is an abbreviation of Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration. Three satellites are planned as a series of JASMINE missions, as a step-by-step approach, to overcome technical issues and promote scientific results. These are Nano-JASMINE, Small-JASMINE and (medium-sized) JASMINE. JASMINE missions provide the positions and proper motions of celestial objects. Nano-JASMINE uses a very small nano-satellite and is scheduled to be launched in 2013. Nano-JASMINE will operate in zw-band (˜ 0.8μm) to perform an all sky survey with an accuracy of 3 milli-arcseconds for position and parallaxes. Small-JASMINE will observe towards a region around the Galactic center and other small regions, which include interesting scientific targets, with accuracies of 10 to 50 μ-arcseconds in an infrared Hw-band (˜ 1.7 μm). The target launch date is around 2017. (Medium-sized) JASMINE is an extended mission of Small-JASMINE, which will observe towards almost the whole region of the Galactic bulge with accuracies of ˜ 10 μ arcseconds in Kw-band (˜ 2.0μ m). The target launch date is the first half of the 2020s.

  16. Radiation Protection Materials for Space Missions and Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram

    2007-03-01

    NASA has a new vision for space exploration in the 21st Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is ``the show stopper.'' The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the enabling technology, we have developed methodology and concomitant technology for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Studies have been made for various missions. Current technology is adequate for low earth orbit missions. Revolutionary materials need to be developed for career astronauts and deep space missions. The details of this new technology and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed.

  17. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  18. An Evolvable Space Telescope for NASA’s Next UVOIR Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Breckinridge, James B.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    NASA has sponsored several studies to develop conceptual designs for the next UVOIR Flagship mission, including an Advanced Technology Large Space Telescope (ATLAST). These studies concluded that a space observatory launched in ~2030 will require a telescope aperture of 8 to 16 meters to address the most compelling astrophysical questions raised by missions such as HST, Kepler, TESS, JWST and WFIRST as well as the large ground based telescopes that will coming on-line in the next decade. This telescope will be designed to search for the bio-signatures of life in the universe as well as to study the physics of star formation and to unravel the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies and the intergalactic medium.Unfortunately, telescopes with this aperture will have a long development time with peak funding requirements that will absorb most NASA's Astrophysics budget for many years. To minimize this impact on NASA's budget and to drastically shorten the time between program start and 'first light' for this UVOIR space observatory we have been developing conceptual designs for an Evolvable Space Telescope (EST) that would be assembled on-orbit in three stages, beginning with the launch of a 2 mirror 4 x 12 meter telescope with 2 instruments 5 to 7 years after program start, and then adding mirror segments and instruments ay ~ 5 year intervals to obtain a 12-m filled aperture, and then a 20-m filled aperture telescope. We describe our approach in this presentation.

  19. Excluding False Positive Detections in Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, John J.; Ouvarova, T.; Borucki, W. J.

    2006-09-01

    The NASA Kepler Mission, scheduled for launch in 2008, will search for Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars in or near habitable zones. A high precision photometer will search for planetary transits of parent stars. For a system similar to the Earth-Sun, the decrease in light during a central transit will be one part in 10,000 of the total stellar brightness out of transit. This poster discusses the effort to address a significant concern: the possibility of false positive detections of extra-solar Earth analogs. The concern arises because about 50 per cent of star systems are double or multiple. Further, because the photometer design is constrained by the requirement for high sensitivity to changes of low light levels, the optical resolution is not high compared to other space or terrestrial telescopes. If a relatively nearby Kepler target star happens to contain, within the Kepler PSF, an eclipsing binary system that is reduced in brightness by a factor of 10,000, say because it is 100 times farther away, the photometric profile of an eclipse could mimic a planetary transit. We have therefore developed a program to use archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope to quantify the number density of faint stars in the Kepler field that are in the brightness range that could cause confusion. Since the beginning of the project, the location of the Kepler field itself has been changed to optimize observing efficiency. The work originally included HST/WFPC2 data, and has now been expanded to ACS data as well. We present here a summary of completed and continuing work on faint background systems in the new Kepler field.

  20. Kepler Media Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Debra Fischer, a professor of Astronomy at San Francisco State University, right, makes a comment, as Jim Fanson, William Borucki and Jon Morse, fourth from right, look on during a media briefing on the Kepler mission, Thursday, Feb. 19, 2008, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Kepler, the first mission with the ability to find planets like earth, is scheduled to launch on March 5, 2009 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. aboard a Delta II rocket. At far left is J.D. Harrington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul. E. Alers)

  1. Deep space 1 mission and observation of comet Borrellly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.; Weidner, R.J.; Soderblom, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA's new millennium program (NMP) focuses on testing high-risk, advanced technologies in space with low-cost flights. The objective of the NMP technology validation missions is to enable future science missions. The NMP missions are technology-driven, with the principal requirements coming from the needs of the advanced technologies that form the 'payload'.

  2. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  3. Kepler Diamond Mine of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-16

    This image from NASA Kepler mission shows the telescope full field of view an expansive star-rich patch of sky in the constellations Cygnus and Lyra stretching across 100 square degrees, or the equivalent of two side-by-side dips of the Big Dipper. A cluster of stars, called NGC 6791, and a star with a known planet, called TrES-2, are outlined. The cluster is eight billion years old, and located 13,000 light-years from Earth. It is called an open cluster because its stars are loosely bound and have started to spread out. TrES-2 is a hot Jupiter-like planet known to cross in front of, or transit, its star every 2.5 days. Kepler will hunt for transiting planets that are as small as Earth. Kepler was designed to hunt for planets like Earth. Of the approximately 4.5 million stars in the region pictured here, more than 100,000 were selected as candidates for Kepler's search. The mission will spend the next three-and-a-half years staring at these target stars, looking for periodic dips in brightness. Such dips occur when planets cross in front of their stars from our point of view in the galaxy, partially blocking the starlight. The area in the lower right of the image is brighter because it is closer to the plane of our galaxy and is jam-packed with stars. The area in upper left is farther from the galactic plane and contains fewer stars. The image has been color-coded so that brighter stars appear white, and fainter stars, red. It is a 60-second exposure, taken on April 8, 2009, one day after the spacecraft's dust cover was jettisoned. To achieve the level of precision needed to spot planets as small as Earth, Kepler's images are intentionally blurred slightly. This minimizes the number of saturated stars. Saturation, or "blooming," occurs when the brightest stars overload the individual pixels in the detectors, causing the signal to spill out into nearby pixels. These spills can be seen in the image as fine white lines extending above and below some of the brightest

  4. Kepler Education and Public Outreach: Engaging Students and the Public in the Discovery of Other Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, P.; DeVore, E. K.; Gould, A.; Koch, D.

    2003-12-01

    Are we alone? Are there other worlds like our own? Astronomers are discovering Saturn-size planets, but can smaller planets-new Earths-be found? These are powerful and exciting questions that motivate student learning and public interest in the Kepler search for planets. The Kepler Mission Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program capitalizes on the excitement of discovering Earth-size planets in the habitable zone, stimulating student learning and public interest in astronomy and physics. Kepler is a NASA Discovery mission, selected in December 2001, with launch and the search for extra-solar Earths commencing in 2007. This poster describes the breadth of the Kepler EPO programs, projects and activities. Uniquely, the Kepler Mission plans a technology transfer program that will engage college and university undergraduates directly in ground-based observations of extra-solar giant planets discovered by Kepler. Our goal is to engage underserved students and institutions by providing Kepler data, training, technology and support for observers. Doppler spectroscopy will be used to determine their orbits and predict future transits. Ground-based telescopes operated by students as well as amateur astronomers can be used for these observations even well after the end of the mission. As a space-based research mission, Kepler is being developed and will be operated by a team led by William Borucki, PI, at NASA Ames Research Center. The additional team members include Ball Aerospace, Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Lawrence Hall of Science at UC Berkeley, SETI Institute, Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Space Telescope Science Institute. In addition, scientists from several US, and one Canadian university are participating in the Kepler Mission. The EPO planning engages these scientists to insure the quality as well as the creativity and best application of Kepler results for education and outreach. The Kepler EPO team is led by Alan Gould of the Lawrence Hall of

  5. The Space Time Asymmetry Research Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey; Goebel, John; Buchman, Sasha; Byer, Robert; Sun, Ke-Xun; Lipa, John; Chu-Thielbar, Lisa; Hall, John

    We will use precision molecular iodine stabilized Nd:YAG laser interferometers to search for small deviations from Lorentz Invariance, a cornerstone of relativity and particle physics, and thus our understanding of the Universe. A Lorentz violation would have profound implications for cosmology and particle physics. An improved null result will constrain theories attempting to unite particle physics and gravity. Science Objectives: Measure the absolute anisotropy of the velocity of light to 10-18 (100-fold improvement) Derive the Michelson-Morley coefficient to 10-12 (100-fold improvement) Derive the Kennedy-Thorndyke coefficient to 7x10-10 (400-fold improvement) Derive the coefficients of Lorentz violation in the Standard Model Extension, in the range 7x10-18 to 10-14 (50 to 500-fold improvement) Thermal control, stabilization and uniformitization are great concerns, so new technology has been devised that keeps these parameters within strict specified limits. Thereby STAR is able to operate effectively in all possible orbits. The spacecraft is based on a bus development by NASA Ames Research Center. STAR is designed to fly as a secondary payload on a Delta IV launch vehicle with an ESPA ring into an 850 km circular orbit. It will have a one-year mission and is capable of even longer duration. Other orbit options are possible depending on the launch opportunities available. The STAR project is a partnership between Stanford University, NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  6. Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

  7. Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

  8. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  9. STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

  10. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A broad scoped and systematic study was made of space transfer concepts for human Lunar and Mars missions. Relevant space transportation studies were initiated to lead to further detailed activities in the following study period.

  11. Results from the Deep Space One Technology Validation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, M.; Varghese, P.; Lehman, D.; Livesay, L.

    1999-01-01

    Launched on October 25, 1998, Deep Space 1 (DS1) is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium Program, chartered to flight validate high-risk, new technologies important for future space and Earth science programs.

  12. Studying RR Lyrae Stars with Kepler/K2 (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, C.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) While RR Lyrae stars have long been studied from the ground, the high photometric precision, high cadence, and long observing times offered by the Kepler Space Telescope have yielded exciting discoveries that are revolutionizing our understanding of these stars. In its new K2 mission, Kepler is observing an even larger sample of RR Lyrae stars, promising to provide new insights into them and our Milky Way. In this talk I will present some of the most exciting new discoveries about RR Lyrae stars from the K2 mission with a special focus on what we are learning about the RR Lyrae in the globular cluster M4, our first chance to observe a single population of RR Lyrae with Kepler.

  13. The phase smearing effect in the light curves of contact binaries observed by the Kepler mission and the determination of the parameters of 17 contact systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Debski, B.; Jableka, D.

    2017-04-01

    The Kepler mission observations, taken in the long cadence mode, have a time resolution of about 30 min. In this paper, we investigate how the long cadence binning influences the shapes of the light curves of eclipsing binaries. A simulated light curve of a contact binary exhibiting a flat-bottom secondary minimum was applied for this purpose. We found that the binning caused a change in the variation amplitude and the shape of the minima. We modelled the simulated light curves corresponding to periods between 0.2 and 2 d using a code that does not account for binning and we derived the parameters. It turned out that only when the binary period is close to or longer than about 1.5 d are the solutions derived with such a code accurate. Rigorous modelling of systems with shorter periods requires the use of codes that do account for phase smearing due to long exposure times. We selected a sample of contact binaries observed by the Kepler mission, exhibiting a flat-bottom secondary minimum and showing no intrinsic activity. We solved the light curves of the sample with the most recent (2015) version of the Wilson-Devinney code and we derived the system parameters. The best models that we derived indicate that most of the systems in our sample have a deep contact configuration and that 13 out of 17 required the addition of a third light for good fits. Our results suggest that 13 systems could have tertiary companions.

  14. Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

    2005-01-01

    We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

  15. SPECTROSCOPY OF NEW AND POORLY KNOWN CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Steve B.; Still, Martin; Everett, Mark E.; Seebode, Sally A.; Szkody, Paula; Wood, Matt; Ramsay, Gavin; Cannizzo, John

    2013-04-15

    The NASA Kepler mission has been in science operation since 2009 May and is providing high precision, high cadence light curves of over 150,000 targets. Prior to launch, nine cataclysmic variables were known to lie within Kepler's field of view. We present spectroscopy for seven systems, four of which were newly discovered since launch. All of the stars presented herein have been observed by, or are currently being observed by, the Kepler space telescope. Three historic systems and one new candidate could not be detected at their sky position and two candidates are called into question as to their true identity.

  16. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Covered here is the second phase of a broad scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 1, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from the Stafford Committee Synthesis Report.

  17. Maintenance of Space Station Freedom - The role of mission controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. K.; Davison, M. T.; Langendorf, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    The key roles played in the on-orbit maintenance of Space Station Freedom by mission controllers working in the Space Station Control Center are discussed. Responsibilities ranging from planning and procedure development to training and real-time support are addressed. The organization of the Mission Operations Directorate is described.

  18. Ultrastructure of skeletal muscle capillaries under conditions of space mission.

    PubMed

    Volodina, A V; Pozdnyakov, O M

    2006-06-01

    Capillaries of the rat forepaw skeletal muscles were examined on day 14 of space mission and on days 1 and 14 after landing. Ultrastructural studies revealed apoptosis caused by muscle fiber atrophy and necrobiotic changes eventuating in coagulation or monocellular necrosis of endothelial cells. Formation of capillaries was detected, which can be regarded as an adaptive reaction to injuries caused by space mission factors.

  19. An integrated medical system for long-duration space missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.; Belasco, N.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of the Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurement System (IMBLMS) being developed for onboard medical support of the crew and for medical research during space missions. The system is suitable for use during early extended space flights and for accommodating measurement and diagnostic apparatus as well as treatment and surgical facilities developed for later missions.

  20. Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

  1. Discovery of Kepler-16b

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA’s Kepler mission has turned fiction into fact. A world with a double sunset that was first imagined in "Star Wars" over 30 years ago in a galaxy far, far away has become scientific reality. ...

  2. Kepler's Planetary Systems in Motion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The animation shows an overhead view of the orbital position of the planets in systems with multiple transiting planets discovered by NASA's Kepler mission as of Jan. 2012. All the colored planets ...

  3. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; Pellegrino, Joseph F.; McGuire, Jill; Henry, Ross; DeWeese, Keith; Reed, Benjamin; Aranyos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface sample to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In-space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that utilizes the concept of in-space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  4. Achieving Supportability on Exploration Missions with In-Space Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Charles; McGuire, Jill; Pellegrino, Joseph; Strube, Matthew; Aranyos, Thomas; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-term exploration goals of NASA is manned missions to Mars and other deep space robotic exploration. These missions would include sending astronauts along with scientific equipment to the surface of Mars for extended stay and returning the crew, science data and surface samples, and equipment to Earth. In order to achieve this goal, multiple precursor missions are required that would launch the crew, crew habitats, return vehicles and destination systems into space. Some of these payloads would then rendezvous in space for the trip to Mars, while others would be sent directly to the Martian surface. To support such an ambitious mission architecture, NASA must reduce cost, simplify logistics, reuse and/or repurpose flight hardware, and minimize resources needed for refurbishment. In space servicing is a means to achieving these goals. By designing a mission architecture that relies on the concept of in space servicing (robotic and manned), maximum supportability can be achieved.

  5. Mars rover/sample return mission requirements affecting space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The possible interfaces between the Space Station and the Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission are defined. In order to constrain the scope of the report a series of seven design reference missions divided into three major types were assumed. These missions were defined to span the probable range of Space Station-MRSR interactions. The options were reduced, the MRSR sample handling requirements and baseline assumptions about the MRSR hardware and the key design features and requirements of the Space Station are summarized. Only the aspects of the design reference missions necessary to define the interfaces, hooks and scars, and other provisions on the Space Station are considered. An analysis of each of the three major design reference missions, is reported, presenting conceptual designs of key hardware to be mounted on the Space Station, a definition of weights, interfaces, and required hooks and scars.

  6. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. The individual averages of 24 h urinary albumin were lower in space than on the ground in all astronauts; the difference was significant (mean +/- SD, space and on the ground = 3.41 +/- 0.56 and 4.70 +/- 1.20 mg/24 h, p = 0.017). Dietary protein intake and 24-hour urinary urea were not significantly different between space and on the ground. Urinary albumin excretion is low during space mission compared to data on the ground before or after mission. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity). Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, Palmer

    1990-01-01

    Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

  8. Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.

    1990-01-01

    Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

  9. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  10. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  11. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-09-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  12. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  13. Crewmember and mission control personnel interactions during International Space Station missions.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Nick A; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav P; Boyd, Jennifer E; Gushin, Vadim I; Weiss, Daniel S; Saylor, Stephanie A; Kozerenko, Olga P; Marmar, Charles R

    2007-06-01

    Reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies from space analogue environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station have identified a number of psychosocial issues that can lead to problems during long-duration space missions. Three of these issues (time effects, displacement, leader role) were studied during a series of long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS). As in our previous Mir study, mood and group climate questions from the Profile of Mood States or POMS, the Group Environment Scale or GES, and the Work Environment Scale or WES were completed weekly by 17 ISS crewmembers (15 men, 2 women) in space and 128 American and Russian personnel in mission control. The results did not support the presence of decrements in mood and group cohesion during the 2nd half of the missions or in any specific quarter. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors in both crew and mission control subjects on all six questionnaire subscales tested. Crewmembers related cohesion in their group to the support role of their commander. For mission control personnel, greater cohesion was linked to the support role as well as to the task role of their leader. The findings from our previous study on the Mir Space Station were essentially replicated on board the ISS. The findings suggest a number of countermeasures for future on-orbit missions, some of which may not be relevant for expeditionary missions (e.g., to Mars).

  14. Detection of Solar-like Oscillations, Observational Constraints, and Stellar Models for θ Cyg, the Brightest Star Observed By the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, J. A.; Houdek, G.; Chaplin, W. J.; Smalley, B.; Kurtz, D. W.; Gilliland, R. L.; Mullally, F.; Rowe, J. F.; Bryson, S. T.; Still, M. D.; Antoci, V.; Appourchaux, T.; Basu, S.; Bedding, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Garcia, R. A.; Huber, D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Latham, D. W.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Pápics, P. I.; White, T. R.; Aerts, C.; Ballot, J.; Boyajian, T. S.; Briquet, M.; Bruntt, H.; Buchhave, L. A.; Campante, T. L.; Catanzaro, G.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Davies, G. R.; Doğan, G.; Dragomir, D.; Doyle, A. P.; Elsworth, Y.; Frasca, A.; Gaulme, P.; Gruberbauer, M.; Handberg, R.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Lehmann, H.; Mathias, P.; Mathur, S.; Miglio, A.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Mosser, B.; Murphy, S. J.; Régulo, C.; Ripepi, V.; Salabert, D.; Sousa, S. G.; Stello, D.; Uytterhoeven, K.

    2016-11-01

    θ Cygni is an F3 spectral type magnitude V = 4.48 main-sequence star that was the brightest star observed by the original Kepler spacecraft mission. Short-cadence (58.8 s) photometric data using a custom aperture were first obtained during Quarter 6 (2010 June-September) and subsequently in Quarters 8 and 12-17. We present analyses of solar-like oscillations based on Q6 and Q8 data, identifying angular degree l = 0, 1, and 2 modes with frequencies of 1000-2700 μHz, a large frequency separation of 83.9 ± 0.4 μHz, and maximum oscillation amplitude at frequency ν max = 1829 ± 54 μHz. We also present analyses of new ground-based spectroscopic observations, which, combined with interferometric angular diameter measurements, give T eff = 6697 ± 78 K, radius 1.49 ± 0.03 R ⊙, [Fe/H] = -0.02 ± 0.06 dex, and log g = 4.23 ± 0.03. We calculate stellar models matching these constraints using the Yale Rotating Evolution Code and the Asteroseismic Modeling Portal. The best-fit models have masses of 1.35-1.39 M ⊙ and ages of 1.0-1.6 Gyr. θ Cyg’s T eff and log g place it cooler than the red edge of the γ Doradus instability region established from pre-Kepler ground-based observations, but just at the red edge derived from pulsation modeling. The pulsation models show γ Dor gravity modes driven by the convective blocking mechanism, with frequencies of 1-3 cycles per day (11 to 33 μHz). However, gravity modes were not seen in Kepler data; one signal at 1.776 cycles per day (20.56 μHz) may be attributable to a faint, possibly background, binary.

  15. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  16. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1991-08-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  17. Active Refrigeration for Space Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of cryogen dewars limits mission lifetime, increases sensor mass, and increases program engineering and launch costs on spacebased low-background, precision-pointing instruments, telescopes and interferometers.

  18. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  19. Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

  20. Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

  1. Deep space network: Mission support requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to provide NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory management with a concise summary of information concerning the forecasting of the necessary support and requirements for missions described here, including the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini, and the Dynamics Explorer-1. A brief description of various missions along with specific support requirements for each are given.

  2. Analysis of selected deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. S.; Holman, M. L.; Bilsky, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Task 1 of the NEW MOONS (NASA Evaluation With Models of Optimized Nuclear Spacecraft) study is discussed. Included is an introduction to considerations of launch vehicles, spacecraft, spacecraft subsystems, and scientific objectives associated with precursory unmanned missions to Jupiter and thence out of the ecliptic plane, as well as other missions to Jupiter and other outer planets. Necessity for nuclear power systems is indicated. Trajectories are developed using patched conic and n-body computer techniques.

  3. Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

    1988-08-19

    This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne; Catling, David; Lorenz, Ralph; Magalhães, Julio; Moersch, Jeffrey; Morgan, Paul; Murray, Bruce; Presley-Holloway, Marsha; Yen, Albert; Zent, Aaron; Blaney, Diana

    The Mars Microprobe Mission will be the second of the New Millennium Program's technology development missions to planetary bodies. The mission consists of two penetrators that weigh 2.4 kg each and are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring. The spacecraft arrive at Mars on December 3, 1999. The two identical penetrators will impact the surface at ~190 m/s and penetrate up to 0.6 m. They will land within 1 to 10 km of each other and ~50 km from the Polar Lander on the south polar layered terrain. The primary objective of the mission is to demonstrate technologies that will enable future science missions and, in particular, network science missions. A secondary goal is to acquire science data. A subsurface evolved water experiment and a thermal conductivity experiment will estimate the water content and thermal properties of the regolith. The atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature will be derived using descent deceleration data. Impact accelerometer data will be used to determine the depth of penetration, the hardness of the regolith, and the presence or absence of 10 cm scale layers.

  5. Kepler Confirms First Earth-Sized Planet Outside Our Solar System (Kepler-20) (Reporter Package)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-19

    NASA's Kepler mission has confirmed the discovery of the first Earth-size planets outside our solar system orbiting a sun-like star. Located about 1,000 light years from Earth, the Kepler-20 solar system has five planets orbiting a star similar to the Sun. Kepler-20f, the 4th planet in the system, is about 90 percent the size of Earth. Kepler-20f is slightly larger than Earth,with a radius that is 3 percent larger.

  6. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.

  7. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour rockets off Launch Pad 39B in a perfect, on-time launch. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST on mission STS-97. Endeavour and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  8. Magnetic Materials Suitable for Fission Power Conversion in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial fission reactors use combinations of shielding and distance to protect power conversion components from elevated temperature and radiation. Space mission systems are necessarily compact and must minimize shielding and distance to enhance system level efficiencies. Technology development efforts to support fission power generation scenarios for future space missions include studying the radiation tolerance of component materials. The fundamental principles of material magnetism are reviewed and used to interpret existing material radiation effects data for expected fission power conversion components for target space missions. Suitable materials for the Fission Power System (FPS) Project are available and guidelines are presented for bounding the elevated temperature/radiation tolerance envelope for candidate magnetic materials.

  9. Access to Space for Technology Validation Missions: A Practical Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrell, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Space technology experiments and validation missions share a common dilemma with the aerospace industry in general: the high cost of access to space. Whether the experiment is a so-called university cubesat, a university measurement experiment, or a NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) technology validation mission, the access to space option can be scaled appropriately for the particular constraints. A cubesat might fly as one of a number of cubesats that negotiate a flight on an experimental vehicle. A university experiment might do the same. A NASA flight validation might partner with an Air Force experimental mission.

  10. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- It'''s tail bathed in light, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into space on mission STS-98. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:00 p.m. EST.

  11. Overview of RICOR tactical cryogenic refrigerators for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Livni, Dorit; Regev, Itai; Segal, Victor; Gover, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenic refrigerators represent a significant enabling technology for Earth and Space science enterprises. Many of the space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to enable the use of advanced detectors to explore a wide range of phenomena from space. RICOR refrigerators involved in various space missions are overviewed in this paper, starting in 1994 with "Clementine" Moon mission, till the latest ExoMars mission launched in 2016. RICOR tactical rotary refrigerators have been incorporated in many space instruments, after passing qualification, life time, thermal management testing and flight acceptance. The tactical to space customization framework includes an extensive characterization and qualification test program to validate reliability, the design of thermal interfacing with a detector, vibration export control, efficient heat dissipation in a vacuum environment, robustness, mounting design, compliance with outgassing requirements and strict performance screening. Current RICOR development is focused on dedicated ultra-long-life, highly reliable, space cryogenic refrigerator based on a Pulse Tube design

  12. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2014-08-01

    Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected “The Gravitational Universe” as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

  13. Handbook for Using IP Protocols for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will provide a summary of a handbook developed at GSFC last year that contains concepts and guidelines for using Internet protocols for space missions. It will include topics on: Lessons learned from current Space IP mission. General architectural issues related to use of IP in space. Operational scenarios for common space data transfer applications. Security issues. A general review of protocols applicable for use with IP in space. The presentation will also pose questions on what sort of information would be useful in future versions of the document.

  14. Handbook for Using IP Protocols for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will provide a summary of a handbook developed at GSFC last year that contains concepts and guidelines for using Internet protocols for space missions. It will include topics on: Lessons learned from current Space IP mission. General architectural issues related to use of IP in space. Operational scenarios for common space data transfer applications. Security issues. A general review of protocols applicable for use with IP in space. The presentation will also pose questions on what sort of information would be useful in future versions of the document.

  15. Small planetary missions for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the concept of a small planetary mission that might be described as one which: (1) focuses on a narrow set of discovery-oriented objectives, (2) utilizes largely existing and proven subsystem capabilities, (3) does not tax future launch vehicle capabilities, and (4) is flexible in terms of mission timing such that it can be easily integrated with launch vehicle schedules. Three small planetary mission concepts are presented: a tour of earth-sun Lagrange regions in search of asteroids which might be gravitationally trapped, a network of spacecraft to search beyond Pluto for a tenth planet; and a probe which could be targeted for infrequent long period 'comets of opportunity' or for a multitude of shorter period comets.

  16. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riel, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Space station missions and their requirements are discussed. Analyses of the following four mission categories are summarized: (1) commercial, (2) technology, (3) operation, and (4) science and applications. The requirements determined by the study dictate a very strong need for a manned space station to satisfy the majority of the missions. The station is best located at a 28.5-deg inclination and initially (1992 era) requires a crew of four (three for mission payloads) and a mission power of 25 kW. A space platform in a polar orbit is needed to augment the station capability; it initially would be a 15-kW system, located in a sun-synchronous orbit.

  17. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The major activities and accomplishments of this first Spacelab mission using Orbiter vehicle 102. The significant configuration differences incorporated prior to STS-9 include the first use of the 3 substack fuel cells, the use of 5 cryo tanks sets and the addition of a galley and crew sleep stations. These differences combined with the Spacelab payload resulted in the heaviest landing weight yet flown. The problems that occurred are cited and a problem tracking list of all significant anomalies tht occurred during the mission is included. Scientific results of experiments conducted are highlighted.

  18. Validation and verification of deep-space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    The growing technical complexity of and increased cost pressure on deep-space science missions poses challenges for the system engineering discipline of mission validation and verification. In the wake of several recent mission failures, the aerospace community is still searching for a stable middle ground between the highly-reliable yet cost-prohibitive approaches of the past and cheaper but excessively risky methods of project implementation.

  19. Ares V an Enabling Capability for Future Space Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The potential capability offered by an Ares V launch vehicle completely changes the paradigm for future space astrophysics missions. This presentation examines some details of this capability and its impact on potential missions. A specific case study is presented: implementing a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic UV/Visible telescope at an L2 orbit. Additionally discussed is how to extend the mission life of such a telescope to 30 years or longer.

  20. Official portrait space shuttle mission 41-D crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Official portrait of the space shuttle mission 41-D crew. Seated are (left to right): Richard M. (Mike) Mullane and Steven A. Hawley, mission specialists; Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., crew commander; Michael L. Coats, pilot. Standing are Charles D. Walker, pilot and Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist. Behind them is a model of the early sailing vessel Discovery and a model of the shuttle Discovery.