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Sample records for keratoconjunctivitis

  1. Determinants of Outcomes of Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cecilia S; Lee, Aaron Y; Akileswaran, Lakshmi; Stroman, David; Najafi-Tagol, Kathryn; Kleiboeker, Steve; Chodosh, James; Magaret, Amalia; Wald, Anna; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2018-03-27

    To determine host and pathogen factors predictive of outcomes in a large clinical cohort with keratoconjunctivitis. Retrospective analyses of the clinical and molecular data from a randomized, controlled, masked trial for auricloscene for keratoconjunctivitis (NVC-422 phase IIB, NovaBay; clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01877694). Five hundred participants from United States, India, Brazil, and Sri Lanka with clinical diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis and positive rapid test results for adenovirus. Clinical signs and symptoms and bilateral conjunctival swabs were obtained on days 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed to detect and quantify adenovirus in all samples. Regression models were used to evaluate the association of various variables with keratoconjunctivitis outcomes. Time to resolution of each symptom or sign was assessed by adenoviral species with Cox regression. The difference in composite scores of clinical signs between days 1 and 18, mean visual acuity change between days 1 and 18, and time to resolution of each symptom or sign. Of 500 participants, 390 (78%) showed evidence of adenovirus by PCR. Among adenovirus-positive participants, adenovirus D species was most common (63% of total cases), but a total of 4 species and 21 different types of adenovirus were detected. Adenovirus D was associated with more severe signs and symptoms, a higher rate of subepithelial infiltrate development, and a slower decline in viral load compared with all other adenovirus species. The clinical courses of all patients with non-adenovirus D species infection and adenovirus-negative keratoconjunctivitis were similar. Mean change in visual acuity between days 1 and 18 was a gain of 1.9 letters; worse visual outcome was associated with older age. A substantial proportion of keratoconjunctivitis is not associated with a detectable adenovirus. The clinical course of those with adenovirus D keratoconjunctivitis is significantly more

  2. Caterpillar induced kerato-conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Vissenberg, I; Raus, P; Van Tittelboom, T; Dockx, P; Tassignon, M J

    1993-01-01

    Caterpillar hairs disseminated by the wind can cause serious ocular problems in man. Although this ocular injury was already described in the past century, caterpillar keratoconjunctivitis remains occasional. A recent case of caterpillar keratoconjunctivitis will be described. The conjunctiva as well as the surrounding skin was involved in a huge erythematous rash. Since caterpillar hairs are equipped with barbed hooks, they can easily penetrate soft tissue and thus are very difficult to remove. Recurrent inflammatory reactions lasting for months and resulting in a granulomatous disease, is the rule. The name of keratitis nodosum was given to the granulomatous reaction, secondary to the presence of caterpillar hairs in corneal tissue.

  3. Listerial keratoconjunctivitis and uveitis (silage eye).

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Hidayet Metin

    2010-11-01

    Listerial keratoconjunctivitis or silage eye has increasingly been reported in ruminants in recent years. Although the disease has always been associated with silage feeding, its cause, pathogenesis, and epidemiology remain to be fully disclosed. Clinical courses include signs of keratoconjunctivitis and uveitis and cases recover without any residual lesions after antibiotic therapy. More epidemiologic and clinical as well as experimental studies are required to determine this poorly defined condition so that preventive measures could be established. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inclusion keratoconjunctivitis ('pink eye') in sheep. A proposal for a new name for chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis in sheep and comment on recent clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bogaard, A E

    1984-09-01

    The cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies, which, in 1931, Coles discovered in the corneal cells of sheep suffering from contagious keratoconjunctivitis are now considered to be the reticulate bodies of a chlamydia, Colesiota conjunctivae (synonym: Chlamydia psittaci ovis). According to the postulates of Koch Colesiota conjunctivae is a primary cause of contagious keratoconjunctivitis in sheep, but the clinical picture is complex and is a result of the interaction between the infecting chlamydiae, host resistance factors, and secondary infections caused by opportunistic bacterial ocular pathogens. The clinical syndrome might also be caused by other micro-organisms, such as Mycoplasma conjunctivae or environmental factors, such as dust. However, in these cases, cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies cannot be found in the corneal cells of diseased eyes. To differentiate chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis from keratoconjunctivitis due to other causes, it is proposed to include in the name the laboratory findings typical for this disease: Sheep Inclusion Keratoconjunctivitis. Chlamydia are Gram-negative bacteria, which are obligate intracellular parasites. Prolonged treatment seems to be required to eradicate chlamydiae from a host and antibiotics must reach intracellular levels that are higher than their minimum inhibitory concentration for chlamydiae. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice. This means that for a microbiological cure, diseased sheep must be injected several times a day for a week or more. Because the disease is usually self-limiting and economic losses are considered low, this seems unnecessary and control of the disease by local treatment of secondary infections seems sufficient. However, this will not prevent spreading of the disease in a herd and relapses may occur.

  5. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy for shield ulcers and corneal plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J A; Antonios, S R; Badr, I A

    1995-01-01

    Shield-shaped corneal ulcers and corneal plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with delayed epithelial healing, as well as the risks of infectious keratitis and sterile stromal ulceration. Significant visual impairment due to scarring and irregular astigmatism may result from central corneal lesions. Three eyes with central corneal lesions resulting from vernal keratoconjunctivitis were treated by excimer laser after active vernal keratoconjunctivitis was controlled and inflammatory plaque overlying the shield ulcers was removed. All three eyes showed rapid reepithelialization within 1 week. Spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/30 or better was obtained in each eye. In selected patients, excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of shield-shaped corneal ulcers and plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

  6. Keratoconjunctivitis and Periorbital Edema due to Ecballium elaterium.

    PubMed

    Brouzas, Dimitrios; Oanta, Mariana; Loukianou, Eleni; Moschos, Marillita

    2012-01-01

    To report on a case of keratoconjunctivitis with periorbital edema after accidental exposure to undiluted juice of Ecballium elaterium fruit during the ripening season of this plant. Case report. Keratoconjunctivitis with Descemet's membrane folds and superficial upper corneal well-defined edematous areas were noted after an Ecballium elaterium fruit burst and its juice splashed into the patient's left eye. Prompt administration of antibiotic and steroid eye drops along with per os antihistamine therapy, resulted in quick regression of symptoms. This report demonstrates the toxic effects of this herb to the eye and also that prompt therapy is effective.

  7. Keratoconjunctivitis and Periorbital Edema due to Ecballium elaterium

    PubMed Central

    Brouzas, Dimitrios; Oanta, Mariana; Loukianou, Eleni; Moschos1st, Marillita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report on a case of keratoconjunctivitis with periorbital edema after accidental exposure to undiluted juice of Ecballium elaterium fruit during the ripening season of this plant. Methods Case report. Results Keratoconjunctivitis with Descemet's membrane folds and superficial upper corneal well-defined edematous areas were noted after an Ecballium elaterium fruit burst and its juice splashed into the patient's left eye. Prompt administration of antibiotic and steroid eye drops along with per os antihistamine therapy, resulted in quick regression of symptoms. Conclusions This report demonstrates the toxic effects of this herb to the eye and also that prompt therapy is effective. PMID:22529808

  8. Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis: Therapy with synthetic double-stranded RNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Evans, C.; Meighan, C.W.; Foote, L.J.; Aiello, P.V.; Park, J.H.; Baron, S.

    1968-01-01

    A study was undertaken in rabbits to determine how late in the course of keratoconjunctivitis caused by herpes simplex recovery could be effected by an inducer of interferon. Interferon was induced by means of synthetic double-stranded RNA copolymer formed with polynosinic acid : polycytidilic acid RNA. Therapy promotes recovery from severe and fully established keratoconjunctivitis for which treatment was begun as late as 3 days after virus inoculation. No drug toxicity was observed in the therapeutic dose range. These findings further support the proposed role of the interferon mechanism in the natural recovery of already established viral infection. They also suggest the usefulness of interferon inducers in viral infections of man.

  9. Detection of equine herpesvirus in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and comparison of three sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Steven R; Pusterla, Nicola; Kass, Philip H; Good, Kathryn L; Brault, Stephanie A; Maggs, David J

    2015-09-01

    To determine the role of equine herpesvirus (EHV) in idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis in horses and to determine whether sample collection method affects detection of EHV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Twelve horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six horses without signs of ophthalmic disease. Conjunctival swabs, corneal scrapings, and conjunctival biopsies were collected from 18 horses: 12 clinical cases with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six euthanized controls. In horses with both eyes involved, the samples were taken from the eye judged to be more severely affected. Samples were tested with qPCR for EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4, and EHV-5 DNA. Quantity of EHV DNA and viral replicative activity were compared between the two populations and among the different sampling techniques; relative sensitivities of the sampling techniques were determined. Prevalence of EHV DNA as assessed by qPCR did not differ significantly between control horses and those with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Sampling by conjunctival swab was more likely to yield viral DNA as assessed by qPCR than was conjunctival biopsy. EHV-1 and EHV-4 DNA were not detected in either normal or IKC-affected horses; EHV-2 DNA was detected in two of 12 affected horses but not in normal horses. EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in ophthalmically normal horses and horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Because EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in control horses and in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis, qPCR was not useful for the etiological diagnosis of equine keratoconjunctivitis. Conjunctival swabs were significantly better at obtaining viral DNA samples than conjunctival biopsy in horses in which EHV-5 DNA was found. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis associated with cosmetic soft contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, D J; Sugar, J; Worobec, S

    1983-08-01

    Thirteen patients who wore soft contact lenses were seen with a syndrome consistent with superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis. An irregular epithelial surface, punctate staining with fluorescein, and subepithelial infiltrates were found on the superior aspect of the corneas in association with hyperemia of the superior bulbar conjunctivae. The keratoconjunctivitis persisted as long as 15 months after discontinuation of lens wear. Patch testing with ophthalmic vehicle preservatives, performed on seven patients, failed to show a consistent hypersensitivity to any of the tested compounds, and three patients had used only preservative-free saline for lens care. The etiology of this syndrome is unknown.

  11. Shield ulcers and plaques of the cornea in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J A

    1995-06-01

    Shield-shaped corneal ulcers and plaques are serious sight-threatening corneal manifestations of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. There are few reports describing the management of these patients and their outcomes. The clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of 66 shield ulcers and/or plaques in 55 eyes of 41 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis were studied in this retrospective study of patients treated at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital during an 11-year period. Patients with shield ulcers where the base of the ulcer was transparent usually had rapid re-epithelialization and an excellent visual outcome with medical treatment alone. Patients with shield ulcers and visible plaque formation had delayed re-epithelialization when receiving only medical treatment. Complications of delayed re-epithelialization consisted of bacterial keratitis in five eyes, amblyopia in one eye, and strabismus in one patient. Patients with shield ulcers and/or plaques that do not re-epithelialize once active vernal keratoconjunctivitis has been controlled should have surgical intervention. In this series, a simple scraping of the base and margins of the ulcer with removal of the inflammatory material (i.e., the plaque) resulted in rapid re-epithelialization in 20 of 23 ulcers and plaques. An algorithm for treating shield ulcers and/or plaques is presented based on the experience at this institution.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes associated kerato-conjunctivitis in four horses in Norway.

    PubMed

    Revold, Tobias; Abayneh, Takele; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Kleppe, Signe L; Ropstad, Ernst-Otto; Hellings, Robert A; Sørum, Henning

    2015-11-09

    Listeria monocytogenes has been reported to cause various infectious diseases in both humans and animals. More rarely, ocular infections have been reported. To our knowledge, only two cases of Listeria keratitis have been described in horses. We report kerato-conjunctivitis in four Norwegian horses associated with L. monocytogenes. Clinically, all cases were presented with recurrent unilateral kerato-conjunctivitis. L. monocytogenes bacteria were isolated from swab samples from all cases, and cytology carried out in 3 cases was indicative of L. monocytogenes infection. The present report describes the first known cases in which L. monocytogenes has been isolated from keratitic lesions in horses in Norway. A potential risk factor may be feeding of silage or haylage, but other sources of infection cannot be ruled out. The phenotypic features including antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype of the isolates are described. Laboratory detection of L. monocytogenes demands extra caution since only low numbers of bacteria were detected in the eye-swabs, probably due to the low volume of sample material and the intracellular niche of the bacterium. A general poor response to treatment in all these cases indicates that clinicians should pay extra attention to intensity and duration of treatment if L. monocytogenes is identified in connection with equine kerato-conjunctivitis.

  13. Clinical spectrum of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Tham, Alex Chengyao; Sanjay, Srinivasan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyse the causes, pathogenesis, diagnostic modalities and treatment outcomes of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis (MKC). Microsporidia are increasingly recognized as opportunistic infectious pathogens in immunocompromized patients causing keratoconjunctivitis. In the recent years, there has been a surge in reports of MKC in immunocompetent individuals presenting with stromal keratitis. A detailed literature search was done using Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library, UptoDate and Google Scholar databases with the terms microsporidia, keratitis, conjunctivitis, immunocompromized and immunocompetent. The articles were reviewed to determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, disease course, investigations, treatment modalities and outcome. Thirty-six publications were reviewed, and 151 cases of MKC were included for this review. The main presenting features included pain, redness, photophobia, epiphora and blurring of vision. Duration of the symptoms lasted between 4 days and 18 months. Light microscopy with modified trichrome stain was most commonly used to diagnose MKC. Resolution of symptoms was most commonly achieved with oral albendazole and/or topical fumidil B. Topical fluoroquinolones are also effective as a monotherapy as suggested by recent studies. Clinical outcome was good (visual acuity ≤ 6/12) for the patients who presented earlier (≤1 month) (75% of cases with documented final best-corrected visual acuity). MKC occurs more commonly in immunocompetent individuals than expected and can be diagnosed in earlier stages. From our review, we conclude that the patients, who were diagnosed early and treated, had complete resolution of symptoms with a better clinical outcome. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis with corneal ulcer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Zemba, Mihail; Burcea, Marian; Camburu, Georgiana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the case of a 14-year-old male patient, with bilateral atopic keratoconjunctivitis with corneal ulcer. Methods: The patient complained of bilateral red, itchy eyes, decreased vision, photophobia, difficulty opening the eyelids upon awakening, palpebral edema, excessive tearing, along with yellowish mucous discharge. He had a two-year history of chronic blepharitis and recurrent episodes of conjunctivitis that were treated with Tobramycin and corticosteroid eye drops over the years. The patient's past medical history was significant for atopic dermatitis (AD) and he had a family history for atopy. At the eye exam: his best-corrected visual acuity at the initial presentation was 0.2 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. The following elements were found upon the slit lamp biomicroscopy: Eyelids - +4 palpebral edema (pseudoptosis), Dennie-Morgan fold and Herthoge's sign were both present, tylosis; Conjunctiva - hyperaemia, cobblestone appearance of the tarsal papillae in both eyes, +2 chemosis; Cornea - corneal edema with a 8 mm × 4 mm epithelial defect in the inferior part of the cornea, covered partially by the lied, that stained positive with fluorescein dyes. Using the Evaluation Signs Severity for Allergic Ocular Diseases, a diagnosis of bilateral atopic keratoconjunctivitis with a grade 3 status for the right eye and a grade 2 status, was made. It was decided that he should be administered Olopatadine hydrochloride and Sodium cromoglicate eye drops, along with Moxifloxacin and steroid eye drops. The microbiological exam tested positive for staphylococcus aureus, and, based on the sensitivity pattern, Chloramphenicol eye drops had to be added to the treatment. After 2 weeks, his symptoms diminished, pain was significantly relieved and inflammation was markedly reduced, but the corneal ulcer persisted. In order to prevent corneal perforations, amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) was used to promote epithelialization. Results: A month

  15. Corneal Complications And Visual Impairment In Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Arif, Abdus Salam; Aaqil, Bushra; Siddiqui, Afsheen; Nazneen, Zainab; Farooq, Umer

    2017-01-01

    Vernal kerato-conjunctivitis (VKC) is an infrequent but serious form of allergic conjunctivitis common in warm and humid areas where air is rich in allergens. It affects both eyes asymmetrically. Although VKC is a self-limiting disease but visions affecting corneal complications influence the quality of life in school children. The aim of this study was to list the corneal complications due to this condition and to find out the extent of visual impairment among VKC patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Hospital on 290 eyes of diagnosed cases of VKC. The diagnosis of VKC was made on the basis of history and examination. Visual acuity was recorded using Snellen's notation and visual impairment was classified according to World Health Organization classification for visual disabilities. The mean age of presentation was 10.83±6.13 years. There were 207 (71.4%) males and 83 (28.6%) females. Corneal scarring was observed in 59 (20.3%) eyes. Keratoconus was found to be in 17 (5.9%) eyes. Shield ulcer was detected in 09 (3.1%) eyes while 07 (2.4%) eyes had corneal neovascularization. Majority of the patients with visual loss had corneal scarring and the complication that led to severe visual loss in most of the eyes was Keratoconus. Vernal kerato-conjunctivitis in the presence of corneal complications is a sight threatening disease and can lead to severe visual impairment.

  16. Sjögren-Like Lacrimal Keratoconjunctivitis in Germ-Free Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changjun; Zaheer, Mahira; Bian, Fang; Quach, Darin; Swennes, Alton G.; Britton, Robert A.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2018-01-01

    Commensal bacteria play an important role in the formation of the immune system but their role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis at the ocular surface and lacrimal gland remains poorly understood. This study investigated the eye and lacrimal gland phenotype in germ-free and conventional C57BL/6J mice. Our results showed that germ-free mice had significantly greater corneal barrier disruption, greater goblet cell loss, and greater total inflammatory cell and CD4+ T cell infiltration within the lacrimal gland compared to the conventionally housed group. A greater frequency of CD4+IFN-γ+ cells was observed in germ-free lacrimal glands. Females exhibited a more severe phenotype compared to males. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells isolated from female germ-free mice into RAG1KO mice transferred Sjögren-like lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis. Fecal microbiota transplant from conventional mice reverted dry eye phenotype in germ-free mice and decreased CD4+IFN-γ+ cells to levels similar to conventional C57BL/6J mice. These findings indicate that germ-free mice have a spontaneous lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis similar to that observed in Sjögren syndrome patients and demonstrate that commensal bacteria function in maintaining immune homeostasis on the ocular surface. Thus, manipulation of intestinal commensal bacteria has the potential to become a novel therapeutic approach to treat Sjögren Syndrome. PMID:29438346

  17. Supra-tarsal injection of dexamethasone in the treatment of patients with refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lisanework, Mulu

    2003-01-01

    The response to supratarsal injection of dexamethasone in severe refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis was studied in 20 patients (14 males and 6 females) at the ophthalmology department of Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa in 1997. Majority of the patients were in the age range of 11-20 years with mean age of 14.6 years. Although all patients experienced relief of symptoms in the first 2 days of dexamethasone injection, symptoms recurred in the majority 16 (80%) of the patients. Cobble stone papillae and limbal signs disappeared in 2 (11%) and 5 (38%) of the patients respectively. Resolution of limbal form of the disease is more dramatic when compared to the palpebral form. This study showed that supratarsal injection of dexamethasone in severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis is effective in few, partially effective in some and ineffective in many of our patients. Further studies, particularly a randomized controlled trial is recommended prior to utilization of this new therapeutic modality as a standard form of treatment in Ethiopian patients.

  18. Corneal complications of vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Abraham

    2015-10-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe bilateral chronic allergic inflammatory disease of the ocular surface. In most of the cases, the disease is limited to the tarsal conjunctiva and to the limbus. However, in the more severe cases, the cornea may be involved, leading to potentially sight threatening complications. Prompt recognition of these complications is crucial in the management of VKC, which is one of the most severe ocular allergic diseases. A vicious cycle of inflammation occurs as a result of a set of reciprocal interactions between the conjunctiva and the cornea, which results in damage to the corneal epithelium and corneal stoma, and to the formation of shield ulcers and plaques, infectious keratitis, keratoconus, scarring, and limbal stem cell deficiency. These corneal complications can cause permanent decrease or loss of vision in children suffering from VKC. Corneal complications in VKC are the result of an on-going process of uncontrolled inflammation. Proper recognition of the corneal complications in VKC is crucial, as most of these can be managed or prevented by a combination of medical and surgical measures.

  19. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreak at a tertiary referral eye care clinic.

    PubMed

    Montessori, V; Scharf, S; Holland, S; Werker, D H; Roberts, F J; Bryce, E

    1998-08-01

    An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred at a tertiary referral eye care clinic between late September and mid-November 1995. Before the outbreak, instruments were cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol and handwashing between patients was not routine. Infection control measures were implemented when the outbreak was recognized in mid-October. Control measures included triaging suspected cases to a separate waiting area, cohorting cases to a specific examining room, endorsing the use of gloves and handwashing during examinations of patients, and cleaning instruments with a buffered bleach solution. Thirty-six cases were diagnosed before the infection control measures were taken, and 3 cases were seen after the control measures were taken. Also, numerous secondary cases occurred in the community. No additional cases were diagnosed from DEcember to February 25, 1996. Acquisition of the infection was linked to visits to 4 of 20 physicians in the eye clinic with 61% of cases associated with visits to 1 of those 4 physicians. The use of diagnostic lenses applied directly to the eye was associated with infection (odds ratio = 2.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 10.4), although this did not reach statistical significance. The use of tonometers, ophthalmic solutions, or laser therapy was not associated with infection, and all environmental cultures were negative. This outbreak emphasizes the need for implementation of routine infection control guidelines to prevent nosocomial transmission of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and stresses the need for appropriate disinfection of instruments.

  20. Clinical features of atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Tuft, S J; Kemeny, D M; Dart, J K; Buckley, R J

    1991-02-01

    The clinical spectrum of ocular disease in 37 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) is described. Patients typically had a severe blepharoconjunctivitis. Associated corneal scarring, suppurative keratitis, or keratoconus were the major causes of visual loss. Serum and tear samples from these patients were analyzed to quantify total and specific IgE antibodies. The results were compared as a case control study with results from samples from 55 patients with other forms of atopic disease and 16 nonatopic volunteers. Although the mean values for total and specific IgEs in the serum of patients with atopic disease were markedly higher than the values from nonatopic controls (P less than 0.00002), a difference between the disease groups could not be demonstrated (P greater than 0.05). There were also differences between both the total IgE (P = 0.0002) and pollen-specific IgE (P = 0.015) in tears from patients with atopic disease and nonatopic controls, but not for house dust mite or cat dander-specific IgEs. These results suggest that clinical differences between groups of patients with chronic allergic external eye disease are not associated with specific patterns of IgE production.

  1. Autoimmunity in the pathogenesis and treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Liu, Katy C; Huynh, Kyle; Grubbs, Joseph; Davis, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is a chronic corneal disease that impacts the quality of life of many older adults. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), a form of aqueous-deficient dry eye, is frequently associated with Sjögren's syndrome and mechanisms of autoimmunity. For KCS and other forms of dry eye, current treatments are limited, with many medications providing only symptomatic relief rather than targeting the pathophysiology of disease. Here, we review proposed mechanisms in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-based KCS: genetic susceptibility and disruptions in antigen recognition, immune response, and immune regulation. By understanding the mechanisms of immune dysfunction through basic science and translational research, potential drug targets can be identified. Finally, we discuss current dry eye therapies as well as promising new treatment options and drug therapy targets.

  2. Outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by adenovirus in medical residents.

    PubMed

    Melendez, Carlos Pantoja; Florentino, Margarita Matias; Martinez, Irma Lopez; Lopez, Herlinda Mejia

    2009-01-01

    The present work documents an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis among ophthalmology residents, its influence in the presentation of the community cases, the use of molecular techniques for its diagnosis, and the implementation of successful control measures for its containment. Isolation of the etiologic agent was achieved using cultured African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (VERO). Through molecular tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, the genotype of the isolated virus was identified. The sequences obtained were aligned with data reported in the NCBI GenBank. A scheme of outbreak control measures was designed to enforce correct sanitary measures in the clinic. The statistical program, Epi info 2002, and openepi were used to determine the attack rate. The Excel Microsoft program was used to elaborate the endemic channel. Nine of the ten samples studied were isolated from the culture and identified by Adenovirus-specifc PCR. Sequencing allowed identification of Ad8 as the agent responsible for the outbreak. The attack rate was 24.39 cases per 100. The epidemic curve allowed identification of a disseminated source in the Institute of Ophthalmology "Conde de Valenciana." It was not possible to calculate the incubation periods among the cases. The endemic channel showed the presence of an epidemic keratoconjunctivitis among the patients that had been cared for at the out-patient services of the institute. One outbreak of a disseminated source caused by Ad8 was detected in the institute among its medical residents, probably associated with relaxation of the habitual sanitary measures during an epidemic of hemorrhagic conjunctivitis among the patients cared for at the institute. The proposed scheme to control the outbreak allowed for its containment and controlled the epidemic of associated cases.

  3. Autoimmunity in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Katy C.; Huynh, Kyle; Grubbs, Joseph; Davis, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is a chronic corneal disease that impacts the quality of life of many older adults. keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), a form of aqueous-deficient dry eye, is frequently associated with Sjögren’s syndrome and mechanisms of autoimmunity. For KCS and other forms of dry eye, current treatments are limited, with many medications providing only symptomatic relief rather than targeting the pathophysiology of disease. Here, we review proposed mechanisms in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-based KCS: genetic susceptibility and disruptions in antigen recognition, immune response, and immune regulation. By understanding the mechanisms of immune dysfunction through basic science and translational research, potential drug targets can be identified. Finally, we discuss current dry eye therapies as well as promising new treatment options and drug therapy targets. PMID:24395332

  4. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  5. TH17 cells mediate inflammation in a novel model of spontaneous experimental autoimmune lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis with neural damage.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kitamura, Kazuya; Han, Soo Jung; Kelsall, Brian

    2017-09-27

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects one third of the population worldwide. In prior studies, experimental autoimmune lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis (EALK) induced by desiccating stress in mice has been used as a model of DED. This model is complicated by a requirement for exogenous epithelial cell injury and administration of anticholinergic agents with broad immunologic effects. We sought to develop a novel mouse model of EALK and to demonstrate the responsible pathogenic mechanisms. CD4 + CD45RB high naive T cells with and without CD4 + CD45RB low regulatory T cells were adoptively transferred to C57BL/10 recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2) -/- mice. The eyes, draining lymph nodes, lacrimal glands, and surrounding tissues of mice with and without spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis were evaluated for histopathologic changes, cellular infiltration, and cytokine production in tissues and isolated cells. Furthermore, the integrity of the corneal nerves was evaluated using whole-tissue immunofluorescence imaging. Gene-deficient naive T cells or RAG2-deficient hosts were evaluated to assess the roles of IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-23 in disease pathogenesis. Finally, cytokine levels were determined in the tears of patients with DED. EALK developed spontaneously in C57BL/10 Rag2 -/- mice after adoptive transfer of CD4 + CD45RB high naive T cells and was characterized by infiltration of CD4 + T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. In addition to lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis, mice had damage to the corneal nerve, which connects components of the lacrimal functional unit. Pathogenic T-cell differentiation was dependent on IL-23p40 and controlled by cotransferred CD4 + CD45RB low regulatory T cells. T H 17 rather than T H 1 CD4 + cells were primarily responsible for EALK, even though levels of both IL-17 and IFN-γ were increased in inflammatory tissues, likely because of their ability to drive expression of CXC chemokines within the cornea and the subsequent influx of myeloid cells

  6. Wavelength of ultraviolet radiation that enhances onset of clinical infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopecky, K.E.; Pugh, G.W. Jr.; Hughes, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    Cellulose acetate filtered ultraviolet (uv) radiation and unfiltered uv radiation were used on calves that were subsequently challenge exposed with Moraxella bovis. The onset, course, and severity of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) were studied. Ten calves irradiated with unfiltered uv had the disease 1 to 2 days after M bovis challenge exposure. Ten calves irradiated with filtered uv and 10 calves not irradiated manifested IBK in a similar manner. Evidence is presented to support the contention that the wavelengths (around 270 nm) which are eliminated by cellulose acetate enhance the course of IBK. The effects on IBK of environmentally increasedmore » solar uv radiation is also discussed.« less

  7. Altered cytokine balance in the tear fluid and conjunctiva of patients with Sjögren's syndrome keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Pflugfelder, S C; Jones, D; Ji, Z; Afonso, A; Monroy, D

    1999-09-01

    To compare epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentration in tear fluid and levels of inflammatory cytokines in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with Sjögren's syndrome keratoconjunctivitis sicca with those of normal controls. Schirmer 1 tear testing, corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival impression cytology for quantitation of goblet cell density were performed in ten patients with Sjögren's syndrome-associated keratoconjunctivitis sicca and ten asymptomatic normal controls. ELISA was used to detect the concentration of EGF in tear fluid and interleukin 6 in lysates of conjunctival cytology specimens obtained from all subjects. The levels of RNA transcripts encoding inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1alpha_(IL-1alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha_(TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)] as well as a housekeeping gene (G3PDH) were evaluated in conjunctival cytology specimens taken from all subjects by semiquantitative competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Decreased tear fluid EGF concentration was noted in Sjögren's syndrome patients (mean 0.68 +/- 0.59 ng/ml) compared to controls (mean 1.66 +/- 0.45 ng/ml, P = 0.004). Significantly increased levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 RNA transcripts were found in the conjunctival epithelium of Sjögren's syndrome patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), while the level of G3PDH was similar in both groups. The concentration of IL-6 protein was significantly higher in Sjögren's syndrome conjunctiva samples (P = 0.012). Tear EGF concentration correlated with Schirmer 1 scores (rho 0.767, P < 0.001), corneal fluorescein staining scores (rho -0.562, P = 0.01), conjunctival goblet cell density (rho 0.661, P = 0.001) and the levels of IL-1alpha_and IL-8 RNA in the conjunctival epithelium (rho -0.677 and -0.747, respectively, P = 0.001). Both IL-1alpha_and IL-8 RNA in the conjunctival

  8. Treatment of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis with a combination of povidone-iodine 1.0% and dexamethasone 0.1% drops: a clinical prospective controlled randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kovalyuk, Natalya; Kaiserman, Igor; Mimouni, Michael; Cohen, Ornit; Levartovsky, Shmuel; Sherbany, Hilda; Mandelboim, Michal

    2017-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of combination povidone-iodine (PVP-I) 1.0% eyedrops and dexamethasone 0.1% eyedrops in the treatment of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. In a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial patients with recent adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (diagnosed clinically and confirmed by PCR), we randomly divided into three treatment groups: study group - received PVP-I 1.0% and dexamethasone 0.1%, control 1 group - received dexamethasone 0.1% and control 2 group - received lubricating eyedrops (hypromellose 0.3%). The treatment was administered four times a day in each group. All patients were examined and filled a questionnaire before treatment and on the 3rd, 5th and 7th days of treatment. We included in the study 78 eyes (26 in each group). Adenovirus type 8 was the most common pathogen (83% of cases). The fastest improvement in patients red eyes, discharge, superficial punctate keratitis and pseudomembranes was observed in the study group (p < 0.001). Those patients reached a near complete recovery in 5-7 days, which was also confirmed by reduction in Adenovirus titres by PCR. The slowest improvement was in the control 2 group. Subepithelial infiltrates (SEI) were observed in 44% of the control 1 group, 20% of the control 2 group and in 0% of the study group. The rate of reduction in Adenovirus titres was the slowest in the control 1 group. The combination of PVP-I 1.0% and dexamethasone 0.1% four times a day can reduce symptoms and expedite recovery in epidemic keratoconjunctivitis patients. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Intracellular IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ as the main characteristic of CD4+CD30+ T cells after allergen stimulation in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Magaña, Diana; Aguilar, Gustavo; Linares, Marisela; Ayala-Balboa, Julio; Santacruz, Concepción; Chávez, Raúl; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Garfias, Yonathan; Lascurain, Ricardo; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe form of allergic conjunctivitis, in which inflammatory infiltrates of the conjunctiva are characterized by CD3+ and CD30+ cells. Until today, the functional involvement of CD30+ T cells in VKC was unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the functional characteristics of CD30+ T cells after allergen stimulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with VKC. Methods Seventeen consecutive patients at the Institute of Ophthalmology with active forms of VKC were included. Results After allergen stimulation, we observed the frequency of CD30+ T cells increased compared with non-stimulated cells (p<0.0001). The CD30+ T cells responded to the specific allergen-inducing expression of intracellular interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) compared with the CD30- T cells (p<0.0001). Increased early secretion of soluble CD30 was observed in the supernatant of the cultured cells from patients with keratoconjunctivitis, compared with healthy controls (p=0.03). Blockage with IL-4 significantly diminished CD30 frequency in the allergen-stimulated cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that after allergenic stimulation, CD4+CD30+ cells are the most important source of IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ. IL-4 acts as an activation loop that increases CD30 expression on T cells after specific stimulation. These findings suggest that CD4+CD30+ T cells are effector cells and play a significant role in the immune pathogenic response in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. PMID:25999672

  10. Keratoconjunctivitis infectiosa ovis (KIO), 'pink eye' or 'zere oogjes' (a survey).

    PubMed

    König, C D

    1983-07-01

    The occurrence of keratoconjunctivitis infectiosa ovis (KIO) in the Netherlands was reported by Hofland et al. in 1969 for the first time. At present the disease is well known in the Netherlands. Nevertheless there are still questions about the causative agent and the most effective and easiest therapy. Most authors suppose that the disease is caused by Colesiota conjunctivae, although others mention infections by other chlamydia, Mycoplasma conjunctivae, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, Acholeplasma oculi and a wide variety of bacteria. The diagnosis can be made on the basis of the symptoms and the detection of the agent in conjunctival scrapings. The bacilliform bodies can be found in conjunctival smears in the cytoplasm (Giemsa, Stamp). Many therapies are used topically, parenterally or orally. Locally used eye-ointments must be effective against Colesiota; antimicrobial drugs administered by injection must be effective against the latter and also provide a sufficient cell tissue penetration with excretion into the lacrimal fluids. Injections have proved to be easier to administer, especially in serious outbreaks, but such outbreaks are exceptional (18). Some therapies have been evaluated in small scale experiments (28) as well as in field trials (17).

  11. [New approaches to the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca].

    PubMed

    Safonova, T N; Gladkova, O V; Novikov, I A; Boev, V I; Fedorov, A A

    A new method has been developed for the treatment of severe forms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) that involves the use of an original cyclosporine A (CyA) saturated soft contact lens (SCL) together with preservative-free artificial tears therapy. to evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed treatment for KCS based on the use of medical SCL saturated with 0.05% CyA. The patients (43 men, 60 eyes) with severe KCS were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 21 patients (30 eyes), who received artificial tears and wore 0.05% CyA-saturated silicone-hydrogel SCLs. Group 2 included 22 patients (30 eyes), who wore unsaturated original SCLs and received CyA instillations 2 times daily and, also, artificial tears. Apart from a standard ophthalmic examination, the assessment included Schirmer's test, Norn's test, vital eye stain tests, tear osmometry, laser confocal tomography of the cornea, optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment with meniscometry, impression cytology of the conjunctiva, tear pH measurement, plating of the content of the conjunctival cavity, measurement of the width of the palpebral fissure, and calculation of the ocular surface disease index. Treatment results were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The use of 0.05% CyA-saturated SCLs allows to halve treatment time for patients with severe KSC (down to 1 week - 1 month) as compared to unsaturated original SCLs in combination with 0.05% CyA instillations and to reduce it 5 times as compared to 0.05% CyA instillations only. The new method of KSC treatment that involves the use of medical SCL of original design (ensures even distribution of 0.05% CyA across the ocular surface) and preservative-free artificial tears has demonstrated high therapeutic effectiveness as compared to existing methods.

  12. Clinical and Antiviral Efficacy of an Ophthalmic Formulation of Dexamethasone Povidone-Iodine in a Rabbit Model of Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Christian; Capriotti, Joseph A.; Kumar, Manish; Hobden, Jeffery A.; Foster, Timothy P.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Thompson, Hilary W.; Mahmud, Rashed; Liang, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of a new formulation of topical dexamethasone 0.1%/povidone-iodine 0.4% (FST-100) in reducing clinical symptoms and infectious viral titers in a rabbit model of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Methods. Rabbit corneas were inoculated bilaterally with 2 × 106 plaque-forming-units (PFU) of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) after corneal scarification. Animals were randomized 1:1:1:1 (five rabbits per group) to FST-100, 0.5% cidofovir, tobramycin/dexamethasone (Tobradex; Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX) ophthalmic suspension, and balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon Laboratories). Treatment began 12 hours after viral inoculation and continued for 7 consecutive days. The eyes were clinically scored daily for scleral inflammation (injection), ocular neovascularization, eyelid inflammation (redness), friability of vasculature, inflammatory discharge (pus), and epiphora (excessive tearing). Eye swabs were collected daily before treatment for the duration of the study. Virus was eluted from the swabs and PFU determined by titration on human A549 cells, according to standard procedures. Results. The FST-100 treatment resulted in significantly lower clinical scores (P < 0.05) than did the other treatments. The 0.5% cidofovir exhibited the most ocular toxicity compared with FST-100, tobramycin/dexamethasone, and balanced salt solution treatments. FST-100 and 0.5% cidofovir significantly (P < 0.05) reduced viral titers compared with tobramycin/dexamethasone or balanced salt solution. Conclusions. FST-100 was the most efficacious in minimizing the clinical symptoms of adenovirus infection in rabbit eyes. FST-100 and 0.5% cidofovir were both equally effective in reducing viral titers and decreasing the duration of viral shedding. By providing symptomatic relief in addition to reducing infectious virus titers, FST-100 should be a valuable addition to treatment of epidemic adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. PMID:20702820

  13. Increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Pucci, Neri; Di Grande, Laura; de Libero, Cinzia; Caputo, Roberto; Pantano, Stefano; Mattei, Ivan; Mori, Francesca; de Martino, Maurizio; Novembre, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Hormones may play a role in the pathophysiology of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). An increased incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was recently observed in VKC, although there were no data on thyroid function. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (202 males, 86 females; range 5.5 to 16.9 years) with VKC were evaluated and compared with 188 normal age- and sex-matched subjects. In all subjects, serum concentrations of free T4, TSH, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin, and TSHr autoantibodies were evaluated. In VKC, the family history of thyroid diseases showed no significant differences compared to the controls (9.4 versus 8.6%), whereas the family history of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher (13.2% versus 6.3%; P<0.05). Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 6.6% (versus 1.6% of the controls; P<0.05) and overt hypothyroidism in 0.7% (versus 0.0% of the controls; P = NS). Finally, 5.2% of patients were positive for thyroid autoantibodies, which were significantly higher with respect to the controls (0.5%, P<0.05). In the patients positive for thyroid autoantibodies, 80% showed a sonography pattern that suggested autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid function and autoimmunity abnormalities are frequently present in children with VKC. Children with VKC should be screened for thyroid function and evaluated for thyroid autoimmunity.

  14. Outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by human adenovirus type 8 in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in 2016

    PubMed Central

    mei, Hong; Li, Hong; ga, Dan zeng gong; jie, Guo; chi, Mi ma bu; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Chaofeng

    2017-01-01

    From April to November 2016, two outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred successively at primary and middle schools in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, and a total of 197 clinically diagnosed cases were reported. Real-time PCR analyses confirmed that human adenovirus (HAdV) infection was related to these outbreaks. Further studies involving sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis based on the penton base, hexon, and fiber genes indicated that human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-8), belonging to species D, was responsible for the outbreaks. This is the first report of a HAdV-8 associated EKC outbreak in mainland of China, and the results of this study are expected to provide support for future research into HAdV-8 in China. PMID:28915257

  15. Prevalence, molecular diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma conjunctivae isolated from infectious keratoconjunctivitis affected Lohi sheep maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Waseem; Munir, Rashid; Rana, Mohammad Younus; Ahmad, Rashid; Khan, Mohammad Sarwar; Akbar, Ghulam; Ijaz, Mohammad; Mehmood, Fayyaz

    2013-03-01

    Mycoplasma conjunctivae are etiological agents of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC), commonly known as pink-eye in domestic sheep, goats and other wild animals in many parts of the world. A few young Lohi lambs maintained at Livestock Experiment Station (LES), Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan showed clinical signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis, keratitis, severe lacrimation and varying degree of blindness. During January to March, 2011, a total of 36 ocular swabs were collected from IKC affected animals and were processed for isolation, identification, and characterization of M. conjunctivae. Sixteen (44.44 %) out of 36 samples showed turbidity in PPLO broth. Twelve (75 %) out of 16 broth samples showed colony growth on PPLO agar. All 16 (44.44 %) out of 36 turbid broth samples, 12 (75 %) out of 16 cultured on agar plate samples, and 21 (59 %) out of 36 sheep ocular direct swab samples were found positive for M. conjunctivae through polymerase chain reaction test by using M. conjunctivae-specific primer pair McoF1 and McoR1 and detecting a 750 base pair fragment on agarose gel. Topical application of 0.5 % sterile solution of gentamycin (100 mg/ml) (Gentafar 10 %, FARVET, Netherlands) proved suitable for the treatment of IKC in Lohi lambs as all clinical signs of IKC disappeared after 5 days of treatment with this antibiotic. This is the first report about the prevalence, molecular diagnosis, and treatment of M. conjunctivae in Lohi sheep affected with infectious keratoconjunctivitis at LES, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.

  16. Effect of vernal keratoconjunctivitis on vitreous depth in patients with keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Kaya, Savaş; Çınar, Yasin; Şahin, Muhammed; Türkçü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Murat, Mehmet; Çaça, İhsan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the vitreous depth (VD) of keratoconic eyes in patients with or without vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Eighty eyes of 80 consecutive keratoconus (KC) patients and 40 emmetropic control subjects were enrolled. KC patients were divided into two groups according to accompanying VKC (VKC-KC group and KC group). Mean outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical equivalent (SE), mean keratometry (Km), intraocular pressure (IOP), and axial length (AL) and its components. The eyes with the highest Km were selected for statistical analysis for each participant. There were 50, 30, and 40 patients in the VKC-KC group, KC group, and control group respectively. The KC group and VKC-KC group were similar in BCVA, SE, Km, CCT, ACD, LT, and IOP (p>0.05). The mean ACD was significantly lower in the control group when compared with the KC group and VKC-KC group. The mean AL and VD were significantly higher in VKC-KC group than those of KC group and the control group, whereas similar in KC and control groups (p>0.05). In the current study we showed that VKC-associated KC patients have significantly longer AL and VD when compared with KC patients without VKC. Posterior segment elongation in VKC-KC group may be associated with the type IV collagen destruction due to chronic longstanding inflammation in VKC patients.

  17. Increased Incidence of Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmunity in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Stagi, Stefano; Pucci, Neri; Di Grande, Laura; de Libero, Cinzia; Caputo, Roberto; Pantano, Stefano; Mattei, Ivan; Mori, Francesca; de Martino, Maurizio; Novembre, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Hormones may play a role in the pathophysiology of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). An increased incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was recently observed in VKC, although there were no data on thyroid function. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (202 males, 86 females; range 5.5 to 16.9 years) with VKC were evaluated and compared with 188 normal age- and sex-matched subjects. In all subjects, serum concentrations of free T4, TSH, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin, and TSHr autoantibodies were evaluated. In VKC, the family history of thyroid diseases showed no significant differences compared to the controls (9.4 versus 8.6%), whereas the family history of autoimmune diseases was significantly higher (13.2% versus 6.3%; P<0.05). Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 6.6% (versus 1.6% of the controls; P<0.05) and overt hypothyroidism in 0.7% (versus 0.0% of the controls; P = NS). Finally, 5.2% of patients were positive for thyroid autoantibodies, which were significantly higher with respect to the controls (0.5%, P<0.05). In the patients positive for thyroid autoantibodies, 80% showed a sonography pattern that suggested autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid function and autoimmunity abnormalities are frequently present in children with VKC. Children with VKC should be screened for thyroid function and evaluated for thyroid autoimmunity. PMID:25140177

  18. Infrared ocular thermography in dogs with and without keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Flávia; Dornbusch, Peterson T; Sampaio, Manuella; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Infrared thermography was used to measure temperature differences of the corneal surface between nasal and temporal limbus regions and central cornea of normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), in order to establish temperature values in normal canine eyes and in patients with decreased Schirmer tear tests (STT) values. Dogs investigated were all either patients seen at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Federal University of Paraná or normal dogs that belonged to the same institution. STT were performed in all eyes. A total of 40 control eyes (STT ≥15 mm/min) and 20 eyes with low STT values (STT ≤14 mm/min) were examined. The mean STT value for eyes with normal STT values was 22.9 ± 3.9 mm/min (mean ± standard deviation), and the mean STT value for eyes with low STT value was 7.2 ± 4.8 mm/min. The mean corneal temperature was significantly lower in eyes with low STT values than in control eyes (P < 0.0001). The following significant correlations were found: (i) Schirmer and breakup time (BUT) (P = 0.0001, r = 0.5); (ii) STT values and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.001, r = 0.256); (iii) STT values and age (P = 0.0001, r = -0.448); (iv) age and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.0001, r = -0.281); and (v) BUT and corneal surface temperature (P = 0.0001, r = 0.36). Thermography is a method that can differentiate between eyes with normal and abnormal STT values. In the future, thermography might be incorporated as part of the ophthalmic examination and perhaps become a popular ancillary test for the diagnoses of ocular surface disorders. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Neurturin-deficient mice develop dry eye and keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiu Jun; Li, De-Quan; Farley, William; Luo, Li Hui; Heuckeroth, Robert O; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2003-10-01

    keratoconjunctivitis sicca. This model supports the importance of a functional ocular surface-central nervous system-lacrimal gland sensory-autonomic neural network in maintaining ocular surface health and homeostasis.

  20. Use of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Villatoro, Antonio J.; Fernández, Viviana; Rico-Llanos, Gustavo A.; Becerra, José; Andrades, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dry eye disease (DED) is an immune-mediated multifactorial disease, with high level of prevalence in humans and dogs. Our aim in this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (Ad-MSCs) implanted around the lacrimal glands in 12 dogs (24 eyes) with KCS, which is refractory to current available treatments. Schirmer tear test (STT) and ocular surface integrity were assessed at 0 (before treatment), 3, 6, and 9 months after treatment. Average STT values and all clinical signs showed a statistically significant change (P < 0.001) during the follow-up with reduction in all ocular parameters scored: ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperaemia, and corneal changes, and there were no signs of regression or worsening. Implanted cells were well tolerated and were effective reducing clinical signs of KCS with a sustained effect during the study period. None of the animals showed systemic or local complications during the study. To our knowledge, this is the first time in literature that implantation of allogeneic Ad-MSCs around lacrimal glands has been found as an effective therapeutic alternative to treat dogs with KCS. These results could reinforce a good effective solution to be extrapolated to future studies in human. PMID:25802852

  1. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in school children in Rwanda and its association with socio-economic status: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Smedt, Stefan De; Nkurikiye, John; Fonteyne, Yannick; Hogewoning, Arjan; Esbroeck, Marjan Van; Bacquer, Dirk De; Tuft, Stephen; Gilbert, Clare; Delanghe, Joris; Kestelyn, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.3-4.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load.

  2. Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis in School Children in Rwanda and Its Association with Socio-Economic Status: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smedt, Stefan De; Nkurikiye, John; Fonteyne, Yannick; Hogewoning, Arjan; Esbroeck, Marjan Van; Bacquer, Dirk De; Tuft, Stephen; Gilbert, Clare; Delanghe, Joris; Kestelyn, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.3–4.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load. PMID:21976577

  3. Corneal staining patterns in vernal keratoconjunctivitis: the new VKC-CLEK scoring scale.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Andrea; Lazzarini, Daniela; La Gloria Valerio, Alvise; Scalora, Tania; Fregona, Iva

    2018-01-24

    To propose a new scoring system in the assessment of ocular surface epithelial damage in vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). 25 consecutive patients with VKC (50 eyes) were evaluated using the Quality of Life in children with VKC (QUICK) questionnaire and objective clinical measures: fluorescein and lissamine green staining and cornea confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomography 3). Oxford, Van Bljsterweld and a new system, the VKC-Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus study (CLEK) (VKC-CLEK) scores, were used to evaluate the epithelial damage after staining. Mean Oxford and VKC-CLEK scores were significantly different after fluorescein staining (P<0.001), but significantly correlated (P<0.001; r=0.649). The same data were obtained comparing Van Bljsterweld and VKC-CLEK after lissamine green staining (P<0.001; r=0.760). In patient with limbal VKC, a statistically significant difference was found comparing new VKC-CLEK scores and Oxford or Van Bljsterweld scores (P<0.001), but not in tarsal VKC. A statistically superior concordance was found between QUICK and VKC-CLEK scores compared with standard staining scores values (P<0.001). Oxford and Van Bijsterveld scores are not adequate for the evaluation of the epithelial damage in patients with limbal VKC because the staining patterns considered for these tests do not correspond to the staining patterns in patients with VKC. We propose a new scoring system, VKC-CLEK, to better evaluate both limbal and tarsal epithelial damage in patients with VKC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Microarray-based IgE detection in tears of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Andrea; Borghesan, Franco; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario

    2015-11-01

    A specific allergen sensitization can be demonstrated in approximately half of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients by conventional allergic tests. The measurement of specific IgE in tears using a multiplex allergen microarray may offer advantages to identify local sensitization to a specific allergen. In spring-summer 2011, serum and tears samples were collected from 10 active VKC patients (three females, seven males) and 10 age-matched normal subjects. Skin prick test, symptoms score and full ophthalmological examination were performed. Specific serum and tear IgE were assayed using ImmunoCAP ISAC, a microarray containing 103 components derived from 47 allergens. Normal subjects resulted negative for the presence of specific IgE both in serum and in tears. Of the 10 VKC patients, six resulted positive to specific IgE in serum and/or tears. In three of these six patients, specific IgE was found positive only in tears. Cross-reactivity between specific markers was found in three patients. Grass, tree, mites, animal but also food allergen-specific IgE were found in tears. Conjunctival provocation test performed out of season confirmed the specific local conjunctival reactivity. Multiple specific IgE measurements with single protein allergens using a microarray technique in tear samples are a useful, simple and non-invasive diagnostic tool. ImmunoCAP ISAC detects allergen sensitization at component level and adds important information by defining both cross- and co-sensitization to a large variety of allergen molecules. The presence of specific IgE only in tears of VKC patients reinforces the concept of possible local sensitization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Episcleral cyclosporine A implants for the management of unilateral keratoconjunctivitis sicca in an 8-year-old mare.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Catriona J; Carslake, Harry B; Robin, Matthew; Kent, Rebecca J; Malalana, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old mare was presented for investigation of a 1-month history of blepharospasm, eyelid swelling, corneal edema, and ocular discharge of the right eye (OD). Ophthalmic examination confirmed mucopurulent ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperemia, and a dry, dull appearance to the cornea OD. Schirmer tear test results confirmed an absence of tear production OD (0 mm/min) consistent with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Treatment with topical 0.2% cyclosporine A resulted in an improvement in clinical signs. An episcleral cyclosporine A implant was placed under standing sedation 5 days after initial presentation. Re-examination 9 days post-operatively confirmed that the mare's tear production in the right eye had improved and no further clinical signs had been observed. Topical medications were gradually discontinued. Re-examinations performed up to 12 months postsurgery showed no recurrence of clinical signs and no adverse effects of the implant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a cyclosporine A implant in the management of KCS in a horse and highlights its potential as an effective, alternative therapy in the management of KCS in horses. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Anti-adenoviral effect of anti-HIV agents in vitro in serotypes inducing keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Uchio, Eiichi; Fuchigami, Aki; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Hayashi, Akio; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Aoki, Koki; Ohno, Shigeaki

    2007-09-01

    Around one million people are affected by adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis a year in Japan, and it is recognized as one of the major pathogens of ophthalmological nosocomial infection worldwide. Although cidofovir can be used systemically for immunocompromised patients with disseminated adenoviral infection, no specific anti-adenoviral agent has been established for the treatment of adenoviral infection. We evaluated the anti-adenoviral effect of anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) agents in this study. Five anti-HIV agents (zalcitabine, stavudine, nevirapine, indinavir and amprenavir) were subjected to in vitro evaluation. A549 cells were used for viral cell culture, and adenovirus serotypes 3, 4, 8, 19 and 37 were used. After calculating CC(50) (50% cytotoxic concentration) of each agent by MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) method, we cultured adenovirus with the agents for seven days and quantitatively measured extracted adenoviral DNA by real-time PCR. Among the anti-HIV drugs, zalcitabine and stavudine, both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, showed significant anti-adenoviral activity. In contrast, nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and indinavir and amprenavir, which are both protease inhibitors, were ineffective against adenovirus. These results indicate that zalcitabine and stavudine are possible candidates for the local and systemic treatment of adenoviral infection, and the anti-adenoviral effect might depend on the pharmacological properties of anti-HIV agents. The chemical properties on the clinical safety for systemic and local application need to be determined in order to for these drugs to be accepted for the treatment of adenovirus in clinical settings.

  7. [Significance of laser confocal tomography in diagnosis and monitoring of keratoconjunctivitis sicca].

    PubMed

    Safonova, T N; Gladkova, О V; Boev, V I

    2016-01-01

    Laser confocal tomography of the cornea enables studying ultrathin sections of corneal layers, which provides additional reliable information on tissue changes in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). To assess the significance of laser confocal tomography of the cornea in the diagnosis and monitoring of KCS. We investigated 38 eyes of 30 patients with severe KCS. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (15 patients, 19 eyes) was prescribed cyclosporine А 0.05% instillations 2 times daily, artificial tears, and soft contact lenses. Group 2 (15 patients, 19 eyes) received only instillations of cyclosporine А 0.05% 2 times daily and artificial tears. Besides standard ophthalmic examination, additional tests were performed, namely Schirmer's test, tear break-up time test, fluorescein eye stain test, tear osmolarity test (TearLab System, USA), and Heidelberg retinal tomography of the cornea (HRT, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Germany). HRT findings revealed a 3 times shorter epithelization period and faster recovery of corneal transparency in group 1 as compared to group 2 (1.5 and 4.5 months, respectively). There was also an evident reduction in the number of immune cells in the cornea, most pronounced in group 1 at 3 months, which is indicative of inflammation termination. The use of HRT of the cornea in KCS patients allows real-time cellular level observation of corneal changes, which together with clinical findings and diagnostic tests not only confirms the diagnosis but also determines treatment effectiveness. It has been also found that soft contact lenses accelerate epithelization of the cornea and relieve inflammation of the ocular surface in KCS patients under cyclosporine A 0.05% instillation therapy. Transparency of financial activity: the authors have no financial interest in the submitted materials and methods.

  8. [Local cyclosporin A therapy of nummuli after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis--case report].

    PubMed

    Reinhard, T; Sundmacher, R

    1997-03-01

    Steroid therapy for persistent or recurrent nummular adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis (AK) has little benefit because of the frequent recurrences, and mostly "offers" only serious steroid side effects. Since January 1995, we have treated different patients with nummuli after AK with topical Ciclosporin A (CSA) in an attempt to achieve at least the same symptomatic effect as with steroids, however, without side effects. Here, we report about our experiences in a very severe case with longterm treatment. The patient was sent to our clinic 4 months after AK with confluent nummuli and Descemet folds, more severe in the right than in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.05 in the right and 0.5 in the left eye. Topical CSA 2% 4 times daily was first administered only in the right eye. When after 6 weeks a reduction of nummuli was noted in the right eye, the left eye, which had not improved, was started on the same regime. Therapy was tapered and finally stopped after 12 months in the right and 10 months in the left eye, when only minor changes were left in the corneae. A prompt recurrence of nummuli in both eyes within 4 weeks forced us to resume CSA therapy. At present, both corneae are clear with full vision, and this result is stable with 1 drop of CSA daily. No side effects of CSA therapy have been noted. The disappearance of nummuli with topical CSA and even more the reappearance of nummuli after cessation of CSA therapy show that topical CSA is about as effective as topical steroids in the symptomatic treatment of non-scarred nummuli after KE without the serious steroid side effects. Topical CSA treatment of nummuli after KE is, therefore, a very recommendable alternative for the potentially dangerous steroid therapy. Generally valid data on risk of recurrences, dosage and general effectiveness could only be learned from prospective studies with large numbers of AK patients, which, however, are not available outside epidemics.

  9. Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    González-López, Julio J; López-Alcalde, Jesús; Morcillo Laiz, Rafael; Fernández Buenaga, Roberto; Rebolleda Fernández, Gema

    2012-09-12

    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) is a chronic ocular surface non-infectious inflammatory condition that atopic dermatitis patients may suffer at any time point in the course of their dermatologic disease and is independent of its degree of severity. AKC is usually not self resolving and it poses a higher risk of corneal injuries and severe sequelae. Management of AKC should prevent or treat corneal damage. Although topical corticosteroids remain the standard treatment for patients with AKC, prolonged use may lead to complications. Topical cyclosporine A (CsA) may improve AKC signs and symptoms, and be used as a corticosteroid sparing agent. To determine the efficacy and gather evidence on safety from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical CsA in patients with AKC. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2012), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to July 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en), the IFPMA Clinical Trials Portal (http://clinicaltrials.ifpma.org/no_cache/en/myportal/index.htm) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2012. We also handsearched the following conference proceedings: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, International Council of Opthalmology and Societas

  10. Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis Due to the Novel Hexon-Chimeric-Intermediate 22,37/H8 Human Adenovirus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Konno, Tsunetada; Shimada, Yasushi; Hayashi, Akio; Kaneko, Hisatoshi; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Ohno, Shigeaki; Yamazaki, Shudo

    2008-01-01

    In a 2-month period in 2003, we encountered an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) in Japan. We detected 67 human adenoviruses (HAdVs) by PCR from eye swabs of patients with EKC at five eye clinics in different parts of Japan. Forty-one of the 67 HAdV DNAs from the swabs were identified as HAdV-37 by phylogenetic analysis using a partial hexon gene sequence. When the restriction patterns of these viral genomes were compared with that of the HAdV-37 prototype strain, one isolate showed a never-before-seen restriction pattern. Within 1 year, we encountered three more EKC cases caused by a genetically identical virus: two nosocomial infections at two different university hospitals and a sporadic infection at an eye clinic. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the full-length hexon and fiber genes of these isolates and compared them to those of the 51 prototype strains. Surprisingly, the sequence of the hexon (ɛ determinant) loop-1 and -2 regions showed the highest nucleotide identity with HAdV-22, a rare EKC isolate. However, the nucleotide sequence of the fiber gene was identical to that of the HAdV-8 prototype strain. 22 We propose that this virus is a new hexon-chimeric intermediate HAdV-22,37/H8, and may be an etiological agent of EKC. PMID:18701656

  11. Clinical trials with multiple endpoints can establish a correlation, but not (yet) causality, between dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2018-06-13

    We review clinical evidence of therapeutic efficacy and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) in keratoconjunctivitis sicca, colloquially known as dry eye disease. In doing so, we identify relevant literature to address the following questions: (1) What definitive guidance can clinical evidence offer eye physicians and their patients? (2) What aspects of omega-3 supplementation lack definitive evidence, and how might economic assessments help? A targeted and systematic search strategy based on PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) was designed in this study for refereed clinical trials of omega-3s in dry eye treatment. Four key databases were accessed. Records were filtered through a three-step process using predetermined inclusion criteria. Data was extracted for experimental design, sample population characteristics, content of test and control groups, symptoms and associated opthalmologic conditions, diagnostic measures, patient health outcomes, adverse events, and model time horizon. A total of 219 records were initially identified, of which 21 prospective clinical trials, with a total of 2,973 participants, were admitted for review. Clinical evidence indicates that daily oral supplementation with omega-3s statistically correlates with dry eye treatment in the general symptomatic population as well as induced sub-populations. Reported adverse events are minimal. These trials nonetheless exhibit considerable heterogeneity in clinical endpoints, particularly as a result of the multi-factorial character of dry eye as well as continuous advances in scientific knowledge and technology. Their findings and recommendations appear to be of limited external validity. And causal inferences are needed, but difficult to establish. These have encouraged and sustained wide variations in ophthalmologic practice and normative decision-making. Comparability of omega-3 therapeutic efficacy and effectiveness remains a major challenge

  12. 'Pink eye' or 'zere oogjes' or keratoconjunctivitis infectiosa ovis (KIO). Clinical efficacy of a number of antimicrobial therapies.

    PubMed

    König, C D

    1983-07-01

    In a comparative study the clinical efficacy of five different treatments of keratoconjunctivitis infectiosa ovis (KIO) were tested, namely an intramuscular injection of chloramphenicol base (dosage 15 mg/kg), spiramycin base (Suanovil dosages 10 to 25 mg/kg), oxytetracycline (Engemycine Forte, Terramycin LA, dosages respectively 5 and 10 mg/kg), tiamulin (Dynamutulin, dosage 10 mg/kg) and subcutaneous injection of procaine penicillin G, benzathine penicillin G. and dihydrostreptomycin in the lower eyelid. It appeared from these field trials that spiramycin base, oxytetracycline and tiamulin had a clearly positive effect on the clinical course of 'pink eye', although with tiamulin there was only a temporary effect (high percentage of relapses). In view of the field data the following dosage schemes are, for the time being, advised: spiramycin base (Suanovil), and oxytetracycline (formulation with a good biological availability) both 20 to 30 mg/kg and, if necessary, to be repeated on days 5 and 10 after the first intramuscular injection. The dosage scheme advised for tiamulin is 20-30 mg/kg to be repeated on day 3 and if necessary on days 6 and 9 after the intramuscular injection. In mild cases it is sufficient to rub the eyes with for example oxytetracycline eye-ointment, a few times a day.

  13. Canine oral mucosa evaluation as a potential autograft tissue for the treatment of unresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Rose L; Smith, Jodi D; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Labial mucosa transplantation for the treatment of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) has been reported recently. Postoperative alleviation of clinical signs was noted and assumed to be the result of labial salivary glands providing lubrication to the ocular tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of minor salivary glands (MSG) in the canine oral mucosa. Oral mucosal biopsies were collected from six dogs that died (n = 1) or were euthanized (n = 5) for reasons unrelated to this study. The breeds included were two Doberman Pinschers, one Labrador Retriever, one Portuguese Water Dog, one German Shepherd Dog, and one mixed canine. Three were spayed females, and three were castrated males with the median age of 9 years (range, 6-13 years). Samples were obtained by an 8-mm punch biopsy at the following locations of the canine oral cavity: upper rostral labial mucosa at midline, lower rostral labial mucosa at midline, upper labial mucosa near the commissure, lower labial mucosa near the commissure, and buccal mucosa approximately 1 cm caudal to the commissure. Samples were routinely processed with hematoxylin and eosin, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy. At the selected locations, no MSG or other secreting cells were detected. Minor salivary glands are not associated with alleviation of canine KCS symptoms following labial mucosa transplantation. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism leading to the transient improvement of KCS symptoms in canine patients following labial mucosa transplantation. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. A simplified quantitative method for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca from the Sjögren's Syndrome International Registry.

    PubMed

    Whitcher, John P; Shiboski, Caroline H; Shiboski, Stephen C; Heidenreich, Ana Maria; Kitagawa, Kazuko; Zhang, Shunhua; Hamann, Steffen; Larkin, Genevieve; McNamara, Nancy A; Greenspan, John S; Daniels, Troy E

    2010-03-01

    To describe, apply, and test a new ocular grading system for assessing keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) using lissamine green and fluorescein. Prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study. The National Institutes of Health-funded Sjögren's Syndrome International Registry (called Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance [SICCA]) is developing standardized classification criteria for Sjögren syndrome (SS) and is creating a biospecimen bank for future research. Eight SICCA ophthalmologists developed a new quantitative ocular grading system (SICCA ocular staining score [OSS]), and we analyzed OSS distribution among the SICCA cohort and its association with other phenotypic characteristics of SS. The SICCA cohort includes participants ranging from possibly early SS to advanced disease. Procedures include sequenced unanesthetized Schirmer test, tear break-up time, ocular surface staining, and external eye examination at the slit lamp. Using statistical analyses and proportional Venn diagrams, we examined interrelationships between abnormal OSS (>or=3) and other characteristics of SS (labial salivary gland [LSG] biopsy with focal lymphocytic sialadenitis and focus score >1 positive anti-SS A antibodies, anti-SS B antibodies, or both). Among 1208 participants, we found strong associations between abnormal OSS, positive serologic results, and positive LSG focus scores (P < .0001). Analysis of the overlapping relationships of these 3 measures defined a large group of participants who had KCS without other components of SS, representing a clinical entity distinct from the KCS associated with SS. This new method for assessing KCS will become the means for diagnosing the ocular component of SS in future classification criteria. We find 2 forms of KCS whose causes may differ. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular typing and whole genome next generation sequencing of human adenovirus 8 strains recovered from four 2012 outbreaks of keratoconjunctivitis in New York State.

    PubMed

    Lamson Bs, Daryl M; Kajon, Adriana E; Shudt, Matthew; Quinn, Monica; Newman, Alexandra; Whitehouse, Joan; Greenko, Jane; Adams, Eleanor; St George, Kirsten

    2018-05-11

    Ocular infections caused by human adenovirus (HAdV) are highly contagious. The most severe are usually caused by members of species HAdV-D (types HAdV8, 19, 37, 53, 54, and 56) and can manifest as epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), often resulting in prolonged impairment of vision. During the early months of 2012, EKC outbreaks occurred in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 3 hospitals in New York State (New York and Suffolk Counties). A total of 32 neonates were affected. For 14 of them, HAdV8 was laboratory-confirmed as the causative agent. Nine healthcare workers were also affected with 3 laboratory-confirmed, HAdV-positive EKC. A fourth EKC outbreak was documented among patients attending a private ophthalmology practice in Ulster County involving a total of 35 cases. Epidemiological linkage between the neonatal intensive care unit outbreaks was demonstrated by molecular typing of virus isolates with restriction enzyme analysis and next generation whole genome sequencing. The strain isolated from the ophthalmology clinic was easily distinguishable from the others by restriction enzyme analysis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Use of fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral lens for management of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca secondary to chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Takahide, Kikuchi; Parker, Pablo M.; Wu, Michael; Hwang, William Y.K.; Carpenter, Paul A.; Moravec, Carina; Stehr, Barbara; Martin, Paul J.; Rosenthal, Perry; Forman, Stephen J.; Flowers, Mary E.D.

    2007-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) occurs in 40-60 % of patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. While immunosuppressive therapy is the primary treatment of chronic GVHD, ocular symptoms require measures to improve ocular lubrication, decrease inflammation and maintain mucosal integrity. The liquid corneal bandage provided by a fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral lens (SL) has been effective in mitigating symptoms and resurfacing corneal erosions in patients with KCS related to causes other than chronic GVHD. We report outcomes in 9 consecutive patients referred for SL fitting for chronic GVHD-related severe KCS that was refractory to standard treatments. All patients reported improvement of ocular symptoms and reduced the use of topical lubricants after SL fitting resulting from decrease evaporation. No serious adverse events or infections attributable to the SL occurred. The median Ocular Surface Disease Index improved from 81 (75-100) to 21 (6-52) within 2 weeks after SL fitting and was 12 (2-53) at the time of last contact, 1-23 months (median, 8.0) after SL fitting. Disability related to KCS resolved in 7 patients after SL fitting. The use of SL appears to be safe and effective in patients with severe chronic GVHD-related KCS refractory to conventional therapies. PMID:17697963

  17. Carbachol improves the secretion of transplanted submandibular glands during the latent period after microvascular autologous transplantation for severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Liu, X-J; Li, M; Su, J-Z; Wang, Z; Xie, Z; Yu, G-Y

    2016-10-01

    Poor secretion of transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs) during the latent period may cause duct obstruction and affects the surgical outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and systemic side effects of carbachol on transplanted SMG secretion. Twenty-seven patients who underwent SMG transplantation for severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca were treated with subcutaneous injections of 0.2mg/2ml carbachol at 10 days, 1 month, and/or 3 months after surgery. The effect on secretion was evaluated by Schirmer test and technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) scintigraphy. Systemic side effects were evaluated subjectively using a questionnaire. The results showed that the time to onset varied from 4 to 9min and the duration of action from 50 to 110min after carbachol administration. The secretion at each time point after drug administration was significantly higher than the pre-administration value (all P<0.01). (99m)Tc scintigraphy showed a decline in the dynamic time-activity curve in 26 patients, demonstrating a stimulatory effect on the secretion of carbachol. No serious systemic side effects were experienced. In conclusion, the intermittent administration of carbachol could be an effective and safe strategy to promote secretion from transplanted SMGs in the latent period to prevent duct obstruction. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of different dosage levels and administration routes of tilmicosin in a natural outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Gustavo C; Piscitelli, Hernán G; Perez-Monti, Hernán; Stobbs, Larry A; Zimmermann, Alan G

    2002-01-01

    A total of 120 purebred Hereford cattle were selected from a herd on a ranch in Argentina that had a severe outbreak of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK, pinkeye) caused by Moraxella bovis. The animals were separated into six treatment groups: a nonmedicated control group, a group that received oxytetracycline at 300 mg injected intrapalpebrally, and four groups that received tilmicosin (Micotil, Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN; one group injected intrapalpebrally at 300 mg and three groups injected subcutaneously at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively). Animals were individually observed for resolution of lesions associated with IBK (ocular discharge, blepharospasin, and corneal lesions) every 7 days for 3 weeks. Corneal improvement was significantly better (P< or = .05) for all doses and for either route of injection for tilmicosin compared with no treatment or treatment with oxytetracycline. Tilmicosin given subcutaneously demonstrated a significant (P < or = .05) dose response for overall improvement (one or more score improved, none worsened). Tilmicosin given subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg was significantly more effective than tilmicosin at 2.5 mg/kg, oxytetracycline, and no treatment. Results for tilmicosin at 5 mg/kg were numerically better than no treatment, and tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg was numerically better than the drug given by intrapalpebral injection. Tilmicosin given by subcutaneous injection at 5 or 10 mg/kg was effective against IBK under the conditions of this study.

  19. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients under long-term topical corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Cinar, Yasin; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Sahinoglu-Keskek, Nedime; Sahin, Alparslan; Sahin, Muhammed; Yuksel, Harun; Caca, Ihsan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients who were under long-term topical corticosteroid therapy. Thirty-six eyes of 36 VKC patients with clear cornea and normal videokeratography and 40 eyes of 40 age- and gender-matched normal children were included in the study. Clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients were noted and detailed ophthalmological examination was performed. Visual acuity (VA), spherical equivalent (SE), axial length (AL) and RNFL thickness measurements were compared between the groups. To correct ocular magnification effect on RNFL, we used Littmann's formula. All VKC patients had history of topical corticosteroid use and the mean duration of the topical corticosteroid use was 23.8 ± 9.09 months. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP). VKC group had significantly worse VA, greater SE and AL and thinner mean global, superior and inferior RNFL thickness. There were significant negative correlations between the duration of topical corticosteroid use and the mean global, superior and temporal RNFL thickness in VKC group. After correction of magnification effect, VKC group still had thinner mean global, superior and inferior RNFL thickness, and significant difference between the groups in inferior RNFL thickness did not disappear. Significant RNFL thickness difference between the groups suggests a possible effect of long-term corticosteroid use in VKC patients. Because visual field (VF) analysis in pediatric patients is difficult to perform and IOP may be illusive, RNFL thickness measurements in addition to routine examinations in VKC patients may help clinicians in their practice.

  20. Clinical Severity Classification using Automated Conjunctival Hyperemia Analysis Software in Patients with Superior Limbic Keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Junki; Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Sumi, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Fukushima, Atsuki; Yamagami, Satoru

    2018-06-01

    Digitization of clinical observation is necessary for assessing the severity of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). This study aimed to use a novel quantitative marker to examine hyperemia in patients with SLK. We included six eyes of six patients with both dry eye disease and SLK (SLK group) and eight eyes of eight patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS group). We simultaneously obtained the objective finding scores by using slit-lamp examination and calculated the superior hyperemia index (SHI) with an automated conjunctival hyperemia analysis software by using photographs of the anterior segment. Three objective finding scores, including papillary formation of the superior palpebral conjunctiva, superior limbal hyperemia and swelling, and superior corneal epitheliopathy, were determined. The SHI was calculated as the superior/temporal ratio of bulbar conjunctival hyperemia by using the software. Fisher's exact test was used to compare a high SHI (≥1.07) ratio between the SLK and SS groups. P-Values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The SHI (mean ± standard deviation) in the SLK and SS groups was 1.19 ± 0.50 and 0.69 ± 0.24, respectively. The number of patients with a high SHI (≥1.07) was significantly higher in the SLK group than in the SS group (p < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the SHI in the differential diagnosis between SS and SLK were 66.7% and 87.5%, respectively. An analysis of the association between the objective finding scores and SHI showed that the SHI had a tendency to indicate the severity of superior limbal hyperemia and swelling score in the SLK group. The SHI calculated using the automated conjunctival hyperemia analysis software could successfully quantify superior bulbar conjunctival hyperemia and may be a useful tool for the differential diagnosis between SS and SLK and for the quantitative follow-up of patients with SLK.

  1. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of cevimeline in Sjögren's syndrome patients with xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Dianne; Condemi, John J; Fife, Rose; Gluck, Oscar; Cohen, Stanley; Dalgin, Paul

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 2 dosages of cevimeline for the treatment of xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. A 12-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo, 15 mg of cevimeline 3 times daily, or 30 mg of cevimeline 3 times daily. Patients were evaluated at baseline and throughout the study for their global assessment of dryness (mouth, eyes, overall) as well as their subjective assessment of the specific symptoms of dry mouth and dry eyes. Total saliva and tear flow also were measured. Patients taking 30 mg of cevimeline 3 times daily had statistically significant improvements in their subjective global assessment of dry eyes (P = 0.0453), dry mouth (P = 0.0004), and increased salivary flow (P = 0.007). Patients receiving the 30-mg dosage also showed greater objective improvement (increased salivary and lacrimal flow rates, as measured by Schirmer's test) than did patients receiving placebo. Frequently reported adverse events included headache, increased sweating, abdominal pain, and nausea. Treatment with cevimeline at a dosage of 30 mg 3 times daily resulted in substantive improvement by increasing the rate of saliva and tear flow in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, as well as improving subjective symptoms of dry mouth, dry eyes, and overall dryness. The 15-mg dosage relieved some symptoms, and both dosages were well tolerated.

  2. Evaluation of conjunctival inflammatory status by confocal scanning laser microscopy and conjunctival brush cytology in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC)

    PubMed Central

    Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Okada, Naoko; Kojima, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ibrahim, Osama M.A.; Adan, Enrique Sato; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Katakami, Chikako; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the status of the conjunctival inflammation in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) using laser scanning confocal microscopy and compare the relevant findings with conjunctival brush cytology in a prospective controlled study. Methods Twenty eyes from 20 AKC patients as well as 16 eyes from 16 age and sex matched normal subjects were studied. The subjects underwent tear film break-up time (BUT), fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining of the ocular surface, conjunctival confocal microscopy, Schirmer test, and brush cytology. Brush cytology specimens and in vivo confocal microscopy scans underwent evaluation for inflammatory cell densities. Results Brush cytology specimens and in vivo confocal microscopy scans from AKC patients revealed significantly higher numbers of inflammatory cells (p<0.05). Conjunctival inflammatory cell density showed a negative correlation with tear stability and a positive correlation with vital staining scores and conjunctival injection grades. The extent of conjunctival inflammation assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy showed a strong positive linear correlation with the inflammation status evaluated by brush cytology. The corneal inflammatory cell density assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy showed a significant negative correlation with tear stability and a positive linear correlation with corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions Confocal scanning laser microscopy is an efficient, noninvasive, and a promising tool for the quantitative assessment of conjunctival inflammation, a parameter of this new technology which correlated well with subjective and objective ocular surface clinical findings. PMID:19693288

  3. Assessment of tear film osmolarity using the TearLab™ osmometer in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Lionel; Park, Shin Ae; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J; Attar, Mayssa; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab ™ osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements. Dogs with KCS were evaluated before and after 5 months' topical twice-daily therapy with 2% cyclosporine. Mean ± SD tear osmolarity (mOsm/L) was significantly higher in normal dogs (337.4 ± 16.2) than in dogs with KCS before therapy (306.2 ± 18.0; P < 0.0001), but not following therapy with 2% cyclosporine (330.5 ± 13.7; P = 1.00). Osmolarity readings lower than 325.5 mOsm/L were suggestive of KCS (84.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity). In normal dogs, tear osmolarity readings were stable during the daytime (P = 0.99). Repeated measurements revealed high variability and typically poor-to-moderate repeatability and reproducibility, although this was improved by taking three successive measurements at each session. Considering combined data from all dogs, a positive correlation existed between STT-1 and tear osmolarity measurements (Pearson's correlation test, P = 0.04, r = 0.62). Canine tear osmolarity as determined by TearLab ™ osmometer was variable, required multiple readings to be informative, and differed from values reported for humans. Dogs with KCS had a lower tear osmolarity than did normal dogs, and this increased following cyclosporine therapy. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Downregulation of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis treated with rebamipide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Mayumi; Shoji, Jun; Sotozono, Chie; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Rebamipide eyedrops are approved in Japan for the treatment of dry eye disease. Some patients with allergic conjunctival diseases also manifest dry eye. Earlier we reported that rebamipide suppressed polyI:C-induced inflammatory cytokines in human conjunctival epithelial cells. In the current study we examined the effect of rebamipide eyedrops on the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and total IgE on the ocular surface. We prescribed rebamipide eyedrops to patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) who presented with dry eye (6 eyes in 4 AKC patients) and measured the IL-8, ECP, and total IgE levels in their tears before- and 2, and 4-6 weeks after the start of rebamipide treatment. To measure the IL-8 and total IgE levels in their tears we used BD™ CBA Flex sets; ECP measurements were with ELISA. The level of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of AKC patients was reduced significantly 4-6 weeks after the start of rebamipide treatment. We also recorded subjective symptoms associated with AKC, e.g. itching, foreign body sensation, and eye mucus discharge, by using a patient questionnaire. Their subjective symptoms associated with AKC were also significantly ameliorated at 2 and 4-6 weeks. Our observations suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of rebamipide eyedrops help to combat human ocular surface inflammation and that they may be a new effective therapy in patients with AKC.

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of Moraxella bovis, Moraxella bovoculi and Moraxella ovis in beef calves with naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye).

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Shen, H G; Wang, C; Opriessnig, T

    2012-03-23

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an ocular disease that causes substantial weight loss in beef calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between Moraxella bovoculi, Moraxella bovis and Moraxella ovis and IBK incidence. A cohort design was used. From 239 calves and 478 eyes, 77 randomly chosen eyes were monitored for M. bovoculi, M. bovis, M. ovis and IBK incidence over 4 months. One hypothesis tested was that IBK hazard in eyes was not associated with detection of M. bovoculi, M. bovis and M. ovis. A secondary hypothesis tested that IBK cases were not associated with increased prevalence of M. bovoculi, M. bovis and M. ovis. 23% of 77 eyes developed IBK. M. ovis was identified in one IBK-negative eye. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for IBK incidence from eyes where M. bovoculi or M. bovis were recovered prior to disease occurrence were not statistically significant (M. bovoculi HR=1.38, 95% CI: 0.54-3.53, p=0.49, M. bovis HR=1.60, 95% CI: 0.48-5.53, p=0.44). The adjusted hazard ratio for M. bovoculi in IBK lesions was 6.45 (95% CI: 3.35-12.44, p<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio for M. bovis in IBK lesions was 2.33 (95% CI: 1.22-4.45, p=0.01). A temporal association between prior exposure to M. bovoculi or M. bovis and subsequent IBK incidence was not demonstrated. However, M. bovoculi and M. bovis are more frequently recovered from eyes with IBK lesions than unaffected eyes and this provides weak evidence for a causal role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Atopy and serum eosinophil cationic protein in 110 white children with vernal keratoconjunctivitis: differences between tarsal and limbal forms.

    PubMed

    Pucci, N; Novembre, E; Lombardi, E; Cianferoni, A; Bernardini, R; Massai, C; Caputo, R; Campa, L; Vierucci, A

    2003-03-01

    A predominance of Th2 response has been suggested in vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), and a high prevalence of IgE-sensitized (IgE-S) patients has been reported (positive skin prick test or serum-specific-IgE). Palpebral and bulbar VKC are considered to be expressions of the same disease and only occasional racial and histopathological differences are described between the two forms. Tear levels of eosinophil cationic proteins have been correlated with the severity of ocular symptoms; however, there is no published study that demonstrates the presence of serum markers of disease activity. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of IgE-sensitization in palpebral, bulbar and mixed VKC and to determine possible useful markers of disease activity in peripheral circulation. A total of 110 white VKC patients (mean age 8.3 years, range 3.2-18 years) were evaluated for ocular score in the active phase of the disease. Skin prick tests and serum-specific IgE for common allergens, serum-total IgE, peripheral blood eosinophil counts (PBECs) and serum eosinophil cationic protein (s-ECP) were determined. Fifteen age-matched non-IgE-S control children underwent the same determinations. s-ECP, PBECs and s-total IgE were significantly higher in IgE-S than in non-IgE-S VKC patients and in non-IgE-S VKC patients than in controls. A lower prevalence of IgE-S patients was found in bulbar vs. tarsal (P = 0. 050) or mixed forms (P = 0.002). The score of giant papillae was strongly correlated with s-ECP levels (P < 0.001) and with PBECs (P = 0.001). Our data suggest that an overall eosinophilic response is present in VKC independently of IgE-sensitization; bulbar forms, unlike tarsal and mixed forms, were associated with a low prevalence of IgE-sensitization. Serum ECP was a useful marker of disease activity in tarsal and mixed forms.

  7. Clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical diet as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment in dogs affected by Keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Destefanis, Simona; Giretto, Daniela; Muscolo, Maria Cristina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Giovazzino, Angela; Centenaro, Sara; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-09-22

    Canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (cKCS) is an inflammatory eye condition related to a deficiency in the tear aqueous fraction. Etiopathogenesis of such disease is substantially multifactorial, combining the individual genetic background with environmental factors that contribute to the process of immunological tolerance disruption and, as a consequence, to the emergence of autoimmunity disease. In this occurrence, it is of relevance the role of the physiological immune-dysregulation that results in immune-mediated processes at the basis of cKCS. Current therapies for this ocular disease rely on immunosuppressive treatments. Clinical response to treatment frequently varies from poor to good, depending on the clinical-pathological status of eyes at diagnosis and on individual response to therapy. In the light of the variability of clinical response to therapies, we evaluated the use of an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant nutraceutical diet with potential immune-modulating activity as a therapeutical adjuvant in cKCS pharmacological treatment. Such combination was administered to a cohort of dogs affected by cKCS in which the only immunosuppressive treatment resulted poorly responsive or ineffective in controlling the ocular symptoms. Fifty dogs of different breeds affected by immune-mediated cKCS were equally distributed and randomly assigned to receive either a standard diet (control, n = 25) or the nutraceutical diet (treatment group, n = 25) both combined with standard immunosuppressive therapy over a 60 days period. An overall significant improvement of all clinical parameters (tear production, conjunctival inflammation, corneal keratinization, corneal pigment density and mucus discharge) and the lack of food-related adverse reactions were observed in the treatment group (p < 0.0001). Our results showed that the association of traditional immune-suppressive therapy with the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties of the nutraceutical diet resulted in

  8. Effect of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension on signs and symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren syndrome patients with or without punctal occlusions.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Atsushi; Kitagawa, Kazuko; Mita, Norihiro; Takahashi, Yoriko; Shibuya, Eri; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 2% rebamipide suspension in treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with or without punctal occlusions. Thirty patients with SS, diagnosed based on the presence of autoantibodies and/or focus score >1 on lip biopsies, with corneal fluorescein staining scores (FSS) >3, and conjunctival lissamine green-staining scores (LSS) >3, were treated 4 times daily for 4 weeks with 2% rebamipide ocular suspension. Ocular examinations were performed before treatment and 2 and 4 weeks after treatment to evaluate FSS (0-9), LSS (0-6), and tear film break-up time (BUT). Hyaluronate and/or artificial tears were not discontinued. The patients were interviewed regarding the 5 major KCS symptoms, foreign body sensation, dry eye sensation, photophobia, ocular pain, and blurred vision, with each graded from none (0) to very severe (4). Of the 30 patients, 3 failed to attend all sessions, leaving 27 (25 females, 2 males, mean age 62.5 ± 10.8 years) to be studied. FSS and LSS showed improvement at week 2, but BUT showed improvement later, at week 4. All 5 symptoms improved significantly. When the patients were divided into 3 groups according to the presence of punctal occlusions, FSS and LSS were found to improve in all groups, but BUT improved only in patients with both puncta occluded at week 4. Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was effective in treating KCS of patients with SS, probably by increasing mucins and suppressing inflammatory cytokines. Punctal occlusions resulted in sufficient retention of tear fluid to enhance the activities of rebamipide and improve BUT.

  9. 21 CFR 524.1600b - Nystatin, neomycin, thiostrepton, and triamcinolone acetonide ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conjunctivitis in cats and dogs and for infectious kerato-conjunctivitis (pink eye) in cattle. (2) It is to be administered as follows: (i) For conjunctivitis and keratitis: Apply one drop of ointment to the affected eye(s... infectious kerato-conjunctivitis: Apply small line of ointment to the affected eye(s) once daily. Treatment...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1600b - Nystatin, neomycin, thiostrepton, and triamcinolone acetonide ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conjunctivitis in cats and dogs and for infectious kerato-conjunctivitis (pink eye) in cattle. (2) It is to be administered as follows: (i) For conjunctivitis and keratitis: Apply one drop of ointment to the affected eye(s... infectious kerato-conjunctivitis: Apply small line of ointment to the affected eye(s) once daily. Treatment...

  11. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdirahman A; O'Neill, Christopher J; Thomson, Peter C; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2012-07-27

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg counts were moderate and opposite between pre

  12. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg

  13. Histologic characteristics and local cellular immunity of the gland of the third eyelid after topical ophthalmic administration of 2% cyclosporine for treatment of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Izci, Celal; Celik, Ilhami; Alkan, Fahrettin; Ogurtan, Zeki; Ceylan, Cengiz; Sur, Emrah; Ozkan, Yasemin

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical administration of a 2% solution of cyclosporine (CsA) for treatment of dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and to correlate results with histopathologic characteristics and local cellular immunity of the gland of the third eyelid. 24 dogs with bilateral KCS. Lacrimal secretion was measured, using Schirmer tear test (STT) strips. Leukocyte and T-lymphocyte subsets were determined in blood samples. Histopathologic changes as well as CD4+, CD8+, and alpha-naphthyl-acetate esterase-positive (ANAE+) lymphocytes were evaluated. Clinical signs resolved at the end of 1 month in conjunction with significantly increased STT values, compared with baseline values. Fifteen and 30 days after discontinuation of CsA treatment, a decrease was observed in STT values in both eyes; however, only values for the right eye were significantly different. There was a significant decrease in the number of lymphocytes and ANAE+ lymphocytes 15 and 30 days after discontinuation of CsA treatment, compared with baseline values. Differences were not observed in number of CD4+ lymphocytes among treatment groups. However, there was a significant decrease in number of CD8+ lymphocytes with reversal of the CD4+:CD8+ in both eyes after CsA treatment for 30 days, compared with the control group. Increased secretory activity and decreased lymphocyte infiltration were characteristic histopathologic findings. Topical administration of a 2% solution of CsA was effective for the treatment of dogs with KCS. Strict follow-up monitoring is required after the cessation of treatment because of the possibility of recurrence of KCS.

  14. Comparative study of 0.1% hyaluronic acid versus 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose in patients with dry eye associated with moderate keratitis or keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Groß, Dorothea; Childs, Marc; Piaton, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Eye drops containing 0.1% hyaluronic acid (HA) and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) applied one drop three times a day per affected eye were compared in patients with moderate keratitis or keratoconjunctivitis related to dry eye disease (DED). This was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, Phase IIIB noninferiority study, with a single-masked phase in parallel mode with two groups over 84 days. The primary efficacy outcome was change in ocular surface (OS) staining between day 0 (D0) and day 35 (D35). The conjunctiva and cornea were stained with lissamine green and fluorescein. Secondary efficacy measures at day 84 (D84) were OS-staining score (SS), ocular comfort index, tear-film breakup time and how patients and investigators rated treatment efficacy and safety. At D35, 0.1% HA achieved a 46.6% reduction in OS-SS (-2.03±1.35 points, n=39 patients) and 0.5% CMC treatment, followed by a 34.9% reduction (-1.61±1.69 points, n=38 patients) compared to D0. At D84, the SS difference to D0 improved by -2.58±1.45 points (-59.2%) for 0.1% HA and -2.59±2.27 points (-54.4%) for 0.5% CMC. Ocular comfort-index scores improved, with significantly lower (better) values for stinging and itching on D84 for 0.1% HA. Patients assessed treatment with 0.1% HA as significantly better than 0.5% CMC (Likert scale, 4.82 vs 3.97; P =0.018). Four adverse events (AEs) occurred in four of 41 patients (9.8%) treated with 0.1% HA, and three AEs in two of 39 patients (5.1%) treated with 0.5% CMC. No serious AEs were noted. DED signs and symptoms of DED significantly improved with both eye drops. OS staining improved >54% at D84. Treatment was well tolerated, with only minor AEs <10%. 0.1% HA and 0.5% CMC were equally safe and effective. Significant and nonsignificant results were constantly in favor of 0.1% HA.

  15. [Oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum) in the treatment for dry-eye Sjögren's syndrome patients].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Manuel Neuzimar; dos Santos, Procópio Miguel; dos Santos, Regina Cândido Ribeiro; Barros, Jeison de Nadai; Passos, Luiz Fernando; Cardoso Neto, José

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate if oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum), which reduces the inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, may help keratoconjunctivitis sicca's treatment in Sjögren's syndrome patients. In a randomized clinical trial, 38 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erithematosus associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca and Sjögren's syndrome were consecutively selected from patients of the Department of Rheumatology of the Amazonas University Hospital. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca diagnosis was based on a dry-eye symptom survey score (Ocular Surface Disease Index - OSDI), Schirmer-I test, fluorescein break-up time, 1% Rose Bengal staining of ocular surface measured by the van Bijsterveld scale. All patients had ocular surface inflammation evaluated and quantified by conjunctival impression cytology, before and after the study. The subjects were divided into three groups with 13 (Group I), 12 (Group II) and 13 (Group III) patients. Group I received flaxseed oil capsules with a final 1 g/day dosis, Group II flaxseed oil capsules with a final 2 g/day dosis and Group III - controls - placebo, for 180 days. Comparing the results at the beginning and at the end of the treatment, statistically significant changes (p<0.05) in symptoms (OSDI), ocular surface inflammation quantified by conjunctival impression cytology, Schirmer-I test and fluorescein break-up time occurred in Groups I e II when compared to controls. Therapy with oral flaxseed oil capsules 1 or 2 g/day reduces ocular surface inflammation and ameliorates the symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome patients. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the role of this therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome.

  16. Prickly Pear Spine Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Odat, Thabit Ali Mustafa; Al-Tawara, Mohammad Jebreel; Hammouri, Eman Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ocular and extra-ocular features, clinical presentation, and treatment of prickly pear glochids. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 23 eyes of 21 patients with ocular prickly pear spines who were seen between August and October 2011 in the outpatient ophthalmic clinic at Prince Rashid Bin Al Hassan military hospital in Jordan. Medical records of patients including age, gender, history of exposure to prickly pear plants, and ocular examination were reviewed. All glochids were localized and removed with forceps under topical anesthesia with the patient at the slit lamp. Patients were followed up after one week. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.1 years with a male to female ratio of 1.6: 1. Involvement of the right eye was seen in 61.9% patients, left eye in 28.6% patients, and bilateral involvement in 9.5% patients. Glochids were most commonly found in the upper subtarsal conjunctival space (47.6%) followed by inferior palpebral conjunctiva in 23.8% eyes. The most common complaint was eye irritation in 95.2% patients. Pain was a complaint in 57.1% patients. Superior corneal epithelial erosions or ulcer were found in 33.3% patients, inferior corneal epithelial erosions in 19.1% patients, and diffuse epithelial erosions in 9.5% patients. Glochids were found in other parts of the body in 38.1% patients. Conclusion: Although prickly pear glochid ocular surface injury is not uncommon in the region during summer, it should be considered in patient with eye pain during that period. Farmers who are in close contact with prickly pears should use protective eyeglasses and gloves. PMID:24669148

  17. [Morphological characteristics of cornea in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy].

    PubMed

    Le, Qi-hua; Hong, Jia-xu; Zhu, Wen-qing; Sun, Xing-huai; Xu, Jian-jiang

    2011-05-01

    To explore the morphological characteristics on cornea in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) by the application of in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The experimental design was retrospective observation case series (case control study). Twenty-six patients, each diagnosed as bilateral VKC, were enrolled in the study, among which 13 were tarsal form, 5 were bulbar form and the rest were mixed form. Nine patients had the clinical course less than one year, eight subjects longer than three years, and the rest between them. Another twenty-six healthy volunteers with matching age and gender were selected as normal control. All participants had their right eyes examined with the in vivo confocal microscopy (HRT II/RCM). Central cornea and superior peripheral cornea were chosen as the examination points. The images were recorded automatically and cellular density of each layer was analyzed by installed software. Software ImageJ was utilized to analyze the density, diameter, branch number and tortuosity of subbasal nerve fiber in VKC patients. Independent t test was performed to assess the differences on cellular density between VKC patients and normal control, as well as those between central and peripheral cornea in VKC patients. Fisher chi-square test was used to compare the infiltration rate of Langerhans cells in corneal epithelium between VKC patients and controls. ANOVA was applied to assess the differences in cellular density among three subtypes, as well as among different duration of VKC. Independent t-test and chi-square test were applied to analyze the parameters of subbasal nerve fiber. The morphological changes in cornea included the absence of superficial hyperreflective polygonal epithelial cells, infiltration of Langerhans cells in and(or) underneath corneal epithelium and activation of keratocytes in anterior stroma. Corneal epithelium conjunctivalization and stromal neovascularization could be identified in patients with

  18. N-acetylcysteine supplementation reduces oxidative stress for cytosine arabinoside in rat model.

    PubMed

    Balci, Yasemin Isik; Acer, Semra; Yagci, Ramazan; Kucukatay, Vural; Sarbay, Hakan; Bozkurt, Kerem; Polat, Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) is a pyrimidine analog that may cause keratoconjunctivitis when used in high doses. The underlying mechanism may be the increased amounts of reactive oxygen radicals that may damage the DNA synthesis of corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. Topical corticosteroids are one of the prophylactic treatments for keratoconjunctivitis induced by ARA-C. Forty Wistar-type albino rats were included in this study the rats were divided into four groups. The first group (Group 1) received only ARA-C, the second group (Group 2) received ARA-C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the third group (Group 3) received only NAC and the fourth group (Group 4) was the control group. The total oxidant status (TOS), the total antioxidant capacity and the oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements of the cornea and the conjunctiva were evaluated in these four groups. The mean TOS and OSI value was the highest in Group 1 and the lowest in Group 3. The differences in TOS and OSI values were statistically significant between Group 1 and Group 2. There are decreases in TOS and OSI values in rats which received ARA-C with NAC administration. NAC may have a protective effect on ARA-C-induced keratoconjunctivitis.

  19. Adult gonococcal keratoconjunctivitis with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, R K; Goh, B T; Estreich, S; Cox, S N; Levy, I

    1990-01-01

    Gonococcal eye infection in adults is an uncommon cause of blindness, where prompt diagnosis and effective treatment are essential in the prevention of ophthalmic morbidity. We present a case report detailing the management and complications encountered in this condition in a patient coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:2306446

  20. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  1. The efficacy of topical 0.05 % cyclosporine A in patients with dry eye disease associated with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devecı, Hülya; Kobak, Senol

    2014-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune epithelitis which usually presents with mouth and eye dryness. Although the place of systemic drugs in keratoconjunctivitis sicca treatment has been discussed, the efficacy of some topical drugs has also been demonstrated; however, there are contradictory results related to topical cyclosporine A. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of 0.05 % topical cyclosporine A in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca due to primary and secondary SS. This prospective study included 26 patients with a diagnosis of primary and secondary SS who visited our rheumatology outpatient clinic. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was diagnosed in all patients after they were examined at the outpatient clinic. Patients were given topical 0.05 % cyclosporine A emulsions for both eyes. We used another 20 patients with SS who were treated with saline solution as a control group. Subjective symptoms reported after 1-week and 1-month follow-up were complaints of burning and pricking sensation, light sensitivity and pain. Objective signs included redness, Schirmer test and tear break-up time. A total of 26 patients (19 female) were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 47.5 years and mean disease duration of 5.2 years. In the first physical examination of patients, 23 patients had burning and pricking sensation, 24 had pain, 23 had light sensitivity, and 24 had red eyes. All subjective symptoms (burning and pricking sensation, light sensitivity and pain) were statistically significantly improved after 1-week and 1-month follow-up examinations (p = 0.0001). All objective signs (Schirmer test, tear break-up time, and redness) were statistically significantly improved after 1-week and 1-month follow-up examinations (p = 0.0001). Compared with the control group, there was significant improvement in all parameters. It is concluded that topical 0.05 % cyclosporine A is an effective treatment option for keratoconjunctivitis sicca due to SS after a 1-month follow

  2. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  3. Reduced tear production in three canine endocrinopathies.

    PubMed

    Williams, D L; Pierce, V; Mellor, P; Heath, M F

    2007-05-01

    Previous reports have suggested that hypothyroid and diabetic patients can be predisposed to keratoconjunctivitis sicca. This study aimed to measure tear production in dogs with diabetes, hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism using the Schirmer tear test and to compare these results with Schirmer tear test values for a group of normal dogs. Schirmer tear tests were performed on 16 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, 18 with diabetes and 12 with hypothyroidism together with 100 control dogs. Corneal sensitivity was also measured in 12 of the 18 diabetic dogs with a Cochet Bonnet aesthesiometer and compared with age- and breed-matched normal dogs. Schirmer tear test values in dogs with hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes were 12.3+/-3.2, 14.0+/-4.0 and 12.3+/-5.3 mm/minutes, respectively. Schirmer tear test values were significantly lower than that for the control group (19.6+/-4.2 mm/minutes) in all dogs with an endocrinopathy. Only in two hypothyroid dogs and three diabetics, this was manifested as profound keratoconjunctivitis sicca with Schirmer tear test value lower than 5 mm/minutes. Diabetic dogs had significantly reduced corneal sensitivity compared with a matched set of control dogs. This study shows a significant reduction in tear production in animals with diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which this reduction in tear production occurs. Assessment of tear production should be undertaken in animals diagnosed with these endocrinopathies, as these animals may progress to clinical keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

  4. Conjunctivitis and Total IgE in Lacrimal Fluid: Lacrytest Screening

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Susana; Arrondo, Elena; Bartra, Joan; Torres, Ferran; Basagaña, María; San Miguel, M. del Mar; Alonso, Rosario; Cisteró-Bahima, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Total tear IgE has been considered to play an important role in allergic conjunctivitis, and measurement has been considered useful for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether Lacrytest®, a new commercialised method to detect IgE levels in lacrimal fluid, could constitute a screening test for the diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and a control group were included. Clinical history, ophthalmic examination, skin prick test and conjunctival provocation test were obtained. Lacrytest® was later performed in all groups. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: thirty with IgE-mediated conjunctivitis and, nine with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and fifteen controls. Lacrytest® was negative in all controls, positive in 20% of the IgE-mediated conjunctivitis group and in 88.9% of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis group. Global statistically-significant differences were found among the three groups (P = .003). Sensitivity of the test in the IgE-mediated conjunctivitis group was 20%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 38.46%, while in VKC sensitivity was 88.88%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 93.75%. Our data confirm that this test is not useful for screening allergic conjunctivitis. Lacrytest®, while not providing any useful information to an allergist, could be helpful for ophthalmologists to confirm an IgE-mediated or VKC conjunctivitis. PMID:20975798

  5. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment of pneumonia and shipping fever complex associated with Pasteurella spp. and Histophilus spp... dosage where retreatment of calves and yearlings for bacterial pneumonia is impractical or for treatment... pneumonia is impractical or for treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye) caused by...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment of pneumonia and shipping fever complex associated with Pasteurella spp. and Histophilus spp... dosage where retreatment of calves and yearlings for bacterial pneumonia is impractical or for treatment... pneumonia is impractical or for treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye) caused by...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1660b - Oxytetracycline solution, 300 milligrams/milliliter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment of pneumonia and shipping fever complex associated with Pasteurella spp. and Histophilus spp... dosage where retreatment of calves and yearlings for bacterial pneumonia is impractical or for treatment... pneumonia is impractical or for treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye) caused by...

  8. Application and evaluation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry method to identify Moraxella bovoculi and Moraxella bovis isolates from cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an economically significant disease caused by Moraxella bovis. Moraxella bovoculi, although not reported to cause IBK, has been isolated from bovine eyes during IBK outbreaks more frequently then M. bovis. Identification of M. bovis and M. bovoculi ca...

  9. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with conjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine case...

  10. Cellular changes in tears associated with keratoconjunctival responses induced by nasal allergy.

    PubMed

    Pelikan, Z

    2014-04-01

    Allergic keratoconjunctivitis occurs in a primary form, caused by an allergic reaction localized in the conjunctiva, and in a secondary form, induced by an allergic reaction originating in the nasal mucosa. Various hypersensitivity mechanisms involved in the keratoconjunctivitis forms result in different keratoconjunctival response types. To investigate the cytologic changes in tears during the secondary immediate (SIKCR), late (SLKCR), and delayed (SDYKCR) keratoconjunctival responses. In 61 patients, comprising 20 SIKCRs, 23 SLKCRs, and 18 SDYKCRs, nasal provocation tests (NPTs) with allergens and 61 phosphate-buffered control challenges were repeated and supplemented with cell counting in the tears. The SIKCR (P<0.01), appearing 10-120 min after the NPT, was associated with increased eosinophil and mast cell counts in tears. The SLKCR (P<0.01), appearing 5-12 h after the NPT, was accompanied by increased counts of eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, and conjunctival epithelial and goblet cells. The SDYKCR (P<0.05), appearing 24-48 h after NPT, was associated with increased counts of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, conjunctival epithelial, corneal epithelial and goblet cells. The SIKCR, SLKCR, and SDYKCR, induced by nasal allergy, were associated with different cellular profiles in the tears. The cells, except mast, epithelial and goblet cells, displaying no intracellular changes, migrated probably from the conjunctival capillaries, in response to the factors released during the primary allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa and subsequently penetrating into the conjunctiva. These results demonstrate a causal role of nasal allergy and diagnostic value of NPT combined with recording of ocular features and cellular profiles in tears in some keratoconjunctivitis patients.

  11. Recent Patents and Emerging Therapeutics in the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Tamboli, Viral; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Ocular allergy is an inflammatory response of the conjunctival mucosa that also affects the cornea and eyelids. Allergic conjunctivitis includes seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC). In general, allergic conditions involve mast cell degranulation that leads to release of inflammatory mediators and activation of enzymatic cascades generating pro-inflammatory mediators. In chronic ocular inflammatory disorders associated with mast cell activation such as VKC and AKC constant inflammatory response is observed due to predominance of inflammatory mediators such as eosinophils and Th2-generated cytokines. Antihistamines, mast-cell stabilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents are commonly indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years newer drug molecules have been introduced in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. This article reviews recent patents and emerging therapeutics in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:21171952

  12. 21 CFR 524.1044e - Gentamicin sulfate spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of pink eye in cattle... inches from the affected eye, with the opening directed towards the eye, and pumped once. It is advisable... eye and infectious keratoconjunctivitis caused by Moraxella bovis may produce similar signs. If...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1044e - Gentamicin sulfate spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of pink eye in cattle... inches from the affected eye, with the opening directed towards the eye, and pumped once. It is advisable... eye and infectious keratoconjunctivitis caused by Moraxella bovis may produce similar signs. If...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1044e - Gentamicin sulfate spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of pink eye in cattle... inches from the affected eye, with the opening directed towards the eye, and pumped once. It is advisable... eye and infectious keratoconjunctivitis caused by Moraxella bovis may produce similar signs. If...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1044e - Gentamicin sulfate spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of pink eye in cattle... inches from the affected eye, with the opening directed towards the eye, and pumped once. It is advisable... eye and infectious keratoconjunctivitis caused by Moraxella bovis may produce similar signs. If...

  16. Cellular changes in tears associated with keratoconjunctival responses induced by nasal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Pelikan, Z

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic keratoconjunctivitis occurs in a primary form, caused by an allergic reaction localized in the conjunctiva, and in a secondary form, induced by an allergic reaction originating in the nasal mucosa. Various hypersensitivity mechanisms involved in the keratoconjunctivitis forms result in different keratoconjunctival response types. Purpose To investigate the cytologic changes in tears during the secondary immediate (SIKCR), late (SLKCR), and delayed (SDYKCR) keratoconjunctival responses. Methods In 61 patients, comprising 20 SIKCRs, 23 SLKCRs, and 18 SDYKCRs, nasal provocation tests (NPTs) with allergens and 61 phosphate-buffered control challenges were repeated and supplemented with cell counting in the tears. Results The SIKCR (P<0.01), appearing 10–120 min after the NPT, was associated with increased eosinophil and mast cell counts in tears. The SLKCR (P<0.01), appearing 5–12 h after the NPT, was accompanied by increased counts of eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, and conjunctival epithelial and goblet cells. The SDYKCR (P<0.05), appearing 24–48 h after NPT, was associated with increased counts of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, conjunctival epithelial, corneal epithelial and goblet cells. Conclusions The SIKCR, SLKCR, and SDYKCR, induced by nasal allergy, were associated with different cellular profiles in the tears. The cells, except mast, epithelial and goblet cells, displaying no intracellular changes, migrated probably from the conjunctival capillaries, in response to the factors released during the primary allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa and subsequently penetrating into the conjunctiva. These results demonstrate a causal role of nasal allergy and diagnostic value of NPT combined with recording of ocular features and cellular profiles in tears in some keratoconjunctivitis patients. PMID:24434662

  17. Allergic- and immunologic-mediated diseases of the eye and adnexae.

    PubMed

    Bistner, S

    1994-07-01

    Significant allergic- and immunologic-mediated diseases of the eye are reviewed. Included are diseases of the lacrimal gland namely keratoconjunctivitis sicca, immune-mediated diseases of the conjunctiva, atopic blepharoconjunctivitis, and marginal blepharitis, uveitis including lens-induced uveitis, episcleritis, orbital cellulitis, and optic neuritis. Significant diagnostic features, an approach to diagnostic workup, and treatment are presented.

  18. Ritonavir and Topical Ocular Corticosteroid Induced Cushing's Syndrome in an Adolescent With HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Rainsbury, Paul G; Sharp, Jessica; Tappin, Alison; Hussey, Martin; Lenko, Alexandra; Foster, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Cushing's syndrome after topical ocular corticosteroid use is extremely rare. We describe a case of symptomatic Cushing's syndrome in an adolescent male with sight-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis on antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection that included ritonavir, a potent cytochrome p450 CYP3A4 inhibitor. CYP3A4 inhibition reduces the metabolism of exogenous corticosteroids leading to suppression of endogenous steroid production and Cushing's syndrome.

  19. Correlations Between Allergen-Specific IgE Serum Levels in Patients With Ocular Allergy.

    PubMed

    Polido, Júlia Gomes Fernandes; Cabral, Thiago; Perini, Paula de Resende Campos; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Marcelos; de Freitas, Denise; dos Santos Araújo, Maria Emília Xavier; Serracarbassa, Pedro Durães

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate ocular allergies in patients at the Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE) and the correlations with serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels. We performed a longitudinal study of patients with ocular allergies who were treated at the Cornea and Immunology and Allergy Department. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 4 groups. We conducted the following laboratory tests and measurements: blood count, eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE. Among 61 patients, 16 (26.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 23 (37.7%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 19 (31.1%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 3 (4.9%) had atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Mixed dust mites were positive in 94.9% of patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (df) antigens were positive in 93.2% of patients followed by Blattella germanica, Blomia tropicalis, and mixed animal epithelia (81%, 75.9%, and 25.8%, respectively). Perennial allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder and demonstrated higher positivity in class V/VI for specific antigens (mixed dust mites, dp, and df), indicating high antigenicity. Dust mites, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, B. germanica, and B. tropicalis were the primary triggers of the studied ocular allergies.

  20. Usefulness of a new therapy using rebamipide eyedrops in patients with VKC/AKC refractory to conventional anti-allergic treatments.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Mayumi; Sotozono, Chie; Koga, Ayaka; Yokoi, Norihiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-03-01

    Rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, has been reported to suppress gastric mucosal inflammation. In Japan, rebamipide eyedrops have recently been approved for the treatment of dry eye disease. Some patients with allergic conjunctival diseases such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) or atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) manifest dry eye with decreased tear break-up time only. We report patients with VKC/AKC refractory to anti-allergic treatments who responded to the combination of rebamipide eyedrops and conventional anti-allergic treatments with anti-allergic- and/or immunosuppressive/steroid eyedrops. Four patients with allergic conjunctival diseases with giant papillae (VKC or AKC) instilled rebamipide eyedrops three or four times a day for varying periods. All had dry eye with decreased tear break-up time. We evaluated changes in the size of their giant papillae using Image J software. We observed attenuation of the giant papillae in all 4 patients. In 2 patients with severe disease, whose giant papillae had become larger despite the administration of tacrolimus and steroids, the addition of rebamipide contributed to their attenuation. In 2 patients with mild disease, the giant papillae had become larger or remained the same size despite the administration of anti-allergy drugs; the addition of rebamipide eyedrops also resulted in the attenuation of their giant papillae. Our findings suggest that rebamipide eyedrops might attenuate giant papillae in patients with allergic conjunctival diseases and that these eyedrops may be useful for the treatment of not only dry eye but also of allergic conjunctival diseases.

  1. Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy for Surface Eye Disease (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. Methods In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Results Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Conclusions Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC. PMID:19277243

  2. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for surface eye disease (an AOS thesis).

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC.

  3. Effect of chronic exposure to welding light on Calabar welders.

    PubMed

    Davies, K G; Asanga, U; Nku, C O; Osim, E E

    2007-01-01

    It was generally observed that welders in Calabar, Nigeria did not always wear their protective goggles during welding. Since chronic exposure to welding light can impair vision this study was done to assess the effect of exposure to welding light on ocular function of welders in Calabar, Nigeria. There were 195 subjects comprising 110 welders (test) and 85 control subjects. Both groups were all male and had similar age range. The tests employed were clinical examination for ocular disorders, assessment of visual acuity, and opthalmoscopy. Test questionnaire was also used to record information on length of service, precautionary measures at work place, age and past ocular illnesses. The study also compared incidence of ocular disorders between the two groups of welders (arc and carbide welders). The mean ages of the welders and their control were not significantly different (27.53 +/- 10.0 vs 27.78 +/- 8.5 yrs respectively). There was a significantly [P < 0.01] higher incidence of pingueculum, cataract, allergic conjunctivitis, corneal opacity, and keratoconjunctivitis (arc eye) in welders than in their control subjects. However, visual acuity, incidence of pterygium and glaucoma were similar. Between the two groups of welders, the incidence of pterygium, corneal opacity and keratoconjunctivitis was significantly [P < 0.01] higher in arc welders than carbide welders. The incidence of pingueculum and glaucoma were however, similar. In conclusion, chronic exposure to welding light without adequate precaution may cause ocular disorders. Arc welding is more dangerous to ocular function than carbide welding. Length of service and age are predisposing factors to ocular disorders in the welding business.

  4. Clinical evaluation of total IgE in tears of patients with allergic conjunctivitis disease using a novel application of the immunochromatography method.

    PubMed

    Inada, Noriko; Shoji, Jun; Kato, Hiroshi; Kiely, Surayah; Mulyanto; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The determination of total IgE in tears is useful as a diagnostic tool in allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). We evaluated the efficacy of this diagnostic tool for ACD, which is a clinically applicable novel immunochromagraphic method to determine total IgE in tears. The subjects comprised 4 groups: 15 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC group), 8 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC group), 18 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC group), and 7 normal healthy volunteers as a control (control group). Tears were sampled using filter paper, and the total IgE in tears was determined by immunochromatography assay. Semiquantitative determination was carried out by examining the intensity of the colored line using an immunochromatoreader (IgE index). The relationship between IgE indices in tears and total IgE levels in serum or between IgE indices and the clinical scores of ACD was examined. The positive ratio obtained by this novel application of the immunochromatography assay was 38 of the 41 in the patients with ACD and none in the 7 controls. IgE indices for the VKC group, AKC group and AC group were 27.5 +/- 15.6, 19.8 +/- 15.8, and 4.0 +/- 3.1 (mean +/- SD), respectively. IgE indices in tears showed significant correlation with both total IgE levels in serum (P < 0.001, r = 0.76) and clinical scores of ACD (P < 0.001, r = 0.57). The novel application of the immunochromatography assay to assess the total IgE in tears is a useful clinical tool to investigate ACD.

  5. Mycoplasma conjunctivae infection is not maintained in alpine chamois in eastern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Marco; Janovsky, Martin; Jenny, Hannes; Nicolet, Jacques; Belloy, Luc; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Elinor; Frey, Joachim

    2002-04-01

    The occurrence of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) was assessed in alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra) in Grisons (Switzerland) from 1950 to 1999. The first IKC outbreaks were reported in the 1950's. Since then, the number of affected subpopulations constantly increased and, by 1999, IKC outbreaks were reported in 39 of 51 (77%) chamois sub-populations. From 1992-99, a total of 243 chamois which died of the consequences of IKC were recorded. The number of cases differed between years, and a distinct seasonal trend was observed. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis was more common during summer and autumn, with 48% of the cases recorded in August-October. Juveniles (< 4 yr of age) were mostly represented. To verify the presence of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in chamois we analyzed conjunctival swabs taken from animals affected with IKC. Among a sample of 28 affected chamois, M. conjunctivae was identified 14 times (50%). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect specific M. conjunctivae antibodies in sera of alpine chamois with IKC. We performed a serologic investigation to assess whether M. conjunctivae infection is self-maintained in the chamois population in Grisons. In subpopulations with IKC oubreaks, seroprevalence was low (8%). Seroprevalence was even lower in subpopulations with recent IKC outbreaks (3%). We concluded that the M. conjunctivae infection is not self-maintained in alpine chamois in Grisons. The agent may originate in domestic sheep living in proximity to chamois during summer. Control of IKC in chamois should consider immunoprophylaxis in sheep or limiting interspecific transmission of M. conjunctivae.

  6. [Cornea imagery and keratitis caused by processionary caterpillar hairs].

    PubMed

    Fournier, I; Saleh, M; Beynat, J; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bourcier, T; Speeg-Schatz, C

    2011-03-01

    With their ability to migrate into the cornea and release toxins, caterpillar hairs can induce different clinical presentations such as conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis, and less frequently vitreoretinal inflammation (hyalitis, papillitis, macular edema). We report a case that occurred in Alsace (France) in a 13-years-old boy presenting with keratitis caused by caterpillar hairs. We localized them in the cornea, for the first time, using confocal microscopy and anterior segment spectral optical coherence tomography. Confocal microscopy and spectral optical coherence tomography can be useful for diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Chlamydial-caused infectious keratoconjunctivitis in bighorn sheep of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary; Quinn, William J.; Stackhouse, Larry

    1992-01-01

    An epizootic of infectious keratoconjuctivitis occurred in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Yellowstone National Park during the winter of 1981-82. The causative organism was identified as Chlamydia sp. Mortality related to the epizootic was approximately 60% of an estimated 500 bighorn sheep in the northern range population. The infection probably affected all sex and age classes, but field surveys of live animals and mortality suggested that mature rams died disproportionately. Limited field observations the following winter on individuals having both normal and cloudy-appearing eyes suggested that half of the bighorns then present on the core units of winter range had contracted the disease and survived. By 1988, there were about 300 bighorn sheep in the population.

  8. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). Subjects were 103 patients with ACD including 40 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and 43 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale consists of the following 3 graded groups of clinical observations: the 100-point-grade group (100 points for each observation) includes active giant papillae, gelatinous infiltrates of the limbus, exfoliative epithelial keratopathy, shield ulcer and papillary proliferation at lower palpebral conjunctiva; the 10-point-grade group (10 points for each observation) includes blepharitis, papillary proliferation with velvety appearance, Horner-Trantas spots, edema of bulbal conjunctiva, and superficial punctate keratopathy; and the 1-point-grade group (1 point for each observation) includes papillae at upper palpebral conjunctiva, follicular lesion at lower palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of bulbal conjunctiva, and lacrimal effusion. The total points in each grade group were determined as the severity score of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. The median severity scores of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale in VKC, AKC and AC were 243 (range: 12-444), 32.5 (11-344), and 13 (2-33), respectively. The severity score of each ACD disease type was significantly different (P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). The severity of each type of ACD was classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the severity score. The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale is a useful clinical tool for grading the severity of each type of ACD.

  9. [Summary of the practice guideline 'The red eye' (first revision) of the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG)].

    PubMed

    van der Weele, G M; Rietveld, R P; Wiersma, Tj; Goudswaard, A N

    2007-06-02

    The revised NHG-guideline 'The red eye' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and therapy in patients with a red eye. In the presence of pain, decreased visual acuity and photophobia (alarm symptoms) should be considered as sight threatening conditions. In most instances a red eye results from conjunctivitis. The complaint of (an) early morning glued eye(s) makes a bacterial origin of acute infectious conjunctivitis more likely. Itching and a history of infectious conjunctivitis make the probability of bacterial involvement less likely. The type of discharge does not help to adequately distinguish bacterial from viral conjunctivitis. Since an infectious conjunctivitis is a self-limiting condition, no treatment is necessary as a rule. Antibiotic treatment is only rational if conjunctivitis is (most probably) caused by bacteria. It has to be considered only if a patient suffers from much discomfort, if complaints do not begin to decline after 3 days and in patients with preexisting corneal defects. Because of widespread resistance to fusidic acid this should in principle not be prescribed for treatment of conjunctivitis; chloramphenicol is still the drug of choice. During revision of the guideline discussions concentrated on 2 aspects: the position of slit lamp biomicroscopy in general practice and giving a patient with keratoconjunctivitis photoelectrica the remainder of a 'minim' with anaesthetic eye drops. Regarding both topics it was decided not to change the recommendations of the former version of the guideline: the use of slit lamp biomicroscopy remains optional for general practitioners and it remains permitted to give the remainder of a 'minim' with anaesthetic eye drops to a patient with keratoconjunctivitis photoelectrica.

  10. Cyclosporine A delivery to the eye: A comprehensive review of academic and industrial efforts.

    PubMed

    Lallemand, Frédéric; Schmitt, Mathieu; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Gurny, Robert; Benita, Simon; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    Local ocular delivery of cyclosporine A (CsA) is the preferred method for CsA delivery as a treatment for ocular inflammatory diseases such as uveitis, corneal healing, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and dry eye disease. However, due to the large molecular weight and hydrophobic nature of CsA and the natural protective mechanisms of the eye, achieving therapeutic levels of CsA in ocular tissues can be difficult. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the current products available to clinicians as well as emerging drug delivery solutions that have been developed at both the academic and industry levels. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  12. Occupational hazards in hospitals: risk of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Gestal, J J

    1987-01-01

    In this review of the risk of infection to hospital staff, attention is drawn to the continuing risk presented by hepatitis B and pulmonary tuberculosis, which are more common than diseases such as typhoid fever, brucellosis, histoplasmosis, whooping cough, infectious gastroenteritis, measles, and parotiditis. Other items considered include the susceptibility of female hospital staff to rubella and the importance of their undergoing screening and vaccination; the risks currently presented by epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and by herpes viruses (herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and cytomegalovirus); and the risk of contracting the new infectious diseases (Legionnaires' disease, Marburg disease, Lassa fever, and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome). PMID:3304395

  13. Influence of outdoor winter environment on the course of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopecky, K.E.; Pugh, G.W. Jr.; McDonald, T.J.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of environmental conditions on the onset, severity, and duration of Moraxella bovis infection and subsequent clinical disease was studied. Twelve calves were used; 6 were maintained under usual isolated experimental conditions (inside), and 6 were kept under normal feedlot conditions (outside) during the winter (-20 to +15 C). The cattle housed inside had a higher infection rate, a milder disease, and longer duration of infection than did the cattle kept out side. Seemingly, the stress of the cold weather caused a more severe disease of shorter duration.

  14. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the patients with posterior versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. The most common ocular manifestation was retinal microvasculopathy (15.0%), followed by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (14.2%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (9.4%), cytomegalovirus retinitis (3.1%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (2.4%), and blepharitis (1.6%). Retinal microvasculopathy and cytomegalovirus retinitis were common in patients with CD4+ counts <200 cells/µL, while keratoconjunctivitis sicca and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patients with CD4+ counts of 200 to 499 cells/µL. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between ocular manifestation and CD4+ count or age. The introduction of HAART has changed the landscape of ocular presentations in patients with AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular

  15. Scoring clinical signs can help diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis in a highly endemic area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro; de Mendonça, Vitor Rosa Ramos; Silva, Kellen Matuzzy; do Nascimento, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; de Pinho, Flaviane Alves; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e

    2017-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83.93%), muzzle/ear lesions (55.36%), nutritional status (51.79%), bristle condition (57.14%), pale mucosal colour (48.21%), onychogryphosis (58.93%), skin lesion (39.28%), bleeding (12.50%), muzzle depigmentation (41.07%), alopecia (39.29%), blepharitis (21.43%), and keratoconjunctivitis (42.86%) were more frequent in dogs with CVL than in dogs with ehrlichiosis or without CVL. Moreover, the clinical score increased according to the positivity of all diagnostic tests (ELISA, p < 0.001; parasite culture, p = 0.0021; and smear, p = 0.0003). Onychogryphosis (long nails) [odds ratio (OR): 3.529; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.832-6.796; p < 0.001], muzzle depigmentation (OR: 4.651; 95% CI: 2.218-9.750; p < 0.001), and keratoconjunctivitis (OR: 5.400; 95% CI: 2.549-11.441; p < 0.001) were highly associated with CVL. Interestingly, a score cut-off value ≥ 6 had an area under the curve of 0.717 (p < 0.0001), sensitivity of 60.71%, and specificity of 73.64% for CVL diagnosis. The clinical sign-based score for CVL diagnosis suggested herein can help veterinarians reliably identify dogs with CVL in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. PMID:28076469

  16. Scoring clinical signs can help diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis in a highly endemic area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Mendonça, Vitor Rosa Ramos de; Silva, Kellen Matuzzy; Nascimento, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Pinho, Flaviane Alves de; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires E

    2017-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83.93%), muzzle/ear lesions (55.36%), nutritional status (51.79%), bristle condition (57.14%), pale mucosal colour (48.21%), onychogryphosis (58.93%), skin lesion (39.28%), bleeding (12.50%), muzzle depigmentation (41.07%), alopecia (39.29%), blepharitis (21.43%), and keratoconjunctivitis (42.86%) were more frequent in dogs with CVL than in dogs with ehrlichiosis or without CVL. Moreover, the clinical score increased according to the positivity of all diagnostic tests (ELISA, p < 0.001; parasite culture, p = 0.0021; and smear, p = 0.0003). Onychogryphosis (long nails) [odds ratio (OR): 3.529; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.832-6.796; p < 0.001], muzzle depigmentation (OR: 4.651; 95% CI: 2.218-9.750; p < 0.001), and keratoconjunctivitis (OR: 5.400; 95% CI: 2.549-11.441; p < 0.001) were highly associated with CVL. Interestingly, a score cut-off value ≥ 6 had an area under the curve of 0.717 (p < 0.0001), sensitivity of 60.71%, and specificity of 73.64% for CVL diagnosis. The clinical sign-based score for CVL diagnosis suggested herein can help veterinarians reliably identify dogs with CVL in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources.

  17. A systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis of tonometer disinfection methods.

    PubMed

    Omar Akhtar, Ahmad; Singh, Hargurinder; Si, Francie; Hodge, William G

    2014-08-01

    The Goldmann applanation tonometer presents the problem of being one of the most widely used pieces of equipment in the ophthalmic clinic and a known risk factor for the transmission of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). The purpose of this review is to assess the effectiveness of 3 methods of disinfection: alcohol swabs, immersion in peroxide, and the use of disposable prisms. An economic evaluation is undertaken to assess the cost-effectiveness of the 3 alternatives. In doing so, we contribute an evidence-based overview of the issue at an opportune time, because several jurisdictions are developing protocols regarding tonometer tip disinfection. Systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken with a librarian, comprising searches of 6 electronic databases and hand searches of the grey literature. A 3-level screening process was undertaken by 2 reviewers according to prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Values from included papers were used to inform a cost-effectiveness analysis undertaken using a decision tree model implemented in TreeAge. The analysis was undertaken from the hospital perspective and included all equipment and labour costs. Synthesis of in vitro data indicates that all 3 methods are plausible methods of disinfection with a 64% reduction in log growth of EKC when peroxide is used compared with alcohol swabs. The incremental cost-effective ratios from the cost-effectiveness analysis were $12,000/case averted using peroxide and $61,000/case averted with Tonosafe as compared with alcohol. Assuming clinical infection rates match in vitro disinfection data, the cost of bleach is high and the cost of Tonosafe is unacceptably high to reduce 1 potential case of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    PubMed Central

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  19. Apremilast Use in a Case of Cicatricial Ectropion Secondary to Severe Lamellar Ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Jean-Paul J; Whittington, Alexander; Ahmed, Masih; Himebaugh, Jesse T; Wiley, Lee A; Haffar, Ahmad; Nguyen, John

    Ichthyosis is a cutaneous disorder characterized by excessive amounts of dry thickened skin surface scales. Ocular manifestations of ichthyosis include cicatricial ectropion, which may cause exposure keratoconjunctivitis and rarely corneal perforation. Topical emollients, anti-inflammatory ointments, and systemic retinoids have been used to control the disease process, while surgical correction with donor graft has been reserved for severe cases involving corneal exposure. The authors report a case of a Caucasian male with lamellar ichthyosis with severe bilateral upper and lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion and corneal ulceration requiring surgical correction. Treatment with apremilast, a novel phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, for the treatment of a concomitant plaque psoriasis achieved good control of his skin diseases and minimized the recurrence of eyelid ectropion.

  20. Allergic conjunctivitis: a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical research has provided a better understanding of the cells, mediators, and immunologic events, which occur in ocular allergy. New pharmacological agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocular allergy treatment. An understanding of the immunologic mechanisms, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of ocular allergy may be useful to all specialists who deal with these patients. The purpose of this review is to systematically review literature underlining all the forms classified as ocular allergy: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratocongiuntivitis, contact allergy, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. PMID:23497516

  1. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye.

    PubMed

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  2. Border Disease Virus: An Exceptional Driver of Chamois Populations Among Other Threats.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Emmanuel; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Garel, Mathieu; Cabezón, Oscar; Velarde, Roser; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging infectious diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4) caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange, and BD outbreaks. BD-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations.

  3. Anaerobic orbital abscess/cellulitis in a Yorkshire Terrier dog.

    PubMed

    Homma, K; Schoster, J V

    2000-10-01

    A retrobulbar abscess/cellulitis occurred in a Yorkshire Terrier dog. The clinical signs were exophthalmos, prolapsed nictitating membrane and purulent ocular discharge. Ultrasonography showed a marked soft tissue swelling of the retrobulbar tissues as well as echogenic parallel lines between the globe and the medial orbital rim. Surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and no foreign body was found. The pterygopalatine fossa was incised and therapeutic retrobulbar drainage attempted. A drain was placed to encourage ventral drainage of the abscess. Anaerobic cultures revealed heavy growth of gram negative rods (prevotella bivia and prevotella buccae were isolated). Recovery was successful but subsequent treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca was necessary. A full recovery of tear production occurred after several weeks.

  4. Toxic epidermal necrolysis following morbilli-parotitis-rubella vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dobrosavljevic, D; Milinkovic, M V; Nikolic, M M

    1999-07-01

    We present the first reported case of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) caused by morbilli-parotitis-rubella (MPR) vaccine. A 13-year-old girl developed TEN 7 days after she received live, attenuated, triple MPR vaccine. The history of drug intake and any illness was negative. At admission the patient was acutely ill with high fever. The whole body was erythematous. The epidermis was wrinkled and the Nikolsky sign was positive. Numerous erosions were present on the lips and genital region. On the seventh day of illness, the eruption involved 80% of the skin. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not employed. The skin and mucosal defects completely epithelized by the end of the third week of illness. Mild keratoconjunctivitis sicca remained because of permanent cup cell damage.

  5. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Results Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the patients with posterior versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. The most common ocular manifestation was retinal microvasculopathy (15.0%), followed by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (14.2%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (9.4%), cytomegalovirus retinitis (3.1%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (2.4%), and blepharitis (1.6%). Retinal microvasculopathy and cytomegalovirus retinitis were common in patients with CD4+ counts <200 cells/µL, while keratoconjunctivitis sicca and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patients with CD4+ counts of 200 to 499 cells/µL. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between ocular manifestation and CD4+ count or age. Conclusions The introduction of HAART has changed the landscape of ocular presentations in patients with AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations

  6. Parallel Mapping and Simultaneous Sequencing Reveals Deletions in BCAN and FAM83H Associated with Discrete Inherited Disorders in a Domestic Dog Breed

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Oliver P.; Hayward, Louisa J.; Ricketts, Sally L.; Mellersh, Cathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) segregates more naturally-occurring diseases and phenotypic variation than any other species and has become established as an unparalled model with which to study the genetics of inherited traits. We used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and targeted resequencing of DNA from just five dogs to simultaneously map and identify mutations for two distinct inherited disorders that both affect a single breed, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. We investigated episodic falling (EF), a paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia, alongside the phenotypically distinct condition congenital keratoconjunctivitis sicca and ichthyosiform dermatosis (CKCSID), commonly known as dry eye curly coat syndrome. EF is characterised by episodes of exercise-induced muscular hypertonicity and abnormal posturing, usually occurring after exercise or periods of excitement. CKCSID is a congenital disorder that manifests as a rough coat present at birth, with keratoconjunctivitis sicca apparent on eyelid opening at 10–14 days, followed by hyperkeratinisation of footpads and distortion of nails that develops over the next few months. We undertook a GWAS with 31 EF cases, 23 CKCSID cases, and a common set of 38 controls and identified statistically associated signals for EF and CKCSID on chromosome 7 (Praw 1.9×10−14; Pgenome = 1.0×10−5) and chromosome 13 (Praw 1.2×10−17; Pgenome = 1.0×10−5), respectively. We resequenced both the EF and CKCSID disease-associated regions in just five dogs and identified a 15,724 bp deletion spanning three exons of BCAN associated with EF and a single base-pair exonic deletion in FAM83H associated with CKCSID. Neither BCAN or FAM83H have been associated with equivalent disease phenotypes in any other species, thus demonstrating the ability to use the domestic dog to study the genetic basis of more than one disease simultaneously in a single breed and to identify multiple novel candidate genes in parallel

  7. Mycoplasma conjunctivae in domestic small ruminants from high mountain habitats in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Cabezón, Oscar; Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Frey, Joachim; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge R

    2013-12-13

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a clinical condition affecting eyes of domestic and wild Caprinae worldwide, and Mycoplasma conjunctivae is considered the primary causative agent of IKC in sheep, goats and wild Caprinae. Domestic ruminants from high mountain habitats share grazing areas with wild mountain ungulates, such as chamois (Rupicapra spp.), Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), and domestic sheep seem to act as M. conjunctivae reservoir. In this study, the presence of M. conjunctivae in domestic sheep and goats from the two main mountain ranges of Northern Spain, the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains, has been investigated. Eye swabs were obtained from 439 domestic small ruminants selected from flocks that seasonally graze in alpine meadows during three consecutive years (2011-2012-2013). Seventy-nine out of the 378 domestic sheep (20.9%) tested positive to a M. conjunctivae specific real time-PCR (rt-PCR) in at least one eye, whereas all the 61 sampled domestic goats were negative. Statistically significant higher prevalence and higher proportion of infected flocks (P < 0.001) was observed in the Pyrenees (25.7%; 12 flocks out of 13), where M. conjunctivae is widespread and probably endemic in domestic sheep, than in the Cantabrian Mountains (7.8%; one flock out of six). Twenty-five sheep (three from the Pyrenees and 22 from the Cantabrian Mountains) which showed clinical signs consistent with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) were negative by rt-PCR. In contrast, 62 out of the 71 (87.3%) M. conjunctivae-positive sheep from the Pyrenees and the eight positive sheep from the Cantabrian Mountains were asymptomatic. This study provides rt-PCR-based evidences of M. conjunctivae maintenance in domestic sheep, as well as a relationship between prevalence in domestic sheep and previously reported M. conjunctivae and IKC in wild ruminants. Domestic goats do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology

  8. Recurrent conjunctivitis as a presentation of munchausen syndrome by proxy.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Darrell E; Stein, Fernando; Coats, David K; Paysse, Evelyn A

    2003-08-01

    To report a case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, which manifested as recurrent bilateral keratoconjunctivitis in an infant. Interventional case report. The patient underwent numerous diagnostic studies, including two endoscopies, skin biopsy, conjunctival pH measurement, and a skeletal survey. She underwent daily eye examinations until the corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects resolved. Resolution of cutaneous, mucosal, corneal, and conjunctival epithelial defects. A punch biopsy of the right postauricular area was performed, and pathology subsequently determined that the findings seemed to be the result of an exogenous injury. The conjunctival pH was 8.0, consistent with exposure to an exogenous, caustic agent. The acute ocular lesions resolved. Munchausen syndrome by proxy can be seen with ophthalmic manifestations and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when ocular abnormalities cannot be explained after a thorough and methodical evaluation.

  9. A highly soluble matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor for potential treatment of dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mattia; De Lorenzo, Emanuele; Torre, Eugenio; Fragai, Marco; Nativi, Cristina; Luchinat, Claudio; Arcangeli, Annarosa

    2012-11-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) or keratoconjunctivitis sicca is an eye disease caused by the chronic lack of lubrication and moisture of the eye. The pathogenesis of DES involves the over-expression and over-activity of corneal Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). We propose herein a new, non-symptomatic approach for the treatment of DES based on the inhibition of MMP-9 by a new highly soluble molecule, designed as PES_103 that has been shown to inhibit MMP-9 both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of PES_103 in vivo and the potential benefits of this treatment in restoring tear production were studied in this work using an animal model of reduced lacrimation. PES_103 did not show any significant corneal toxicity. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  10. Variants at multiple loci implicated in both innate and adaptive immune responses are associated with Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Christopher J.; Li, He; Adrianto, Indra; Ice, John A.; Rasmussen, Astrid; Grundahl, Kiely M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Dozmorov, Mikhail G.; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Bowman, Simon; Lester, Sue; Eriksson, Per; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Brun, Johan G.; Gøransson, Lasse G.; Harboe, Erna; Guthridge, Joel M.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kvarnström, Marika; Jazebi, Helmi; Graham, Deborah S. Cunninghame; Grandits, Martha E.; Nazmul-Hossain, Abu N. M.; Patel, Ketan; Adler, Adam J.; Maier-Moore, Jacen S.; Farris, A. Darise; Brennan, Michael T.; Lessard, James A.; Chodosh, James; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Hefner, Kimberly S.; Houston, Glen D.; Huang, Andrew J.W.; Hughes, Pamela J.; Lewis, David M.; Radfar, Lida; Rohrer, Michael D.; Stone, Donald U.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; James, Judith A.; Omdal, Roald; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Illei, Gabor G.; Witte, Torsten; Jonsson, Roland; Rischmueller, Maureen; Rönnblom, Lars; Nordmark, Gunnel; Ng, Wan-Fai; Mariette, Xavier; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Segal, Barbara M.; Scofield, R. Hal; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Harley, John B.; Sivils, Kathy L. Moser

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome is a common autoimmune disease (~0.7% of European Americans) typically presenting as keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. In addition to strong association within the HLA region at 6p21 (Pmeta=7.65×10−114), we establish associations with IRF5-TNPO3 (Pmeta=2.73×10−19), STAT4 (Pmeta=6.80×10−15), IL12A (Pmeta =1.17×10−10), FAM167A-BLK (Pmeta=4.97×10−10), DDX6-CXCR5 (Pmeta=1.10×10−8), and TNIP1 (Pmeta=3.30×10−8). Suggestive associations with Pmeta<5×10−5 were observed with 29 regions including TNFAIP3, PTTG1, PRDM1, DGKQ, FCGR2A, IRAK1BP1, ITSN2, and PHIP amongst others. These results highlight the importance of genes involved in both innate and adaptive immunity in Sjögren’s syndrome. PMID:24097067

  11. Therapeutic use of mini-scleral lenses in a patient with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy can be very challenging to manage secondary to the complex nature of their disease presentation. Patients may present with a variety of ocular findings including: lid retraction, periorbital and lid swelling, chemosis, conjunctival hyperemia, proptosis, optic neuropathy, restrictive myopathy, exposure keratopathy and/or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Mini-scleral and scleral lens designs have been important in the management of irregular and regular corneas, and in the therapy of ocular surface diseases. We present here the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had been diagnosed with Graves' ophthalmopathy 13 years earlier. With significant ocular surface staining and over ten diopters of astigmatism, the patient had never been able to wear contact lenses comfortably. After being fit with the Mini-Scleral Design™ lenses, his vision improved to 20/25 OU, his ocular surface improved, and overall quality of vision increased. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Postepizootic Persistence of Asymptomatic Mycoplasma conjunctivae Infection in Iberian Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Cabezón, Oscar; Granados, José Enrique; Frey, Joachim; Serrano, Emmanuel; Velarde, Roser; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Fandos, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The susceptibility of the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection, and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected in the Iberian ibex, coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August, 35.4%; September, 8.7%; November, 4.3%). Infections without clinical outcome were, however, still detected in the last handling in November. Sequencing and cluster analyses of the M. conjunctivae strains found 1 year later in the ibex population confirmed the persistence of the same strain lineage that caused the IKC outbreak but with a high prevalence (75.3%) of mostly asymptomatic infections and with lower DNA load of M. conjunctivae in the eyes (mean quantitative PCR [qPCR] cycle threshold [CT], 36.1 versus 20.3 in severe IKC). Significant age-related differences of M. conjunctivae prevalence were observed only under IKC epizootic conditions. No substantial effect of systemic IgG on M. conjunctivae DNA in the eye was evidenced with a linear mixed-models selection, which indicated that systemic IgG does not necessarily drive the resolution of M. conjunctivae infection and does not explain the epidemiological changes observed. The results show how both epidemiological scenarios, i.e., severe IKC outbreak and mostly asymptomatic infections, can consecutively occur by entailing mycoplasma persistence. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma infections are reported in a wide range of epidemiological scenarios that involve severe disease to asymptomatic infections. This study allows a better understanding of the transition between two different Mycoplasma conjunctivae epidemiological scenarios described in wild host populations and highlights the ability of M

  13. Antiviral Activity of Chlorite-Oxidized Oxyamylose, a Polyacetal Carboxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Billiau, A.; Desmyter, J.; De Somer, P.

    1970-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose (COAM) protected mice against mengo, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, and influenza APR8 viruses. Topical administration in the eye of rabbits partially inhibited the development of experimental herpetic keratoconjunctivitis. COAM resembled polyacrylic acid in many aspects, but it was markedly less toxic. For systemic administration, the therapeutic index was on the order of magnitude of 1:300 to 1:500. Although the in vivo antiviral effect of COAM wore off faster than that of polyacrylic acid, protection lasted for several weeks. Against mengovirus, such prolonged protection was achieved only when polymer and virus were injected intraperitoneally. Protection against intravenous vaccinia virus was not dependent on the injection route of COAM. Experiments on the mode of action of COAM pointed to macrophages as possible mediators of the antiviral effect. The fact that small amounts of interferon appeared in the serum after administration of high doses of COAM suggests that interferon may play a role in the induction of antiviral resistance by COAM. PMID:4314554

  14. A Novel aadA Aminoglycoside Resistance Gene in Bovine and Porcine Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Andrew; Klima, Cassidy L; Ha, Reuben; Gruninger, Robert J; Zaheer, Rahat; McAllister, Tim A

    2018-01-01

    A novel variant of the AAD(3″) class of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes was discovered in fatal bovine respiratory disease-associated pathogens Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni . The aadA31 gene encodes a spectinomycin/streptomycin adenylyltransferase and was located in a variant of the integrative and conjugative element ICE Mh1 , a mobile genetic element transmissible among members of the family Pasteurellaceae . The gene was also detected in Mannheimia haemolytica from a case of porcine pneumonia and in Moraxella bovoculi from a case of keratoconjunctivitis. IMPORTANCE Aminoglycosides are important antimicrobials used worldwide for prophylaxis and/or therapy in multiple production animal species. The emergence of new resistance genes jeopardizes current pathogen detection and treatment methods. The risk of resistance gene transfer to other animal and human pathogens is elevated when resistance genes are carried by mobile genetic elements. This study identified a new variant of a spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance gene harbored in a self-transmissible mobile element. The gene was also present in four different bovine pathogen species.

  15. A Novel aadA Aminoglycoside Resistance Gene in Bovine and Porcine Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew; Klima, Cassidy L.; Ha, Reuben; Gruninger, Robert J.; Zaheer, Rahat

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel variant of the AAD(3″) class of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes was discovered in fatal bovine respiratory disease-associated pathogens Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni. The aadA31 gene encodes a spectinomycin/streptomycin adenylyltransferase and was located in a variant of the integrative and conjugative element ICEMh1, a mobile genetic element transmissible among members of the family Pasteurellaceae. The gene was also detected in Mannheimia haemolytica from a case of porcine pneumonia and in Moraxella bovoculi from a case of keratoconjunctivitis. IMPORTANCE Aminoglycosides are important antimicrobials used worldwide for prophylaxis and/or therapy in multiple production animal species. The emergence of new resistance genes jeopardizes current pathogen detection and treatment methods. The risk of resistance gene transfer to other animal and human pathogens is elevated when resistance genes are carried by mobile genetic elements. This study identified a new variant of a spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance gene harbored in a self-transmissible mobile element. The gene was also present in four different bovine pathogen species. PMID:29507894

  16. Retrospective study and review of ocular radiation side effects following external-beam Cobalt-60 radiation therapy in 37 dogs and 12 cats

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Chantale L.; Mutsaers, Anthony J.; Mayer, Monique N.; Woods, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the ocular side effects of cancer-bearing dogs and cats treated with external–beam Cobalt-60 (Co-60) radiation in which one or both orbit(s) were included in the radiation field. A total of 37 dogs and 12 cats presented to the Ontario Veterinary College during the 10-year study period (1999–2009) were evaluated. The radiation protocols ranged from a maximum of 60 Gray (Gy) in 24 fractions for curative intent to a minimum of 8 Gy in 1 fraction for palliative treatment. The main ocular side effect reported in both dogs and cats was conjunctivitis (79% and 55%, respectively). Other common ocular side effects included eyelid lesions in dogs (44%), ulcerative keratitis in cats (36%), and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in both dogs and cats (44% and 27%, respectively). The high incidence of ocular side effects in both patient populations indicates a need for regular ophthalmic examinations as a component of routine follow-up for radiation therapy involving the orbit. Radiation damage to ocular tissues is also reviewed. PMID:23729828

  17. Combined application of autologous serum eye drops and silicone hydrogel lenses for the treatment of persistent epithelial defects.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin A; Chung, So-Hyang

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the utility of a combination of autologous serum eye drops and a silicone-hydrogel (SH) lens in the treatment of persistent epithelial defects (PEDs). Eight patients who had distinct PED conditions were treated with 50% (v/v) autologous serum eye drops in combination with silicone hydrogel contact lenses and prospectively observed. The pathogenesis of PEDs included Sjogren-type dry eye syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, toxic keratitis, limbal cell deficiency, superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, and neurotrophic keratitis. The patients had PEDs for 90±81.76 days (range: 30-240 days). Before the initiation of the combined treatment, three patients had already been unsuccessfully treated with SH lenses, and five patients had received serum eye drops alone. The PEDs of the eight eyes healed after a treatment period of 11.8±4.9 days. No visible deposits were noted on the surface of any contact lens. These findings demonstrate that the combination of an SH lens and serum eye drops may be effective in the treatment of intractable PEDs.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of a prototype anti-Chlamydia pecorum recombinant protein vaccine in lambs and pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Desclozeaux, Marion; Jelocnik, Martina; Whitting, Katrina; Saifzadeh, Siamak; Bommana, Sankhya; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2017-06-14

    Arthritis and kerato-conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia pecorum in lambs are difficult to diagnose and treat. We tested the ability of a prototype C. pecorum vaccine (SC-vaccine), comprised of C. pecorum major outer membrane protein (MOMP-G) and polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), to trigger a Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune response in lambs and pregnant ewes. Vaccinations with the SC-vaccine (one and two injections) were very well tolerated by all ewes and lambs. Although the overall immune responses of ewes to SC-vaccination was poor, their lambs showed stronger antigen-specific immune response than lambs from control vaccine ewes. SC-vaccination in lambs triggered production of systemic anti-MOMP-G and anti-PmpG IgG antibodies and secretory IgA in the ocular mucosa. Double vaccination caused statistically significant increases in the height and duration of the humoral response. Antigen-specific IFN-γ was produced in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of vaccinated lambs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactivation of herpes zoster keratitis in an adult after varicella zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Charles W; Steigleman, Walter A; Saucedo-Sanchez, Erika; Tuli, Sonal S

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the case of a patient who presented with reactivation of herpes zoster (HZ) keratitis and worsening of neurotrophic keratopathy, keratouveitis, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca after vaccination with live attenuated HZ vaccine (Zostavax) is described. This is a retrospective case review. A 63-year-old man, with a history of HZ keratouveitis and neurotrophic keratopathy that had been quiescent for 3.5 years off medication, presented with keratouveitis 2 weeks after Zostavax administration. Oral acyclovir and topical prednisolone acetate and cyclopentolate were started, with subsequent improvement in inflammation and visual acuity. However, the patient was unable to be tapered completely off the steroids. HZ keratouveitis is the result of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) directed toward viral antigens within the eye. The live attenuated HZ vaccine, Zostavax, boosts the recipient's CMI to prevent reactivation of HZ. However, patients with a history of HZ keratitis may have persistent viral antigens in their corneas and can develop recurrence of keratouveitis because of the vaccine-induced increase in CMI. Vaccination should be undertaken with caution in patients with a history of HZ ophthalmicus.

  20. Short communication: Iodine concentrations in serum, milk, and tears after feeding Ascophyllum nodosum to dairy cows-A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Henriksen, M; Bastan, A; Cremers, N; Olsen, K; Crooker, B A

    2016-10-01

    Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum) is rich in iodine and often fed by organic dairy producers as a mineral supplement to support animal health. A commonly held belief is that kelp supplementation decreases susceptibility to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis due to increased iodine concentrations in tears. Whereas serum and milk iodine concentrations are positively correlated and modulated by oral iodine supplementation, nothing is known about the iodine concentration of tears. Therefore, the 3 objectives of this pilot study were to determine (1) the iodine content of tears, milk, and serum of cows after being fed kelp for 30d; (2) the trace mineral and thyroid status of cows before (d 0) and after being fed kelp for 30d; and (3) the in vitro growth rate of bacteria in tears (Moraxella bovis) or milk (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis) collected from cows fed no kelp (d 0) or kelp (d 30). Cows (n=3/treatment) were individually fed 56g of kelp per day (n=3/treatment) or not (n=3/no treatment) for 30 d. Daily feed intake of the TMR was recorded and weekly TMR, kelp, milk, blood and tear samples were collected and analyzed for iodine. The feed samples were pooled and further analyzed for other minerals. On d 0 and 30, liver biopsies and blood samples were collected and analyzed for mineral content and thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively. An inhibition test used milk and tear-soaked plates from kelp-fed cows (d 0 and 30) as well as 1 and 7.5% iodine as positive and distilled water as negative control. As expected, serum iodine concentrations were positively correlated with milk and tear iodine concentrations. Whereas the iodine concentrations in serum increased significantly in the kelp-fed cows during the 30-d study, milk and tear iodine concentrations increased only numerically in these cows compared with the control group. Liver mineral profiles were comparable between groups and generally did not change over the course of the study

  1. A Crosslinked HA-Based Hydrogel Ameliorates Dry Eye Symptoms in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David L.; Mann, Brenda K.

    2013-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, commonly referred to as dry eye or KCS, can affect both humans and dogs. The standard of care in treating KCS typically includes daily administration of eye drops to either stimulate tear production or to hydrate and lubricate the corneal surface. Lubricating eye drops are often applied four to six times daily for the life of the patient. In order to reduce this dosing regimen yet still provides sufficient hydration and lubrication, we have developed a crosslinked hydrogel based on a modified, thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA), xCMHA-S. This xCMHA-S gel was found to have different viscosity and rheologic behavior than solutions of noncrosslinked HA. The gel was also able to increase tear breakup time in rabbits, indicating a stabilization of the tear film. Further, in a preliminary clinical study of dogs with KCS, the gel significantly reduced the symptoms associated with KCS within two weeks while only being applied twice daily. The reduction of symptoms combined with the low dosing regimen indicates that this gel may lead to both improved patient health and owner compliance in applying the treatment. PMID:23840213

  2. Epidemiology of allergic conjunctivitis: clinical appearance and treatment patterns in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Andrea; Castegnaro, Angela; Valerio, Alvise La Gloria; Lazzarini, Daniela

    2015-10-01

    To analyse the most recently published studies on the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis alone or in association with allergic rhinitis, and the clinical and demographic aspects of the disease. Allergic conjunctivitis or conjunctival symptoms are present in 30-71% of patients with allergic rhinitis. Allergic conjunctivitis alone has been estimated in 6-30% of the general population and in up to 30% in children alone or in association with allergic rhinitis. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most frequent form; however, studies from tertiary, ophthalmology referral centers report that the chronic forms, such as vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis, are the most frequently seen by ophthalmologists. A recent large survey performed at a national level involving 304 ophthalmologists showed that the majority of patients with allergic conjunctivitis suffer annually of few episodes of mild ,intermittent conjunctivitis. However, 30% of patients are affected by frequent episodes with intense and persistent symptoms. Treatment is frequently not appropriate. Even though allergic conjunctivitis is often associated to allergic rhinitis, epidemiology studies frequently do not include specific ophthalmological evaluations. An understanding of allergic conjunctivitis disease, its prevalence, demographics and treatment paradigms will provide important information towards understanding its pharmacoeconomics and burden on the national health systems.

  3. Ophthalmic complications following megavoltage irradiation of the nasal and paranasal cavities in dogs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S M; Lavach, J D; Severin, G A; Withrow, S J; Gillette, E L

    1987-01-01

    Megavoltage x-radiation was used to treat orbital nasal, and paranasal cavity malignant neoplasia in 29 dogs. In each instance, the globe and adnexal tissues were within the treatment portals (entry and/or exit). Doses administered to tumors ranged from 3,680 to 5,000 cGy. Ocular reactions after irradiation were classified as mild in 5 of 29 cases (17.2%) and severe in 17 of 29 cases (58.6%). No ocular complications were noticed in 7 of 29 cases (24.1%). Complications frequently noticed included severe keratitis (41%), mild conjunctivitis (34%), severe conjunctivitis (28%), cataract (28%), and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (24%). Ocular complications that developed were not life threatening, but posed a threat to visual function and patient quality of life. Treatment for the complications included control of bacterial infection, reduction of tissue inflammation, and ocular surface protection when tear film deficiencies were noticed. Mild complications represented acute effects of irradiation, and typically resolved. Severe complications developed both acutely and as late irradiation effects. Those attributed to late irradiation effects were more vision threatening and altered the quality of life more than did the early effects.

  4. Gap analysis of Mycoplasma bovis disease, diagnosis and control: An aid to identify future development requirements.

    PubMed

    Calcutt, M J; Lysnyansky, I; Sachse, K; Fox, L K; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2018-05-01

    There is a worldwide problem of disease caused by Mycoplasma (M.) bovis in cattle; it has a significant detrimental economic and animal welfare impact on cattle rearing. Infection can manifest as a plethora of clinical signs including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis media and genital disorders that may result in infertility and abortion. Current diagnosis and control information are reviewed and analysed to identify gaps in knowledge of the causative organism in respect of the disease pathology, diagnosis and control methods. The main considerations are as follows: no vaccines are commercially available; antimicrobial resistance is increasing; diagnostic and antimicrobial sensitivity testing needs to be improved; and a pen-side test would facilitate more rapid diagnosis and implementation of treatment with antimicrobials. More data on host susceptibility, stress factors, immune response and infectious dose levels are required. The impact of asymptomatic carriers, M. bovis survival in the environment and the role of wildlife in transmitting the disease also needs investigation. To facilitate development of vaccines, further analysis of more M. bovis genomes, its pathogenic mechanisms, including variable surface proteins, is required, along with reproducible disease models. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Congenital keratoglobus with multiple cardiac anomalies: a case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Pinar A; Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha

    2015-07-01

    Keratoglobus is a rare condition of bilateral corneal ectasia, which results in high myopia, irregular astigmatism, scarring, and rarely spontaneous globe rupture. Globoid protrusion of a clear, diffusely thin cornea is the pathology. The congenital form has been associated with blue sclera in which there is a systemic connective tissue disorder with abnormal collagen synthesis like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta. Some concomitant abnormalities reported with kertoglobus include joint hypermobility, dental and skeletal abnormalities, osteal fragility, and deafness. Acquired forms have been reported to be associated with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and thyroid ophthalmopathy. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy with keratoglobus who presented with a history of photophobia and a low vision in both eyes since birth. He has been followed up by our pediatric cardiology department due to multiple cardiac anomalies. He had hypermobility of large joints, easy bruising, thin and hyperextensible skin with visible veins, which were also described in his elder brother. We aimed to discuss the etiology and the association of keratoglobus with some systemic abnormalities caused by collogen tissue disturbance, and make a brief review about the recent literature concerning the management of keratoglobus patients.

  6. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser third eyelid excision: surgical description and report of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Dees, Dustin D; Knollinger, Amy M; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2015-09-01

    To describe a novel technique for third eyelid (TEL) excision using a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Prospective. The procedure was performed on six canine patients and one feline patient. The laser was set to 6 Watts (W) of power and a linear continuous setting. Forceps were used to elevate the TEL and, with a protective shield covering the cornea, the base was cut and cauterized simultaneously. Minimal to no hemorrhage was observed, and the conjunctiva was left to heal by second intention. Seven patients underwent unilateral surgical TEL excision. All patients had suspected neoplasms affecting either the glandular tissues or conjunctival surfaces of the TEL. Clean surgical margins were achieved in all but one patient. All surgical sites were considered healed by 14 days showing mild-to-moderate conjunctival hyperemia and accumulation of mucoid discharge at the ventronasal fornix. One patient experienced postoperative keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Prolapse of orbital fat was not observed in any patient. Use of CO2 laser appears to be an efficient and effective means for surgical third eyelid removal with excellent postoperative comfort and minimal complications. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Novel Human Adenovirus Causing Nosocomial Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Ishiko, Hiroaki; Shimada, Yasushi; Konno, Tsunetada; Hayashi, Akio; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Aoki, Koki; Ohno, Shigeaki; Yamazaki, Shudo

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, we encountered cases of nosocomial infections with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) at a university hospital in Kobe, in the western part of Japan. Two human adenovirus (HAdV) strains, Kobe-H and Kobe-S, were isolated from patients with nosocomial EKC infection. They were untypeable by existing neutralizing antisera; however, the isolate was neutralized with homologous antisera. We then encountered several cases of EKC due to nosocomial infections in eye clinics in different parts of Japan. A total of 80 HAdVs were isolated from patients with EKC at eight different hospitals. The partial hexon gene sequences of the isolates were determined and compared to those of the prototype strains of 51 serotypes. All isolates had identical partial hexon nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis classified these isolates into species of HAdV-D. The isolates showed 93.9 to 96.7% nucleotide identity with HAdV-D prototype strains, while all 32 HAdV-D prototype strains ranged from 93.2 to 99.2% identity. The sequences of the loop 2 and fiber knob regions from the representative strain, Kobe-H, were dissimilar in all prototype strains of 51 serotypes. We believe that this virus is a novel serotype of HAdV that causes EKC. PMID:18385435

  8. Mechanisms Involved in Injury and Repair of the Murine Lacrimal Gland: Role of Programmed Cell Death and Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zoukhri, Driss

    2011-01-01

    The non-keratinized epithelia of the ocular surface are constantly challenged by environmental insults, such as smoke, dust, and airborne pathogens. Tears are the sole physical protective barrier for the ocular surface. Production of tears in inadequate quantity or of inadequate quality results in constant irritation of the ocular surface, leading to dry eye disease, also referred to as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Inflammation of the lacrimal gland, such as occurs in Sjögren’s syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic graft versus-host disease, and other pathological conditions, results in inadequate secretion of the aqueous layer of the tear film, and is a leading cause of dry eye disease. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of immune cell infiltrates, loss of acinar epithelial cells (the secreting cells), and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. To date, the mechanisms leading to acinar cell loss and the associated decline in lacrimal gland secretion are still poorly understood. It is also not understood why the remaining lacrimal gland cells are unable to proliferate in order to regenerate a functioning lacrimal gland. This article reviews recent advances in exocrine tissue injury and repair, with emphasis on the roles of programmed cell death and stem/progenitor cells. PMID:20427009

  9. Primary Sjögren syndrome: an update on current pharmacotherapy options and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Bové, Albert; Kostov, Belchin A; Ramos-Casals, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by sicca features and systemic manifestations, and requires a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Treatment of sicca manifestations is symptomatic and is based on the administration of topical therapies (saliva substitutes and preservative-free artificial tears). In severe cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca, topical cyclosporine A may be used. For patients with residual salivary gland function, stimulation of salivary flow with a sialogogue (pilocarpine or cevimeline) is the treatment of choice. The management of extraglandular features must be tailored to the specific organ(s) involved. Hydroxychloroquine may be appropriate for patients with fatigue, arthralgia and myalgia, while glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents should be reserved for severe systemic involvement (although no controlled trials in primary SS guide their use). RCTs have demonstrated the lack of efficacy of antitumor necrosis factor agents and promising results for B-cell depleting agents. The overall low level of evidence in therapeutic studies in primary SS suggests that much larger trials of the most promising therapies are necessary. The use of drugs targeting molecules and receptors involved in the etiopathogenesis of primary SS may open up a new era in the therapeutic management of the disease, but the potential risks and benefits of these agents must be weighed carefully.

  10. Diabetic corneal neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R O; Peters, M A; Sobocinski, K; Nassif, K; Schultz, K J

    1983-01-01

    Corneal epithelial lesions can be found in approximately one-half of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. These lesions are transient and clinically resemble the keratopathy seen in staphylococcal keratoconjunctivitis. Staphylococcal organisms, however, can be isolated in equal percentages from diabetic patients without keratopathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be related to the presence of diabetic keratopathy after adjusting for age with analysis of covariance. The strongest predictor of both keratopathy and corneal fluorescein staining was vibration perception threshold in the toes (P less than 0.01); and the severity of keratopathy was directly related to the degree of diminution of peripheral sensation. Other predictors of keratopathy were: reduced tear breakup time (P less than 0.03), type of diabetes (P less than 0.01), and metabolic status as indicated by c-peptide fasting (P less than 0.01). No significant relationships were found between the presence of keratopathy and tear glucose levels, endothelial cell densities, corneal thickness measurements, the presence of S epidermidis, or with duration of disease. It is our conclusion that asymptomatic epithelial lesions in the nontraumatized diabetic cornea can occur as a manifestation of generalized polyneuropathy and probably represent a specific form of corneal neuropathy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:6676964

  11. The first report of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Kahroba, Houman; Mohammadian, Babak; Mokhber-Dezfouli, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-08-01

    In mid-July 2013, an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was observed in a herd of camels after they were imported from Kuwait to the Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. The clinical signs of the affected animals included sudden death, fever, oral erosion, and ecthyma like lesions, yellowish diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory distress, enlargement of lymph node, severe dehydration, dermatitis, ulcerative keratitis, and conjunctivitis. Necropsy findings included keratoconjunctivitis, congestion and consolidation of the lung, paleness of the liver, and enlargement and edema of lymph nodes. Histopathological exam revealed degeneration and acute hyperemia of the lungs, fatty change and necrotic foci in the liver, tubular necrosis in the kidneys, and necrotic dermatitis. We used immunocapture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and differentiate it from rinderpest virus. Then virus genome was studied by molecular analysis for detecting of strain and substrain of the virus. Immunocapture ELISA of all specimens reacted positively against PPRV antigens. Also, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results in the lung and lymph nodes of the dead camels consolidated the cause of disease to be PPRV. The present study is the first report of the PPRV outbreak in camels in Iran.

  12. [Sjögren syndrome in ORL. Diagnostic considerations].

    PubMed

    Leache Pueyo, J J; Sevil Navarro, J; Del Agua, C

    2001-01-01

    A presentation the history of a 51-year-old woman with xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), developed in 10 months, investigations revealed the presence in serum of antibodies against cytoplasmic antigens SS-A (Ac anti-Ro/SS-A), antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and rheumatoid factor (RF). The Rose Bengal test was positive and in the salivary gammagraphy, made with pertecnate 99 mTc, it was observed a decrease of the captation and excretion of the designer for salivary glands. The histopathology and immunohistochemical study of minor salivary glands showed the presence of a focal lymphocitic sialadenitis (fsa) and a predominance of lymphocites CD4+. It was diagnosed as primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) and the patient treated with salivary substitutes, artificial tears and corticoids. We analyse the current diagnostic criteria of the group of study of the European Community for the Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and emphasize the importance of histologic and immunochemical studies, that together with the rest of complementary tests will led us to distinguish not only the different forms of the presentation of the illness but also those of all patients with pathologies which are nowadays very prevalent in our environment, such as the hepatitis C (HCV) an the human immune deficiency (HIV) virus infections.

  13. [Early clinical diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis. A study of 70 eyes].

    PubMed

    Bernauer, W; Duguid, G I; Dart, J K

    1996-05-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is an uncommon condition which is usually associated with contact lens wear. The use of home made saline and poor hygiene are important risk factors. Early diagnosis is crucial since these cases respond well to medical therapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate early clinical signs. Between September 1992 and October 1994, 70 cases of acanthamoeba keratitis, one of them bilateral, were prospectively monitored at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London. A database of all patients was set up and the clinical findings, diagnostic methods, therapeutic interventions and the outcome were recorded. 66 patients (96%) were contact lens wearers, 64 of them (97%) wore soft lenses. The mean interval between first symptoms and correct diagnosis was 42%. The most frequent initial diagnoses were "unclear keratoconjunctivitis" and "herpetic keratitis". Early corneal findings included punctate keratopathy (n = 14; 20%), pseudodendrites (n = 4; 6%), epithelial infiltrates (n = 17; 24%), diffuse or focal sub-epithelial infiltrates (n = 36; 51%) and radial keratoneuritis (n = 5; 7%). Ring infiltrates (n = 13; 18%) and corneal ulceration (n = 13) were late signs. When the above corneal findings are observed, particularly in contact lens wearers, the diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis should be considered. The diagnosis of "herpetic keratitis" in association with contact lens wear should be encountered with scepticism.

  14. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema. The extent of the hazard of UVR varies depending on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the levels of UVR that are present under various conditions. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the hazard of UVR emitted in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of aluminum alloys. The degree of hazard of UVR is measured by the effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines. The effective irradiances measured in this study are in the range 0.10-0.91 mW/cm(2) at a distance of 500 mm from the welding arc. The maximum allowable exposure times corresponding to these levels are only 3.3-33 s/day. This demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by GTAW of aluminum alloys is quite hazardous in practice. In addition, we found the following properties of the hazard of UVR. (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) It is more hazardous when magnesium is included in the welding materials than when it is not. (3) The hazard depends on the direction of emission from the arc.

  15. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    PubMed Central

    NAKASHIMA, Hitoshi; UTSUNOMIYA, Akihiro; FUJII, Nobuyuki; OKUNO, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema. The extent of the hazard of UVR varies depending on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the levels of UVR that are present under various conditions. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the hazard of UVR emitted in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of aluminum alloys. The degree of hazard of UVR is measured by the effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines. The effective irradiances measured in this study are in the range 0.10–0.91 mW/cm2 at a distance of 500 mm from the welding arc. The maximum allowable exposure times corresponding to these levels are only 3.3–33 s/day. This demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by GTAW of aluminum alloys is quite hazardous in practice. In addition, we found the following properties of the hazard of UVR. (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) It is more hazardous when magnesium is included in the welding materials than when it is not. (3) The hazard depends on the direction of emission from the arc. PMID:26632121

  16. Efficacy of a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel as a tear film supplement: a masked controlled study.

    PubMed

    Williams, David L; Mann, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), or dry eye, is a significant medical problem in both humans and dogs. Treating KCS often requires the daily application of more than one type of eye drop in order to both stimulate tear prodcution and provide a tear supplement to increase hydration and lubrication. A previous study demonstrated the potential for a crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (xCMHA-S) to reduce the clinical signs associated with KCS in dogs while using a reduced dosing regimen of only twice-daily administration. The present study extended those results by comparing the use of the xCMHA-S to a standard HA-containing tear supplement in a masked, randomized clinical study in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of KCS. The xCMHA-S was found to significantly improve ocular surface health (conjunctival hyperaemia, ocular irritation, and ocular discharge) to a greater degree than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0003). Further, owners reported the xCMHA-S treatment as being more highly effective than the alternative tear supplement (P = 0.0024). These results further demonstrate the efficacy of the xCMHA-S in reducing the clinical signs associated with KCS, thereby improving patient health and owner happiness.

  17. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of TSLP Function in Human Allergic Disorders - TSLP Programs the “Th2 code” in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tomoki; Liu, Yong-Jun; Arima, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been recently implicated as a key molecule for initiating allergic inflammation at the epithelial cell-dendritic cell (DC) interface. In humans, aberrant TSLP expression is observed in allergic tissues, such as lesional skins of atopic dermatitis, lungs of asthmatics, nasal mucosa of atopic rhinitis and nasal polyps, and ocular surface of allergic keratoconjunctivitis. TSLP is produced predominantly by damaged epithelial cells and stimulates myeloid DCs (mDCs). TSLP-activated mDCs can promote the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into a Th2 phenotype and the expansion of CD4+ Th2 memory cells in a unique manner dependent on OX40L, one of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily members with Th2-promoting function, and lack of production of IL-12. From a genetic point of view, multiple genome-wide association studies have repeatedly identified the TSLP gene as one of the loci associated with susceptibility to allergic diseases. Thus, TSLP is a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic disorders. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate TSLP expression and the effects of TSLP on orchestrating the immune response toward a Th2 phenotype is essential for developing anti-TSLP therapy. PMID:22189594

  18. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Verma, Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. PMID:25097796

  19. An Overview on Dry Eye Treatment: Approaches for Cyclosporin A Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca) is a common disorder of the tear film caused by decreased tear production or increased evaporation. Changes in tear composition also promote inflammation on the ocular surface by various mechanisms. Artificial tear drops, tear retention treatment, stimulation of tear secretion, or anti-inflammatory drugs may be used for dry eye treatment according to the severity of the disease. For untreated patients, the risk of ocular infection increases at considerable level and clinical course of the disease may proceed up to infection, corneal ulcer, and blindness. Artificial tears and/or punctual occlusions are used for tear replacement or preservation. New treatment approaches are designed to modify the underlying disease process. For the treatment of severe dry eye disease, cyclosporin A (CsA), the first one of the new generation immunomodulatory drugs, which has an anti-inflammatory effect, is frequently used. CsA has immunosuppressive effects following systemic application. Following local administration of CsA, it is expected to obtain effective drug concentration at the target area and to avoid the various side effects associated with systemic delivery. Microspheres, implants, and liposomes have been developed for administration of CsA subconjunctivally in order to enhance its efficiency. PMID:22619624

  20. Carbamazepine-Induced Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Skalli, Saadia; Barret, Pierre; Villier, Céline; Bussières, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    A 15-year-old adolescent was admitted to the hospital for management of a generalized pruritic skin rash, which had appeared 10 days prior to admission. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and insulin were initiated 44 and 23 days prior to the onset of the skin rash (day 44), respectively. Clinical examination showed bluish lesions on the tongue and bilateral keratoconjunctivitis. His skin was very erythematous and pruritic without edema and covered with hundreds of nonfollicular pustules mainly on the trunk and skin folds. Laboratory assessment revealed leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia. A sample of superficial pus from a pustule on the trunk showed a significant number of leukocytes as well as a significant number of Staphylococcus aureus and Lancefield Group B β-hemolytic streptococci strains. An abdominal skin biopsy revealed acute to subacute folliculocentric spongiotic dermatitis with subcorneal pustules. All of these observations were consistent with a diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Although we could not exclude with certainty the role of insulin initiated on day 21 and discontinued on day 55 with substitution to oral metformin and repaglinide, no cases of AGEP have ever been published with insulin, and skin lesions were not related to injection sites. This article describes a probable case of CBZ-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis in a 15-year-old adolescent. PMID:22477826

  1. Epidemiology of ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in three small Italian dog breeds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Adolfo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Corvi, Roberta; Santillo, Daniele; Andreani, Valentina; Pinzo, Barbara

    2017-12-28

    To describe the prevalence and the types of eye disorders that are known or presumed to be inherited (KP-HED) in three small Italian dog breeds. Three small Italian dog breeds: Maltese, Bolognese, and Italian Greyhound. All dogs of the breeds selected for this prospective observational study that underwent a complete ophthalmic examination between 1994 and 2015 were included. General and proportional KP-HED prevalence with 95% confidence intervals were reported. Three hundred and six of 462 dogs were affected by at least one KP-HED (66.2%; 95% CI: 61.8%-70.4%). In the entire population, the five most common KP-HED were cataract (n = 122; rate on the total number of KP-HED: 31.4%), entropion (n = 56; 14.4%), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (n = 33; 8.5%), retinal dysplasia (n = 24; 6.2%), and persistent pupillary membrane (iris to iris) (n = 21; 5.4%). The most common KP-HED in each breed were cataracts in the Maltese (35.1%) and in the Bolognese (24.2%), and presentation of vitreous in the anterior chamber in the Italian Greyhound (46.7%). Clinicians should be aware of KP-HED that commonly affect three small Italian dog breeds. Breed standards should be reconsidered, and breeding programs should be directed at limiting such disorders. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  3. Effects of vernal and allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Cinar, Yasin; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Yuksel, Harun; Sahin, Muhammed; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the effects of two different types of allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus (KC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 KC patients referred between June 2010 and June 2011. The KC patients were divided into 3 groups as KC (group A), KC with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) (group B) and KC with allergic conjunctivitis (AC) (group C). Main outcome measures were demographic and ocular clinical features including age at presentation, gender, spherical equivalent (SE), best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), mean keratometric measurement (Km), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP). Groups were compared in term of study variables. The median age at presentation was significantly lower in group B (P<0.001). According to the median SE (P=0.003), BCVA (P=0.022), Km (P<0.001), CCT (P=0.015) and Amsler-Krumeich classification (P<0.001), KC was more severe in group B. There was no significant difference in terms of IOP and corrected IOP among the groups (P=0.44), however there were 4 patients who had increased corrected IOP developed after topical corticosteroid use in group B. The differences among the groups persisted even after controlling for age and gender. Our findings demonstrated a more severe KC in VKC patients despite their younger age which suggests evaluation of VKC patients as a separate group in keratoconus disease.

  4. Determination of reference values for intraocular pressure and Schirmer tear test results in clinically normal domestic donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Selk Ghaffari, Masoud; Sabzevari, Amin; Ghamsari, SeyedMehdi; Shad, Hussein

    2017-11-25

    This study was conducted to establish normal reference range for the Schirmer tear test (STT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal donkeys for use in clinical practice. Sixteen adult Ethiopian domestic donkeys were used in this study. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. STT values were evaluated in both eyes of all donkeys using a commercial STT strip. IOP was measured in both eyes with a Tono-Pen Vet (Reichert. USA) without using regional nerve blocks. STT values for all eyes (n=32) were 22.1±6.9 mm/minute with a range of 13-35 mm/minute. Comparison of mean STT values between right (n=16) and left eyes (n=16) showed no differences (P=0.6). Mean ±sd IOP values by applanation tonometry were 17.8±3.7 mmHg (range 13.5-24.5 mmHg). Comparison of mean IOP values between right (n=16) and left eyes (n=16) showed no differences (P=0.7). This initial survey provides means and ranges for IOP and STT values in donkeys. These data will assist veterinary ophthalmologists in more accurate diagnosis and management of ophthalmic diseases in donkeys, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca and glaucoma. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts (in Japanese and English)

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, asmore » were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)« less

  6. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: acute and chronic common and uncommon medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24 h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Knowledge of these and other 24 h patterns of human pathophysiology informs research of their underlying circadian and other endogenous mechanisms, external temporal triggers, and more effective patient care entailing clinical chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical and ultrasonographic findings of some ocular conditions in sheep and goats

    PubMed Central

    El-Tookhy, O.; Tharwat, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to describe the ultrasonographic findings in relation to the clinical symptoms of some common ocular conditions in sheep and goats. Fifty animals (32 goats and 18 sheep) with different ocular problems were examined. Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a B-mode ocular ultrasound unit, and the structure of the globe was evaluated at a depth of 4-6 cm. Early cases (n=35, 70%) showed varying ocular conditions; hypopyon, (n=8, 16%), stromal abscesses, (n=4, 8%), and anterior uveitis (n=23, 46%). Hypopyon appeared clinically as a white or yellowish material in the anterior chamber, and ultrasonographically as a hyperechoic mass in the anterior chamber. Severe iridocyclitis was noticed in acute cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) accompanied by blepharospasm, photophobia, excessive tearing and eyelid margin crust formation. Ultrasonographically, the pupil appeared constricted with increased hyperechoic thickening of the ciliary body. In chronic cases of IKC, corneal pigmentation (n=5, 10%) and cataract (n=10, 20%) were seen. Ultrasonographically the type and degree of cataract were diagnosed. The present study provides an inside view of the inner ocular structures during the course of certain eye diseases where ophthalmoscopic examination is not possible. Our findings, although preliminary, are relevant for the more complete diagnosis of certain external ocular conditions in sheep and goat herds. PMID:26623306

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rebamipide Eyedrop Administration on Ocular Lesions in a Murine Model of Primary Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Rieko; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Akiko; Kudo, Yasusei; Iwasa, Akihiko; Enkhmaa, Tserennadmid; Hotta, Fumika; Mitamura-Aizawa, Sayaka; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Yoshio; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2014-01-01

    Background Topical therapy is effective for dry eye, and its prolonged effects should help in maintaining the quality of life of patients with dry eye. We previously reported that the oral administration of rebamipide (Reb), a mucosal protective agent, had a potent therapeutic effect on autoimmune lesions in a murine model of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). However, the effects of topical treatment with Reb eyedrops on the ocular lesions in the murine model of SS are unknown. Methods and Finding Reb eyedrops were administered to the murine model of SS aged 4–8 weeks four times daily. Inflammatory lesions of the extraorbital and intraorbital lacrimal glands and Harderian gland tissues were histologically evaluated. The direct effects of Reb on the lacrimal glands were analyzed using cultured lacrimal gland cells. Tear secretions of Reb-treated mice were significantly increased compared with those of untreated mice. In addition to the therapeutic effect of Reb treatment on keratoconjunctivitis, severe inflammatory lesions of intraorbital lacrimal gland tissues in this model of SS were resolved. The mRNA expression levels of IL-10 and mucin 5Ac in conjunctival tissues from Reb-treated mice was significantly increased compared with those of control mice. Moreover, lactoferrin production from lacrimal gland cells was restored by Reb treatment. Conclusion Topical Reb administration had an anti-inflammatory effect on the ocular autoimmune lesions in the murine model of SS and a protective effect on the ocular surfaces. PMID:24866156

  9. Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions Contrast-enhanced CT is a valuable tool for noninvasive assessment of canine lacrimal glands. PMID:24886364

  10. [Ocular traumatism in children at Laquintinie Hospital, Douala (Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Bella-Hiag, A L; Mvogo, C E

    2000-01-01

    Pediatric ophthalmology is poorly developed in Cameroon. However, efforts are being made to collect data essential for the development of national strategies to combat blindness. We relate our experience, within this framework, at a large public hospital in Cameroon. We carried out a retrospective study covering the period from June 1993 to May 1998, studying the medical files of children under the age of 15 years with ocular traumatism. Data were collected from 144 files. The frequency of ocular/orbital injury was 7.8% and was the third most common condition, after ametropia and kerato-conjunctivitis, in this population. The mean age of the children was 7 years and 3 months and more boys (64%) than girls were affected. Ocular lesions were due to contusion in 83.3% of cases. The principal causes of the trauma were children's games (40.2%), and punishment by parents or teachers (23.7%). The ocular lesions were similar to those described in previous studies. Infection was rare, because the interval from trauma to consultation was very short. The functional prognosis was severe, with 24.3% of patients having final vision less than 1/10. We recommend that children should be informed about the dangers of violent games and that parents and teachers should be made aware of the dangers associated with brutality towards children. Finally, ophthalmologists should ensure that the injured eye is treated rapidly and carefully so as to minimize functional sequelae.

  11. A review on recent advances in dry eye: Pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Ankita S.; Bhavsar, Samir G.; Jain, Sunita M.

    2011-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, more commonly known as dry eye, is an extremely common and often unrecognized disease. It is the condition in ophthalmology that in its mild grade of severity will affect most of the population at one time or other. Due to a wide variety of presentations and symptoms, it often frustrates the ophthalmologists as well as patients. Due to multifactorial and elusive etiology, it is often challenging to treat dry eye. Ocular surface disorders are also clinically important to treat especially in terms of visual acuity. Xero-dacryology is therefore becoming a very important branch of ophthalmology. Recent studies have given insight into the inflammatory etiology of dry eye. The conventional and main approach to the treatment of dry eye is providing lubricating eye drops or tear substitutes. However, the newer treatment approach is to target the underlying cause of dry eye instead of conventional symptomatic relief. In light of the above knowledge, the present article focuses on newer theories on pathogenesis of dry eye and their impact on dry eye management. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases in two steps. The first step was oriented to articles published for dry eye. The second step was focused on the role of inflammation and anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye. The search strategy was not limited by year of publication. A manual literature search was also undertaken from authentic reference books on ocular surface disease. PMID:21897618

  12. Kindler syndrome with severe mucosal involvement in a large Palestinian pedigree.

    PubMed

    El Hachem, May; Diociaiuti, Andrea; Proto, Vittoria; Fortugno, Paola; Zambruno, Giovanna; Castiglia, Daniele; Naim, Majdy

    2015-01-01

    Kindler syndrome (KS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease of skin fragility, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. Mucous membranes may also be involved. KS is caused by mutations in the FERMT1 gene encoding kindlin-1. We report the clinical and molecular features of the largest kindred with KS to date, comprising 18 affected family members (age range: 12-63 years) from the Gaza Strip. All the affected family members were clinically examined. In addition a skin biopsy for immunofluorescence testing was obtained from the index case. Molecular analysis of the FERMT1 gene was performed on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood of 5 patients. All patients presented skin and eye photosensitivity, cutaneous atrophy, dyschromia and poikiloderma, oral cavity involvement, dysphagia and constipation with anal fissures. In addition, nail dystrophy and digit webbing were observed in most of them. Ocular manifestations detected in all patients comprised ectropion and keratoconjunctivitis, with early development of symblepharon in 17 out of 18 cases and blindness in one. Of note, 17 out of 18 affected family members also suffered from urethral strictures since childhood. Diagnosis was supported by immunofluorescence findings and definitely confirmed by FERMT1 sequencing which identified the homozygous frame-shift mutation c.137_140delTAGT. The high rate of mucosal involvement, its early onset and progressive course are noticeable features of our kindred. Also noteworthy is the lack of muco-cutaneous malignancies, despite the sunny habitat.

  13. Effects of vernal and allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Cinar, Yasin; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Yuksel, Harun; Sahin, Muhammed; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-01-01

    AIM To demonstrate the effects of two different types of allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus (KC). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 KC patients referred between June 2010 and June 2011. The KC patients were divided into 3 groups as KC (group A), KC with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) (group B) and KC with allergic conjunctivitis (AC) (group C). Main outcome measures were demographic and ocular clinical features including age at presentation, gender, spherical equivalent (SE), best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), mean keratometric measurement (Km), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP). Groups were compared in term of study variables. RESULTS The median age at presentation was significantly lower in group B (P<0.001). According to the median SE (P=0.003), BCVA (P=0.022), Km (P<0.001), CCT (P=0.015) and Amsler–Krumeich classification (P<0.001), KC was more severe in group B. There was no significant difference in terms of IOP and corrected IOP among the groups (P=0.44), however there were 4 patients who had increased corrected IOP developed after topical corticosteroid use in group B. The differences among the groups persisted even after controlling for age and gender. CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrated a more severe KC in VKC patients despite their younger age which suggests evaluation of VKC patients as a separate group in keratoconus disease. PMID:23826535

  14. Cutaneous xanthomas with concurrent demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vogelnest, L J

    2001-07-01

    Multiple cutaneous xanthomas, associated with fasting hyperlipidaemia, are described in a 9-month-old domestic long-haired cat. A severely pruritic, papular, and crusting dermatitis affecting the head and neck, initially diagnosed as lesions of the eosinophilic granuloma complex, progressively developed on the head and pinnae. Pruritus was controlled with administration of prednisolone and chlorambucil. Repeat histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous xanthoma and concurrent mild demodicosis. Marked fasting hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and transient hyperglycaemia were subsequently confirmed. Treatment for hyperlipidaemia and xanthomas with a low-fat diet (Hill's Feline r/d) and the previously unreported treatment for feline demodicosis of daily oral milbemycin were commenced. Multiple pink, alopecic plaques and papules gradually regressed, however pruritus recurred if immunosuppressive treatment was reduced, and well-demarcated areas of alopecia developed on the head, limbs and trunk, despite negative skin scrapings for demodex mites. Fungal culture of hair samples yielded Microsporum canis. All cutaneous lesions resolved with the addition of griseofulvin to the treatment regimen. Concurrent corneal ulceration and keratoconjunctivitis sicca ultimately resolved with treatment, including topical cyclosporin. Diabetes mellitus developed 6 months after resolution of skin lesions. No cutaneous or ocular abnormalities were present 6 months later with continued low-fat diet and insulin administration, although transient recurrence of papules and pruritus occurred after inadvertent access to a fatty meal. An underlying primary hyperlipidaemia was suspected, causing pruritic xanthomas. This may represent the first report of concurrent cutaneous xanthomas, demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

  15. Periocular and Intra-Articular Injection of Canine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An In Vivo Imaging and Migration Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joshua A.; Chung, Dai-Jung; Park, Shin Ae; Zwingenberger, Allison L.; Reilly, Christopher M.; Ly, Irene; Walker, Naomi J.; Vernau, William; Hayashi, Kei; Wisner, Erik R.; Cannon, Matthew S.; Kass, Philip H.; Cherry, Simon R.; Borjesson, Dori L.; Russell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Immune-mediated diseases affect millions of people worldwide with an economic impact measured in the billions of dollars. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being investigated in the treatment of certain immune mediated diseases, but their application in the treatment of the majority of these disorders remains largely unexplored. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca can occur as a result of progressive immune-mediated destruction of lacrimal tissue in dogs and humans, and immune-mediated joint disease is common to both species. In dogs, allogeneic MSC engraftment and migration have yet to be investigated in vivo in the context of repeated injections. Methods With these aims in mind, the engraftment of allogeneic canine MSCs after an injection into the periocular and intra-articular regions was followed in vivo using magnetic resonance and fluorescent imaging. Results The cells were shown to be resident near the site of the injection for a minimum of 2 weeks. Analysis of 61 tissues demonstrated preferential migration and subsequent engraftment of MSCs in the thymus as well as the gastrointestinal tract. These results also detail a novel in vivo imaging technique and demonstrate the differential spatial distribution of MSCs after migration away from the sites of local delivery. Conclusion The active engraftment of the MSCs in combination with their previously documented immunomodulatory capabilities suggests the potential for therapeutic benefit in using MSCs for the treatment of periocular and joint diseases with immune involvement. PMID:22175793

  16. [The virological and epidemiological aspects of human adenoviral conjunctivitis in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Fedaoui, N; Ben Ayed, N; Ben Yahia, A; Matri, L; Nacef, L; Triki, H

    2017-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are the main cause of viral conjunctivitis. In Tunisia and North Africa more generally, there is no regular nationwide surveillance program that monitors viruses causing conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. In this study, we report the results of HAdV screening in conjunctival samples collected for over 14 years in Tunisia. A total of 282 conjunctival samples received between 2000 and 2013 were investigated. Detection and identification of genotype were performed by PCR-sequencing at the hexon gene; 64.5% of samples (n=182) revealed positive by PCR detection without correlation noted between infection, age, sex, social class or clinical manifestations of viral conjunctivitis. HAdV-D8 was the largely predominant genotype in Tunisia, representing 81.3% of all isolates, and was detected continuously from 2000 to 2013. Minor co-circulating genotypes were also identified - HAdV-E4, HAdV-B3, B55 and HAdV-B7 - accounting for 10.7%, 4.9%, 1.9% and 0.9% of isolates, respectively. In conclusion, this work reports epidemiological data on adenoviral conjunctivitis from a region where such information is very scarce and contributes to a better knowledge of the worldwide distribution of causative genotypes. It also presents an approach for the identification of circulating HAdV in the country and demonstrates the importance of molecular tools for both detection and identification of genotypes, which allow rapid virological investigation, especially during epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Corneal blindness: a global perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Whitcher, J. P.; Srinivasan, M.; Upadhyay, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Diseases affecting the cornea are a major cause of blindness worldwide, second only to cataract in overall importance. The epidemiology of corneal blindness is complicated and encompasses a wide variety of infectious and inflammatory eye diseses that cause corneal scarring, which ultimately leads to functional blindness. In addition, the prevalence of corneal disease varies from country to country and even from one population to another. While cataract is responsible for nearly 20 million of the 45 million blind people in the world, the next major cause is trachoma which blinds 4.9 million individuals, mainly as a result of corneal scarring and vascularization. Ocular trauma and corneal ulceration are significant causes of corneal blindness that are often underreported but may be responsible for 1.5-2.0 million new cases of monocular blindness every year. Causes of childhood blindness (about 1.5 million worldwide with 5 million visually disabled) include xerophthalmia (350,000 cases annually), ophthalmia neonatorum, and less frequently seen ocular diseases such as herpes simplex virus infections and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Even though the control of onchocerciasis and leprosy are public health success stories, these diseases are still significant causes of blindness--affecting a quarter of a million individuals each. Traditional eye medicines have also been implicated as a major risk factor in the current epidemic of corneal ulceration in developing countries. Because of the difficulty of treating corneal blindness once it has occurred, public health prevention programmes are the most cost-effective means of decreasing the global burden of corneal blindness. PMID:11285665

  18. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, P< 0.05. r =0.96, P< 0.05). The primary symptoms and signs are itching and hyperemia; dust and pollens are the most common allergens. The more positive result of the test of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  19. The effects of two different types of bandage contact lenses on the healthy canine eye.

    PubMed

    Braus, Barbara Katharina; Riedler, Daniela; Tichy, Alexander; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse

    2018-02-06

    To compare two types of bandage contact lenses on the healthy canine eye. Six healthy Beagles. Two different types of bandage contact lenses (single sized human silicone contact lens 'PureVision 2' (Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA) and specially designed veterinary hydrogel contact lens 'AcriVet Pat D' (Bausch & Lomb Incorporated) were placed in 12 eyes of healthy Beagle dogs. Retention times and the effects of the lenses regarding irritation of the eye, changes in tear production, impact of contact lenses on tonometric readings, and cytologic and microbiological alterations of the canine eye were investigated. Mean retention times for veterinary hydrogel lenses with special dimensions were significantly shorter (2 days) than for one size human silicon lenses (8.8 days). Irritation scores were overall low for both types of lenses apart from one human lens causing severe irritation and keratoconjunctivitis as a sequel to folding and displacement. Tear production remained stable in human contact lenses. Intraocular pressure readings with a contact lens in place were only slightly altered; the most accurate readings were obtained through a human lens with an applanation tonometer. Cytology revealed a slight, nonsignificant increase in neutrophilic granulocytes with both types of lenses; the microflora did not change significantly. Human silicone lenses have significantly longer retention times and are less expensive than veterinary hydrogel lenses. In regard to irritation, bacterial growth and inflammation, both types of lenses can be recommended for use in canine eyes. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. A Review of Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Munir, Saleha Z; Aylward, James

    2017-05-01

    : Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication that occurs following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is a potential curative therapy used in a variety of malignant or benign hematological diseases. Graft-versus-host disease primarily occurs in many organs, but most notably in the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, eyes, mucosa, and musculoskeletal system. Ocular manifestations of GVHD may precede other systemic GVHD findings, and it may be a poor prognosis for mortality. While all parts of the eye may be affected, ocular GVHD occurs primarily in the ocular surface. Dry eye disease or keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common presenting manifestation of chronic ocular GVHD. Dry eye disease in ocular GVHD is a multifactorial process, which involves destruction and fibrosis of lacrimal glands and conjunctiva, leading to tear film deficiency and instability. Depending on the severity of ocular involvement and response to treatment, ocular GVHD may cause decreased quality of life. Management of GVHD begins with prevention by understanding risk factors and by implementing prophylactic treatment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A multidisciplinary approach to the prevention and treatment of GVHD is important, and there are currently no preventive therapies available for ocular GVHD. Once diagnosed, ocular GVHD treatment strategies target ocular surface lubrication and support, tear film stabilization, inflammation reduction, and surgical intervention. The goal of this review is to define ocular GVHD and its categorical manifestations, as well as to describe the importance of comprehensive assessment, diagnosis, and ophthalmologic treatment and management of ocular GVHD with a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of SYSTANE UD eye drops versus VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops for the treatment of moderate dry eye.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Christina; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical, single-center study was to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 ocular surface lubricant eye drops: preservative-free hydroxypropyl (HP)-Guar (SYSTANE UD(®)) eye drops versus preservative-free Tamarindus indica seed polysaccharide (TSP) 1% (VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO(®)) eye drops. Fifty-six eyes of 28 patients with moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca (DEWS severity level 2) were enrolled in the trial. Patients were randomized for 2 treatment groups (SYSTANE UD eye drops vs. VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops). The eye drops in both groups were applied 5 times per day for 3 months. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistica™ software (Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test). P-Values<0.05 were considered significant. After 3 months of treatment the patients of both groups had subjective benefit in the relief of symptoms of dry eye disease evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire score. Patients treated with HP-Guar and TSP showed improvements in tear film stability measured by tear break-up time (TBUT), which are statistically significant in the HP-Guar group (P=0.02). The results of this clinical trial show improvements of symptoms and signs in patients with moderate dry eye after the consistent use of preservative-free HP-Guar and TSP lubricant eye drops. Both artificial tear formulations produce amelioration in tear film stability improving eye conditions and patient quality of life. HP-Guar seems to be slightly more effective in improving ocular surface protection by decreasing tear film evaporation.

  2. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders' Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders' exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. In this case-control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers' wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders' wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm(2), respectively. There was a significantly (P < 0.01) higher incidence of cataracts, keratoconjunctivitis, dermatitis and erythema in welders than in their nonwelders. This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  3. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders’ Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders’ exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. Methods: In this case–control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers’ wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. Results: The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders’ wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm2, respectively. There was a significantly (P < 0.01) higher incidence of cataracts, keratoconjunctivitis, dermatitis and erythema in welders than in their nonwelders. Conclusions: This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures. PMID:26900437

  4. Contributions of Interleukin‐33 and TSLP in a papain‐soaked contact lens‐induced mouse conjunctival inflammation model

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Jobu; Asada, Yosuke; Ishida, Waka; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Sudo, Katsuko; Suto, Hajime; Matsunaga, Toru; Fukuda, Ken; Fukushima, Atsuki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Azuma, Miyuki; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Saito, Hirohisa; Kubo, Masato; Nakae, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Pathological changes of severe chronic allergic conjunctivitis are driven not only via acquired immunity but also via innate immunity. Type 2 immune response‐initiating cytokines may play some roles as innate immunity‐dependent components of the ocular surface inflammation. To investigate the involvement of type 2 immune response‐initiating cytokines in innate immunity‐dependent, papain‐induced conjunctival inflammation model using IL‐25‐, IL‐33‐, and TSLP receptor (TSLPR)‐knockout (KO) mice with reference to basophils and ILC2. Methods Papain‐soaked contact lenses (papain‐CLs) were installed in the conjunctival sacs of C57BL/6‐IL‐25 KO, IL‐33 KO, TSLPR KO, Rag2 KO, Bas‐TRECK, and wild‐type mice and their eyes were sampled at day 5. The eosinophil and basophil infiltration in papain‐CL model was evaluated histologically and cytokine expression was examined. To clarify the roles of basophils and ILC2, basophil/ILC2‐depletion experiments were carried out. Results Papain‐induced conjunctival inflammation exhibited eosinophil infiltration and upregulation of Th2 cytokine expression. Reduction of eosinophil and basophil infiltration and attenuated Th2 cytokine expression were observed in the papain‐CL model using IL‐33 KO and TSLPR KO mice. Depletion of basophils or ILC2s in the conjunctivae of the papain‐CL model reduced eosinophil infiltration. Conclusions Innate immunity‐driven type 2 immune responses of the ocular surface are dependent on IL‐33, TSLP, basophils, and ILC2. These components may be possible therapeutic targets for refractory allergic keratoconjunctivitis. PMID:28730605

  5. Photodermatitis and photokeratoconjunctivitis in a ball python (Python regius) and a blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua spp.).

    PubMed

    Gardiner, David W; Baines, Frances M; Pandher, Karamjeet

    2009-12-01

    A male ball python (Python regius) and a female blue tongue skink (Tiliqua spp.) of unknown age were evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, excessive shedding, corneal opacity (python), and weight loss (skink) of approximately three weeks' duration. These animals represented the worst affected animals from a private herpetarium where many animals exhibited similar signs. At necropsy, the python had bilateral corneal opacity and scattered moderate dysecdysis. The skink had mild dysecdysis, poor body condition, moderate intestinal nematodiasis, and mild liver atrophy. Microscopic evaluation revealed epidermal erosion and ulceration, with severe epidermal basal cell degeneration and necrosis, and superficial dermatitis (python and skink). Severe bilateral ulcerative keratoconjunctivitis with bacterial colonization was noted in the ball python. Microscopic findings within the skin and eyes were suggestive of ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage or of photodermatitis and photokeratoconjunctivitis. Removal of the recently installed new lamps from the terrariums of the surviving reptiles resulted in resolution of clinical signs. Evaluation of a sample lamp of the type associated with these cases revealed an extremely high UV output, including very-short-wavelength UVB, neither found in natural sunlight nor emitted by several other UVB lamps unassociated with photokeratoconjunctivitis. Exposure to high-intensity and/or inappropriate wavelengths of UV radiation may be associated with significant morbidity, and even mortality, in reptiles. Veterinarians who are presented with reptiles with ocular and/or cutaneous disease of unapparent cause should fully evaluate the specifics of the vivarium light sources. Further research is needed to determine the characteristics of appropriate and of toxic UV light for reptiles kept in captivity.

  6. Emergence of Atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae Strains Harboring a New Prophage and Associated with an Alpine Wild Ungulate Mortality Episode

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvàn, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Thébault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, François

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas. PMID:22522685

  7. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas metal arc welding of mild steel.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Takahashi, Jyunya; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2016-09-30

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema in the workplace. The degree of hazard from UVR exposure depends on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the UVR levels present under various conditions. We experimentally evaluated the UVR levels emitted in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild steel. We used both a pulsed welding current and a non-pulsed welding current. The shielding gases were 80% Ar + 20% CO 2 and 100% CO 2 . The effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines was used to quantify the UVR hazard. The effective irradiance measured in this study was in the range of 0.51-12.9 mW/cm 2 at a distance of 500 mm from the arc. The maximum allowable exposure times at these levels are only 0.23-5.9 s/day. The following conclusions were made regarding the degree of hazard from UVR exposure during the GMAW of mild steel: (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) At higher welding currents, it is more hazardous when 80% Ar + 20% CO 2 is used as a shielding gas than when 100% CO 2 is used. (3) It is more hazardous for pulsed welding currents than for non-pulsed welding currents. (4) It appears to be very hazardous when metal transfer is the spray type. This study demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by the GMAW of mild steel is quite hazardous.

  8. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas metal arc welding of mild steel

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Takahashi, Jyunya; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema in the workplace. The degree of hazard from UVR exposure depends on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the UVR levels present under various conditions. Methods: We experimentally evaluated the UVR levels emitted in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of mild steel. We used both a pulsed welding current and a non-pulsed welding current. The shielding gases were 80% Ar + 20% CO2 and 100% CO2. The effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines was used to quantify the UVR hazard. Results: The effective irradiance measured in this study was in the range of 0.51-12.9 mW/cm2 at a distance of 500 mm from the arc. The maximum allowable exposure times at these levels are only 0.23-5.9 s/day. Conclusions: The following conclusions were made regarding the degree of hazard from UVR exposure during the GMAW of mild steel: (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) At higher welding currents, it is more hazardous when 80% Ar + 20% CO2 is used as a shielding gas than when 100% CO2 is used. (3) It is more hazardous for pulsed welding currents than for non-pulsed welding currents. (4) It appears to be very hazardous when metal transfer is the spray type. This study demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by the GMAW of mild steel is quite hazardous. PMID:27488036

  9. Effects of Capsaicin and Carbachol on Secretion From Transplanted Submandibular Glands and Prevention of Duct Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Su, Jia-Zeng; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yang; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Lan; Wang, Zhen; Hong, Xia; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin and carbachol promote secretion from and prevent duct obstruction in transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs). This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca and successful SMG transplantation. Patients were divided into 2 groups: an exposed group receiving both capsaicin and carbachol after surgery and an unexposed group receiving neither. Secretion changes in response to capsaicin and carbachol administration were recorded in the exposed group. The main outcome measures were the secretory flow rate and duct obstruction rate in the transplanted SMGs. Forty-four patients (44 eyes) in the unexposed group and 115 patients (128 eyes) in the exposed group were followed up for more than 3 months postoperatively. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. The secretory flow rate before and 5, 25, 55 minutes after administration was 1 mm (0-2 mm) (median with interquartile range), 3 mm (1-5 mm), 4 mm (2-5 mm), 1 mm (0-2.5 mm), respectively, for capsaicin and 1 mm (0-3 mm), 1050 mm (450-1500 mm), 375 mm (150-600 mm), 0 mm (0-150 mm), respectively, for carbachol (P < 0.001 for both). In the exposed group, 6.2% of eyes had duct obstruction, whereas 18.2% of eyes in the unexposed group had duct obstruction (P = 0.031) (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% confidence interval, 0.105-0.856). This study provides evidence that capsaicin and carbachol effectively promote secretion from and prevent duct obstruction in transplanted SMGs during at least 3 months after transplantation.

  10. Interferon-γ-Induced Unfolded Protein Response in Conjunctival Goblet Cells as a Cause of Mucin Deficiency in Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coursey, Terry G; Tukler Henriksson, Johanna; Barbosa, Flavia L; de Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    Goblet cells (GCs) are specialized secretory cells that produce mucins and a variety of other proteins. Significant conjunctival GC loss occurs in both experimental dry eye models and patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca due to the induction of interferon (IFN)-γ. With the use of a primary murine culture model, we found that GCs are highly sensitive to IFN-γ with significantly reduced proliferation and altered structure with low concentrations. GC cultures treated with IFN-γ have increased gene expression of Muc2 and Muc5AC but do not express these mucin glycoproteins. We hypothesized that IFN-γ induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in GCs. Cultures treated with IFN-γ increased expression of UPR-associated genes and proteins. Increased GRP78 and sXBP1 expression was found in experimental dry eye and Sjögren syndrome models and was GC specific. Increased GRP78 was also found in the conjunctiva of patients with Sjögren syndrome at the gene and protein levels. Treatment with dexamethasone inhibited expression of UPR-associated genes and increased mucin production. These results indicate that induction of UPR by IFN-γ is an important cause of GC-associated mucin deficiency observed in aqueous-deficient dry eye. Therapies to block the effects of IFN-γ on the metabolically active endoplasmic reticulum in these cells might enhance synthesis and secretion of the protective GC mucins on the ocular surface. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Punctate retinal hemorrhage and its relation to ocular and systemic disease in dogs: 83 cases.

    PubMed

    Violette, Nathaniel P; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2018-05-01

    To describe clinical aspects of dogs with punctate retinal hemorrhage (PRH). 83 dogs (119 eyes) with PRH. Medical records of dogs evaluated by the Cornell University ophthalmology service with a clinical diagnosis of PRH between 2006 and 2015 were reviewed. For this study, PRH was defined as retinal hemorrhages ≤ 1 optic disk diameter in size and dogs with other posterior segment ocular diseases were excluded. Signalment and clinical features of the dogs were recorded, including concurrent ocular and systemic diseases. Punctate retinal hemorrhage was identified in 119 eyes of 83 dogs. The mean (±standard deviation) age of dogs was 10.0 (±3.8) years. Mixed-breed dogs, Golden Retrievers, Jack Russell Terriers, and English Springer Spaniels were statistically overrepresented relative to the ophthalmology service canine referral population during the same period. Hemorrhages were found in all retinal locations and varied in number. Concurrent ocular disease was present in 78 eyes (66%) including keratoconjunctivitis sicca, uveitis, and cataracts. Fifty dogs (60%) suffered from concurrent systemic disease and diabetes mellitus, multiple myeloma, and systemic hypertension were statistically overrepresented in the PRH population. Less frequently, other serious systemic diseases were present in dogs with PRH including immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, leptospirosis, metastatic neoplasia, and thromboembolic disease. The risk of PRH in dogs may be increased by certain ocular and systemic diseases. As the presence of PRH can be associated with underlying systemic disease in dogs, it may prompt further clinical investigation and diagnostics. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Herpes Zoster Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Aaron R; Myers, Eileen M; Moster, Mark L; Stanley, Jordan; Kline, Lanning B; Golnik, Karl C

    2018-06-01

    Herpes zoster optic neuropathy (HZON) is a rare manifestation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). The aim of our study was to better characterize the clinical features, therapeutic choices, and visual outcomes in HZON. A retrospective chart review was performed at multiple academic eye centers with the inclusion criteria of all eyes presenting with optic neuropathy within 1 month of cutaneous zoster of the ipsilateral trigeminal dermatome. Data were collected regarding presenting features, treatment regimen, and visual acuity outcomes. Six patients meeting the HZON inclusion criteria were identified. Mean follow-up was 2.75 months (range 0.5-4 months). Herpes zoster optic neuropathy developed at a mean of 14.1 days after initial rash (range 6-30 days). Optic neuropathy was anterior in 2 eyes and retrobulbar in 4 eyes. Other manifestations of HZO included keratoconjunctivitis (3 eyes) and iritis (4 eyes). All patients were treated with systemic antiviral therapy in addition to topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. At the last follow-up, visual acuity in 3 eyes had improved relative to presentation, 2 eyes had worsened, and 1 eye remained the same. The 2 eyes that did not receive systemic corticosteroids had the best observed final visual acuity. Herpes zoster optic neuropathy is an unusual but distinctive complication of HZO. Visual recovery after HZON is variable. Identification of an optimal treatment regiment for HZON could not be identified from our patient cohort. Systemic antiviral agents are a component of HZON treatment regimens. Efficacy of systemic corticosteroids for HZON remains unclear and should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  13. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in transgenic mice expressing IE180 of the pseudorabies virus.

    PubMed

    Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Tomioka, Yukiko; Yoshino, Saori; Uede, Toshimitsu; Ono, Etsuro

    2005-05-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a representative member of the alpha-herpesvirus family, causes nervous symptoms and ocular lesions, such as keratoconjunctivitis and retinal degeneration in piglets. The immediate-early protein IE180 of the PRV is known to be essential, not only in viral gene expression, but also in the cellular gene expression in host cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of IE180 on the development of the mouse eye, by using transgenic technology. Transgenic mice expressing IE180 were generated and their eyes analyzed by histology, immunocytochemistry, and the bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation assay. A fibrovascular retrolental tissue analogous to persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) in humans was observed in a transgenic mouse line expressing IE180. The gross anatomy of the eye showed white pupils. Analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed that the retrolental tissue adhered to the neuroretina, the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers were disorganized, and rosettelike arrangements of dysplastic photoreceptor cells were present. Bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were detected in the retrolental tissues of postnatal day (P)1, P7, and P14 mice. The retrolental mass in the P7 transgenic mouse was composed of melanocytes and endothelial cells, which were detected by a cocktail of antibodies against endoglin, CD31, and VEGF receptor-2. The observation that the eye disease in transgenic mice is similar to that in PHPV in humans raises the possibility that expression of the immediate-early gene of alpha-herpesviruses may contribute to PHPV.

  14. Optic Neuropathy Associated with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Bak, Eunoo; Yang, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2017-04-01

    To determine the diverse clinical features of optic neuropathy associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome in Korean patients. Five women with acute and/or chronic optic neuropathy who were diagnosed as primary Sjögren's syndrome were retrospectively evaluated. Primary Sjögren's syndrome was diagnosed by signs and symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca, positive serum anti-Ro/SSA and/or anti-La/SSB antibodies, and/or minor salivary gland biopsy. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Among the five patients diagnosed as optic neuropathy related to primary Sjögren's syndrome, four patients had bilateral optic neuropathy and one patient was unilateral. The clinical course was chronic in three patients and one of them showed acute exacerbation and was finally diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. The other two patients presented as acute optic neuritis and one was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Sicca symptoms were present in four patients, but only two patients reported these symptoms before the onset of optic neuropathy. Patients showed minimal response to systemic corticosteroids or steroid dependence, requiring plasmapheresis in the acute phase and immunosuppressive agents for maintenance therapy. Optic neuropathy associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome may show variable clinical courses, including acute optic neuritis, insidious progression of chronic optic atrophy, or in the context of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Optic neuropathy may be the initial manifestation of primary Sjögren's syndrome without apparent sicca symptoms, which makes the diagnosis often difficult. The presence of specific antibodies including anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB, and anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies are supportive for the diagnosis and treatment in atypical cases of optic neuropathy.

  15. Twenty-first century mast cell stabilizers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, D F; Walsh, J J

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell stabilizing drugs inhibit the release of allergic mediators from mast cells and are used clinically to prevent allergic reactions to common allergens. Despite the relative success of the most commonly prescribed mast cell stabilizer, disodium cromoglycate, in use for the preventative treatment of bronchial asthma, allergic conjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis, there still remains an urgent need to design new substances that are less expensive and require less frequent dosing schedules. In this regard, recent developments towards the discovery of the next generation of mast cell stabilizing drugs has included studies on substances isolated from natural sources, biological, newly synthesized compounds and drugs licensed for other indications. The diversity of natural products evaluated range from simple phenols, alkaloids, terpenes to simple amino acids. While in some cases their precise mode of action remains unknown it has nevertheless sparked interest in the development of synthetic derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. Within the purely synthetic class of inhibitors, particular attention has been devoted to the inhibition of important signalling molecules including spleen TK and JAK3. The statin class of cholesterol-lowering drugs as well as nilotinib, a TK inhibitor, are just some examples of clinically used drugs that have been evaluated for their anti-allergic properties. Here, we examine each approach under investigation, summarize the test data generated and offer suggestions for further preclinical evaluation before their therapeutic potential can be realized. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23441583

  16. Tear production and intraocular pressure in canine eyes with corneal ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David L.; Burg, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in lacrimation and intraocular pressure (IOP) in dogs with unilateral corneal ulceration using the Schirmer tear test (STT) and rebound (TonoVet®) tonometry. IOP and STT values were recorded in both ulcerated and non-ulcerated (control) eyes of 100 dogs diagnosed with unilateral corneal ulceration. Dogs presented with other ocular conditions as their primary complaint were excluded from this study. The mean ± standard deviation for STT values in the ulcerated and control eyes were 20.2±4.6 mm/min and 16.7±3.5 mm/min respectively. The mean ± standard deviation for IOP in the ulcerated and control eyes were 11.9±3.1 mmHg and 16.7±2.6 mmHg respectively. STT values were significantly higher (p<0.000001) in the ulcerated eye compared to the control eye while IOP was significantly lower (p<0.0001). There is an increase in lacrimation and a decrease in IOP in canine eyes with corneal ulceration. The higher tear production in ulcerated eyes shows the importance of measuring STT in both eyes in cases of corneal ulceration, since this increased lacrimation may mask an underlying keratoconjunctivitis sicca only evident in the contralateral eye. The lower IOP in ulcerated eyes is likely to relate to mild uveitic change in the ulcerated eye with a concomitant increase in uveoscleral aqueous drainage. While these changes in tear production and IOP in ulcerated eyes are widely recognised in both human and veterinary ophthalmology, it appears that this is the first controlled documented report of these changes in a large number of individuals. PMID:28616393

  17. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome in ambulatory patients according to the American-European Consensus Group criteria.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guerrero, J; Pérez-Dosal, M R; Cárdenas-Velázquez, F; Pérez-Reguera, A; Celis-Aguilar, E; Soto-Rojas, A E; Avila-Casado, C

    2005-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in ambulatory patients attending a tertiary care centre, according to the American-European Consensus Group criteria, using a structured approach. Three hundred patients from rheumatology and internal medicine clinics were randomly chosen. During the screening phase, a face-to-face interview, a screening questionnaire, a Schirmer-I test and a wafer test were carried out in all patients. During the second phase, patients with positive screening had confirmatory tests including fluorescein staining test, non-stimulated whole salivary flow and autoantibody testing. Confirmatory tests were also done in 13 patients with negative screening. In the last phase, lip biopsy was proposed to those patients who met pre-established criteria. Females constituted 79% of the study population. The mean age of the subjects was 42.8+/-15.7 yr. Two hundred and twenty patients (73%) had positive screening. Fifty-five (27%) out of 204 patients evaluated showed keratoconjunctivitis sicca and 28 (13%) out of 215 patients xerostomia. One hundred and sixty-eight patients met criteria for lip biopsy and it was performed in 80 subjects who accepted the procedure. Focal sialoadenitis was demonstrated in 39 patients (49%), but only 28 of them met criteria for SS. In total, 40 patients were classified as SS. The minimum prevalence of SS in the population studied was 13.3% (95% CI 9.5-17.1%). The structured approach used in this study allowed 24 (60%) undiagnosed cases of SS to be identified. SS is common among ambulatory patients attending a tertiary care centre and in most of them it is undiagnosed.

  19. Inflammatory mediator profiles in tears accompanying keratoconjunctival responses induced by nasal allergy.

    PubMed

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2013-07-01

    The allergic reaction taking place in the nasal mucosa can induce a secondary ocular (keratoconjunctival) response of an immediate (SIOR), late (SLOR) or delayed (SDYOR) type in some patients with keratoconjunctivitis (KC). To investigate the concentration changes of histamine, tryptase, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophilic peroxidase (EPO), leucotrienes (LTB₄, LTC₄, LTE₄), prostaglandins (PGD₂, PGE₂ and PGF₂α), thromboxane B₂ (TXB₂), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukins (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) in tears during the SIOR, SLOR and SDYOR. 19 SIORs (p<0.001), 28 SLORs (p<0.001) and 10 SDYORs (p<0.05) recorded in 57 KC patients following nasal challenges with allergens (NPT) and 57 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control tests were repeated and supplemented with determination of the mediators in tears. The ocular response types were associated with significant changes (p<0.05) of mediators in tears as follows: (1) SIORs: histamine, tryptase, ECP, LTC₄, PGD₂, PGF₂α, IL-4 and IL-5; (2) SLORs: histamine, ECP, EDN, LTB₄, LTC₄, PGE₂, MPO, IL-4 and IL-5; (3) SDYORs: LTB4, TXB₂, MPO, IFN-γ and IL-2. No significant changes of these factors were measured in tears during the 57 PBS controls (p>0.1). These results demonstrate a causal involvement of nasal allergy in some KC patients, inducing a secondary keratoconjunctival response of an immediate (SIOR), late (SLOR) or delayed (SDYOR) type, associated with different inflammatory mediator profiles in the tears, suggesting participation of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also emphasise the diagnostic value of nasal challenge with allergen combined with monitoring of ocular response in KC patients, responding insufficiently to the usual ophthalmologic therapy.

  20. Cytokines in tears during the secondary keratoconjunctival responses induced by allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pelikan, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Allergic keratoconjunctivitis (KC) can occur in a primary form due to an allergic reaction taking place in the conjunctivae or in a secondary form induced by nasal allergy. To search for the cytokine changes in tears accompanying the secondary keratoconjunctival response types (SKCR), caused by the nasal allergy. In 43 KC patients developing 15 immediate (SIKCR), 16 late (SLKCR) and 12 delayed (SDYKCR) responses to nasal provocation tests with allergens (NPT), the NPTs were repeated with subsequent recording of cytokine concentrations in tears up to 72 h. The SIKCRs (p<0.001), occurring 10-120 min after the NPT, were accompanied by significant changes (p<0.05) of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The SLKCRs (p<0.01), appearing 5-12 h after the NPT, were associated with significant changes (p<0.05) of IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, GM-CSF and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The SDYKCRs (p<0.01), occurring 24-48 h after the NPT, were accompanied by significant changes (p<0.05) of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β and TNF-α. The particular SKCR types, induced by an allergic reaction in the nasal mucosa, were accompanied by different cytokine profiles in the tears, suggesting involvement of different hypersensitivity mechanisms. These results also stress the diagnostic usefulness of NPTs combined with monitoring of ocular features in KC patients who did not respond satisfactorily to the topical ophthalmological treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Surgical therapies for corneal perforations: 10 years of cases in a tertiary referral hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Masaki, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report surgical therapies for corneal perforations in a tertiary referral hospital. Methods Thirty-one eyes of 31 patients (aged 62.4±18.3 years) with surgically treated corneal perforations from January 2002 to July 2013 were included in this study. Demographic data such as cause of corneal perforation, surgical procedures, and visual outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results The causes of corneal perforation (n=31) were divided into infectious (n=8, 26%) and noninfectious (n=23, 74%) categories. Infectious causes included fungal ulcer, herpetic stromal necrotizing keratitis, and bacterial ulcer. The causes of noninfectious keratopathy included corneal melting after removal of a metal foreign body, severe dry eye, lagophthalmos, canaliculitis, the oral anticancer drug S-1, keratoconus, rheumatoid arthritis, neurotrophic ulcer, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and unknown causes. Initial surgical procedures included central large corneal graft (n=17), small corneal graft (n=7), and amniotic membrane transplantation (n=7). In two cases the perforation could not be sealed during the first surgical treatment and required subsequent procedures. All infectious keratitis required central large penetrating keratoplasty to obtain anatomical cure. In contrast, several surgical options were used for the treatment of noninfectious keratitis. After surgical treatment, anatomical cure was obtained in all cases. Mean postoperative best corrected visual acuity was better at 6 months (logMAR 1.3) than preoperatively (logMAR 1.8). Conclusion Surgical therapies for corneal perforations in our hospital included central large lamellar/penetrating keratoplasty, small peripheral patch graft, and amniotic membrane transplantation. All treatments were effective. Corneal perforation due to the oral anticancer drug S-1 is newly reported. PMID:25378903

  2. Development of an Aotus nancymaae Model for Shigella Vaccine Immunogenicity and Efficacy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Michael; Lugo-Roman, Luis A.; Galvez Carrillo, Hugo; Tilley, Drake Hamilton; Baldeviano, Christian; Simons, Mark P.; Reynolds, Nathanael D.; Ranallo, Ryan T.; Suvarnapunya, Akamol E.; Venkatesan, Malabi M.; Oaks, Edwin V.

    2014-01-01

    Several animal models exist to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of candidate Shigella vaccines. The two most widely used nonprimate models for vaccine development include a murine pulmonary challenge model and a guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model. Nonhuman primate models exhibit clinical features and gross and microscopic colonic lesions that mimic those induced in human shigellosis. Challenge models for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter spp. have been successfully developed with Aotus nancymaae, and the addition of a Shigella-Aotus challenge model would facilitate the testing of combination vaccines. A series of experiments were designed to identify the dose of Shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457T that induces an attack rate of 75% in the Aotus monkey. After primary challenge, the dose required to induce an attack rate of 75% was calculated to be 1 × 1011 CFU. Shigella-specific immune responses were low after primary challenge and subsequently boosted upon rechallenge. However, preexisting immunity derived from the primary challenge was insufficient to protect against the homologous Shigella serotype. A successive study in A. nancymaae evaluated the ability of multiple oral immunizations with live-attenuated Shigella vaccine strain SC602 to protect against challenge. After three oral immunizations, animals were challenged with S. flexneri 2a 2457T. A 70% attack rate was demonstrated in control animals, whereas animals immunized with vaccine strain SC602 were protected from challenge (efficacy of 80%; P = 0.05). The overall study results indicate that the Shigella-Aotus nancymaae challenge model may be a valuable tool for evaluating vaccine efficacy and investigating immune correlates of protection. PMID:24595138

  3. Rebamipide increases the amount of mucin-like substances on the conjunctiva and cornea in the N-acetylcysteine-treated in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Hiroki; Okamoto, Takashi; Takeji, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Hisashi; Fujisawa, Shigeki

    2004-08-01

    Rebamipide increases the amount of mucin-like substances in the stomach. We aimed to determine the effects of rebamipide on the amount of mucin-like substances in the conjunctiva and cornea of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. Furthermore, we attempted to evaluate the effects of rebamipide on the wound healing of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. The model was created by instilling 10% N-acetylcysteine solutions into rabbit eyes. Rebamipide was then applied on the day following the completion of N-acetylcysteine treatment. The amount of mucin-like substances on the conjunctiva and cornea was measured using the Alcian-blue binding method. The degree of damage was evaluated using scores based on the areas and densities of the cornea and conjunctival after staining using a rose Bengal solution under blind conditions. Rebamipide increased the level of mucin-like substances on the conjunctiva of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes when instilled at concentrations of 0.3% or higher, and 1% rebamipide increased the amount of mucin-like substances covering the cornea. Moreover, 1% rebamipide improved the rose Bengal scores of the cornea and conjunctiva in N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. Rebamipide increased mucin-like substances on the cornea and conjunctiva of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. In accordance with the mucin-increasing effects, rebamipide improved the rose Bengal scores for the cornea and conjunctiva of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. However, the relevance of these findings to dry eyes is unclear because it is not known whether the change in mucus expression in the N-acetylcysteine model is similar to what occurs in aqueous tear deficiency. Consequently, it may be worth trying on an animal model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

  4. The effects of topical aqueous sirolimus on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory dry eye.

    PubMed

    Spatola, Ronald; Nadelstein, Brad; Berdoulay, Andrew; English, Robert V

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of twice daily aqueous 0.02% sirolimus drops on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Two groups of dogs were studied. Ten normal dogs with no signs of ocular disease were administered topical 0.02% sirolimus ophthalmic solution in right eye, and a vehicle control in the left eye twice daily for 4 weeks. Complete ophthalmic examinations, including Schirmer tear test were performed weekly. Eighteen dogs with refractory KCS were randomly assigned to receive 0.02% sirolumus ophthalmic solution or 0.02% tacrolimus ophthalmic solution twice daily. Complete ophthalmic examinations were was performed at 2 and 6 weeks following treatment. Tear production in the sirolimus-treated eyes of normal dogs was greater when compared to vehicle controls with a mean difference over all time points of 3.46 mm (95% CI 1.17, 5.75; P = 0.006). After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean difference was 5 mm (95% CI 1.95, 8.05; P = 0.002). In dogs with refractory dry eye, 37.5% of eyes treated with sirolimus exhibited increased tear production >4 mm/min after 6 weeks of treatment, compared to 20% of eyes receiving tacrolimus (P = 0.433). One normal dog experienced topical irritation to both sirolimus and vehicle-treatment. Side effects were not reported in any treated eyes with chronic KCS. Topical 0.02% sirolimus might be an alternative treatment for canine patients with keratoconjunctivits sicca. The drug appears safe when applied topically in an aqueous suspension for up to 6 weeks. While initial results are promising, further studies are warranted. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Radiation-induced ocular injury in the dog: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Ching, S V; Gillette, S M; Powers, B E; Roberts, S M; Gillette, E L; Withrow, S J

    1990-08-01

    Radiation-induced ocular injury secondary to treatment of nasal cancer occurs in humans and animals. Dogs with nasal carcinomas were randomized to receive 36 to 67.5 Gy in fractionated doses given in 4 weeks using a 6 MV linear accelerator. Ophthalmic examinations were performed according to a predetermined protocol and eyes were removed for histologic examination when dogs were euthanatized. The eye in the radiation field exhibited greater injury than the contralateral eye with nasal areas of the globe having more severe lesions than temporal areas. Lesions occurred in all dogs and at all doses. At 1 month or less postirradiation treatment, all dogs had blepharitis, keratoconjunctivitis and corneal epithelial atrophy. Surface lesions persisted in all eyes, becoming less severe and more chronic with time. At 3-6 months postirradiation treatment, degenerative angiopathy of retinal vessels appeared with multifocal retinal hemorrhage and mild diffuse retinal degeneration which affected outer layers first and progressed inwardly with time. At 6 months postirradiation treatment, there were cataracts, fibrosis of retinal vessel walls with loss of vascular smooth muscle, retinal hemorrhage, and mild to moderate retinal degeneration. At 1 year postirradiation treatment, retinal vessels remained sclerotic, retinal hemorrhage was less frequent, and there was moderate retinal degeneration with swelling and loss of ganglion cells. By 2 years or more postirradiation treatment, optic nerve axonal degeneration secondary to retinal changes had appeared. Tapetal and choroidal atrophy were inconsistently seen. Thus, ocular lesions at the doses received developed along a relatively predictable time course and recovery was not seen. Structures of the canine eye appear sufficiently sensitive that even relatively low total doses given in small doses per fraction cause significant long-term injury.

  6. Influence of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Friction-Related Disease on the Severity of Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Vu, Chi Hoang Viet; Kawashima, Motoko; Yamada, Masakazu; Suwaki, Kazuhisa; Uchino, Miki; Shigeyasu, Chika; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Yokoi, Norihiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-02-16

    To evaluate the effect of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and friction-related disease (FRD) on the severity of dry eye disease (DED). Cross-sectional observational study. This study enrolled 449 patients with DED (63 men and 386 women; mean age, 62.6±15.7 years [range, 21-90 years]) for analysis. Subjective symptoms, the ocular surface, tear function, and the presence of MGD and FRD (superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, conjunctivochalasis, and lid wiper epitheliopathy) were investigated. Schirmer value, tear film breakup time (TBUT), and keratoconjunctival score. We classified the participants into aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE; n = 231 [51.4%]) and short TBUT dry eye subtype (TBUT-DE; n = 109 [24.3%]) subgroups. The TBUT was shorter in patients with MGD than in those without MGD, whereas other ocular signs showed no difference (TBUT: MGD present, 1.97±1.02 seconds; MGD absent, 2.94±1.63 seconds [P < 0.001]; ADDE/MGD present, 1.94±1.08 seconds; ADDE/MGD absent, 2.77±1.61 seconds [P < 0.001]; short TBUT-DE/MGD present, 2.07±0.97 seconds; short TBUT-DE/MGD absent, 2.94±1.23 seconds [P = 0.01]). The ADDE patients with FRD showed a worse TBUT than ADDE patients without FRD (TBUT: ADDE/FRD present, 2.08±1.39 seconds; ADDE/FRD absent, 2.92±1.54 seconds; P < 0.001). This study showed associations between MGD, FRD, or both and ocular signs in DED. In the presence of MGD, FRD, or both, TBUT was significantly shortened regardless of the dry eye status or subtype. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in the evaporation rate of tear film after digital expression of meibomian glands in patients with and without dry eye.

    PubMed

    Arciniega, Juan Carlos; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga Cristina; Mohamed, Engy Mostafa; McCulley, James Parker

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of excess meibum on tear evaporation rate in patients with and without dry eye. Eleven healthy subjects and 16 patients with dry eye were tested. The dry eye group was divided into 2 subgroups: classic keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) with clear and easily expressed meibum and KCS with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) with turbid secretions and difficult-to-express meibum. Evaporative measurements were performed at baseline and after digital expression of meibomian glands at 12, 24, 36, and 48 minutes. Two ranges of relative humidity were used, 25% to 35% and 35% to 45%. The data were expressed as microliters per square centimeter per minute. An increase in the evaporation rate of the tear film was noted for all measurements at both relative humidities in the classic KCS and KCS with MGD groups compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.05). The average evaporation rates at relative humidities of 25% to 35% and 35% to 45% were 0.056 ± 0.016 and 0.040 ± 0.008 for the classic KCS group; 0.055 ± 0.026 and 0.037 ± 0.019 for the KCS with MGD group and 0.033 ± 0.012 and 0.023 ± 0.008 for the healthy group. Also, a decrease in the evaporation rate was observed in the healthy and KCS with MGD groups between baseline and the first measurement after digital expression for both relative humidities (P < 0.05). The classic KCS group did not show any changes after expression. Classic KCS and KCS with MGD groups showed an increase in tear evaporation rates compared with the healthy group. Aqueous tear evaporation diminished in the healthy and KCS with MGD groups after expression of meibomian glands. However, this effect was transient and negligible after the second measurement.

  8. Salzmann's nodular degeneration of the cornea: a review and case series.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata; Link, Barbara; Seitz, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Salzmann's nodular degeneration is a rare, noninflammatory, slowly progressive, degenerative condition. Bluish-white nodules raised above the surface of the cornea characterize it. It has usually developed in corneas with a history of phlyctenulosis, trachoma, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, measles, scarlet fever, and various other viral diseases. However, today the majority of cases have been seen without recognized previous keratitis. It is composed of dense irregularly arranged collagen tissue with hyalinization between epithelium and Bowman's layer or beyond. Manual removal, phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) with or without the use of topical mitomycin-C, lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty have been used in the treatment of this disease. Salzmann's nodular degeneration does not seem to consist of one clinical entity. In some cases, elevated and pannus-like tissue can be separated easily from the corneal surface leaving Bowman's layer almost untouched. In these eyes, subsequent PTK may be necessary to smooth the surface. Recurrences are rare in these eyes. In contrast, some eyes (often with major peripheral vascularization) are left with deep defects in Bowman's layer and superficial stroma after difficult mechanical removal of nodules. In these eyes, multiple masking/laser ablation procedures are mandatory to acquire a homogenous surface. In our experience, the required laser ablation depth is significantly greater and the best-corrected visual acuity to be expected is reduced in contrast to the eyes with easy removal of the nodules. In these eyes recurrences seem to occur more frequently after treatment. Of 35 eyes documented to have Salzmann's nodular degeneration during the last 15 years in our department, 22 needed PTK treatment. Visual acuity increased from 0.4 to 0.7 on average. As a routine, laser ablation should be combined with previous conventional removal of nodules and excessive pannus tissue. By doing so, lamellar and penetrating keratoplasty

  9. Analysis of in situ proliferative activity in oral gingival epithelium in patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Celenligil-Nazliel, Haviye; Palali, Ali; Ayhan, Ayşe; Ruacan, Sevket

    2003-02-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The relationship between xero-stomia and proliferative activity in human gingival epithelium is not known. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Nuclear PCNA immunoreactivity is found in the proliferative compartment of normal tissues. The aims of this study were to evaluate PCNA expression in oral gingival epithelium of healthy and inflamed gingiva obtained from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, and to compare the results to age- and gender-matched subjects with normal salivary function. Eighteen Sjögren's syndrome patients and 28 controls (14 with chronic periodontitis and 14 with no clinical evidence of periodontal disease) were included in the study. Biopsies were obtained from both inflamed and healthy gingiva. The expression of PCNA was evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gingival samples using an immunoperoxidase technique and PC10 monoclonal antibody to PCNA. PCNA expression was observed both in the basal and suprabasal layers, and was found to be more prominent in the suprabasal layers. Proliferative index (PI) in inflamed gingiva was significantly lower in the Sjögren's syndrome group. However, no significant difference was observed between the study and control groups with respect to PI in healthy gingiva. In both groups, PI was found to be increased due to inflammation. Our data indicate that proliferative activity is observed in the suprabasal layers and, less frequently, in the basal layer. Inflammation caused increased proliferative activity. However, this positive effect of inflammation on epithelial cell proliferation decreased significantly with a lack of saliva. Therefore, it appears that saliva-derived biological mediators may also contribute to increased proliferative activity observed during inflammation.

  10. Status of vaccine research and development for Shigella.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I

    2016-06-03

    Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while waiting for universal access to water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements. This review article provides a landscape of Shigella vaccine development efforts. No vaccine is yet available, but human and animal challenge-rechallenge trials with virulent Shigella as well as observational studies in Shigella-endemic areas have shown that the incidence of disease decreases following Shigella infection, pointing to biological feasibility of a vaccine. Immunity to Shigella appears to be strain-specific, so a vaccine that covers the most commonly detected strains (i.e., S. flexneri 2a, 3a, 6, and S. sonnei) or a vaccine using cross-species conserved antigens would likely be most effective. Vaccine development and testing may be accelerated by use of animal models, such as the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis or murine pneumonia models. Because there is no correlate of protection, however, human studies will be necessary to evaluate vaccine efficacy prior to deployment. A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization

  11. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Joon

    2004-01-01

    Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are widely distributed in fresh water, soil and dust throughout the world, and cause meningoencephalitis or keratoconjunctivitis in humans and other mammals. Korean isolates, namely, Naegleria sp. YM-1 and Acanthamoeba sp. YM-2, YM-3, YM-4, YM-5, YM-6 and YM-7, were collected from sewage, water puddles, a storage reservoir, the gills of a fresh water fish, and by corneal washing. These isolates were categorized into three groups based on the mortalities of infected mice namely, highly virulent (YM-4), moderately virulent (YM-2, YM-5 and YM-7) and nonpathogenic (YM-3). In addition, a new species of Acanthamoeba was isolated from a freshwater fish in Korea and tentatively named Korean isolate YM-4. The morphologic characters of its cysts were similar to those of A. culbertsoni and A. royreba, which were previously designated as Acanthamoeba group III. Based on experimentally infected mouse mortality, Acanthamoeba YM-4 was highly virulent. The isoenzymes profile of Acanthamoeba YM-4 was similar to that of A. royreba. Moreover, an anti-Acanthamoeba YM-4 monoclonal antibody reacted only with Acanthamoeba YM-4, and not with A. culbertsoni. Random amplified polymorphic DNA marker analysis and RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA and of a 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA, placed Acanthamoeba YM-4 in a separate cluster based on phylogenic distances. Thus Acanthamoeba YM-4 was identified as a new species, and assigned Acanthamoeba sohi. Up to the year 2002 in Korea, two clinical cases were found to be infected with Acanthamoeba spp. These patients died of meningoencephalitis. In addition, one case of Acanthamoeba pneumonia with an immunodeficient status was reported and Acanthamoeba was detected in several cases of chronic relapsing corneal ulcer, chronic conjunctivitis, and keratitis. PMID:15381859

  12. Preformulation Studies of a Liposomal Formulation Containing Sirolimus for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Linares-Alba, Mónica Anayántzin; Gómez-Guajardo, Magda Berenice; Fonzar, Joice Furtado; Brooks, Dennis E.; García-Sánchez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a liposomal product containing sirolimus to be administered subconjunctivally for the treatment of nonresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dry eye. Methods: Formulations were prepared using an ethanol injection method and an adaptation of the heating method in pursuance of the most suitable methodology for future industrial production. Liposomes were loaded with either a high dose of 1 mg/mL of sirolimus or a less toxic dose of 0.4 mg/mL. The effects of critical process and formulation parameters were investigated. Liposomes were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, polydispersity, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology, entrapment efficiency, phospholipid content, thermal stability, and sterility. The formulation was evaluated clinically in dogs with spontaneous KCS. Results: Sterile liposomal dispersions with sizes ranging from 140 to 211 nm, were successfully obtained. High entrapment efficiency of 93%–98% was achieved. The heating method allowed an easier production of liposomes with high entrapment efficiency, to significantly shorten production time and the elimination of the use of alcohol. The poor stability of the obtained liposomes in aqueous dispersion made the inclusion of a lyophilization step necessary to the manufacturing process. In vivo testing of the liposomal sirolimus formulations in the spontaneous KCS dog model have produced promising results, particularly with a sirolimus dose of 1 mg/mL, indicating the need for further development and study of proposed formulations in the treatment of canine KCS. Clinical improvement in tear production in dogs with spontaneous KCS treated with the 1 mg/mL dose product was observed. Conclusions: The heating method allowed easier production of high entrapment efficiency liposomes to significantly shorten production time and the elimination of the use of alcohol. Tear production was increased in dogs

  13. Molecular detection and characterization through analysis of the hexon and fiber genes of Adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Fedaoui, Nadia; Ben Ayed, Narjess; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Hammami, Walid; Matri, Leila; Nacef, Leila; Triki, Henda

    2017-02-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common causes of conjunctivitis. This study describes the epidemiological features and characterizes by phylogenetic analysis HAdVs isolated from patients with conjunctivitis in Tunisia, North Africa. Data on out-patients presenting with conjunctivitis during 2 years (2012-2013) were analyzed. Conjunctival swabs obtained from 240 patients were assessed for the presence of HAdVs by PCR amplification on the fiber and hexon genes. Positive PCR products, together with those of nine viral isolates from previous years, were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Conjunctivitis represented 11.5% of all reasons of consultations with a slight increase between mid-March and mid-June. Sixty-five percent of samples (n = 156) revealed positive by at least one PCR test. PCR amplification in the hexon gene was slightly more sensitive as compared to the fiber gene. Genotyping in the two genomic regions gave concordant results for almost all isolates. HAdV-D8 was the most predominant genotype (87.6%) and was detected continuously from 2000 to 2013. Minor co-circulating genotypes including HAdV-E4, HAdV-B3, HAdV-B55, and HAdV-D37 were identified; most of them were detected by amplification in the hexon gene. In conclusion, this work reports molecular data on adenoviral conjunctivitis from a region where such information is scarce and contributes to a better knowledge of the worldwide distribution of causative genotypes. It revealed a predominance and endemic circulation of HAdV-D8, a genotype that was mainly reported from epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. It shows that PCR amplification in two different genomic regions enhances the sensitivity of HAdV detection in clinical samples and the identification of minor genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 89:304-312, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Increased prevalence of growth hormone deficiency in patients with vernal keratoconjuntivitis; an interesting new association.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Pucci, Neri; di Grande, Laura; de Libero, Cinzia; Caputo, Roberto; Pantano, Stefano; Seminara, Salvatore; de Martino, Maurizio; Novembre, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic conjunctivitis that mainly affects children living in temperate areas. The notable difference between genders and VKC's resolution with puberty have persistently suggested a role of hormonal factors in VKC development. To describe six cases of males with VKC and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) reported as a long-term follow-up during rhGH treatment. Six consecutive male patients (median age at GHD diagnosis 9.7, range 7.9 to 13.1 years) with VKC, were recruited from July 2005 to July 2013 at the Paediatric Endocrinology Unit of Anna Meyer Children's Hospital in Florence, Italy. In these patients, anthropometric data were collected periodically. In three of these patients, data were collected to near-adult or adult height. Familial history was uneventful for all patients. The target height was normal, ranging from 0.65 standard deviation scores (SDS) to 2.01 SDS. The patients showed a normal birth-weight (from -1.21 to 1.35 SDS) and birth-length (from -0.93 to 1.21 SDS). At GHD diagnosis, all of the patients exhibited demonstrated important growth retardation (from -2.05 to -2.78 SDS). Plasmatic concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were low (from -1.85 to -3 SDS and from -1.81 to -2.76 SDS, respectively). GH stimulation tests showed classic GHD symptoms in all of the patients. Pubertal onset was normal. All of the patients treated with rhGH responded well to rhGH treatment. Adult height, evaluated in three patients, was in accordance with their target height. To our current knowledge, we have described for the first time six patients affected by VKC with GH deficiency, in some of whom we performed a long-term follow-up to adult height. Further studies will be needed to establish whether GHD may be a common feature of VKC patients. Nevertheless, it appears to be useful to carefully follow statural growth of VKC patients, while the possibility of a GH deficiency must to be taken into account in the presence of growth

  15. Topical administration of lacritin is a novel therapy for aqueous-deficient dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Vijmasi, Trinka; Chen, Feeling Y T; Balasubbu, Suganthalakshmi; Gallup, Marianne; McKown, Robert L; Laurie, Gordon W; McNamara, Nancy A

    2014-07-17

    Lacritin is a tear glycoprotein with prosecretory, prosurvival, and mitogenic properties. We examined lacritin levels in the tears of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients and explored the therapeutic potential of topical lacritin for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Tears from healthy controls (n = 14) and SS patients (n = 15) were assayed for lacritin using a C-terminal antibody. In a paired-eye study, autoimmune regulator (Aire) knockout (KO) mice (n = 7) were treated three times daily for 21 days with 10 μL of 4 μM lacritin (left eye) or vehicle (PBS) control (right eye). Tear secretion and ocular surface integrity were assessed at baseline and after treatment. Immunohistochemical staining of CD4+ T cells, cytokeratin-10 (K10), and cytokeratin-12 (K12) expression in the cornea and CD4+ T cell infiltration in the lacrimal glands were assessed. Lacritin monomer (421.8 ± 65.3 ng [SS] vs. 655.8 ± 118.9 ng [controls]; P = 0.05) and C-terminal fragment protein (125 ± 34.1 ng [SS] vs. 399.5 ± 84.3 ng [controls]; P = 0.008) per 100 μL of tear eluate were significantly lower in SS patients. In Aire KO mice treated with lacritin, tear secretion increased by 46% (13.0 ± 3.5 mm vs. 8.9 ± 2.9 mm; P = 0.01) and lissamine green staining score significantly decreased relative to baseline (-0.417 ± 0.06 vs. 0.125 ± 0.07; P = 0.02). Expression of K10 but not K12 in the cornea was significantly decreased in lacritin-treated eyes. Focal CD4+ T cell infiltration of the lacrimal glands was significantly reduced on the lacritin-treated side versus the untreated side. Lacritin is significantly reduced in the tears of SS patients. Topically administered lacritin has therapeutic potential for the treatment of aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Identification of a Sjögren's syndrome susceptibility locus at OAS1 that influences isoform switching, protein expression, and responsiveness to type I interferons

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Reksten, Tove Ragna; Ice, John A.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Adrianto, Indra; Wang, Shaofeng; He, Bo; Grundahl, Kiely M.; Glenn, Stuart B.; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Bowman, Simon; Lester, Sue; Eriksson, Per; Brun, Johan G.; Gøransson, Lasse G.; Harboe, Erna; Guthridge, Joel M.; Patel, Ketan; Adler, Adam J.; Farris, A. Darise; Brennan, Michael T.; Chodosh, James; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Weisman, Michael H.; Venuturupalli, Swamy; Wallace, Daniel J.; Hefner, Kimberly S.; Houston, Glen D.; Hughes, Pamela J.; Lewis, David M.; Radfar, Lida; Vista, Evan S.; Rohrer, Michael D.; Stone, Donald U.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.; Turner, Sean; Alevizos, Ilias; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Segal, Barbara M.; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Scofield, R. Hal; Kovats, Susan; Mariette, Xavier; Witte, Torsten; Rischmueller, Maureen; Omdal, Roald; Lessard, Christopher J.; Sivils, Kathy L.

    2017-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a common, autoimmune exocrinopathy distinguished by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Patients frequently develop serious complications including lymphoma, pulmonary dysfunction, neuropathy, vasculitis, and debilitating fatigue. Dysregulation of type I interferon (IFN) pathway is a prominent feature of SS and is correlated with increased autoantibody titers and disease severity. To identify genetic determinants of IFN pathway dysregulation in SS, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses focusing on differentially expressed type I IFN-inducible transcripts identified through a transcriptome profiling study. Multiple cis-eQTLs were associated with transcript levels of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) peaking at rs10774671 (PeQTL = 6.05 × 10−14). Association of rs10774671 with SS susceptibility was identified and confirmed through meta-analysis of two independent cohorts (Pmeta = 2.59 × 10−9; odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval = 0.66–0.86). The risk allele of rs10774671 shifts splicing of OAS1 from production of the p46 isoform to multiple alternative transcripts, including p42, p48, and p44. We found that the isoforms were differentially expressed within each genotype in controls and patients with and without autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results showed that the three alternatively spliced isoforms lacked translational response to type I IFN stimulation. The p48 and p44 isoforms also had impaired protein expression governed by the 3' end of the transcripts. The SS risk allele of rs10774671 has been shown by others to be associated with reduced OAS1 enzymatic activity and ability to clear viral infections, as well as reduced responsiveness to IFN treatment. Our results establish OAS1 as a risk locus for SS and support a potential role for defective viral clearance due to altered IFN response as a genetic pathophysiological basis of this complex autoimmune disease. PMID

  17. [Assessment of lipid layer thickness of tear film in the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome in children after the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Kurpińska, Małgorzata; Gorczyńska, Ewa; Owoc-Lempach, Joanna; Bernacka, Aleksandra; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Chybicka, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is recognized as the most frequent ocular complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). KCS can appear either due to insufficient tear production or excessive tear evaporation, both resulting in tears hyperosmolarity that leads to ocular damage. The evaporation rate and better film stability is determined primarily by the status of the lipid layer. Observation and classification of tear film lipid layer interference patterns in normal and dry eyes in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a follow-up time of 6 months-5 years (median 26.54 months). Investigation of the relation between the lipid layer interference patterns in normal and dry eyes and the results of other dry eye examinations and complaints. Relation between DES and conditioning regimes, including total body irradiation and high-dose chemotherapy, immunosuppressive drugs, the time after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Precorneal tears lipid layer interference patterns, were examined in 114 eyes in treatment group with the Tearscope-plus. Patient with dry eye were identified on the basis of Schirmer test scores and/or tear breakup time, and positive lissamine and/or fluorescein staining. 42 of 114 eyes (36.8%) developed DES after allo-SCT A significant correlation between thickness of lipid layer and BUT, Schirmer test, lissamine green and fluorescein staining was found in the treatment group. A significant association was found between present chronic GVHD and DES in children. DES was not associated with TBI, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and the time in the present study. Tears lipid layer interference patterns are highly correlated with the diagnosis of DES. Tears lipid layer interference patterns ( noninvasive method), can be used to diagnose early DES in children after allo-SCT. Chronic GVHD play a major role in development of DES

  18. Anterior segment and external ocular disorders associated with HIV infections in the era of HAART in Chiang Mai University Hospital, a prospective descriptive cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Singalavanija, Tassapol; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Tangmonkongvoragul, Chulaluck

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes impairment to the human immune system which leads to immunocompromised conditions, including ocular complications. Several important HIV-associated disorders may involve the anterior segment, ocular surface, and adnexae organ such as dry eye, blepharitis which reduce quality of life of patients. In present, potent antiretroviral therapies HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has improved the length and quality of life which may lead to an increased prevalence of anterior segment ocular disorders. Hence, this study has been undertaken to identify the prevalence and associated factors of anterior segment and external ocular disorder in HIV infected patients in the era of HAART. A prospective descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in HIV positive patients conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Chiang Mai University Hospital, from February 2014 to October 2015. Detail history and ocular examination was carried out to examine for anterior segment and external ocular disorders. A total number of 363 patients were included for this prospective cross-sectional study. From the total of 363 patients, 123 patients had an anterior segment and external ocular disorder which account as the prevalence of 33.9%. The most common anterior segment manifestations was dry eye seen in 36 patients (9.9%), followed by posterior blepharitis (Meibomian gland dysfunction) seen in 23 patients (6.3%) and anterior blepharitis seen in 12 patients (3.3%). Other ocular complications included microvasculopathy, immune recovery uveitis, conjunctivitis, papilloma, anterior uveitis, corneal ulcer, nevus, trichiasis, molluscum contangiosum, Kaposi sarcoma, interstitial keratitis, conjunctival lymphangiectasia, dacryocystitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and eyelid penicilosis. In this study, the prevalance of anterior segment disorders was higher than in the preHAART era. Dry eye, blepharitis and uveitis were the top three most common

  19. Anterior segment and external ocular disorders associated with HIV infections in the era of HAART in Chiang Mai University Hospital, a prospective descriptive cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ausayakhun, Somsanguan

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes impairment to the human immune system which leads to immunocompromised conditions, including ocular complications. Several important HIV-associated disorders may involve the anterior segment, ocular surface, and adnexae organ such as dry eye, blepharitis which reduce quality of life of patients. In present, potent antiretroviral therapies HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has improved the length and quality of life which may lead to an increased prevalence of anterior segment ocular disorders. Hence, this study has been undertaken to identify the prevalence and associated factors of anterior segment and external ocular disorder in HIV infected patients in the era of HAART. A prospective descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in HIV positive patients conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Chiang Mai University Hospital, from February 2014 to October 2015. Detail history and ocular examination was carried out to examine for anterior segment and external ocular disorders. A total number of 363 patients were included for this prospective cross-sectional study. From the total of 363 patients, 123 patients had an anterior segment and external ocular disorder which account as the prevalence of 33.9%. The most common anterior segment manifestations was dry eye seen in 36 patients (9.9%), followed by posterior blepharitis (Meibomian gland dysfunction) seen in 23 patients (6.3%) and anterior blepharitis seen in 12 patients (3.3%). Other ocular complications included microvasculopathy, immune recovery uveitis, conjunctivitis, papilloma, anterior uveitis, corneal ulcer, nevus, trichiasis, molluscum contangiosum, Kaposi sarcoma, interstitial keratitis, conjunctival lymphangiectasia, dacryocystitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and eyelid penicilosis. In this study, the prevalance of anterior segment disorders was higher than in the preHAART era. Dry eye, blepharitis and uveitis were the top three most common

  20. Long-term dynamics of Mycoplasma conjunctivae at the wildlife-livestock interface in the Pyrenees

    PubMed Central

    Cabezón, Oscar; Frey, Joachim; Velarde, Roser; Serrano, Emmanuel; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Gelormini, Giuseppina; Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Functional roles of domestic and wild host populations in infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) epidemiology have been extensively discussed claiming a domestic reservoir for the more susceptible wild hosts, however, based on limited data. With the aim to better assess IKC epidemiology in complex host-pathogen alpine systems, the long-term infectious dynamics and molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma conjunctivae was investigated in all host populations from six study areas in the Pyrenees and one in the Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain). Detection of M. conjunctivae was performed by qPCR on 3600 eye swabs collected during seven years from hunted wild ungulates and sympatric domestic sheep (n = 1800 animals), and cluster analyses of the strains were performed including previous reported local strains. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was consistently detected in three Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) populations, as well as in sheep flocks (17.0% of sheep) and occasionally in mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) from the Pyrenees (22.2% in one year/area); statistically associated with ocular clinical signs only in chamois. Chamois populations showed different infection dynamics with low but steady prevalence (4.9%) and significant yearly fluctuations (0.0%– 40.0%). Persistence of specific M. conjunctivae strain clusters in wild host populations is demonstrated for six and nine years. Cross-species transmission between chamois and sheep and chamois and mouflon were also sporadically evidenced. Overall, independent M. conjunctivae sylvatic and domestic cycles occurred at the wildlife-livestock interface in the alpine ecosystems from the Pyrenees with sheep and chamois as the key host species for each cycle, and mouflon as a spill-over host. Host population characteristics and M. conjunctivae strains resulted in different epidemiological scenarios in chamois, ranging from the fading out of the mycoplasma to the epidemic and endemic long-term persistence. These findings

  1. Development and validation of the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL) questionnaire, a patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure for the assessment of the burden of dry eye on patients.

    PubMed

    Abetz, Linda; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Mertzanis, Polyxane; Begley, Carolyn; Barnes, Rod; Chalmers, Robin

    2011-12-08

    To develop and validate a comprehensive patient-reported outcomes instrument focusing on the impact of dry eye on everyday life (IDEEL). Development and validation of the IDEEL occurred in four phases: 1) focus groups with 45 dry eye patients to develop a draft instrument, 2) item generation, 3) pilot study to assess content validity in 16 patients and 4) psychometric validation in 210 subjects: 130 with non-Sjögren's keratoconjunctivitis sicca, 32 with Sjögren's syndrome and 48 controls, and subsequent item reduction. Focus groups identified symptoms and the associated bother, the impact of dry eye on daily life and the patients' satisfaction with their treatment as the central concepts in patients' experience of dry eye. Qualitative analysis indicated that saturation was achieved for these concepts and yielded an initial 112-item draft instrument. Patients understood the questionnaire and found the items to be relevant indicating content validity. Patient input, item descriptive statistics and factor analysis identified 55 items that could be deleted. The final 57-item IDEEL assesses dry eye impact constituting 3 modules: dry eye symptom-bother, dry eye impact on daily life comprising impact on daily activities, emotional impact, impact on work, and dry eye treatment satisfaction comprising satisfaction with treatment effectiveness and treatment-related bother/inconvenience. The psychometric analysis results indicated that the IDEEL met the criteria for item discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and floor/ceiling effects. As expected, the correlations between IDEEL and the Dry Eye Questionnaire (a habitual symptom questionnaire) were higher than between IDEEL and Short-Form-36 and EuroQoL-5D, indicating concurrent validity. The IDEEL is a reliable, valid and comprehensive questionnaire relevant to issues that are specific to dry eye patients, and meets current FDA patient-reported outcomes guidelines. The use of this

  2. Evaluation of sampling technique and transport media for the diagnostics of adenoviral eye infections. Adenovirus sampling and transport.

    PubMed

    Wölfel, Roman; Pfeffer, Martin; Essbauer, Sandra; Nerkelun, Sylke; Dobler, Gerhard

    2006-11-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) may cause pharyngoconjunctival fever, follicular conjunctivitis or epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Especially, outbreaks of the latter may lead to severe economic losses when preventive measures are implemented too late. Thus, a safe sampling method, proper specimen transport conditions and a fast and sensitive diagnostic technique is mandatory. Two commercially available virus transport systems (VTS) were compared with two NaCl-moisturised sampling devices, one of which comprises Dacron-tipped plastic-shafted swabs and the other a cotton-tipped wood-shafted swab, available in most ophthalmologists' offices. Downstream methods for specific detection of HAdV included direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA) of conjunctival swabs, virus isolation by cell culture and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Furthermore, the influence of application of local anaesthetics prior to swabbing on subsequent detection of HAdV was investigated. Application of local anaesthetics had a positive influence on the amount of swabbed cells, thus increasing the chance of obtaining positive results by IFA. Neither isolation of HAdV by cell culture nor by qPCR was negatively influenced by this pretreatment. Surprisingly, both commercially available VTS performed significantly worse than the NaCl-moisturised swabs. This was shown with regard to virus recovery rates in cell culture as well as viral genome copy numbers in the qPCR. Based on our results, the following recommendations are provided to improve sampling, transport and diagnostic techniques regarding conjunctival swabs for diagnosis of human adenovirus infection: (1) application of local anaesthetics, (2) NaCl-moisturised VTS for shipment of specimens, and (3) detection of HAdV by qPCR. The latter method proved to be superior to virus isolation by cell culture, including subsequent identification by IFA, because it is faster, more sensitive and allows simultaneous handling of a number

  3. Surveillance of Vittaforma corneae in hot springs by a small-volume procedure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jung-Sheng; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Tung-Yi; Huang, Yu-Li; Shaio, Men-Fang; Ji, Dar-Der

    2017-07-01

    Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Limitations in detection sensitivity have meant a large sampling volume is required to detect the pathogen up to now, which is problematic. A recent study in Taiwan has shown that some individuals suffering from microsporidial keratitis (MK) were infected after exposure to the pathogen at a hot spring. As a consequence of this, a survey and analysis of environmental V. corneae present in hot springs became an urgent need. In this study, sixty water samples from six hot spring recreation areas around Taiwan were analyzed. One liter of water from each sample site was filtered to harvest the fungi. The positive samples were detected using a modified nested PCR approach followed by sequencing using specific SSU rRNA gene primer pairs for V. corneae. In total fifteen V. corneae-like isolates were identified (25.0% of sites). Among them, six isolates, which were collected from recreational areas B, C and D, were highly similar to known V. corneae keratitis strains from Taiwan and other countries. Furthermore, five isolates, which were collected from recreation areas A, C, E and F, were very similar to Vittaforma-like diarrhea strains isolated in Portugal. Cold spring water tubs and public foot bath pools had the highest detection rate (50%), suggesting that hot springs might be contaminated via untreated water sources. Comparing the detection rate across different regions of Taiwan, Taitung, which is in the east of the island, gave the highest positive rate (37.5%). Statistical analysis showed that outdoor/soil exposure and a high heterotrophic plate count (HPC) were risk factors for the occurrence of V. corneae. Our findings provide empirical evidence

  4. How Are Ocular Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye Associated With Depression in Women With and Without Sjögren Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gonzales, John A; Chou, Annie; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer R; Bunya, Vatinee Y; Criswell, Lindsey A; Shiboski, Caroline H; Lietman, Thomas M

    2018-07-01

    To determine whether ocular phenotypic features of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and/or participant-reported symptoms of dry eye disease are associated with depression in women participants enrolled in the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA). Cross-sectional study. Women enrolled in the SICCA registry from 9 international research sites. Participants met at least 1 of 5 inclusion criteria for registry enrollment (including complaints of dry eyes or dry mouth, a previous diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome (SS), abnormal serology (positive anti-Sjögren syndrome antigen A and/or B [anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB]), or elevated antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor), bilateral parotid gland enlargement, or multiple dental caries). At baseline, participants had oral, ocular, and rheumatologic examination; blood and saliva collection; and a labial salivary gland biopsy (LSGB). They also completed an interview and questionnaires including assessment of depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between depression and demographic characteristics, participant-reported health, phenotypic features of Sjögren syndrome, and participant-reported symptoms. Mixed-effects modeling was performed to determine if phenotypic features of KCS and/or participant-reported symptoms of dry eye disease were associated with depression, controlling for health, age, country or residence, and sex and allowing for nonindependence within geographic site. Dry eye complaints produced a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-2.40) higher odds of having depression compared to being symptom-free (P < .001). Additionally, complaints of specific ocular sensations were associated with a higher odds of depression including burning sensation (odds ratio 2.25, 95% CI 1.87-2.72, P < .001) compared to those without complaints. In both women with and without SS, the presence of symptoms of dry

  5. Efficacy of topical nerve growth factor treatment in dogs affected by dry eye.

    PubMed

    Coassin, Marco; Lambiase, Alessandro; Costa, Nicola; De Gregorio, Alessandra; Sgrulletta, Roberto; Sacchetti, Marta; Aloe, Luigi; Bonini, Stefano

    2005-02-01

    Preliminary data show that nerve growth factor (NGF) may improve tear production in humans. We evaluated the efficacy of topical NGF treatment in dogs who developed dry eye after the excision of the third eyelid lacrimal gland. English Bulldogs (2- to 6-year-old males and females) that had undergone the surgical removal of the prolapsed lacrimal gland of the third eyelid in both eyes at the age of 3-6 months developed chronic keratoconjunctivitis sicca associated with a decrease of Schirmer tear test I values after at least 1 year. One eye, randomly selected, of each dog was treated twice daily with 100 microl of NGF ointment for 1 month, while the fellow eye was used as control and treated with the ointment vehicle only. At baseline and after 1 month of NGF treatment the following examinations were performed: corneal evaluation by slit lamp, fluorescein staining, Schirmer tear test I, tear ferning test, corneal esthesiometry by cotton swab and conjunctival impression cytology. Topical application of NGF caused a significant improvement of all the evaluated parameters compared with baseline values. In contrast, in the control eyes there was no significant difference between the values measured before and after treatment. In particular, after NGF treatment superficial punctate keratopathy was resolved, corneal haze was reduced from stage 4 to stage 2 and Schirmer test values increased (17.2+/-1.7 mm/min vs 4.5+/-1.3 mm/min; p<0.05), as did the tear mucous component (as demonstrated by ferning test: 2.0+/-0.0 vs 4.0+/-0.0; p<0.05); conjunctival impression cytology evaluation demonstrated the presence of numerous mucous filaments and a significant increase in conjunctival goblet cell density (102.7+/-68.3 vs. 18.2+/-14.3 cell x field; p<0.05). Topical NGF treatment improved corneal sensitivity in two of three eyes. This open study suggests that topical application of NGF may enhance the production and functional characteristics in tear film, with an improvement of

  6. Lymphotoxin-beta receptor blockade reduces CXCL13 in lacrimal glands and improves corneal integrity in the NOD model of Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In Sjögren's syndrome, keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye) is associated with infiltration of lacrimal glands by leukocytes and consequent losses of tear-fluid production and the integrity of the ocular surface. We investigated the effect of blockade of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTBR) pathway on lacrimal-gland pathology in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. Methods Male NOD mice were treated for up to ten weeks with an antagonist, LTBR-Ig, or control mouse antibody MOPC-21. Extra-orbital lacrimal glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for high endothelial venules (HEV), by Affymetrix gene-array analysis and real-time PCR for differential gene expression, and by ELISA for CXCL13 protein. Leukocytes from lacrimal glands were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Tear-fluid secretion-rates were measured and the integrity of the ocular surface was scored using slit-lamp microscopy and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) staining. The chemokine CXCL13 was measured by ELISA in sera from Sjögren's syndrome patients (n = 27) and healthy controls (n = 30). Statistical analysis was by the two-tailed, unpaired T-test, or the Mann-Whitney-test for ocular integrity scores. Results LTBR blockade for eight weeks reduced B-cell accumulation (approximately 5-fold), eliminated HEV in lacrimal glands, and reduced the entry rate of lymphocytes into lacrimal glands. Affymetrix-chip analysis revealed numerous changes in mRNA expression due to LTBR blockade, including reduction of homeostatic chemokine expression. The reduction of CXCL13, CCL21, CCL19 mRNA and the HEV-associated gene GLYCAM-1 was confirmed by PCR analysis. CXCL13 protein increased with disease progression in lacrimal-gland homogenates, but after LTBR blockade for 8 weeks, CXCL13 was reduced approximately 6-fold to 8.4 pg/mg (+/- 2.7) from 51 pg/mg (+/-5.3) in lacrimal glands of 16 week old control mice. Mice given LTBR blockade exhibited an approximately two-fold greater tear-fluid secretion than

  7. Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in shelter and owned-client dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Pietro, Simona Di; Bosco, Valentina Rita Francesca; Crinò, Chiara; Francaviglia, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy). Moreover, the period prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) in the same endemic area over a 3-year period. Materials and Methods: All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by cytological, serological (immune-fluorescent antibody test), and molecular (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) tests. Results: The point prevalence of ocular lesions in 45 shelter dogs with leishmaniasis was 71.11% (45/127 dogs). The most frequent ocular lesion was blepharitis (50%) while anterior uveitis was observed in only 9.37% of cases. The period prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis in the VTH group was 36.36% (48/132 dogs). In both groups, most of the lesions were bilateral and involved the anterior segment. Anterior uveitis was the most frequent ophthalmic finding in client-owned dogs (37.50%), but it occurred in only 9.37% of the shelter dogs. Keratouveitis often occurred during or after antiprotozoal treatment (14.58%; 7/48). In this study, the healing of eye injury following systemic antiprotozoal treatment was recorded in about half of cases (48%; 12/25 dogs), in which follow-up was possible. In more than 1/3 of cases (36%; 9/25), there was an improvement, but it was necessary to associate a long-term topical treatment; most of them, as well as those who had not responded to systemic therapy (16%; 4/25), had anterior uveitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Conclusions: Ocular manifestations involve up to 2/3 of animals affected by canine leishmaniasis and lesions account for over 1/3 of ophthalmic pathologies observed at a referral clinic in an endemic area. The occurrence of anterior uveitis is more frequent in

  8. Evaluation of lipid oxidative stress status and inflammation in atopic ocular surface disease

    PubMed Central

    Wakamatsu, Tais H.; Ayako, Igarashi; Takano, Yoji; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ibrahim, Osama M.A.; Okada, Naoko; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the oxidative stress status in atopic skin disease has been reported to be elevated, there are still no studies related to the status of oxidative stress in atopic ocular surface disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular surface lipid oxidative stress status and inflammation in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) patients and normal subjects. Methods Twenty eight eyes of 14 patients (9 males, 5 females) with AKC and 18 eyes of 9 age and sex matched (4 males and 5 females) normal healthy controls were examined in this prospective study. The severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) was scored by the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. All subjects underwent Schirmer test, tear film break up time (BUT), fluorescein/Rose Bengal stainings, tear collection, and brush cytology from the upper palpebral conjunctiva. The brush cytology samples were stained with Diff-Quik for differentiation of inflammatory cells and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with HEL (hexanoyl-lysine) and 4-HNE (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) to study lipid oxidation. HEL and cytokine (interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from tear samples of AKC patients and control subjects. Toluidine Blue and IHC staining with HEL, 4-HNE and cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45) were performed on papillary samples of AKC patients. This study was conducted in compliance with the “Declaration of Helsinki.” Results The tear stability and vital staining scores were significantly worse in eyes of AKC patients (p<0.05) compared to the controls. Inflammatory cells and positively stained conjunctival epithelial cells for HEL and 4-HNE showed a significant elevation in brush cytology samples of AKC patients. Significantly higher levels of HEL and cytokines were detected in tears of AKC patients compared to controls. Papillary

  9. The epidemiologic characteristics and clinical course of ophthalmopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1994-01-01

    accompanied GO in approximately 4% and 1% of patients, respectively. Myasthenia gravis occurred in less than 1% of patients. Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis was documented in less than 4% of patients. The median age at the time of diagnosis of GO was 43 years (range, 8 to 88). Among patients with hyperthyroidism, 61% developed ophthalmopathy within 1 year of the onset of thyrotoxicosis. Symptoms and signs for which statistically significant changes occurred between the initial and final examinations included lacrimation, pain or ocular discomfort, photophobia, eyelid retraction, lid lag, eyelid fullness, conjunctival injection, chemosis, and exophthalmos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7886878

  10. Human Adenovirus Type 37 Uses αVβ1 and α3β1 Integrins for Infection of Human Corneal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Rickard J.; Persson, B. David; Skalman, Lars Nygård; Frängsmyr, Lars; Lindström, Mona; Rankin, Greg; Lundmark, Richard; Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a severe, contagious ocular disease that affects 20 to 40 million individuals worldwide every year. EKC is mainly caused by six types of human adenovirus (HAdV): HAdV-8, -19, -37, -53, -54, and -56. Of these, HAdV-8, -19, and -37 use sialic acid-containing glycans as cellular receptors. αVβ3, αVβ5, and a few additional integrins facilitate entry and endosomal release of other HAdVs. With the exception of a few biochemical analyses indicating that HAdV-37 can interact physically with αVβ5, little is known about the integrins used by EKC-causing HAdVs. Here, we investigated the overall integrin expression on human corneal cells and found expression of α2, α3, α6, αV, β1, and β4 subunits in human corneal in situ epithelium and/or in a human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line but no or less accessible expression of α4, α5, β3, or β5. We also identified the integrins used by HAdV-37 through a series of binding and infection competition experiments and different biochemical approaches. Together, our data suggest that HAdV-37 uses αVβ1 and α3β1 integrins for infection of human corneal epithelial cells. Furthermore, to confirm the relevance of these integrins in the HAdV-37 life cycle, we developed a corneal multilayer tissue system and found that HAdV-37 infection correlated well with the patterns of αV, α3, and β1 integrin expression. These results provide further insight into the tropism and pathogenesis of EKC-causing HAdVs and may be of importance for future development of new antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Keratitis is a hallmark of EKC, which is caused by six HAdV types (HAdV-8, -19, -37, -53, -54, and -56). HAdV-37 and some other HAdV types interact with integrin αVβ5 in order to enter nonocular human cells. In this study, we found that αVβ5 is not expressed on human corneal epithelial cells, thus proposing other host factors mediate corneal infection. Here, we first characterized integrin

  11. Scleral Contact Lenses in an Academic Oculoplastics Clinic: Epidemiology and Emerging Considerations.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Harinder S; Estrada, Marcela; Sindt, Christine W; Boehme, Jacob A; Greiner, Mark A; Nerad, Jeffrey A; Carter, Keith D; Allen, Richard C; Shriver, Erin M

    To describe the role and efficacy of scleral contact lenses (SCLs) in the treatment of progressive keratopathy in patients who have undergone periocular surgical procedures, to investigate the financial impact of these surgical interventions, and to demonstrate the role of oculoplastic surgery in improving scleral contact lens fit. A retrospective medical record review was performed to identify patients who both received SCLs and were examined by the oculoplastics service at the University of Iowa between January 1990 and December 2015. Inclusion criteria also required a minimum of 12 months of patient follow up after being fit with a SCL. The indication for SCL use, as well as clinical outcomes and cumulative relative value units (RVUs) of prior oculoplastic treatments and SCL therapy were recorded for each patient. Six hundred and fifty-nine patients were fitted with SCLs at the authors' institution during the 25-year study period, 43 of whom were examined by the oculoplastics service for reasons related to their SCL. Patients who were fitted for SCLs before (27 patients) or after (16 patients) evaluation in the oculoplastics clinic presented with a variety of corneal and periocular pathology. Corneal indications for SCLs in patients seen secondarily in the oculoplastics clinic included decreased corneal sensation (from CN V palsy or neurotrophic keratopathy), decreased corneal healing from limbal stem cell deficiency, exposure keratopathy, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca secondary to Sjogren's syndrome or orbital radiation. Indications for oculoplastic clinic evaluation in current scleral lens patients included lagophthalmos, trichiasis, epiphora, cicatricial changes in the eyelids or fornices, and eyelid or eyebrow malposition affecting SCL centration. In all 27 patients, surgical intervention resulted in improved SCL centration. Sixteen patients (5 with CN VII palsy, 4 with CN V and CN VII palsy, 4 with neurotrophic keratitis, and 3 with cicatricial entropion

  12. Adverse external ocular effects of topical ophthalmic therapy: an epidemiologic, laboratory, and clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, F M

    1983-01-01

    New knowledge of adverse external ocular reactions to topical ophthalmic medications was obtained by means of a computerized epidemiologic study, laboratory studies, and clinical observations. Listed below are the major findings and conclusions that represent facts or concepts that were previously unknown, uncertain, misunderstood, or forgotten: The incidence of clinically important drug reactions among all cases was at least 13.09% and may have been as high as 16.02%. Among treated patients it was at least 16.26% to 19.90%. Taken together, drug reactions were the second most common external disease diagnosis. The incidence of each kind of drug reaction was determined. Toxic papillary reactions accounted for 79.10% of drug cases and 10.35% of all cases. Toxic papillary keratoconjunctivitis was the third most common single diagnosis. The following epidemiologic factors were found to be related to the development or presence of drug reactions: number and variety of treating practitioners, number of practitioners consulted, number of practitioners consulted who treated, specific ophthalmologist consulted (8.24% of ophthalmologists referred 39.55% of all drug cases and showed a tendency habitually to overtreat), number and kinds of patients' symptomatic complaints, number of medications prescribed and used, number of days of treatment, particular drugs and preservatives used (but not their strengths or vehicles), underlying (primary) diagnoses, and inaccuracy of referring ophthalmologists' diagnoses. Patients with dry eyes were especially at risk for the development of toxic papillary reactions. Among all cases, the incidence of reactions to preservatives (mainly thimerosal) in contact lens solutions was 0.39% to 1.95%, depending on whether definite or probable cases, respectively, were considered. The incidence among the 54 patients who used daily-wear lenses (excluding extended-wear therapeutic and optical contacts) was 7.41% for definite reactions and 37.04% for

  13. Topical administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist as a therapy for aqueous-deficient dry eye in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Vijmasi, Trinka; Chen, Feeling Y T; Chen, Ying Ting; Gallup, Marianne; McNamara, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is commonly associated with autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS), in which exocrinopathy of the lacrimal gland leads to aqueous tear deficiency and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). KCS is among the most common and debilitating clinical manifestations of SS that is often recalcitrant to therapy. We established mice deficient in the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene as a model for autoimmune-mediated aqueous-deficient dry eye. In Aire-deficient mice, CD4+ T cells represent the main effector cells and local signaling via the interleukin-1 (IL-1/IL-1R1) pathway provides an essential link between autoreactive CD4+ T cells and ocular surface disease. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of topical administration of IL-1R1 antagonist (IL-1RA) anakinra in alleviating ocular surface damage resulting from aqueous-deficient dry eye in the setting of autoimmune disease. We compared the effect of commercially available IL-1R1 antagonist, anakinra (50 μg/mL concentration) to that of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) vehicle control as a treatment for dry eye. Age-matched, Aire-deficient mice were treated three times daily with anakinra or CMC vehicle for 14 days using side-by-side (n = 4 mice/group) and paired-eye (n = 5) comparisons. We assessed (1) ocular surface damage with lissamine green staining; (2) tear secretion with wetting of phenol-red threads; (3) goblet cell (GC) mucin glycosylation with lectin histochemistry; (4) immune cell infiltration using anti-F4/80, CD11c, and CD4 T cell antibodies; and (5) gene expression of cornified envelope protein, Small Proline-Rich Protein-1B (SPRR1B) with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Aire-deficient mice treated with anakinra experienced significant improvements in ocular surface integrity and tear secretion. After 7 days of treatment, lissamine green staining decreased in eyes treated with anakinra compared to an equivalent increase in staining following treatment with CMC vehicle

  14. Topical administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist as a therapy for aqueous-deficient dry eye in autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijmasi, Trinka; Chen, Feeling YT; Chen, Ying Ting; Gallup, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye is commonly associated with autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), in which exocrinopathy of the lacrimal gland leads to aqueous tear deficiency and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). KCS is among the most common and debilitating clinical manifestations of SS that is often recalcitrant to therapy. We established mice deficient in the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene as a model for autoimmune-mediated aqueous-deficient dry eye. In Aire-deficient mice, CD4+ T cells represent the main effector cells and local signaling via the interleukin-1 (IL-1/IL-1R1) pathway provides an essential link between autoreactive CD4+ T cells and ocular surface disease. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of topical administration of IL-1R1 antagonist (IL-1RA) anakinra in alleviating ocular surface damage resulting from aqueous-deficient dry eye in the setting of autoimmune disease. Methods We compared the effect of commercially available IL-1R1 antagonist, anakinra (50 μg/mL concentration) to that of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) vehicle control as a treatment for dry eye. Age-matched, Aire-deficient mice were treated three times daily with anakinra or CMC vehicle for 14 days using side-by-side (n=4 mice/group) and paired-eye (n=5) comparisons. We assessed (1) ocular surface damage with lissamine green staining; (2) tear secretion with wetting of phenol-red threads; (3) goblet cell (GC) mucin glycosylation with lectin histochemistry; (4) immune cell infiltration using anti-F4/80, CD11c, and CD4 T cell antibodies; and (5) gene expression of cornified envelope protein, Small Proline-Rich Protein-1B (SPRR1B) with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results Aire-deficient mice treated with anakinra experienced significant improvements in ocular surface integrity and tear secretion. After 7 days of treatment, lissamine green staining decreased in eyes treated with anakinra compared to an equivalent increase in staining following