Science.gov

Sample records for kerion celsi caused

  1. Fluctuating lesion of the scalp after a journey to the tropics: a case of furunculoid myiasis.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Sara; Balakirski, Galina; Tappe, Dennis; Cacch, Claudio; Knüchel-Clarke, Ruth; Schmit, Laurenz

    2018-02-15

    Fluctuating lesions or furuncles of the scalp occur frequently in dermatological practice. This clinical condition is often caused by gram positive bacteria (e.g. staphylococcal or streptococcal skin infection) or fungal infection (e.g. Kerion celsi). However, a rare diagnosis such as myiasis might be considered, especially if a journey to an endemic area is reported. Herein, we present a case of furunculoid myiasis of the scalp and review the pathogenesis and therapeutic options to treat this condition.

  2. [Trichophyton violaceum : Main cause of tinea capitis in children at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda].

    PubMed

    Wiegand, C; Mugisha, P; Mulyowa, G K; Elsner, P; Hipler, U C; Gräser, Y; Uhrlaß, S; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    Tinea capitis is caused by anthropophilic, zoophilic or geophilic dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum or Trichophyton. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation of tinea capitis among children in western Uganda. From February to June 2012, skin and hair samples were obtained from 115 patients aged from 1 to 16 years presenting at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MUSC) with clinically suspected tinea capitis. Conventional mycological diagnostics comprised Blancophor preparation and cultivation of fungi for species identification. Tinea capitis among the children included in the MUSC study was mainly noninflammatory showing mostly a seborrhoeic pattern or "black dot" and "gray patch" form and highly inflammatory kerion celsi. Blancophor preparation identified 82.6 % positive and 17.4 % negative samples. Cultural species differentiation showed Trichophyton (T.) violaceum as the causative agent for tinea capitis in 56.6 % of the patients. In 13 %, Microsporum (M.) audouinii was isolated followed by T. soudanense (2.6 %), and T. rubrum (1.7 %). In addition, moulds (contamination?) such as Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum were found as well as mixed infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte T. violaceum represents the most frequent cause of tinea capitis in western Uganda. For successful management oral antifungal therapy is necessary together with supportive topical treatment.

  3. Kerion and Tinea Corporis Caused by Rabbit-Derived Trichophyton interdigitale in Three Siblings and One Consulting Doctor Using β-Tubulin Gene to Identify the Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Ping; Sheng, Ping; Liu, Zhong; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Trichophyton interdigitale is generally deemed as an anamorph of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, but recently their anamorph/teleomorph connection should be cautioned based on β-tubulin phylogeny. We report three siblings and one consulting doctor who developed kerion and tinea corporis after contact with domestic rabbits. Seven same strains were isolated from four patients and three regions of a sick rabbit. The ITS and D1/D2 sequences of our isolate were 99 % homologous to A. Vanbreuseghemii, while β-tubulin sequence was 100 % identical to T. interdigitale. Our isolate was identified as T. interdigitale based on maximum likelihood analysis of β-tubulin. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed that the band patterns of five isolated strains and another rabbit-derived strain WCH023 were identical for OPF-03 and OPF-12. Skin lesions of all patients resolved completely for 2- to 6-week therapy of oral terbinafine and topical 1 % bifonazole or 1 % terbinafine cream. This study demonstrates that T. interdigitale of rabbit origin can cause various types of human dermatophytosis by mild scratch. Terbinafine may be the first choice for dermatophytosis caused by T. interdigitale.

  4. Infection of the Beard area. Kerion: a review of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Wall, D; Fraher, M; O'Connell, B; Watson, R; Timon, C; Stassen, L F A; Barnes, L

    2014-01-01

    Folliculitis barbae is a common condition of both infective and non-infectious aetiology. It most frequently presents as a superficial folliculitis, with fine pustules appearing at the opening of hair follicles in the beard area, often associated with shaving; known as Bockhart impetigo and usually due to infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. If untreated, the infection and inflammation can progress, leading to a more deeply seated infection known as sycosis barbae. Perifollicular nodules, termed furuncles, may appear and when these are multiple and coalesce, a deep-seated, communicating, pustulating plaque called a carbuncle develops, often with associated systemic upset. Such an appearance, which can prompt incision and drainage, should not, however, be assumed to be solely due to staphylococcal infection. Particularly in the context of a history of close animal contact or a lack of response to antibiotic treatment, a diagnosis of tinea barbae should be considered and investigated. Prompt treatment with antifungal agents and often systemic steroids is required once the diagnosis is made. This will help reduce an exacerbation of the pronounced destruction that results from the immune response to the fungal infection, known as a kerion, which would be compounded by surgical intervention. In this article, we review two such cases and review the investigation and management of the disease.

  5. [Acute skin infections and their imitators in children : A photo quiz].

    PubMed

    Theiler, M; Schwieger-Briel, A; Weibel, L

    2017-10-01

    Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. To illustrate frequent pediatric skin infections and pitfalls in view of imitators and differential diagnoses. A photo quiz is presented with the discussion of a selection of acute pediatric skin infections in comparison to their infectious or noninfectious differential diagnoses. The following infectious skin conditions and imitators are described and clinical clues for differentiation highlighted: eczema herpeticum and bacterial superinfection of atopic dermatitis; exanthematous hand, foot and mouth disease and varicella infection; erythema chronicum multilocularis and anular urticaria; Gianotti-Crosti syndrome and Gianotti-Crosti-like reaction; bacterial folliculitis of the scalp and kerion celsi and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of the scalp; cutaneous Leishmaniasis and idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma; allergic and bacterial lymphangitis; bullous impetigo contagiosa and nonaccidental scalding. Careful anamnesis and skin examination with attention to the here illustrated differential diagnoses are essential to avoid pitfalls in the evaluation of acute pediatric skin infections.

  6. An unusual clinical presentation of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deok-Woo; Yang, Ji-Hye; Choi, Seok-Joo; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Mi-Na

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, the natural host of which is the hedgehog, has been found to cause highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions, including tinea manuum, tinea corporis, nail infection, kerion, scalp infection, and tinea barbae. To our knowledge, however, no reports have been made of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the English language literature. We provide here the case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Tinea in the genital area : A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].

    PubMed

    Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Nenoff, P; Kurrat, W; Propst, E; Durrant-Finn, U; Uhrlaß, S; Weger, W

    2016-09-01

    Pubogenital tinea or tinea genitalis represents a rare type of dermatophytosis which, however, is increasingly being diagnosed. The mons pubis is affected, but also the outer regions to the penis shaft and the labia together with the groins. Pubogenital tinea is a more superficial erythrosquamous type, but strong inflammatory dermatomycoses of the genital area as tinea genitalis profunda ranging to kerion celsi are observed. A total of 30 patients (14-63 years of age, 11 men and 19 women) with pubogenital tinea are described. Most patients originated from Graz, Austria, while 2 patients were from Germany (Saxony and Isle of Sylt). Causative agents were mainly zoophilic dermatophytes: Microsporum (M.) canis (11), Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale (9), T. anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae (2), and T. verrucosum (1). Anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (6) and T. tonsurans (1). Anamnestic questions should include contact with pets, physical activities, and travel. Genital shaving and concurrent tinea pedis and onychomycosis are disposing factors. Treatment consisted of oral antifungals except in the three women who were pregnant. Preferably, itraconazole or terbinafine was used, while in a single case, fluconazole was administered. Griseofulvin was not used, because this classic systemic antifungal agent is not allowed any more in Austria. In one patient, oral antifungal therapy was changed from itraconazole to terbinafine due to inefficacy.

  8. Clinical specificities of Tinea capitis in Georgia population.

    PubMed

    Kudava, Kh

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal peculiarities of the clinical symptoms and forms of Tinea capitis caused by etiological agents that are common in our country. The study was conducted on 176 ambulatory patients who approached the National Centre in 2009-2013. Inclusion criterion was simultaneous presence of clinical symptoms and positive result of microscopic study. For cultural examination was used Sabouraud's dextrose agar with the antibiotic chloramphenicol. Clinical manifestations were divided into inflammatory and non-inflammatory (i.e. slightly manifested inflammatory signs) lesions. 85(48,3%) inflammatory and 91(51,7%) non-inflammatory cases of Tinea capitis were revealed. Clinical forms were distributed in following way: kerion 73 (41,5%), grey patch with single lesions 71 (40,3%), seborrheic dermatitis-like form 14 (8%), agminate folliculites 12 (6,8%) and black-dot dermatophytosis 6 (3,4%). In 41(89,1%) of the cases etiological agent of the kerion was Trichophyton mentagrophytes; in 41(85,4%) of the cases etiological agent for the grey patch with single lesions was Microsporum canis. Important clinical and etiological relationship was revealed between kerion and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, as well as between grey patch with single lesions and Microsporum canis. In case of inflammatory forms (predominantly kerion) caused by Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes ID reaction was manifested by disseminated follicular papules.

  9. TH-AB-209-04: 3D Light Sheet Luminescence Imaging with Cherenkov Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruza, P; Lin, H; Jarvis, L

    Purpose: To recover a three-dimensional density distribution of luminescent molecular probes located several centimeters deep within a highly scattering tissue. Methods: We developed a novel sheet beam Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging (CELSI) methodology. The sample was irradiated by a horizontally oriented, vertically scanned 6 MV X-ray sheet beam (200mm × 5mm, 0.2mm vertical step) from a radiotherapy linear accelerator. The resulting Cherenkov light emission – and thus luminescent probe excitation – occurred exclusively along the irradiation plane due to a short diffusion path of secondary particles and Cherenkov photons. Cherenkov-excited luminescence was detected orthogonally to the sheet beam by gated,more » intensified charge coupled device camera. Analogously to light sheet microscopy, a series of luminescence images was taken for varied axial positions (depths) of the Cherenkov light sheet in sample. Knowledge of the excitation plane position allowed a 3D image stack deconvolution and depth-variant attenuation correction. The 3D image post-processing yielded a true spatial density distribution of luminescent molecules in highly scattering tissue. Results: We recovered a three-dimensional shape and position of 400 µL lesion-mimicking phantom tubes containing 25 µM solution of PtG4 molecular probe from 3 centimeter deep tissue-like media. The high sensitivity of CELSI also allowed resolving 100 micron capillaries of test solution. Functional information of partial oxygen pressure at the site of PtG4 molecular probe was recovered from luminescence lifetime CELSI. Finally, in-vivo sheet beam CELSI localized milimeter-sized PtG4-labelled tumor phantoms in multiple biological objects (hairless mice) from single scan. Conclusion: Presented sheet beam CELSI technique greatly extended the useful depth range of luminescence molecular imaging. More importantly, the light sheet microscopy approach was successfully adapted to CELSI, providing

  10. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections.

    PubMed

    Ely, John W; Rosenfeld, Sandra; Seabury Stone, Mary

    2014-11-15

    Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). The clinical diagnosis can be unreliable because tinea infections have many mimics, which can manifest identical lesions. For example, tinea corporis can be confused with eczema, tinea capitis can be confused with alopecia areata, and onychomycosis can be confused with dystrophic toenails from repeated low-level trauma. Physicians should confirm suspected onychomycosis and tinea capitis with a potassium hydroxide preparation or culture. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis generally respond to inexpensive topical agents such as terbinafine cream or butenafine cream, but oral antifungal agents may be indicated for extensive disease, failed topical treatment, immunocompromised patients, or severe moccasin-type tinea pedis. Oral terbinafine is first-line therapy for tinea capitis and onychomycosis because of its tolerability, high cure rate, and low cost. However, kerion should be treated with griseofulvin unless Trichophyton has been documented as the pathogen. Failure to treat kerion promptly can lead to scarring and permanent hair loss.

  11. Tinea Incognito

    PubMed Central

    Ive, F. Adrian; Marks, Ronald

    1968-01-01

    Fourteen cases are described in which the local application of corticosteroid preparations to ringworm infections of the skin have resulted in unusual clinical pictures. A kerion-like lesion due to Trichophyton rubrum, intertriginous infections simulating candidiasis and due to Epidermophyton floccosum, and pictures resembling poikiloderma, papular rosacea, and indeterminate leprosy are among the changes that were seen in these patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5662546

  12. Barriers to Treatment of Tinea Capitis in Children Living in the Jane Finch Community of Toronto.

    PubMed

    Zur, Rebecca L; Shapero, Jonathan; Shapero, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common fungal infection of the scalp. If left untreated, tinea capitis infection can cause severe inflammatory reactions and the development of kerion. Tinea capitis is effectively treated with oral antifungals, but at present these are not covered under government assistance programs. To assess the potential impact of a limited use code for antifungal therapy in the treatment of childhood tinea capitis. Fourteen family physicians practicing in the Jane Finch area were surveyed on their experience treating tinea capitis in this community. Seventy-one percent of surveyed family physicians felt that cost impedes the treatment of tinea capitis in their practice, and 100% felt that a limited use code would have a positive impact on their patients. A limited use code for oral antifungal treatments of tinea capitis may provide a simple, cost-effective solution to a major problem impacting children in the Jane Finch area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Cathelicidin (LL-37) level in the scalp hair of patients with tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Abdelaal, Nagwa H; Rashed, Laila A; Ibrahim, Sahar Y; Abd El Halim, Mona H; Ghoneim, Noha; Saleh, Noha A; Saleh, Marwah A

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered an important first line of defense against pathogens. Cathelicidin LL-37 was upregulated in response to fungal infection. In this work we aimed to evaluate cathelicidin LL-37 in the hair of tinea capitis and compare it to normal controls. Hair samples were collected from 30 children and 30 controls aged from 2 to10 years old, and the level of cathelicidin LL-37 in the hair was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The 30 patients were further subdivided into three subgroups according to their clinical type. Ten patients were scaly type, 10 patients were black dots type, and 10 patients were kerion type. Cathelicidin level in patients ranged from 6.0 to 17.5 with mean ± SD (11.3 ± 2.3) and in control ranged from 1.02 to 6.2, with mean ± SD (2.8 ± 1.5). There was a significant difference between the patients and controls regarding the cathelicidin level; P value was 0. The mean cathelicidin level was lowest in the kerion type10.73 ± 2.6 and highest in the black dot type 12.05 ± 2.76. However, there was no significant difference between the cathelicidin level of the different clinical types of tinea capitis; P value was 0.58. In conclusion, the level of cathelicidin LL-37 in hair specimens of human tinea capitis was significantly higher than controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  15. Tinea barbae (tinea sycosis): experience with nine cases.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Tamayo, Teresa; Saúl, Amado

    2003-12-01

    Tinea barbae is a rare dermatophytosis that affects the hair and hair follicles of the beard and mustache. This paper presents 9 cases of tinea barbae observed over an 18-year period of time and classified as follows: 1 was superficial and 8 were deep (6 folliculitis-like and 2 kerion-like). Most of the cases (4) were associated with topical steroid therapy, others with pet contact (3 cases) and one with diabetes. The causal agents isolated were: Trichophyton rubrum in 3; Microsporum canis in 3; Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2; and Trichophyton tonsurans in one. The involvement of the hair was observed and classified in all cases. The trichophytin skin reaction was positive in all 9 patients. All the patients were treated with systemic antimycotics, 3 cases with griseofulvin, 1 with ketoconazole, 3 with itraconazole, and 2 with terbinafine. Clinical and mycologic cures were achieved at 6 to 8 weeks of treatment at the usual doses.

  16. Quantifying cause-related mortality by weighting multiple causes of death

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Betancur, Margarita; Lamarche-Vadel, Agathe; Rey, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate a new approach to calculating cause-related standardized mortality rates that involves assigning weights to each cause of death reported on death certificates. Methods We derived cause-related standardized mortality rates from death certificate data for France in 2010 using: (i) the classic method, which considered only the underlying cause of death; and (ii) three novel multiple-cause-of-death weighting methods, which assigned weights to multiple causes of death mentioned on death certificates: the first two multiple-cause-of-death methods assigned non-zero weights to all causes mentioned and the third assigned non-zero weights to only the underlying cause and other contributing causes that were not part of the main morbid process. As the sum of the weights for each death certificate was 1, each death had an equal influence on mortality estimates and the total number of deaths was unchanged. Mortality rates derived using the different methods were compared. Findings On average, 3.4 causes per death were listed on each certificate. The standardized mortality rate calculated using the third multiple-cause-of-death weighting method was more than 20% higher than that calculated using the classic method for five disease categories: skin diseases, mental disorders, endocrine and nutritional diseases, blood diseases and genitourinary diseases. Moreover, this method highlighted the mortality burden associated with certain diseases in specific age groups. Conclusion A multiple-cause-of-death weighting approach to calculating cause-related standardized mortality rates from death certificate data identified conditions that contributed more to mortality than indicated by the classic method. This new approach holds promise for identifying underrecognized contributors to mortality. PMID:27994280

  17. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  18. Vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Zwakenberg, Sabine R; den Braver, Nicole R; Engelen, Anouk I P; Feskens, Edith J M; Vermeer, Cees; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, W M Monique; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin K has been associated with various health outcomes, including non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. However, little is known about the association between vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause specific mortality. This study aims to investigate the association between vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. This prospective cohort study included 33,289 participants from the EPIC-NL cohort, aged 20-70 years at baseline and recruited between 1993 and 1997. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a validated food frequency questionnaire and intakes of phylloquinone, and total, short chain and long chain menaquinones were calculated. Information on vital status and causes of death was obtained through linkage to several registries. The association between the different forms of vitamin K intake and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards, adjusted for risk factors for chronic diseases and nutrient intake. During a mean follow-up of 16.8 years, 2863 deaths occurred, including 625 from CVD (256 from coronary heart disease (CHD)), 1346 from cancer and 892 from other causes. After multivariable adjustment, phylloquinone and menaquinones were not associated with all-cause mortality with hazard ratios for the upper vs. the lowest quartile of intake of 1.04 (0.92;1.17) and 0.94 (0.82;1.07) respectively. Neither phylloquinone intake nor menaquinone intake was associated with risk of CVD mortality. Higher intake of long chain menaquinones was borderline significantly associated (p trend  = 0.06) with lower CHD mortality with a HR 10μg of 0.86 (0.74;1.00). None of the forms of vitamin K intake were associated with cancer mortality or mortality from other causes. Vitamin K intake was not associated with all-cause mortality, cancer mortality and mortality from other causes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Addiction in Extreme Sports: An Exploration of Withdrawal States in Rock Climbers

    PubMed Central

    Heirene, Robert M.; Shearer, David; Roderique-Davies, Gareth; Mellalieu, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Extreme sports athletes are often labeled “adrenaline junkies” by the media, implying they are addicted to their sport. Research suggests during abstinence these athletes may experience withdrawal states characteristic of individuals with an addiction (Celsi, Rose, & Leigh, 1993; Franken, Zijlstra, & Muris, 2006; Willig, 2008). Despite this notion, no research has directly explored withdrawal experiences of extreme sports athletes. Methods Using semi-structured interviews, we explored withdrawal experiences of high (n = 4) and average-ability (n = 4) male rock climbers during periods of abstinence. We investigated the psychological and behavioral aspects of withdrawal, including craving, anhedonia, and negative affect; and differences in the frequency and intensity of these states between groups. Results Deductive content analysis indicated support for each of the three categories of anhedonia, craving, and negative affect. Consistent with existing substance addiction literature, high-ability climbers recalled more frequent and intense craving states and negative affect during abstinence compared with average-ability climbers. No differences in anhedonic symptoms between high and average-ability participants were found. Conclusions Rock climbing athletes appear to experience withdrawal symptoms when abstinent from their sport comparable to individuals with substance and behavioral addictions. The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27348554

  20. What Causes SIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Look Like? How Can Caregivers Create a Safe Sleep Environment? Babies Need Tummy ... exactly what causes SIDS at this time. Scientists and health care providers are working very hard to find the cause or causes ...

  1. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Do Allergies Cause ... Las alergias son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But ...

  2. [Cause of death: from primary disease to direct cause of death].

    PubMed

    Oppewal, F; Smedts, F M M; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2005-07-23

    Following the death of a patient, the treating physician in the Netherlands is required to fill out two forms. Form A, which is the certificate of death and Form B, which is used by the Statistics Netherlands to compile data on causes ofdeath. The latter form often poses difficulty for the physician with respect to the primary cause of death. This applies particularly to cases of sudden death, which account for one third of all deaths in the Netherlands. As a result, the statistical analyses appear to lead to an incorrect representation of the distribution of causes of death. A more thorough investigation into the primary cause of death is desirable, if necessary, supported by a request for an autopsy. The primary cause of death is to be regarded as the basic disease from which the cascade of changes ultimately leading to death originated.

  3. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  4. What Causes COPD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD What Causes COPD? Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Long- ... and the airways usually is the cause of COPD. In the United States, the most common irritant ...

  5. Environmental Causes of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2018-02-01

    Environmental factors which cause asthma are those that induce airway inflammation with eosinophils (more common) or neutrophils along with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The most common of these (indeed the most common cause of asthma) are IgE-mediated inhalant allergen exposures. Allergen-induced AHR and inflammation are both associated with the allergen-induced late asthmatic response (LAR). Although allergens were previously recognized only as causes of symptoms and bronchoconstriction in asthmatics, we now appreciate them as causes of the fundamental pathophysiologic features of asthma. Low-molecular-weight chemical sensitizers, causes of occupational asthma, also cause asthma in a manner analogous to allergen. Acute irritant-induced asthma (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome) following a very heavy irritant exposure and chronic irritant-induced asthma following repeated high exposures can also induce persistent or permanent changes (inflammation and AHR) consistent with asthma. Textile dust exposure produces a different form of airway disease (byssinosis) which is less frequently observed currently. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke facilitates the development of asthma in children. Personal smoking and environmental air pollution have an inconsistent and likely generally small effect in causing asthma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. What Causes Hiccups?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español What Causes Hiccups? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Causes Hiccups? Print en español ¿Cuál es la causa del hipo? "Hic!" You've just hiccuped for what seems like the tenth time since you finished your big dinner. Wonder where these funny noises are coming ...

  7. Causes of death among females-investigating beyond maternal causes: a community-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Aregay, Alemseged; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Abreha, Loko; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Bezabih, Afework Mulugeta

    2014-09-10

    In developing countries, investigating mortality levels and causes of death among all age female population despite the childhood and maternal related deaths is important to design appropriate and tailored interventions and to improve survival of female residents. Under Kilite-Awlealo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, we investigated mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of female population from 1st of January 2010 to 31st of December 2012. At the baseline, 33,688 females were involved for the prospective follow-up study. Households under the study were updated every six months by fulltime surveillance data collectors to identify vital events, including deaths. Verbal Autopsy (VA) data were collected by separate trained data collectors for all identified deaths in the surveillance site. Trained physicians assigned underlining causes of death using the 10th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We assessed overall, age- and cause-specific mortality rates per 1000 person-years. Causes of death among all deceased females and by age groups were ranked based on cause specific mortality rates. Analysis was performed using Stata Version 11.1. During the follow-up period, 105,793.9 person-years of observation were generated, and 398 female deaths were recorded. This gave an overall mortality rate of 3.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.41, 4.15) per 1,000 person-years. The top three broad causes of death were infectious and parasitic diseases (1.40 deaths per 1000 person-years), non-communicable diseases (0.98 deaths per 1000 person-years) and external causes (0.36 per 1000 person-years). Most deaths among reproductive age female were caused by Human Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS) and tuberculosis (0.14 per 1000 person-years for each cause). Pregnancy and childbirth related causes were responsible for few deaths among women of reproductive age--3 out of 73 deaths (4.1%) or 5.34 deaths per 1,000 person

  8. Cross-sectional study on prevalence, causes and avoidable causes of visual impairment in Maori children.

    PubMed

    Chong, Cheefoong; Dai, Shuan

    2013-08-02

    To provide information and comparison pertaining to visual impairment of Maori children with other children in New Zealand in particular: prevalence of blindness, causes of visual impairment, and avoidable causes of visual impairment. Retrospective data collection utilising the WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision at Blind and Low Vision Education Network New Zealand (BLENNZ), Homai. Individuals not of Maori ethnicity or over the age of 16 were excluded from the study. 106 blind and 64 low-vision Maori children were studied. The main cause of blindness in Maori children is cortical visual impairment. Twenty-eight percent of causes of blindness in this population are potentially avoidable with non-accidental injury as the main cause. The prevalence of blindness and low vision in children amounts to 0.05% and 0.03%, respectively. The prevalence and causes of childhood blindness are comparable to the other ethnic groups in New Zealand. The main difference lies in avoidable causes of blindness, which appeared to be much higher in the Maori population. The leading cause of avoidable blindness in Maori children is caused by non-accidental injuries.

  9. Causes of Effects and Effects of Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Judea

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual framework and simple mathematical methods of estimating the probability that one event was a necessary cause of another, as interpreted by lawmakers. We show that the fusion of observational and experimental data can yield informative bounds that, under certain circumstances, meet legal criteria of causation.…

  10. Ill-defined causes of death in Brazil: a redistribution method based on the investigation of such causes

    PubMed Central

    França, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Renato; Ishitani, Lenice; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a method of redistributing ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) based on the investigation of such causes. METHODS In 2010, an evaluation of the results of investigating the causes of death classified as IDCD in accordance with chapter 18 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the Mortality Information System was performed. The redistribution coefficients were calculated according to the proportional distribution of ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation in any chapter of the ICD-10, except for chapter 18, and used to redistribute the ill-defined causes not investigated and remaining by sex and age. The IDCD redistribution coefficient was compared with two usual methods of redistribution: a) Total redistribution coefficient, based on the proportional distribution of all the defined causes originally notified and b) Non-external redistribution coefficient, similar to the previous, but excluding external causes. RESULTS Of the 97,314 deaths by ill-defined causes reported in 2010, 30.3% were investigated, and 65.5% of those were reclassified as defined causes after the investigation. Endocrine diseases, mental disorders, and maternal causes had a higher representation among the reclassified ill-defined causes, contrary to infectious diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary diseases, with higher proportions among the defined causes reported. External causes represented 9.3% of the ill-defined causes reclassified. The correction of mortality rates by the total redistribution coefficient and non-external redistribution coefficient increased the magnitude of the rates by a relatively similar factor for most causes, contrary to the IDCD redistribution coefficient that corrected the different causes of death with differentiated weights. CONCLUSIONS The proportional distribution of causes among the ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation was not similar to the original distribution of defined causes. Therefore

  11. Ill-defined causes of death in Brazil: a redistribution method based on the investigation of such causes.

    PubMed

    França, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Renato; Ishitani, Lenice; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landman

    2014-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a method of redistributing ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) based on the investigation of such causes. METHODS In 2010, an evaluation of the results of investigating the causes of death classified as IDCD in accordance with chapter 18 of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by the Mortality Information System was performed. The redistribution coefficients were calculated according to the proportional distribution of ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation in any chapter of the ICD-10, except for chapter 18, and used to redistribute the ill-defined causes not investigated and remaining by sex and age. The IDCD redistribution coefficient was compared with two usual methods of redistribution: a) Total redistribution coefficient, based on the proportional distribution of all the defined causes originally notified and b) Non-external redistribution coefficient, similar to the previous, but excluding external causes. RESULTS Of the 97,314 deaths by ill-defined causes reported in 2010, 30.3% were investigated, and 65.5% of those were reclassified as defined causes after the investigation. Endocrine diseases, mental disorders, and maternal causes had a higher representation among the reclassified ill-defined causes, contrary to infectious diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary diseases, with higher proportions among the defined causes reported. External causes represented 9.3% of the ill-defined causes reclassified. The correction of mortality rates by the total redistribution coefficient and non-external redistribution coefficient increased the magnitude of the rates by a relatively similar factor for most causes, contrary to the IDCD redistribution coefficient that corrected the different causes of death with differentiated weights. CONCLUSIONS The proportional distribution of causes among the ill-defined causes reclassified after investigation was not similar to the original distribution of defined causes. Therefore

  12. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  13. Deaths: leading causes for 2009.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2012-10-26

    This report presents final 2009 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2009. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2009, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for approximately 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2009 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  14. Endocrine causes of calcium disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine diseases that may cause hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, thyroid disorders, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, and less commonly pheochromocytoma and multiple endocrine neoplasias. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia may include malignancy (lymphoma, anal sac carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, chronic renal disease, hypoadrenocorticism, granulomatous disorders, osteolysis, or spurious causes. Hypocalcemia may be caused by puerperal tetany, pancreatitis, intestinal malabsorption, ethlyene glycol intoxication, acute renal failure, hypopararthyroidism, hypovitaminosis D, hypomagnesemia, and low albumin. This article focuses on the endocrine causes of calcium imbalance and provides diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for identifying the cause of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in veterinary patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Kids / Do Allergies Cause ... confusing, so let's find out more. How Do Allergies Happen? Most of the time, your immune (say: ...

  16. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Teens / Do Allergies Cause ... of asthma are related to allergies. How Do Allergies Make Asthma Worse? Lots of people with asthma ...

  17. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  18. Deaths: leading causes for 2005.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie; Tejada-Vera, Betzaida

    2009-12-23

    This report presents final 2005 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2005. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2005, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Diabetes mellitus; Alzheimer's disease; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia. They accounted for about 77 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2005 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Respiratory distress of newborn; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Neonatal hemorrhage; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  19. Deaths: leading causes for 2007.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2011-08-26

    This report presents final 2007 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2007. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2007, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia. They accounted for approximately 76 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2007 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  20. More on the Cause-Effect Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Jerzy A.

    2007-06-01

    Does every event have a cause? An answer is not simple. The notion of cause contains a particular being y acting on being x plus everything that may be called the boundary conditions. These may form necessary and suffcient conditions giving rise to a strong cause, or only necessary conditions, giving rise to a weak cause. These matters are discussed in this article with particular attention being paid to the argumentation of Thomas Aquinas known as prima via. Prima via is the analysis of a cause-effect sequence which leads (according to Thomas) to a First Cause (First Mover). It seems that the extrapolation of the cause-effect sequence to infinity is permissible from the logical point of view. But the possibility of weak causes seems to destroy the cause-effect "line". Here it is perhaps useful to "escape" to the metaphysical abstraction which looks at things sub ratione entitatis. If we ignore space and time (which is characteristic of this abstraction) we are led to believe that the IS of cause is finally unavoidable, which means that from the vantage point of this abstraction, i.e. from the point of view of IS, all causes are strong.

  1. Sensory-Neuropathy-Causing Mutations in ATL3 Cause Aberrant ER Membrane Tethering.

    PubMed

    Krols, Michiel; Detry, Sammy; Asselbergh, Bob; Almeida-Souza, Leonardo; Kremer, Anna; Lippens, Saskia; De Rycke, Riet; De Winter, Vicky; Müller, Franz-Josef; Kurth, Ingo; McMahon, Harvey T; Savvides, Savvas N; Timmerman, Vincent; Janssens, Sophie

    2018-05-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex network of sheets and tubules that is continuously remodeled. The relevance of this membrane dynamics is underscored by the fact that mutations in atlastins (ATLs), the ER fusion proteins in mammals, cause neurodegeneration. How defects in this process disrupt neuronal homeostasis is unclear. Using electron microscopy (EM) volume reconstruction of transfected cells, neurons, and patient fibroblasts, we show that hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN)-causing ATL3 mutants promote aberrant ER tethering hallmarked by bundles of laterally attached ER tubules. In vitro, these mutants cause excessive liposome tethering, recapitulating the results in cells. Moreover, ATL3 variants retain their dimerization-dependent GTPase activity but are unable to promote membrane fusion, suggesting a defect in an intermediate step of the ATL3 functional cycle. Our data show that the effects of ATL3 mutations on ER network organization go beyond a loss of fusion and shed light on neuropathies caused by atlastin defects. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deaths: leading causes for 2008.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2012-06-06

    This report presents final 2008 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2008. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. in 2008, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for approximately 76 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2008 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  3. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2015.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. Results-In 2015, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2015 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without

  4. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  5. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  6. Laboratory stress: what causes it?

    PubMed

    Griffin, P; Klun, C L

    1980-07-01

    One hundred-fifty questionnaires were distributed to gather specific information about the causes of stress in the hospital-employed medical technologist (MT). Sixty-four percent were returned. The results were analyzed using Friedman's two-way analysis of variance by ranks. Although the causes of stress to the medical laboratorian are many and they are affected by variables within the worker, certain items are more significant causes of stress than others. Physicians, stats, the need for accuracy, lack of communication, errors, and overwork are major causes of stress. These are the stressors that must be controlled or modified to reduce stress to the MT employed in a hospital laboratory.

  7. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Korver, Anna M H; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Kant, Sarina G; Dekker, Friedo W; Wever, Capi C; Kunst, Henricus P M; Frijns, Johan H M; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported distribution of these causes. Population-based study and a systematic review. Inclusion criteria for population-based study: children born between 2003 and 2005, resident in The Netherlands at birth, known at an Audiology Center with PCHI at the age of 3-5 years. The causes of PCHI were determined prospectively by detection of congenital cytomegalovirus on dried blood spots and/or genetic diagnostic investigations in addition to reviewing data from medical records. A systematic review was carried out using three terms (hearing loss, infant, and etiology) and limited to articles published between January 1997 and July 2009. Main outcome measures were: the (weighted) proportions of the various causes of PCHI following diagnostic investigations. In the study-population (n = 185) a hereditary cause was found in 38.9%, acquired cause in 29.7%, miscellaneous cause in 7.1%, and the cause remained unknown in 24.3%. The systematic review of the literature (n = 9 articles) resulted in a weighted mean of 30.4% hereditary, 19.2% acquired, and 48.3% unknown causes of PCHI. The systematic review and the results of the population-based study provided little support for the generally accepted distribution of causes of PCHI. Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Deaths: leading causes for 2003.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie P; Smith, Betty L

    2007-03-15

    This report presents final 2003 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2003. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. In 2003, the 10 leading causes of death were (in rank order): Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Alzheimer's disease; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia and accounted for about 78 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the ranking are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2003 were (in rank order): Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Respiratory distress of newborn; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Neonatal hemorrhage; and Diseases of the circulatory system. Important variation in the leading causes of infant death is noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  9. Deaths: leading causes for 2004.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2007-11-20

    This report presents final 2004 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2004. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. In 2004, the 10 leading causes of death were (in rank order) Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Diabetes mellitus; Alzheimer's disease; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia and accounted for about 78 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the ranking are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2004 were (in rank order) Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Respiratory distress of newborn; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Neonatal hemorrhage; and Diseases of the circulatory system. Important variation in the leading causes of infant death is noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  10. What is in a cause? Exploring the relationship between genetic cause and felt stigma

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Pamela; Cho, Mildred K.; Wolpe, Paul Root; Schairer, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Concern over stigma as a consequence of genetic testing has grown in response to the recent increase in genetic research and testing resulting from the Human Genome Project. However, whether a genetic or hereditary basis necessarily confers a stigma to a condition remains unexamined. Methods We performed a qualitative interview study with 86 individuals with one of four conditions: deafness or hearing loss, breast cancer, sickle cell disease, and cystic fibrosis. The first two groups were divided approximately between people who ascribed their conditions to a genetic or hereditary cause and those who did not. Results Respondents interpreted genetic or hereditary causes and nongenetic causes in a variety of ways. Subjects with breast cancer reported the most consistently negative interpretation of genetic cause. This response concerned future ill health, not an enduring sense of stigma. Deaf and hard of hearing subjects provided the most consistently positive comments about a genetic or hereditary basis to their condition, casting familial hearing loss as a vital component of group and individual identity. Respondents with sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis offered similar and positive interpretations of the genetic cause of their condition insofar as it meant their conditions were not contagious. Conclusions Although some subjects report feeling stigmatized as a result of their condition, this stigmatization is not uniformly associated with the condition’s cause, genetic or otherwise. Instead, stigma emerges from a variety of sources in the context of the lived experience of a particular condition. PMID:16418597

  11. Deaths: leading causes for 2002.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert N; Smith, Betty L

    2005-03-07

    This report presents final 2002 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 States and the District of Columbia in 2002. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. In 2002, the 10 leading causes of death were (in rank order) Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Alzheimer's disease; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia and accounted for about 79 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2002 were (in rank order) Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Respiratory distress of newborn; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia. Important variation in the leading causes of infant death is noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  12. Psychic trauma as cause of death.

    PubMed

    Terranova, C; Snenghi, R; Thiene, G; Ferrara, S D

    2011-01-01

    of study Psychic trauma is described as the action of 'an emotionally overwhelming factor' capable of causing neurovegetative alterations leading to transitory or persisting bodily changes. The medico-legal concept of psychic trauma and its definition as a cause in penal cases is debated. The authors present three cases of death after psychic trauma, and discuss the definition of cause within the penal ambit of identified 'emotionally overwhelming factors'. The methodological approach to ascertainment and criterion-based assessment in each case involved the following phases: (1) examination of circumstantial evidence, clinical records and documentation; (2) autopsy; (3) ascertainment of cause of death; and (4) ascertainment of psychic trauma, and its coexisting relationship with the cause of death. The results and assessment of each of the three cases are discussed from the viewpoint of the causal connotation of psychic trauma. In the cases presented, psychic trauma caused death, as deduced from assessment of the type of externally caused emotional insult, the subjects' personal characteristics and the circumstances of the event causing death. In cases of death due to psychic trauma, careful methodological ascertainment is essential, with the double aim of defining 'emotionally overwhelming factors' as a significant cause of death from the penal point of view, and of identifying the responsibility of third parties involved in the death event and associated dynamics of homicide.

  13. Drugs that may cause impotence

    MedlinePlus

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  14. [Chagas' disease as main cause of death in the southeastern region of Brazil: presence of contributory causes].

    PubMed

    Wanderley, D M; Litvoc, J

    1994-02-01

    Death certificates of all persons who died in in the State of S.Paulo, Brazil and which presented Chagas' disease as the principal cause of death, were studied with a view to analysing the existing additional information available as to contributory causes. After a direct reading of the 1,308 death certificates, the contributory causes were identified and registered. They were mentioned in 261 (20%) of the certificates, 185 of them presenting only one, and 75 two of them. The 6 more frequent contributory causes were: "megas", embolism, chronic pulmonary disease, infections (other than Chagas' disease), arterial hypertension and malnutrition. When analysing the presence of the contributory causes in two groups-persons of less than 50 years old, and those older than 50 a higher proportion of them was observed in the older group and a distinct profile of causes was found for each group. No statistic association was observed between contributory causes and sex or site of residence.

  15. What Causes a Blighted Ovum?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovum: What causes it? What causes a blighted ovum? What symptoms can I expect? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. A blighted ovum, also called an anembryonic pregnancy or anembryonic gestation, ...

  16. How does climate change cause extinction?

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Abigail E.; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E.; Fisher-Reid, M. Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J.; Yeong Ryu, Hae; Sbeglia, Gena C.; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B.; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies. PMID:23075836

  17. How does climate change cause extinction?

    PubMed

    Cahill, Abigail E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Fisher-Reid, M Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Ryu, Hae Yeong; Sbeglia, Gena C; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J

    2013-01-07

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies.

  18. Ruling out secondary causes of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ott, Christian; Schneider, Markus P; Schmieder, Roland E

    2013-05-01

    In the majority of hypertensive patients, no particular cause for abnormal blood pressure is evident (primary or essential hypertension). In contrast, in the minority of patients with secondary hypertension a specific underlying cause is responsible for the elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of secondary hypertension is higher in patients with resistant hypertension than in the general hypertensive population and increases with age. The list of secondary forms of hypertension is long and prevalence of the individual causes of secondary hypertension varies. Hence, this review divides them into two categories: common causes and rare causes. If appropriately diagnosed and treated, patients with a secondary form of hypertension might be cured, or at least show an improvement in their blood pressure control. Consequently, screening for secondary causes of hypertension plays an essential part in the care of patients with arterial hypertension. If the basal work-up raises the suspicion of a secondary cause of hypertension, specific diagnostic procedures become necessary, some of which can be performed by primary care physicians, while others require specialist input.

  19. Leading causes of death and all-cause mortality in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Espey, David K; Jim, Melissa A; Cobb, Nathaniel; Bartholomew, Michael; Becker, Tom; Haverkamp, Don; Plescia, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    We present regional patterns and trends in all-cause mortality and leading causes of death in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). US National Death Index records were linked with Indian Health Service (IHS) registration records to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN. We analyzed temporal trends for 1990 to 2009 and comparisons between non-Hispanic AI/AN and non-Hispanic White persons by geographic region for 1999 to 2009. Results focus on IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in which less race misclassification occurs. From 1990 to 2009 AI/AN persons did not experience the significant decreases in all-cause mortality seen for Whites. For 1999 to 2009 the all-cause death rate in CHSDA counties for AI/AN persons was 46% more than that for Whites. Death rates for AI/AN persons varied as much as 50% among regions. Except for heart disease and cancer, subsequent ranking of specific causes of death differed considerably between AI/AN and White persons. AI/AN populations continue to experience much higher death rates than Whites. Patterns of mortality are strongly influenced by the high incidence of diabetes, smoking prevalence, problem drinking, and social determinants. Much of the observed excess mortality can be addressed through known public health interventions.

  20. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  1. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  2. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. ... D. Ingre C, et al. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Clinical Epidemiology. 2015; 7:181. Riva N, et ...

  3. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  4. Leading Causes of Death and All-Cause Mortality in American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Jim, Melissa A.; Cobb, Nathaniel; Bartholomew, Michael; Becker, Tom; Haverkamp, Don; Plescia, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We present regional patterns and trends in all-cause mortality and leading causes of death in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Methods. US National Death Index records were linked with Indian Health Service (IHS) registration records to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN. We analyzed temporal trends for 1990 to 2009 and comparisons between non-Hispanic AI/AN and non-Hispanic White persons by geographic region for 1999 to 2009. Results focus on IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in which less race misclassification occurs. Results. From 1990 to 2009 AI/AN persons did not experience the significant decreases in all-cause mortality seen for Whites. For 1999 to 2009 the all-cause death rate in CHSDA counties for AI/AN persons was 46% more than that for Whites. Death rates for AI/AN persons varied as much as 50% among regions. Except for heart disease and cancer, subsequent ranking of specific causes of death differed considerably between AI/AN and White persons. Conclusions. AI/AN populations continue to experience much higher death rates than Whites. Patterns of mortality are strongly influenced by the high incidence of diabetes, smoking prevalence, problem drinking, and social determinants. Much of the observed excess mortality can be addressed through known public health interventions. PMID:24754554

  5. Using expert knowledge to incorporate uncertainty in cause-of-death assignments for modeling of cause-specific mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Daniel P.; Norton, Andrew S.; Storm, Daniel J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Heisy, Dennis M.

    2018-01-01

    Implicit and explicit use of expert knowledge to inform ecological analyses is becoming increasingly common because it often represents the sole source of information in many circumstances. Thus, there is a need to develop statistical methods that explicitly incorporate expert knowledge, and can successfully leverage this information while properly accounting for associated uncertainty during analysis. Studies of cause-specific mortality provide an example of implicit use of expert knowledge when causes-of-death are uncertain and assigned based on the observer's knowledge of the most likely cause. To explicitly incorporate this use of expert knowledge and the associated uncertainty, we developed a statistical model for estimating cause-specific mortality using a data augmentation approach within a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Specifically, for each mortality event, we elicited the observer's belief of cause-of-death by having them specify the probability that the death was due to each potential cause. These probabilities were then used as prior predictive values within our framework. This hierarchical framework permitted a simple and rigorous estimation method that was easily modified to include covariate effects and regularizing terms. Although applied to survival analysis, this method can be extended to any event-time analysis with multiple event types, for which there is uncertainty regarding the true outcome. We conducted simulations to determine how our framework compared to traditional approaches that use expert knowledge implicitly and assume that cause-of-death is specified accurately. Simulation results supported the inclusion of observer uncertainty in cause-of-death assignment in modeling of cause-specific mortality to improve model performance and inference. Finally, we applied the statistical model we developed and a traditional method to cause-specific survival data for white-tailed deer, and compared results. We demonstrate that model selection

  6. Biliary diseases as main causes of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Hua; Feng, Xiao-Ning; Lai, Ming-Chun; Kong, Hai-Shen; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about aetiology and morbidity and clinical characteristics of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. An analysis between pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and those caused by non-extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was performed. Among 817 pyogenic liver abscess patients, there were 176 patients (21.5%) with pyogenic liver abscess of biliary origin, and 67 pyogenic liver abscess patients (8.2%) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Of 176 pyogenic liver abscess patients related to biliary disorders, there were 48 pyogenic liver abscess patients (27.3%) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Within 67 pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, the occurrences of 48 pyogenic liver abscess patients (71.6%) were associated with biliary disorders. When compared with pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by non-extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, there were significantly greater incidences of polymicrobial infections, bacteremia, pulmonary infection, recurrence and death in pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenems remain mainstay drugs against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Independent risk factors for occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were biliary disorders including extra- and intrahepatic cholangiolithiasis and an abnormal bilioenteric communication between bile and gut, a treatment history of malignancy such as operation and chemotherapy, pulmonary infection, and diabetes mellitus

  7. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A M; Hart, C A

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of 33 months in a paediatric accident and emergency department, the clinical pattern and possible causes of vulvovaginitis were studied prospectively in 200 girls presenting with genital discharge, irritation, pain, or redness. The major causes were poor hygiene and threadworms. The suspicion of sexual abuse arose in a few girls but no organisms of sexually transmitted disease were found. Urinary symptoms were common but only 20 patients had a significant bacteriuria and 40 had sterile pyuria. Specific skin problems occurred in 28 cases. Simple measures to improve hygiene and treatment of threadworms gave effective relief. Genital irritation caused urinary symptoms with no clinical evidence of infection, and it is advised that antibiotic treatment should await urine culture. Specific skin problems require help from a dermatologist. The possibility of sexual abuse must be considered especially if the vulvovaginitis is persistent or recurrent after adequate treatment. PMID:1580682

  8. Lumbar Pseudomeningocele Causing Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Rita G; Brown, Steven W; Goetz, Lance L; Miner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Pseudomeningocele is most commonly the result of a rent in the meninges during spine surgery. Noniatrogenic causes exist but are rare. Pseudomeningoceles may heal spontaneously, but they may also slowly enlarge. They rarely present as a mass within the abdomen. The objective of this study was to present the first case report of hydronephrosis secondary to lumbar pseudomeningocele. Design: Single case report and literature review. Methods: Single case report. Results: This man had undergone extensive lumbar spine surgery for pain and spondylolisthesis. He subsequently developed a pseudomeningocele that caused hydronephrosis of the left kidney. He was treated with surgical intervention and had resolution of his hydronephrosis and his flank and groin pain. He also had improvement of his back pain. Conclusions: This report shows an unusual cause of hydronephrosis—a pseudomeningocele presenting as an abdominal mass that compressed the ureter. PMID:19264055

  9. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of social assistance recipients in Norway: a register-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Naper, Sille Ohrem

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the mortality among social assistance recipients, who are among the most marginalized people in Norway. Cause-specific mortality was analysed in an attempt to explain the excess mortality. Previous research has suggested that social disadvantage leads to higher mortality from all causes, whereas others have found substantial variation when studying separate causes. The impact of the various causes will influence policy recommendations. Data were compiled through linking between Norwegian administrative records. The entire population born between 1935 and 1974 (2,297,621 people) was followed with respect to social assistance and death from 1993 to 2003. Cause-specific, age-standardized mortality rates for social assistance recipients and the rest of the population were calculated, and both the absolute (rate difference) and relative (rate ratio) rates were measured. The rate ratio for total mortality was 3.1 for men and 2.5 for women for the comparison between social assistance recipients and the general population. The mortality among social assistance recipients was higher for all causes, but the magnitude differed considerably, depending on the cause. The rate ratio for men ranged from 1.2 for non-smoking-related cancer to 18.8 for alcohol- and drug-related causes. Alcohol-and drug-related and violent causes together contributed to half of the excess mortality for men and one-third for women. The mortality of this socially disadvantaged group was considerably higher than that of the general population, and this difference reflected mainly drug-related causes.

  10. Preventable causes of death in Wisconsin, 2004.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Booske, Bridget C; Wegner, Mark V; Remington, Patrick L

    2007-10-01

    While heart disease, cancer, and injuries are leading proximate causes of death, research has demonstrated that about half of all deaths in the United States are actually due to preventable causes, including tobacco use, poor diet, and physical inactivity. Using state vital statistics data and findings from national studies, we report on the trends in the preventable causes of death in Wisconsin from 1992 to 2004. The leading proximate causes of death in Wisconsin were obtained from Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health (WISH) data derived from individual death certificates. Information on the preventable causes of death was either obtained from the underlying cause information on the death certificate or from peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies. While the overall age-adjusted death rate declined from 837 to 744 per 100,000 from 1992 to 2004, the top 10 causes of death remain largely unchanged. Nearly half of the deaths in Wisconsin in 2004 resulted from 11 preventable causes, similar to the findings in 1992. Epidemiologic research demonstrates that nearly half of all deaths in Wisconsin are due to preventable causes. Programs and policies must continue to address these preventable causes of disease if Wisconsin is to meet its goal of promoting and protecting population health.

  11. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among Black and White North Carolina state prisoners, 1995-2005

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, David A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We compared mortality rates among state prisoners and other state residents to identify prisoners’ healthcare needs Methods We linked North Carolina prison records with state death records for 1995-2005 to estimate all-cause and cause-specific death rates among Black and White male prisoners aged 20-79 years, and used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare these observed deaths with the expected number based on death rates among state residents Results The all-cause SMR of Black prisoners was 0.52 (95%CI: 0.48 0.57), with fewer deaths than expected from accidents, homicides, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The all-cause SMR of White prisoners was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.25) with fewer deaths than expected for accidents, but more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis, liver disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, and HIV. Conclusions Mortality of Black prisoners was lower than that of Black state residents for both traumatic and chronic causes of death. Mortality of White prisoners was lower than that of White state residents for accidents, but higher for several chronic causes of death. Future studies should investigate the effect of prisoners’ pre-incarceration and in-prison morbidity, the prison environment, and prison healthcare on prisoners’ patterns of mortality. PMID:21737304

  12. Global and regional causes of death.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Colin D; Boerma, Ties; Ma Fat, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the causes of death across all regions of the world requires a framework for integrating, and analysing, the fragmentary information that is available on numbers of deaths and their cause distributions. This paper provides an overview of the met and methods used by the World Health Organization to develop global-, regional- and country-level estimates of mortality for a comprehensive set of causes, and provides an overview of global and regional levels and patterns of causes of death for the year 2004. The paper also examines some of the data gaps, uncertainties and limitations in the resulting mortality estimates. Deaths for 136 disease and injury causes were estimated from available death registration data (111 countries), sample death registration data (India and China), and for the remaining countries from census and survey information, and cause-of-death models. Population-based epidemiological studies and notifications systems also contributed to estimating mortality for 21 of these causes (representing 28% of deaths globally, 58% in Africa). Ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are the leading causes of death, followed by lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diarrhoeal diseases. AIDS and TB are the sixth and seventh most common causes of death, respectively, lower than in previous estimates. One-half of all child deaths are from four preventable and treatable communicable diseases. Globally, around 6 in 10 deaths are from non-communicable diseases, 3 from communicable diseases and 1 from injuries. Injury mortality is highest in South-East Asia, Latin America and the Eastern Mediterranean region. These results illustrate continuing huge disparities in risks and causes of death across the world. Global mortality analyses of the type reported here have been criticized for making estimates of mortality for regions with limited, incomplete and uncertain data. Estimates presented here use a range of

  13. Local perceptions of causes of death in rural South Africa: a comparison of perceived and verbal autopsy causes of death.

    PubMed

    Hussain-Alkhateeb, Laith; Fottrell, Edward; Petzold, Max; Kahn, Kathleen; Byass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how lay people perceive the causes of mortality and their associated risk factors is important for public health. In resource-limited settings, where verbal autopsy (VA) is used as the most expedient method of determining cause of death, it is important to understand how pre-existing concepts of cause of death among VA-informants may influence their VA-responses and the consequential impact on cause of death assessment. This study describes the agreement between VA-derived causes of death and informant-perceived causes and associated influential factors, which also reflects lay health literacy in this setting. Using 20 years of VA data (n=11,228) from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in rural South Africa, we explored the agreement between the causes of death perceived by the VA-informants and those assigned by the automated Inter-VA tool. Kappa statistics and concordance correlation coefficients were applied to measure agreement at individual and population levels, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to explore factors associated with recognised lay perceptions of causes of mortality. Agreement between informant-perceived and VA-derived causes of death at the individual level was limited, but varied substantially by cause of death. However, agreement at the population level, comparing cause-specific mortality fractions was higher, with the notable exception of bewitchment as a cause. More recent deaths, those in adults aged 15-49 years, deaths outside the home, and those associated with external causes showed higher concordance with InterVA. Overall, informant perception of causes of death was limited, but depended on informant characteristics and causes of death, and to some extent involved non-biomedical constructs. Understanding discordance between perceived and recognised causes of death is important for public health planning; low community understanding of causes of death may be

  14. Causes of death in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Carter, Karen; Tovu, Viran; Langati, Jeffrey Tila; Buttsworth, Michael; Dingley, Lester; Calo, Andy; Harrison, Griffith; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D; Taylor, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death. Deaths 2001-2007 were coded for cause (ICDv10) for ages 0-59 years from: hospital separations (HS) (n = 636), hospital medical certificates (MC) of death (n = 1,169), and monthly reports from community health facilities (CHF) (n = 1,212). Ill-defined causes were 3 % for hospital deaths and 20 % from CHF. Proportional mortality was calculated by cause (excluding ill-defined) and age group (0-4, 5-14 years), and also by sex for 15-59 years. From total deaths by broad age group and sex from 1999 and 2009 census analyses, community deaths were estimated by deduction of hospital deaths MC. National proportional mortality by cause was estimated by a weighted average of MC and CHF deaths. National estimates indicate main causes of deaths <5 years were: perinatal disorders (45 %) and malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia (27 %). For 15-59 years, main causes of male deaths were: circulatory disease 27 %, neoplasms 13 %, injury 13 %, liver disease 10 %, infection 10 %, diabetes 7 %, and chronic respiratory disease 7 %; and for females: neoplasms 29 %, circulatory disease 15 %, diabetes 10 %, infection 9 %, and maternal deaths 8 %. Infection included tuberculosis, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Liver disease (including hepatitis and cancer) accounted for 18 % of deaths in adult males and 9 % in females. Non-communicable disease (NCD), including circulatory disease, diabetes, neoplasm, and chronic respiratory disease, accounted for 52 % of premature deaths in adult

  15. Landslides - Cause and effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  16. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  17. Infections caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Karoll J; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G; Shea, Yvonne R; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans.

  18. Inherited and Uncommon Causes of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Majersik, Jennifer Juhl

    2017-02-01

    This article is a practical guide to identifying uncommon causes of stroke and offers guidance for evaluation and management, even when large controlled trials are lacking in these rarer forms of stroke. Fabry disease causes early-onset stroke, particularly of the vertebrobasilar system; enzyme replacement therapy should be considered in affected patients. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, causes migraines, early-onset lacunar strokes, and dementia. Moyamoya disease can cause either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke; revascularization is recommended in some patients. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy causes both microhemorrhages and macrohemorrhages, resulting in typical stroke symptoms and progressive dementia. Pregnancy raises the risk of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, particularly in women with preeclampsia/eclampsia. Pregnant women are also at risk for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Experts recommend that pregnant women with acute ischemic stroke not be systematically denied the potential benefits of IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Neurologists should become familiar with these uncommon causes of stroke to provide future risk assessment and family counseling and to implement appropriate treatment plans to prevent recurrence.

  19. Mortality from violent causes in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1993-01-01

    This article provides an assessment of 1986 mortality from violent causes in the Americas. Directed at assisting with development of preventive public health measures, it employs data available in the PAHO data base to focus on the under-25 year age group, compare mortality from violent causes with mortality from infectious and parasitic diseases, and evaluate the relative role of motor vehicle traffic accidents, other accidents, suicide, homicide, and deaths from unknown causes in mortality from violent causes. The study uses the classification of causes presented in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. The results show that 517,465 deaths from violent causes were registered in 28 countries and political units of the Americas in 1986, mortality from these causes ranging from 19.3 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in Jamaica to 125 in El Salvador. Examination of available 1980-1986 data from five countries points to steady increases in mortality from violent causes in Brazil and Cuba that began respectively in 1983 and 1984. Assessment of male and female 1986 mortality from these causes in nine countries showed male mortality to be substantially higher, the lowest male:female ratio (in Cuba) being 1.9:1. Among infants, infectious and parasitic disease mortality was greater than mortality from violent causes in most countries. However, from age 1 to the study's 25-year cutoff, mortality from violent causes was found to exceed infectious and parasitic disease mortality in most countries and to play an especially large role in deaths among those 19-24 years old. Data from eight countries suggested that accidents other than motor vehicle traffic accidents were accounting for much of the mortality from violent causes among infants and the 1-4 year age group in 1986, while motor vehicle traffic accidents rivaled other accidents in importance among the older (5-9, 10-14, 15-19, and 19-24) age groups. It appears that the information presented could

  20. Blindness caused by cosmetic filler injection: a review of cause and therapy.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Jean D A; Fagien, Steve; Rohrich, Rod J; Weinkle, Susan; Carruthers, Alastair

    2014-12-01

    Vascular occlusion causing blindness is a rare yet greatly feared complication of the use of facial aesthetic fillers. The authors performed a review of the aesthetic literature to ascertain the reported cases of blindness and the literature reporting variations in the vascular anatomy of the human face. The authors suggest a small but potentially helpful addition to the accepted management of the acute case. Cases of blindness, mostly irreversible, from aesthetic filler injections have been reported from Asia, Europe, and North America. Autologous fat appears to be the most frequent filler causing blindness. Some cases of partial visual recovery have been reported with hyaluronic acid and calcium hydroxylapatite fillers. The sudden profusion of new medical and nonmedical aesthetic filler injectors raises a new cause for alarm about patient safety. The published reports in the medical literature are made by experienced aesthetic surgeons and thus the actual incidence may be even higher. Also, newer injectors may not be aware of the variations in the pattern of facial vascular arborization. The authors present a summary of the relevant literature to date and a suggested helpful addition to the protocols for urgent management.

  1. Central causes of hypogonadism--functional and organic.

    PubMed

    Warren, Michelle P; Vu, Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Whether caused by environmental factors, lesions, genetic mutations, drug interactions, or unknown origins, the path of the central causes of hypogonadism frequently leads back to the GnRH pulse generator. In some cases, the cause can be unequivocally traced to a single factor, such as some of the congenital syndromes previously described. In most instances, however, hypogonadism is occult or functional. Because of the wide spectrum and complexity of underlying causes, a definitive diagnosis, especially in functional causes of the disorder, is not always attainable.

  2. On the Causes of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawid, A. Philip; Faigman, David L.; Fienberg, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Professor Pearl's comment on our original article, Dawid et al. Our focus there on the distinction between the "Effects of Causes" (EoC) and the "Causes of Effects" (CoE) concerned two fundamental problems, one a theoretical challenge in statistics and the other a practical challenge for trial courts. In this…

  3. Diagnosis of reversible causes of coma.

    PubMed

    Edlow, Jonathan A; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Traub, Stephen J; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2014-12-06

    Because coma has many causes, physicians must develop a structured, algorithmic approach to diagnose and treat reversible causes rapidly. The three main mechanisms of coma are structural brain lesions, diffuse neuronal dysfunction, and, rarely, psychiatric causes. The first priority is to stabilise the patient by treatment of life-threatening conditions, then to use the history, physical examination, and laboratory findings to identify structural causes and diagnose treatable disorders. Some patients have a clear diagnosis. In those who do not, the first decision is whether brain imaging is needed. Imaging should be done in post-traumatic coma or when structural brain lesions are probable or possible causes. Patients who do not undergo imaging should be reassessed regularly. If CT is non-diagnostic, a checklist should be used use to indicate whether advanced imaging is needed or evidence is present of a treatable poisoning or infection, seizures including non-convulsive status epilepticus, endocrinopathy, or thiamine deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inorganic arsenic causes fatty liver and interacts with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Austin, Christine; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Arora, Manish

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rapid increase in fatty liver disease (FLD) incidence is attributed largely to genetic and lifestyle factors; however, environmental toxicants are a frequently overlooked factor that can modify the effects of more common causes of FLD. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with liver disease in humans and animal models, but neither the mechanism of action nor the combinatorial interaction with other disease-causing factors has been fully investigated. Here, we examined the contribution of iAs to FLD using zebrafish and tested the interaction with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We report that zebrafish exposed to iAs throughout development developed specific phenotypes beginning at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), including the development of FLD in over 50% of larvae by 5 dpf. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of livers from larvae exposed to either iAs or ethanol revealed the oxidative stress response and the unfolded protein response (UPR) caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as common pathways in both these models of FLD, suggesting that they target similar cellular processes. This was confirmed by our finding that arsenic is synthetically lethal with both ethanol and a well-characterized ER-stress-inducing agent (tunicamycin), suggesting that these exposures work together through UPR activation to cause iAs toxicity. Most significantly, combined exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of iAs and ethanol potentiated the expression of UPR-associated genes, cooperated to induce FLD, reduced the expression of as3mt, which encodes an arsenic-metabolizing enzyme, and significantly increased the concentration of iAs in the liver. This demonstrates that iAs exposure is sufficient to cause FLD and that low doses of iAs can potentiate the effects of ethanol to cause liver disease. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. PMID:29361514

  5. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...

  6. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  7. When Telomerase Causes Telomere Loss.

    PubMed

    Glousker, Galina; Lingner, Joachim

    2018-02-05

    Telomerase counteracts telomere shortening, preventing cellular senescence. Telomerase deficiency causes telomere syndromes because of premature telomere exhaustion in highly proliferative cells. Paradoxically, in a recent issue of Cell, Margalef et al. (2018) demonstrate that telomerase causes telomere loss in cells lacking the RTEL1 helicase, which is defective in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Periocular necrotizing fasciitis causing blindness.

    PubMed

    Shield, David R; Servat, Javier; Paul, Sean; Turbin, Roger E; Moreau, Annie; de la Garza, Adam; El Rassi, Edward; Silbert, Jonathan; Lesser, Robert; Levin, Flora

    2013-09-01

    Periocular necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but potentially devastating disease, accompanied by high rates of morbidity and mortality. We report 5 cases of periocular necrotizing fasciitis resulting in severe vision loss, 3 of which required exenteration to contain the disease and only 1 of which recovered vision. Three cases were caused by group A streptococcus; 1, by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; and 1, by Streptococcus anginosus constellatus. Providers should maintain a high clinical suspicion for necrotizing fasciitis and distinguish it from more common forms of cellulitis. As seen in these 5 cases, periocular necrotizing fasciitis may cause severe visual loss more often than previously recognized. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of Streptococcus anginosus constellatus causing necrotizing fasciitis.

  9. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Associated with Bariatric Surgery: A Review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ted D; Mehta, Tapan S; Davidson, Lance E; Hunt, Steven C

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether or not nonsurgical intentional or voluntary weight loss results in reduced mortality has been equivocal, with long-term mortality following weight loss being reported as increased, decreased, and not changed. In part, inconsistent results have been attributed to the uncertainty of whether the intentionality of weight loss is accurately reported in large population studies and also that achieving significant and sustained voluntary weight loss in large intervention trials is extremely difficult. Bariatric surgery has generally been free of these conflicts. Patients voluntarily undergo surgery and the resulting weight is typically significant and sustained. These elements, combined with possible non-weight loss-related mechanisms, have resulted in improved comorbidities, which likely contribute to a reduction in long-term mortality. This paper reviews the association between bariatric surgery and long-term mortality. From these studies, the general consensus is that bariatric surgical patients have: 1) significantly reduced long-term all-cause mortality when compared to severely obese non-bariatric surgical control groups; 2) greater mortality when compared to the general population, with the exception of one study; 3) reduced cardiovascular-, stroke-, and cancer-caused mortality when compared to severely obese non-operated controls; and 4) increased risk for externally caused death such as suicide.

  10. Hypothyroidism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    MedlinePlus

    Hypothyroidism: Does it cause joint pain? Can hypothyroidism cause joint pain? I have hypothyroidism and have been experiencing severe arthritis-like pain in my shoulders and hips. Answers from Todd B. ...

  11. Causes of unplanned hemodialysis initiation.

    PubMed

    Gomis Couto, A; Teruel Briones, J L; Fernández Lucas, M; Rivera Gorrin, M; Rodríguez Mendiola, N; Jiménez Álvaro, S; Quereda Rodríguez-Navarro, C

    2011-01-01

    Half of patients starting chronic hemodialysis used a transient vascular catheter as a vascular access (unplanned initiation). An objective of the Quality Management Group of the Spanish Society of Nephrology is to achieve that 80% of the patients starting hemodialysis do it with an arteriovenous fistula. We want to review the causes of non-planned hemodialysis nowadays. In 2010, 43 patients had started chronic hemodialysis in the Hospital Ramón y Cajal in Madrid (Spain). Mean age was 61 years, 79% were men, the most frequent cause of chronic renal disease was the diabetes (23%) and Charlson Comorbidity Index was 6.3 ± 2.6. The unplanned hemodialysis occurred in 20 patients (47%), without any differences with the 23 patients who began planned hemodialysis, in none of the clinical or demographic parameters analyzed. The main cause of unplanned hemodialysis was the acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or 4, previously stable, secondary to an unforeseeable intercurrent process (8 patients, 40% of the cases). One patient began after a non-recovery acute renal failure and in other 6 patients, the reason of unplanned hemodialysis initiation was not attributable to the operation Health System (in 3 cases unknown kidney chronic disease and in the other 3 cases it was patient´s responsibility). Only in 5 cases (25%), the cause could be corrigible. Most causes of unplanned hemodialysis does not come from the healthcare organization and therefore not easy to resolve it. Consequently, the objective of the Quality Group will be difficult to be achieved.

  12. Group B streptococcal phospholipid causes pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jerri; Kim, Geumsoo; Wehr, Nancy B; Levine, Rodney L

    2003-04-29

    Group B Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial infection in the newborn. Infection in many cases causes persistent pulmonary hypertension, which impairs gas exchange in the lung. We purified the bacterial components causing pulmonary hypertension and identified them as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Synthetic cardiolipin or phosphatidylglycerol also induced pulmonary hypertension in lambs. The recognition that bacterial phospholipids may cause pulmonary hypertension in newborns with Group B streptococcal infection opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Group B streptococcal phospholipid causes pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jerri; Kim, Geumsoo; Wehr, Nancy B.; Levine, Rodney L.

    2003-04-01

    Group B Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial infection in the newborn. Infection in many cases causes persistent pulmonary hypertension, which impairs gas exchange in the lung. We purified the bacterial components causing pulmonary hypertension and identified them as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Synthetic cardiolipin or phosphatidylglycerol also induced pulmonary hypertension in lambs. The recognition that bacterial phospholipids may cause pulmonary hypertension in newborns with Group B streptococcal infection opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and conditions that can cause valve problems: Infective endocarditis Injury Rheumatic fever These conditions can cause one ... Surgery? Recovery Milestones Checklist | Spanish What Is Infective Endocarditis? | Spanish Interactive Treatment Guide Infographic: What Everyone Should ...

  15. Analysis of underlying and multiple-cause mortality data.

    PubMed

    Moussa, M A; El Sayed, A M; Sugathan, T N; Khogali, M M; Verma, D

    1992-01-01

    "A variety of life table models were used for the analysis of the (1984-86) Kuwaiti cause-specific mortality data. These models comprised total mortality, multiple-decrement, cause-elimination, cause-delay and disease dependency. The models were illustrated by application to a set of four chronic diseases: hypertensive, ischaemic heart, cerebrovascular and diabetes mellitus. The life table methods quantify the relative weights of different diseases as hazards to mortality after adjustment for other causes. They can also evaluate the extent of dependency between underlying cause of death and other causes mentioned on [the] death certificate using an extended underlying-cause model." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  16. Fertile lifespan characteristics and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among postmenopausal women: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Kavousi, Maryam; Erler, Nicole S; Hofman, Albert; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relation between established and previously unexplored characteristics of the fertile life with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 4,076 postmenopausal women. Women's fertile lifespan (age at menarche to menopause), number of children, maternal age at first and last child, maternal lifespan (interval between maternal age at first and last child), postmaternal fertile lifespan (interval between age at last child and menopause), lifetime cumulative number of menstrual cycles, and unopposed cumulative endogenous estrogen (E) exposure. Registry-based all-cause and cause-specific mortality. A total of 2,754 women died during 14.8 years of follow-up. Compared with women with 2-3 children, a 12% higher hazard of dying was found for women having 1 child (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.24), which became nonsignificant in models adjusted for confounders (HR, 1.08; 95% CI 0.96-1.21). Late age at first and last birth were associated with a 1% lower hazard of dying (HR, 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-1.00). Longer maternal and postmaternal fertile lifespan (HR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02), longer fertile lifespan (HR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.05), and unopposed cumulative E exposure (HR, 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.04) were significantly harmful for all-cause mortality. Findings differed with regard to direction, size, and statistical significance when stratifying for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other mortality. Overall, we found that late first and last reproduction were protective for all-cause mortality, whereas a longer maternal lifespan, postmaternal fertile lifespan, and E exposure were harmful for all-cause mortality. More research is needed in contemporary cohorts with larger sample sizes and more extreme ages of birth. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inorganic arsenic causes fatty liver and interacts with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bambino, Kathryn; Zhang, Chi; Austin, Christine; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Arora, Manish; Chu, Jaime; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2018-02-26

    The rapid increase in fatty liver disease (FLD) incidence is attributed largely to genetic and lifestyle factors; however, environmental toxicants are a frequently overlooked factor that can modify the effects of more common causes of FLD. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with liver disease in humans and animal models, but neither the mechanism of action nor the combinatorial interaction with other disease-causing factors has been fully investigated. Here, we examined the contribution of iAs to FLD using zebrafish and tested the interaction with ethanol to cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We report that zebrafish exposed to iAs throughout development developed specific phenotypes beginning at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), including the development of FLD in over 50% of larvae by 5 dpf. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of livers from larvae exposed to either iAs or ethanol revealed the oxidative stress response and the unfolded protein response (UPR) caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as common pathways in both these models of FLD, suggesting that they target similar cellular processes. This was confirmed by our finding that arsenic is synthetically lethal with both ethanol and a well-characterized ER-stress-inducing agent (tunicamycin), suggesting that these exposures work together through UPR activation to cause iAs toxicity. Most significantly, combined exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of iAs and ethanol potentiated the expression of UPR-associated genes, cooperated to induce FLD, reduced the expression of as3mt , which encodes an arsenic-metabolizing enzyme, and significantly increased the concentration of iAs in the liver. This demonstrates that iAs exposure is sufficient to cause FLD and that low doses of iAs can potentiate the effects of ethanol to cause liver disease.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  19. Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    TI FLE CY N Defense Nuclear Agency Alexandria, VA 22310-3398 SWES% Ot DNA-TR-89-45 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes A. Laupa G. H. Anno...0104 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes PE - 62715H PR - RM 6 AUTHOR(S) TA -RH A. Laupa: G. H. Anno WU - DH026130 7 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...vi 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................... 1I DATA SOURCES ON CHERNOBYL VICTIMS ............... 3 CHERNOBYL

  20. [Underlying causes of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Geijteman, Eric C T; van den Berg, Elze G; van Rooijen, Cleo R; Stam, Frank; Simsek, Suat

    2012-01-01

    In patients with hyperglycaemia plus obesity and cardiovascular disease, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely to be made and this is usually followed by the start of antihyperglycaemic therapy. This pragmatic approach, however, does not always turn out to be the correct one. We describe two patients with occult conditions that had caused or aggravated diabetes mellitus (DM): a 46-year-old man with acromegaly and a 41-year-old woman with Cushing's disease. After neurosurgeries were performed, the requirement for antihyperglycaemic treatment markedly decreased (case 2) or even disappeared (case 1). Physicians treating patients with DM should ask themselves what the cause of the disease could be; the recognition and treatment of that underlying condition may substantially decrease the amount of insulin required and may even cause the disappearance of DM altogether.

  1. Neurogenic Causes of Detrusor Underactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kadow, Brian T.; Tyagi, Pradeep; Chermansky, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Detrusor underactivity (DU) is a poorly understood dysfunction of the lower urinary tract which arises from multiple etiologies. Symptoms of DU are non-specific, and a pressure-flow urodynamic study is necessary to differentiate DU from other conditions such as overactive bladder (OAB) or bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). The prevalence of DU ranges from 10–48%, and DU is most prevalent in elderly males. The pathophysiology underlying DU can be from both neurogenic and non-neurogenic causes. In this article, we review the neurogenic causes of detrusor underactivity, including diabetic bladder dysfunction, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular accident, traumatic brain injury, and Fowler’s syndrome. As knowledge about the underlying causes of DU advances, there have been several potential therapeutic approaches proposed to help those who suffer from this condition. PMID:26715948

  2. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    PubMed

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  3. Common features of periocular tinea.

    PubMed

    Basak, S Alison Finger; Berk, David R; Lueder, Gregg T; Bayliss, Susan J

    2011-03-01

    To present the common features of periocular tinea to aid physicians in future diagnosis and therapy of this condition, because superficial fungal infections on the face are often misdiagnosed owing to the diverse morphologies that they manifest. This is especially true of dermatophytoses involving the periocular region. A retrospective review was performed of patients with a diagnosis of periocular tinea who were seen between January 2003 and September 2009 in the pediatric dermatology clinic at St. Louis Children's Hospital. Ten cases of periocular tinea were identified (6 male patients and 4 female patients). Common features included prolonged misdiagnosis (all 10 cases), a normal ophthalmologic examination (all 10 cases), and inappropriate corticosteroid application (7 cases). Loss of the eyelashes occurred in all 10 patients. No cases had evidence of other tinea infections on examination. Only 2 cases had the central clearing classically associated with tinea corporis. Seven patients had a potassium hydroxide preparation and/or culture positive for fungal elements. Lesions improved with topical and oral antifungal treatment in all cases, and patients were able to regrow their eyelashes. Periocular tinea should be considered in the differential diagnosis for periocular inflammation, especially in those patients refractory to therapy for more common conditions. Loss of the eyelashes is characteristic of these fungal infections, similar to the hair loss that occurs in kerions associated with tinea capitis.

  4. Soils: man-caused radioactivity and radiation forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Gablin, Vassily

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: One of the main tasks of the radiation safety guarantee is non-admission of the excess over critical radiation levels. In Russia they are man-caused radiation levels. Meanwhile any radiation measurement represents total radioactivity. That is why it is hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to total radioactivity. It is shown that soil radioactivity depends on natural factors including radioactivity of rocks and cosmic radiation as well as man-caused factors including nuclear and non-nuclear technologies. Whole totality of these factors includes unpredictable (non-deterministic) factors - nuclear explosions and radiation accidents,more » and predictable ones (deterministic) - all the rest. Deterministic factors represent background radioactivity whose trends is the base of the radiation forecast. Non-deterministic factors represent man-caused radiation treatment contribution which is to be controlled. This contribution is equal to the difference in measured radioactivity and radiation background. The way of calculation of background radioactivity is proposed. Contemporary soils are complicated technologically influenced systems with multi-leveled spatial and temporary inhomogeneity of radionuclides distribution. Generally analysis area can be characterized by any set of factors of soil radioactivity including natural and man-caused factors. Natural factors are cosmic radiation and radioactivity of rocks. Man-caused factors are shown on Fig. 1. It is obvious that man-caused radioactivity is due to both artificial and natural emitters. Any result of radiation measurement represents total radioactivity i.e. the sum of activities resulting from natural and man-caused emitters. There is no gauge which could separately measure natural and man-caused radioactivity. That is why it is so hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to soil radioactivity. It would have been possible if

  5. Causes of death of patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Larry; Saunders, Rachel; Knollmann, Friedrich D

    2012-12-01

    The causes of death for patients with lung cancer are inadequately described. To categorize the immediate and contributing causes of death for patients with lung cancer. The autopsies from 100 patients who died of lung cancer between 1990 and February 2011 were analyzed. Tumor burden was judged the immediate cause of death in 30 cases, including 26 cases of extensive metastases and 4 cases with wholly or primarily lung tumor burden (causing respiratory failure). Infection was the immediate cause of death for 20 patients, including 8 with sepsis and 12 with pneumonia. Complications of metastatic disease were the immediate causes of death in 18 cases, including 6 cases of hemopericardium from pericardial metastases, 3 from myocardial metastases, 3 from liver metastases, and 3 from brain metastases. Other immediate causes of death were pulmonary hemorrhage (12 cases), pulmonary embolism (10 cases, 2 tumor emboli), and pulmonary diffuse alveolar damage (7 cases). From a functional (pathophysiologic) perspective, respiratory failure could be regarded as the immediate cause of death (or mechanism of death) in 38 cases, usually because of a combination of lung conditions, including emphysema, airway obstruction, pneumonia, hemorrhage, embolism, resection, and lung injury in addition to the tumor. For 94 of the 100 patients, there were contributing causes of death, with an average of 2.5 contributing causes and up to 6 contributing causes of death. The numerous and complex ways lung cancer kills patients pose a challenge for efforts to extend and improve their lives.

  6. Neuroendocrine Causes of Amenorrhea—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Fourman, Lindsay T.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Secondary amenorrhea—the absence of menses for three consecutive cycles—affects approximately 3–4% of reproductive age women, and infertility—the failure to conceive after 12 months of regular intercourse—affects approximately 6–10%. Neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility, including functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia, constitute a majority of these cases. Objective: In this review, we discuss the physiologic, pathologic, and iatrogenic causes of amenorrhea and infertility arising from perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including potential genetic causes. We focus extensively on the hormonal mechanisms involved in disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Conclusions: A thorough understanding of the neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility is critical for properly assessing patients presenting with these complaints. Prompt evaluation and treatment are essential to prevent loss of bone mass due to hypoestrogenemia and/or to achieve the time-sensitive treatment goal of conception. PMID:25581597

  7. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment, without...

  8. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment, without...

  9. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment, without...

  10. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment, without...

  11. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment, without...

  12. [Severe hypertriglyceridemia--an important cause of pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Graesdal, Asgeir

    2008-05-01

    Moderate hypertriglyceridaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and serious hypertriglyceridaemia, with triglyceride values above 10 mmol/L, increases the risk of pancreatitis. Gallstones and alcohol abuse are regarded as the two most important causes of acute pancreatitis, but the considerable risk posed by hypertriglyceridaemia has probably been underrated. It is therefore crucial to acquire updated knowledge and awareness of the fact that high levels of triglycerides can cause pancreatitis. This article is based on current literature retrieved though a search on the topic and clinical experience. Serious hypertriglyceridaemia is a relatively rare condition and its usual cause is genetic predisposition combined with obesity, diabetes or alcohol abuse. Certain types of medication, as well as pregnancy, are also well known causes. Current literature suggests that hypertriglyceridaemia is the cause of pancreatitis in 1-38% of the cases--a substantial variation. The condition is often accompanied by low amylase values and may therefore be underrated as a cause. Our case reports illustrate that the etiology is complex. Plasmapheresis or LDL-apheresis may be indicated when conservative treatment proves insufficient.

  13. A comparison of sisterhood information on causes of maternal death with the registration causes of maternal death in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shahidullah, M

    1995-10-01

    To explore whether causes of maternal death can be investigated using the sisterhood method, an indirect method for providing a community-based estimate of the level of maternal mortality, this study compares the sisterhood causes of maternal death with the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System's (DSS) causes of maternal death. Data for this study came from the Matlab DSS, which has been in operation since 1966 as a field site of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. The maternal deaths that occurred during the 15-year period from 1976 to 1990 in the Matlab DSS area are the basis of this study. A sisterhood survey was conducted in Matlab in November and December 1991 to collect information on conditions, events and symptoms that preceded death. The collected information was evaluated to assign a most likely cause of maternal death. The sisterhood survey cause of maternal death was then compared with the DSS cause of maternal death. Cause of death could not be assigned with reasonable confidence for 34 (11%) of the 305 maternal deaths for which information was collected. For the remaining deaths, the agreement between the two classification systems was generally high for most cause-of-death categories considered. Though cause-of-death information obtained by the sisterhood method will always be subject to some error, it can provide an indication of an overall distribution of causes of maternal deaths. This data can be used for the planning of programmes aimed at reducing maternal mortality and for the evaluation of such programmes over time.

  14. Cardiovascular causes of maternal sudden death. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome is leading cause in UK.

    PubMed

    Krexi, Dimitra; Sheppard, Mary N

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the causes of sudden cardiac death during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and patients' characteristics. There are few studies in the literature. Eighty cases of sudden unexpected death due to cardiac causes in relation to pregnancy and postpartum period in a database of 4678 patients were found and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The mean age was 30±7 years with a range from 16 to 43 years. About 30% were 35 years old or older; 50% of deaths occurred during pregnancy and 50% during the postpartum period. About 59.18% were obese or overweight where body mass index data were available. The leading causes of death were sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) (53.75%) and cardiomyopathies (13.80%). Other causes include dissection of aorta or its branches (8.75%), congenital heart disease (2.50%) and valvular disease (3.75%). This study highlights sudden cardiac death in pregnancy or in the postpartum period, which is mainly due to SADS with underlying channelopathies and cardiomyopathy. We wish to raise awareness of these frequently under-recognised entities in maternal deaths and the need of cardiological screening of the family as a result of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiovascular causes of maternal sudden death. Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome is leading cause in UK.

    PubMed

    Krexi, Dimitra; Sheppard, Mary N

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine the causes of sudden cardiac death during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and patients' characteristics. There are few studies in the literature. Eighty cases of sudden unexpected death due to cardiac causes in relation to pregnancy and postpartum period in a database of 4678 patients were found and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The mean age was 30±7years with a range from 16 to 43 years. About 30% were 35 years old or older; 50% of deaths occurred during pregnancy and 50% during the postpartum period. About 59.18% were obese or overweight where body mass index data were available. The leading causes of death were sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) (53.75%) and cardiomyopathies (13.80%). Other causes include dissection of aorta or its branches (8.75%), congenital heart disease (2.50%) and valvular disease (3.75%). This study highlights sudden cardiac death in pregnancy or in the postpartum period, which is mainly due to SADS with underlying channelopathies and cardiomyopathy. We wish to raise awareness of these frequently under-recognised entities in maternal deaths and the need of cardiological screening of the family as a result of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by Bifidobacterium breve.

    PubMed

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Romagnoli, Mark; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen C

    2014-08-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is a rare cause of human infections. Previously, bacteremia and meningitis caused by this organism linked to probiotic use have been reported in a neonate. We report the first case of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by B. breve in an adult without a history of probiotic use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Actinomyces naeslundii: An Uncommon Cause of Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Christopher D.; Urban, Carl; Turett, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Actinomyces rarely causes endocarditis with 25 well-described cases reported in the literature in the past 75 years. We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) caused by Actinomyces naeslundii. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of endocarditis due to this organism and the second report of PVE caused by Actinomyces. PMID:26697243

  18. [Illness caused by water-based paints?].

    PubMed

    Birkeland, G; Zahlsen, K; Aas, K

    1994-08-20

    Illness caused by the indoor environment is a challenging and complicated field to investigate. Emissions from paints may contribute to the problems. Several components of water-based paints evaporate for a long time after painting, and some of them may affect human biology. We describe one patient who has experienced symptoms caused by water-based paint. Different reaction mechanisms may be involved, and these are discussed. Components which may elicit biological effects are listed and discussed. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that a few patients may suffer from illness caused by emissions from modern paints.

  19. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  20. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Weight History, All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Three Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Edward; Stokes, Andrew C.; Ley, Sylvia H.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Willett, Walter; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between maximum BMI over 16 years and subsequent mortality. DESIGN Three prospective cohort studies. SETTING Nurses’ Health Study I and II, Health Professionals Follow-up Study. PARTICIPANTS 225,072 men and women accruing 32,571 deaths over a mean of 12.3 years of follow-up. MEASUREMENTS Maximum BMI over 16 years of weight history and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS Maximum BMIs in the overweight (25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) (multivariate hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03 – 1.08), obese I (30.0 to 34.9 kg/m2), (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.20 – 1.29), and obese II (≥ 35.0 kg/m2) (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.66 – 1.80) categories were associated with increases in risk of all-cause mortality. The pattern of excess risk with a maximum BMI above normal weight was maintained across strata defined by smoking status, sex, and age, but the excess was greatest among those <70 years old and never smokers. In contrast, a significant inverse association between overweight and mortality (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94 – 0.99) was observed when BMI was defined using a single baseline measurement. Maximum overweight was also associated with increased cause-specific mortality, including deaths from cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart disease. LIMITATIONS Residual confounding and misclassification. CONCLUSIONS The paradoxical association between overweight and mortality is reversed in analyses incorporating weight history. Maximum BMI may be a useful metric to minimize reverse causation bias associated with a single baseline BMI assessment. PMID:28384755

  2. Breakdown Cause and Effect Analysis. Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biały, Witold; Ružbarský, Juraj

    2018-06-01

    Every company must ensure that the production process proceeds without interferences. Within this article, the author uses the term "interferences" in reference to unplanned stoppages caused by breakdowns. Unfortunately, usually due to machine operators' mistakes, machines break, which causes stoppages thus generating additional costs for the company. This article shows a cause and effect analysis of a breakdown in a production process. The FMEA as well as quality management tools: the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto chart were used for the analysis. Correction measures were presented which allowed for a significant reduction in the number of stoppages caused by breakdowns.

  3. The Role of Medications in Causing Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, Frederick T.; Sciubba, James J.; Mathers, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the possible role of polypharmacy in causing dry eye disease (DED), reflecting the complex interactions and complications associated with the use of multiple systemic and topical ocular medications. The pharmacological, physiological, anatomical, and histological mechanisms causing dry mouth differ little from those causing dry eye. Oral polypharmacy is the most common cause of dry mouth, but has not been investigated as a cause of dry eye. Topical ocular polypharmacy has been shown to cause DED. Information on drugs that likely cause or aggravate DED and the controversial role of preservatives in topical ocular medications are examined. Systemic or topical ocular medications and preservatives used in topical ocular drugs may cause dry eye through the drug's therapeutic action, ocular surface effects, or preservatives, and the effects probably are additive. Long-term use of topical ocular medications, especially those containing preservatives such as BAK, may play an important role in DED and the role of polypharmacy needs further study. We review possible ways to decrease the risk of medication-related dry eye. PMID:23050121

  4. Urinary infection caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Helen

    1973-01-01

    The laboratory findings and clinical presentations in urinary infections in 23 nurses, 10 caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3 and 13 by Escherichia coli, were studied, and the symptoms and possible predisposing factors compared. There were no important differences between the two groups. The infections caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3 were symptomatically severe, as were those caused by Escherichia coli. PMID:4593863

  5. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2014.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-06-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2014 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2014," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  6. Analysis of Facial Injuries Caused by Power Tools.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiye; Choi, Jin-Hee; Hyun Kim, Oh; Won Kim, Sug

    2016-06-01

    The number of injuries caused by power tools is steadily increasing as more domestic woodwork is undertaken and more power tools are used recreationally. The injuries caused by the different power tools as a consequence of accidents are an issue, because they can lead to substantial costs for patients and the national insurance system. The increase in hand surgery as a consequence of the use of power tools and its economic impact, and the characteristics of the hand injuries caused by power saws have been described. In recent years, the authors have noticed that, in addition to hand injuries, facial injuries caused by power tools commonly present to the emergency room. This study aimed to review the data in relation to facial injuries caused by power saws that were gathered from patients who visited the trauma center at our hospital over the last 4 years, and to analyze the incidence and epidemiology of the facial injuries caused by power saws. The authors found that facial injuries caused by power tools have risen continually. Facial injuries caused by power tools are accidental, and they cause permanent facial disfigurements and functional disabilities. Accidents are almost inevitable in particular workplaces; however, most facial injuries could be avoided by providing sufficient operator training and by tool operators wearing suitable protective devices. The evaluation of the epidemiology and patterns of facial injuries caused by power tools in this study should provide the information required to reduce the number of accidental injuries.

  7. [Noroviruses: leading cause of gastroenteritis].

    PubMed

    Delacour, H; Dubrous, P; Koeck, J L

    2010-04-01

    Although noroviruses were the first viral agents to be linked to gastrointestinal disease, they were long considered a secondary cause far behind rotaviruses. Development of molecular-based diagnostic techniques has provided clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of noroviruses that are now recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks but also as an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in both children and adults. Norovirus infection is generally characterized by mild acute vomiting and diarrhea usually lasting for only a few days, but it can lead to more severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms in high-risk groups such as young children, elderly, and immunodeficient persons. It has been demonstrated that they are present in tropical countries. Molecular epidemiological studies have documented the great genetic diversity of noroviruses with regular emergence of variants. Since no vaccine is available, prevention on norovirus infection depends mainly on strict personal and community hygiene measures.

  8. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  9. Allovahlkampfia spelaea Causing Keratitis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, Mohammed Essa Marghany; Huseein, Enas Abdelhameed Mahmoud; Farrag, Haiam Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Hanan El Deek; Kobayashi, Seiki; Suzuki, Jun; Ali, Tarek Ahmed Mohamed; Sugano, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Background Free-living amoebae are present worldwide. They can survive in different environment causing human diseases in some instances. Acanthamoeba sp. is known for causing sight-threatening keratitis in humans. Free-living amoeba keratitis is more common in developing countries. Amoebae of family Vahlkampfiidae are rarely reported to cause such affections. A new genus, Allovahlkampfia spelaea was recently identified from caves with no data about pathogenicity in humans. We tried to identify the causative free-living amoeba in a case of keratitis in an Egyptian patient using morphological and molecular techniques. Methods Pathogenic amoebae were culture using monoxenic culture system. Identification through morphological features and 18S ribosomal RNA subunit DNA amplification and sequencing was done. Pathogenicity to laboratory rabbits and ability to produce keratitis were assessed experimentally. Results Allovahlkampfia spelaea was identified as a cause of human keratitis. Whole sequence of 18S ribosomal subunit DNA was sequenced and assembled. The Egyptian strain was closely related to SK1 strain isolated in Slovenia. The ability to induce keratitis was confirmed using animal model. Conclusions This the first time to report Allovahlkampfia spelaea as a human pathogen. Combining both molecular and morphological identification is critical to correctly diagnose amoebae causing keratitis in humans. Use of different pairs of primers and sequencing amplified DNA is needed to prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27415799

  10. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    PubMed

    2015-01-10

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum

  11. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age

  12. Inferences about unobserved causes in human contingency learning.

    PubMed

    Hagmayer, York; Waldmann, Michael R

    2007-03-01

    Estimates of the causal efficacy of an event need to take into account the possible presence and influence of other unobserved causes that might have contributed to the occurrence of the effect. Current theoretical approaches deal differently with this problem. Associative theories assume that at least one unobserved cause is always present. In contrast, causal Bayes net theories (including Power PC theory) hypothesize that unobserved causes may be present or absent. These theories generally assume independence of different causes of the same event, which greatly simplifies modelling learning and inference. In two experiments participants were requested to learn about the causal relation between a single cause and an effect by observing their co-occurrence (Experiment 1) or by actively intervening in the cause (Experiment 2). Participants' assumptions about the presence of an unobserved cause were assessed either after each learning trial or at the end of the learning phase. The results show an interesting dissociation. Whereas there was a tendency to assume interdependence of the causes in the online judgements during learning, the final judgements tended to be more in the direction of an independence assumption. Possible explanations and implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Causes of Deafness: Retrospection and Omens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champie, Joan

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed records of several American schools for the deaf in the 19th century concerning the stated causes of deafness given by parents. The high rate of adventitious deafness is noted. Stated causes are categorized into: fevers, inflammations, medicines/poisons, trauma, heat/cold, ear problems, nervous system problems, head/neck…

  14. What Causes Rainbows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  15. Differential diagnosis and secondary causes of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Taxel, P; Kenny, A

    2000-01-01

    Secondary osteoporosis refers to osteoporosis in which an underlying cause or factor other than those attributable to the postmenopausal state or aging can be identified. Primary, or idiopathic, osteoporosis implies that a secondary cause cannot be found. Secondary osteoporosis occurs not only in postmenopausal women but also in men and premenopausal women. In series reported from specialized centers, as many as 30% of postmenopausal women and 50% to 80% of men have an identifiable secondary cause of osteoporosis, although the frequency of secondary osteoporosis is probably much lower in the general population. In assessing the patient with osteoporosis, it is important to look for secondary causes and aggravating factors that are reversible and amenable to therapy. In addition to secondary forms, 2 metabolic bone diseases, osteomalacia and primary hyperparathyroidism, can mimic or aggravate osteoporosis. This paper will summarize the differential diagnosis and management of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and hyperparathyroidism and review the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis.

  16. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  17. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... epilepsy or mental health problems Common causes of heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding include: 2 , 7 Adolescence ( ... ovulation) Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (bleeding irregular but heavy) Uterine fibroids (benign growths of uterine muscle) Endometrial ...

  18. The common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion.

    PubMed

    Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcosporidiosis (sarcocystosis) and trypanosomiasis are the common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion which caused by single-celled protozoan parasites; Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum , Sarcocystis spp and Trypanosoma evansi, respectively. Toxoplasmosis is generally considered the most important disease that causing abortion of both pregnant women and different female animals throughout the world, about third of human being population had antibodies against T. gondii . The infection can pass via placenta, causing encephalitis, chorio-retinitis, mental retardation and loss of vision in congenitally-infected children and stillbirth or mummification of the aborted fetuses of livestock. Neosporosis is recognized as a major cause of serious abortion in varieties of wild and domestic animals around the world particularly cattle, the disease cause serious economic losses among dairy and beef cattle due to decrease in milk and meat production. While unlike toxoplasmosis, neosporosis is not recognized as a human pathogen and evidence to date shows that neosporosis is only detected by serology in the human population. Sarcosporidiosis also can cause abortion in animals particularly cattle, buffaloes and sheep with acute infection through high dose of infection with sarcocysts. On the other hand, humans have been reported as final and intermediate host for sarcosporidiosis but not represent a serious health problem. Trypanosomiasis by T. evansi cause dangerous infection among domestic animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Several cases of abortion had been recorded in cattle and buffaloes infected with T. evansi while, a single case of human infection was reported in India. Trichomoniasis and babesiosis abortion occurs with non-zoonotic Trichomonas and Babesia species while the zoonotic species had not been incriminated in induction of abortion in both animals and man. The current review article concluded that there is still

  19. Metabolomic Alterations Associated with Cause of CKD.

    PubMed

    Grams, Morgan E; Tin, Adrienne; Rebholz, Casey M; Shafi, Tariq; Köttgen, Anna; Perrone, Ronald D; Sarnak, Mark J; Inker, Lesley A; Levey, Andrew S; Coresh, Josef

    2017-11-07

    Causes of CKD differ in prognosis and treatment. Metabolomic indicators of CKD cause may provide clues regarding the different physiologic processes underlying CKD development and progression. Metabolites were quantified from serum samples of participants in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study, a randomized controlled trial of dietary protein restriction and BP control, using untargeted reverse phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantification. Known, nondrug metabolites ( n =687) were log-transformed and analyzed to discover associations with CKD cause (polycystic kidney disease, glomerular disease, and other cause). Discovery was performed in Study B, a substudy of MDRD with low GFR ( n =166), and replication was performed in Study A, a substudy of MDRD with higher GFR ( n =423). Overall in MDRD, average participant age was 51 years and 61% were men. In the discovery study (Study B), 29% of participants had polycystic kidney disease, 28% had glomerular disease, and 43% had CKD of another cause; in the replication study (Study A), the percentages were 28%, 24%, and 48%, respectively. In the discovery analysis, adjusted for demographics, randomization group, body mass index, hypertensive medications, measured GFR, log-transformed proteinuria, and estimated protein intake, seven metabolites (16-hydroxypalmitate, kynurenate, homovanillate sulfate, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine, hippurate, homocitrulline, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol) were associated with CKD cause after correction for multiple comparisons ( P <0.0008). Five of these metabolite associations (16-hydroxypalmitate, kynurenate, homovanillate sulfate, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine, and hippurate) were replicated in Study A ( P <0.007), with all replicated metabolites exhibiting higher levels in polycystic kidney disease and lower levels in glomerular disease compared with CKD of other causes. Metabolomic profiling identified several metabolites strongly associated with

  20. Causes of corneal graft failure in India.

    PubMed

    Dandona, L; Naduvilath, T J; Janarthanan, M; Rao, G N

    1998-09-01

    The success of corneal grafting in visual rehabilitation of the corneal blind in India depends on survival of the grafts. Understanding the causes of graft failure may help reduce the risk of failure. We studied these causes in a series of 638 graft failures at our institution. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of particular causes of graft failure with indications for grafting, socioeconomic status, age, sex, host corneal vascularization, donor corneal quality, and experience of surgeon. The major causes of graft failure were allograft rejection (29.2%), increased intraocular pressure (16.9%), infection excluding endophthalmitis (15.4%), and surface problems (12.7%). The odds of infection causing graft failure were significantly higher in patients of lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.45-4.15). Surface problems as a cause of graft failure was significantly associated with grafts done for corneal scarring or for regrafts (odds ratio 3.36, 95% CI 1.80-6.30). Increased intraocular pressure as a cause of graft failure had significant association with grafts done for aphakic or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, congenital conditions or glaucoma, or regrafts (odds ratio 2.19, 95% CI 1.25-3.84). Corneal dystrophy was the indication for grafting in 12 of the 13 cases of graft failure due to recurrence of host disease. Surface problems, increased intraocular pressure, and infection are modifiable risk factors that are more likely to cause graft failure in certain categories of patients in India. Knowledge about these associations can be helpful in looking for and aggressively treating these modifiable risk factors in the at-risk categories of corneal graft patients. This can possibly reduce the chance of graft failure.

  1. Dietary Protein Sources and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Malekshah, Akbar F; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Khoshnia, Masoud; Farvid, Mojtaba; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Willett, Walter C; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-02-01

    Dietary protein comes from foods with greatly different compositions that may not relate equally with mortality risk. Few cohort studies from non-Western countries have examined the association between various dietary protein sources and cause-specific mortality. Therefore, the associations between dietary protein sources and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality were evaluated in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. Among 42,403 men and women who completed a dietary questionnaire at baseline, 3,291 deaths were documented during 11 years of follow up (2004-2015). Cox proportional hazards models estimated age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for all-cause and disease-specific mortality in relation to dietary protein sources. Data were analyzed from 2015 to 2016. Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile, egg consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.97, p trend =0.03). In multivariate analysis, the highest versus the lowest quartile of fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of total cancer (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.64, 0.98, p trend =0.03) and gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.75, 95% CI=0.56, 1.00, p trend =0.02) mortality. The highest versus the lowest quintile of legume consumption was associated with reduced total cancer (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58, 0.89, p trend =0.004), gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.58, 1.01, p trend =0.05), and other cancer (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.47, 0.93, p trend =0.04) mortality. Significant associations between total red meat and poultry intake and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, or cancer mortality rate were not observed among all participants. These findings support an association of higher fish and legume consumption with lower cancer mortality, and higher egg consumption with lower all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary Protein Sources and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farvid, Maryam S.; Malekshah, Akbar F.; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Khoshnia, Masoud; Farvid, Mojtaba; Abnet, Christian C.; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Brennan, Paul; Pharoah, Paul D.; Boffetta, Paolo; Willett, Walter C.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary protein comes from foods with greatly different compositions that may not relate equally with mortality risk. Few cohort studies from non-Western countries have examined the association between various dietary protein sources and cause-specific mortality. Therefore, the associations between dietary protein sources and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality were evaluated in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. Methods Among 42,403 men and women who completed a dietary questionnaire at baseline, 3,291 deaths were documented during 11 years of follow up (2004–2015). Cox proportional hazards models estimated age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for all- cause and disease-specific mortality in relation to dietary protein sources. Data were analyzed from 2015 to 2016. Results Comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile, egg consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.97, ptrend=0.03). In multivariate analysis, the highest versus the lowest quartile of fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of total cancer (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.64, 0.98, ptrend=0.03) and gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.75, 95% CI=0.56, 1.00, ptrend=0.02) mortality. The highest versus the lowest quintile of legume consumption was associated with reduced total cancer (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58, 0.89, ptrend=0.004), gastrointestinal cancer (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.58, 1.01, ptrend=0.05), and other cancer (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.47, 0.93, ptrend=0.04) mortality. Significant associations between total red meat and poultry intake and all- cause, cardiovascular disease, or cancer mortality rate were not observed among all participants. Conclusions These findings support an association of higher fish and legume consumption with lower cancer mortality, and higher egg consumption with lower all-cause mortality. PMID:28109460

  3. [Rare causes of childhood leukocoria].

    PubMed

    Diagne, J-P; Sow, A S; Ka, A M; Wane, A M; Ndoye Roth, P A; Ba, E A; De Medeiros, M E; Ndiaye, J M; Diallo, H M; Kane, H; Sow, S; Nguer, M; Sy, E M; Ndiaye, P A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose was to record the causes of leukocoria among children under 10years of age and to determine the proportion of rare causes of leukocoria. This retrospective study was conducted over a period of ten years, from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, in patients under 10years of age who were referred for leukocoria. Leukocoria represented one of the ten reasons for consultation among children under 10years of age. The mean age of our patients was 42.5months. In 76 % of cases, the leukocoria patients were children under 6years of age. Male patients were affected more commonly, with a sex-ratio of 1.5. Patients coming from Dakar and its suburbs represented two thirds of the total. Bilateral involvement represented 53.7 % of the total. Cataracts were responsible for 74.3 % of cases, retinoblastoma 20.58 %, retinal detachment 0.96 %, retinopathy of prematurity 0.96 %, pupillary membrane persistence 0.96 %, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous 0.64 %, endophthalmitis 0.64 %, optic nerve coloboma 0.32 %, iris heterochromia 0.32 % and ametropia 0.32 %. The total percentage of rare causes was 5.12 % in our study, including one case of hyperopia. These etiologies, although rare, do exist. Rare causes of leukocoria require special attention. The discovery of leukocoria necessitates rigorous etiological work-up. Ametropia must be a diagnosis of exclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Xerostomia: causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeanette Y

    2007-12-01

    When reduced salivary flow causes perpetual dry and sticky mucosa or sticky, stringy saliva, it becomes xerostomia-not a disease, but a symptom. Up to 30% of various populations self-report dry mouth (xerostomia) or have proven low salivary flow rates. Saliva is necessary for digestion and dental health, and it may have yet-unidentified immunological roles in humans. Xerostomia can lead to digestive problems, weight loss, and accelerated dental decay. Medications-several hundred of them-can cause or exacerbate xerostomia. Cancer, autoimmune diseases, and bone marrow transplants are associated with xerostomia. Including a dentist on the treatment team is essential for residents with dry mouth. As xerostomia progresses, they should shift focus primarily to prevention, maintenance, oral comfort, and emergency treatment. In all stages, they should keep treatment noninvasive if possible.

  5. Damage Caused by the Rogue Trustee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine community college presidents and chancellors in 16 states report on the damage caused by rogue trustees. While the damage to presidents, other trustees, and faculty and staff is alarming, the damage these trustees cause the college suggests that the rogue trustee may be the single most destructive force ever to plague an educational…

  6. ODU-CAUSE: Computer Based Learning Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachon, Michael W.; Copeland, Gary E.

    This paper describes the Computer Based Learning Lab (CBLL) at Old Dominion University (ODU) as a component of the ODU-Comprehensive Assistance to Undergraduate Science Education (CAUSE) Project. Emphasis is directed to the structure and management of the facility and to the software under development by the staff. Serving the ODU-CAUSE User Group…

  7. A rare cause of hypophysitis: tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ihsan; Katipoglu, B; Copur, B; Yilmaz, N

    2017-10-26

    Hypophysitis is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease of pituitary gland. As it causes headache and visual defects, it mimics sellar tumors in clinical and radiological aspects. It may occur due to primary or secondary causes. Tuberculosis is one of the rare secondary causes of the hypophysitis. Subject and Results. A 30-year-old male patient presented with fatigue and headache. Panhypopituitarism was considered due to the results and the diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed sagittal section diamater of pituitary gland higher than normal. Biopsy of the pituitary gland was concordant with the granulomatous hypophysitis. Other possible diagnosis was excluded. The tubercular hypophysitis, as a result of performed tests, is discussed hereby, in the case report.

  8. Association of Patient Age at Gastric Bypass Surgery With Long-term All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lance E; Adams, Ted D; Kim, Jaewhan; Jones, Jessica L; Hashibe, Mia; Taylor, David; Mehta, Tapan; McKinlay, Rodrick; Simper, Steven C; Smith, Sherman C; Hunt, Steven C

    2016-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is effective in reducing all-cause and cause-specific long-term mortality. Whether the long-term mortality benefit of surgery applies to all ages at which surgery is performed is not known. To examine whether gastric bypass surgery is equally effective in reducing mortality in groups undergoing surgery at different ages. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from a retrospective cohort within 4 categories defined by age at surgery: younger than 35 years, 35 through 44 years, 45 through 54 years, and 55 through 74 years. Mean follow-up was 7.2 years. Patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery seen at a private surgical practice from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 2002, were studied. Data analysis was performed from June 12, 2013, to September 6, 2015. A cohort of 7925 patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery and 7925 group-matched, severely obese individuals who did not undergo surgery were identified through driver license records. Matching criteria included year of surgery to year of driver license application, sex, 5-year age groups, and 3 body mass index categories. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. All-cause and cause-specific mortality compared between those undergoing and not undergoing gastric bypass surgery using HRs. Among the 7925 patients who underwent gastric bypass surgery, the mean (SD) age at surgery was 39.5 (10.5) years, and the mean (SD) presurgical body mass index was 45.3 (7.4). Compared with 7925 matched individuals not undergoing surgery, adjusted all-cause mortality after gastric bypass surgery was significantly lower for patients 35 through 44 years old (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.38-0.77), 45 through 54 years old (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.30-0.62), and 55 through 74 years old (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.79; P < .003 for all) but was not lower for those younger than 35 years (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.82-1.81; P = .34). The lack of mortality benefit in those undergoing gastric

  9. Decay causes little loss in hickory

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry; John A. Beaton

    1972-01-01

    A study of 600 hickory trees indicated that heart-rot fungi cause little economic loss in species of the genus Carya. More than half of the decay volume for which a fungus could be identified was caused by Poria spiculosa, one of seven species of heart-rot fungi associated with decay in hickory that were isolated and identified....

  10. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... minerals can further help people with AMD. Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is caused by diabetes. It affects the retina, ... dilated pupils at least once a year. Treatment: Diabetic retinopathy is treated with surgery or laser surgery. With ...

  11. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer? Many risk factors for melanoma have been found, ... it’s not always clear exactly how they might cause cancer. For example, while most moles never turn into ...

  12. Endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella osloensis.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, Audina M; Scott, Ingrid U; Miller, Darlene; Flynn, Harry W

    2002-04-01

    To report the clinical presentation, antibiotic sensitivities, and treatment outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella osloensis. retrospective review of the medical records of all patients treated for endophthalmitis at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2000. During the study interval, 757 eyes were treated for endophthalmitis. Moraxella osloensis was isolated from three eyes of two patients (3/757, or 0.39%). In all three eyes, the endophthalmitis was delayed-onset and bleb-associated; Moraxella osloensis was isolated on chocolate agar and 5% sheep's blood agar using a RapNH commercial Kit (by Remel) through an automated system (Vitek). Like most gram-negative organisms, Moraxella was sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and the aminoglycosides. Although vision at presentation was poor, both patients regained baseline vision after treatment with pars plana vitrectomy and injection of intravitreal antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first report of endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella osloensis. Unlike most series of delayed-onset, bleb-associated endophthalmitis the visual prognosis following treatment for endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella osloensis appears to be generally favorable.

  13. [A lung abscess caused by bad teeth].

    PubMed

    van Brummelen, S E; Melles, D; van der Eerden, M

    2017-01-01

    An odontogenic cause of a lung abscess can easily be overlooked. A 61-year-old man presented at the emergency department with a productive cough and dyspnoea. He was admitted to the pulmonary ward with a suspected odontogenic lung abscess. A thorax CT scan confirmed the diagnosis 'lung abscess', following which the dental surgeon confirmed that the lung abscess probably had an odontogenic cause. The patient made a full recovery following a 6-week course of antibiotics, and he received extensive dental treatment. Poor oral hygiene can be a cause of a lung abscess. A patient with a lung abscess can be treated successfully with a 6-week course of antibiotics; however, if the odontogenic cause is not recognised the abscess can recur.

  14. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of anmore » agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.« less

  15. Impacts of cold weather on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Texas, 1990-2011.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Kai

    2017-06-01

    Cold weather was estimated to account for more than half of weather-related deaths in the U.S. during 2006-2010. Studies have shown that cold-related excessive mortality is especially relevant with decreasing latitude or in regions with mild winter. However, only limited studies have been conducted in the southern U.S. The purpose of our study is to examine impacts of cold weather on mortality in 12 major Texas Metropolitan Areas (MSAs) for the 22-year period, 1990-2011. Our study used a two-stage approach to examine the cold-mortality association. We first applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) to 12 major MSAs to estimate cold effects for each area. A random effects meta-analysis was then used to estimate pooled effects. Age-stratified and cause-specific mortalities were modeled separately for each MSA. Most of the MSAs were associated with an increased risk in mortality ranging from 0.1% to 5.0% with a 1 °C decrease in temperature below the cold thresholds. Higher increased mortality risks were generally observed in MSAs with higher average daily mean temperatures and lower latitudes. Pooled effect estimate was 1.58% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.81, 2.37]) increase in all-cause mortality risk with a 1 °C decrease in temperature. Cold wave effects in Texas were also examined, and several MSAs along the Texas Gulf Coast showed statistically significant cold wave-mortality associations. Effects of cold on all-cause mortality were highest among people over 75 years old (1.86%, 95% CI [1.09, 2.63]). Pooled estimates for cause-specific mortality were strongest in myocardial infarction (4.30%, 95% CI [1.18, 7.51]), followed by respiratory diseases (3.17%, 95% CI [0.26, 6.17]) and ischemic heart diseases (2.54%, 95% CI [1.08, 4.02]). In conclusion, cold weather generally increases mortality risk significantly in Texas, and the cold effects vary with MSAs, age groups, and cause-specific deaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Causes of iron deficiency in children].

    PubMed

    Olives, J-P

    2017-05-01

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions worldwide affecting especially children. In developing countries, iron deficiency is caused by poor iron intake and parasitic infection. Poor iron intake linked to inadequate diets, low iron intestinal absorption, chronic blood losses and increased requirements are common causes in high-income countries. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  17. [Causes of orchiectomy: An analysis of 291 cases].

    PubMed

    Long, Zhi; He, Le-ye; Tang, Yu-xin; Jiang, Xian-zhen; Wang, Jin-wei; Chen, Wen-hang; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Yi-chuan; Yang, Chi

    2015-07-01

    To study the causes of orchiectomy in different age groups. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data about 291 cases of orchiectomy performed between March 1993 and October 2014 and analyzed the causes of surgery and their distribution in different age groups. The main causes of orchiectomy were testicular torsion (45.8%), cryptorchidism (32.5%) and testicular tumor (16.9%) in the patients aged 0-25 years, testicular tumor (42.4%), cryptorchidism (25.9%) and tuberculosis (10.6%) in those aged 26-50 years. Prostate cancer was the leading cause in those aged 51-75 years (77.6%) or older (84.0%)), and testicular tumor was another cause in the 51-75 years old men (10.2%). Prostate cancer, testicular tumor, cryptorchidism, and testicular torsion were the first four causes of orchiectomy between 1993 and 2009. From 2010 to 2014, however, testicular tumor rose to the top while prostate cancer dropped to the fourth place. The causes of orchiectomy vary in different age groups. The proportion of castration for prostate cancer patients significantly reduced in the past five years, which might be attributed to the improvement of comprehensive health care service.

  18. Causes and risks for obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... become obese. No single factor or behavior causes obesity . Obesity is caused by many things, including a person's ... image. Examples of eating disorders are: Anorexia Bulimia Obesity and eating disorders often occur at the same ...

  19. Root Causes of the Housing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    In this chapter we investigate root causes of the recent US housing bubble which has been caused a serious downturn in US economic growth since autumn of 2008. We propose a simple model of housing markets in order to indicate the possible determinants of recent housing prices. Utilizing the model, we verify a number of hypotheses which have been proposed in the recent literature on the housing bubbles. We suggest that the main causes of the housing bubble from 2000 to 2006 are (1) non-elastic housing supply in the metropolitan areas, and (2) declines in the mortgage loan rate and the housing premium by the massive mortgage credit expansion. We also suggest that these factors were strongly influenced by policies that governments and the Federal Reserve Board performed.

  20. Preterm labor: one syndrome, many causes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Dey, Sudhansu K; Fisher, Susan J

    2014-08-15

    Preterm birth is associated with 5 to 18% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm labor, a syndrome caused by multiple pathologic processes, leads to 70% of preterm births. The prevention and the treatment of preterm labor have been long-standing challenges. We summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of disease implicated in this condition and review advances relevant to intra-amniotic infection, decidual senescence, and breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance. The success of progestogen treatment to prevent preterm birth in a subset of patients at risk is a cause for optimism. Solving the mystery of preterm labor, which compromises the health of future generations, is a formidable scientific challenge worthy of investment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. [Outbreaks caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Vila Estapé, Jordi; Zboromyrska, Yuliya

    2012-02-01

    Escherichia coli are ubiquitous bacteria from a wide variety of ecosystems including the gastrointestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. E. coli can play a role as an opportunistic bacteria causing a variety of infectious diseases including, among many others, sepsis, urinary tract infections, meningitis, and wound infections. Moreover, these bacteria can also act as primary pathogens in the intestinal tract. There are several pathotypes of E. coli that cause enteritis, and both sporadic cases and outbreaks have been reported. In this article, we review the pathogenicity and epidemiology of enteritis caused by these E. coli pathotypes, and provide some examples of outbreaks described in the scientific literature and the measures required to prevent them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Prosperity as a cause of death.

    PubMed

    Eyer, J

    1977-01-01

    The general death rate rises during business booms and falls during depressions. The causes of death involved in this variation range from infectious diseases through accidents to heart disease, cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver, and include the great majority of all causes of death. Less than 2 percent of the death rate-that for suicide and homicide-varies directly with unemployment. In the older historical data, deterioration of housing and rise of alcohol consumption on the boom may account for part of this variation. In twentieth-century cycles, the role of social stress is probably predominant. Overwork and fragmentation of community through migration are two important sources of stress which rise with the boom, and they are demonstrably related to the causes of death which show this variation.

  3. Reliability of cause of death coding: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Antini, Carmen; Rajs, Danuta; Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Mondaca, Boris Andrés Lucero; Heiss, Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the agreement of nosologic coding of cardiovascular causes of death between a Chilean coder and one in the United States, in a stratified random sample of death certificates of persons aged ≥ 60, issued in 2008 in the Valparaíso and Metropolitan regions, Chile. All causes of death were converted to ICD-10 codes in parallel by both coders. Concordance was analyzed with inter-coder agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient by level of specification ICD-10 code for the underlying cause and the total causes of death coding. Inter-coder agreement was 76.4% for all causes of death and 80.6% for the underlying cause (agreement at the four-digit level), with differences by the level of specification of the ICD-10 code, by line of the death certificate, and by number of causes of death per certificate. Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.76 (95%CI: 0.68-0.84) for the underlying cause and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.74-0.77) for the total causes of death. In conclusion, causes of death coding and inter-coder agreement for cardiovascular diseases in two regions of Chile are comparable to an external benchmark and with reports from other countries.

  4. Perceived Causes of Divorce: An Analysis of Interrelationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleek, Margaret Guminski; Pearson, T. Allan

    1985-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between perceived causes of divorce in a sample of 275 males and 336 females. Seven dimensions of divorce, underlying 18 possible contributing causes, were revealed. Significant differences were found between the sexes both in frequencies with which causes were identified and in composition of the seven factors.…

  5. Symptoms and Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcer. How do H. pylori cause a peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer disease? H. pylori are spiral-shaped bacteria that ... peptic ulcer. How do tumors from ZES cause peptic ulcers? Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that ...

  6. Historical review of the causes of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  7. [Infantile meningitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus].

    PubMed

    Shirota, Go; Morozumi, Miyuki; Ubukata, Kimiko; Shiro, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial (RS) virus commonly causes infantile respiratory tract infection causing significant morbidity and mortality, but rarely meningitis. We report a case of meningitis caused by RS virus subgroup B in a 56-day-old boy admitted for high fever who underwent blood examination and lumbar puncture. Empirical chemotherapy was started with intravenous ampicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime based on laboratory data on CSF cells (84/microL) and serum CRP (13.8mg/dL) data. RS virus subgroup B was only detected using real-time PCR comprehensive reverse transcription from the first CSF, but no bacterial gene was detected. No bacteria grew from his CSF, urine, or blood. Fever and serum CRP dropped in a few days. He had neither seizures nor disturbance of consciousness and was discharged on day 11 after admission. No evidence of encephalopathy was detected in brain MRI or electroencephalography. RS virus rarely causes meningitis, but a percentage of RS-virus-infected infants exhibit symptoms such as seizure and disturbance of consciousness. We should recognize that the RS virus may cause neurological complications associated with high morbidity and mortality.

  8. Historical review of the causes of cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-02-10

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer.

  9. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Longo, Valter D; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-10-01

    Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome. To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with the risk for mortality. This prospective cohort study of US health care professionals included 131 342 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (1980 to end of follow-up on June 1, 2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to end of follow-up on January 31, 2012). Animal and plant protein intake was assessed by regularly updated validated food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed from June 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Of the 131 342 participants, 85 013 were women (64.7%) and 46 329 were men (35.3%) (mean [SD] age, 49 [9] years). The median protein intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th-95th percentile, 9%-22%) and 4% for plant protein (5th-95th percentile, 2%-6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was not associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05; P for trend = .33) but was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.08 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P for trend = .04). Plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.90 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P for trend < .001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.88 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.80-0.97; P for trend = .007). These associations were confined to participants with at least 1 unhealthy lifestyle factor based on smoking, heavy alcohol intake, overweight or obesity, and physical

  10. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (< 30 years of age) and severe hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  13. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  14. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by...

  15. Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause.

    PubMed

    Charles, Lesley; Triscott, Jean; Dobbs, Bonnie

    2017-10-01

    Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of secondary hypertension vary by age. The most common causes in children are renal parenchymal disease and coarctation of the aorta. In adults 65 years and older, atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, renal failure, and hypothyroidism are common causes. Secondary hypertension should be considered in the presence of suggestive symptoms and signs, such as severe or resistant hypertension, age of onset younger than 30 years (especially before puberty), malignant or accelerated hypertension, and an acute rise in blood pressure from previously stable readings. Additionally, renovascular hypertension should be considered in patients with an increase in serum creatinine of at least 50% occurring within one week of initiating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy; severe hypertension and a unilateral smaller kidney or difference in kidney size greater than 1.5 cm; or recurrent flash pulmonary edema. Other underlying causes of secondary hypertension include hyperaldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnea, pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome, thyroid disease, coarctation of the aorta, and use of certain medications.

  16. Widening rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from major causes of death in the USA, 1969-2009.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    This study examined trends in rural-urban disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA between 1969 and 2009. A rural-urban continuum measure was linked to county-level mortality data. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by sex, race, cause-of-death, area-poverty, and urbanization level for 13 time periods between 1969 and 2009. Cause-of-death decomposition and log-linear and Poisson regression were used to analyze rural-urban differentials. Mortality rates increased with increasing levels of rurality overall and for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Despite the declining mortality trends, mortality risks for both males and females and for blacks and whites have been increasingly higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas, particularly since 1990. In 2005-2009, mortality rates varied from 391.9 per 100,000 population for Asians/Pacific Islanders in rural areas to 1,063.2 for blacks in small-urban towns. Poverty gradients were steeper in rural areas, which maintained higher mortality than urban areas after adjustment for poverty level. Poor blacks in non-metropolitan areas experienced two to three times higher all-cause and premature mortality risks than affluent blacks and whites in metropolitan areas. Disparities widened over time; excess mortality from all causes combined and from several major causes of death in non-metropolitan areas was greater in 2005-2009 than in 1990-1992. Causes of death contributing most to the increasing rural-urban disparity and higher rural mortality include heart disease, unintentional injuries, COPD, lung cancer, stroke, suicide, diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Residents in metropolitan areas experienced larger mortality reductions during the past four decades than non-metropolitan residents, contributing to the widening gap.

  17. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-10-08

    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation

  18. The Effect of Cause of Death on Responses to the Bereaved: Suicide Compared to Accident and Natural Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Breon G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of cause of death on responses to bereaved individual. Sixty adults listened to audiotape of recently bereaved widow. There were three versions of tape, each identical except for stated cause of death: suicide, accident, or heart attack. Found that respondents were more anxious after interaction than before. Perceptions of person…

  19. 36 CFR 223.137 - Causes for debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., fire prevention, and the disposal of slash; (2) Protection of soil, water, wildlife, range, cultural, and timber resources and protection of improvements when such failure causes significant environmental, resource, or improvements damage; (3) Removal of designated timber when such failure causes substantial...

  20. No Carbapenem Resistance in Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella Species

    PubMed Central

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Klebsiella species are a common cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic resistance to the class of carbapenem in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species is unusual. New studies report carbapenem resistance in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. This article examines, retrospectively, antibiotic resistance in patients with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. The data of all patients with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species were collected from the hospital charts at the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, within the study period 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was created from all of the study patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. Sensitivity and resistance profiles were performed for the different antibiotics that have been consistently used in the treatment of patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. All demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of all of the patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species were collected from the patients’ records. During the study period of January 1, 2004, to August 12, 2014, 149 patients were identified with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia affected by Klebsiella species. These patients had a mean age of 70.6 ± 13 (107 [71.8%, 95% CI 64.6%–79%] men and 42 [28.2%, 95% CI 21%–35.4%] women). In all of the patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species, there was resistance to ampicillin (P < 0.0001). Many patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species (75.3%) also showed resistance to piperacillin (P < 0.0001). However, no patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species showed resistance to imipenem or meropenem (P < 0.0001). Antibiotic resistance to the antibiotic class of carbapenem was not detected in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. PMID:25674753

  1. Examining the causes of a devastating debris flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2014-08-01

    Storm-triggered landslides cause loss of life, property damage, and landscape alterations. For instance, the remnants of Hurricane Camille in 1969 caused 109 deaths in central Virginia, after 600 millimeters of rain fell in mountainous terrain in 6 hours. More recently, on 8 August 2010, a rainstorm-induced landslide devastated the Chinese county of Zhouqu, causing more than 1000 deaths. A new modeling study by Ren examines the multiple factors, natural and human caused, that came together to produce this event. Three things contribute to storm-triggered landslides: geological condition, surface loading and vegetation roots, and extreme precipitation.

  2. 21 CFR 1316.10 - Administrative probable cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative probable cause. 1316.10 Section 1316.10 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.10 Administrative probable cause. If the judge...

  3. Collembola are Unlikely to Cause Human Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, CSH; Lim, SL; Chew, FT; Ong, TC; Deharveng, L

    2009-01-01

    There have been several unconfirmed case reports of dermatitis caused by Collembola (springtails). We recently investigated two nurses with dermatitis suspected to be caused by Drepanura Schött (Collembola: Entomobryidae). IgE antibodies to Collembola proteins were not detected in sera from the nurses and skin tests with the Collembola extract and crushed whole Collembola were negative in both the nurses and volunteers. This study suggests that the springtail Drepanura may not cause human dermatitis and that other organisms and organic matter that are also found in the moist environment inhabited by Collembola might instead be responsible. PMID:19611235

  4. Causes of chronic orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Robertson, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of various causes of orthostatic hypotension. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred patients with moderate to severe orthostatic hypotension. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients had primary autonomic failure, 35% had secondary autonomic failure, and 38% had hypotension without evidence of generalized autonomic degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: In a tertiary referral center, only a minority of patients with severe orthostatic hypotension will have Shy-Drager syndrome or Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome as their primary disease. Occasional patients who initially appear to have Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome ultimately prove to have Shy-Drager syndrome or paraneoplastic autonomic failure. Antidepressant drugs, even in low doses, remain a major overlooked cause of orthostatic hypotension.

  5. 45 CFR 1641.13 - Causes for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Causes for suspension. 1641.13 Section 1641.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.13 Causes for suspension. The debarring...

  6. 45 CFR 1641.13 - Causes for suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Causes for suspension. 1641.13 Section 1641.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.13 Causes for suspension. The debarring...

  7. Probable Cause: A Decision Making Framework.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Thus, a biochemist may see the causal link between smoking and lung cancer as due to chemical effects of tar, nicotine , and the like, on cell structure...long term and complex effects like poverty can have short term and simple causes. Determinants of Gros Strength Causal chains. While the causal...explained is a standing state. For example, what is the cause of " poverty ?" Since the effect to be explained in a standing state of large duration and

  8. Causes of death among persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Gary R; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Salter, Amber R; Knappertz, Volker; Suarez, Gustavo; Waterbor, John; Howard, Virginia J; Ann Marrie, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of disability among young Americans. Reports suggest that life expectancy (i.e., average age at death) remains reduced as compared to the general population, but underlying causes of death (UCOD) are less well-characterized. To describe the cause-specific mortality among participants enrolled in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry and to compare the profile of these causes by age, sex, race and disability status at entry into NARCOMS, with U.S. mortality data. The underlying cause of death (UCOD), any mention cause of death and proportionate mortality were compared among U.S. NARCOMS participants by age, sex, race and disability status. Of the 32,445 participants to be considered for this study, 2,927 had died. Compared to survivors, decedents were older at enrollment and MS diagnosis, more likely to be male, and had less education. UCOD differed markedly by age group. In both sexes, MS as the UCOD was proportionately lower by 20% or more in those aged 25-39 compared to those aged 75 or older. Cancer and cardiovascular causes were more frequent as causes of death with increasing age, but were less than expected at older ages. The effect of disability on mortality was roughly equivalent to the effect of aging on mortality. Among NARCOMS participants older age at enrollment, male sex and greater disability were associated with increased mortality risk. This cohort of MS subjects had a lower proportionate mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer compared to the U.S. population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning about causes from people and about people as causes: probabilistic models and social causal reasoning.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Daphna; Seiver, Elizabeth; Bridgers, Sophie; Gopnik, Alison

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge children face is uncovering the causal structure of the world around them. Previous research on children's causal inference has demonstrated their ability to learn about causal relationships in the physical environment using probabilistic evidence. However, children must also learn about causal relationships in the social environment, including discovering the causes of other people's behavior, and understanding the causal relationships between others' goal-directed actions and the outcomes of those actions. In this chapter, we argue that social reasoning and causal reasoning are deeply linked, both in the real world and in children's minds. Children use both types of information together and in fact reason about both physical and social causation in fundamentally similar ways. We suggest that children jointly construct and update causal theories about their social and physical environment and that this process is best captured by probabilistic models of cognition. We first present studies showing that adults are able to jointly infer causal structure and human action structure from videos of unsegmented human motion. Next, we describe how children use social information to make inferences about physical causes. We show that the pedagogical nature of a demonstrator influences children's choices of which actions to imitate from within a causal sequence and that this social information interacts with statistical causal evidence. We then discuss how children combine evidence from an informant's testimony and expressed confidence with evidence from their own causal observations to infer the efficacy of different potential causes. We also discuss how children use these same causal observations to make inferences about the knowledge state of the social informant. Finally, we suggest that psychological causation and attribution are part of the same causal system as physical causation. We present evidence that just as children use covariation between

  10. Inferring causes during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linda; Jaeger, T Florian

    2018-05-01

    One of the central challenges in speech perception is the lack of invariance: talkers differ in how they map words onto the speech signal. Previous work has shown that one mechanism by which listeners overcome this variability is adaptation. However, talkers differ in how they pronounce words for a number of reasons, ranging from more permanent, characteristic factors such as having a foreign accent, to more temporary, incidental factors, such as speaking with a pen in the mouth. One challenge for listeners is that the true cause underlying atypical pronunciations is never directly known, and instead must be inferred from (often causally ambiguous) evidence. In three experiments, we investigate whether these inferences underlie speech perception, and how the speech perception system deals with uncertainty about competing causes for atypical pronunciations. We find that adaptation to atypical pronunciations is affected by whether the atypical pronunciations are seen as characteristic or incidental. Furthermore, we find that listeners are able to maintain information about previous causally ambiguous pronunciations that they experience, and use this previously experienced evidence to drive their adaptation after additional evidence has disambiguated the cause. Our findings revise previous proposals that causally ambiguous evidence is ignored during speech adaptation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella species.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, A M; Scott, I U; Miller, D; Flynn, H W

    2001-11-01

    To report the incidence, clinical presentation, antibiotic sensitivities, and treatment outcomes for endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella species. Consecutive interventional case series. Medical records were reviewed of all patients treated at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between 1991 and 2000 for endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella species. Moraxella species were recovered from 9 patients (10 eyes), or 1.3% (10 of 757) of all culture-proven bacterial endophthalmitis cases; Moraxella catarrhalis was recovered from 7 eyes and Moraxella osloensis from 3. Endophthalmitis was delayed-onset (5 months to 10 years postoperatively) and bleb-associated in 9 eyes and trauma-related in 1. All isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and the aminoglycosides, and they were resistant to vancomycin; resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfa was 11%. Although presenting vision was hand motion or worse in 7 of 10 eyes, all but 3 regained baseline visual acuity (including two eyes in which the post-treatment course was complicated by retinal detachment and one eye with coexistent traumatic injuries). Endophthalmitis caused by Moraxella species is usually delayed-onset and bleb-associated. Although patients usually present with a profound decrease in vision, the organisms are sensitive to most antibiotics and, unlike most series of delayed-onset bleb-associated endophthalmitis, visual outcomes are generally good unless coexistent ocular morbidities exist.

  12. 28 CFR 2.101 - Probable cause hearing and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... who have given information upon which revocation may be based) at a postponed probable cause hearing... attendance, unless good cause is found for not allowing confrontation. Whenever a probable cause hearing is...

  13. 24 CFR 103.400 - Reasonable cause determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination by certified mail or personal service. (ii) If the Assistant Secretary determines that no... personal service. (c)(1) A determination of reasonable cause or no reasonable cause by the Assistant... service. (b) The Assistant Secretary may not issue a charge under paragraph (a) of this section regarding...

  14. 24 CFR 103.400 - Reasonable cause determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determination by certified mail or personal service. (ii) If the Assistant Secretary determines that no... personal service. (c)(1) A determination of reasonable cause or no reasonable cause by the Assistant... service. (b) The Assistant Secretary may not issue a charge under paragraph (a) of this section regarding...

  15. 24 CFR 103.400 - Reasonable cause determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination by certified mail or personal service. (ii) If the Assistant Secretary determines that no... personal service. (c)(1) A determination of reasonable cause or no reasonable cause by the Assistant... service. (b) The Assistant Secretary may not issue a charge under paragraph (a) of this section regarding...

  16. 24 CFR 103.400 - Reasonable cause determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination by certified mail or personal service. (ii) If the Assistant Secretary determines that no... personal service. (c)(1) A determination of reasonable cause or no reasonable cause by the Assistant... service. (b) The Assistant Secretary may not issue a charge under paragraph (a) of this section regarding...

  17. 24 CFR 103.400 - Reasonable cause determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determination by certified mail or personal service. (ii) If the Assistant Secretary determines that no... personal service. (c)(1) A determination of reasonable cause or no reasonable cause by the Assistant... service. (b) The Assistant Secretary may not issue a charge under paragraph (a) of this section regarding...

  18. Causes of mortality in common loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Cliplef, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized are necropsy results from 222 carcasses of Common Loons (Gavia immer) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center from 1976 through 1991.  The carcasses were from 18 states, and 10 or more birds each were from Minnesota, Florida, Virginia, Michigan, Wisconsin, Maine, and North Carolina.  Seventy-three (33%) carcasses were emaciated, and in some of these birds emaciation was thought to be related to exposure to mercury.  OVer 40% of these emaciated birds were from Florida.  Trauma, including blunt trauma of unknown origin, outboard motor propeller wounds, and shooting caused the deaths of 49 (22%) loons, 30 of which were from Minnesota.  Diseases, primarily avian botulism type E and aspergillosis, account for 39 (18%) moralities and lead poisoning for 14 (6%), 11 of which had fishing sinkers in their stomachs.  Most of the avian botulism type E cases occurred during two outbreaks on Lake Michigan.  Seven of the 14 lead-poisoned birds were from Minnesota.  Nine (4%) birds died of miscellaneous causes and 9 (4%) of drowning, primarily from entanglement in nets.  No diagnosis could be reached for 29 (13%) carcasses.  Sample bias precludes interpretation of these data to represent actual proportional causes of mortality in the loon population.  However, the sample size is sufficient to clearly identify major causes of mortality.

  19. [Mortality from violent causes in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1993-04-01

    With a view to assembling information to aid in decision-making with regard to prevention policies, a study of mortality from violent causes and its trends in the countries of the Americas was carried out. The study focused on persons under 24 years of age and utilized information from 1980 and 1986 taken from the data base of the Pan American Health Organization. The causes of death were grouped in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Accidental deaths were separated from intentional deaths by means of the following classification: traffic accidents, other accidents, homicides, suicides, and "unknown causes." The information on violent deaths was compared with information on deaths from infectious diseases during the same period. The results indicate that in 1986, 517,465 deaths from violent causes were recorded in the 28 countries of the Region. Violent deaths as a proportion of total deaths ranged from 3.7% in Jamaica to 26.8% in El Salvador. It was observed that between 1980 and 1986 traffic accidents and "other accidents" tended to diminish but there was a moderate increase in suicides. Homicide rates varied markedly between the countries. In the under-1 and 1-4 year age groups, the highest rates corresponded to "other accidents," except in Chile, where among children aged 1-4 the largest proportion of deaths were attributed to "unknown causes." Comparative analysis of deaths from violent causes and from infectious diseases in the population aged 0-24 years showed that the former increase whereas the latter decrease as age increases. The study pointed up the need to promote further research on these phenomena in order to develop appropriate prevention strategies.

  20. Modeling causes of death: an integrated approach using CODEm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Data on causes of death by age and sex are a critical input into health decision-making. Priority setting in public health should be informed not only by the current magnitude of health problems but by trends in them. However, cause of death data are often not available or are subject to substantial problems of comparability. We propose five general principles for cause of death model development, validation, and reporting. Methods We detail a specific implementation of these principles that is embodied in an analytical tool - the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) - which explores a large variety of possible models to estimate trends in causes of death. Possible models are identified using a covariate selection algorithm that yields many plausible combinations of covariates, which are then run through four model classes. The model classes include mixed effects linear models and spatial-temporal Gaussian Process Regression models for cause fractions and death rates. All models for each cause of death are then assessed using out-of-sample predictive validity and combined into an ensemble with optimal out-of-sample predictive performance. Results Ensemble models for cause of death estimation outperform any single component model in tests of root mean square error, frequency of predicting correct temporal trends, and achieving 95% coverage of the prediction interval. We present detailed results for CODEm applied to maternal mortality and summary results for several other causes of death, including cardiovascular disease and several cancers. Conclusions CODEm produces better estimates of cause of death trends than previous methods and is less susceptible to bias in model specification. We demonstrate the utility of CODEm for the estimation of several major causes of death. PMID:22226226

  1. Teacher Dismissal for Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Brad; Schumacher, Gary; Hammonds, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of events that led to the dismissal of a teacher for cause. A first year high school principal is confronted with teacher behavior that creates a dangerous situation for students. The decision process to determine the appropriate organizational response involves a number of individuals and systems. The…

  2. Gulf War illnesses are autoimmune illnesses caused by reactive oxygen species which were caused by nerve agent prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Moss, J I

    2012-08-01

    Gulf War illnesses (GWI share many of the features of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and both CFS and GWI may be the result of chronic immune system processes. The main suspected cause for GWI, the drug pyridostigmine bromide (PB), has been shown to cause neuronal damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS have been associated with IgM mediated autoimmune responses against ROS induced neoepitopes in depressed patients and this may also apply to CFS. It therefore follows that the drug used in the Gulf War caused ROS, the ROS modified native molecules, and that this trigged the autoimmune condition we refer to as Gulf War illnesses. Similar mechanisms may apply to other autoimmune illnesses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Environmental causes of the distal airways disease. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and rare causes].

    PubMed

    Dalphin, J-C; Didier, A

    2013-10-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is one of the most frequent causes of distal airways disease. It is associated with inflammation of the bronchioles, predominantly by lymphocytic infiltrates, and with granuloma formation causing bronchial obstruction. This inflammation explains the clinical manifestations and the airways obstruction seen on pulmonary function tests, most often in the distal airways but proximal in almost 20%. CT scan abnormalities reflect the lymphocytic infiltrates and air trapping and, in some cases, the presence of emphysema. Bronchiolitis induced by chronic inhalation of mineral particles or acute inhalation of toxic gases (such as NO2) are other examples of small airways damage due to environmental exposure. The pathophysiological mechanisms are different and bronchiolar damage is either exclusive or predominant. Bronchiolitis induced by tobacco smoke exposure, usually classified as interstitial pneumonitis, is easily diagnosed thanks to broncho-alveolar lavage. Its prognosis is linked to the other consequences of tobacco smoke exposure including respiratory insufficiency. Finally, the complex lung exposure observed in some rare cases (such as the World Trade Center fire or during wars) may lead to a less characteristic pattern of small airways disease. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Cause of late death in liver transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Júlio Cézar Uili; Parolin, Mônica B; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto; Jorge, Fernando Marcus Felipe; Canan Júnior, Lady Wilson

    2003-01-01

    The objective is to present the causes of late death in patients subjected to liver transplantation. A total of 209 patients were subjected to 223 liver transplantations (14 retransplantations). The computerized study protocol sheets were evaluated to determine the causes of late death (> 6 months after transplantation). Of the 209 patients, 30 had late death. Ductopenic rejection (chronic rejection) was the most common cause and it was observed in 10 patients. Time after transplantation at the moment of death of this group of patients varied from 11 to 57 months, with an average of 29 months. Seven patients died at the hospital admission of hepatic retransplantation. Other causes of late death were sepsis, lymphoproliferative disease, chronic renal insufficiency, and hepatic insufficiency. The most common cause of late death after liver transplantation is ductopenic rejection, followed by complications of retransplantation and sepsis. Death owing to ductopenic rejection may occur even many years after transplantation.

  6. Septicemia caused by Vibrio parahemolyticus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hsu, G J; Young, T; Peng, M Y; Chang, F Y; Chou, M Y

    1993-11-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is a halophilic marine vibrio commonly associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis which also sometimes causes serious wound infection. It is an uncommon cause of septicemia. A few reports suggest that patients with chronic liver disease and leukemia are more susceptible. A case of liver cirrhosis with septicemia caused by this organism is discussed. The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, and he died 12 hours after admission.

  7. Causes of infertility in men with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, K; Belitsos, P; Fotinos, A; Makris, N; Loutradis, D; Antsaklis, A

    2011-10-01

    Men with Down syndrome are considered as infertile although the causes of infertility are not known in detail yet. Although this constitutes a general rule there are three confirmed cases of parenting by fathers with Down syndrome. Many investigators have addressed the causes of infertility and their studies indicate that the causes may be hormonal deficits, morphological alterations of the gonads, abnormal spermatogenesis, psychological and social factors related to the mental retardation. It is obvious that the extra chromosome 21 has a detrimental direct and indirect effect on the reproductive capacity of the affected male patient. But the definite cause of the insufficient and inadequate spermatogenesis remains to be discovered. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  9. Genetic Causes of Rickets

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Sezer; Demir, Korcan; Shi, Yufei

    2017-01-01

    Rickets is a metabolic bone disease that develops as a result of inadequate mineralization of growing bone due to disruption of calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D metabolism. Nutritional rickets remains a significant child health problem in developing countries. In addition, several rare genetic causes of rickets have also been described, which can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of genetic disorders of vitamin D biosynthesis and action, such as vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A), and vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2B (VDDR2B). The second group involves genetic disorders of excessive renal phosphate loss (hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets) due to impairment in renal tubular phosphate reabsorption as a result of FGF23-related or FGF23-independent causes. In this review, we focus on clinical, laboratory and genetic characteristics of various types of hereditary rickets as well as differential diagnosis and treatment approaches. PMID:29280738

  10. Osteomyelitis Caused by Moraxella osloensis

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Barrett; Clarridge, Jill

    1982-01-01

    Moraxella osloensis osteomyelitis of the femur developed in a paraplegic man. He responded to treatment with oral ampicillin. Disease in humans caused by this unusual clinical isolate is reviewed. PMID:7107844

  11. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases. Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort ( n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors. Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P- trend < 0.01) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.73; P- trend < 0.01). The corresponding HRs for all-cancer mortality were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.95; P- trend = 0.03) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.84; P- trend = 0.01), and for all-cardiovascular disease mortality they were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.00; P- trend = 0.06) and HR: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.88; P- trend = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings from this biracial prospective study suggest that diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Causes of death in remote symptomatic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Day, S M; Wu, Y W; Strauss, D J; Shavelle, R M; Reynolds, R J

    2005-07-26

    To determine the causes of death of individuals with developmental disabilities that occur more frequently among those with remote symptomatic epilepsy (i.e., epilepsy occurring in persons with developmental delay or identified brain lesions) than for those without. The authors compared causes of mortality in persons with (n = 10,030) and without (n = 96,163) history of epilepsy in a California population of persons with mild developmental disabilities, 1988 to 2002. Subjects had traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism, or a developmental disability with other or unknown etiology. There were 721,759 person-years of data, with 2,397 deaths. Underlying causes of death were determined from the State of California's official mortality records. Cause-specific death rates and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for those with and without epilepsy relative to subjects in the California general population. Comparisons were then made between SMRs of those with and without epilepsy, and CIs on the ratios of SMRs were determined. Death rates for persons with epilepsy were elevated for several causes. The greatest excess was due to seizures (International Classification of Diseases-9 [ICD-9] 345; SMR 53.1, 95% CI 28.0 to 101.0) and convulsions (ICD-9 780.3; SMR 25.2, 95% CI 11.7 to 54.2). Other causes occurring more frequently in those with epilepsy included brain cancer (SMR 5.2, 95% CI 2.2 to 12.1), respiratory diseases (SMR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.5), circulatory diseases (SMR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7), and accidents (SMR 2.7, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.7), especially accidental drowning (SMR 12.8, 95% CI 7.0 to 23.2). Remote symptomatic epilepsy is associated with an increased risk of death. Seizures, aspiration pneumonia, and accidental drowning are among the leading contributors.

  13. Interpreting Causes of Personal Stress with "Cheese"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Karl L.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to identify the root causes of individual stress have been made for centuries. The result has been the development of a myriad of approaches and explanations as to the cause of stress by psychologists, educators, researchers, and self-help authors. Each approach carries a degree of validity in the context that individuals experience…

  14. Human male infertility and its genetic causes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Minase, Gaku; Shin, Takeshi; Ueda, Hiroto; Okada, Hiroshi; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Infertility affects about 15% of couples who wish to have children and half of these cases are associated with male factors. Genetic causes of azoospermia include chromosomal abnormalities, Y chromosome microdeletions, and specific mutations/deletions of several Y chromosome genes. Many researchers have analyzed genes in the AZF region on the Y chromosome; however, in 2003 the SYCP3 gene on chromosome 12 (12q23) was identified as causing azoospermia by meiotic arrest through a point mutation. We mainly describe the SYCP3 and PLK4 genes that we have studied in our laboratory, and add comments on other genes associated with human male infertility. Up to now, The 17 genes causing male infertility by their mutation have been reported in human. Infertility caused by nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) is very important in the field of assisted reproductive technology. Even with the aid of chromosomal analysis, ultrasonography of the testis, and detailed endocrinology, only MD-TESE can confirm the presence of immature spermatozoa in the testes. We strongly hope that these studies help clinics avoid ineffective MD-TESE procedures.

  15. Clinical types of tinea capitis and species identification in children: an experience from tertiary care centres of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Maria; Tabassum, Saadia; Rizvi, Dilawar Abbas; Rahman, Atiya; Rehanuddin; Awan, Safia; Mahar, Sikandar Azam

    2014-03-01

    To study the clinical types of Tinea Capitis and identify species in children reporting to two tertiary care centres of Karachi, Pakistan. The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dermatology Outpatients' Department, PNS Shifa Hospital and the Institute of Skin Diseases, Karachi, from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. It comprised 202 children with clinical diagnosis of tinea capitis, confirmed by skin scrapings, showing fungal hyphae and spores in 10% potassium hydroxide on direct microscopy. Wood's lamp examination was carried out and the scrapings were cultured on Sabouraud's agar. A detailed dermatological examination was performed for evidence of fungal infection elsewhere in the body. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1 and age ranged from 1 to 14 years.The commonest clinical type gray patch was observed in 71 (35.1%) of the patients, black dot in 63 (31.2%), kerion in 50 (24.8%), favus in 10 (5.0%), diffuse pustular in 6 (3.0%), and diffuse scale in 2 (1.0%) patients. The most frequent species grown on culture was Trichophyton (T). Soudanense, followed by T. Tonsurans, T. Schoenleinii, and T. Mentagrophytes respectively. Most of the patients of Tinea capitis presented with gray patch and black dot variety. The most common species identified by culture was Trichophyton Soudanense. Disease was equal in both gender and predominantly affected the population belonging to low and middle socioeconomic class.

  16. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  17. An uncommon cause of anaemia: Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melchardt, Thomas; Namberger, Konrad; Weiss, Lukas; Egle, Alexander; Faber, Viktoria; Greil, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage called Sheehan's syndrome is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in the western world, but much more common in developing countries. A 45-year-old female patient being a war refugee from Chechnya with severe anaemia and fatigue was diagnosed at our outpatient department with Sheehan's syndrome after severe postpartum haemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy 15 years ago. Panhypopituitarism was adequately treated with substitution of hydrocortisone, thyroxine and transdermal oestrogen which resulted in haemoglobin increase to nearly normal levels and symptoms improved immediately. Severe anaemia caused by panhypopituitarism shows the importance of the hormonal system for erythropoiesis. Clinical and basic scientific evidence indicates thyroidal hormones to be the main cause.

  18. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Tetsu; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sato, Ken; Takimoto, Miyako; Shimaya, Koji; Mikami, Tatsuya; Munakata, Akihiro; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture. PMID:16222758

  19. Vulvovaginitis: Find the cause to treat it.

    PubMed

    Goje, Oluwatosin; Munoz, Jessian L

    2017-03-01

    Vulvar and vaginal disorders are among the most common problems seen in ambulatory care. The cause is usually infectious, but noninfectious causes should also be considered, and differentiating them can be challenging. Accurate diagnosis based on patient history, physical examination, and laboratory testing is necessary so that effective therapy can be chosen. Copyright © 2017 Cleveland Clinic.

  20. Student Absenteeism: Causes, Effects, and Possible Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervilde, James

    Student absenteeism is a major concern for elementary and secondary school educators. This paper annotates 59 articles and reports dealing with the causes of, effects of, and solutions to student absenteeism. A brief glossary first defines l4 terms used in the literature. The author then surveys l4 publications on the causes of absenteeism,…

  1. Case to Cause: Back to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi; Sherraden, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reopens the historic debate about the roles of micro and macro practice in social work and encourages the profession to find ways to achieve a better balance between case and cause in education, practice, and research. To this end, it traces the history of the case versus cause debate including conceptual frameworks for rebalancing…

  2. Vibrations Caused By Cracked Turbopump Bearing Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggin, David G.; Dweck, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Expansion gives rise to eccentricity. Report presents analysis of dynamic effects caused by cracking of inner race of ball bearing in turbopump. Crack manifested itself via increase in vibrations synchronous with rotation and smaller increase at twice frequency of rotation. Analysis conducted to verify these increases were caused solely by crack and to understand implications for future such cracks.

  3. Causes of hepatic capsular retraction: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gary Xia Vern; Miranda, Rhian; Sutherland, Tom

    2016-12-01

    Hepatic capsular retraction refers to the loss of the normal convex hepatic contour, with the formation of an area of flattening or concavity. This can result from myriad causes, including intrinsic hepatic conditions such as cirrhosis, biliary obstruction, benign tumours, malignancy and infections, as well as extrahepatic causes such as trauma. This article aims to provide familiarity with this wide spectrum of conditions, including mimics of hepatic capsular retraction, by highlighting the anatomic, pathologic and imaging features that help distinguish these entities from one another. • Hepatic capsular retraction can occur due to various intrinsic or extrinsic hepatic causes. • Hepatic capsular retraction is observed in both benign and malignant conditions. • Recognising associated imaging features can help elicit causes of hepatic capsular retraction.

  4. Causes of death in 2877 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Nachtkamp, Kathrin; Stark, Romina; Strupp, Corinna; Kündgen, Andrea; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Aul, Carlo; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Haas, Rainer; Gattermann, Norbert; Germing, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes face a poor prognosis. The exact causes of death have not been described properly in the past. We performed a retrospective analysis of causes of death using data of 3792 patients in the Düsseldorf registry who have been followed up for a median time of 21 months. Medical files as well as death certificates were screened and primary care physicians were contacted. Death after AML evolution, infection, and bleeding was considered to be clearly disease-related. Further categories of causes of death were heart failure, other possibly disease-related reasons, such as hemochromatosis, disease-independent reasons as well as cases with unclear causes of death. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 71 years. At the time of analysis, 2877 patients (75.9 %) had deceased. In 1212 cases (42.1 %), the exact cause of death could not be ascertained. From 1665 patients with a clearly documented cause of death, 1388 patients (83.4 %) succumbed directly disease-related (AML (46.6 %), infection (27.0 %), bleeding (9.8 %)), whereas 277 patients (16.6 %) died for reasons not directly related with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including 132 patients with cardiac failure, 77 non-disease-related reasons, 23 patients with solid tumors, and 45 patients with possibly disease-related causes like hemochromatosis. Correlation with IPSS, IPSS-R, and WPSS categories showed a proportional increase of disease-related causes of death with increasing IPSS/IPSS-R/WPSS risk category. Likewise, therapy-related MDS were associated with a higher percentage of disease-related causes of death than primary MDS. This reflects the increasing influence of the underlying disease on the cause of death with increasing aggressiveness of the disease.

  5. Tracing Actual Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-08

    actual values for variables in the SEM ), and an event e with M ,~u |= e, our definition answers the question : Which paths of the causal network G( M ...for each variable and a directed edge from vari- able X to Y if the equation for computing X uses Y . Given an SEM M , a context ~u (that supplies the...caused the event e1? Our definition answers this question as a set of causal slices, where each causal slice is a subgraph of G( M ). All paths in each

  6. Leading causes of mortality of Asian Indians in California.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Latha; Mukherjea, Arnab; Holland, Ariel; Ivey, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Asian Indians had one of the highest population growth rates in California between 1990 and 2000. However, few studies have examined common causes of death in this ethnic group in California. We examined leading causes of mortality in Asian Indians in California and analyzed differences across age and sex. Linear interpolation of 1990 and 2000 US Census data were used to calculate population sizes. California mortality data were examined to determine total number of Asian Indian deaths, and analyzed to determine causes of death across age (25-44, 45-64, > or = 65) and sex subgroups. International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th revision codes were used to aggregate causes of mortality into disease categories of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, traumas/accidents/suicides, infections, and other conditions. Cardiovascular diseases were the leading cause of death for both sexes. Cancers were the second leading cause of death for both sexes. Diabetes and traumas/accidents/suicides were the next most common cause of mortality for females and males respectively. However, differences were found between age groupings across the sexes. This analysis confirms leading causes of death found in other densely-populated Asian Indian regions. It also sheds light on emerging conditions in this population in California. Although contributors to causes of mortality are discussed, more research is needed to understand the unique biological and socio-cultural determinants of disease in Asian Indians. Translation of this research into intervention strategies will reduce the burden of these diseases in this rapidly-growing population in California and the United States.

  7. Malignant Mesothelioma and Its Non-Asbestos Causes.

    PubMed

    Attanoos, Richard L; Churg, Andrew; Galateau-Salle, Francoise; Gibbs, Allen R; Roggli, Victor L

    2018-06-01

    - Although many mesotheliomas are related to asbestos exposure, not all are, and there is increasing information on other causes of mesothelioma. - To provide a review of non-asbestos causes for malignant mesothelioma. - Review of relevant published literature via PubMed and other search engines. - Currently, most pleural mesotheliomas (70% to 90%) in men in Europe and North America are attributable to asbestos exposure; for peritoneal mesothelioma the proportion is lower. In North America few mesotheliomas in women at any site are attributable to asbestos exposure, but in Europe the proportion is higher and varies considerably by locale. In certain geographic locations other types of mineral fibers (erionite, fluoro-edenite, and probably balangeroite) can induce mesothelioma. Therapeutic radiation for other malignancies is a well-established cause of mesothelioma, with relative risks as high as 30. Carbon nanotubes can also induce mesotheliomas in animals but there are no human epidemiologic data that shed light on this issue. Chronic pleural inflammation may be a cause of mesothelioma but the data are scanty. Although SV40 can induce mesotheliomas in animals, in humans the epidemiologic data are against a causative role. A small number of mesotheliomas (probably in the order of 1%) are caused by germline mutations/deletions of BRCA1-associated protein-1 ( BAP1) in kindreds that also develop a variety of other cancers. All of these alternative etiologies account for a small proportion of tumors, and most mesotheliomas not clearly attributable to asbestos exposure are spontaneous (idiopathic).

  8. Cell Vacuolation Caused by Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula; Heuser, John E.; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Berg, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (∼1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (∼16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

  9. Cell vacuolation caused by Vibrio cholerae hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Arredondo, P; Heuser, J E; Akopyants, N S; Morisaki, J H; Giono-Cerezo, S; Enríquez-Rincón, F; Berg, D E

    2001-03-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (approximately 1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (approximately 16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses.

  10. Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Causes and Spread to Others Recommend on Facebook ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  11. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? Endometriosis is when tissue is found outside the ...

  12. Impact of lifestyle-related factors on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Taichung Diabetes Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Fuh, Martin Mao-Tsu; Yang, Sing-Yu; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether combined lifestyle behaviors have an impact on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients aged 30-94 years with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Participants included 5,686 patients >30 years old with T2DM who were enrolled in a Diabetes Care Management Program at a medical center in central Taiwan before 2007. Lifestyle behaviors consisted of smoking, alcohol drinking, physical inactivity, and carbohydrate intake. The main outcomes were all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between combined lifestyle behaviors and mortality. The mortality rate among men was 24.10 per 1,000 person-years, and that among women was 17.25 per 1,000 person-years. After adjusting for the traditional risk factors, we found that combined lifestyle behavior was independently associated with all-cause mortality and mortality due to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Patients with three or more points were at a 3.50-fold greater risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI 2.06-5.96) and a 4.94-fold (1.62-15.06), 4.24-fold (1.20-14.95), and 1.31-fold (0.39-4.41) greater risk of diabetes-specific, CVD-specific, and cancer-specific mortality, respectively, compared with patients with zero points. Among these associations, the combined lifestyle behavior was not significantly associated with cancer mortality. Combined lifestyle behavior is a strong predictor of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with T2DM.

  13. Man-caused seismicity of Kuzbass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanov, Alexandr; Emanov, Alexey; Leskova, Ekaterina; Fateyev, Alexandr

    2010-05-01

    A natural seismicity of Kuznetsk Basin is confined in the main to mountain frame of Kuznetsk hollow. In this paper materials of experimental work with local station networks within sediment basin are presented. Two types of seismicity display within Kuznetsk hollow have been understood: first, man-caused seismic processes, confined to mine working and concentrated on depths up to one and a half of km; secondly, seismic activations on depths of 2-56 km, not coordinated in plan with coal mines. Every of studied seismic activations consists of large quantity of earthquakes of small powers (Ms=1-3). From one to first tens of earthquakes were recorded in a day. The earthquakes near mine working shift in space along with mine working, and seismic process become stronger at the instant a coal-plough machine is operated, and slacken at the instant the preventive works are executed. The seismic processes near three lavas in Kuznetsk Basin have been studied in detail. Uplift is the most typical focal mechanism. Activated zone near mine working reach in diameter 1-1,5 km. Seismic activations not linked with mine working testify that the subsoil of Kuznetsk hollow remain in stress state in whole. The most probable causes of man-caused action on hollow are processes, coupled with change of physical state of rocks at loss of methane from large volume or change by mine working of rock watering in large volume. In this case condensed rocks, lost gas and water, can press out upwards, realizing the reverse fault mechanism of earthquakes. A combination of stress state of hollow with man-caused action at deep mining may account for incipient activations in Kuznetsk Basin. Today earthquakes happen mainly under mine workings, though damages of workings themselves do not happen, but intensive shaking on surface calls for intent study of so dangerous phenomena. In 2009 replicates of the experiment on research of seismic activations in area of before investigated lavas have been conducted

  14. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause confusion and changes in thinking or reasoning. These changes may be short-term or lasting. ... Mazzotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ...

  15. Human ophthalmomyiasis interna caused by Hypoderma tarandi, Northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Dookeran, Ravi; Skinner, Stuart; Leicht, Richard; Colwell, Douglas D; Galloway, Terry D

    2008-01-01

    Human myiasis caused by bot flies of nonhuman animals is rare but may be increasing. The treatment of choice is laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy with larva removal and intraocular steroids. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by Hypoderma spp. should be recognized as a potentially reversible cause of vision loss.

  16. [Cause-of-death statistics and ICD, quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Eckert, Olaf; Vogel, Ulrich

    2018-07-01

    The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is the worldwide binding standard for generating underlying cause-of-death statistics. What are the effects of former revisions of the ICD on underlying cause-of-death statistics and which opportunities and challenges are becoming apparent in a possible transition process from ICD-10 to ICD-11?This article presents the calculation of the exploitation grade of ICD-9 and ICD-10 in the German cause-of-death statistics and quality of documentation. Approximately 67,000 anonymized German death certificates are processed by Iris/MUSE and official German cause-of-death statistics are analyzed.In addition to substantial changes in the exploitation grade in the transition from ICD-9 to ICD-10, regional effects become visible. The rate of so-called "ill-defined" conditions exceeds 10%.Despite substantial improvement of ICD revisions there are long-known deficits in the coroner's inquest, filling death certificates and quality of coding. To make better use of the ICD as a methodological framework for mortality statistics and health reporting in Germany, the following measures are necessary: 1. General use of Iris/MUSE, 2. Establishing multiple underlying cause-of-death statistics, 3. Introduction of an electronic death certificate, 4. Improvement of the medical assessment of cause of death.Within short time the WHO will release the 11th revision of the ICD that will provide additional opportunities for the development of underlying cause-of-death statistics and their use in science, public health and politics. A coordinated effort including participants in the process and users is necessary to meet the related challenges.

  17. Maternal mortality in Syria: causes, contributing factors and preventability.

    PubMed

    Bashour, Hyam; Abdulsalam, Asmaa; Jabr, Aisha; Cheikha, Salah; Tabbaa, Mohammed; Lahham, Moataz; Dihman, Reem; Khadra, Mazen; Campbell, Oona M R

    2009-09-01

    To describe the biomedical and other causes of maternal death in Syria and to assess their preventability. A reproductive age mortality study (RAMOS) design was used to identify pregnancy related deaths. All deaths among women aged 15-49 reported to the national civil register for 2003 were investigated through home interviews. Verbal autopsies were used to ascertain the cause of death among pregnancy related maternal deaths, and causes and preventability of deaths were assessed by a panel of doctors. A total of 129 maternal deaths were identified and reviewed. Direct medical causes accounted for 88%, and haemorrhage was the main cause of death (65%). Sixty nine deaths (54%) occurred during labour or delivery. Poor clinical skills and lack of clinical competency were behind 54% of maternal deaths. Ninety one percent of maternal deaths were preventable. The causes of maternal death in Syria and their contributing factors reflect serious defects in the quality of maternal care that need to be urgently rectified.

  18. Adult height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC).

    PubMed

    Ihira, Hikaru; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Goto, Atsushi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Adult height is determined by both genetic characteristics and environmental factors in early life. Although previous studies have suggested that adult height is associated with risk of mortality, comprehensive associations between height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Japanese population are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the associations between adult height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among Japanese men and women in a prospective cohort study. We investigated 107,794 participants (50,755 men and 57,039 women) aged 40 to 69 years who responded to the baseline questionnaire in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Participants were classified by quartile of adult height obtained from a self-reported questionnaire in men (<160cm, 160-163cm, 164-167cm, ≥168cm) and women (<149cm, 149-151cm, 152-155cm, ≥156cm). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality from all-cause, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and other cause mortality were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 12,320 men and 7,030 women died. Taller adult height was associated with decreased risk for mortality from cerebrovascular disease (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 0.83 (0.69-0.99); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.95 (0.90-0.99)) and respiratory disease (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 0.84 (0.69-1.03); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.87-0.97)), but was also associated with increased risk for overall cancer mortality (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.07-1.28); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 1.04 (1.01-1.07)) in men. Taller adult height was also associated with decreased risk for mortality from cerebrovascular disease (HR <149cm vs. ≥156cm (95% CI) = 0.84 (0.66-1.05); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.86-0.99)) in women. Our results confirmed that adult height is associated with cause-specific mortality in a Japanese

  19. COMCAN: a computer program for common cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, G.R.; Marshall, N.H.; Wilson, J.R.

    1976-05-01

    The computer program, COMCAN, searches the fault tree minimal cut sets for shared susceptibility to various secondary events (common causes) and common links between components. In the case of common causes, a location check may also be performed by COMCAN to determine whether barriers to the common cause exist between components. The program can locate common manufacturers of components having events in the same minimal cut set. A relative ranking scheme for secondary event susceptibility is included in the program.

  20. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  1. Alfred Russel Wallace's world of final causes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles H

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) is an important figure in the history of science, but there remain many questions about the nature of his world view, and how it developed. Here, Wallace's appreciation of the role of final causes in evolution is linked to some of its probable origins, with an emphasis on the influence of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859). The question is then asked whether a final causes-based scientific agenda might be possible, and answered by drawing attention to two current efforts in that direction by Adrian Bejan, and by the author. A sketch of the latter approach, adapted from Spinozian thinking, is given, with an empirical example involving drainage basin morphology that suggests structural influences of a final causes sort.

  2. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues at Work Health Equity Leading Causes of Death in Females, United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and previous listings for the leading causes of death in females in the United States. Please note ...

  3. Causes and differentials of childhood mortality in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Awqati, Naira A; Ali, Mohamed M; Al-Ward, Nada J; Majeed, Faiza A; Salman, Khawla; Al-Alak, Mahdi; Al-Gasseer, Naeema

    2009-01-01

    Background Limited information is available in Iraq regarding the causes of under-five mortality. The vital registration system is deficient in its coverage, particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home, i.e. outside the health system, and hence the cause of death goes unreported. Knowledge of patterns and trends in causes of under-five mortality is essential for decision-makers in assessing programmatic needs, prioritizing interventions, and monitoring progress. The aim of this study was to identify causes of under-five children deaths using a simplified verbal autopsy questionnaire. The objective was to define the leading symptoms and cause of death among Iraqi children from all regions of Iraq during 1994–1999. Methods To determine the cause structure of child deaths, a simplified verbal autopsy questionnaire was used in interviews conducted in the Iraqi Child & Maternal Mortality Survey (ICMMS) 1999 national sample. All the mothers/caregivers of the deceased children were asked open-ended questions about the symptoms within the two weeks preceding death; they could mention more than one symptom. Results The leading cause of death among under-five children was found to be childhood illnesses in 81.2%, followed by sudden death in 8.9% and accidents in 3.3%. Among under-five children dying of illnesses, cough and difficulty in breathing were the main symptoms preceding death in 34.0%, followed by diarrhea in 24.4%. Among neonates the leading cause was cough/and or difficulty in breathing in 42.3%, followed by sudden death in 11.9%, congenital abnormalities in 10.3% and prematurity in 10.2%. Diarrhea was the leading cause of death among infants in 49.8%, followed by cough and/or difficulty in breathing in 26.6%. Among children 12–59 months diarrhea was the leading cause of death in 43.4%, followed by accidents, injuries, and poisoning in 19.3%, then cough/difficulty in breathing in 14.8%. Conclusion In

  4. Genetic Causes of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Page, Jessica M; Silver, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy loss is one of the most common obstetric complications, affecting over 30% of conceptions. A considerable proportion of losses are due to genetic abnormalities. Indeed, over 50% of early pregnancy losses have been associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Most are due to de novo nondisjunctional events but balanced parental translocations are responsible for a small but important percentage of genetic abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. In the past, assessment of genetic abnormalities was limited to karyotype performed on placental or fetal tissue. However, advances in molecular genetic technology now provide rich genetic information about additional genetic causes of and risk factors for pregnancy loss. In addition, the use of preimplantation genetic testing in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization has the potential to decrease the risk of pregnancy loss from genetic abnormalities. To date, efficacy is uncertain but considerable potential remains. This chapter will review what is known about genetic causes of recurrent pregnancy loss with a focus on novel causes and potential treatments. Remaining knowledge gaps will be highlighted.

  5. [Amblyopia. Epidemiology, causes and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Elflein, H M

    2016-04-01

    Amblyopia is the main cause for mostly monocular, impaired vision in childhood. Treatment and prevention of amblyopia is only effective during childhood. Ophthalmological screening of children does not yet exist in Germany. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany is 5.6%, which is higher than in reports from studies in Australia; however, the prevalence of amblyopia is not comparable in these studies due to different definitions of amblyopia and the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study cohorts. At present it is unknown at what age ophthalmological screening should be carried out to prevent amblyopia and the appropriate frequency of screening examinations. Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual cortex that is due to suppression and deprivation of one eye leading to unilateral visual impairment. Approximately 50% of cases of amblyopia are caused by anisometropia, 25% by strabismus and in every sixth person by a combination of both. Other causes, such as unilateral congenital cataracts are relatively rare. A variety of factors, such as ocular pathologies, premature birth, familial disposition and general diseases are associated with an increased risk for amblyopia.

  6. Human Ophthalmomyiasis Interna Caused by Hypoderma tarandi, Northern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dookeran, Ravi; Skinner, Stuart; Leicht, Richard; Colwell, Douglas D.; Galloway, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    Human myiasis caused by bot flies of nonhuman animals is rare but may be increasing. The treatment of choice is laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy with larva removal and intraocular steroids. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by Hypoderma spp. should be recognized as a potentially reversible cause of vision loss. PMID:18258079

  7. Does vasculitis alone cause AVN? A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rtika R; Meyerhoff, John O

    2013-10-01

    AVN is caused by a disease, or severe trauma that affects the blood supply to the bone or in many cases may be idiopathic, with no known cause. AVN pathophysiology is most closely linked to SLE literature, and there is a strong cause and effect relationship between corticosteroid intake and AVN development in SLE patients, and AVN is extremely rare in the absence of steroid use. Apart from few anecdotal reports, there is no data on exact pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for AVN in the setting of vasculitis. We saw a 69-year-old man with femoral AVN and a possibility of vasculitis as the underlying cause was raised by the radiologist, and hence we present this literature search on vasculitis per se causing AVN of the bone.

  8. Underlying causes of the emerging nonmetropolitan mortality penalty.

    PubMed

    Cossman, Jeralynn S; James, Wesley L; Cosby, Arthur G; Cossman, Ronald E

    2010-08-01

    The nonmetropolitan mortality penalty results in an estimated 40 201 excessive US deaths per year, deaths that would not occur if nonmetropolitan and metropolitan residents died at the same rate. We explored the underlying causes of the nonmetropolitan mortality penalty by examining variation in cause of death. Declines in heart disease and cancer death rates in metropolitan areas drive the nonmetropolitan mortality penalty. Future work should explore why the top causes of death are higher in nonmetropolitan areas than they are in metropolitan areas.

  9. Underlying Causes of the Emerging Nonmetropolitan Mortality Penalty

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley L.; Cosby, Arthur G.; Cossman, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    The nonmetropolitan mortality penalty results in an estimated 40 201 excessive US deaths per year, deaths that would not occur if nonmetropolitan and metropolitan residents died at the same rate. We explored the underlying causes of the nonmetropolitan mortality penalty by examining variation in cause of death. Declines in heart disease and cancer death rates in metropolitan areas drive the nonmetropolitan mortality penalty. Future work should explore why the top causes of death are higher in nonmetropolitan areas than they are in metropolitan areas. PMID:20558803

  10. [Application of root cause analysis in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tsung-Fu

    2007-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore various aspects of root cause analysis (RCA), including its definition, rationale concept, main objective, implementation procedures, most common analysis methodology (fault tree analysis, FTA), and advantages and methodologic limitations in regard to healthcare. Several adverse events that occurred at a certain hospital were also analyzed by the author using FTA as part of this study. RCA is a process employed to identify basic and contributing causal factors underlying performance variations associated with adverse events. The rationale concept of RCA offers a systemic approach to improving patient safety that does not assign blame or liability to individuals. The four-step process involved in conducting an RCA includes: RCA preparation, proximate cause identification, root cause identification, and recommendation generation and implementation. FTA is a logical, structured process that can help identify potential causes of system failure before actual failures occur. Some advantages and significant methodologic limitations of RCA were discussed. Finally, we emphasized that errors stem principally from faults attributable to system design, practice guidelines, work conditions, and other human factors, which induce health professionals to make negligence or mistakes with regard to healthcare. We must explore the root causes of medical errors to eliminate potential RCA system failure factors. Also, a systemic approach is needed to resolve medical errors and move beyond a current culture centered on assigning fault to individuals. In constructing a real environment of patient-centered safety healthcare, we can help encourage clients to accept state-of-the-art healthcare services.

  11. Is inflammation the cause of pre-eclampsia?

    PubMed Central

    Ramma, Wenda; Ahmed, Asif

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that either excessive inflammation or an imbalance in angiogenic factors cause pre-eclampsia. In the present review, the arguments for and against the role of inflammation and/or angiogenic imbalance as the cause of pre-eclampsia are discussed on the basis of the Bradford–Hill criteria for disease causation. Although both angiogenic imbalance and systemic inflammation are implicated in pre-eclampsia, the absence of temporality of inflammatory markers with pre-eclampsia challenges the concept that excessive inflammation is the cause of pre-eclampsia. In contrast, the elevation of anti-angiogenic factors that precede the clinical signs of pre-eclampsia fulfils the criterion of temporality. The second most important criterion is the dose–response relationship. Although such a relationship has not been proven between pro-inflammatory cytokines and pre-eclampsia, high levels of anti-angiogenic factors have been shown to correlate with increased incidence and disease severity, hence satisfying this condition. Finally, as the removal of circulating sFlt-1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1) from pre-eclamptic patients significantly improves the clinical outcome, it fulfils the Hill's experiment principle, which states that removal of the cause by an appropriate experimental regimen should ameliorate the condition. In contrast, treatment with high doses of corticosteroid fails to improve maternal outcome in pre-eclampsia, despite suppressing inflammation. Inflammation may enhance the pathology induced by the imbalance in the angiogenic factors, but does not by itself cause pre-eclampsia. Development of therapies based on the angiogenic and cytoprotective mechanisms seems more promising. PMID:22103497

  12. Event Reports Promoting Root Cause Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Swananda; Gong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Improving health is the sole objective of medical care. Unfortunately, mishaps or patient safety events happen during the care. If the safety events were collected effectively, they would help identify patterns, underlying causes, and ultimately generate proactive and remedial solutions for prevention of recurrence. Based on the AHRQ Common Formats, we examine the quality of patient safety incident reports and describe the initial data requirement that can support and accelerate effective root cause analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a knowledge base of patient safety events and their common solutions which can be readily available for sharing and learning.

  13. A rare cause of wheezing in infancy.

    PubMed

    Indinnimeo, Luciana; Pulicati, Patrizio; Della Rocca, Carlo; Barbato, Angelo

    2006-06-01

    We describe an infant with recurrent wheezing and cough caused by an oropharyngeal cyst. Mucosal oropharyngeal cysts arise from obstruction or traumatic severance of a duct in a minor salivary gland, which leads to retention of mucous secretion . The mucosal cyst of the oropharynx is a rare cause of respiratory distress in the infants. The clinical symptoms depend on the size, shape, and location of the cyst.

  14. Science 101: How Do We Determine: "Cause and Effect?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    At first glance it seems easy to attribute cause and effect when it's not applicable, either through mistakenly taking every correlation as a cause and effect relationship, misinterpreting the meaning of independent and dependent variables, or not focusing on direct causes. Sometimes it's easy to help students understand where…

  15. [CLAVICLE FRACTURES IN CHILDREN--CIRCUMSTANCES AND CAUSES OF INJURY].

    PubMed

    Antabak, Anko; Matković, Nikša; Papeš, Dino; Karlo, Robert; Romić, Ivan; Fuchs, Nino; Madarić, Miroslav; Stilinović, Marina; Stanić, Lana; Luetić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Clavicle fractures in children occur twice as often as in adults. During a child's growth period they account for 10-15% of all fractures sustained. The questions which should be asked are how these fractures are sustained and under which circumstances are the children injured. In the study 256 children with clavicle fractures treated during the period 2008-2013 were analyzed. The underlying cause and place of injuries were classified using the ICD-10 classification system, using environmental causes of injury. The circumstances were in each case accidental injury. Environmental causes were traffic accidents (V01-V99) or mishaps/accidents (W00-X59). Fracture injuries were caused in traffic accidents in 24 (9.4%), and in mishaps/accidents in 232 (90.6%) children. Of the injuries caused by mishaps/accidents, in 204 children these were caused by falls (W00-W19). In 123 of them the injuries were caused by falls from a ground level, and in 81 were from a greater height. Direct blow injuries, caused by another person or a blunt instrument, weere the causes of fractures seen in 28 children. Place of fracture sustainment was dominantly at home. This was followed by injuries sustained outside in recreational areas, while least were suffered at school or kindergarden facilities. Bicycle riding was the cause of clavicle fractures in 48 children, which was 18.7% of all fractures seen. Sports related injuries and fractures were seen in 47 (18.4%) out of 256 children: 30 in football, 10 in defensive sports (wrestling, judo, karate), three in hockey, while basketball and gymnastics accounted for two each. Preschool children were injured more often while in the care of their parents while school aged children were adaquately protected, but in after-school activities they were often injured. The most common injuries after school were those suffered in traffic accidents and recreational sports activities. In the adolescent period, the most common injuries seen were again those in

  16. A method for deriving leading causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Roberto; Silvi, John; Ma Fat, Doris; L'Hours, André; Laurenti, Ruy

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A standard list for ranking leading causes of death worldwide does not exist. WHO headquarters, regional offices and Member States all use different lists that have varying levels of detail. We sought to derive a standard list to enable countries to identify their leading causes of death and to permit comparison between countries. Our aim is to share the criteria and methodology we used to bring some order to the construction of such a list, to provide a consistent procedure that can be used by others, and to give researchers and data owners an opportunity to utilize the list at national and subnational levels. METHODS: Results were primarily data-driven. Data from individual countries representing different regions of the world were extracted from the WHO Mortality Database. Supplementary information from WHO estimates on mortality was used for regions where data were scarce. In addition, a set of criteria was used to group the candidate causes and to determine other causes that should be included on the list. FINDINGS: A ranking list of the leading causes of death that contains broad cause groupings (such as "all cancers", "all heart diseases" or "all accidents") is not effective and does not identify the leading individual causes within these broad groupings; thus it does not allow policy-makers to generate appropriate health advocacy and cost-effective interventions. Similarly, defining candidate causal groups too narrowly or including diseases that have a low frequency does not meet these objectives. CONCLUSION: For international comparisons, we recommend that countries use this list; it is based on extensive evidence and the application of public health disease-prevention criteria. It is not driven by political or financial motives. This list may be adapted for national statistical purposes. PMID:16628303

  17. [Corneal ulcer caused by Serratia marcescens: case report].

    PubMed

    Aprelev, A E; Iakovleva, N A; Valyshev, A V

    2013-01-01

    A case of corneal ulcer caused by Serratia marcescens is reported in a patient with history of corneal microtrauma. Biological features (pathogenicity factors, antibiotic resistance) of isolated culture were characterized. Keratitis cases caused by this agent were analyzed.

  18. Gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death: A review.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Ahmed, Saba; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Hussain, Syed Ather; Fatima, Huda; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal conditions are a less common cause of sudden unexpected death when compared to other conditions such as cardiovascular conditions, but they are equally important. Various congenital and acquired gastrointestinal conditions that have resulted in sudden unexpected death are discussed. The possible lethal mechanisms behind each condition, along with any associated risk factors or secondary diseases, have been described. Through this article, we aim to highlight the need for physicians to prevent death in such conditions by ensuring that subclinical cases are diagnosed correctly before it is too late and by providing timely and efficacious treatment to the patient concerned. In addition, this review would certainly benefit the forensic pathologist while dealing with cases of sudden unexpected death due to gastrointestinal causes. This article is a review of the major gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death. In addition, related fatal cases encountered occasionally in forensic autopsy practice are also included. There are several unusual and rare causes of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that may lead to sudden unexpected death to cover all the entities in detail. Nevertheless, this article is a general guide to the topic of gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death.

  19. 31 CFR 50.80 - Federal cause of action and remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section shall exist only for causes of action for property damage, personal injury, or death... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal cause of action and remedy... RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.80 Federal cause of action...

  20. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Novel genetic causes of short stature.

    PubMed

    Wit, Jan M; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Kant, Sarina G

    2016-04-01

    The fast technological development, particularly single nucleotide polymorphism array, array-comparative genomic hybridization, and whole exome sequencing, has led to the discovery of many novel genetic causes of growth failure. In this review we discuss a selection of these, according to a diagnostic classification centred on the epiphyseal growth plate. We successively discuss disorders in hormone signalling, paracrine factors, matrix molecules, intracellular pathways, and fundamental cellular processes, followed by chromosomal aberrations including copy number variants (CNVs) and imprinting disorders associated with short stature. Many novel causes of GH deficiency (GHD) as part of combined pituitary hormone deficiency have been uncovered. The most frequent genetic causes of isolated GHD are GH1 and GHRHR defects, but several novel causes have recently been found, such as GHSR, RNPC3, and IFT172 mutations. Besides well-defined causes of GH insensitivity (GHR, STAT5B, IGFALS, IGF1 defects), disorders of NFκB signalling, STAT3 and IGF2 have recently been discovered. Heterozygous IGF1R defects are a relatively frequent cause of prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. TRHA mutations cause a syndromic form of short stature with elevated T3/T4 ratio. Disorders of signalling of various paracrine factors (FGFs, BMPs, WNTs, PTHrP/IHH, and CNP/NPR2) or genetic defects affecting cartilage extracellular matrix usually cause disproportionate short stature. Heterozygous NPR2 or SHOX defects may be found in ∼3% of short children, and also rasopathies (e.g., Noonan syndrome) can be found in children without clear syndromic appearance. Numerous other syndromes associated with short stature are caused by genetic defects in fundamental cellular processes, chromosomal abnormalities, CNVs, and imprinting disorders. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Athlete's foot and onychomycosis caused by Hendersonula toruloidea.

    PubMed

    Abramson, C

    1990-08-01

    Fungi other than the dermatophytes can cause infections of the foot, toes and toenails that simulate classic "athlete's foot." Unless diagnosed culturally and morphologically by the clinical laboratory, treatment failures may occur. The saprophyte Hendersonula toruloidea as well as other fungi and yeasts reported to cause such infections have been shown to be clinically indistinguishable from classic dermatophytic "athlete's foot." The clinical and laboratory diagnosis of these types of foot infections caused by Hendersonula toruloidea are described. Specific transport media required for laboratory diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives are reviewed.

  2. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination.

  3. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases. Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort (n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors. Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P-trend < 0.01) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.73; P-trend < 0.01). The corresponding HRs for all-cancer mortality were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.95; P-trend = 0.03) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.84; P-trend = 0.01), and for all-cardiovascular disease mortality they were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.00; P-trend = 0.06) and HR: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.88; P-trend = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings from this biracial prospective study suggest that diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:28179490

  4. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: encephalitis caused by virus Andes.

    PubMed

    Talamonti, Lionel; Padula, Paula J; Canteli, María Sol; Posner, Federico; Marczeski, Fanny Pires; Weller, Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) are rodent-borne emerging diseases caused by members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Some species of hantavirus may cause encephalitis, but this is the first report in Andes virus associated to HPS.

  5. Lay beliefs about the causes and cures of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Minji; Furnham, Adrian; Jeon, Mina; Ko, Young-Mi

    2017-09-01

    Lay beliefs about schizophrenia are an important factor associated with treatment-seeking behavior. This study was conducted to investigate the lay beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia in South Korea. A total of 654 adults (mean age, 35.96 ± 11.33 years) completed two questionnaires assessing their views on the causes and cures of schizophrenia. The factor structures of lay beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia were then analyzed and the correlations between the resultant factors investigated. From the cause items, four factors were extracted: Health/Lifestyle, God/Fate, Social/Environmental and Biological. Four factors were also extracted from the treatment items: Self-Help/Stress Management, Physical Treatment/Health Management, Religious Help and Mental Health Service Utilization. Notably, most participants believed that items in the Social/Environmental and Biological factors were the causes of schizophrenia, while they believed that items in the Mental Health Service Utilization and Self-Help/Stress Management factors were the treatments. Participants' beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia were systematically correlated. Overall, laypeople have reasonably accurate beliefs and a multidimensional view of the causes and treatments of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, our results suggest that public education about the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia are necessary to increase actual usage of mental health services and treatments for schizophrenia.

  6. Removing Tenured Faculty for Cause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews 41 cases involving removal of tenured faculty for cause decided since 1982 to clarify the specific requirements institutions must meet to guarantee due process to tenured faculty and to avoid the infringement of constitutional rights of faculty at public institutions. (MLF)

  7. Selective Mutism: Causes and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultquist, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the diagnostic criteria, causes, assessment, and treatment of selective mutism in school-age children. The most successful treatments have included various forms or combinations of behavior modification, though these may not address the underlying problem. (Author/DB)

  8. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  9. Statistical aspects and risks of human-caused earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    The seismological community invests ample human capital and financial resources to research and predict risks associated with earthquakes. Industries such as the insurance and re-insurance sector are equally interested in using probabilistic risk models developed by the scientific community to transfer risks. These models are used to predict expected losses due to naturally occurring earthquakes. But what about the risks associated with human-caused earthquakes? Such risk models are largely absent from both industry and academic discourse. In countries around the world, informed citizens are becoming increasingly aware and concerned that this economic bias is not sustainable for long-term economic growth, environmental and human security. Ultimately, citizens look to their government officials to hold industry accountable. In the Netherlands, for example, the hydrocarbon industry is held accountable for causing earthquakes near Groningen. In Switzerland, geothermal power plants were shut down or suspended because they caused earthquakes in canton Basel and St. Gallen. The public and the private non-extractive industry needs access to information about earthquake risks in connection with sub/urban geoengineeing activities, including natural gas production through fracking, geothermal energy production, carbon sequestration, mining and water irrigation. This presentation illuminates statistical aspects of human-caused earthquakes with respect to different geologic environments. Statistical findings are based on the first catalog of human-caused earthquakes (in Klose 2013). Findings are discussed which include the odds to die during a medium-size earthquake that is set off by geomechanical pollution. Any kind of geoengineering activity causes this type of pollution and increases the likelihood of triggering nearby faults to rupture.

  10. Were all extinction events caused by impacts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, P. M.; Coorough, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    Extraterrestrial impacts are firmly implicated in several of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. A critical issue now is whether extraterrestrial events have been the only mechanism that produced physical changes of sufficient magnitude to cause major extinction events. While we believe the evidence is overwhelming that the KT extinction event was caused by an impact, we also find that an event of similar or larger size near the end of the Ordovician is best explained by terrestrial causes. The Ordovician extinction event (End-O extinction event) occurred near the end of the Ordovician, but the interval of extinction was completed prior to the newly established Ordovician-Silurian boundary. In spite of extensive field studies, a convincing signature of an associated impact has not been found. However, a prominent glaciation does coincide with the End-O extinction event.

  11. Were all extinction events caused by impacts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, P. M.; Coorough, P. J.

    Extraterrestrial impacts are firmly implicated in several of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. A critical issue now is whether extraterrestrial events have been the only mechanism that produced physical changes of sufficient magnitude to cause major extinction events. While we believe the evidence is overwhelming that the KT extinction event was caused by an impact, we also find that an event of similar or larger size near the end of the Ordovician is best explained by terrestrial causes. The Ordovician extinction event (End-O extinction event) occurred near the end of the Ordovician, but the interval of extinction was completed prior to the newly established Ordovician-Silurian boundary. In spite of extensive field studies, a convincing signature of an associated impact has not been found. However, a prominent glaciation does coincide with the End-O extinction event.

  12. [Lightning-caused fire, its affecting factors and prediction: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Bi, Wu; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zi-Bo; Li, Di-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Lightning-caused fire is the most important natural fire source. Its induced forest fire brings enormous losses to human beings and ecological environment. Many countries have paid great attention to the prediction of lightning-caused fire. From the viewpoint of the main factors affecting the formation of lightning-caused fire, this paper emphatically analyzed the effects and action mechanisms of cloud-to-ground lightning, fuel, meteorology, and terrain on the formation and development process of lightning-caused fire, and, on the basis of this, summarized and reviewed the logistic model, K-function, and other mathematical methods widely used in prediction research of lightning-caused fire. The prediction methods and processes of lightning-caused fire in America and Canada were also introduced. The insufficiencies and their possible solutions for the present researches as well as the directions of further studies were proposed, aimed to provide necessary theoretical basis and literature reference for the prediction of lightning-caused fire in China.

  13. First report of Colletotrichum chlorophyti causing soybean anthracnose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthracnose of soybean is caused by several Colletotrichum species. Petiole samples were collected from Alabama, Illinois, and Mississippi. Diseased tissues suspected of being caused by Colletotrichum species were cut into 1-2 cm in lengths, surface-disinfested, and placed on water agar. Pure cultur...

  14. What are the causes of late-life depression?

    PubMed

    Aziz, Rehan; Steffens, David C

    2013-12-01

    Although depression in old age is less common than depression in younger populations, it still affects more than 1 million community-living older adults. Depression in late life has been associated with reduced quality of life and increased mortality from both suicide and illness. Its causes are multifactorial but are prominently related to both biologic and social factors. Psychological factors, although less studied in elders, are also important in understanding its cause. In this article, multiple facets of late-life depression are reviewed, including its clinical presentation, epidemiology, and biopsychosocial causes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Noise annoyance caused by magnetic levitation train passbys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Joos

    2004-05-01

    In a laboratory study, the annoyance caused by the passby sounds from a magnetic levitation (maglev) train was investigated. The outdoor A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL) of the maglev sounds varied from 65 to 90 dB. The driving speed of the maglev train varied from 100 to 400 km/h. Four important results were obtained. Provided that the outdoor ASELs were the same, (1) the annoyance was independent of the driving speed of the maglev train, (2) the annoyance caused by the maglev train was considerably higher than that caused by intercity trains, (3) the annoyance caused by the maglev train was hardly different from that caused by road traffic (passenger cars and trucks), and (4) the results (1)-(3) held true both for open or closed windows. On the basis of the present results, it might be expected that the sounds are equally annoying if the ASELs of the maglev-train passbys are at least 5 dB lower than those of the intercity train passbys. Consequently, the results of the present experiment do not support application of a railway bonus to the maglev-train sounds. Issues for future research, such as exploring further contributions of nonacoustic factors, will be discussed.

  16. Global and regional cause-of-death patterns in 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Lopez, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    Demographic estimation techniques suggest that worldwide about 50 million deaths occur each year, of which about 39 million are in the developing countries. In countries with adequate registration of vital statistics, the age at death and the cause can be reliably determined. Only about 30-35% of all deaths are captured by vital registration (excluding sample registration schemes); for the remainder, cause-of-death estimation procedures are required. Indirect methods which model the cause-of-death structure as a function of the level of mortality can provide reasonable estimates for broad cause-of-death groups. Such methods are generally unreliable for more specific causes. In this case, estimates can be constructed from community-level mortality surveillance systems or from epidemiological evidence on specific diseases. Some check on the plausibility of the estimates is possible in view of the hierarchical structure of cause-of-death lists and the well-known age-specific patterns of diseases and injuries. The results of applying these methods to estimate the cause of death for over 120 diseases or injuries, by age, sex and region, are described. The estimates have been derived in order to calculate the years of life lost due to premature death, one of the two components of overall disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated for the 1993 World development report. Previous attempts at cause-of-death estimation have been limited to a few diseases only, with little age-specific detail. The estimates reported in detail here should serve as a useful reference for further public health research to support the determination of health sector priorities. PMID:8062402

  17. Causes of in-hospital cardiac arrest and influence on outcome.

    PubMed

    Wallmuller, Christian; Meron, Giora; Kurkciyan, Istepan; Schober, Andreas; Stratil, Peter; Sterz, Fritz

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between cause and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Retrospective analysis of resuscitation data, causes of cardiac arrest and outcome with a follow-up to 6 months of a cardiac arrest registry in an emergency department of a tertiary care hospital, covering a 17.5-year period. Of 1041 patients, 653 were male (63%), the median age was 64 years (IQR 53-73), 51% suffered cardiac arrest in the emergency department. The first recorded rhythm showed PEA in 432 (41%), ventricular fibrillation in 404 (39%) and asystole in 205 (20%) patients. Cardiac arrest of cardiac origin occurred in 63% of all patients, with 35% of them due to acute myocardial infarction. Non-cardiac causes were mostly due to pulmonary causes (15% of all patients). Aortic dissection/rupture, exsanguination, intoxication and adverse drug reactions, metabolic, cerebral, sepsis and accidental hypothermia each ranged between 1 and 4% of the cohort. Of all patients, 376 (36%) were discharged in good neurologic condition. Overall, patients with cardiac causes had a significantly better outcome than those with non-cardiac causes (44% vs. 23%, p<0.01). Patients with pulmonary causes survived in 24%. The other subgroups showed widely divergent survival results (3-65%). Patients who had suffered cardiac arrest in the emergency department had a better outcome then patients of the regular ward or radiology department. In hospital cardiac arrest is caused mainly by cardiac and pulmonary causes, outcome depends on the cause, with a big variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003-2011).

    PubMed

    Hastings, Katherine G; Jose, Powell O; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Frank, Ariel T H; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Thompson, Caroline A; Eggleston, Karen; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs. Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

  19. Probing the cosmic causes of errors in supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Cosmic rays from outer space are causing errors in supercomputers. The neutrons that pass through the CPU may be causing binary data to flip leading to incorrect calculations. Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed detectors to determine how much data is being corrupted by these cosmic particles.

  20. Vaccines to Prevent Cancers Not Caused by Viruses - Annual Plan

    Cancer.gov

    We have vaccines against viruses that cause cancer, but what about vaccines for cancers not caused by viruses? Learn about NCI's development of safe and effective vaccines for cancers not caused by infectious agents.

  1. Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Daria La; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrinological disorder that may be caused by several physiological and pathological conditions. Several drugs may determine a significant increase in prolactin serum concentration that is frequently associated with symptoms. The so-called typical antipsychotics are frequently responsible for drug-related hyperprolactinemia. Risperidone is one of the atypical neuroleptics most likely to induce hyperprolactinemia, while other atypical drugs are unfrequenlty and only transiently associated with increase of prolactin levels. Women are more sensitive than men to the hyperprolactinemic effect of antipsychotics. Classical and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia may be revert when a gradual antipsychotic drug discontinuation is combined with olanzapine or clozapine initiation. Antidepressant drugs with serotoninergic activity, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) and some tricyclics, can cause hyperprolactinemia. A long list of other compounds may determine an increase in prolactin levels, including prokinetics, opiates, estrogens, anti-androgens, anti-hypertensive drugs, H2-receptor antagonists, anti-convulsivants and cholinomimetics. Finally, hyperprolactinemia has also been documented during conditioning and after autologous blood stem-cell transplantation and during chemotherapy, even though disturbances of prolactin seem to occur less frequently than impairments of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad/thyroid axis after intensive treatment and blood marrow transplantation. PMID:18473017

  2. Cooking Coal Use and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Prospective Cohort Study of Women in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Bassig, Bryan A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chen, Bingshu E; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Hosgood, H Dean; Ji, Bu-Tian; Hu, Wei; Wen, Cuiju; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Qiuyin; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Lan, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. In this cohort, 63% of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread. Kim C, Seow WJ, Shu XO, Bassig BA, Rothman N, Chen BE, Xiang YB, Hosgood HD III, Ji BT, Hu W, Wen C, Chow WH, Cai Q, Yang G, Gao YT, Zheng W, Lan Q. 2016. Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study of women in Shanghai, China. Environ

  3. Cooking Coal Use and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Prospective Cohort Study of Women in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Bassig, Bryan A.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chen, Bingshu E.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Hosgood, H. Dean; Ji, Bu-Tian; Hu, Wei; Wen, Cuiju; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Qiuyin; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. Objectives: We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. Results: In this cohort, 63% of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Conclusions: Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread. Citation: Kim C, Seow WJ, Shu XO, Bassig BA, Rothman N, Chen BE, Xiang YB, Hosgood HD III, Ji BT, Hu W, Wen C, Chow WH, Cai Q, Yang G, Gao YT, Zheng W, Lan Q. 2016. Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in

  4. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis as a cause of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Adrienne L.; Markesich, Diane; Zayyani, Najah R.; Graham, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown cause, affecting approximately 1.4 million North American people. Due to the similarities between Crohn's disease and Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis in ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) infection, MAP has long been considered to be a potential cause of Crohn's disease. MAP is an obligate intracellular pathogen that cannot replicate outside of animal hosts. MAP is widespread in dairy cattle and because of environmental contamination and resistance to pasteurization and chlorination, humans are frequently exposed through contamination of food and water. MAP can be cultured from the peripheral mononuclear cells from 50 to 100% of patients with Crohn's disease, and less frequently from healthy individuals. Association does not prove causation. We discuss the current data regarding MAP as a potential cause of Crohn's disease and outline what data will be required to firmly prove or disprove the hypothesis. PMID:26474349

  5. A huge bladder calculus causing acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Komeya, Mitsuru; Sahoda, Tamami; Sugiura, Shinpei; Sawada, Takuto; Kitami, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    A 81-year-old male was referred to our emergency outpatient unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum creatinine was 276 μmol/l. A CT scan showed bilateral hydronephroureter, large bladder stone (7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm) and bladder wall thickness. He was diagnosed as post renal failure due to bilateral hydronephroureter. Large bladder stone is thought to be the cause of bilateral hydronephroureter and renal failure. To improve renal failure, we performed open cystolithotomy and urethral catheterization. Three days after the surgery, the level of serum creatinine decreased to 224 μmol/l. He was discharged from our hospital with uneventful course. Bladder calculus is thought to be a rare cause of renal failure. We summarize the characteristics of bladder calculus causing renal failure. We should keep that long-term pyuria and urinary symptom, and repeated urinary tract infection can cause huge bladder calculus and renal failure in mind.

  6. BMPR1B mutation causes Pierre Robin sequence

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xu; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Rui; Guo, Jihong; Jin, Ke; Mei, Haibo; Luo, Yongqi; Zhao, Liu; Tu, Ming; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Background We investigated a large family with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). Aim of the study This study aims to determine the genetic cause of PRS. Results The reciprocal translocation t(4;6)(q22;p21) was identified to be segregated with PRS in a three-generation family. Whole-genome sequencing and Sanger sequencing successfully detected breakpoints in the intragenic regions of BMRP1B and GRM4. We hypothesized that PRS in this family was caused by (i) haploinsufficiency for BMPR1B or (ii) a gain of function mechanism mediated by the BMPR1B-GRM4 fusion gene. In an unrelated family, we identified another BMPR1B-splicing mutation that co-segregated with PRS. Conclusion We detected two BMPR1B mutations in two unrelated PRS families, suggesting that BMPR1B disruption is probably a cause of human PRS. Methods GTG banding, comparative genomic hybridization, whole-genome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing were performed to identify the gene causing PRS. PMID:28418932

  7. Women's knowledge of the leading causes of cancer death.

    PubMed

    Healton, Cheryl G; Gritz, Ellen R; Davis, Kevin C; Homsi, Ghada; McCausland, Kristen; Haviland, M Lyndon; Vallone, Donna

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes adult women's knowledge of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Exposure to antismoking advertisements or media messages also is examined as a potentially effective mechanism for changing inaccurate beliefs. We used data from the 2002 and 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey (ASHES), a national telephone survey of adults, to measure women's knowledge about cancer mortality. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihoods of women indicating either breast or lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality among women. The independent influence of individual characteristics such as race, smoking status, education, and awareness of antismoking messages or advertising on women's knowledge of cancer mortality was assessed. Overall, 66.7% of women inaccurately indicated breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among women, whereas 29.7% of women correctly indicated lung cancer. Black women were 43% less likely than White women to indicate lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality among women. Current smokers were 35% less likely than noncurrent smokers to state that lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women. Awareness of antismoking messages or advertisements was associated with a higher probability of correctly indicating lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality among women. Our evidence suggests that antismoking media messages may help to correct inaccurate beliefs about the leading causes of cancer death among women.

  8. The Gamma Gap and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Juraschek, Stephen P.; Moliterno, Alison R.; Checkley, William; Miller, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The difference between total serum protein and albumin, i.e. the gamma gap, is a frequently used clinical screening measure for both latent infection and malignancy. However, there are no studies defining a positive gamma gap. Further, whether it is an independent risk factor of mortality is unknown. Methods and Findings This study examined the association between gamma gap, all-cause mortality, and specific causes of death (cardiovascular, cancer, pulmonary, or other) in 12,260 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. Participants had a comprehensive metabolic panel measured, which was linked with vital status data from the National Death Index. Cause of death was based on ICD10 codes from death certificates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for mortality risk factors. The mean (SE) age was 46 (0.3) years and the mean gamma gap was 3.0 (0.01) g/dl. The population was 52% women and 10% black. During a median follow-up period of 4.8 years (IQR: 3.3 to 6.2 years), there were 723 deaths. The unadjusted 5-year cumulative incidences across quartiles of the gamma gap (1.7–2.7, 2.8–3.0, 3.1–3.2, and 3.3–7.9 g/dl) were 5.7%, 4.2%, 5.5%, and 7.8%. After adjustment for risk factors, participants with a gamma gap of ≥3.1 g/dl had a 30% higher risk of death compared to participants with a gamma gap <3.1 g/dl (HR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.08, 1.55; P = 0.006). Gamma gap (per 1.0 g/dl) was most strongly associated with death from pulmonary causes (HR 2.22; 95%CI: 1.19, 4.17; P = 0.01). Conclusions The gamma gap is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality at values as low as 3.1 g/dl (in contrast to the traditional definition of 4.0 g/dl), and is strongly associated with death from pulmonary causes. Future studies should examine the biologic pathways underlying these associations. PMID:26629820

  9. Computer Simulation Lends New Insights Into Cyanide-Caused Cardiac Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    COMPUTER SIMULATION LENDS NEW INSIGHTS INTO CYANIDE-CAUSED CARDIAC TOXICITY C.K. Zoltani* U.S. Army Research Laboratory Computational and...Into Cyanide-Caused Cardiac Toxicity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...disequilibrium in the membrane currents caused by the cyanide has grave implications for the cell’s electrophysiology. CN-caused cardiac toxicity shares

  10. Ileocecal endometriosis as an infrequent cause of intussusception.

    PubMed

    Guerra Veloz, María Fernanda; Gómez Rodríguez, Blas José; Chaaro Benallal, Dina

    2018-02-01

    We present a case of ileocecal endometriosis as a cause of infrequent ileocolic intussusception in an adult patient. It is reviewed as published by the authors Sanchez Cifuentes, A et al. 2016, emphasizing the rarity of the location of endometriosis, and its association as a cause of intussusception.

  11. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a...

  12. Correlates and Suspected Causes of Obesity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates and suspected causes of the intractable condition obesity are complex and involve environmental and heritable, psychological and physical variables. Overall, the factors associated with and possible causes of it are not clearly understood. Although there exists some ambiguity in the research regarding the degree of happiness in…

  13. Hypothalamic demyelination causing panhypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Douglas, Julia; Burgess, John; Dreyer, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Hypothalamic involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is rare and endocrinopathies involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in patients with demyelinating conditions have rarely been reported. We present two cases of MS/NMOSD with associated hypothalamic-pituitary involvement and subsequent hypopituitarism, including the first report of a patient with hypothalamic demyelination causing panhypopituitarism. Differential diagnoses, including alemtuzumab-related and primary pituitary pathology are discussed. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Allostatic load as a predictor of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the general population: Evidence from the Scottish Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Tony; Beveridge, Gayle; Bromley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Allostatic load is a multiple biomarker measure of physiological 'wear and tear' that has shown some promise as marker of overall physiological health, but its power as a risk predictor for mortality and morbidity is less well known. This study has used data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) (nationally representative sample of Scottish population) linked to mortality records to assess how well allostatic load predicts all-cause and cause-specific mortality. From the sample, data from 4,488 men and women were available with mortality status at 5 and 9.5 (rounded to 10) years after sampling in 2003. Cox proportional hazard models estimated the risk of death (all-cause and the five major causes of death in the population) according to allostatic load score. Multiple imputation was used to address missing values in the dataset. Analyses were also adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age and deprivation). There were 258 and 618 deaths over the 5-year and 10-year follow-up period, respectively. In the fully-adjusted model, higher allostatic load (poorer physiological 'health') was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality after 5 years (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.22; p = 0.269), but it was after 10 years (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16; p = 0.026). Allostatic load was not associated with specific causes of death over the same follow-up period. In conclusions, greater physiological wear and tear across multiple physiological systems, as measured by allostatic load, is associated with an increased risk of death, but may not be as useful as a predictor for specific causes of death.

  16. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulwafu, W; Kuper, H; Ensink, R J H

    2016-02-01

    To systematically assess the data on the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Africa. Systematic review on the prevalence and causes of hearing loss in Africa. We undertook a literature search of seven electronic databases (EMBASE, PubMed, Medline, Global Health, Web of Knowledge, Academic Search Complete and Africa Wide Information) and manually searched bibliographies of included articles. The search was restricted to population-based studies on hearing impairment in Africa. Data were extracted using a standard protocol. We identified 232 articles and included 28 articles in the final analysis. The most common cut-offs used for hearing impairment were 25 and 30 dB HL, but this ranged between 15 and 40 dB HL. For a cut-off of 25 dB, the median was 7.7% for the children- or school-based studies and 17% for population-based studies. For a cut-off of 30 dB HL, the median was 6.6% for the children or school-based studies and 31% for population-based studies. In schools for the deaf, the most common cause of hearing impairment was cryptogenic deafness (50%) followed by infectious causes (43%). In mainstream schools and general population, the most common cause of hearing impairment was middle ear disease (36%), followed by undetermined causes (35%) and cerumen impaction (24%). There are very few population-based studies available to estimate the prevalence of hearing impairment in Africa. Those studies that are available use different cut-offs, making comparison difficult. However, the evidence suggests that the prevalence of hearing impairment is high and that much of it is avoidable or treatable. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Flavonoid intake and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Kerry L; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, chocolate, red wine, fruit, and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoids in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. The objective was to explore the association between flavonoid intake and risk of 5-y mortality from all causes by using 2 comprehensive food composition databases to assess flavonoid intake. The study population included 1063 randomly selected women aged >75 y. All-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortalities were assessed over 5 y of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. Two estimates of flavonoid intake (total flavonoidUSDA and total flavonoidPE) were determined by using food composition data from the USDA and the Phenol-Explorer (PE) databases, respectively. During the 5-y follow-up period, 129 (12%) deaths were documented. Participants with high total flavonoid intake were at lower risk [multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI)] of 5-y all-cause mortality than those with low total flavonoid consumption [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.37 (0.22, 0.58); total flavonoidPE: 0.36 (0.22, 0.60)]. Similar beneficial relations were observed for both cardiovascular disease mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.34 (0.17, 0.69); flavonoidPE: 0.32 (0.16, 0.61)] and cancer mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.25 (0.10, 0.62); flavonoidPE: 0.26 (0.11, 0.62)]. Using the most comprehensive flavonoid databases, we provide evidence that high consumption of flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of mortality in older women. The benefits of flavonoids may extend to the etiology of cancer and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Evaluating Causes of Ecological Impairments in the Estuaries of Ukraine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ukrainian estuaries have not undergone a systematic evaluation of the causes of ecological impairments caused by anthropogenic contamination. The objective of this evaluation is to use recently developed diagnostic tools to determine the causes of benthic ecological impairments. ...

  19. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality after Long-Term Sickness Absence for Psychiatric Disorders: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bryngelson, Anna; Åsberg, Marie; Nygren, Åke; Jensen, Irene; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim was to examine if long-term psychiatric sickness absence was associated with all-cause and diagnosis-specific (cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and suicide) mortality for the period 1990–2007. An additional aim was to examine these associations for psychiatric sickness absence in 1990 and 2000, with follow-up on mortality during 1991–1997 and 2001–2007, separately. Methods Employees within municipalities and county councils, 244,990 individuals in 1990 and 764,137 individuals in 2000, were followed up to 2007 through register linkages. Analyses were conducted with flexible parametric survival models comparing sickness absentees due to psychiatric diagnoses (>90 days) with those not receiving sick leave benefit. Results Long-term sickness absence for psychiatric disorders was associated with an increased risk of mortality due to all causes; CVD; cancer (smoking and non-smoking related); and suicide during the period 1990–2007. After full adjustment for socio-demographic covariates and previous inpatient care due to somatic and psychiatric diagnoses, these associations remained significant for all-cause mortality (Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)): HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.3–1.8; CVD: HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.0–1.9, and suicide: HR 3.84, 95% CI 2.4–6.1. For both cohorts 1990 and 2000 estimates point in the same direction. For the time-period 2000–2007, we found increased risks of mortality in the fully adjusted model due to all causes: HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.2–1.7; CVD: HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.2–2.7; overall cancer: HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.0–1.7; and suicide: HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.3–3.7. Conclusion Long-term sickness absence for psychiatric disorders predicted premature mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and suicide. PMID:23840784

  20. Defensiveness in Communication: Its Causes, Effects, and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William H.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes defensiveness in communication as caused by an unwillingness to acknowledge and tolerate differences in others, a fear of change in ourselves, and a desire to avoid mental imbalance. It causes a deteriorating cycle between communicators but can be reduced by empathy, treatment of fellow communicators as equals, and genuineness. (JMF)

  1. What Kinds of Things Cause Children's Reading Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltheart, Max

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this paper explains the distinction between proximal and distal causes of developmental disorders of cognition, with special reference to developmental disorders of reading. A number of different proximal causes of developmental disorders of reading have been identified. These correspond to a number of different patterns of…

  2. Sciatica caused by lumbar epidural gas.

    PubMed

    Belfquih, Hatim; El Mostarchid, Brahim; Akhaddar, Ali; gazzaz, Miloudi; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Gas production as a part of disc degeneration can occur but rarely causes nerve compression syndromes. The clinical features are similar to those of common sciatica. CT is very useful in the detection of epidural gas accumulation and nerve root compression. We report a case of symptomatic epidural gas accumulation originating from vacuum phenomenon in the intervertebral disc, causing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy. A 45-year-old woman suffered from sciatica for 9 months. The condition worsened in recent days. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, and accumulation of gas in the lumbar epidural space compressing the dural sac and S1 nerve root. After evacuation of the gas, her pain resolved without recurrence.

  3. Can atorvastatin calcium cause asymptomatic hypercalcemia?

    PubMed

    Ipekçi, Süleyman Hilmi; Baldane, Süleyman; Sözen, Mehmet; Kebapçılar, Levent

    2014-10-01

    The use of statins may have unnatural effects. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with an incidental finding of hypercalcemia (10.8 mg/dL). There was no disease other than hyperlipidemia, and the patient had been on a course of atorvastatin calcium 10 mg for 1.5 years. A workup investigation to diagnose the cause of hypercalcemia was completed. The investigation did not reveal any pathological diseases that may have caused the hypercalcemia. The hypercalcemia resolved after atorvastatin-calcium was stopped, and the patient developed hypercalcemia shortly after the initiation of the atorvastatin calcium. Here, we report a clinical case of recurrent hypercalcemia possibly induced by atorvastatin calcium administration.

  4. High-Output Heart Failure Caused by Thyrotoxicosis and Beriberi.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    High-output heart failure is not seen as commonly as low-output heart failure and some of the typical guideline recommendations may not benefit patients with high-output failure. High-output failure is caused by several diseases, including thyrotoxicosis and beriberi, highlighted in this article. Thyrotoxicosis, caused by excessive thyroid hormone production, has profound hemodynamic effects. Wet beriberi, affecting predominately the cardiovascular system, is caused by severe thiamine deficiency, most commonly seen in patients with chronic alcoholism or poor nutrition from other causes. Prompt recognition of these infrequently seen syndromes is essential. This article outlines the medical treatment and nursing care needed to return these patients to a normal state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute pancreatitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: an unusual etiology.

    PubMed

    Valdés Lacasa, Teresa; Duarte Borges, María Alejandra; García Marín, Alicia; Gómez Cuervo, Covadonga

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that the most important etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and alcohol consumption. Once these causes have been ruled out, especially in young adults, it is important to consider less frequent etiologic factors such as drugs, trauma, malformations, autoimmunity or systemic diseases. Other rare and less well studied causes of this pathology are infections, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been reported to cause acute pancreatitis as an unusual extrapulmonary manifestation. Here, we report the case of a 21-year-old patient who had acute idiopathic pancreatitis associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. After an in-depth study, all other causes of pancreatitis were ruled out and Mycoplasma was established as the clinical etiology.

  6. Causes of mortality in an African city.

    PubMed

    Ayeni, O

    1980-01-01

    Registered deaths from the vital statistics registration system of Lagos City, a system that was judged to be 60% complete, were analysed for the year 1977. Nearly 40% of total registered deaths were from infections, parasitic diseases and motor vehicle accidents. Of the reported deaths, 17.3% were from ill-defined conditions. Deaths from neoplasms, diseases of the nervous and sense organs, diseases of the digestive and genitourinary systems as well as those from congenital anomalies are relatively less frequent. Maternal mortality appears to be very high. The age pattern of mortality is different from that in the developed countries, a high proportion of the deaths in Lagos City being those of children aged under 5 years. Infant mortality is dominated by perinatal causes which constituted a huge 38.4% of deaths of infants under 1 year, the other important causes being dysentery and diarrhoea, pneumonia and tetanus. Among adults, death from motor vehicles accidents is the most important cause accounting for more than 26% of deaths in the age group 15 years and above. Other important causes of adult deaths are cerebrovascular disease, hypertensive disease, heart disease, pneumonia, dysentery and diarrhoea and complications of pregnancy. Well organized health services stressing antenatal care, preventive and health education services are needed to effect a reduction in mortality and bring about a general improvement in the health of the people.

  7. Endocarditis caused by Rhodotorula infection.

    PubMed

    Simon, Matthew S; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L; Jenkins, Stephen G; Walsh, Thomas J; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp.

  8. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  9. Cancer Cachexia: Cause, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Todd W

    2017-10-01

    Patients with cancer frequently experience unintended weight loss due to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction caused by the malignancy or treatment of the malignancy. However, others may present with weight loss related to other symptoms not clearly associated with identifiable GI dysfunction such as anorexia and early satiety. Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome that is generally characterized by ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss, often accompanied by anorexia, weakness, and fatigue. CC is associated with poor tolerance of antitumor treatments, reduced quality of life (QOL), and negative impact on survival. Symptoms associated with CC are thought to be caused in part by tumor-induced changes in host metabolism that result in systemic inflammation and abnormal neurohormonal responses. Unfortunately, there is no single standard treatment for CC. Nutrition consequences of oncologic treatments should be identified early with nutrition screening and assessment. Pharmacologic agents directed at improving appetite and countering metabolic abnormalities that cause inefficient nutrient utilization are currently the foundation for treating CC. Multiple agents have been investigated for their effects on weight, muscle wasting, and QOL. However, few are commercially available for use. Considerations for choosing the most appropriate treatment include effect on appetite, weight, QOL, risk of adverse effects, and cost and availability of the agent.

  10. Alcohol skin preparation causes surgical fires.

    PubMed

    Rocos, B; Donaldson, L J

    2012-03-01

    Surgical fires are a rare but serious preventable safety risk in modern hospitals. Data from the US show that up to 650 surgical fires occur each year, with up to 5% causing death or serious harm. This study used the National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS) database at the National Patient Safety Agency to explore whether spirit-based surgical skin preparation fluid contributes to the cause of surgical fires. The NRLS database was interrogated for all incidents of surgical fires reported between 1 March 2004 and 1 March 2011. Each report was scrutinised manually to discover the cause of the fire. Thirteen surgical fires were reported during the study period. Of these, 11 were found to be directly related to spirit-based surgical skin preparation or preparation soaked swabs and drapes. Despite manufacturer's instructions and warnings, surgical fires continue to occur. Guidance published in the UK and US states that spirit-based skin preparation solutions should continue to be used but sets out some precautions. It may be that fire risk should be included in pre-surgical World Health Organization checklists or in the surgical training curriculum. Surgical staff should be aware of the risk that spirit-based skin preparation fluids pose and should take action to minimise the chance of fire occurring.

  11. Causes for Attrition Among Adult Basic Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Patricia L.

    This study was conducted to determine causes for attrition among students in an Adult Basic Education (A.B.E.) program located in a non-metropolitan area. Dropouts and completers were compared by demographic characteristics and by sources of difficulty (nonschool-related, school-related, and affective) in attending class. In addition, causes for…

  12. Polymyositis-like syndrome caused by hypothyroidism, presenting as camptocormia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Min; Song, Eun Joo; Seo, Jae Seok; Nam, Eon Jeong; Kang, Young Mo

    2009-01-01

    Polymyositis-like syndrome characterized by proximal muscle weakness and elevation of muscle enzymes may be a presenting manifestation of hypothyroidism. Camptocormia, which can be caused by myopathy of the paraspinal muscles, is an involuntary truncal flexion of the thoracolumbar spine while standing or walking. Among various neuromuscular disorders, hypothyroidism has not been reported in the literature as a cause of camptocormia. This is the first report of polymyositis-like syndrome with camptocormia caused by hypothyroidism.

  13. Socioeconomic differentials in cause-specific mortality among South Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Khang, Young-Ho; Yang, Seungmi; Harper, Sam; Lynch, John W

    2007-02-01

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the presence of a socioeconomic differential in adolescent all-cause and cause-specific mortality. This study examines possible socioeconomic mortality differentials in Korean adolescents. Method A total of 330 321 boys and 311 830 girls aged 10-19, who are health insurance beneficiaries for civil servants and private school teachers of Korean Health Insurance Cooperation, were followed for 9 years (1995-2003). Parental income information was linked to national death certificate data. For boys, all-cause mortality showed a graded inverse relationship with income level in both 10-14 year olds (RR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.40-1.91) and 15-19 year olds (RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.40-1.91). The major contributor was mortality differentials from external causes, with differentials of transport accident death the most important. Mortality from circulatory disease was higher in the lowest income groups in 15-19 year olds (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.09-4.50). A significant socioeconomic gradient of non-external cause mortality was found in 15-19 year olds. For girls, socioeconomic differentials were less evident than boys. The all-cause mortality gradient for girls was smaller than for boys and only significant between the lowest and the highest tertile in both 10-14 year olds and 15-19 year olds (RR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.72, RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.11-1.72, respectively). There were significant socioeconomic mortality differentials in all external causes and transport accidents and a marginally significant difference in suicide mortality for 10-19 year olds. Mortality from non-external causes showed no social gradient in girls. Socioeconomic differentials in all-cause mortality were observed in adolescents, even in early youth. This pattern might also apply to mortality from non-external causes, especially cardiovascular disease in 15-19 year old males.

  14. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bile Cast Nephropathy Caused by Obstructive Cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Aniort, Julien; Poyet, Anaïs; Kemeny, Jean-Louis; Philipponnet, Carole; Heng, Anne-Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major complication in patients with liver disease. Although hepatorenal syndrome is frequently involved, bile cast nephropathy, characterized by tubular bile cast formation, has been scarcely described in the setting of severe liver failure. Few renal histology studies are available in these patients. We describe a case of bile cast nephropathy in a patient with obstructive cholestasis caused by stones in the common bile duct. The kidney biopsy confirmed this diagnosis, with several green casts in tubular lumens, tubular injury, and bilirubin composition of the tubular casts with Hall stain. The patient had no confounding cause of kidney failure, and complete kidney recovery followed removal of the bile duct obstruction. This case shows that severe cholestasis is sufficient to cause AKI, and that AKI can be reversible after treatment of the biliary obstruction. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endocrine causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Laura; Jornayvaz, François R

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, becoming a substantial public health burden. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of disorders, from simple conditions such as steatosis to severe manifestations such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. The relationship of NAFLD with metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes is well described and related to insulin resistance, with NAFLD being recognized as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD may also coincide with endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency or hypercortisolism. It is therefore essential to remember, when discovering altered liver enzymes or hepatic steatosis on radiological exams, that endocrine diseases can cause NAFLD. Indeed, the overall prognosis of NAFLD may be modified by treatment of the underlying endocrine pathology. In this review, we will discuss endocrine diseases that can cause NALFD. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms will be presented and specific treatments will be reviewed. PMID:26494962

  17. Management of female infertility from hormonal causes.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Antony A; Lanzone, Antonio; Goverde, Angelique J

    2013-12-01

    Hormonal causes of female infertility involve ovulatory dysfunctions that may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, peripheral endocrine glands, nonendocrine organs, or metabolic disorders. It is important to think of anovulation not as a diagnosis but as a symptom of a metabolic or endocrine disorder that requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation to identify the specific cause and to implement effective therapies that assure the best possible pregnancy outcome and avoid long-term adverse health consequences. In most instances, the medical history points to the underlying dysfunction, which can usually be confirmed with laboratory or imaging tests. For more challenging cases, more extensive evaluations may be needed, including perturbation studies. Nevertheless, the management of anovulatory infertility is gratifying because its causes are often manifest and the treatment usually results in resumption of ovulatory cycles, restoration of fertility, and healthy offspring through natural conception without requiring expensive and intrusive assisted reproductive technologies. © 2013.

  18. Allostatic load as a predictor of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the general population: Evidence from the Scottish Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Gayle; Bromley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Allostatic load is a multiple biomarker measure of physiological ‘wear and tear’ that has shown some promise as marker of overall physiological health, but its power as a risk predictor for mortality and morbidity is less well known. This study has used data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) (nationally representative sample of Scottish population) linked to mortality records to assess how well allostatic load predicts all-cause and cause-specific mortality. From the sample, data from 4,488 men and women were available with mortality status at 5 and 9.5 (rounded to 10) years after sampling in 2003. Cox proportional hazard models estimated the risk of death (all-cause and the five major causes of death in the population) according to allostatic load score. Multiple imputation was used to address missing values in the dataset. Analyses were also adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age and deprivation). There were 258 and 618 deaths over the 5-year and 10-year follow-up period, respectively. In the fully-adjusted model, higher allostatic load (poorer physiological ‘health’) was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality after 5 years (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.22; p = 0.269), but it was after 10 years (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16; p = 0.026). Allostatic load was not associated with specific causes of death over the same follow-up period. In conclusions, greater physiological wear and tear across multiple physiological systems, as measured by allostatic load, is associated with an increased risk of death, but may not be as useful as a predictor for specific causes of death. PMID:28813505

  19. Death rates for acquired hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in English populations (1979-2010): comparison of underlying cause and all certified causes.

    PubMed

    Goldacre, M J; Duncan, M E

    2013-03-01

    Overt hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis have widespread systemic effects and are associated with increased mortality. Most death certificates that include them do not have the thyroid disease coded as the underlying cause of death. To describe regional (1979-2010) and national (1995-2010) trends in mortality rates for acquired hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis, analysing all certified causes of death (termed 'mentions') and not just the underlying cause. Analysis of death registration data. Analysis of data for the Oxford region (mentions available from 1979) and English national data (mentions available from 1995). The data were grouped in periods defined by different national rules for selecting the underlying cause of death (1979-83, 1984-92, 1993-2000 and 2001-10) and were also analysed as single calendar years. Mentions mortality for acquired hypothyroidism in the Oxford region declined significantly from 1979 to 2010: the average annual percentage change (AAPC) was -2.6% (95% confidence intervals -3.5, -1.8). Most of the decrease occurred during the 1980s. The AAPC in rates for later years in England (1995-2010) was non-significant at 0.2% (-0.7, 1.0). Mortality rates for thyrotoxicosis decreased significantly: the AAPC was -2.8% (-4.1, -1.5) in the Oxford region and -3.8% (-4.7, -3.0) in England. In England, between 2001 and 2010, hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis was coded as the underlying cause of death on, respectively, 17 and 24% of death certificates that included them. Mortality rates for hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis have fallen substantially. The fall is probably wholly or mainly a result of improved care.

  20. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  1. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... are visible just under the surface of the skin Spinal stenosis —narrowing in the spine, causing pressure on the nerves and spine, with resulting numbness and pain Lumbar disease Osteoarthritis QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER Does my medical history raise my risk for P.A.D.? Do ...

  2. Endocarditis Caused by Rhodotorula Infection

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthew S.; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K.; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp. PMID:24197888

  3. Twin troubles--rickets causing myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Benjamin; Harris, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Myelofibrosis is an uncommon condition that causes anaemia, failure to thrive and massive splenomegaly. This case report describes migrant Sudanese twins who developed myelofibrosis secondary to severe rickets from a combination of poor diet, inadequate sun exposure, and a breastfeeding mother who wore hijab and was also vitamin D deficient.

  4. Value Conflicts as a Cause for Drop Outs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Arthur

    The basic causes for the high rate at which American Indians drop out of college were listed and discussed in this paper. Information gathered from interviews with Indian students was presented along with the author's personal interpretations. The stated causes of the high drop-out rate were education, finances, racism, role models, and cultural…

  5. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  6. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  7. Cause of Death and Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in Anticoagulated Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Data From ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    Pokorney, Sean D; Piccini, Jonathan P; Stevens, Susanna R; Patel, Manesh R; Pieper, Karen S; Halperin, Jonathan L; Breithardt, Günter; Singer, Daniel E; Hankey, Graeme J; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M

    2016-03-08

    Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted warfarin. Cox proportional hazards regression with backward elimination identified factors at randomization that were independently associated with all-cause mortality in the 14 171 participants in the intention-to-treat population. The median age was 73 years, and the mean CHADS2 score was 3.5. Over 1.9 years of median follow-up, 1214 (8.6%) patients died. Kaplan-Meier mortality rates were 4.2% at 1 year and 8.9% at 2 years. The majority of classified deaths (1081) were cardiovascular (72%), whereas only 6% were nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. No significant difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the rivaroxaban and warfarin arms (P=0.15). Heart failure (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.33-1.70, P<0.0001) and age ≥75 years (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.51-1.90, P<0.0001) were associated with higher all-cause mortality. Multiple additional characteristics were independently associated with higher mortality, with decreasing creatinine clearance, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, male sex, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetes being among the most strongly associated (model C-index 0.677). In a large population of patients anticoagulated for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, ≈7 in 10 deaths were cardiovascular, whereas <1 in 10 deaths were caused by nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. Optimal prevention and treatment of heart failure, renal impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes may improve survival. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier

  8. Giant Fecalith Causing Near Intestinal Obstruction and Rectal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Nigar, Sofia; Sunkara, Tagore; Culliford, Andrea; Gaduputi, Vinaya

    2017-01-01

    Fecal impaction if left untreated can lead to the hardening of stools and the formation of fecalith. Fecaliths rarely cause serious complications and are usually managed conservatively. We present this rare case of a giant fecalith causing near obstruction in an institutionalized paraplegic patient at high risk for chronic constipation and fecal impaction. This case was also unusual for causing ischemic pressure necrosis in the rectum, thereby highlighting the possible serious complications of fecalith. PMID:28611554

  9. Location, timing and extent of wildfire vary by cause of ignition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing extent of wildfires has prompted investigation into alternative fire management approaches to complement the traditional strategies of fire suppression and fuels manipulation. Wildfire prevention through ignition reduction is an approach with potential for success, but ignitions result from a variety of causes. If some ignition sources result in higher levels of area burned, then ignition prevention programmes could be optimised to target these distributions in space and time. We investigated the most common ignition causes in two southern California sub-regions, where humans are responsible for more than 95% of all fires, and asked whether these causes exhibited distinct spatial or intra-annual temporal patterns, or resulted in different extents of fire in 10-29-year periods, depending on sub-region. Different ignition causes had distinct spatial patterns and those that burned the most area tended to occur in autumn months. Both the number of fires and area burned varied according to cause of ignition, but the cause of the most numerous fires was not always the cause of the greatest area burned. In both sub-regions, power line ignitions were one of the top two causes of area burned: the other major causes were arson in one sub-region and power equipment in the other. Equipment use also caused the largest number of fires in both sub-regions. These results have important implications for understanding why, where and how ignitions are caused, and in turn, how to develop strategies to prioritise and focus fire prevention efforts. Fire extent has increased tremendously in southern California, and because most fires are caused by humans, ignition reduction offers a potentially powerful management strategy, especially if optimised to reflect the distinct spatial and temporal distributions in different ignition causes.

  10. Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium africanum, United States, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditya; Bloss, Emily; Heilig, Charles M; Click, Eleanor S

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium africanum is endemic to West Africa and causes tuberculosis (TB). We reviewed reported cases of TB in the United States during 2004-2013 that had lineage assigned by genotype (spoligotype and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeats). M. africanum caused 315 (0.4%) of 73,290 TB cases with lineage assigned by genotype. TB caused by M. africanum was associated more with persons from West Africa (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 253.8, 95% CI 59.9-1,076.1) and US-born black persons (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-25.9) than with US-born white persons. TB caused by M. africanum did not show differences in clinical characteristics when compared with TB caused by M. tuberculosis. Clustered cases defined as >2 cases in a county with identical 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit genotypes, were less likely for M. africanum (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.4), which suggests that M. africanum is not commonly transmitted in the United States.

  11. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  12. Strangulation and Its Role in Multiple Causes of Death.

    PubMed

    Hlavaty, Leigh; Sung, LokMan

    2017-12-01

    Forensic pathologists have a duty to determine the cause and manner of death and are bound by international guidelines in the completion of the death certificate. Sometimes, there are complex circumstances surrounding a death that cannot be captured in the structure of the death certificate and its requirement of listing only 1 cause of death per line. Cases may have multiple causes of death with comorbid medical conditions or inflicted injuries that equally contribute to the ultimate demise. Compared with other forms of homicide, autopsy evidence of strangulation will often be found with other life-threatening traumatic injuries. The Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office conducted a retrospective study of strangulation cases that came into the office from mid-2007 to the end of 2016. The purpose of the study was to examine patterns of injuries in strangulation cases and identify those with additional traumatic injuries of commensurate extent that required incorporation into the cause of death. A total of 43 strangulation cases were found, of which there were equal numbers of ligature and manual strangulations (19 each) and 5 cases in which the method was not specified, and decedents were divided: 63% female and 37% male. Fourteen of these cases were recognized to have multiple causes of death, where blunt force trauma was the most common additional cause, and the sex distribution weighed heavily toward the female (approximately 79%).

  13. A Rare Cause of Cyanosis: Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Caused by Congenital Extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xue-Yan; Chen, Feng; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Wu, Hong; Chen, Shao-Ping; Qin, Yong-Wen

    2011-01-01

    A 19-year-old male patient presented cyanosis and dyspnoea because of the presence of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas resulting in oxygen desaturation. The CTA revealed that intestinal and splenic venous blood bypasses the liver and drains into the inferior vena cava. This is the first reported case of hepatopulmonary syndrome caused by congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt in which intestinal and splenic venous blood bypasses the liver and drains into the inferior vena cava. PMID:22937464

  14. Common Variable Immunodeficiency Caused by FANC Mutations.

    PubMed

    Sekinaka, Yujin; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Imai, Kohsuke; Yabe, Miharu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Mitsui-Sekinaka, Kanako; Honma, Kenichi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Arai, Ayako; Yoshida, Kenichi; Okuno, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Muramatsu, Hideki; Kojima, Seiji; Hira, Asuka; Takata, Minoru; Ohara, Osamu; Ogawa, Seishi; Morio, Tomohiro; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2017-07-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common adult-onset primary antibody deficiency disease due to various causative genes. Several genes, which are known to be the cause of different diseases, have recently been reported as the cause of CVID in patients by performing whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis. Here, we found FANC gene mutations as a cause of adult-onset CVID in two patients. B cells were absent and CD4 + T cells were skewed toward CD45RO + memory T cells. T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and signal joint kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (sjKRECs) were undetectable in both patients. Both patients had no anemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia. Using WES, we identified compound heterozygous mutations of FANCE in one patient and homozygous mutation of FANCA in another patient. The impaired function of FANC protein complex was confirmed by a monoubiquitination assay and by chromosome fragility test. We then performed several immunological evaluations including quantitative lymphocyte analysis and TRECs/sjKRECs analysis for 32 individuals with Fanconi anemia (FA). In total, 22 FA patients (68.8%) were found to have immunological abnormalities, suggesting that such immunological findings may be common in FA patients. These data indicate that FANC mutations are involved in impaired lymphogenesis probably by the accumulation of DNA replication stress, leading to CVID. It is important to diagnose FA because it drastically changes clinical management. We propose that FANC mutations can cause isolated immunodeficiency in addition to bone marrow failure and malignancy.

  15. Foodborne Salmonella-caused outbreaks in Catalonia (Spain), 1990 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Angela; Torner, Nuria; Ruiz, Laura; Martínez, Ana; Bartolomé, Rosa; Sulleiro, Elena; Teixidó, Angel; Plasencia, Antoni

    2007-01-01

    In most developed countries, nontyphoid Salmonella is an important cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of foodborne gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of foodborne Salmonella-caused outbreaks and number of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths and compare them with those caused by other infectious agents. The study was carried out in Catalonia, a region in northeastern Spain with a population of 6.5 million inhabitants, in 2002. All information on reported outbreaks of foodborne disease from 1990 to 2003 was reviewed. For each outbreak, the following variables were collected: year; setting (household, restaurant, school, hospital, nursing home, and others); number of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths; causal agent; and food vehicle involved. Of 1652 reported outbreaks, 1078 had a known causal agent. Among them, 871 (80.8%) were caused by Salmonella, with 14,695 cases, 1534 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. The rate of hospitalization was higher in outbreaks due to Salmonella than in those caused by other infectious agents (rate ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.20 to 2.94). Forty-eight percent of Salmonella-caused outbreaks were eggborne, compared with 5.3% of those caused by other infectious agents (rate ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 1.48). The annual number of cases in household outbreaks of eggborne Salmonella rose over time (R2 = 0.82), but the number of outbreaks produced in other settings did not. Eggborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella in households are a major cause of disease, and increased preventive efforts are necessary, especially consumer education and awareness of the risk of eating food containing raw or slightly cooked eggs.

  16. [Death causes in 428 alcoholic patients: a descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Martínez Lanz, P; Días Coto, C

    1992-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated either a direct or an indirect relationship between alcoholism and death causes. The present paper is a descriptive study about death causes in 428 alcoholic patients from San José, Costa Rica, metropolitan area, whose death occurred between 1978 and 1988. Sample subjects were males, under 90-year-old at death time. It was found out that basic death causes were: Traumatism and poisoning, 25%; circulatory system illnesses, 20%; digestive system illnesses, 18.5%, and tumors, 15%.

  17. The implications of fundamental cause theory for priority setting.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2014-10-01

    Application of fundamental cause theory to Powers and Faden's model of social justice highlights the ethical superiority of upstream public health interventions. In this article, I assess the ramifications of fundamental cause theory specifically in context of public health priority setting. Ethically optimal public health policy simultaneously maximizes overall population health and compresses health inequalities. The fundamental cause theory is an important framework in helping to identify which categories of public health interventions are most likely to advance these twin goals.

  18. The forgotten cause of stridor in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tian-Tee

    2017-01-01

    Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement Disorder is where the larynx exhibits paradoxical vocal cords closure during respiration, creating partial airway obstruction. Causes of vocal fold movement disorder are multifactorial, and patients describe tightness of throat, difficulty getting air in, have stridor, and do not respond to inhalers. We propose using transnasal laryngoscopy examination, which will show narrowing of vocal cords on inspiration, and The Pittsburgh Vocal Cord Dysfunction Index with a cutoff score of ≥4 to distinguish vocal fold movement disorder from asthma and other causes of stridor. Management of paradoxical vocal fold movement disorder involves a combination of pharmacological, psychological, psychiatric, and speech training. Paradoxical vocal fold movement disorder is a very treatable cause of stridor, so long as it is identified and other organic causes are excluded.

  19. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...

  20. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...

  1. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...

  2. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...

  3. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...

  4. Causes of recurrent pneumonia in children in a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Hoving, M F Paulien; Brand, Paul L P

    2013-03-01

    Because the few previous studies on underlying causes of recurrent pneumonia in children have come from tertiary care referral centres where selection bias may be important, the aim of this study was to examine underlying causes of recurrent pneumonia in children in a general hospital. We performed a retrospective chart review in a general hospital of 62 children with recurrent pneumonia over a 7.5 years period. In 19 patients (30.6%), no cause was identified, commonly because favourable natural history obviated the need for a full and invasive diagnostic work-up. Other underlying causes included recurrent aspiration in 16 patients (25.7%), lung disease (airway stenosis, bronchiectasis, middle lobe syndrome or tracheooesophageal fistula) in 10 patients (16.1%) and immune deficiency in 10 patients (16.1%). In contrast to previous studies, asthma was never diagnosed as an underlying cause, but diagnostic confusion between asthma (or recurrent upper respiratory tract infections) and recurrent pneumonia was common. The cause of recurrent pneumonia in children remains elusive in almost a third of patients, partly because the favourable natural history consistent with immune system maturation eliminates the need for further diagnostic procedures. Asthma is more likely a differential diagnostic consideration than an underlying cause of recurrent pneumonia in children. A standardised diagnostic guideline is needed to improve knowledge on causes of recurrent pneumonia in children. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kestler, M; Muñoz, P; Marín, M; Goenaga, M A; Idígoras Viedma, P; de Alarcón, A; Lepe, J A; Sousa Regueiro, D; Bravo-Ferrer, J M; Pajarón, M; Costas, C; García-López, M V; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Moreno, M; Bouza, E

    2017-10-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1-3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56-73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  7. Retrospective data on causes of childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Bhayal, Bharat Kumar; Adhikary, Rabindra; Shrestha, Arjun; Sah, Rabindra Prasad

    2017-11-22

    Proper information on causes of childhood vision loss is essential in developing appropriate strategies and programs to address such causes. This study aimed at identifying the causes of vision loss in children attending the national referral eye hospital with the only pediatric ophthalmology service in Eritrea. A retrospective data review was conducted for all the children (< 16 years of age) who attended Berhan Aiyni National Referral Eye Hospital in five years period from January 2011 to December 2015. Causes of vision loss for children with vision impairment (recorded visual acuity less than 6/18 for distance in the better eye) was classified by the anatomical site affected and by underlying etiology based on the timing of the insult and causal factor. The medical record cards of 22,509 children were reviewed, of whom 249 (1.1%) were visually impaired. The mean age of the participants was 7.82 ± 5.43 years (range: one month to 16 years) and male to female ratio was 1:0.65. The leading causes of vision loss were cataract (19.7%), corneal scars (15.7%), refractive error and amblyopia (12.1%), optic atrophy (6.4%), phthisis bulbi (6.4%), aphakia (5.6%) and glaucoma (5.2%). Childhood factors including trauma were the leading causes identified (34.5%) whereas other causes included hereditary factors (4%), intrauterine factors (2.0%) and perinatal factors (4.4%). In 55.0% of the children, the underlying etiology could not be attributed. Over two-thirds (69.9%) of vision loss was potentially avoidable in nature. This study explored the causes of vision loss in Eritrean children using hospital based data. Cataract corneal opacities, refractive error and amblyopia, globe damage due to trauma, infection and nutritional deficiency, retinal disorders, and other congenital abnormalities were the leading causes of childhood vision impairment in children attending the tertiary eye hospital in Eritrea. As majority of the causes of vision loss was due to avoidable

  8. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What’s this? Submit Button Leading Causes of Death in Males and Females, United States Recommend on ... and previous listings for the leading causes of death for males and females in the United States. ...

  9. Alcohol skin preparation causes surgical fires

    PubMed Central

    Rocos, B; Donaldson, LJ

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Surgical fires are a rare but serious preventable safety risk in modern hospitals. Data from the US show that up to 650 surgical fires occur each year, with up to 5% causing death or serious harm. This study used the National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS) database at the National Patient Safety Agency to explore whether spirit-based surgical skin preparation fluid contributes to the cause of surgical fires. METHODS The NRLS database was interrogated for all incidents of surgical fires reported between 1 March 2004 and 1 March 2011. Each report was scrutinised manually to discover the cause of the fire. RESULTS Thirteen surgical fires were reported during the study period. Of these, 11 were found to be directly related to spirit-based surgical skin preparation or preparation soaked swabs and drapes. CONCLUSIONS Despite manufacturer's instructions and warnings, surgical fires continue to occur. Guidance published in the UK and US states that spirit-based skin preparation solutions should continue to be used but sets out some precautions. It may be that fire risk should be included in pre-surgical World Health Organization checklists or in the surgical training curriculum. Surgical staff should be aware of the risk that spirit-based skin preparation fluids pose and should take action to minimise the chance of fire occurring. PMID:22391366

  10. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Hurd, Randy

    2017-01-01

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation. PMID:28739956

  11. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T

    2017-07-24

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  12. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T.

    2017-08-01

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  13. Variations in the relation between education and cause-specific mortality in 19 European populations: a test of the "fundamental causes" theory of social inequalities in health.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Eikemo, Terje A; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulik, Margarete C; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle

    2015-02-01

    Link and Phelan have proposed to explain the persistence of health inequalities from the fact that socioeconomic status is a "fundamental cause" which embodies an array of resources that can be used to avoid disease risks no matter what mechanisms are relevant at any given time. To test this theory we compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality between more and less preventable causes of death in 19 European populations, and assessed whether inequalities in mortality from preventable causes are larger in countries with larger resource inequalities. We collected and harmonized mortality data by educational level on 19 national and regional populations from 16 European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. We calculated age-adjusted Relative Risks of mortality among men and women aged 30-79 for 24 causes of death, which were classified into four groups: amenable to behavior change, amenable to medical intervention, amenable to injury prevention, and non-preventable. Although an overwhelming majority of Relative Risks indicate higher mortality risks among the lower educated, the strength of the education-mortality relation is highly variable between causes of death and populations. Inequalities in mortality are generally larger for causes amenable to behavior change, medical intervention and injury prevention than for non-preventable causes. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is large for causes amenable to behavior change, but absent for causes amenable to injury prevention among women. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is larger in Central & Eastern Europe, where resource inequalities are substantial, than in the Nordic countries and continental Europe, where resource inequalities are relatively small, but they are absent or small in Southern Europe, where resource inequalities are also large. In conclusion, our results provide some further support for the theory of "fundamental causes". However

  14. Glucose sensor excludes hypoglycaemia as cause of death.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    The cause of death can be difficult to verify post-mortem in unexpected deaths in patients with Type 1 diabetes. This report describes an unexpected death in a 44-year-old man with Type 1 diabetes treated with sensor-augmented pump therapy. Continuous glucose monitoring data proved useful in determining the cause of death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Socioeconomic Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss in Madagascar

    Treesearch

    Anitry N. Ratsifandrihamanana; Dawn Montanye; Sarah Christiansen; Sheila O' Connor

    2006-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 a root cause analysis was conducted for the Spiny Forest Ecoregion in Madagascar, identifying the local level root causes of biodiversity loss in the ecoregion as well as the policy and institutional issues at the national and international levels that contribute to them. Most of the research was conducted in and around Tulear and Fort Dauphin....

  16. Dietary antioxidant capacity and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the E3N/EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bastide, Nadia; Dartois, Laureen; Dyevre, Valérie; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Serafini, Mauro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2017-04-01

    The cellular oxidative stress (balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant) may be a major risk factor for chronic diseases. Antioxidant capacity of human diet can be globally assessed through the dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). Our aim was to investigate the relationship between the NEAC and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and to test potential interactions with smoking status, a well-known pro-oxidant factor. Among the French women of the E3N prospective cohort study initiated in 1990, including 4619 deaths among 1,199,011 persons-years of follow-up. A validated dietary history questionnaire assessed usual food intake; NEAC intake was estimated using a food composition table from two different methods: ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Hazard ratio (HR) estimates and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models. In multivariate analyses, FRAP dietary equivalent intake was inversely associated with mortality from all-causes (HR for the fourth vs. the first quartile: HR 4  = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.67, 0.83, p trend  < 0.0001), cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Similar results were obtained with TRAP. There was an interaction between NEAC dietary equivalent intake and smoking status for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, but not cancer mortality (respectively, for FRAP, p inter  = 0.002; 0.013; 0.113, results were similar with TRAP), and the association was the strongest among current smokers. This prospective cohort study highlights the importance of antioxidant consumption for mortality prevention, especially among current smokers.

  17. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  18. Risk Factors and Causes of Syncope

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Factors & Causes of Syncope Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Syncope The risk of cardiovascular syncope increases with ... Long QT syndrome and Brugada Syndrome Signs of Cardiovascular Syncope Cardiovascular syncope usually is sudden. There may ...

  19. Spinal cord injury - Symptoms and causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the leading cause of spinal cord injuries, accounting for almost half of new spinal cord injuries ... address these problems if they affect you. Respiratory system. Your injury may make it more difficult to ...

  20. 3-Dimensional Root Cause Diagnosis via Co-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ziming; Lan, Zhiling; Yu, Li

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of system size and complexity, reliability has become a major concern for large-scale systems. Upon the occurrence of failure, system administrators typically trace the events in Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS) logs for root cause diagnosis. However, RAS log only contains limited diagnosis information. Moreover, the manual processing is time-consuming, error-prone, and not scalable. To address the problem, in this paper we present an automated root cause diagnosis mechanism for large-scale HPC systems. Our mechanism examines multiple logs to provide a 3-D fine-grained root cause analysis. Here, 3-D means that our analysis will pinpoint the failure layer,more » the time, and the location of the event that causes the problem. We evaluate our mechanism by means of real logs collected from a production IBM Blue Gene/P system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It successfully identifies failure layer information for 219 failures during 23-month period. Furthermore, it effectively identifies the triggering events with time and location information, even when the triggering events occur hundreds of hours before the resulting failures.« less

  1. Anatomical causes of female infertility and their management.

    PubMed

    Abrao, Mauricio S; Muzii, Ludovico; Marana, Riccardo

    2013-12-01

    The main female anatomical causes of infertility include post-infectious tubal damage, endometriosis, and congenital/acquired uterine anomalies. Congenital (septate uterus) and acquired (myomas and synechiae) diseases of the uterus may lead to infertility, pregnancy loss, and other obstetric complications. Pelvic inflammatory disease represents the most common cause of tubal damage. Surgery still remains an important option for tubal factor infertility, with results in terms of reproductive outcome that compare favorably with those of in vitro fertilization. Endometriosis is a common gynecologic condition affecting women of reproductive age, which can cause pain and infertility. The cause of infertility associated with endometriosis remains elusive, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism involving immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Despite the high prevalence of endometriosis, the exact mechanisms of its pathogenesis are unknown. Specific combinations of medical, surgical, and psychological treatments can ameliorate the quality of life of women with endometriosis. In the majority of cases, surgical treatment of endometriosis has promoted significant increases in fertilization rates. There are obvious associations between endometriosis and the immune system, and future strategies to treat endometriosis might be based on immunologic concepts. © 2013.

  2. Optimism and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Hagan, Kaitlin A.; Grodstein, Francine; DeMeo, Dawn L.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked positive psychological attributes like optimism to a lower risk of poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. It has been demonstrated in randomized trials that optimism can be learned. If associations between optimism and broader health outcomes are established, it may lead to novel interventions that improve public health and longevity. In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health behaviors, health conditions) variables. We used prospective data from the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 70,021). Dispositional optimism was measured in 2004; all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were assessed from 2006 to 2012. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that a higher degree of optimism was associated with a lower mortality risk. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of optimism, women in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.66, 0.76) for all-cause mortality. Adding health behaviors, health conditions, and depression attenuated but did not eliminate the associations (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97). Associations were maintained for various causes of death, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and infection. Given that optimism was associated with numerous causes of mortality, it may provide a valuable target for new research on strategies to improve health. PMID:27927621

  3. Quantum Common Causes and Quantum Causal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John-Mark A.; Barrett, Jonathan; Horsman, Dominic C.; Lee, Ciarán M.; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2017-07-01

    Reichenbach's principle asserts that if two observed variables are found to be correlated, then there should be a causal explanation of these correlations. Furthermore, if the explanation is in terms of a common cause, then the conditional probability distribution over the variables given the complete common cause should factorize. The principle is generalized by the formalism of causal models, in which the causal relationships among variables constrain the form of their joint probability distribution. In the quantum case, however, the observed correlations in Bell experiments cannot be explained in the manner Reichenbach's principle would seem to demand. Motivated by this, we introduce a quantum counterpart to the principle. We demonstrate that under the assumption that quantum dynamics is fundamentally unitary, if a quantum channel with input A and outputs B and C is compatible with A being a complete common cause of B and C , then it must factorize in a particular way. Finally, we show how to generalize our quantum version of Reichenbach's principle to a formalism for quantum causal models and provide examples of how the formalism works.

  4. Physical Analysis of the Biomolecules Causing Periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jehun; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Chai Rin

    Periodontitis caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, is an inflammatory diseases causing gum infection. The disease damages the soft tissues that surround and support the teeth and destroys the bone that supports teeth and finally causes tooth loss. An increased risk of stroke and heart attack problems are related to the periodontitis as well. Most bacteria or pathogens attach to gum surface where they form a biofilm. Bacterial cells in biofilms are well protected against antibiotics. The mechanisms of action are still unknown, and it is difficult to control pathogens with antibiotics in biofilm infections and thus the study on the antibiotics is needed. In this research, a number of natural water soluble, small-sized antibiotics molecules and their derivatives are studied. Molecular editing programs such as Gamess, Chemcraft and Avogadro, with an auto-optimization feature that determines the theoretical values of the structure's atomic properties are used to build virtually any molecule with the optimized geometry according to various force field options. The UFF (Universal Force Field) is used for optimizing most molecules.

  5. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  6. Theoretical aspects of autism: causes--a review.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Helen V

    2011-01-01

    Autism, a member of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), has been increasing dramatically since its description by Leo Kanner in 1943. First estimated to occur in 4 to 5 per 10,000 children, the incidence of autism is now 1 per 110 in the United States, and 1 per 64 in the United Kingdom, with similar incidences throughout the world. Searching information from 1943 to the present in PubMed and Ovid Medline databases, this review summarizes results that correlate the timing of changes in incidence with environmental changes. Autism could result from more than one cause, with different manifestations in different individuals that share common symptoms. Documented causes of autism include genetic mutations and/or deletions, viral infections, and encephalitis following vaccination. Therefore, autism is the result of genetic defects and/or inflammation of the brain. The inflammation could be caused by a defective placenta, immature blood-brain barrier, the immune response of the mother to infection while pregnant, a premature birth, encephalitis in the child after birth, or a toxic environment.

  7. Gender inequalities in external cause mortality in Brazil, 2010.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Erly Catarina; Gomes, Romeu; Falcão, Marcia Thereza Couto; Schwarz, Eduardo; das Neves, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Santos, Wallace

    2015-03-01

    To estimate mortality rate by external causes in Brazil. Mortality national 2010's data corrected by underreport and adjusted by direct method were evaluated by sex according to age, region of residence, race/skin color, education and conjugal situation. The standardized mortality coefficient of external causes is higher among men (178 per thousand inhabitants) than among women (24 per thousand inhabitants), being higher among young men (20 to 29 years old) in all regions and decreasing with aging. The mortality rate reaches almost nine times higher among men comparably to women, being higher in North and Northeast regions. The death incidence by external causes is higher among men (36.4%) than among women (10.9%), meaning 170% more risk for men. The risk is also higher among the youngest: 6.00 for men and 7.36 for women. The main kind of death by external causes among men is aggressions, followed by transport accidents, the opposite of women. Besides sex, age is the more important predictive factor of precocious death by external causes, pointing the need of many and various sectors in order to construct new identities of non violence.

  8. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1β and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1β receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. PMID:26037125

  9. Mineralocorticoid receptor activation causes cerebral vessel remodeling and exacerbates the damage caused by cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Dorrance, Anne M; Rupp, Nikki C; Nogueira, Edson F

    2006-03-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists protect against ischemic cerebrovascular disease; this appears to be caused by changes in cerebral vessel structure that would promote blood flow. Therefore, we hypothesized that mineralocorticoid receptor activation with deoxycorticosterone acetate would cause deleterious remodeling of the cerebral vasculature and exacerbate the damage caused by cerebral ischemia. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were treated with deoxycorticosterone acetate (200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At 12 weeks of age, the deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats had elevated systolic blood pressure compared with age-matched controls (157+/-5.9 versus 124+/-3.1 mm Hg deoxycorticosterone acetate versus control; P<0.05). The area of ischemic damage resulting from middle cerebral artery occlusion was greater in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats than control (63.5+/-3.72 versus 46.6+/-5.52% of the hemisphere infarcted, deoxycorticosterone acetate versus control; P<0.05). Middle cerebral artery structure was assessed using a pressurized arteriograph under calcium-free conditions. Over a range of intralumenal pressures, the lumen and ODs of the middle cerebral arteries were smaller in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats than the control rats (P<0.05). There was also an increase in the wall thickness and wall:lumen ratio in the vessels from deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats (P<0.05). The vessels from the deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats were stiffer than those from control rats as evidenced by a leftward shift in the stress/strain curve. These novel data suggest that mineralocorticoid receptor activation without salt loading and nephrectomy is sufficient to elicit deleterious effects on the cerebral vasculature that lead to inward hypertrophic remodeling and an increase in the ischemic damage in the event of a stroke.

  10. Causes of death in patients with chronic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Carmona, Eva M; Yi, Eunhee S; Pellikka, Patricia A; Ryu, Jay

    2016-10-07

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system, granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology that is associated with a variable prognosis and sometimes results in death. There are conflicting reports regarding the causes of death in patients with sarcoidosis. Forty-four consecutive patients with sarcoidosis who underwent an autopsy (35 patients) or died at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) over a 20-yr period, from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2013 were analyzed. The median age at death was 63 years (range, 33-94 years) and there were 22 (50%) women. Sarcoidosis had not been clinically diagnosed in 16 (36%) patients before death. Fifteen deaths (34%) were related to sarcoidosis and included seven deaths (16%) from cardiac sarcoidosis and four deaths (9%) from progressive pulmonary sarcoidosis. Other sarcoidosis-related causes of death included advanced hepatic sarcoidosis (5%) and opportunistic infections (5%) related to immunosuppressive therapy for treating sarcoidosis. Among seven patients dying from cardiac sarcoidosis, three had been diagnosed with sarcoidosis during life and cardiac involvement was known in two of them. Six of seven deaths from cardiac sarcoidosis occurred in the autopsied cohort while all four deaths from pulmonary sarcoidosis occurred in those not autopsied. In the majority of patients dying with sarcoidosis the cause of death is unrelated to sarcoidosis. Cardiac involvement is the most common cause of sarcoidosis-related deaths in patients subjected to postmortem examination and was usually undiagnosed during life. The cause distribution of death in patients with sarcoidosis differed depending on whether autopsy was performed.

  11. Pregnancy-related mortality in California: causes, characteristics, and improvement opportunities.

    PubMed

    Main, Elliott K; McCain, Christy L; Morton, Christine H; Holtby, Susan; Lawton, Elizabeth S

    2015-04-01

    To compare specific maternal and clinical characteristics and contributing factors among the five leading causes of pregnancy-related mortality to develop focused clinical and public health prevention programs. California pregnancy-related deaths from 2002-2005 were identified with enhanced surveillance using linked birth and death certificates. A multidisciplinary committee reviewed medical records, autopsy reports, and coroner reports to determine cause of death, clinical and demographic characteristics, chance to alter outcome, contributing factors (at health care provider, facility, and patient levels), and quality improvement opportunities. The five leading causes of death were compared with each other and with the overall California birth population. Among the 207 pregnancy-related deaths, the five leading causes were cardiovascular disease, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage, venous thromboembolism, and amniotic fluid embolism. Among the leading causes of death, we identified differing patterns for race, maternal age, body mass index, timing of death, and method of delivery. Overall, there was a good-to-strong chance to alter the outcome in 41% of deaths, with the highest rates of preventability among hemorrhage (70%) and preeclampsia (60%) deaths. Health care provider, facility, and patient contributing factors also varied by cause of death. Pregnancy-related mortality should not be considered a single clinical entity. Reducing mortality requires in-depth examination of individual causes of death. The five leading causes exhibit different characteristics, degrees of preventability, and contributing factors, with the greatest improvement opportunities identified for hemorrhage and preeclampsia. These findings provide additional support for hospital, state, and national maternal safety programs.

  12. [Mortality by avoidable causes in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Lurán, Albenia; López, Elizabeth; Pinilla, Consuelo; Sierra, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The infant-mortality rate in children aged less than five is an indicator of the general state of health of a population and directly reflects the quality of life and the level of socio-economic development of a country. Avoidable mortality was assessed in preschool children as a reflection of Colombia quality of life and socio-economic development. Mortality trends were analyzed in preschool children aged less than five throughout Colombia during a 20-year period from 1985-2004, and focused on mortality causes that were considered avoidable. This was a descriptive, retrospective study; the sources of information were Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística records of deaths and population projections 1985-2004. Mortality rate due to avoidable causes was the statistical indicator. In children aged less than one, the reducible mortality due to "early diagnosis and medical treatment" occupied the first place amongst causes for every year of the study period and accounted for more than 50% of recorded deaths. In children aged 1 to 4, the category "other important reducible causes" was associated with 40% of recorded deaths-deaths due mainly to respiratory diseases. Over the 20-year period, the avoidable mortality rate decreased by 34% in children aged less than one, in children 1-4, it decreased by 23%. Although the infant-mortality rate in preschool children was reduced, the decrease was small, from 80% to 77%. The situation requires more analysis with respect to strategies in public health, particularly concerning preventable diseases of the infancy.

  13. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries <80% or >120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between <10% and 80%. In a follow-up study of 212 random plasma samples we found seven samples with autoantibodies against PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  14. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy caused by heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Lin, Cheng-Hsin; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Huang, Chun-Yao; Yeh, Jong-Shiuan

    2012-07-01

    Heat stroke is defined by central nervous system abnormalities and failure of proper maintenance of thermoregulation as a result of high core body temperature ensuing from exposure to high environmental temperatures or strenuous exercise. Common complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal injury, hepatic injury, and rhabdomyolysis. Myocardial injury may also occur during heat stroke, resulting in cardiac enzyme increase and ST-segment changes on the ECG. Such findings might behave as diagnostic pitfalls by mimicking the presentation of coronary artery occlusive myocardial infarction. A previous case report described a patient with heat stroke and ST-segment elevation, in which the definite cause of the ST-segment elevation was unclear; however, acute myocardial infarction caused by coronary artery disease was ruled out according to the clinical signs, serial ECG changes, and serum level of cardiac biomarkers. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) was suspected, but it could not be confirmed because of the lack of coronary angiography. We herein report a case of heat stroke presenting with ST-segment elevation and cardiogenic shock. Coronary angiography was performed and coronary artery occlusive myocardial infarction was ruled out because of the presence of patent coronary arteries. Left ventriculography showed midventricular and apical hypokinesis, and stress-induced cardiomyopathy was then determined to be the appropriate diagnosis. Heat stroke causes increase of serum catecholamine levels, in which oversecretion and abnormal responses to catecholamines are a possible cause of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Catecholamines may therefore be the key in linking heat stroke and stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

  16. Interventions for investigating and identifying the causes of stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Shepherd, Emily; Middleton, Philippa; Gardener, Glenn; Ellwood, David A; McClure, Elizabeth M; Gold, Katherine J; Khong, Teck Yee; Silver, Robert M; Erwich, Jan Jaap Hm; Flenady, Vicki

    2018-04-30

    Identification of the causes of stillbirth is critical to the primary prevention of stillbirth and to the provision of optimal care in subsequent pregnancies. A wide variety of investigations are available, but there is currently no consensus on the optimal approach. Given their cost and potential to add further emotional burden to parents, there is a need to systematically assess the effect of these interventions on outcomes for parents, including psychosocial outcomes, economic costs, and on rates of diagnosis of the causes of stillbirth. To assess the effect of different tests, protocols or guidelines for investigating and identifying the causes of stillbirth on outcomes for parents, including psychosocial outcomes, economic costs, and rates of diagnosis of the causes of stillbirth. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (31 August 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (15 May 2017). We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cluster-RCTs. We planned to include studies published as abstract only, provided there was sufficient information to allow us to assess study eligibility. We planned to exclude cross-over trials.Participants included parents (including mothers, fathers, and partners) who had experienced a stillbirth of 20 weeks' gestation or greater.This review focused on interventions for investigating and identifying the causes of stillbirth. Such interventions are likely to be diverse, but could include:* review of maternal and family history, and current pregnancy and birth history;* clinical history of present illness;* maternal investigations (such as ultrasound, amniocentesis, antibody screening, etc.);* examination of the stillborn baby (including full autopsy, partial autopsy or noninvasive components, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerised tomography (CT) scanning, and radiography);* umbilical cord examination

  17. FastStats: Leading Causes of Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... Births Teen Births Unmarried Childbearing Deaths Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and ... Data are for 2015) Related FastStats Deaths and mortality More data Deaths: Final Data for 2015 [PDF – ...

  18. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    PubMed

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  19. A Rare Cause of Headache: Pneumatized Nasal Septum Osteoma.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Osman; Ismi, Onur; Tezer, Mesut Sabri

    2017-11-01

    Paranasal sinus osteomas are among the rare causes of headache and they are most commonly seen in the frontal and ethmoid sinuses. In this report, we presented the first case of pneumatized nasal septum osteoma causing headache, successfully treated with endoscopic transnasal approach.

  20. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  1. Can hemozoin alone cause host anaemia?

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Wang, Su-Wen; Jin, Chang-Long; Zeng, Xiao-Li; Piao, Xing-Yu; Bai, Ling; Tang, Dan-Li; Ji, Chang-Le

    2016-12-01

    Both schistosomes and malaria parasites produce hemozoin and cause host anaemia. However, the relationship between anaemia and hemozoin is unclear. Although some studies have proposed that hemozoin is related to anaemia in malaria patients, whether hemozoin alone can cause anaemia in patients infected by malaria parasites or schistosomes is uncertain. To investigate the effect of hemozoin on hosts, β-haematin was injected intravenously to normal mice. Then, liver and spleen tissues were observed. Mouse blood was examined. Red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and haemoglobin were analysed. Macrophage changes in the spleens and marrow cells were compared using immunofluorescence and H&E or Giemsa stain, respectively. We found that after 15 injections of β-haematin, a large amount of β-haematin was observed to deposit in the livers and spleens. Splenomegaly and bone marrow mild hyperplasia were detected. The average number of RBCs, average number of WBCs and average concentration of haemoglobin decreased significantly from 9.36 × 10 12 cells/L to 8.7 × 10 12 cells/L, 3.8 × 10 9 cells/L to 1.7 × 10 9 cells/L and 142.8 g/L to 131.8 g/L, respectively. In specific, the number of macrophages in the spleens greatly increased after β-haematin infection. The results showed that injections of β-haematin alone can cause anaemia possibly through hypersplenism.

  2. Sanfilippo syndrome: causes, consequences, and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, Anthony O

    2015-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type III, refers to one of five autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders (MPS IIIA to MPS IIIE) whose symptoms are caused by the deficiency of enzymes involved exclusively in heparan sulfate degradation. The primary characteristic of MPS III is the degeneration of the central nervous system, resulting in mental retardation and hyperactivity, typically commencing during childhood. The significance of the order of events leading from heparan sulfate accumulation through to downstream changes in the levels of biomolecules within the cell and ultimately the (predominantly neuropathological) clinical symptoms is not well understood. The genes whose deficiencies cause the MPS III subtypes have been identified, and their gene products, as well as a selection of disease-causing mutations, have been characterized to varying degrees with respect to both frequency and direct biochemical consequences. A number of genetic and biochemical diagnostic methods have been developed and adopted by diagnostic laboratories. However, there is no effective therapy available for any form of MPS III, with treatment currently limited to clinical management of neurological symptoms. The availability of animal models for all forms of MPS III, whether spontaneous or generated via gene targeting, has contributed to improved understanding of the MPS III subtypes, and has provided and will deliver invaluable tools to appraise emerging therapies. Indeed, clinical trials to evaluate intrathecally-delivered enzyme replacement therapy in MPS IIIA patients, and gene therapy for MPS IIIA and MPS IIIB patients are planned or underway. PMID:26648750

  3. Identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media using Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Oscar D.; Wakeman, Catherine A.; Skaar, Eric P.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the leading cause of acute physician visits and prescription of antibiotics for children. Current standard techniques to diagnose acute otitis media (AOM) are limited by their ability to probe only changes in symptoms of the bacterial infection that cause AOM. Furthermore, they are not able to detect the presence of or identify bacteria causing AOM, which is important for diagnosis and proper antibiotic treatment. Our goal is to detect the presence of and identify the pathogens involved in causing AOM based on their biochemical profile using Raman spectroscopy (RS). An inVia confocal Raman microscope (Renishaw) at 785 nm was used to detect bacteria causing AOM in vitro. The three main bacteria that cause AOM, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were cultured in chocolate agar and Mueller-Hinton agar to determine which agar type would minimize Raman signal from the growth agar. Preliminary results identified specific Raman spectral features characteristic of S. pneumoniae. RS has the potential to accurately diagnose AOM, which will help in identifying the antibiotic that will be most beneficial for the patient and ultimately decrease the course of infection.

  4. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of Caecum Causing Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rashmi; Osborn, Sally; Horgan, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    Malignant transformation of endometriosis is rare and is usually seen in ovarian endometriosis. The colon and rectum are the most common sites for extragonadal endometriosis, and although serosal involvement is commonly seen, mucosal involvement is rare. Malignant transformation of endometriosis is a rare but a well-known complication of endometriosis. We report an unusual presentation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis, arising from endometriosis in the caecal wall and causing ileocaecal intussusception. The patient presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain with features suggestive of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed an ileocaecal intussusception. Conversion to open surgery confirmed a caecal mass causing ileocaecal intussusception, and a radical right hemicolectomy was performed. Histology revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising in a focus of endometriosis in the muscularis propria and involving the mucosa, with one regional metastatic lymph node. PMID:23710407

  5. Parasitic causes of prolonged diarrhoea in travellers - diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Prolonged infectious diarrhoea in the returning traveller is generally caused by protozoal and occasionally by helminth parasites. This article provides a framework for the diagnosis, management and prevention of the diseases that cause persistent diarrhoea in the traveller. A large proportion of disease is caused by Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and Entamoeba histolytica. However, given the ease of travel with comorbid conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus, there is an expanding list of organisms that can cause persistent diarrhoea. An awareness of the likely aetiological agents and their clinical features enables a more effective diagnosis and management of the patient's condition using an appropriate antiparasitic agent. Prevention strategies need to be initiated before travel and should consist of simple but memorable advice. Noninfectious causes of diarrhoea should be considered as diarrhoea can be a prominent feature of conditions such as hyperthyroidism or coeliac disease.

  6. The Probability That Catatonia in the Hospital has a Medical Cause and the Relative Proportions of Its Causes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Mark A

    2018-04-09

    The objective of this review is to determine the probability that catatonia in the hospital has a secondary cause ("medical catatonia") and to calculate the relative proportions of these causes stratified by hospital setting. PRISMA systematic review of PubMed. Eleven studies were included. Hospital-wide, 20% of catatonia was medical. In acute medical and surgical settings, medical catatonia comprised more than half of cases. At least 80% of older adults seen by consult psychiatry and critically ill patients had a medical cause. Two thirds of medical catatonia involved CNS-specific disease including encephalitis, neural injury, developmental disorders, structural brain pathology, or seizures. Patients in acute medical and surgical settings with catatonia deserve a medical workup that prioritizes CNS etiologies. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Causes of electrical deaths and injuries among construction workers.

    PubMed

    McCann, Michael; Hunting, Katherine L; Murawski, Judith; Chowdhury, Risana; Welch, Laura

    2003-04-01

    Contact with electrical current is the fourth leading cause of deaths of construction workers. This study evaluates electrical deaths and injuries to construction workers. Two sources of data were analyzed in detail: (1) 1,019 electrical deaths identified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the years 1992-1998; and (2) 61 electrical injuries identified between November 1, 1990 and December 31, 1998 from a George Washington University Emergency Department injury surveillance database. Contact with "live" electrical wiring, equipment, and light fixtures was the main cause of electrical deaths and injuries among electrical workers, followed by contact with overhead power lines. Among non-electrical workers, contact with overhead power lines was the major cause of death. Other causes included contact with energized metal objects, machinery, power tools, and portable lights. Arc flash or blast caused 31% of electrical injuries among construction workers, but less than 2% of electrical deaths. Adoption of a lockout/tagout standard for construction, and training for non-electrical workers in basic electrical safety would reduce the risk of electrical deaths and injuries in construction. Further research is needed on ways to prevent electrical deaths and injuries while working "live". Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Common Cause Failure Modeling in Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.; Britton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFs are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused for example by system environments, manufacturing, transportation, storage, maintenance, and assembly. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, they can be reduced, but are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and dependent CCF. Because common cause failure data is limited in the aerospace industry, the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Team at Bastion Technology Inc. is estimating CCF risk using generic data collected by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Consequently, common cause risk estimates based on this database, when applied to other industry applications, are highly uncertain. Therefore, it is important to account for a range of values for independent and CCF risk and to communicate the uncertainty to decision makers. There is an existing methodology for reducing CCF risk during design, which includes a checklist of 40+ factors grouped into eight categories. Using this checklist, an approach to produce a beta factor estimate is being investigated that quantitatively relates these factors. In this example, the checklist will be tailored to space launch vehicles, a quantitative approach will be described, and an example of the method will be presented.

  10. A speculated cause of respiratory inhibition in infants.

    PubMed

    Minowa, Hideki; Arai, Ikuyo; Yasuhara, Hajime; Ebisu, Reiko; Ohgitani, Ayako

    2018-10-01

    In our previous studies, we documented that threatened premature labor and asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction were risk factors for respiratory inhibition. The goal of this study was to determine the cause of respiratory inhibition by considering perinatal risk factors. We examined 1497 infants with a gestational age of 36 weeks or greater. All infants were monitored using pulse oximetry and examined via cranial sonography. Respiratory inhibition was defined as severe hypoxemia caused by respiratory inhibition immediately after crying or gastroesophageal reflux or as a respiratory pause during feeding. We examined the relationships between respiratory inhibition and perinatal factors and speculated on the cause of respiratory inhibition. The median gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 1 min, and Apgar score at 5 min of the subjects were 38.9 weeks, 2930 g, 8.0 points, and 9.0 points, respectively. Respiratory inhibition was observed in 422 infants. Lateral ventricle enlargement and increased echogenicity in the ganglionic eminence were observed in 417 and 516 infants, respectively. Respiratory inhibition was significantly correlated with shorter gestational periods, twin pregnancies, lateral ventricle enlargement, and increased echogenicity in the ganglionic eminence. We speculate that umbilical cord compression is a major cause of respiratory inhibition.

  11. The reliability of cause-of-death coding in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Harteloh, Peter; de Bruin, Kim; Kardaun, Jan

    2010-08-01

    Cause-of-death statistics are a major source of information for epidemiological research or policy decisions. Information on the reliability of these statistics is important for interpreting trends in time or differences between populations. Variations in coding the underlying cause of death could hinder the attribution of observed differences to determinants of health. Therefore we studied the reliability of cause-of-death statistics in The Netherlands. We performed a double coding study. Death certificates from the month of May 2005 were coded again in 2007. Each death certificate was coded manually by four coders. Reliability was measured by calculating agreement between coders (intercoder agreement) and by calculating the consistency of each individual coder in time (intracoder agreement). Our analysis covered an amount of 10,833 death certificates. The intercoder agreement of four coders on the underlying cause of death was 78%. In 2.2% of the cases coders agreed on a change of the code assigned in 2005. The (mean) intracoder agreement of four coders was 89%. Agreement was associated with the specificity of the ICD-10 code (chapter, three digits, four digits), the age of the deceased, the number of coders and the number of diseases reported on the death certificate. The reliability of cause-of-death statistics turned out to be high (>90%) for major causes of death such as cancers and acute myocardial infarction. For chronic diseases, such as diabetes and renal insufficiency, reliability was low (<70%). The reliability of cause-of-death statistics varies by ICD-10 code/chapter. A statistical office should provide coders with (additional) rules for coding diseases with a low reliability and evaluate these rules regularly. Users of cause-of-death statistics should exercise caution when interpreting causes of death with a low reliability. Studies of reliability should take into account the number of coders involved and the number of codes on a death certificate.

  12. Commotio Cordis Caused by Violence in China

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jiao; Chen, Zhenglian; Chen, Xinshan; Lin, Wei; Dong, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Commotio cordis (CC) is a recognized rare cause of sudden death in which an apparently minor blow to the chest causes ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. CC diagnosis is still a challenge for forensic pathologists. A retrospective study of 9794 autopsy cases was conducted at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College (DFM-TMC, China) from 1955 to 2014. A total of 39 cases (0.4%) were determined to be caused by CC. A male preponderance (male to female of 37:2) was found in the victims, whose age ranged from 13 to 47 years, including more than 85% individuals in their 10s and 20s. Most victims (27 cases, 69.2%) came from village. The highest rate of victims was found for middle school and college students (15 cases, 38.5%), followed by prisoners (11 cases, 28.2%), farmers (9 cases, 23.1%), workers (3 cases, 7.7%), and office staff (1 case, 2.6%). Chest blows were produced by fists (28 cases, 71.8%), feet (6 cases, 15.4%), knee (2 case, 5.1%), head (1 case, 2.6%), or objects (2 cases, 5.1%). Witness statements indicated that most victims collapsed after being impacted in the precordium. The autopsy findings were unremarkable except bruises, contusions, or subcutaneous hemorrhage in the anterior chest (13 cases), bleeding of intercostal muscles (5 cases), and disperse focal petechiae of the epicardium (11 cases). All CC cases in this study were caused by violent attacks and related to criminal processes. Correct diagnosis of CC due to violence has important implications in the judicial system. PMID:26705218

  13. Classifying Wildfire Causes in the USDA Forest Service: Problems and Alternatives

    Treesearch

    Linda R. Donoghue

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with fire-cause data on USDA Forest Service wildfire reports, traces the historical development of wildfire-cause categories, and presents the pros and cons of retaining current wildfire-cause reporting systems or adopting new systems.

  14. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome possibly caused by molindone hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Gradon, J D

    1991-10-01

    The case of a patient who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) on three separate occasions is presented. Her third bout of this syndrome possibly was caused by molindone hydrochloride. This medication has been reported only once previously to cause NMS. The pharmacology of molindone is reviewed and a complicating factor in this case--the recent onset of hypothyroidism--is discussed together with its implication in the development of the clinical manifestations of this syndrome.

  15. Myopericarditis associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum-caused liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Alexis; Knoll, Bettina

    2015-03-01

    A wide clinical spectrum of bacteremic disease caused by Fusobacterium has been presented in this journal. We wish to extend this spectrum by presenting a case of myopericarditis resulting from a liver abscess caused by F. nucleatum. While F. nucleatum plays an important role in periodontal disease, and has been isolated from skin ulcers, liver abscesses, urinary tract infections, and endocarditis, a single case of F. nucleatum-induced pericarditis is documented in the literature.

  16. Investigation on cause of the elevator turbine wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Ouyang, W. P.; Xue, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    Elevator traction turbine is often worn for various reasons, causing serious safety hazard. It is explained the main causes of traction wheel wear in detail in combination with a large number of engineering experience. The effect of turbine wear on the actual operation of the elevator is verified by contrast experiment, which is helpful to identify risks early. It is put forward on some reasonable suggestions for elevator inspection, maintenance and management.

  17. Noncommutative Common Cause Principles in algebraic quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer-Szabo, Gabor; Vecsernyes, Peter

    2013-04-15

    States in algebraic quantum field theory 'typically' establish correlation between spacelike separated events. Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle, generalized to the quantum field theoretical setting, offers an apt tool to causally account for these superluminal correlations. In the paper we motivate first why commutativity between the common cause and the correlating events should be abandoned in the definition of the common cause. Then we show that the Noncommutative Weak Common Cause Principle holds in algebraic quantum field theory with locally finite degrees of freedom. Namely, for any pair of projections A, B supported in spacelike separated regions V{sub A} and V{submore » B}, respectively, there is a local projection C not necessarily commuting with A and B such that C is supported within the union of the backward light cones of V{sub A} and V{sub B} and the set {l_brace}C, C{sup Up-Tack }{r_brace} screens off the correlation between A and B.« less

  18. Nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality causes natural selection on prey.

    PubMed

    Siepielski, Adam M; Wang, Jason; Prince, Garrett

    2014-03-01

    Predators frequently exert natural selection through differential consumption of their prey. However, predators may also cause prey mortality through nonconsumptive effects, which could cause selection if different prey phenotypes are differentially susceptible to this nonconsumptive mortality. Here we present an experimental test of this hypothesis, which reveals that nonconsumptive mortality imposed by predatory dragonflies causes selection on their damselfly prey favoring increased activity levels. These results are consistent with other studies of predator-driven selection, however, they reveal that consumption alone is not the only mechanism by which predators can exert selection on prey. Uncovering this mechanism also suggests that prey defensive traits may represent adaptations to not only avoid being consumed, but also for dealing with other sources of mortality caused by predators. Demonstrating selection through both consumptive and nonconsumptive predator mortality provides us with insight into the diverse effects of predators as an evolutionary force. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis: a sterile folliculitis of unknown cause?

    PubMed

    Brenner, S; Wolf, R; Ophir, J

    1994-08-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) was initially defined as a sterile folliculitis of unknown cause. Because attempts to demonstrate bacterial organisms have been unsuccessful, and antibiotic therapy is usually ineffective, a bacterial infection is not considered a plausible causative factor for this disease. Our purpose was to describe five patients with the clinical and histologic characteristics of EPF and to report the results of bacterial cultures. Biopsy specimens were examined and pustules were cultured. In three of the five patients, Pseudomonas infection of the hair follicle was the cause of the disease as proven by repeated cultures and the response to specific therapy. Three patients had a systemic disorder known to cause immunologic alteration: AIDS in one and a myeloproliferative disorder in two. Although EPF was initially defined as a sterile folliculitis of unknown origin, three of our patients had an identifiable and treatable cause. We believe that these cases warrant the diagnosis of EPF.

  20. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models

    DOE PAGES

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; ...

    2014-06-25

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methodsmore » for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. Finally, as a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure.« less

  1. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models

    SciTech Connect

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methodsmore » for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. Finally, as a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure.« less

  2. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    PubMed

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  3. Mediastinal granuloma: a rare cause of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Micic, Dejan; Hogarth, Douglas Kyle; Kavitt, Robert T

    2016-06-14

    Dysphagia is commonly attributed to disorders arising from dysfunction of the oesophageal mucosa or oesophageal motility. Mediastinal structures causing compression of the oesophagus remain a rare presenting cause of dysphagia. We report a case of a woman presenting with dysphagia to solid foods and associated symptoms of weight loss. Traditional evaluation for dysphagia was unrevealing until cross-sectional imaging suggested a mediastinal obstructive process. The finding of a mediastinal granuloma, distinct from mediastinal fibrosis, as the aetiology of dysphagia is a rare finding, with specific treatment implications. The patient was treated with itraconazole antifungal therapy with an improvement in her symptoms. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome caused by poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Dunne, J W; Harper, C G; Hilton, J M

    1984-07-01

    Most seemingly well infants who die suddenly and unexpectedly have no adequate cause of death found on thorough postmortem examination. Respiratory and enteric viruses are often present, especially in the upper respiratory tract, but the infective process seems, of itself, insufficient to cause death. In the remainder of the cases, a variety of lesions will be discovered, including viral myocarditis, bronchiolitis, and sepsis. We report a case of sudden and unexpected death in a 5-week-old male infant due to acute anterior poliomyelitis. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough postmortem examination, including histologic studies of the brain stem and spinal cord in cases of sudden infant death syndrome.

  5. [Tropical causes of epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.

  6. Injuries caused by fragmenting rifle ammunition.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jorgen Joakim; Naess, Paal Aksel; Gaarder, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Although penetrating injuries are encountered on a regular basis in high volume trauma centres, most civilian trauma teams will be unfamiliar with the treatment of patients with injuries caused by fragmenting ammunition. The terrorist attacks in Norway on July 22, 2011 included a shooting spree causing 69 deaths and 60 injured. One of the weapons used was a semi-automatic rifle, calibre 5.56mm, with soft tip, short stop ammunition. The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristic injury patterns and lessons learned from the treatment of multiple patients admitted at the regional trauma centre with injuries from this type of ammunition. We undertook an observational study of patients admitted at Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval after the shooting spree at Utoya on July 22, 2011. Data on demographics, injuries, injury severity, surgical procedures and outcome were collected prospectively. Of the 21 patients admitted after the shooting incident, 18 were identified with injuries caused by fragmenting ammunition and included in the study. Median age was 17 years (IQR 16, 19), median ISS 21 (IQR 12, 30) and 12 patients were female. They had been hit by a total of 38 projectiles, of which 32 were fragmenting bullets. Of the seven patients who sustained injuries to the head, neck and face, one patient required a craniotomy and one patient had a non-survivable head injury. Of the 11 patients with torso injuries, six of the eight patients with chest injuries had intra-thoracic injuries that could be treated with chest tubes only. One patient had cardiac tamponade, requiring thoracotomy. Six patients underwent laparotomy, four of them more than one. Of the 10 patients with extremity injuries, two had nerve injuries and six patients had fractures. Five amputations were performed within the first nine days. A total of 101 operations were required within the first four weeks. The majority of these were repeated soft tissue debridements due to progressive necrosis

  7. Optimism and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Grodstein, Francine; DeMeo, Dawn L; De Vivo, Immaculata; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked positive psychological attributes like optimism to a lower risk of poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. It has been demonstrated in randomized trials that optimism can be learned. If associations between optimism and broader health outcomes are established, it may lead to novel interventions that improve public health and longevity. In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health behaviors, health conditions) variables. We used prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 70,021). Dispositional optimism was measured in 2004; all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were assessed from 2006 to 2012. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that a higher degree of optimism was associated with a lower mortality risk. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of optimism, women in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.66, 0.76) for all-cause mortality. Adding health behaviors, health conditions, and depression attenuated but did not eliminate the associations (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97). Associations were maintained for various causes of death, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and infection. Given that optimism was associated with numerous causes of mortality, it may provide a valuable target for new research on strategies to improve health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lumbar Discitis Caused by Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Popoff, M. R.; Degand, Nicolas; Lotte, Laurene; Bouvet, Philippe; Baudin, Guillaume; Cua, Eric; Roger, Pierre-Marie; Ruimy, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We report here a rare case of chronic lumbar discitis caused by Clostridium perfringens in an elderly patient that was treated with a combination of β-lactams and clindamycin. Molecular analysis performed on the strain revealed an unusual toxin gene pattern. PMID:25056327

  9. A Systematic Review of the Causes and Management of Ischaemic Stroke Caused by Nontissue Emboli.

    PubMed

    Judge, Ciaran; Mello, Sarah; Bradley, David; Harbison, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The inadvertent or purposeful introduction of foreign bodies or substances can lead to cerebral infarction if they embolize to the brain. Individual reports of these events are uncommon but may increase with the increased occurrences of their risk factors, for example, intra-arterial procedures. We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for articles on embolic stroke of nontissue origin. 1889 articles were identified and screened and 216 articles were ultimately reviewed in full text and included in qualitative analysis. Articles deemed relevant were assessed by a second reviewer to confirm compatibility with the inclusion criteria. References of included articles were reviewed for relevant publications. We categorized the pathology of the emboli into the following groups: air embolism (141 reports), other arterial gas embolisms (49 reports), missiles and foreign bodies (16 reports), and others, including drug embolism, cotton wool, and vascular sclerosant agents. Air and gaseous embolism are becoming more common with increased use of interventional medical procedures and increased popularity of sports such as diving. There is increasing evidence for the use of hyperbaric oxygen for such events. Causes of solid emboli are diverse. More commonly reported causes include bullets, missiles, and substances used in medical procedures.

  10. Proctalgia fugax: caused by pudendal neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Takano, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    There is a strange disease called proctalgia fugax in which rather uncomfortable pain appears suddenly mostly at night without any particular warning and disappears completely without any objective traces. It also is categorized as a functional anorectal pain under the Rome II (diagnostic criteria for the functional gastrointestinal disorders). For the causes, many theories have been advocated but not decisive and therefore were not linked to the definite treatment. The author experienced 68 patients with proctalgia fugax, among which 55 patients had tenderness along the pudendal nerve. The location, character, and degree of pain caused by digital examination were confirmed by all of them to be similar to that which they experience at times of paroxysm. After administration of a nerve block, symptoms disappeared completely in 65 percent of the patients and decreased in 25 percent. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of proctalgia fugax is neuralgia of the pudendal nerves.

  11. Self-reported causes of weight gain: among prebariatric surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sarah; Al-Rehany, Layla; Tang, Cathy; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Madill, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is accepted by the medical community as the most effective treatment for obesity; however, weight regain after surgery remains common. Long-term weight loss and weight maintenance may be aided when dietitians who provide perioperative care understand the causes of weight gain leading to bariatric surgery. In this study, the most common causes for weight gain were examined among prebariatric surgery patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 160 patients enrolled in a bariatric surgery program. Data were collected for 20 variables: puberty, pregnancy, menopause, change in living environment, change in job/career, financial problems, quitting smoking, drug or alcohol use, medical condition, surgery, injury affecting mobility, chronic pain, dieting, others' influence over diet, abuse, mental health condition, stress, death of a loved one, divorce/end of a relationship, and other causes. Frequency distribution and chi-square tests were performed using SPSS. Sixty-three percent of participants selected stress as a cause of weight gain, while 56% selected dieting. Significant differences existed between women and men in the selection of dieting and change in living environment. This information may allow dietitians to better identify causes for weight gain leading to bariatric surgery, and to address these causes appropriately before and after surgery.

  12. Understanding Suicide Attempts Among Gay Men From Their Self-perceived Causes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jen; Plöderl, Martin; Häusermann, Michael; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-07-01

    Gay men are at higher risk of suicidality. This paper describes the causes of suicide attempts as perceived by the men themselves and analyzes their impact on severity and recidivism. Mental health surveys conducted among gay men in Geneva, Switzerland, from two probability-based time-space samples in 2007 and 2011, were merged to yield a combined sample N = 762. Suicide ideation, plans, and attempts were assessed, and respondents who had ever attempted suicide answered open questions about perceived causes which were coded and categorized for analysis within the framework of cultural epidemiology. In all, 16.7% of the respondents reported a suicide attempt in their lifetime (59.5% of them with multiple attempts). At their latest attempt, over two thirds asserted intent to die, and half required medical assistance. There was a wide variety of perceived causes, with most individuals reporting multiple causes and many of the most common causes cited at both the first and most recent subsequent attempts. Social/inter-personal problems constitute the most prominent category. Problems with love/relationship and accepting one's homosexuality figure consistently among the top three causes. Whereas the former tend to be associated with weaker intent to die, the latter are associated with the strongest intent to die and reported at multiple attempts. Problems with family are among the most common perceived causes at first attempt but not at the most recent subsequent attempt. Nevertheless, they tend to be related to the strongest intent to die and the greatest medical severity of all the perceived causes. Ten percent of men attempting suicide cited depression as a cause. Although it tended to be associated with weaker intent to die, depression was most likely to be reported at multiple attempts. Respondent-driven assessment yielded both common and idiosyncratic causes of suicide and their distinct effects. Some of these perceived causes are not prominent in the current

  13. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Durić, Predrag; Filipović, Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was maesured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and those with pathological findings. Drivers causing traffic accidents showed significantly higher Cornell index scores than drivers not responsible for traffic accidents. Drivers with pathological results of Cornell index showed a significantly longer reaction time.

  14. Infantile hydrocephalus: a review of epidemiology, classification and causes

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Hannah M; Dobyns, William B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common but complex condition caused by physical or functional obstruction of CSF flow that leads to progressive ventricular dilatation. Though hydrocephalus was recently estimated to affect 1.1 in 1,000 infants, there have been few systematic assessments of the causes of hydrocephalus in this age group, which makes it a challenging condition to approach as a scientist or as a clinician. Here, we review contemporary literature on the epidemiology, classification and pathogenesis of infantile hydrocephalus. We describe the major environmental and genetic causes of hydrocephalus, with the goal of providing a framework to assess infants with hydrocephalus and guide future research. PMID:24932902

  15. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, Syed M A; Mahmood, Shehrin S; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES). The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4). The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Analysing cause of death (CoD) revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were the leading causes of deaths (37%), followed by communicable diseases (CDs) (22%), perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%), and injury and accidents (6%); the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0-14 years), which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04). For adult and the elderly (15 years and older), NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%), followed by CDs (23%). For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005), and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001). Epidemiologic transition is taking place

  16. Administrative Information Systems: The 1980 Profile. CAUSE Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    The first summaries of the CAUSE National Database, which was established in 1980, are presented. The database is updated annually to provide members with baseline reference information on the status of administrative information systems in colleges and universities. Information is based on responses from 350 CAUSE member campuses, which are…

  17. "Johnny Poppers": a cause of serious ocular injury.

    PubMed

    MacAndie, K; Kyle, P

    1998-07-01

    The causes of blunt ocular trauma are many and diverse. We present two cases of ocular injury caused by an unusual form of weapon called a "Johnny Popper". There follows a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the velocity of the projectiles fired by this device. A Johnny Popper was constructed under expert guidance. The elastic properties of the device were measured and this allowed calculation of a theoretical exit velocity of the projectiles fired. The weapon was subsequently fired under test conditions which permitted the exit velocity of the projectiles fired to be measured directly. The theoretical velocity of the projectiles was calculated as 80 ms-1 and the experimentally measured velocity was 57 ms-1. Johnny Poppers are a previously undescribed and unique form of home made weapon. They are intended for playful mischief, but have the potential to cause serious ocular trauma.

  18. Causes of Death after a Hospitalization with AKI.

    PubMed

    Silver, Samuel A; Harel, Ziv; McArthur, Eric; Nash, Danielle M; Acedillo, Rey; Kitchlu, Abhijat; Garg, Amit X; Chertow, Glenn M; Bell, Chaim M; Wald, Ron

    2018-03-01

    Mortality after AKI is high, but the causes of death are not well described. To better understand causes of death in patients after a hospitalization with AKI and to determine patient and hospital factors associated with mortality, we conducted a population-based study of residents in Ontario, Canada, who survived a hospitalization with AKI from 2003 to 2013. Using linked administrative databases, we categorized cause of death in the year after hospital discharge as cardiovascular, cancer, infection-related, or other. We calculated standardized mortality ratios to compare the causes of death in survivors of AKI with those in the general adult population and used Cox proportional hazards modeling to estimate determinants of death. Of the 156,690 patients included, 43,422 (28%) died in the subsequent year. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease (28%) and cancer (28%), with respective standardized mortality ratios nearly six-fold (5.81; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.70 to 5.92) and eight-fold (7.87; 95% CI, 7.72 to 8.02) higher than those in the general population. The highest standardized mortality ratios were for bladder cancer (18.24; 95% CI, 17.10 to 19.41), gynecologic cancer (16.83; 95% CI, 15.63 to 18.07), and leukemia (14.99; 95% CI, 14.16 to 15.85). Along with older age and nursing home residence, cancer and chemotherapy strongly associated with 1-year mortality. In conclusion, cancer-related death was as common as cardiovascular death in these patients; moreover, cancer-related deaths occurred at substantially higher rates than in the general population. Strategies are needed to care for and counsel patients with cancer who experience AKI. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Social autopsy for identifying causes of adult mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mamta; Kaur, Manmeet; Lakshmi, P. V. M.; Prinja, Shankar; Singh, Tarundeep; Sirari, Titiksha; Kumar, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    Verbal autopsy methods have been developed to determine medical causes of deathforprioritizing disease control programs. Additional information on social causesmay facilitate designing of more appropriate prevention strategies. Use of social autopsy in investigations of causes of adult deaths has been limited. Therefore, acommunity-based study was conducted in NandpurKalour Block of Fatehgarh Sahib District in Punjab (India)for finding social causes of adult deaths. An integrated verbal and social autopsy toolwas developed and verbal autopsies of 600 adult deaths, occurring over a reference period of one year, were conducted in 2014. Quantitative analysis described the socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, number and type of consultations from health care providers, and type of care received during illness. Qualitative data was analyzed to find out social causes of death by thematic analysis. The median duration of illness from symptom onset till death was 9 days (IQR = 1–45 days). At the onset of illness, 72 (12%) deceased utilized home remedies and 424 (70.7%)received care from a clinic/hospital, and 104 (17.3%) died withoutreceiving any care. The number of medical consultations varied from one to six (median = 2). The utilization of government health facilities and qualified allopathic doctor increased with each consultation (p value<0.05). The top five social causes of adult deaths in a rural area of Punjab in India. (1) Non availability of medical practitioner in the vicinity, (2) communication gaps between doctor and patient on regular intake of medication, (3) delayed referral by service provider, (4) poor communication with family on illness, and (5) perception of illness to be ‘mild’ by the family or care taker. To conclude, social autopsy tool should be integrated with verbal autopsy tool for identification of individual, community, and health system level factors associated with adult mortality. PMID:29851982

  20. Causes of Death Associated With Prolonged TV Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Keadle, Sarah K.; Moore, Steven C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Xiao, Qian; Albanes, Demetrius; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TV viewing is the most prevalent sedentary behavior and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality, but the association with other leading causes of death is unknown. This study examined the association between TV viewing and leading causes of death in the U.S. Methods A prospective cohort of 221,426 individuals (57% male) aged 50–71 years who were free of chronic disease at baseline (1995–1996), 93% white, with an average BMI of 26.7 (SD=4.4) kg/m2 were included. Participants self-reported TV viewing at baseline and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for TV viewing and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, adjusted mortality risk for a 2-hour/day increase in TV viewing was significantly higher for the following causes of death (HR [95% CI]): cancer (1.07 [1.03, 1.11); heart disease (1.23 [1.17, 1.29]); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.28 [1.14, 1.43]); diabetes (1.56 [1.33, 1.83]); influenza/pneumonia (1.24 [1.02, 1.50]); Parkinson disease (1.35 [1.11, 1.65]); liver disease (1.33 [1.05, 1.67]); and suicide (1.43 [1.10, 1.85]. Mortality associations persisted in stratified analyses with important potential confounders, reducing causation concerns. Conclusions This study shows the breadth of mortality outcomes associated with prolonged TV viewing, and identifies novel associations for several leading causes of death. TV viewing is a prevalent discretionary behavior that may be a more important target for public health intervention than previously recognized. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015 PMID:26215832

  1. PPIB mutations cause severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Fleur S; Nesbitt, Isabel M; Zwikstra, Eline H; Nikkels, Peter G J; Piersma, Sander R; Fratantoni, Silvina A; Jimenez, Connie R; Huizer, Margriet; Morsman, Alice C; Cobben, Jan M; van Roij, Mirjam H H; Elting, Mariet W; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Wijnaendts, Liliane C D; Shaw, Nick J; Högler, Wolfgang; McKeown, Carole; Sistermans, Erik A; Dalton, Ann; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Pals, Gerard

    2009-10-01

    Deficiency of cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) or prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1(P3H1) has been reported in autosomal-recessive lethal or severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). CRTAP, P3H1, and cyclophilin B (CyPB) form an intracellular collagen-modifying complex that 3-hydroxylates proline at position 986 (P986) in the alpha1 chains of collagen type I. This 3-prolyl hydroxylation is decreased in patients with CRTAP and P3H1 deficiency. It was suspected that mutations in the PPIB gene encoding CyPB would also cause OI with decreased collagen 3-prolyl hydroxylation. To our knowledge we present the first two families with recessive OI caused by PPIB gene mutations. The clinical phenotype is compatible with OI Sillence type II-B/III as seen with COL1A1/2, CRTAP, and LEPRE1 mutations. The percentage of 3-hydroxylated P986 residues in patients with PPIB mutations is decreased in comparison to normal, but it is higher than in patients with CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations. This result and the fact that CyPB is demonstrable independent of CRTAP and P3H1, along with reported decreased 3-prolyl hydroxylation due to deficiency of CRTAP lacking the catalytic hydroxylation domain and the known function of CyPB as a cis-trans isomerase, suggest that recessive OI is caused by a dysfunctional P3H1/CRTAP/CyPB complex rather than by the lack of 3-prolyl hydroxylation of a single proline residue in the alpha1 chains of collagen type I.

  2. [Reaction time of drivers who caused road traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Durić, Predrag; Filipović, Danka

    2009-01-01

    Human factor is the single cause of road traffic injuries in 57%, and together with other factors in more than 90% of all road traffic accidents. Human factor includes many aspects, where reaction time is very important. Thirty healthy drivers 28-40 y.o. with 50-500 km passed per week, having caused at least one road traffic accident in the last ten years were selected, provided they were not under the influence of alcohol and drugs during traffic accident. The same number of control were selected. Both cases and controls were tested to reaction time. We found statistically significant difference between car drivers who caused car accidents and those who did not in both simple and choice reaction times. Car drivers who caused road traffic accidents have longer reaction time (both simple and choice reaction time), but as the tasks were more complex, that difference was less visible. Since drivers involved in this study had introductory phase before measuring their reaction times, they faced with unpleasant sound when they made mistake, which forced them to be aware not to make a mistake in further tasks, so they showed longer reaction times. Measuring of reaction time seems to be important, and as we have showed they are different in drivers who have caused road traffic accidents and those who have do not.

  3. Causes and circumstances of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Adriano R; Arelli, Vineesha; Minai, Omar A; Newman, Jennie; Bair, Nancy; Heresi, Gustavo A; Dweik, Raed A

    2013-08-01

    The causes and circumstances surrounding death are understudied in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We sought to determine the specific reasons and characteristics surrounding the death of patients with PAH. All deaths of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) followed in the Cleveland Clinic Pulmonary Vascular Program were prospectively reviewed by the PH team. A total of 84 patients with PAH (age 58 ± 14 yr; 73% females) who died between June 2008 and May 2012 were included. PH was determined to be the direct cause of death (right heart failure or sudden death) in 37 (44%) patients; PH contributed to but did not directly cause death in 37 (44%) patients; and the death was not related to PH in the remaining cases (n = 7; 8.3%). In three (3.6%) patients the final cause of death could not be adequately assessed. Most patients died in a healthcare environment and most received PH-specific therapies. In our cohort, 50% of all patients with PAH and 75.7% of those who died of right heart failure received parenteral prostanoid therapy. Less than half of patients had advanced healthcare directives. Most patients with PAH in our cohort died of their disease; however, right ventricular failure or sudden death was the sole cause of death in less than half of patients.

  4. Causal chain analysis and root causes: the GIWA approach.

    PubMed

    Belausteguigoitia, Juan Carlos

    2004-02-01

    The Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) was created to help develop a priority setting mechanism for actions in international waters. Apart from assessing the severity of environmental problems in ecosystems, the GIWA's task is to analyze potential policy actions that could solve or mitigate these problems. Given the complex nature of the problems, understanding their root causes is essential to develop effective solutions. The GIWA provides a framework to analyze these causes, which is based on identifying the factors that shape human behavior in relation to the use (direct or indirect) of aquatic resources. Two sets of factors are analyzed. The first one consists of social coordination mechanisms (institutions). Faults in these mechanisms lead to wasteful use of resources. The second consists of factors that do not cause wasteful use of resources per se (poverty, trade, demographic growth, technology), but expose and magnify the faults of the first group of factors. The picture that comes out is that diagnosing simple generic causes, e.g. poverty or trade, without analyzing the case specific ways in which the root causes act and interact to degrade the environment, will likely ignore important links that may put the effectiveness of the recommended policies at risk. A summary of the causal chain analysis for the Colorado River Delta is provided as an example.

  5. Research in Review: What Causes Cruelty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the problem of cruelty to animals from a research perspective. Studies of possible causes of childhood cruelty to animals are reviewed and common contributing environmental factors are identified. Implications for educators are discussed and directives for detection and prevention of cruelty are suggested. (ML)

  6. Dysphagia Caused by Chronic Laryngeal Edema.

    PubMed

    Delides, Alexander; Sakagiannis, George; Maragoudakis, Pavlos; Gouloumi, Αlina-Roxani; Katsimbri, Pelagia; Giotakis, Ioannis; Panayiotides, John G

    2015-10-01

    A rare case of a young female with chronic diffuse laryngeal edema causing severe swallowing difficulty is presented. The patient was previously treated with antibiotics and steroids with no improvement. Diagnosis was made with biopsy of the epiglottis under local anesthesia in the office.

  7. Beliefs About the Cause of Schizophrenia Among Caregivers in Midwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Igberase, Osayi; Okogbenin, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating illness with a chronic and relapsing course. While Western countries may endorse, biological and psychosocial causes more commonly than supernatural causes, non-western cultures like Nigeria in contrast, tend to endorse supernatural causes. Belief in supernatural causes has been reported to have consequences for treatment seeking behavior. This study aimed to examine the causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of outpatients with schizophrenia in a neuropsychiatric hospital in Midwestern Nigeria. In this study, we recruited a convenient sample of 200 consecutive caregivers of patients visiting the outpatient department of the Psychiatric Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. These primary caregivers were unpaid relatives who provided support to patients. The patients were service users who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Disease [ICD-10; World Health Organization 1993] for schizophrenia and had been on treatment for at least two years. Majority (72.0%) of caregivers endorsed supernatural causes as most important in the etiology of schizophrenia, while 28.0% endorsed natural causes. Every participant without formal education endorsed supernatural attribution. In our study, it was evident that participants embraced multiple causal attributions for schizophrenia. PMID:28748057

  8. Beliefs About the Cause of Schizophrenia Among Caregivers in Midwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igberase, Osayi; Okogbenin, Esther

    2017-03-22

    Schizophrenia is a devastating illness with a chronic and relapsing course. While Western countries may endorse, biological and psychosocial causes more commonly than supernatural causes, non-western cultures like Nigeria in contrast, tend to endorse supernatural causes. Belief in supernatural causes has been reported to have consequences for treatment seeking behavior. This study aimed to examine the causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of outpatients with schizophrenia in a neuropsychiatric hospital in Midwestern Nigeria. In this study, we recruited a convenient sample of 200 consecutive caregivers of patients visiting the outpatient department of the Psychiatric Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. These primary caregivers were unpaid relatives who provided support to patients. The patients were service users who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Disease [ICD-10; World Health Organization 1993] for schizophrenia and had been on treatment for at least two years. Majority (72.0%) of caregivers endorsed supernatural causes as most important in the etiology of schizophrenia, while 28.0% endorsed natural causes. Every participant without formal education endorsed supernatural attribution. In our study, it was evident that participants embraced multiple causal attributions for schizophrenia.

  9. Reading an Analogy Can Cause the Illusion of Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Allison J.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study explored students' ability to evaluate their learning from a multimedia inquiry unit about the causes of global climate change. Participants were 90 sixth grade students from four science classrooms. Students were provided with a text describing the causes of climate change as well as graphs showing average global temperature changes.…

  10. Causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury-a 70-year British study.

    PubMed

    Savic, G; DeVivo, M J; Frankel, H L; Jamous, M A; Soni, B M; Charlifue, S

    2017-10-01

    Retrospective and prospective observational. Analyse causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) in persons surviving the first year post injury, and establish any trend over time. Two spinal centres in Great Britain. The sample consisted of 5483 patients with tSCI admitted to Stoke Mandeville and Southport spinal centres who were injured between 1943 and 2010, survived first year post injury, had residual neurological deficit on discharge and were British residents. Mortality information, including causes of death, was collected up to 31 December 2014. Age-standardised cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for selected causes of death, and included trends over time and comparison with the general population. In total, 2322 persons (42.3% of the sample) died, with 2170 (93.5%) having a reliable cause of death established. The most frequent causes of death were respiratory (29.3% of all certified causes), circulatory, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (26.7%), neoplasms (13.9%), urogenital (11.5%), digestive (5.3%) and external causes, including suicides (4.5%). Compared to the general population, age-standardised cause-specific mortality rates were higher for all causes, especially skin, urogenital and respiratory; rates showed improvement over time for suicides, circulatory and urogenital causes, no significant change for neoplasms, and increase for skin and respiratory causes. Leading causes of death after tSCI in persons surviving the first year post injury were respiratory, circulatory, neoplasms and urogenital. Cause-specific mortality rates showed improvement over time for most causes, but were still higher than the general population rates, especially for skin, urinary and respiratory causes.

  11. Lunar Crater Slumping Caused by Soil Grain Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Lunar Orbiter 2 oblique northward view towards Copernicus crater on the Moon shows crater wall slumping caused by soil liquefaction following the impact that formed the crater. The crater is about 100 km in diameter. The central peaks are visible towards the top of the image, rising about 400 m above the crater floor, and stretching for about 15 km. The northern wall of the crater is in the background. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  12. Pathology of Podocytopathies Causing Nephrotic Syndrome in Children.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sarangarajan

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children includes a diverse group of diseases that range from genetic diseases without any immunological defects to causes that are primarily due to immunological effects. Recent advances in molecular and genomic studies have resulted in a plethora of genetic defects that have been localized to the podocyte, the basic structure that is instrumental in normal filtration process. Although the disease can manifest from birth and into adulthood, the primary focus of this review would be to describe the novel genes and pathology of primary podocyte defects that cause NS in children. This review will restrict itself to the pathology of congenital NS, minimal change disease (MCD), and its variants and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The two major types of congenital NS are Finnish type characterized by dilated sausage shaped tubules morphologically and diffuse mesangial sclerosis characterized by glomerulosclerosis. MCD has usually normal appearing biopsy features on light microscopy and needs electron microscopy for diagnosis, whereas FSGS in contrast has classic segmental sclerosing lesions identified in different portions of the glomeruli and tubular atrophy. This review summarizes the pathological characteristics of these conditions and also delves into the various genetic defects that have been described as the cause of these primary podocytopathies. Other secondary causes of NS in children, such as membranoproliferative and membranous glomerulonephritis, will not be covered in this review.

  13. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Quamrun; El Arifeen, Shams; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-09-18

    Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15-49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths three years prior to the survey were identified. Adult female deaths were then followed by a verbal autopsy (VA) using the WHO structured questionnaire. Two physicians independently reviewed the VA forms to assign a cause of death using the ICD-10; in case of disagreement, a third physician made an independent review and assigned a cause of death. The overall mortality rates for women aged 15-49 in 2001 and 2010 were 182 per 100,000 and 120 per 100,000 respectively. There is a shift in the pattern of causes of death during the period covered by the two surveys. In the 2001 survey, the main causes of death were maternal (20 %), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (15 %), malignancy (14 %) and infectious diseases (13 %). However, in the 2010 survey, malignancies were the leading cause (21 %), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (16 %), maternal causes (14 %) and infectious diseases (8 %). While maternal deaths remained the number one cause of death among 20-34 years old in both surveys, unnatural deaths were the main cause for teenage deaths, and malignancies were the main cause of death for older women. Although there is an increasing trend in the proportion of women who died in hospitals, in both surveys most women died at home (74 % in 2001 and 62 % in 2010). The shift in the pattern of causes of adult female deaths is in agreement with the overall change in the disease pattern from communicable to non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Suicide and other violent deaths as

  14. Injuries to children caused by burning rice husk.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Sherine Subodhini

    2002-02-01

    A case study of injury to the feet of children from Sri Lanka due to burning husk is discussed. The hot husk causes deep burns on the dorsum of the feet and spares the plantar surface. The contractures caused by the burns lead to severe deformity, and are very resistant to treatment. These burn injuries need to be treated early, in specialized centers, to avoid long term complications. Health education of the public plays an important role in the prevention of these injuries.

  15. Factitious disorder: a rare cause of haematemesis.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Michael; Eaden, Jayne; Burch, Nicola; Disney, Ben

    2017-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common condition in the UK with 50-70,000 admissions per year. In 20% of cases no cause can be found on endoscopy. Here, we present the case of a young female patient who was admitted on three occasions with large volume haematemesis and bleeding from other sites. She was extensively investigated and underwent multiple endoscopic procedures. She was eventually diagnosed with factitious disorder after concerns were raised about the inconsistent nature of her presentations. She was found to be venesecting herself from her intravenous cannula, and ingesting the blood to simulate upper GI bleeding. This is a rare cause of 'haematemesis' but perhaps not as rare as is thought.

  16. Pericardial Cyst: Cause of Sudden Cardiac Death?

    PubMed

    Ley, Marie Brix; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl

    2018-05-21

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of sudden death in the world. The etiology of sudden cardiac death involves a wide range of diseases, but seldom pericardial cysts. A pericardial cyst is an uncommon cyst usually located in the middle mediastinum and rarely in the posterior part. They are usually harmless and asymptomatic. Here, we present a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and hoarseness, but died suddenly after a CT scan was attempted. The detailed forensic pathologic and histologic examination revealed a pericardial cyst located in the posterior mediastinum. Toxicology and biochemistry tests, including tryptase, found no competing cause of death. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Causes of low vision and blindness in rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Saw, S-M; Husain, R; Gazzard, G M; Koh, D; Widjaja, D; Tan, D T H

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence rates and major contributing causes of low vision and blindness in adults in a rural setting in Indonesia Methods: A population based prevalence survey of adults 21 years or older (n=989) was conducted in five rural villages and one provincial town in Sumatra, Indonesia. One stage household cluster sampling procedure was employed where 100 households were randomly selected from each village or town. Bilateral low vision was defined as habitual VA (measured using tumbling “E” logMAR charts) in the better eye worse than 6/18 and 3/60 or better, based on the WHO criteria. Bilateral blindness was defined as habitual VA worse than 3/60 in the better eye. The anterior segment and lens of subjects with low vision or blindness (both unilateral and bilateral) (n=66) were examined using a portable slit lamp and fundus examination was performed using indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results: The overall age adjusted (adjusted to the 1990 Indonesia census population) prevalence rate of bilateral low vision was 5.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2 to 7.4) and bilateral blindness was 2.2% (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2). The rates of low vision and blindness increased with age. The major contributing causes for bilateral low vision were cataract (61.3%), uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), and amblyopia (12.9%), and the major cause of bilateral blindness was cataract (62.5%). The major causes of unilateral low vision were cataract (48.0%) and uncorrected refractive error (12.0%), and major causes of unilateral blindness were amblyopia (50.0%) and trauma (50.0%). Conclusions: The rates of habitual low vision and blindness in provincial Sumatra, Indonesia, are similar to other developing rural countries in Asia. Blindness is largely preventable, as the major contributing causes (cataract and uncorrected refractive error) are amenable to treatment. PMID:12928268

  18. For Want of a Nail: How Absences Cause Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Phillip; Barbey, Aron K.; Hausknecht, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Causation by omission is instantiated when an effect occurs from an absence, as in "The absence of nicotine causes withdrawal" or "Not watering the plant caused it to wilt." The phenomenon has been viewed as an insurmountable problem for process theories of causation, which specify causation in terms of conserved quantities, like force, but not…

  19. 31 CFR 50.81 - State causes of action preempted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State causes of action preempted. 50.81 Section 50.81 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK.... All State causes of action of any kind for property damage, personal injury, or death arising out of...

  20. 31 CFR 50.81 - State causes of action preempted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State causes of action preempted. 50.81 Section 50.81 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK.... All State causes of action of any kind for property damage, personal injury, or death arising out of...

  1. 31 CFR 50.81 - State causes of action preempted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State causes of action preempted. 50.81 Section 50.81 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK.... All State causes of action of any kind for property damage, personal injury, or death arising out of...

  2. 31 CFR 50.81 - State causes of action preempted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State causes of action preempted. 50.81 Section 50.81 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK.... All State causes of action of any kind for property damage, personal injury, or death arising out of...

  3. [Analysis on death causes of residents in Anhui province, 2013].

    PubMed

    He, Qin; Chen, Yeji; Dai, Dan; Xu, Wei; Xing, Xiuya; Liu, Zhirong

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the demographic characteristics and the death causes of the residents in Anhui province, and provide evidence for the disease prevention and control. Using descriptive epidemiological analysis, the demographic characteristics and death data of the national disease surveillance points (DSPs) in Anhui province in 2013 were analyed by areas. The aging of the population was observed in all the areas in Anhui, which was most obvious in Jianghuai, followed by Wannan and Huaibei. The overall mortality was 627.10/100 000. The mortalities of diseases varied with sex, area and age. Among the 3 areas, the overall mortality, chronic disease mortality and injury mortality were highest in Huaibei and lowest in Wannan. The area specific difference in mortality of infectious diseases was small. Regardless of areas or the types of diseases, the mortality was higher in males than in females. Deaths caused by diseases with unknown origins were common in residents aged >65 years. The mortality of chronic diseases was higher in residents aged >45 years, especially in those aged 65-84 years. The mortality of injuries was higher in age groups >15 years and >45 years. The mortality of infectious diseases peaked at both young age group and old age group. The top five death causes were cerebrovascular diseases, malignant tumors, heart diseases, respiratory diseases and injuries. Regardless of sex or area, the major death causes were similar, but the ranks were slightly different. The major death causes varied in different age groups, but they were similar in same age group in different areas. The major death causes were diseases originated in perinatal period, and congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities in children aged <1 year. The major death causes in children aged 1-14 years were injuries, diseases originated in perinatal period, congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities. Injuries and malignant tumors were the first and

  4. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma causing cauda equina syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Henry; Jhaveri, Subir; Yee, Albert; Finkelstein, Joel

    2005-11-01

    Case report. To report a case of lumbar hemangioma causing neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina, managed with hemostatic vertebroplasty and posterior decompression. This is the first report to our knowledge of a lumbar hemangioma causing neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina syndrome. Most hemangiomas causing neurologic symptoms occur in thoracic spine and cause spinal cord compression. Vertebroplasty as a method of hemostasis and for providing mechanical stability in this situation has not been discussed previously in the literature. L4 hemangioma was diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman with severe neurogenic claudication and early cauda equina syndrome. Preoperative angiograms showed no embolizable vessels. Posterior decompression was performed followed by bilateral transpedicular vertebroplasty. The patient received postoperative radiation to prevent recurrence. Complete relief of neurogenic claudication and cauda equina with less than 100 mL of blood loss. A lumbar hemangioma of the vertebral body, although rare, can cause neurogenic claudication and cauda equina syndrome. Intraoperative vertebroplasty can be an effective method of hemostasis and provide stability of the vertebra following posterior decompression.

  5. Some infectious causes of diarrhea in young farm animals.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, R E

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli, rotaviruses, and Cryptosporidium parvum are discussed in this review as they relate to enteric disease in calves, lambs, and pigs. These microorganisms are frequently incriminated as causative agents in diarrheas among neonatal food animals, and in some cases different strains or serotypes of the same organism cause diarrhea in humans. E. coli causes diarrhea by mechanisms that include production of heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins and synthesis of potent cytotoxins, and some strains cause diarrhea by yet undetermined mechanisms. Rotaviruses and C. parvum induce various degrees of villous atrophy. Rotaviruses infect and replicate within the cytoplasm of enterocytes, whereas C. parvum resides in an intracellular, extracytoplasmic location. E. coli, rotavirus, and C. parvum infections are of concern to producers, veterinarians, and public health officials. These agents are a major cause of economic loss to the producer because of costs associated with therapy, reduced performance, and high morbidity and mortality rates. Moreover, diarrheic animals may harbor, incubate, and act as a source to healthy animals and humans of some of these agents. Images PMID:2224836

  6. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  7. 36 CFR 223.137 - Causes for debarment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disposal of slash; (2) Protection of soil, water, wildlife, range, cultural, and timber resources and protection of improvements when such failure causes significant environmental, resource, or improvements...

  8. Cause of vocal fold scar.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui

    2010-12-01

    The prolonged debilitation, loss of income, and decrement in quality of life caused by vocal fold scar is exacerbated by our inability to successfully treat this difficult problem. As technology focuses on developing innovative treatments, we need to fully appreciate and understand the mechanisms giving rise to glottal scar, on both a macroscopic and microscopic level. This review examines recent literature pertaining to the gross and molecular mechanisms which give rise to vocal fold scar. Mechanisms of vocal fold scar production have been examined in both macroscopic and microscopic detail. Trauma and injury involving any aspect of the lamina propria, particularly the deeper layers, may result in epithelial tethering and scar formation. At the molecular level, early inflammatory cytokines activate and recruit fibroblasts which then drive the fibrotic cascade. Transforming growth factor-β enhances fibrosis and is balanced by tissue matrix metalloproteinases and hepatocyte growth factor activity. Molecular signaling offers novel opportunities to intervene in scar formation. New work investigating the cause of vocal fold scar identifies complex molecular processes leading to fibrosis in the lamina propria. Improved mechanistic understanding offers insight into prevention strategies and possible targets for antifibrotic therapies that may help prevent or treat this debilitating condition.

  9. Orthostatic Hypotension: Mechanisms, Causes, Management

    PubMed Central

    Tomalia, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) occurs when mechanisms for the regulation of orthostatic BP control fails. Such regulation depends on the baroreflexes, normal blood volume, and defenses against excessive venous pooling. OH is common in the elderly and is associated with an increase in mortality rate. There are many causes of OH. Aging coupled with diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease results in a prevalence of 10-30% in the elderly. These conditions cause baroreflex failure with resulting combination of OH, supine hypertension, and loss of diurnal variation of BP. The treatment of OH is imperfect since it is impossible to normalize standing BP without generating excessive supine hypertension. The practical goal is to improve standing BP so as to minimize symptoms and to improve standing time in order to be able to undertake orthostatic activities of daily living, without excessive supine hypertension. It is possible to achieve these goals with a combination of fludrocortisone, a pressor agent (midodrine or droxidopa), supplemented with procedures to improve orthostatic defenses during periods of increased orthostatic stress. Such procedures include water bolus treatment and physical countermaneuvers. We provide a pragmatic guide on patient education and the patient-orientated approach to the moment to moment management of OH. PMID:26174784

  10. Intermittent intussusception caused by colonic lipoma.

    PubMed

    Chan, K C; Lin, N H; Lien, H C; Chan, S L; Yu, S C

    1998-01-01

    Colonic lipomas are rare, usually small, and occur most often in the right colon, particularly in the cecum. They are most common in elderly women. Intermittent episodes of intussusception are not uncommon in patients with colonic lipoma, but they are usually caused by larger pedunculated lipomas. We report a 43-year-old woman with a large colonic submucosal lipoma that induced intermittent colocolic intussusception. The patient presented with symptoms of peptic ulcer, including intractable upper abdominal pain, which did not resolve with treatment. Abdominal sonography showed typical findings of intussusception caused by a lipoma, but the manifestations on barium enema and computed tomography mimicked a malignant colonic tumor. The patient's abdominal pain disappeared after right hemicolectomy and the tumor was demonstrated to be a lipoma. The postoperative course was uneventful; there was no evidence of recurrence at follow-up 6 months later. Physicians should be aware that surrounding organs should also be evaluated in cases of chronic peptic ulcer with intractable upper abdominal pain.

  11. A Rare Cause of Hemifacial Spasm: Papillary Oncocytic Cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Ozan; Aydın, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemifacial spasm is a sudden, involuntary and synchronous spasm of the facial muscles. The most frequent cause of this condition is compression of the facial nerves due to vascular pathologies. The most commonly used method of treatment is Botulinum toxin injection. However, the gold standard treatment is surgical treatment. Case Report: A 64-year-old male patient with hemifacial spasms, which had occurred due to a rare parotid mass that had been surgically treated, is presented in this case. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates that longstanding parotid gland masses may compress the facial nerves and cause demyelination in the nerve and thus may cause spasms in the facial muscles. PMID:27761290

  12. The shape of the global causes of death

    PubMed Central

    Barford, Anna; Dorling, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Background World maps can provide an instant visual overview of the distribution of diseases and deaths. Results There is a particular geography to each type of death: in some places many thousands of deaths are caused by a particular condition, whilst other equally populous areas have few to no deaths from the same cause. Conclusion Physicians and other health professionals often specialise in the specifics of causes, symptoms and effects. For some practitioners gaining a worldview of disease burden complements smaller scale medical knowledge of where and how people are affected by each condition. Maps can make health related information much more accessible to planners and the general public than can tables, text, or even graphs. Ten cartograms based on World Health Organisation Burden of Disease data are introduced here; alongside seven based on data from other sources. The Burden of Disease cartograms are the latest in a much larger collection of social, economic and health world maps. PMID:17956608

  13. Genes and Mutations Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Daiger, Stephen P.; Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has a prevalence of approximately one in 4000; 25%–30% of these cases are autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Like other forms of inherited retinal disease, adRP is exceptionally heterogeneous. Mutations in more than 25 genes are known to cause adRP, more than 1000 mutations have been reported in these genes, clinical findings are highly variable, and there is considerable overlap with other types of inherited disease. Currently, it is possible to detect disease-causing mutations in 50%–75% of adRP families in select populations. Genetic diagnosis of adRP has advantages over other forms of RP because segregation of disease in families is a useful tool for identifying and confirming potentially pathogenic variants, but there are disadvantages too. In addition to identifying the cause of disease in the remaining 25% of adRP families, a central challenge is reconciling clinical diagnosis, family history, and molecular findings in patients and families. PMID:25304133

  14. "Johnny Poppers": a cause of serious ocular injury

    PubMed Central

    MacAndie, K.; Kyle, P.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—The causes of blunt ocular trauma are many and diverse. We present two cases of ocular injury caused by an unusual form of weapon called a "Johnny Popper". There follows a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the velocity of the projectiles fired by this device.
METHODS—A Johnny Popper was constructed under expert guidance. The elastic properties of the device were measured and this allowed calculation of a theoretical exit velocity of the projectiles fired. The weapon was subsequently fired under test conditions which permitted the exit velocity of the projectiles fired to be measured directly.
RESULTS—The theoretical velocity of the projectiles was calculated as 80 ms-1 and the experimentally measured velocity was 57 ms-1.
CONCLUSIONS—Johnny Poppers are a previously undescribed and unique form of home made weapon. They are intended for playful mischief, but have the potential to cause serious ocular trauma.

 Keywords: ocular trauma; projectiles PMID:9924377

  15. Gravitational Anomalies Caused by Zonal Winds in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Kong, D.; Zhang, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present an accurate three-dimensional non-spherical numerical calculation of the gravitational anomalies caused by zonal winds in Jupiter. The calculation is based on a three-dimensional finite element method and accounts for the full effect of significant departure from spherical geometry caused by rapid rotation. Since the speeds of Jupiter's zonal winds are much smaller than that of its rigid-body rotation, our numerical calculation is carried out in two stages. First, we compute the non-spherical distributions of density and pressure at the equilibrium within Jupiter via a hybrid inverse approach by determining an a priori unknown coefficient in the polytropic equation of state that results in a match to the observed shape of Jupiter. Second, by assuming that Jupiter's zonal winds extend throughout the interior along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis, we compute gravitational anomalies produced by the wind-related density anomalies, providing an upper bound to the gravitational anomalies caused by the Jovian zonal winds.

  16. The neck mass. 2. Inflammatory and neoplastic causes.

    PubMed

    Damion, J; Hybels, R L

    1987-05-01

    Several inflammatory processes can cause nodules or swelling in the neck. A complete physical examination and, usually, laboratory testing are required to establish the diagnosis. Common infections include cervical lymphadenitis and tuberculous lymphadenitis, cat-scratch disease, infection in the neck spaces, infectious mononucleosis, and syphilis. Primary or metastatic cancer may also be the cause. Cervical metastasis often presents as a neck mass. Although a primary tumor may not be found immediately when a neck mass is being evaluated, one is often discovered later. Other types of malignancy that may be present are histiocytic lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, rhabdomyosarcoma, thyroid cancer, and a salivary (most often parotid) gland tumor. Symptomatic treatment is sometimes adequate for infectious disease, but administration of antituberculous drugs or antibiotics may also be necessary. Incision and drainage are required for some nodes and abscesses. For neck masses caused by neoplasms, fine-needle aspiration cytology or biopsy is performed. Depending on the diagnosis, treatment consists of dissection, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.

  17. Infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Han Sang

    2010-01-01

    The incidences of reproductive disorders in bovine are increasing over years. This scenario is further aggravating due to more emphasis on selection and rearing of animal for specific commercial purposes which compromises livestock reproduction. Reproductive disorders like infertility and abortions in cattle are major problems in the bovine industry. The reproductive disorders might be caused by several different agents such as physical agents, chemical agents, biological agents, etc. Also, the causative agent and pathogenesis of reproductive disorders are influenced by various factors including environmental factor. The exact causes may not be evident and are often complicated with multiple causative agents. Thus, there is a need for multi-faceted approach to understand correlation of various factors with reproductive performance. Of the agents, infectious biological agents are significant cause of reproductive disorder and are of high priority in the bovine industry. These factors are not only related to the prosperity of bovine industry but are also important from public health point of view because of their zoonotic potentials. Several infectious agents like bacterial, viral, protozoon, chlamydial and fungal agents are known to have direct impact on reproductive health of cattle. These diseases can be arranged and discussed in different groups based on the causative agents.

  18. Primary lung abscess caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Deng-Wei; Lee, Chao-Tai

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a strain of coagulase-negative staphylococci, is part of the normal flora of human skin but can cause multiple infections at various sites. This microorganism has emerged as a major human pathogen. However, no study has reported primary lung abscess caused by S. lugdunensis. A 54-year-old alcoholic man without relevant past medical history was admitted because of primary lung abscesses. Empirical amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy was initially administered; however, the patient had persistent pleuritic chest pain and fever. He subsequently underwent resection of the lung abscess and removal of exudative pleural effusion on the fourth hospital day. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of lung abscess, and colonies of gram-positive bacteria were identified. The culture specimen from the abscess was positive for S. lugdunensis, which was susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, oxacillin, teicoplanin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Following resection and 3 weeks of amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy, the patient eventually recovered well without relapse. This case report is the first to describe S. lugdunensis as a cause of primary lung abscess; this microorganism should be considered a potential monomicrobial pathogen in primary lung abscess. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in Japan: Differences in causes and therapeutic responses.

    PubMed

    Murase, Toshio; Okubo, Minoru; Ebara, Tetsu; Mori, Yasumichi

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (>1000 mg/dL) has a variety of causes and frequently leads to life-threating acute pancreatitis. However, the origins of this disorder are unclear for many patients. We aimed to characterize the causes of and responses to therapy in rare cases of severe hypertriglyceridemia in a group of Japanese patients. We enrolled 121 patients from a series of case studies that spanned 30 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) primary (genetic causes); (2) secondary (acquired); and (3) disorders of uncertain causes. In the last group, we focused on 3 possible risks factors for hypertriglyceridemia: obesity, diabetes mellitus, and heavy alcohol intake. Group A (n = 20) included 13 patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency, 3 patients with apolipoprotein CII deficiency, and other genetic disorders in the rest of the group. Group B patients (n = 15) had various metabolic and endocrine diseases. In Group C (uncertain causes; n = 86), there was conspicuous gender imbalance (79 males, 3 females) and most male subjects were heavy alcohol drinkers. In addition, 18 of 105 adult patients (17%) had histories of acute pancreatitis. The cause of severe hypertriglyceridemia is uncertain in many patients. In primary genetic forms of severe hypertriglyceridemia, genetic diversity between populations is unknown. In the acquired forms, we found fewer cases of estrogen-induced hypertriglyceridemia than in Western countries. In our clinical experience, the cause of most hypertriglyceridemia is uncertain. Our work suggests that genetic factors for plasma triglyceride sensitivity to alcohol should be explored. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Causes of mortality of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; David L. Kulhavy; Ann E. Snow

    1991-01-01

    Over a 13-year period we examined the mortality of cavity trees (n = 453) used by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) on national forests in eastern Texas. Bark beetles (53%), wind snap (30%), and fire (7%) were the major causes of cavity tree mortality. Bark beetles were the major cause of mortality in loblolly (Pinus taeda...

  1. Disturbance in forest ecosystems caused by pathogens and insects

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Wargo; Philip M. Wargo

    1995-01-01

    Pathogens and insects are major driving forces of processes in forested ecosystems. Disturbances caused by them are as intimately involved in ecosystem dynamics as the more sudden and obvious abiotic disturbances, for example, those caused by wind or fire. However, because pathogens and insects are selective and may affect only one or several related species of...

  2. Jaundice in infants and children: causes, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Chee, Y Y; Chung, P H; Wong, R M; Wong, K K

    2018-05-21

    Jaundice is caused by an accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. The presentation in infants and children can be indicative of a wide range of conditions, with some self-limiting and others potentially life-threatening. This article aims to provide a concise review of the common medical and surgical causes in children and discuss their diagnosis and management.

  3. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid biochemistry in biotinidase deficiency causing diagnostic conundrum.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Deepa; Maw, Anna; Brown, Richard; Hogg, Sarah; Calvin, Jackie; Parker, Alasdair P J

    2014-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a treatable cause of infantile epilepsy and the presentation can be nonspecific. The seizures are difficult to differentiate from other causes of epileptic encephalopathy, which generally have a poor prognosis. We report 2 infants who presented with seizures, and whose low cerebrospinal fluid glucose and high cerebrospinal lactate caused a diagnostic dilemma. Subsequent urine organic acids pointed to the correct diagnosis and avoided invasive investigation. The children had a good clinical outcome with resolution of their seizures on biotin treatment.

  4. [Nosocomial infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Qi; Shan, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Xian-Yu; Yang, Xing-Yi

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors of nosocomial infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care unit (ICU), in order to provide reference for an effective measure of infection control. A retrospective study of cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection occurring in ICU was made with multivariable Logistic regression analysis. The clinical data of 1 950 cases admitted from January 2002 to December 2006 were found to have nosocomial infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analyzed in order to identify its independent risk factors. Sixty-four out of 1 950 patients were found to suffer from nosocomial infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the morbidity rate was 3.3%. At the same time, and in the same department, 37 patients suffering from infection caused by Escherichia coli, served as control group. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors for nosocomial infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the use of corticosteroid, unconsciousness or craniocerebral trauma, abdominal surgery, thorax/abdomen drainage tube, mechanical ventilation, and tracheostomy [the use of corticosteroid: odds ratio (OR)=3.364, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.445-7.830; unconsciousness or craniocerebral trauma: OR=4.026, 95%CI 1.545-10.490; abdominal surgery: OR=0.166, 95%CI 0.068-0.403; thorax/abdomen drainage tube: OR=0.350, 95%CI 0.150-0.818; tracheostomy: OR=4.095, 95%CI 1.638-10.740]. Multivariate analysis showed that the independent risk factors of nosocomial infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ICU were: the use of corticosteroid and mechanical ventilation [the use of corticosteroid: OR=3.143, 95%CI 1.115-8.856; mechanical ventilation: OR=3.195, 95%CI 1.607-6.353, P<0.05 and P<0.01]. The independent risk factors of nosocomial infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in ICU are the use of corticosteroid and mechanical ventilation. Measures should be taken to take care of the risk factors in order to prevent nosocomial infection caused by

  5. Causes of Troponin Elevation and Associated Mortality in Young Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Candace; Singh, Avinainder; Collins, Bradley; Fatima, Amber; Qamar, Arman; Gupta, Ankur; Hainer, Jon; Klein, Josh; Jarolim, Petr; Di Carli, Marcelo; Nasir, Khurram; Bhatt, Deepak L; Blankstein, Ron

    2018-03-01

    While increased serum troponin levels are often due to myocardial infarction, increased levels may also be found in a variety of other clinical scenarios. Although these causes of troponin elevation have been characterized in several studies in older adults, they have not been well characterized in younger individuals. We conducted a retrospective review of patients 50 years of age or younger who presented with elevated serum troponin levels to 2 large tertiary care centers between January 2000 and April 2016. Patients with prior known coronary artery disease were excluded. The cause of troponin elevation was adjudicated via review of electronic medical records. All-cause death was determined using the Social Security Administration's death master file. Of the 6081 cases meeting inclusion criteria, 3574 (58.8%) patients had a myocardial infarction, while 2507 (41.2%) had another cause of troponin elevation. Over a median follow-up of 8.7 years, all-cause mortality was higher in patients with nonmyocardial infarction causes of troponin elevation compared with those with myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.46; P < .001). Specifically, mortality was higher in those with central nervous system pathologies (adjusted HR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.85-2.63; P < .001), nonischemic cardiomyopathies (adjusted HR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.37-2.02; P < .001), and end-stage renal disease (adjusted HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07-1.73; P = .013). However, mortality was lower in patients with myocarditis compared with those with an acute myocardial infarction (adjusted HR 0.43; 95% CI:, 0.31-0.59; P < .001). There is a broad differential for troponin elevation in young patients, which differs based on demographic features. Most nonmyocardial infarction causes of troponin elevation are associated with higher all-cause mortality compared with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia madurae.

    PubMed Central

    Saksun, J. M.; Kane, J.; Schachter, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Actinomycotic mycetoma was diagnosed in a woman from Jamaica living in Ontario. This is the first case reported in Canada in which the infection was caused by Nocardia madurae. Despite oral therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, local excision of newly appearing nodules was required periodically for clinical improvement. Laboratory procedures were modified to aid in identification of pathogenic actinomycetes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:737642

  7. Mexican Migration: Assessing Root Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    surely broaden our understanding of the causes of Mexico–U.S. migration. One writer, Denise Dresser , does go into great detail about the political...change from a civil-authoritarian to a democratic regime.19 Dresser provides much insight into the working of the political transition in Mexico, but...www.nber.org/papers/w11428 (accessed January 25 2006), 9. 19 Denise Dresser , “Mexico: From PRI Predominance to Divided Democracy,” in Constructing

  8. Teacher Burnout: Causes, Cures and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In a review of the literature, this study defines teacher burnout, explains the physiological and environmental causes of teacher burnout, and provides suggestions regarding how educators can prevent and recover from teacher burnout. The essay addresses the uniquely stressful experience of teaching and the psychological effects of the profession.

  9. Prions: Protein Rebels with a Cause!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Karen E.; Serpell, Louise C.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally we consider infection to arise from viruses, bacteria and parasites. Prions are infectious proteins without any nucleic acids, and therefore do not represent living things. Despite this, they have the ability to replicate themselves and cause diseases such as mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encepthalopathy) and human…

  10. Schoolchildren's Social Representations on Bullying Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate schoolchildren's social representations on the causes of bullying. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 schoolchildren recruited from five elementary schools in Sweden. Mixed methods (grounded theory as well as descriptive statistic methods) were used to analyze data. According to…

  11. Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

  12. Reasonable Cause for Dismissal of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delon, Floyd G.

    The speaker examines a cross-section of the cases illustrating reasonable cause for dismissal of teachers. He considers teacher behavior both in and out of the schools in covering such topics as insubordination, cruelty, personal appearance, curriculum decisions, immoral behavior, political activity, illegal strikes, and criminal conduct. Court…

  13. Car surfing: an uncommon cause of traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Peterson, T; Timberlake, G; Yeager, A; Jadali, M; Royer, K

    1999-02-01

    Car surfing is an infrequent cause of traumatic injuries treated by emergency physicians. This very dangerous activity can result in serious injury or death. We report 5 cases of injuries caused by car surfing seen at our hospital during 1996 and 1997. All involved head injuries after a fall from a moving motor vehicle. There were 3 male and 2 female patients, and 3 cases were fatal. Health care providers should be aware of this type of injury and support efforts to prevent it.

  14. Legionnaires' disease: respiratory infections caused by Legionella bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davis, G S; Winn, W C

    1987-09-01

    This article provides a review of Legionnaire's Disease, a bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella species, and of Pontiac Fever, the flu-like illness caused by these microorganisms. The authors draw on their personal experience with major human outbreaks of Legionnaire's Disease and with animal models of Legionella pneumonia. Emphasis is placed on the sources in nature from which legionellosis is acquired, the means of dissemination of bacteria, the epidemiology of human infections, the pathogenetic mechanisms of disease and host defense, the clinical manifestations, and the treatment.

  15. Cause of Legionnaire's Disease outbreak at hospital traced.

    PubMed

    1995-03-01

    The cause of an outbreak of Legionnaire's Disease at St. Vincent's Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT, has been traced to the hospital's hot water system after months of testing and decontamination efforts. A total of 28 patients were diagnosed with the disease between January and October 1994, with most of the cases occurring in June and July. Legionnaire's Disease is a kind of pneumonia caused by bacteria that thrive in warm water and can become airborne on tiny water droplets that, if inhaled, spread the disease.

  16. A root cause analysis project in a medication safety course.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Jason J

    2012-08-10

    To develop, implement, and evaluate team-based root cause analysis projects as part of a required medication safety course for second-year pharmacy students. Lectures, in-class activities, and out-of-class reading assignments were used to develop students' medication safety skills and introduce them to the culture of medication safety. Students applied these skills within teams by evaluating cases of medication errors using root cause analyses. Teams also developed error prevention strategies and formally presented their findings. Student performance was assessed using a medication errors evaluation rubric. Of the 211 students who completed the course, the majority performed well on root cause analysis assignments and rated them favorably on course evaluations. Medication error evaluation and prevention was successfully introduced in a medication safety course using team-based root cause analysis projects.

  17. Consideration of alternative causes of lactic acidosis: Thiamine deficiency in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Dean, Ryan K; Subedi, Rogin; Gill, Dalvir; Nat, Amitpal

    2017-08-01

    Lactic acidosis is a common metabolic acidosis characterized by increased serum lactate and is usually associated with a decreased blood pH. Lactic acidosis has many different causes but has been differentiated into type A, hypoxic causes, and type B, non-hypoxic causes. Tissue hypoxia, type A, is the most common cause, usually secondary to processes such as sepsis and multi-organ failure. Type A must be differentiated from type B in the correct clinical setting as treatments are vastly different. Type B causes may include drug side-effects, toxins, enzymatic defects, inherited or acquired, any of which may lead to overproduction or underutilization of lactate. However, as most clinicians are more familiar, and likely more initially concerned with hypoxic etiologies, evaluation is directed toward finding the source of hypoperfusion or hypoxia, and thus generally leading to a delay in discovering a type B cause (or mixed type A and type B). Here we describe a case of lactic acidosis in the setting of thiamine deficiency thought to be secondary to advanced lung cancer. The purpose of this paper is to bring awareness to the clinician to consider other causes of lactic acidosis when evaluating a patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying verbal autopsy to determine cause of death in rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, Dao Lan; Minh, Hoang Van; Byass, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Verbal autopsy (VA) is an attractive method for ascertaining causes of death in settings where the proportion of people who die under medical care is low. VA has been widely used to determine causes of childhood and maternal deaths, but has had limited use in assessing causes in adults and across all age groups. The objective was to test the feasibility of using VA to determine causes of death for all ages in Bavi District, Vietnam, in 1999, leading to an initial analysis of the mortality pattern in this area. Trained lay field workers interviewed a close caretaker of the deceased using a combination closed/open-ended questionnaire. A total of 189 deaths were studied. Diagnoses were made by two physicians separately, with good agreement (kappa = 0.84) and then combined to reach one single underlying cause of death for each case. The leading causes of death were cardiovascular and infectious diseases (accounting for 20.6% and 17.9% of the total respectively). Drowning was very prevalent in children under 15 (seven out of nine cases of drowning were in this age group). One month seemed an acceptable minimum recall period to ensure mourning procedures were over. A combination VA questionnaire was an appropriate instrument provided it was supported by adequate training of interviewers. Two physicians were appropriate for making the diagnoses but predefined diagnostic methods for common causes should be developed to ensure more replicable results and comparisons, as well as to observe trends of mortality over time. The causes of death in this study area reflect a typical pattern for developing countries that are in epidemiological transition. No maternal deaths and a low infant mortality rate may be the result of improvements in maternal and child health in this study area. Using the VA gave more precise causes of death than those reported at death registration. Although the validity of the VA method used has not been fully assessed, it appeared to be an appropriate

  19. 7 CFR 760.611 - Qualifying losses, eligible causes and types of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... final planting date; (4) The cause of loss was due to water contained or released by any governmental... containment or release of the water; (5) The cause of loss was due to conditions or events occurring outside...) Losses caused by a failure of power supply or brownout as defined in § 760.602; (2) Losses caused by the...

  20. Black-boxing and cause-effect power

    PubMed Central

    Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    Reductionism assumes that causation in the physical world occurs at the micro level, excluding the emergence of macro-level causation. We challenge this reductionist assumption by employing a principled, well-defined measure of intrinsic cause-effect power–integrated information (Φ), and showing that, according to this measure, it is possible for a macro level to “beat” the micro level. Simple systems were evaluated for Φ across different spatial and temporal scales by systematically considering all possible black boxes. These are macro elements that consist of one or more micro elements over one or more micro updates. Cause-effect power was evaluated based on the inputs and outputs of the black boxes, ignoring the internal micro elements that support their input-output function. We show how black-box elements can have more common inputs and outputs than the corresponding micro elements, revealing the emergence of high-order mechanisms and joint constraints that are not apparent at the micro level. As a consequence, a macro, black-box system can have higher Φ than its micro constituents by having more mechanisms (higher composition) that are more interconnected (higher integration). We also show that, for a given micro system, one can identify local maxima of Φ across several spatiotemporal scales. The framework is demonstrated on a simple biological system, the Boolean network model of the fission-yeast cell-cycle, for which we identify stable local maxima during the course of its simulated biological function. These local maxima correspond to macro levels of organization at which emergent cause-effect properties of physical systems come into focus, and provide a natural vantage point for scientific inquiries. PMID:29684020

  1. Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes?

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2001-03-01

    Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.

  2. Judgments of Cause and Blame: The Effects of Intentionality and Foreseeability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Channon, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    What are the factors that influence everyday attributions of cause and blame? The current studies focus on sequences of events that lead to adverse outcomes, and examine people's cause and blame ratings for key events in these sequences. Experiment 1 manipulated the intentional status of candidate causes and their location in a causal chain.…

  3. A Systematic Review of the Causes and Management of Ischaemic Stroke Caused by Nontissue Emboli

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Ciaran; Mello, Sarah; Bradley, David

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The inadvertent or purposeful introduction of foreign bodies or substances can lead to cerebral infarction if they embolize to the brain. Individual reports of these events are uncommon but may increase with the increased occurrences of their risk factors, for example, intra-arterial procedures. Method We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for articles on embolic stroke of nontissue origin. 1889 articles were identified and screened and 216 articles were ultimately reviewed in full text and included in qualitative analysis. Articles deemed relevant were assessed by a second reviewer to confirm compatibility with the inclusion criteria. References of included articles were reviewed for relevant publications. We categorized the pathology of the emboli into the following groups: air embolism (141 reports), other arterial gas embolisms (49 reports), missiles and foreign bodies (16 reports), and others, including drug embolism, cotton wool, and vascular sclerosant agents. Conclusion Air and gaseous embolism are becoming more common with increased use of interventional medical procedures and increased popularity of sports such as diving. There is increasing evidence for the use of hyperbaric oxygen for such events. Causes of solid emboli are diverse. More commonly reported causes include bullets, missiles, and substances used in medical procedures. PMID:29123937

  4. DNA Polymorphism Assay Distinguishes Isolates of Leishmania donovani That Cause Kala-Azar from Those That Cause Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivas, Gannavaram; Subba Raju, B. V.; Singh, Ruchi; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Duncan, Robert; Sarkar, Dwijen; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Salotra, Poonam

    2004-01-01

    Leishmania donovani in India causes visceral infection (kala-azar) and dermal infection (post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis). We report here the identification of polymorphism in a well-defined genetic locus among the Leishmania parasites causing the visceral and dermal manifestations, in a comparison of 15 post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and 12 kala-azar patient isolates. PMID:15071036

  5. [The cause and efficacy of benign tracheal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhu-quan; Wei, Xiao-qun; Zhong, Chang-hao; Chen, Xiao-bo; Luo, Wei-zhan; Guo, Wen-liang; Wang, Ying-zhi; Li, Shi-yue

    2013-09-01

    To analysis the causes of benign tracheal stenosis and evaluate the curative effect of intraluminal bronchoscopic treatment. 158 patients with benign tracheal stenosis in our hospital from September 2005 to September 2012 were collected to retrospectively analysis the causes and clinic features of tracheal stenosis. Interventional treatments through bronchoscopy were used to treat the benign tracheal stenosis and the curative effects were evaluated. 158 cases of benign tracheal stenosis were recruited to our study, 69.6% of them were young and middle-aged. The main causes of benign tracheal stenosis were as follows: secondary to postintubation or tracheotomy in 61.4% (97/158), tuberculosis in 16% (26/158), benign tumor in 5.1% (8/158) and other 27 cases. 94.3% patients improved in symptoms with alleviation immediately after bronchoscopic treatment, the average tracheal diameter increased form (4.22 ± 2.06) mm to (10.16 ± 2.99) mm (t = 21.48, P < 0.01), dyspnea index decreased from 2.29 ± 0.75 to 0.63 ± 0.67 (t = 19.85, P < 0.01). The recurrence rate in 1 and 3 month after interventional treatment were 38.3% and 26.8%, respectively. The cases of benign tracheal stenosis were increasing year by year. The most common cause of benign tracheal stenosis was postintubation and tracheotomy. Interventional treatments through bronchoscopy is effective in treating benign tracheal stenosis, but repeated interventional procedures may be required to maintain the favorable long-term effects.

  6. Pneumorachis caused by metastatic gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Thompson, George R; Crawford, George E

    2009-01-01

    Pneumorachis has previously been described only after spread from a contiguous site or after a traumatic event. Our patient experienced sepsis due to multiple enteric organisms, and gas was identified within the spinal canal on computed tomographic imaging. We present the 1st case of pneumorachis caused by disseminated infection.

  7. Anemia caused by low iron - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause the body to absorb too much lead. Prevention Eating a variety of healthy foods is the most important way to prevent and treat iron deficiency. Alternative Names Anemia - ... MD. Disorders of iron and copper metabolism, the sideroblastic anemias, and lead toxicity. In: Orkin SH, Fisher DE, Ginsburg D, ...

  8. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Generally Accepted Causes and Their Management.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jennifer; Branch, D Ware

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), commonly defined as 3 consecutive losses <10 weeks gestation, affects up to 5% of couples. Well-accepted causes include uterine malformation, antiphospholipid syndrome, and parental chromosomal abnormalities; however, the majority of RPL cases are idiopathic (up to 75%). This chapter covers these accepted causes of RPL and provides diagnosis and management strategies for patients falling within the above categories.

  9. How Root Cause Analysis Can Improve the Value Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wixson, James Robert

    2002-05-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) is an important methodology that can be integrated with the VE Job Plan to generate superior results from the VE Methodology. The point at which RCA is most appropriate is after the function analysis and FAST Model have been built and functions for improvement have been chosen. These functions are then subjected to a simple, but, rigorous RCA to get to the root cause of their deficiencies, whether it is high cost/poor value, poor quality, or poor reliability. Once the most probable causes for these problems have been arrived at, better solutions for improvement can bemore » developed in the creativity phase because the team better understands the problems associated with these functions.« less

  10. Gonadotropin-Dependent Precocious Puberty: Neoplastic Causes and Endocrine Considerations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis manifests as gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty. The mechanisms behind HPG activation are complex and a clear etiology for early activation is often not elucidated. Though collectively uncommon, the neoplastic and developmental causes of gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty are very important to consider, as a delay in diagnosis may lead to adverse patient outcomes. The intent of the current paper is to review the neoplastic and developmental causes of gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty. We discuss the common CNS lesions and human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting tumors that cause sexual precocity, review the relationship between therapeutic radiation and gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, and finally, provide an overview of the therapies available for height preservation in this unique patient population. PMID:21603196

  11. D region disturbances caused by electromagnetic pulses from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan V.; Inan, Umran S.; Bell, Timothy F.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple formulation of the propagation and absorption in a magnetized collisional plasma of EM pulses from lightning which describes the effect of discharge orientation and radiated electric field on the structure and magnitude of heating and secondary ionization in the D region. Radiation from most lightning discharges can heat substantially, but only the most intense (not less than 20 V/m) are likely to cause ionization enhancements not less than 10 percent of the ambient in a single ionization cycle. This dependence on the radiated electric field is modified by the discharge radiation pattern: a horizontal cloud discharge tends to cause larger heating and ionizaton maxima while a vertical return stroke causes disturbances of a larger horizontal extent.

  12. Bacterial agents as a cause of infertility in humans.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Melania; Cannas, Sara; Cubeddu, Marina; Molicotti, Paola; Piras, Gennarina Laura; Dessole, Salvatore; Zanetti, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Infertility is a problem affecting almost 15% of couples. There are many causes for this condition, among which urogenital bacterial infections seem to play an important role. Many studies have explained the mechanisms by which bacteria cause infertility both in men and women. Therefore we undertook this study to evaluate the presence of genito-urinary infections in infertile couples who sought counselling to investigate their condition. Microbiological analysis was performed on semen and vaginal/cervical samples of both partners of each couple. The percentage of individuals affected by a urogenital bacterial infection was between 14 and 20%. More significantly, most of the species isolated both in men and women have been described in the literature as potential causes of infertility.

  13. Urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Sharma, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a proteobacterium, is a facultative anaerobe, which is generally present as the normal flora of water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare but mostly fatal. It is responsible for causing fatal cases of septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis, diarrhea, and rarely urinary tract infection. The bacteria has high propensity to spread causing sepsis. Delayed proper treatment due to limited awareness related to the C. violaceum infection is responsible for the high mortality rate. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by C. violaceum in a chronic kidney disease patient, which was managed with timely proper antimicrobial therapy as per the culture sensitivity report.

  14. Fatal primary meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Shariq, Ali; Afridi, Faisal Iqbal; Farooqi, Badar Jahan; Ahmed, Sumaira; Hussain, Arif

    2014-07-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection.

  15. Term stillbirth caused by oral Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    PubMed

    Han, Yiping W; Fardini, Yann; Chen, Casey; Iacampo, Karla G; Peraino, Victoria A; Shamonki, Jaime M; Redline, Raymond W

    2010-02-01

    Intrauterine infection is a recognized cause of adverse pregnancy outcome, but the source of infection is often undetermined. We report a case of stillbirth caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum that originated in the mother's mouth. A woman with pregnancy-associated gingivitis experienced an upper respiratory tract infection at term, followed by stillbirth a few days later. F. nucleatum was isolated from the placenta and the fetus. Examination of different microbial floras from the mother identified the same clone in her subgingival plaque but not in the supragingival plaque, vagina, or rectum. F. nucleatum may have translocated from the mother's mouth to the uterus when the immune system was weakened during the respiratory infection. This case sheds light on patient management for those with pregnancy-associated gingivitis.

  16. Rotor vibration caused by external excitation and rub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushita, O.; Takagi, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Kaga, M.

    1982-01-01

    For turbomachinery with low natural frequencies, considerations have been recently required for rotor vibrations caused by external forces except unbalance one, such as foundation motion, seismic wave, rub and so forth. Such a forced vibration is investigated analytically and experimentally in the present paper. Vibrations in a rotor-bearing system under a harmonic excitation are analyzed by the modal technique in the case of a linear system including gyroscopic effect. For a nonlinear system a new and powerful quasi-modal technique is developed and applied to the vibration caused by rub.

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific mortality in 15 European cities.

    PubMed

    Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Palència, Laia; Burström, Bo; Corman, Diana; Costa, Giuseppe; Deboosere, Patrick; Díez, Èlia; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Dzúrová, Dagmar; Gandarillas, Ana; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kovács, Katalin; Martikainen, Pekka; Demaria, Moreno; Pikhart, Hynek; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Saez, Marc; Santana, Paula; Schwierz, Cornelia; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Borrell, Carme

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities are increasingly recognised as an important public health issue, although their role in the leading causes of mortality in urban areas in Europe has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we used data from the INEQ-CITIES study to analyse inequalities in cause-specific mortality in 15 European cities at the beginning of the 21st century. A cross-sectional ecological study was carried out to analyse 9 of the leading specific causes of death in small areas from 15 European cities. Using a hierarchical Bayesian spatial model, we estimated smoothed Standardized Mortality Ratios, relative risks and 95% credible intervals for cause-specific mortality in relation to a socioeconomic deprivation index, separately for men and women. We detected spatial socioeconomic inequalities for most causes of mortality studied, although these inequalities differed markedly between cities, being more pronounced in Northern and Central-Eastern Europe. In the majority of cities, most of these causes of death were positively associated with deprivation among men, with the exception of prostatic cancer. Among women, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, chronic liver diseases and respiratory diseases were also positively associated with deprivation in most cities. Lung cancer mortality was positively associated with deprivation in Northern European cities and in Kosice, but this association was non-existent or even negative in Southern European cities. Finally, breast cancer risk was inversely associated with deprivation in three Southern European cities. The results confirm the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in many of the main causes of mortality, and reveal variations in their magnitude between different European cities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Mortality causes in cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangdong; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2012-05-01

    Cancer patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of death due to cancer. However, whether T2DM comorbidity increases other causes of death in cancer patients is the novel theme of this study. Patients with T2DM were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and linked with patients with cancer recorded from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for death due to all causes among cancer patients with and without T2DM; both underlying and multiple causes of death were examined using the Cox regression model. A total of 13 325 cancer patients were identified with comorbidity of T2DM. The total number of deaths of cancer patients was 276 021. Of these, 5900 occurred after T2DM diagnosis. For underlying causes of death, except for T2DM, the highest cause-specific HRs were found for complications of bacterial disease (HR, 3.93; 95% CI, 3.04-5.09), urinary system disease (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.78-4.12), and myocardial infarction (HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 2.75-3.12). When risk of death was examined for both underlying and multiple causes of death, the highest HRs were found for hypertensive disease (HR, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.15-3.72), urinary system disease (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 3.17-3.63), and arterial disease (HR, 3.26; 95% CI, 3.08-3.46). The diagnosis of T2DM in cancer patients is associated with an increased risk of death due to various causes, including myocardial infarction, other bacterial disease, urinary system disease, hypertensive disease, arterial disease, and so on, which may be related to both cancer and treatment. Clinicians that treat cancer patients with T2DM should pay more attention to comorbidities.

  19. Causes and methods to estimate cryptic sources of fishing mortality.

    PubMed

    Gilman, E; Suuronen, P; Hall, M; Kennelly, S

    2013-10-01

    Cryptic, not readily detectable, components of fishing mortality are not routinely accounted for in fisheries management because of a lack of adequate data, and for some components, a lack of accurate estimation methods. Cryptic fishing mortalities can cause adverse ecological effects, are a source of wastage, reduce the sustainability of fishery resources and, when unaccounted for, can cause errors in stock assessments and population models. Sources of cryptic fishing mortality are (1) pre-catch losses, where catch dies from the fishing operation but is not brought onboard when the gear is retrieved, (2) ghost-fishing mortality by fishing gear that was abandoned, lost or discarded, (3) post-release mortality of catch that is retrieved and then released alive but later dies as a result of stress and injury sustained from the fishing interaction, (4) collateral mortalities indirectly caused by various ecological effects of fishing and (5) losses due to synergistic effects of multiple interacting sources of stress and injury from fishing operations, or from cumulative stress and injury caused by repeated sub-lethal interactions with fishing operations. To fill a gap in international guidance on best practices, causes and methods for estimating each component of cryptic fishing mortality are described, and considerations for their effective application are identified. Research priorities to fill gaps in understanding the causes and estimating cryptic mortality are highlighted. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Multifactorial discrimination as a fundamental cause of mental health inequities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mariam; Ilcisin, Misja; Saxton, Katherine

    2017-03-04

    The theory of fundamental causes explains why health disparities persist over time, even as risk factors, mechanisms, and diseases change. Using an intersectional framework, we evaluated multifactorial discrimination as a fundamental cause of mental health disparities. Using baseline data from the Project STRIDE: Stress, Identity, and Mental Health study, we examined the health effects of discrimination among individuals who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. We used logistic and linear regression to assess whether multifactorial discrimination met the four criteria designating a fundamental cause, namely that the cause: 1) influences multiple health outcomes, 2) affects multiple risk factors, 3) involves access to resources that can be leveraged to reduce consequences of disease, and 4) reproduces itself in varied contexts through changing mechanisms. Multifactorial discrimination predicted high depression scores, psychological well-being, and substance use disorder diagnosis. Discrimination was positively associated with risk factors for high depression scores: chronic strain and total number of stressful life events. Discrimination was associated with significantly lower levels of mastery and self-esteem, protective factors for depressive symptomatology. Even after controlling for risk factors, discrimination remained a significant predictor for high depression scores. Among subjects with low depression scores, multifactorial discrimination also predicted anxiety and aggregate mental health scores. Multifactorial discrimination should be considered a fundamental cause of mental health inequities and may be an important cause of broad health disparities among populations with intersecting social identities.