Allelein, H. J.
Die Nutzung der Kernenergie ist untrennbar mit dem Element Uran verknüpft. Da die Umwandlung eines Elements in ein anderes auf chemischem Weg nicht möglich ist, muss das heute vorhandene Uran durch kosmische Prozesse vor Entstehung der Erde entstanden sein. Reines Uran ist ein silberweiß glänzendes, relativ weiches Schwermetall. In der Elementhäufigkeit steht Uran vor Gold, Silber oder Quecksilber.
Sturkell, E. C.; Ormo, J.; Alwmark, C.; Melosh, H., IV
Approximately 470 million years ago one of the largest cosmic catastrophes occurred in our solar system since the accretion of the planets. A 200-km large asteroid was disrupted by a collision in the Main Asteroid Belt (MAB), which spawned fragments into Earth crossing orbits. This had tremendous consequences for the meteorite production and cratering rate during several millions of years following the event. The 7.5-km wide Lockne crater, central Sweden, is known to be a member of this family. The 600 m large Lockne asteroid was a binary and had a companion in space by a smaller 150 m satellite. The recent discovery of the nearby, 0.7-km diameter, synchronous Målingen crater suggests it to form a doublet impact structure together with the larger Lockne crater, and as we will show here, most likely by a binary, 'rubble pile' asteroid. Despite observational evidence that about 16% of the Near Earth Asteroids (NEA's) are binary, only a handful of the approximately 188 known craters on Earth have been suggested as potential doublets. The stratigraphic and geographic relationship with Lockne suggests the Lockne and Målingen craters to be the first described doublet impact structure by a binary asteroid into a marine-target setting. In addition, the precise dating of the Lockne-Målingen impact in relation to the MAB breakup event provides a hands-on reference for studies of the formation of binaries from asteroid breakup events.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...
Goldstein, L. ); Fuge, R. ); Seepolt, R. ); Frank, M. )
A digital stability monitor developed by NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft MBH, operable on a personal computer, is in use at three boiling water reactor (BWR) plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The device has received the approval of an FRG licensing authority. It has been in operation for 5 yr. The stability monitor is a measurement device used to accurately determine and confirm the boundaries of the exclusion region on the operating power-flow map, and to permit controlled operation through such regions. This is achieved via neutron noise measurements converted to direct readout of decay ratios. It has satisfied regulatory requirements by defining potential unstable operating regions at Kernkraftwerk Isar in the FRG and the high power density Gundremmingen (KRB Units B and C) BWRs.
Ormö, Jens; Sturkell, Erik; Alwmark, Carl; Melosh, Jay
Approximately 470 million years ago one of the largest cosmic catastrophes occurred in our solar system since the accretion of the planets. A 200-km large asteroid was disrupted by a collision in the Main Asteroid Belt, which spawned fragments into Earth crossing orbits. This had tremendous consequences for the meteorite production and cratering rate during several millions of years following the event. The 7.5-km wide Lockne crater, central Sweden, is known to be a member of this family. We here provide evidence that Lockne and its nearby companion, the 0.7-km diameter, contemporaneous, Målingen crater, formed by the impact of a binary, presumably ‘rubble pile’ asteroid. This newly discovered crater doublet provides a unique reference for impacts by combined, and poorly consolidated projectiles, as well as for the development of binary asteroids. PMID:25340551
Ormö, Jens; Sturkell, Erik; Alwmark, Carl; Melosh, Jay
Approximately 470 million years ago one of the largest cosmic catastrophes occurred in our solar system since the accretion of the planets. A 200-km large asteroid was disrupted by a collision in the Main Asteroid Belt, which spawned fragments into Earth crossing orbits. This had tremendous consequences for the meteorite production and cratering rate during several millions of years following the event. The 7.5-km wide Lockne crater, central Sweden, is known to be a member of this family. We here provide evidence that Lockne and its nearby companion, the 0.7-km diameter, contemporaneous, Målingen crater, formed by the impact of a binary, presumably 'rubble pile' asteroid. This newly discovered crater doublet provides a unique reference for impacts by combined, and poorly consolidated projectiles, as well as for the development of binary asteroids.
Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; De Baere, Paul
A new neutron collar has been designed for the measurement of fresh LEU fuel assemblies. This collar uses “fast mode” measurement to reduce the effect of burnable poison rods on the assay and thus reduce the dependence on the operator’s declaration. The new collar design reduces effect of poison rods considerably. Instead of 12 pins of 5.2% Gd causing a 20.4% effect, as in the standard thermal mode collar, they only cause a 3.2% effect in the new collar. However it has higher efficiency so that reasonably precise measurements can be made in 25 minutes, rather than the 1 hour of previous collars. The new collar is fully compatible with the use of the standard data collection and analysis code INCC. This report describes the calibration that was made with a mock-up assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with actual assemblies at the AREVA Fuel fabrication Plant in Lingen, Germany.
Krishna, K. Muni
This article has been removed at the request of the Editor-in-chief and Author. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Reason: This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Author as the author has plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in another journal, as written by the following authors: Roy, Weeks, Rouault, Nelson, Barlow, Van der Lingen. "Extreme oceanographic events recorded in the Southern Benguela during the 1999-2000 summer season", South African J. Sci., 2001, volume 97 (11-12), pp. 465-471. While the underlying scientific data of Dr Krishna's work may be original, the wording, sentence, and paragraph structure of the entire manuscript shows such strong similarity (in many cases wholesale replication of sentences and phrases) that we must conclude that there has been excessive use of previously published material without appropriate attribution and is consequently not an original contribution. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and we apologize to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.
van Lingen, Christiaan P.; Zagra, Luigi M.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C.
Large-head metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings were re-popularised in the late 1990s with the introduction of modern hip resurfacing (HR), followed closely by large metal head total hip arthroplasty (THA). A worldwide increase in the use of MoM hip arthroplasty subsequently saw a sharp decline, due to serious complications. MoM was rapidly adopted in the early 2000s until medical device alerts were issued by government regulatory agencies and national and international organisations, leading to post-marketing surveillance and discontinuation of these implants. Guidelines for MoM hip implant follow-up differ considerably between regulatory authorities worldwide; this can in part be attributed to missing or conflicting evidence. The authors consider that the use of large-head MoM THA should be discontinued. MoM HR should be approached with caution and, when considered, should be used only in patients who meet all of the recommended selection criteria, which limits its indications considerably. The phased introduction of new prostheses should be mandatory in future. Close monitoring of outcomes and long-term follow-up is also necessary for the introduction of new prostheses. Cite this article: van Lingen CP, Zagra LM, Ettema HB, Verheyen CC. Sequelae of large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties: current status and future prospects. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:345-353. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160014. PMID:28461912
Ogden, J A; Alvarez, R; Levitt, R; Cross, G L; Marlow, M
Three hundred two patients with chronic heel pain caused by proximal plantar fasciitis were enrolled in a study to assess the treatment effects consequent to administration of electrohydraulicall-generated extracorporeal shock waves. Symptoms had been present from 6 months to 18 years. Each treated patient satisfied numerous inclusion and exclusion criteria before he or she was accepted into this study, which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a randomized, double-blind evaluation of the efficacy of shock wave therapy for this disorder. Overall, at the predetermined evaluation period 3 months after one treatment, 56% more of the treated patients had a successful result by all four of the evaluation criteria when compared with the patients treated with a placebo. This difference was significant and corroborated the fact that this difference in the results was specifically attributable to the shock wave treatment, rather than any natural improvement caused by the natural history of the condition. The current study showed that the directed application of electrohydraulic-generated shock waves to the insertion of the plantar fascia onto the calcaneus is a safe and effective nonsurgical method for treating chronic, recalcitrant heel pain syndrome that has been present for at least 6 months and has been refractory to other commonly used nonoperative therapies. This technology, when delivered using the OssaTron (High Medical Technology, Kreuz-lingen, Switzerland), has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration specifically for the treatment of chronic proximal plantar fasciitis. The results suggest that this therapeutic modality should be considered before any surgical options, and even may be preferable to cortisone injection, which has a recognized risk of rupture of the plantar fascia and recurrence of symptoms.
Bleier, A.; Neeb, K.H.; Gelfort, E.; Mischke, J.
Tritium inventories and tritium distribution have been determined in boron glass absorber rods discharged from a pressurized water reactor first-cycle core and in spent boron carbide (B/sub 4/C) control rods from a boiling water reactor. The total tritium inventory in the boron glass absorber rods from the Stade nuclear reactor amounts to approx. =8.0 x 10/sup 10/ Bq (2.2 Ci) per rod. Of this, 99.6% was fixed in the boron glass itself and 0.4% in the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ pellets. The 4 x 10/sup -3/% fractions in the tube cladding and support pipe and the 1 x 10/sup -2/% fraction in the fill gas accounted for an insignificant part of the total tritium inventory of the rod. This experimentally determined tritium inventory was a factor of 5 larger than that suggested by the calculated estimate. The discrepancy between analyzed and calculated values can be explained by tritium formation from lithium impurities in the boron glass, where a 30-ppm lithium content would be adequate for this tritium inventory to be generated by the reaction /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 3/H. Evaluation of the B/sub 4/C control rods from the Lingen nuclear reactor after 3 yr of operation gave a 3.2 x 10/sup 10/Bq(0.85-Ci)tritium inventory per B/sub 4/C rod, while the total tritium inventory for a control rod assembly containing 60 B/sub 4/C rods was approx. =1.9 x 10/sup 12/ Bq (50 Ci). The tritium generated was essentially bound 100% in the B/sub 4/C, since the hulls contained only 6 x 10/sup -3/% and the fill gas only 2 x 10/sup -4/%.
Romanov, V; Hausinger, R P
Cell extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142, which was previously isolated from a polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading consortium, were shown to degrade 2,4-dichlorobenzoate, 2-chlorobenzoate, and a variety of other substituted ortho-halobenzoates by a reaction that requires oxygen, NADH, Fe(II), and flavin adenine dinucleotide. By using extracts that were chromatographically depleted of chlorocatechol and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities, products of the initial reaction with 2,4- or 2,5-dichlorobenzoate and 2-chlorobenzoate were identified by mass spectrometry as 4-chlorocatechol and catechol. In contrast to the well-characterized benzoate dioxygenases or the recently described 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from P. cepacia 2CBS (S. Fetzner, R. Müller, and F. Lingens, J. Bacteriol. 174:279-290, 1992) that possess two protein components, the P. aeruginosa enzyme was resolved by ion-exchange chromatography into three components, each of which is required for activity. To verify the distinct nature of this enzyme, we purified, characterized, and identified one component as a ferredoxin (M(r), approximately 13,000) containing a single [2Fe-2S] Rieske-type cluster (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic values of gx = 1.82, gy = 1.905, and gz = 2.02 in the reduced state) that is related in sequence to ferredoxins found in the naphthalene and biphenyl three-component dioxygenase systems. By analogy to these enzymes, we propose that the P. aeruginosa ferredoxin serves as an electron carrier between an NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase and the terminal component of the ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase. The broad specificity and high regiospecificity of the enzyme make it a promising candidate for use in the degradation of mixtures of chlorobenzoates. PMID:8195093
Henkel, Steven; Pudlo, Dieter; Enzmann, Frieder; Reitenbach, Viktor; Albrecht, Daniel; Ganzer, Leonhard; Gaupp, Reinhard
An essential part of the collaborative research project H2STORE (hydrogen to store), which is funded by the German government, was a comparison of various analytical methods for characterizing reservoir sandstones from different stratigraphic units. In this context Permian, Triassic and Tertiary reservoir sandstones were analysed. Rock core materials, provided by RWE Gasspeicher GmbH (Dortmund, Germany), GDF Suez E&P Deutschland GmbH (Lingen, Germany), E.ON Gas Storage GmbH (Essen, Germany) and RAG Rohöl-Aufsuchungs Aktiengesellschaft (Vienna, Austria), were processed by different laboratory techniques; thin sections were prepared, rock fragments were crushed and cubes of 1 cm edge length and plugs 3 to 5 cm in length with a diameter of about 2.5 cm were sawn from macroscopic homogeneous cores. With this prepared sample material, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with image analyses, specific surface area measurements (after Brunauer, Emmet and Teller, 1938; BET), He-porosity and N2-permeability measurements and high-resolution microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), which were used for numerical simulations, were applied. All these methods were practised on most of the same sample material, before and on selected Permian sandstones also after static CO2 experiments under reservoir conditions. A major concern in comparing the results of these methods is an appraisal of the reliability of the given porosity, permeability and mineral-specific reactive (inner) surface area data. The CO2 experiments modified the petrophysical as well as the mineralogical/geochemical rock properties. These changes are detectable by all applied analytical methods. Nevertheless, a major outcome of the high-resolution μ-CT analyses and following numerical data simulations was that quite similar data sets and data interpretations were maintained by the different petrophysical standard methods. Moreover, the μ-CT analyses are not only time saving, but also