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Sample records for kerr cross non-linearity

  1. Quantum Process Tomography of an Optically-Controlled Kerr Non-linearity.

    PubMed

    Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Jordaan, Bertus; Figueroa, Eden

    2015-01-01

    Any optical quantum information processing machine would be comprised of fully-characterized constituent devices for both single state manipulations and tasks involving the interaction between multiple quantum optical states. Ideally for the latter, would be an apparatus capable of deterministic optical phase shifts that operate on input quantum states with the action mediated solely by auxiliary signal fields. Here we present the complete experimental characterization of a system designed for optically controlled phase shifts acting on single-photon level probe coherent states. Our setup is based on a warm vapor of rubidium atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency with its dispersion properties modified through the use of an optically triggered N-type Kerr non-linearity. We fully characterize the performance of our device by sending in a set of input probe states and measuring the corresponding output via time-domain homodyne tomography and subsequently performing the technique of coherent state quantum process tomography. This method provides us with the precise knowledge of how our optical phase shift will modify any arbitrary input quantum state engineered in the mode of the reconstruction. PMID:26585904

  2. Dynamics of atom-field probability amplitudes in a coupled cavity system with Kerr non-linearity

    SciTech Connect

    Priyesh, K. V.; Thayyullathil, Ramesh Babu

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated the dynamics of two cavities coupled together via photon hopping, filled with Kerr non-linear medium and each containing a two level atom in it. The evolution of various atom (field) state probabilities of the coupled cavity system in two excitation sub space are obtained numerically. Detailed analysis has been done by taking different initial conditions of the system, with various coupling strengths and by varying the susceptibility of the medium. The role of susceptibility factor, on the dynamics atom field probability has been examined. In a coupled cavity system with strong photon hopping it is found that the susceptibility factor modifies the behaviour of probability amplitudes.

  3. Transitional behavior between self-Kerr and cross-Kerr effects by two photons

    SciTech Connect

    Koshino, Kazuki

    2007-06-15

    The transitional behavior of the two-photon Kerr effect between the self-Kerr and cross-Kerr cases is investigated. To this end, we have developed a semiclassical method for evaluating the two-photon Kerr effect that is applicable to any two-photon input state. It is revealed that the maximum Kerr effect is obtained when the second photon is input with a delay time that corresponds to the absorption time of the first photon by the optical material.

  4. Predicting haemodynamic networks using electrophysiology: The role of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tewarie, P.; Bright, M.G.; Hillebrand, A.; Robson, S.E.; Gascoyne, L.E.; Morris, P.G.; Meier, J.; Van Mieghem, P.; Brookes, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the electrophysiological basis of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain is a critical step towards elucidating how inter-areal connectivity supports healthy brain function. In recent years, the relationship between RSNs (typically measured using haemodynamic signals) and electrophysiology has been explored using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Significant progress has been made, with similar spatial structure observable in both modalities. However, there is a pressing need to understand this relationship beyond simple visual similarity of RSN patterns. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to predict fMRI-based RSNs using MEG. Our unique model, based upon a multivariate Taylor series, incorporates both phase and amplitude based MEG connectivity metrics, as well as linear and non-linear interactions within and between neural oscillations measured in multiple frequency bands. We show that including non-linear interactions, multiple frequency bands and cross-frequency terms significantly improves fMRI network prediction. This shows that fMRI connectivity is not only the result of direct electrophysiological connections, but is also driven by the overlap of connectivity profiles between separate regions. Our results indicate that a complete understanding of the electrophysiological basis of RSNs goes beyond simple frequency-specific analysis, and further exploration of non-linear and cross-frequency interactions will shed new light on distributed network connectivity, and its perturbation in pathology. PMID:26827811

  5. Passive CPHASE Gate via Cross-Kerr Nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Brod, Daniel J; Combes, Joshua

    2016-08-19

    A fundamental and open question is whether cross-Kerr nonlinearities can be used to construct a controlled-phase (cphase) gate. Here we propose a gate constructed from a discrete set of atom-mediated cross-Kerr interaction sites with counterpropagating photons. We show that the average gate fidelity F between a cphase and our proposed gate increases as the number of interaction sites increases and the spectral width of the photon decreases; e.g., with 12 sites we find F>99%. PMID:27588840

  6. Extension of non-linear beam models with deformable cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I.; Krylov, S.; Harari, I.

    2015-12-01

    Geometrically exact beam theory is extended to allow distortion of the cross section. We present an appropriate set of cross-section basis functions and provide physical insight to the cross-sectional distortion from linear elastostatics. The beam formulation in terms of material (back-rotated) beam internal force resultants and work-conjugate kinematic quantities emerges naturally from the material description of virtual work of constrained finite elasticity. The inclusion of cross-sectional deformation allows straightforward application of three-dimensional constitutive laws in the beam formulation. Beam counterparts of applied loads are expressed in terms of the original three-dimensional data. Special attention is paid to the treatment of the applied stress, keeping in mind applications such as hydrogel actuators under environmental stimuli or devices made of electroactive polymers. Numerical comparisons show the ability of the beam model to reproduce finite elasticity results with good efficiency.

  7. Non-linearities in cortical simple cells and the possible detection of zero crossings.

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Ullman, S

    1986-01-01

    A theory of early visual information processing proposed by Marr and co-workers suggests that simple cortical cells may be involved in the detection of zero crossing in the retinal output. We have tested this theory by using pairs of adjacent edges (staircases stimuli) and recording from edge-specific simple cells in cat striate cortex. The zero crossing hypothesis gives rise for such stimuli to non-obvious predictions that were generally confirmed by the experiment.

  8. Non-linear optical processes involving excited subbands in laser-dressed quantum wires with triangular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, A.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    The conduction subband structure of a triangular cross-section GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well wire under intense laser field is theoretically investigated by taking into account a finite confining potential. The calculation of the subband energy levels is based on a two-dimensional finite element method within the effective mass approximation. It is shown that a transversally polarized laser field non-uniformly shifts the subband energy levels and could be used for tuning the intersubband transitions and altering the related optical susceptibilities. We found that the non-resonant laser field allows the magnification and the red- or blueshift of the third-order non-linear susceptibility peaks for particular polarizations of the pump light and proper laser parameter values. The effects of the laser dressing field on the intersubband third harmonic generation and quadratic electro-optical process are discussed.

  9. A non linear analysis of human gait time series based on multifractal analysis and cross correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed databases with gait time series of adults and persons with Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseases. We obtained the staircase graphs of accumulated events that can be bounded by a straight line whose slope can be used to distinguish between gait time series from healthy and ill persons. The global Hurst exponent of these series do not show tendencies, we intend that this is because some gait time series have monofractal behavior and others have multifractal behavior so they cannot be characterized with a single Hurst exponent. We calculated the multifractal spectra, obtained the spectra width and found that the spectra of the healthy young persons are almost monofractal. The spectra of ill persons are wider than the spectra of healthy persons. In opposition to the interbeat time series where the pathology implies loss of multifractality, in the gait time series the multifractal behavior emerges with the pathology. Data were collected from healthy and ill subjects as they walked in a roughly circular path and they have sensors in both feet, so we have one time series for the left foot and other for the right foot. First, we analyzed these time series separately, and then we compared both results, with direct comparison and with a cross correlation analysis. We tried to find differences in both time series that can be used as indicators of equilibrium problems.

  10. Quantum teleportation of a generic two-photon state with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli

    2016-08-01

    We present a scheme for teleporting a generic two-photon polarization state by using two EPR states as quantum channel based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. As the core component of the present framework, the quantum nondemolition detector based on the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity acts as an EPR entangler as well as the Bell-state analyzer. This makes the teleportation protocol be achieved near deterministically and be feasible in the current experimental technology.

  11. Detector response and intensity cross-contribution as contributing factors to the observed non-linear calibration curves in mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sie, Meng-Jie; Chen, Bud-Gen; Chang, Chiung Dan; Lin, Chia-Han; Liu, Ray H

    2011-01-21

    It is a common knowledge that detector fatigue causes a calibration curve to deviate from the preferred linear relationship at the higher concentration end. With the adaptation of an isotopically labeled analog of the analyte as the internal standard (IS), cross-contribution (CC) of the intensities monitored for the ions designating the analyte and the IS can also result in a non-linear relationship at both ends. A novel approach developed to assess 'the extent and the effect of [CC]… in quantitative GC-MS analysis' can be extended (a) to examine whether a specific set of CC values is accurate; and (b) to differentiate whether the observed non-linear calibration curve is caused by detector fatigue or the CC phenomenon. Data derived from the exemplar secobarbital (SB)/SB-d(5) system (as di-butyl-derivatives) are used to illustrate this novel approach. Comparing the non-linear nature of calibration data that are empirically observed to that derived from theoretical calculation (with the incorporation of adjustment resulting from the ion CC phenomenon), supports the conclusions that (a) both CC and detector fatigue contribute significantly to the observed non-linear nature of the calibration curve based on ion-pair m/z 207/212; and (b) detector fatigue is the dominating contributor when the calibration curve is based on ion-pair m/z 263/268.

  12. Nearly deterministic quantum Fredkin gate based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun-xiang; Zhu, Chang-hua; Pei, Chang-xing

    2016-09-01

    A scheme of an optical quantum Fredkin gate is presented based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity. By an auxiliary coherent state with the cross-Kerr nonlinearity effect, photons can interact with each other indirectly, and a non-demolition measurement for photons can be implemented. Combined with the homodyne detection, classical feedforward, polarization beam splitters and Pauli-X operations, a controlled-path gate is constructed. Furthermore, a quantum Fredkin gate is built based on the controlled-path gate. The proposed Fredkin gate is simple in structure and feasible by current experimental technology.

  13. Non-linear mixing in coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities due to cross-coupling opto-mechanical mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Daniel Frank, Ian W.; Deotare, Parag B.; Bulu, Irfan; Lončar, Marko

    2014-11-03

    We investigate the coupling between mechanical and optical modes supported by coupled, freestanding, photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. We show that localized cavity modes for a given gap between the nanobeams provide weak optomechanical coupling with out-of-plane mechanical modes. However, we show that the coupling can be significantly increased, more than an order of magnitude for the symmetric mechanical mode, due to optical resonances that arise from the interaction of the localized cavity modes with standing waves formed by the reflection from thesubstrate. Finally, amplification of motion for the symmetric mode has been observed and attributed to the strong optomechanical interaction of our hybrid system. The amplitude of these self-sustained oscillations is large enough to put the system into a non-linear oscillation regime where a mixing between the mechanical modes is experimentally observed and theoretically explained.

  14. Classification of THz pulse signals using two-dimensional cross-correlation feature extraction and non-linear classifiers.

    PubMed

    Siuly; Yin, Xiaoxia; Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Zhang, Yanchun

    2016-04-01

    This work provides a performance comparison of four different machine learning classifiers: multinomial logistic regression with ridge estimators (MLR) classifier, k-nearest neighbours (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and naïve Bayes (NB) as applied to terahertz (THz) transient time domain sequences associated with pixelated images of different powder samples. The six substances considered, although have similar optical properties, their complex insertion loss at the THz part of the spectrum is significantly different because of differences in both their frequency dependent THz extinction coefficient as well as differences in their refractive index and scattering properties. As scattering can be unquantifiable in many spectroscopic experiments, classification solely on differences in complex insertion loss can be inconclusive. The problem is addressed using two-dimensional (2-D) cross-correlations between background and sample interferograms, these ensure good noise suppression of the datasets and provide a range of statistical features that are subsequently used as inputs to the above classifiers. A cross-validation procedure is adopted to assess the performance of the classifiers. Firstly the measurements related to samples that had thicknesses of 2mm were classified, then samples at thicknesses of 4mm, and after that 3mm were classified and the success rate and consistency of each classifier was recorded. In addition, mixtures having thicknesses of 2 and 4mm as well as mixtures of 2, 3 and 4mm were presented simultaneously to all classifiers. This approach provided further cross-validation of the classification consistency of each algorithm. The results confirm the superiority in classification accuracy and robustness of the MLR (least accuracy 88.24%) and KNN (least accuracy 90.19%) algorithms which consistently outperformed the SVM (least accuracy 74.51%) and NB (least accuracy 56.86%) classifiers for the same number of feature vectors across all studies

  15. Classification of THz pulse signals using two-dimensional cross-correlation feature extraction and non-linear classifiers.

    PubMed

    Siuly; Yin, Xiaoxia; Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Zhang, Yanchun

    2016-04-01

    This work provides a performance comparison of four different machine learning classifiers: multinomial logistic regression with ridge estimators (MLR) classifier, k-nearest neighbours (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and naïve Bayes (NB) as applied to terahertz (THz) transient time domain sequences associated with pixelated images of different powder samples. The six substances considered, although have similar optical properties, their complex insertion loss at the THz part of the spectrum is significantly different because of differences in both their frequency dependent THz extinction coefficient as well as differences in their refractive index and scattering properties. As scattering can be unquantifiable in many spectroscopic experiments, classification solely on differences in complex insertion loss can be inconclusive. The problem is addressed using two-dimensional (2-D) cross-correlations between background and sample interferograms, these ensure good noise suppression of the datasets and provide a range of statistical features that are subsequently used as inputs to the above classifiers. A cross-validation procedure is adopted to assess the performance of the classifiers. Firstly the measurements related to samples that had thicknesses of 2mm were classified, then samples at thicknesses of 4mm, and after that 3mm were classified and the success rate and consistency of each classifier was recorded. In addition, mixtures having thicknesses of 2 and 4mm as well as mixtures of 2, 3 and 4mm were presented simultaneously to all classifiers. This approach provided further cross-validation of the classification consistency of each algorithm. The results confirm the superiority in classification accuracy and robustness of the MLR (least accuracy 88.24%) and KNN (least accuracy 90.19%) algorithms which consistently outperformed the SVM (least accuracy 74.51%) and NB (least accuracy 56.86%) classifiers for the same number of feature vectors across all studies

  16. Efficient entanglement concentration for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with the cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Wang, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, which encodes physical qubits in a logic qubit, has great application in the future quantum communication. We present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for recovering less-entangled C-GHZ state into the maximally entangled C-GHZ state with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearities and photon detectors. With the help of the cross-Kerr nonlinearity, the obtained maximally entangled C-GHZ state can be remained for other applications. Moreover, the ECP can be used repeatedly, which can increase the success probability largely. Based on the advantages above, our ECP may be useful in the future long-distance quantum communication.

  17. Spatial turning bands simulation of anisotropic non-linear models of coregionalization with symmetric cross-covariances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, D.

    2016-04-01

    The turning bands method (TBM) is a commonly used method of simulation for large Gaussian fields, its O(N) complexity being unsurpassed (N denotes the number of points to simulate). TBM can be implemented either in the spatial or the spectral domains. In the multivariate anisotropic case, spatial versions of TBM are currently available only for the linear model of coregionalization (LMC). For anisotropic non-LMC with symmetrical covariances only the spectral version is currently available. The spectral domain approach can be slow in the case of non-differentiable covariances due to the numerous frequencies to sample. Here a derivation of the equations is provided for simulating the anisotropic non-LMC directly in the spatial domain and the method is illustrated with two synthetic examples. The approach allows the specification of many different direct and cross-covariance components, each with possibly different geometric anisotropies and different model types. The complexity of the new multivariate approach remains O(N). Hence, a case of two variables defining an anisotropic non-LMC is simulated over one billion points in less than one hour on a desktop computer. These results help enlarge the scope of application of the TBM. The method can be easily implemented in any existing TBM program.

  18. Tissue non-linearity.

    PubMed

    Duck, F

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of acoustic waves is a fundamentally non-linear process, and only waves with infinitesimally small amplitudes may be described by linear expressions. In practice, all ultrasound propagation is associated with a progressive distortion in the acoustic waveform and the generation of frequency harmonics. At the frequencies and amplitudes used for medical diagnostic scanning, the waveform distortion can result in the formation of acoustic shocks, excess deposition of energy, and acoustic saturation. These effects occur most strongly when ultrasound propagates within liquids with comparatively low acoustic attenuation, such as water, amniotic fluid, or urine. Attenuation by soft tissues limits but does not extinguish these non-linear effects. Harmonics may be used to create tissue harmonic images. These offer improvements over conventional B-mode images in spatial resolution and, more significantly, in the suppression of acoustic clutter and side-lobe artefacts. The quantity B/A has promise as a parameter for tissue characterization, but methods for imaging B/A have shown only limited success. Standard methods for the prediction of tissue in-situ exposure from acoustic measurements in water, whether for regulatory purposes, for safety assessment, or for planning therapeutic regimes, may be in error because of unaccounted non-linear losses. Biological effects mechanisms are altered by finite-amplitude effects. PMID:20349813

  19. Simplified optical quantum-information processing via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Qi; Bai Juan; Cheng Liuyong; Wang Hongfu; Zhang Shou; Shao Xiaoqiang

    2011-05-15

    We propose a simplified parity meter for photonic qubits with cross-Kerr nonlinearities, homodyne measurement, and some optical elements. Our scheme has lower error probability than the protocol proposed in Nemoto and Munro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004)]. Based on the present parity meter, we achieve cluster-state preparation, a complete Bell-state analyzer, and quantum teleportation. All of these schemes are nearly deterministic in the regime with little noise and include less optical elements, which makes our schemes more meaningful for large-scale quantum computing.

  20. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less

  1. Single-Photon-Resolved Cross-Kerr Interaction for Autonomous Stabilization of Photon-Number States.

    PubMed

    Holland, E T; Vlastakis, B; Heeres, R W; Reagor, M J; Vool, U; Leghtas, Z; Frunzio, L; Kirchmair, G; Devoret, M H; Mirrahimi, M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2015-10-30

    Quantum states can be stabilized in the presence of intrinsic and environmental losses by either applying an active feedback condition on an ancillary system or through reservoir engineering. Reservoir engineering maintains a desired quantum state through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. We propose and implement a quantum-reservoir engineering protocol that stabilizes Fock states in a microwave cavity. This protocol is realized with a circuit quantum electrodynamics platform where a Josephson junction provides direct, nonlinear coupling between two superconducting waveguide cavities. The nonlinear coupling results in a single-photon-resolved cross-Kerr effect between the two cavities enabling a photon-number-dependent coupling to a lossy environment. The quantum state of the microwave cavity is discussed in terms of a net polarization and is analyzed by a measurement of its steady state Wigner function. PMID:26565448

  2. Nearly deterministic preparation of the perfect W state with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Qing-Yang; Shen, Hong-Zhi; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun; Oh, Choo Hiap

    2016-01-01

    Relying on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, we propose a nearly deterministic generation scheme of the three-photon polarization-entangled perfect W state which can be applied to the perfect teleportation of an unknown single-photon state and has robust entanglement against the loss of one photon of them. Three photons entangle together by virtue of the bus function of the coherent state serving as the intermediate among them. In the scheme, three processes are executed successively and two kinds of modules are inserted into the circuit, where the homodyne measurement and the photon number measurement are aptly performed. By means of classical feedforward techniques, single-photon unitary transformation operations are performed on the corresponding photons based on the obtained measurement outcomes, by which the generation efficiency of the perfect W state aims to nearly unity. Moreover, some currently available optical elements are applied in the generation process, which offer facilities for the practical implementation.

  3. Non-linear Young's double-slit experiment.

    PubMed

    San Roman, Julio; Ruiz, Camilo; Perez, Jose Antonio; Delgado, Diego; Mendez, Cruz; Plaja, Luis; Roso, Luis

    2006-04-01

    The Young's double slit experiment is recreated using intense and short laser pulses. Our experiment evidences the role of the non-linear Kerr effect in the formation of interference patterns. In particular, our results evidence a mixed mechanism in which the zeroth diffraction order of each slit are mainly affected by self-focusing and self-phase modulation, while the higher orders propagate linearly. Despite of the complexity of the general problem of non-linear propagation, we demonstrate that this experiment retains its simplicity and allows for a geometrical interpretation in terms of simple optical paths. In consequence, our results may provide key ideas on experiments on the formation of interference patterns with intense laser fields in Kerr media.

  4. Complete nondestructive analysis of two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled Bell states assisted by cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Guan-Yu; Ai, Qing; Zhang, Mei; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperentanglement, the entanglement in several degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a quantum system, has attracted much attention as it can be used to increase both the channel capacity of quantum communication and its security largely. Here, we present the first scheme to completely distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states of two-photon systems in three DOFs with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity without destruction, including two longitudinal momentum DOFs and the polarization DOF. We use cross-Kerr nonlinearity to construct quantum nondemolition detectors which can be used to make a parity-check measurement and analyze Bell states of two-photon systems in different DOFs. Our complete scheme for two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled Bell-state analysis may be useful for the practical applications in quantum information, especially in long-distance high-capacity quantum communication. PMID:26912172

  5. Probabilistically cloning two single-photon states using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Ziyun; Yang, Qun

    2014-08-01

    By using quantum nondemolition detectors (QNDs) based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, we propose an experimental scheme for achieving 1\\to 2 probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of a single-photon state, secretly choosing from a two-state set. In our scheme, after a QND is performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the assistant photon, a single-photon projection measurement is performed by a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and two single-photon trigger detectors (SPTDs). The measurement is to judge whether the PQC should be continued. If the cloning fails, a cutoff is carried out and some operations are omitted. This makes our scheme economical. If the PQC is continued according to the measurement result, two more QNDs and some unitary operations are performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the cloning photon to achieve the PQC in a nearly deterministic way. Our experimental scheme for PQC is feasible for future technology. Furthermore, the quantum logic network of our PQC scheme is presented. In comparison with similar networks, our PQC network is simpler and more economical.

  6. Non linear approach to study the dynamics of neurodegenerative diseases by Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis-A quantitative assessment on gait disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Samanta, Shukla

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the human gait pattern of normal people and patients suffering from Parkinson's disease using the MFDXA (Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis) methodology. The auto correlation and cross correlation of the time series of the total force under the left foot and right foot were studied. The study reveals that the degree of multifractality (W) and degree of correlation (γ) are generally more for normal patients than the diseased set. It is also observed that the values of W and γ are nearly same for left foot and right. It is also observed that the study of autocorrelation alone is not sufficient, cross correlations should also be studied to get a better concept of neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. A Combined Isotropic, Kinematic and Cross Hardening Model for Magnesium AZ31B-H24 under Non-linear Strain Loading Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yueqian; Bai, Yuanli

    2016-08-01

    A fully modularized framework was established to combine isotropic, kinematic, and cross hardening behaviors under non-monotonic loading conditions. Three sets of state variables were defined and applied to consider the effects of, a) loading history, b) twinning and de-twinning and c) different pre-strain. Experiments under two types of non-proportional loading conditions were conducted along different orientations, 1) uniaxial compression-tension reversal loading with different amounts of compressive strains, and 2) two-step uniaxial tension, known as cross-loading conditions, with different pre-strains. No apparent cross-hardening effect was observed for this material. The calibrated new hardening model, with an anisotropic CPB06ex2 yield criterion and an eMMC anisotropic fracture model, has been implemented into Abaqus/ Explicit as a user material subroutine (VUMAT). Good correlation was observed between experimental and simulation results.

  8. Deterministic distribution of four-photon Dicke state over an arbitrary collective-noise channel with cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-07-01

    We present two deterministic quantum entanglement distribution protocols for a four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state resorting to the frequency and spatial degrees of freedom, which are immune to an arbitrary collective-noise channel. Both of the protocols adopt the X homodyne measurement based on the cross-Kerr nonlinearity to complete the task of the single-photon detection with nearly unit probability in principle. After the four receivers share the photons, they add some local unitary operations to obtain a standard four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state.

  9. Deterministic distribution of four-photon Dicke state over an arbitrary collective-noise channel with cross-Kerr nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic quantum entanglement distribution protocols for a four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state resorting to the frequency and spatial degrees of freedom, which are immune to an arbitrary collective-noise channel. Both of the protocols adopt the X homodyne measurement based on the cross-Kerr nonlinearity to complete the task of the single-photon detection with nearly unit probability in principle. After the four receivers share the photons, they add some local unitary operations to obtain a standard four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state. PMID:27412489

  10. Deterministic distribution of four-photon Dicke state over an arbitrary collective-noise channel with cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic quantum entanglement distribution protocols for a four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state resorting to the frequency and spatial degrees of freedom, which are immune to an arbitrary collective-noise channel. Both of the protocols adopt the X homodyne measurement based on the cross-Kerr nonlinearity to complete the task of the single-photon detection with nearly unit probability in principle. After the four receivers share the photons, they add some local unitary operations to obtain a standard four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state. PMID:27412489

  11. Non-linear mirror instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    Slow dynamical changes in magnetic-field strength and invariance of the particles' magnetic moments generate ubiquitous pressure anisotropies in weakly collisional, magnetized astrophysical plasmas. This renders them unstable to fast, small-scale mirror and firehose instabilities, which are capable of exerting feedback on the macroscale dynamics of the system. By way of a new asymptotic theory of the early non-linear evolution of the mirror instability in a plasma subject to slow shearing or compression, we show that the instability does not saturate quasi-linearly at a steady, low-amplitude level. Instead, the trapping of particles in small-scale mirrors leads to non-linear secular growth of magnetic perturbations, δB/B ∝ t2/3. Our theory explains recent collisionless simulation results, provides a prediction of the mirror evolution in weakly collisional plasmas and establishes a foundation for a theory of non-linear mirror dynamics with trapping, valid up to δB/B = O(1).

  12. Quantum computation based on photonic systems with two degrees of freedom assisted by the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Lai, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Most of previous quantum computations only take use of one degree of freedom (DoF) of photons. An experimental system may possess various DoFs simultaneously. In this paper, with the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, we investigate the parallel quantum computation dependent on photonic systems with two DoFs. We construct nearly deterministic controlled-not (CNOT) gates operating on the polarization spatial DoFs of the two-photon or one-photon system. These CNOT gates show that two photonic DoFs can be encoded as independent qubits without auxiliary DoF in theory. Only the coherent states are required. Thus one half of quantum simulation resources may be saved in quantum applications if more complicated circuits are involved. Hence, one may trade off the implementation complexity and simulation resources by using different photonic systems. These CNOT gates are also used to complete various applications including the quantum teleportation and quantum superdense coding.

  13. Modulational instability with higher-order dispersion and walk-off in Kerr media with cross-phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nithyanandan, K.; Raja, R. Vasantha Jayakantha; Porsezian, K.; Kalithasan, B.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the cross-phase-modulation-induced modulational instability (MI) of two co-propagating optical beams in the system of relaxing Kerr nonlinearity with the effect of higher-order dispersion (HOD) and walk-off effect. We identify and discuss the salient features of relaxation of nonlinear responses and HOD using suitable theoretical model. First, we analyzed the impact of HOD and walk-off on the MI spectrum and found both analytically and numerically that the MI exhibits alternate characteristics like the evolution of different spectral bands in addition to the conventional MI bands. The walk-off effects in the virtue of HOD not only consist of the conventional group velocity mismatch (GVM) but also the difference in third-order dispersion (TOD) of the two beams, and thereby significantly modify the dynamical behavior of the MI. We also consider the combined effect of relaxation of nonlinear response and the HOD effects, and we observe that any finite value of delay leads to the evolution of two unstable modes and thereby extends the range of unstable frequency; HOD on the other hand along with the walk-off effect brings other characteristic spectral bands. A detailed discussion about the various combinations of parameters and the relative competence of one over the other on the MI spectrum is presented. Thus the evolution of MI from cross-phase modulation in the system of relaxing Kerr nonlinearity is emphasized in detail and the influence of HOD and the walk-off effect are highlighted.

  14. Non-Linear Transformation of the Criterion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Keith; And Others

    The utility of a non-linear transformation of the criterion is established. The Pythagorean Theorem is used as the example to demonstrate the point. The functional relationships may be such (as in the Pythagorean Theorem) that an R-squared of 1.00 cannot be found without making a non-linear transformation of the criterion. The goal of…

  15. Sauer's non-linear voltage division.

    PubMed

    Schwan, H P; McAdams, E T; Jossinet, J

    2002-09-01

    The non-linearity of the electrode-tissue interface impedance gives rise to harmonics and thus degrades the accuracy of impedance measurements. Also, electrodes are often driven into the non-linear range of their polarisation impedance. This is particularly true in clinical applications. Techniques to correct for electrode effects are usually based on linear electrode impedance data. However, these data can be very different from the non-linear values needed. Non-linear electrode data suggested a model based on simple assumptions. It is useful in predicting the frequency dependence of non-linear effects from linear properties. Sauer's treatment is a first attempt to provide a more general and rigorous basis for modelling the non-linear state. The paper reports Sauer's treatment of the non-linear case and points out its limitations. The paper considers Sauer's treatment of a series arrangement of two impedances. The tissue impedance is represented by a linear voltage-current characteristic. The interface impedance is represented by a Volterra expansion. The response of this network to periodic signals is calculated up to the second-order term of the series expansion. The resultant, time-dependent current is found to contain a DC term (rectification), as well as frequency-dependent terms. Sauer's treatment assumes a voltage clamp across the impedances and neglects higher-order terms in the series expansion. As a consequence, it fails adequately to represent some experimentally observed phenomena. It is therefore suggested that Sauer's expressions for the voltage divider should be combined with the non-linear treatments previously published by the co-authors. Although Sauer's work on the non-linear voltage divider was originally applied to the study of the non-linear behaviour of the electrode-electrolyte interface and biological tissues, it is stressed, however, that the work is applicable to a wide range of research areas.

  16. Quantum computation based on photonic systems with two degrees of freedom assisted by the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Lai, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most of previous quantum computations only take use of one degree of freedom (DoF) of photons. An experimental system may possess various DoFs simultaneously. In this paper, with the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, we investigate the parallel quantum computation dependent on photonic systems with two DoFs. We construct nearly deterministic controlled-not (CNOT) gates operating on the polarization spatial DoFs of the two-photon or one-photon system. These CNOT gates show that two photonic DoFs can be encoded as independent qubits without auxiliary DoF in theory. Only the coherent states are required. Thus one half of quantum simulation resources may be saved in quantum applications if more complicated circuits are involved. Hence, one may trade off the implementation complexity and simulation resources by using different photonic systems. These CNOT gates are also used to complete various applications including the quantum teleportation and quantum superdense coding. PMID:27424767

  17. Bidirectional transfer of quantum information for unknown photons via cross-Kerr nonlinearity and photon-number-resolving measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jino, Heo; Chang-Ho, Hong; Dong-Hoon, Lee; Hyung-Jin, Yang

    2016-02-01

    We propose an arbitrary controlled-unitary (CU) gate and a bidirectional transfer scheme of quantum information (BTQI) for unknown photons. The proposed CU gate utilizes quantum non-demolition photon-number-resolving measurement based on the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs) and two quantum bus beams; the proposed CU gate consists of consecutive operations of a controlled-path gate and a gathering-path gate. It is almost deterministic and is feasible with current technology when a strong amplitude of the coherent state and weak XKNLs are employed. Compared with the existing optical multi-qubit or controlled gates, which utilize XKNLs and homodyne detectors, the proposed CU gate can increase experimental realization feasibility and enhance robustness against decoherence. According to the CU gate, we present a BTQI scheme in which the two unknown states of photons between two parties (Alice and Bob) are mutually swapped by transferring only a single photon. Consequently, by using the proposed CU gate, it is possible to experimentally implement the BTQI scheme with a certain probability of success.

  18. Quantum computation based on photonic systems with two degrees of freedom assisted by the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Lai, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most of previous quantum computations only take use of one degree of freedom (DoF) of photons. An experimental system may possess various DoFs simultaneously. In this paper, with the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, we investigate the parallel quantum computation dependent on photonic systems with two DoFs. We construct nearly deterministic controlled-not (CNOT) gates operating on the polarization spatial DoFs of the two-photon or one-photon system. These CNOT gates show that two photonic DoFs can be encoded as independent qubits without auxiliary DoF in theory. Only the coherent states are required. Thus one half of quantum simulation resources may be saved in quantum applications if more complicated circuits are involved. Hence, one may trade off the implementation complexity and simulation resources by using different photonic systems. These CNOT gates are also used to complete various applications including the quantum teleportation and quantum superdense coding. PMID:27424767

  19. Fractional non-linear modelling of ultracapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Nicolas; Sabatier, Jocelyn; Briat, Olivier; Vinassa, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that an ultracapacitor exhibits a non-linear behaviour in relation to the operating voltage. A set of fractional order linear systems resulting from a frequency analysis of the ultracapacitor at various operating points is first obtained. Then, a non-linear model is deduced from the linear systems set, so that its Taylor linearization around the considered operating points (for the frequency analysis), produces the linear system set. The resulting non-linear model is validated on a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) application.

  20. Non-linearity in Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the effects of non-linearity, some of the mechanisms responsible for non-linearity, and methods for measuring non-linearity in Johnson noise thermometry. Mechanisms considered include quantum tunnelling, bipolar junction transistor and junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, feedback, clipping, output-stage crossover, quantization and dither. It is found that even- and odd-order effects behave differently in correlator-based noise thermometers, with the dominant even-order effects contributing as intermodulation products whereas the dominant odd-order contributions are third-order and at the same frequencies as the parent signals. Possible test methods include the use of discrete tones, changes in spectral shape, and direct measurement using reference noise powers. For correlators operated at constant noise power, direct measurement of non-linearity using reference noise powers enables corrections to be made with negligible additional uncertainty and measurement time.

  1. Analysis of a non-linear structure by considering two non-linear formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majed, R.; Raynaud, J. L.

    2003-03-01

    In recent years, modal synthesis methods have been extended for solving non-linear dynamic problems subjected to harmonic excitation. These methods are based on the notion of non-linear or linearized modes and exploited in the case of structures affected by localized non-linearity. Actually, the experimental tests executed on non-linear structures are time consuming, particularly when repeated experimental tests are needed. It is often preferable to consider new non-linear methods with a view to decrease significantly the number of attempts during prototype tests and improving the accuracy of the dynamic behaviour. This article describes two fundamental non-linear formulations based on two different strategies. The first formulation exploits the eigensolutions of the associated linear system and the dynamics characteristics of each localized non-linearity. The second formulation is based on the exploitation of the linearized eigensolutions obtained using an iterative process. This article contains a numerical and an experimental study which examines the non-linear behaviour of the structure affected by localized non-linearities. The study is intended to validate the numerical algorithm and to evaluate the problems arising from the introduction of non-linearities. The complex responses are evaluated using the iterative Newton-Raphson method and for a series of discrete frequencies. The theory has been applied to a bi-dimensional structure and consists of evaluating the harmonic responses obtained using the proposed formulations by comparing measured and calculated transfer functions.

  2. Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

  3. Non-linear Post Processing Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shawn; Lopez, Alex; Torres, Angel

    1997-01-01

    A non-linear filter for image post processing based on the feedforward Neural Network topology is presented. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of "smart" filters in image post processing. The filter has shown to be useful in recovering high frequencies, such as those lost during the JPEG compression-decompression process. The filtered images have a higher signal to noise ratio, and a higher perceived image quality. Simulation studies comparing the proposed filter with the optimum mean square non-linear filter, showing examples of the high frequency recovery, and the statistical properties of the filter are given,

  4. Non-linear cord-rubber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the stress-strain relations in a multi-layer composite made up of materials whose individual stress-strain characteristics are non-linear and possibly different. The method is applied to the case of asymmetric tubes in tension, and comparisons with experimentally measured data are given.

  5. GGOPT: an unconstrained non-linear optimizer.

    PubMed

    Bassingthwaighte, J B; Chan, I S; Goldstein, A A; Russak, I B

    1988-01-01

    GGOPT is a derivative-free non-linear optimizer for smooth functions with added noise. If the function values arise from observations or from extensive computations, these errors can be considerable. GGOPT uses an adjustable mesh together with linear least squares to find smoothed values of the function, gradient and Hessian at the center of the mesh. These values drive a descent method that estimates optimal parameters. The smoothed values usually result in increased accuracy.

  6. Non-linear dark energy clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Stefano; Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pietroni, Massimo E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it

    2011-11-01

    We consider a dark energy fluid with arbitrary sound speed and equation of state and discuss the effect of its clustering on the cold dark matter distribution at the non-linear level. We write the continuity, Euler and Poisson equations for the system in the Newtonian approximation. Then, using the time renormalization group method to resum perturbative corrections at all orders, we compute the total clustering power spectrum and matter power spectrum. At the linear level, a sound speed of dark energy different from that of light modifies the power spectrum on observationally interesting scales, such as those relevant for baryonic acoustic oscillations. We show that the effect of varying the sound speed of dark energy on the non-linear corrections to the matter power spectrum is below the per cent level, and therefore these corrections can be well modelled by their counterpart in cosmological scenarios with smooth dark energy. We also show that the non-linear effects on the matter growth index can be as large as 10–15 per cent for small scales.

  7. Sharply autofocused ring-Airy beams transforming into non-linear intense light bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, P.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Couairon, A.; Tzortzakis, S.

    2013-10-01

    Controlling the propagation of intense optical wavepackets in transparent media is not a trivial task. During propagation, low- and high-order non-linear effects, including the Kerr effect, multiphoton absorption and ionization, lead to an uncontrolled complex reshaping of the optical wavepacket that involves pulse splitting, refocusing cycles in space and significant variations of the focus. Here we demonstrate both numerically and experimentally that intense, abruptly autofocusing beams in the form of accelerating ring-Airy beams are able to reshape into non-linear intense light-bullet wavepackets propagating over extended distances, while their positioning in space is extremely well defined. These unique wavepackets can offer significant advantages in numerous fields such as the generation of high harmonics and attosecond physics or the precise micro-engineering of materials.

  8. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-04-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  9. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon

  10. Discrete quantum Fourier transform using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity and displacement operator and photon-number-resolving measurement under the decoherence effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jino; Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Yang, Hyeon; Choi, Seong-Gon

    2016-09-01

    We present a scheme for implementing discrete quantum Fourier transform (DQFT) with robustness against the decoherence effect using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs). The multi-photon DQFT scheme can be achieved by operating the controlled path and merging path gates that are formed with weak XKNLs and linear optical devices. To enhance feasibility under the decoherence effect, in practice, we utilize a displacement operator and photon-number-resolving measurement in the optical gate using XKNLs. Consequently, when there is a strong amplitude of the coherent state, we demonstrate that it is possible to experimentally implement the DQFT scheme, utilizing current technology, with a certain probability of success under the decoherence effect.

  11. Influence of Kerr-like medium on the dynamics of a two-mode Raman coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sudha; Gilhare, Karuna

    2016-08-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of an effective two-level atom interacting with two modes via Raman process inside an ideal cavity in the presence of Kerr non-linearity. The cavity modes interact both with the atom as well as the Kerr-like medium. The unitary transformation method presented here, not only solves the time-dependent problem, but also provides the eigensolutions of the interacting Hamiltonian at the same time. We study the atomic-population dynamics and the dynamics of the photon statistics in the two cavity modes. The influence of the Kerr-like medium on the statistics of the field is explored and it is observed that Kerr medium introduces antibunching in mode 1 and this effect is enhanced by a stronger interaction with the non-linear medium. In the high non-linear coupling regime anticorrelated beam become correlated. Kerr medium also introduces non-classical correlation between the two modes.

  12. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from

  13. Non-linear Flood Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, A.

    The genesis of floodings is very complex depending on hydrologic, meteorological and evapo-transpirative factors that are linked among themselves in a non linear way with numerous feedback processes. The Cantor dust and the rank-ordering statistics supply a proper framework for identifying a kind of a non linear order in the time succession of the floodings and so provide a basis for their prediction. When a catalogue is analysed, it is necessary to test its completeness with respect to the size of the recorded events and results obtained from analysis of catalogues that do not take into account such a test are suspect and possibly wrong, or, at least, unreliable. Floodings have no instrumentally determined magnitude scale, like that conventionally used for earthquakes, and this is why they are generally described in qualitative terms. For this reason, a semi-quantitative index, called ASI (Alluvial Strength Index) has been here developed that combines attributes of alluvial triggering mechanisms and effects on the territorial and hydraulic system.The historical succession of alluvial events occurred at high valley of Po river (Northern Italy), mean valley of Calore river (Southern Italy) and at Sarno, near Naples, have been accurately reconstructed on the basis of old documents and classified according to their ASI. The catalogues have been verified to be complete only for events classified at least as moderate and this probably because many of the lowest energetic events, especially in the past, escaped the detection. The identification of scale-invariances in the time clustering of alluvial events, both on short and long time scales, even if indicative of the complexity of their genesis, might be very helpful for the assessment and reduction of the hazard of future disasters. For example, on the basis of the results of the rank-ordering statistics, the most probable occurrence of an alluvial event at Sarno, classified at least as strong, is predicted to occur

  14. Non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashin, Z.; Bagchi, D.; Rosen, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    The non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates which results from lamina non-linear characteristics was examined. The analysis uses a Ramberg-Osgood representation of the lamina transverse and shear stress strain curves in conjunction with deformation theory to describe the resultant laminate non-linear behavior. A laminate having an arbitrary number of oriented layers and subjected to a general state of membrane stress was treated. Parametric results and comparison with experimental data and prior theoretical results are presented.

  15. Computer modeling of batteries from non-linear circuit elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waaben, S.; Federico, J.; Moskowitz, I.

    1983-01-01

    A simple non-linear circuit model for battery behavior is given. It is based on time-dependent features of the well-known PIN change storage diode, whose behavior is described by equations similar to those associated with electrochemical cells. The circuit simulation computer program ADVICE was used to predict non-linear response from a topological description of the battery analog built from advice components. By a reasonable choice of one set of parameters, the circuit accurately simulates a wide spectrum of measured non-linear battery responses to within a few millivolts.

  16. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  17. Mode matching in high non linear susceptibility metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Héron, Sébastien; Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Sub-wavelength Fabry-Perot like resonators are studied both in reflection and transmission for the purpose of second order frequency conversion. The latter are able to hugely confine incoming electric field at resonance inducing great quantity of non linear polarization and thus resonant Sum or Difference Frequency Generation. A metamaterial model is used to homogenize the structure composed of an alternation of non linear dielectric crystal and of metal to predict its resonance wavelengths. The subsequent effective non linear susceptibility for the homogenized layer is driven by the nonlinearities of the dielectric material and by the geometrical parameters, thus leading to much higher susceptibility than existing materials. Besides, the obtained frequency spectra offer a great visibility on the various mode matching scenarios that allow to reach enhanced non linear efficiency highly depending on whether the produced wave is back- or forward propagating.

  18. Dilatonic non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carfora, M.; Marzuoli, A.

    2016-09-01

    We review our recent work describing, in terms of the Wasserstein geometry over the space of probability measures, the embedding of the Ricci flow in the renormalization group flow for dilatonic non-linear sigma models.

  19. Complete quantum teleportation with a kerr nonlinearity

    PubMed

    Vitali; Fortunato; Tombesi

    2000-07-10

    We present a scheme for the quantum teleportation of the polarization state of a photon employing a cross-Kerr medium. The experimental feasibility of the scheme is discussed and we show that, using the recently demonstrated ultraslow light propagation in cold atomic media, our proposal can be realized with presently available technology.

  20. Non-linear description of massive neutrinos in the framework of large-scale structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    There is now no doubt that neutrinos are massive particles fully involved in the non-linear growth of the large-scale structure of the universe. A problem is that they are particularly difficult to include in cosmological models because the equations describing their behavior in the non-linear regime are cumbersome and difficult to handle. In this manuscript I present a new method allowing to deal with massive neutrinos in a very simple way, based on basic conservation laws. This method is still valid in the non-linear regime. The key idea is to describe neutrinos as a collection of single-flow fluids instead of seeing them as a single hot multi-flow fluid. In this framework, the time evolution of neutrinos is encoded in fluid equations describing macroscopic fields, just as what is done for cold dark matter. Although valid up to shell-crossing only, this approach is a further step towards a fully non-linear treatment of the dynamical evolution of neutrinos in the framework of large-scale structure growth.

  1. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  2. Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam

    2013-01-01

    Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included. PMID:23882134

  3. Non-linear dynamic analysis of anisotropic cylindrical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Lakis, A.A.; Selmane, A.; Toledano, A.

    1996-12-01

    A theory to predict the influence of geometric non-linearities on the natural frequencies of an empty anisotropic cylindrical shell is presented in this paper. It is a hybrid of finite element and classical thin shell theories. Sanders-Koiter non-linear and strain-displacement relations are used. Displacement functions are evaluated using linearized equations of motion. Modal coefficients are then obtained for these displacement functions. Expressions for the mass, linear and non-linear stiffness matrices are derived through the finite element method. The uncoupled equations are solved with the help of elliptic functions. The period and frequency variations are first determined as a function of shell amplitudes and then compared with the results in the literature.

  4. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Shahram Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Jiarui Yu, Faxin

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  5. Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.

    2009-04-01

    In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.

  6. Photocrosslinkable copolymers for non-linear optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatsuki, N.; Pakbaz, K.; Schmidt, H.W.

    1993-12-31

    New photocrosslinkable copolymers have been synthesized and applied as non-linear optical materials. The copolymers are based on methyl methacrylate, a photo-excitable benzophenone monomer, a non-linear optical active 4`-[(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylamino]-4-nitro-azobenzene (disperse red 1) side chain monomer and a crosslinkable 2-butenyl monomer. These copolymers can be crosslinked by UV light at 366 nm in the poled state and show a stable alignment of NLO chromophore by monitoring the adsorption spectra. The crosslinked and poled film did not change its alignment after storing 4 weeks at room temperature.

  7. Non-Linear Finite Element Modeling of THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.

    1999-01-01

    A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.

  8. BEAM-BASED NON-LINEAR OPTICS CORRECTIONS IN COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT, R.; LUO, Y.; MALITSKY, N.; PTITSYN, V.

    2005-05-16

    A method has been developed to measure and correct operationally the non-linear effects of the final focusing magnets in colliders, that gives access to the effects of multi-pole errors by applying closed orbit bumps, and analyzing the resulting tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been tested and used during 4 years of RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL) operations. I will discuss here the theoretical basis of the method, the experimental set-up, the correction results, the present understanding of the machine model, the potential and limitations of the method itself as compared with other non-linear correction techniques.

  9. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  10. Evolution equation for non-linear cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Brustein, Ram; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@cern.ch

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel approach, based entirely on the gravitational potential, for studying the evolution of non-linear cosmological matter perturbations. Starting from the perturbed Einstein equations, we integrate out the non-relativistic degrees of freedom of the cosmic fluid and obtain a single closed equation for the gravitational potential. We then verify the validity of the new equation by comparing its approximate solutions to known results in the theory of non-linear cosmological perturbations. First, we show explicitly that the perturbative solution of our equation matches the standard perturbative solutions. Next, using the mean field approximation to the equation, we show that its solution reproduces in a simple way the exponential suppression of the non-linear propagator on small scales due to the velocity dispersion. Our approach can therefore reproduce the main features of the renormalized perturbation theory and (time)-renormalization group approaches to the study of non-linear cosmological perturbations, with some possibly important differences. We conclude by a preliminary discussion of the nature of the full solutions of the equation and their significance.

  11. Rare earth ion doped non linear laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaque, D.; Romero, J. J.; Ramirez, M. O.; Garcia, J. A. S.; de Las Heras, C.; Bausa, L. E.; Sole, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We show how non linear crystals activated with Yb3+ or Nd3+ ions can be used to develop diode pumped solid state lasers emitting in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For this purpose we have selected relevant examples of systems investigated in our laboratory.

  12. Non-linear protocell models: synchronization and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filisetti, A.; Serra, R.; Carletti, T.; Villani, M.; Poli, I.

    2010-09-01

    We consider generic protocells models allowing linear and non-linear kinetics for the main involved chemical reactions. We are interested in understanding if and how the protocell division and the metabolism do synchronise to give rise to sustainable evolution of the protocell.

  13. Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.

  14. Characterising dynamic non-linearity in floating wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Fully coupled aero-hydro-control-elastic codes are being developed to cope with the new modelling challenges presented by floating wind turbines, but there is also a place for more efficient methods of analysis. One option is linearisation and analysis in the frequency domain. For this to be an effective method, the non-linearities in the system must be well understood. The present study focusses on understanding the dynamic response of the rotor to the overall platform motion, as would arise from wave loading, by using a simple model of a floating wind turbine with a rigid tower and flexible rotor (represented by hinged rigid blades). First, an equation of motion of the blade is derived and an approximate solution for the blade response is found using the perturbation method. Secondly, the full non-linear solution is found by time- domain simulation. The response is found to be linear at lower platform pitching frequencies, becoming non-linear at higher frequencies, with the approximate solution giving good results for weakly non-linear behaviour. Higher rotor speeds have a stabilising effect on the response. In the context of typical floating turbine parameters, it is concluded that the blade flapwise response is likely to be linear.

  15. Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.

    2014-10-15

    A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.

  16. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.

  17. Non-Linear System Identification for Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2008-01-01

    Representation and identification of a non-linear aeroelastic pitch-plunge system as a model of the NARMAX class is considered. A non-linear difference equation describing this aircraft model is derived theoretically and shown to be of the NARMAX form. Identification methods for NARMAX models are applied to aeroelastic dynamics and its properties demonstrated via continuous-time simulations of experimental conditions. Simulation results show that (i) the outputs of the NARMAX model match closely those generated using continuous-time methods and (ii) NARMAX identification methods applied to aeroelastic dynamics provide accurate discrete-time parameter estimates. Application of NARMAX identification to experimental pitch-plunge dynamics data gives a high percent fit for cross-validated data.

  18. Non-Linear High Amplitude Oscillations in Wave-shaped Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antao, Dion; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2011-11-01

    A numerical and experimental study of non-linear, high amplitude standing waves in ``wave-shaped'' resonators is reported here. These waves are shock-less and can generate peak acoustic overpressures that can exceed the ambient pressure by three/four times its nominal value. A high fidelity compressible axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the phenomena in cylindrical and arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric resonators. Working fluids (Helium, Nitrogen and R-134a) at various operating pressures are studied. The experiments are performed in a constant cross-section cylindrical resonator in atmospheric pressure nitrogen and helium to provide model validation. The high amplitude non-linear oscillations demonstrated can be used as a prime mover in a variety of applications including thermoacoustic cryocooling. The work reported is supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant CBET-0853959.

  19. Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong

    2011-05-01

    This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability

  20. Cones perform a non-linear transformation on natural stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Endeman, D; Kamermans, M

    2010-01-01

    Visual information in natural scenes is distributed over a broad range of intensities and contrasts. This distribution has to be compressed in the retina to match the dynamic range of retinal neurons. In this study we examined how cones perform this compression and investigated which physiological processes contribute to this operation. M- and L-cones of the goldfish were stimulated with a natural time series of intensities (NTSI) and their responses were recorded. The NTSI displays an intensity distribution which is skewed towards the lower intensities and has a long tail into the high intensity region. Cones transform this skewed distribution into a more symmetrical one. The voltage responses of the goldfish cones were compared to those of a linear filter and a non-linear biophysical model of the photoreceptor. The results show that the linear filter under-represents contrasts at low intensities compared to the actual cone whereas the non-linear biophysical model performs well over the whole intensity range used. Quantitative analysis of the two approaches indicates that the non-linear biophysical model can capture 91 ± 5% of the coherence rate (a biased measure of information rate) of the actual cone, where the linear filter only reaches 48 ± 8%. These results demonstrate that cone photoreceptors transform an NTSI in a non-linear fashion. The comparison between current clamp and voltage clamp recordings and analysis of the behaviour of the biophysical model indicates that both the calcium feedback loop in the outer segment and the hydrolysis of cGMP are the major components that introduce the specific non-linear response properties found in the goldfish cones. PMID:20008463

  1. Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.

    2007-05-01

    Current industrial practice for the prediction and analysis of flutter relies heavily on linear methods and this has led to overly conservative design and envelope restrictions for aircraft. Although the methods have served the industry well, it is clear that for a number of reasons the inclusion of non-linearity in the mathematical and computational aeroelastic prediction tools is highly desirable. The increase in available and affordable computational resources, together with major advances in algorithms, mean that non-linear aeroelastic tools are now viable within the aircraft design and qualification environment. The Partnership for Unsteady Methods in Aerodynamics (PUMA) Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP) was sponsored in 2002 to conduct research into non-linear aeroelastic prediction methods and an academic, industry, and government consortium collaborated to address the following objectives: To develop useable methodologies to model and predict non-linear aeroelastic behaviour of complete aircraft. To evaluate the methodologies on real aircraft problems. To investigate the effect of non-linearities on aeroelastic behaviour and to determine which have the greatest effect on the flutter qualification process. These aims have been very effectively met during the course of the programme and the research outputs include: New methods available to industry for use in the flutter prediction process, together with the appropriate coaching of industry engineers. Interesting results in both linear and non-linear aeroelastics, with comprehensive comparison of methods and approaches for challenging problems. Additional embryonic techniques that, with further research, will further improve aeroelastics capability. This paper describes the methods that have been developed and how they are deployable within the industrial environment. We present a thorough review of the PUMA aeroelastics programme together with a comprehensive review of the relevant research

  2. On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas E-mail: mathias.garny@desy.de

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections at any order in perturbation theory. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.

  3. New non-linear photovoltaic effect in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Volovichev, I.

    2014-11-21

    A linear theory of the new non-linear photovoltaic effect in the closed circuit consisting of a non-uniformly illuminated uniform bipolar semiconductor with neutral impurities is developed. The non-uniform photo-excitation of impurities results in the position-dependant current carrier mobility that breaks the semiconductor homogeneity and induces the photo-electromotive force (emf). As both the electron (or hole) mobility gradient and the current carrier generation rate depend on the light intensity, the photo-emf and the short-circuit current prove to be non-linear functions of the incident light intensity at an arbitrarily low illumination. The influence of the sample size on the photovoltaic effect magnitude is studied. Physical relations and distinctions between the considered effect and the Dember and bulk photovoltaic effects are also discussed.

  4. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,L.; Nash, B.

    2009-05-04

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  5. Non-Linear Dynamics and Emergence in Laboratory Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, B.

    2011-09-22

    Turbulent behaviour of laboratory fusion plasma system is modelled using extended Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The model is solved numerically using finite difference techniques. We discuss non-linear effects in such a system in the presence of the micro-instabilities, specifically a drift wave instability. We explore particle dynamics in different range of parameters and show that the transport changes from diffusive to non-diffusive when large directional flows are developed.

  6. NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    TOMAS,R.FISCHER,W.JAIN,A.LUO,Y.PILAT,F.

    2004-07-05

    For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability.

  7. Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model.

  8. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at k ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  9. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE PAGES

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  10. Multi-disformal invariance of non-linear primordial perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuki; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-08-01

    We study disformal transformations of the metric in the cosmological context. We first consider the disformal transformation generated by a scalar field ϕ and show that the curvature and tensor perturbations on the uniform ϕ slicing, on which the scalar field is homogeneous, are non-linearly invariant under the disformal transformation. Then we discuss the transformation properties of the evolution equations for the curvature and tensor perturbations at full non-linear order in the context of spatial gradient expansion as well as at linear order. In particular, we show that the transformation can be described in two different ways: one that clearly shows the physical invariance and the other that shows an apparent change of the causal structure. Finally we consider a new type of disformal transformation in which a multi-component scalar field comes into play, which we call a “multi-disformal transformation”. We show that the curvature and tensor perturbations are invariant at linear order, and also at non-linear order, provided that the system has reached the adiabatic limit.

  11. Non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Luo, Jisheng

    2008-04-01

    The direct numerical simulation method is adopted to study the non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations at the ablation front of a 200 μm planar CH ablation target. In the simulation, the classical electrical thermal conductivity is included, and NND difference scheme is used. The linear growth rates obtained from the simulation agree with the Takabe formula. The amplitude distribution of the density perturbation at the ablation front is obtained for the linear growth case. The non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations are analyzed and the numerical results show that the amplitude distributions of the compulsive harmonics are very different from that of the fundamental perturbation. The characteristics of the amplitude distributions of the harmonics and their fast growth explain why spikes occur at the ablation front. The numerical results also show that non-linear effects have relations with the phase differences of double mode initial perturbations, and different phase differences lead to varied spikes.

  12. Non-linear Compton Scattering in Short Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Jerzy

    2012-06-01

    The generation of short X-ray laser pulses attracts a great deal of attention. One of mechanisms to achieve this goal is the non-linear Compton scattering at very high laser powers. The majority of previous works on the non-linear Compton scattering have been devoted to the case when the incident laser field is treated as a monochromatic plane wave. There is, however, recent interest in analyzing the effect of a pulsed laser field on the non-linear Compton scattering [1-4]. We study the process for different durations of the incident laser pulse and compare it with the results for both a plane wave laser field and a laser pulse train. [4pt] [1] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053403 (2009).[0pt] [2] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 446 (2011).[0pt] [3] D. Seipt and B. Kämpfer, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022101 (2011).[0pt] [4] F. Mackenroth and A. Di Piazza, Phys. Rev. A 83, 032106 (2011).

  13. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    PubMed

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  14. Magnetized Kerr/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-08-01

    We extend the conjectured Kerr/CFT correspondence to the case of extremal Kerr black holes immersed by a magnetic field, namely the extremal Melvin–Kerr black holes. We compute the central charge which appears in the associated Virasoro algebra generated by a class of diffeomorphisms that satisfies a set of boundary conditions in the near horizon of an extremal Melvin–Kerr black hole. Our results support the Kerr/CFT conjecture, where the macroscopic Bekenstein–Hawking entropy for an extremal Melvin–Kerr black hole matches the result obtained from a dual 2D CFT microscopic computation using Cardy formula. Interestingly, the dual CFT description could be non-unitary, due to the possibility of negative central charge.

  15. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    PubMed

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  16. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  17. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    PubMed

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate. PMID:26503051

  18. Non-linear dynamics of compound sawteeth in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-H.; Garbet, X.; Lütjens, H.; Marx, A.; Nicolas, T.; Sabot, R.; Luciani, J.-F.; Guirlet, R.; Février, O.; Maget, P.

    2016-05-01

    Compound sawteeth is studied with the XTOR-2F code. Non-linear full 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that the plasma hot core is radially displaced and rotates during the partial crash, but is not fully expelled out of the q = 1 surface. Partial crashes occur when the radius of the q = 1 surface exceeds a critical value, at fixed poloidal beta. This critical value depends on the plasma elongation. The partial crash time is larger than the collapse time of an ordinary sawtooth, likely due to a weaker diamagnetic stabilization. This suggests that partial crashes result from a competition between destabilizing effects such as the q = 1 radius and diamagnetic stabilization.

  19. Recognizing Human Activities Using Non-linear SVM Decision Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiyong; Liu, Zhijing; Zhang, Hao

    This paper presents a new method of human activity recognition, which is based on R transform and non-linear SVM Decision Tree (NSVMDT). For a key binary human silhouette, R transform is employed to represent low-level features. The advantage of the R transform lies in its low computational complexity and geometric invariance. We utilize NSVMDT to train and classify video sequences, and demonstrate the usability with many sequences. Compared with other methods, ours is superior because the descriptor is robust to frame loss in superior because the descriptor is robust to frame loss in activities recognition, simple representation, computational complexity and template generalization. Sufficient experiments have proved the efficiency.

  20. Non-linear identification of a squeeze-film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanway, Roger; Mottershead, John; Firoozian, Riaz

    1987-01-01

    Described is an experimental study to identify the damping laws associated with a squeeze-film vibration damper. This is achieved by using a non-linear filtering algorithm to process displacement responses of the damper ring to synchronous excitation and thus to estimate the parameters in an nth-power velocity model. The experimental facility is described in detail and a representative selection of results is included. The identified models are validated through the prediction of damper-ring orbits and comparison with observed responses.

  1. Non-linear optical titanyl arsenates: Crystal growth and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordborg, Jenni Eva Louise

    Crystals are appreciated not only for their appearance, but also for their unique physical properties which are utilized by the photonic industry in appliances that we come across every day. An important part of enabling the technical use of optical devices is the manufacture of crystals. This dissertation deals with a specific group of materials called the potassium titanyl phosphate (KIP) family, known for their non-linear optical and ferroelectric properties. The isomorphs vary in their linear optical and dielectric properties, which can be tuned to optimize device performance by forming solid solutions of the different materials. Titanyl arsenates have a wide range of near-infrared transmission which makes them useful for tunable infrared lasers. The isomorphs examined in the present work were primarily RbTiOASO4 (RTA) and CsTiOAsO4 (CTA) together with the mixtures RbxCs 1-xTiOAsO4 (RCTA). Large-scale crystals were grown by top seeding solution growth utilizing a three-zone furnace with excellent temperature control. Sufficiently slow cooling and constant upward lifting produced crystals with large volumes useable for technical applications. Optical quality RTA crystals up to 10 x 12 x 20 mm were grown. The greater difficulty in obtaining good crystals of CTA led to the use of mixed RCTA materials. The mixing of rubidium and cesium in RCTA is more favorable to crystal growth than the single components in pure RTA and CTA. Mixed crystals are rubidium-enriched and contain only 20-30% of the cesium concentration in the flux. The cesium atoms show a preference for the larger cation site. The network structure is very little affected by the cation substitution; consequently, the non-linear optical properties of the Rb-rich isomorphic mixtures of RTA and CTA can be expected to remain intact. Crystallographic methods utilizing conventional X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation and neutron diffraction have been employed to investigate the properties of the atomic

  2. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  3. 8-PSK Signaling over non-linear satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Sheila B.; Caballero, Ruben B. Eng.

    1996-01-01

    Space agencies are under pressure to utilize better bandwidth-efficient communication methods due to the actual allocated frequency bands becoming more congested. Also budget reductions is another problem that the space agencies must deal with. This budget constraint results in simpler spacecraft carrying less communication capabilities and also the reduction in staff to capture data in the earth stations. It is then imperative that the most bandwidth efficient communication methods be utilized. This thesis presents a study of 8-ary Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) modulation with respect to bandwidth, power efficiency, spurious emissions and interference susceptibility over a non-linear satellite channel.

  4. Non-linear isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo; Wands, David E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2008-12-15

    We study non-linear primordial adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations and their non-Gaussianity. After giving a general formulation in the context of an extended {delta}N formalism, we analyse in detail two illustrative examples. The first is a mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario in which fluctuations of both the inflaton and a curvaton (a light isocurvature field during inflation) contribute to the primordial density perturbation. The second example is that of double inflation involving two decoupled massive scalar fields during inflation. In the mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario we find that the bispectrum of primordial isocurvature perturbations may be large and comparable to the bispectrum of adiabatic curvature perturbations.

  5. Halo model predictions of the cosmic magnification statistics: the full non-linear contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Masahiro; Hamana, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The lensing magnification effect due to large-scale structure is statistically measurable by the correlation of size fluctuations in distant galaxy images as well as by cross-correlation between foreground galaxies and background sources such as the QSO-galaxy cross-correlation. We use the halo model formulation of Takada & Jain to compute these magnification-induced correlations without employing the weak lensing approximation, μ~ 1 + 2κ. Our predictions thus include the full contribution from non-linear magnification, δμ>~ 1, that is due to lensing haloes. We compare the model prediction with ray-tracing simulations and find excellent agreement over the range of angular scales we consider (0.5 <~θ<~ 30 arcmin). In addition, we derive the dependence of the correlation amplitude on the maximum magnification cut-off μmax, which it is necessary to introduce in order to avoid the contributions from strong lensing events. For a general correlation function parametrized as <μpf> (f is any cosmic field correlated with the magnification field), the amplitude remains finite for p < 1 and diverges for p>= 1 as μmax->∞, independent of the details of the lensing mass distribution and of the separation angle. This consequence is verified by the halo model as well as by the simulations. Thus, the magnification correlation with p<= 1 has a practical advantage in that it is insensitive to a selection effect of how strong lensing events with μ>> 1 are observationally excluded from the sample. The non-linear magnification contribution enhances the amplitude of the magnification correlation relative to the weak lensing approximation, and the non-linear correction is more significant on smaller angular scales and for sources at higher redshifts. The enhancement amounts to 10-25 per cent on arcmin scales for the QSO-galaxy cross-correlation, even after the inclusion of a realistic model of galaxy clustering within the host halo. Therefore, it is necessary to account for the

  6. Manganite-based memristive heterojunction with tunable non-linear I-V characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho; Rozenberg, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    A resistive random access memory (ReRAM) based on the memristive effect allows high-density integration through a cross-point array (CPA) structure. However, a significant common drawback of the CPA configuration is the crosstalk between cells. Here, we introduce a solution based on a novel heterojunction stack solely made of members of the perovskite manganite family Pr1-xCaxMnO3 (PCMO) and CaMnO3-δ (CMO) which show electroforming-free bipolar resistive switching. The heterojunction consists of rectifying interfaces and shows a symmetrical and tunable non-linear current-voltage curve. The spectromicroscopic measurements support the scenario of specialized roles, with the memristive effect taking place at the active Al-PCMO interface via a redox mechanism, while non-linearity was achieved by adopting a rectifying double interface PCMO-CMO-PCMO.A resistive random access memory (ReRAM) based on the memristive effect allows high-density integration through a cross-point array (CPA) structure. However, a significant common drawback of the CPA configuration is the crosstalk between cells. Here, we introduce a solution based on a novel heterojunction stack solely made of members of the perovskite manganite family Pr1-xCaxMnO3 (PCMO) and CaMnO3-δ (CMO) which show electroforming-free bipolar resistive switching. The heterojunction consists of rectifying interfaces and shows a symmetrical and tunable non-linear current-voltage curve. The spectromicroscopic measurements support the scenario of specialized roles, with the memristive effect taking place at the active Al-PCMO interface via a redox mechanism, while non-linearity was achieved by adopting a rectifying double interface PCMO-CMO-PCMO. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental method of spectromicroscopy; a scheme of the resistive switching mechanism, work function measurement of the CaMnO3-δ film; linear scale current-voltage characteristics; simulation method of the readout margin of a

  7. Intensity modulated optical transmission in a non-linear dielectric environment with an embedded mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    We study the optical behavior of an arrangement in which the interface between a linear and non-linear dielectric media is covered by an embedded mono-layer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC). The optical behavior is qualitatively obtained through transmission and reflection coefficients which are a function of the third order non-linear susceptibility of the Kerr-type dielectric and the inter-band optical conductivity of the TMDC mono-layer. The inter-band optical conductivity of the TMDC mono-layer is calculated using the Kubo formalism from the linear response theory. In particular, we theoretically demonstrate that the optical response of this structure can be switched between the total internal reflection and a normal transmission regime by controlling the intensity of the incident radiation. The reflection and transmission functions are shown to be amenable to further control by altering the inter-band optical conductivity of the embedded TMDC mono-layer. The optical conductivity is directly related to its energy dispersion. We specifically choose two TMDC mono-layers, MoS2 and WSe2, which have nearly identical dispersion parameters apart from a much stronger spin-orbit coupling in the latter. The stronger spin-orbit coupling in WSe2 does not significantly alter the inter-band optical conductivity to manifest as an enhanced reflection spectrum. However, we find that application of an external perturbation such as strain could be effectively used to modulate the overall optical response. We conclude by discussing briefly the phenomenon of optical bistability which arises in materials exhibiting optical non-linearity via an intensity-dependent refractive index.

  8. Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.

    2015-03-15

    An object's wake in a plasma with small Debye length that drifts across the magnetic field is subject to electrostatic electron instabilities. Such situations include, for example, the moon in the solar wind and probes in magnetized laboratory plasmas. The instability drive mechanism can equivalently be considered drift down the potential-energy gradient or drift up the density-gradient. The gradients arise because the plasma wake has a region of depressed density and electrostatic potential into which ions are attracted along the field. The non-linear consequences of the instability are analysed in this paper. At physical ratios of electron to ion mass, neither linear nor quasilinear treatment can explain the observation of large-amplitude perturbations that disrupt the ion streams well before they become ion-ion unstable. We show here, however, that electron holes, once formed, continue to grow, driven by the drift mechanism, and if they remain in the wake may reach a maximum non-linearly stable size, beyond which their uncontrolled growth disrupts the ions. The hole growth calculations provide a quantitative prediction of hole profile and size evolution. Hole growth appears to explain the observations of recent particle-in-cell simulations.

  9. Non-linear leak currents affect mammalian neuron physiology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiwei; Hong, Sungho; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In their seminal works on squid giant axons, Hodgkin, and Huxley approximated the membrane leak current as Ohmic, i.e., linear, since in their preparation, sub-threshold current rectification due to the influence of ionic concentration is negligible. Most studies on mammalian neurons have made the same, largely untested, assumption. Here we show that the membrane time constant and input resistance of mammalian neurons (when other major voltage-sensitive and ligand-gated ionic currents are discounted) varies non-linearly with membrane voltage, following the prediction of a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-based passive membrane model. The model predicts that under such conditions, the time constant/input resistance-voltage relationship will linearize if the concentration differences across the cell membrane are reduced. These properties were observed in patch-clamp recordings of cerebellar Purkinje neurons (in the presence of pharmacological blockers of other background ionic currents) and were more prominent in the sub-threshold region of the membrane potential. Model simulations showed that the non-linear leak affects voltage-clamp recordings and reduces temporal summation of excitatory synaptic input. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of trans-membrane ionic concentration in defining the functional properties of the passive membrane in mammalian neurons as well as other excitable cells. PMID:26594148

  10. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  11. Effects on non-linearities on aircraft poststall motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rohacs, J.; Thomasson, P.; Mosehilde, E.

    1994-12-31

    The poststall maneuverability controlled by thrust vectoring has become one of the important aspects of new fighter development projects. In simplified case, the motion of aircraft can be described by 6DOF nonlinear system. The lecture deals with the longitudinal motion of poststall maneuverable aircraft. The investigation made about the effects of non-linearities in aerodynamic coefficients having considerable non-linearities and hysteresisis an the poststall motions. There were used some different models of aerodynamic coefficients. The results of investigation have shown that the poststall domain of vectored aircraft can be divided into five different pHs in field of thrust - pitch vector angle, and the chaotic motions of aircraft can be found at the different frequencies of thrust deflection. There were defined an unstable right domain with an unstable oscillation and a field of overpulling at poststall motion. The certain frequency chaotic attractors were got at frequencies of Oxitation between the 0.15 and 0.65 rad/sec. The pitching moment derivatives had the big influence on the chaotic motions, while the lift coefficient derivatives bad the reasonable effects, only.

  12. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications.

    PubMed

    Stanculescu, F; Stanculescu, A

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  13. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications.

    PubMed

    Stanculescu, F; Stanculescu, A

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised. PMID:26873262

  14. Non-linear analysis of EEG and HRV signals during sleep.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alejandro; Guerrero-Mora, Guillermina; Dorantes-Méndez, Guadalupe; Alba, Alfonso; Méndez, Martin O; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The sleep phenomenon is a complex process that involves fluctuations of autonomic functions such as the blood pressure, temperature and brain function. These fluctuations change their properties through the different sleep stages with specific relations among the different systems. In order to understand the relation between the cardiovascular and central nervous system at the different sleep stages, we applied different non-linear methods to the energy of electroencephalographic signal (EEG) and the heart rate fluctuations. The EEG was divided in the Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands and the mean energy of these bands was computed at each heart rate interval. Thus, the non-linear relation was evaluated between the energy of the EEG bands and the heart rate fluctuations using Cross-Correlation, Cross-Sample Entropy and Recurrence Quantification Analysis in segments of 5 minutes grouped by sleep stage. The results showed that a relation exists between the changes of the energy in the Delta band and the Heart rate fluctuations. PMID:26737214

  15. Non-linear analysis of EEG and HRV signals during sleep.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alejandro; Guerrero-Mora, Guillermina; Dorantes-Méndez, Guadalupe; Alba, Alfonso; Méndez, Martin O; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The sleep phenomenon is a complex process that involves fluctuations of autonomic functions such as the blood pressure, temperature and brain function. These fluctuations change their properties through the different sleep stages with specific relations among the different systems. In order to understand the relation between the cardiovascular and central nervous system at the different sleep stages, we applied different non-linear methods to the energy of electroencephalographic signal (EEG) and the heart rate fluctuations. The EEG was divided in the Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands and the mean energy of these bands was computed at each heart rate interval. Thus, the non-linear relation was evaluated between the energy of the EEG bands and the heart rate fluctuations using Cross-Correlation, Cross-Sample Entropy and Recurrence Quantification Analysis in segments of 5 minutes grouped by sleep stage. The results showed that a relation exists between the changes of the energy in the Delta band and the Heart rate fluctuations.

  16. Plasmon-enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Juanjuan; Chen, Hongyi; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhou, Haitao; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity through anisotropic Purcell factors provided by plasmon nanostructures. In a three-level atomic system with crossing damping, larger anisotropism of Purcell factors leads to more enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in electromagnetically induced transparency windows. While for fixed anisotropic Purcell factors, Kerr nonlinearity with orthogonal dipole moments increases with the decrease of its crossing damping, and Kerr nonlinearity with nonorthogonal dipole moments is very sensitive to both the value of crossing damping and the orientation of the dipole moments. We design the non-resonant gold nanorods array, which only provides subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors, and demonstrate that the Kerr nonlinearity of cesium atoms close to the nanorods array can be modulated at the nanoscale. These findings should have potential application in ultracompact quantum logic devices.

  17. Plasmon-enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Juanjuan; Chen, Hongyi; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhou, Haitao; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-10-21

    We theoretically investigate the enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity through anisotropic Purcell factors provided by plasmon nanostructures. In a three-level atomic system with crossing damping, larger anisotropism of Purcell factors leads to more enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in electromagnetically induced transparency windows. While for fixed anisotropic Purcell factors, Kerr nonlinearity with orthogonal dipole moments increases with the decrease of its crossing damping, and Kerr nonlinearity with nonorthogonal dipole moments is very sensitive to both the value of crossing damping and the orientation of the dipole moments. We design the non-resonant gold nanorods array, which only provides subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors, and demonstrate that the Kerr nonlinearity of cesium atoms close to the nanorods array can be modulated at the nanoscale. These findings should have potential application in ultracompact quantum logic devices. PMID:27632352

  18. Plasmon-enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Juanjuan; Chen, Hongyi; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhou, Haitao; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-10-21

    We theoretically investigate the enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity through anisotropic Purcell factors provided by plasmon nanostructures. In a three-level atomic system with crossing damping, larger anisotropism of Purcell factors leads to more enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in electromagnetically induced transparency windows. While for fixed anisotropic Purcell factors, Kerr nonlinearity with orthogonal dipole moments increases with the decrease of its crossing damping, and Kerr nonlinearity with nonorthogonal dipole moments is very sensitive to both the value of crossing damping and the orientation of the dipole moments. We design the non-resonant gold nanorods array, which only provides subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors, and demonstrate that the Kerr nonlinearity of cesium atoms close to the nanorods array can be modulated at the nanoscale. These findings should have potential application in ultracompact quantum logic devices.

  19. Non-Linear Cosmological Power Spectra in Real and Redshift Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. N.; Hamilton, A. J. S.

    1996-01-01

    We present an expression for the non-linear evolution of the cosmological power spectrum based on Lagrangian trajectories. This is simplified using the Zel'dovich approximation to trace particle displacements, assuming Gaussian initial conditions. The model is found to exhibit the transfer of power from large to small scales expected in self-gravitating fields. Some exact solutions are found for power-law initial spectra. We have extended this analysis into red-shift space and found a solution for the non-linear, anisotropic redshift-space power spectrum in the limit of plane-parallel redshift distortions. The quadrupole-to-monopole ratio is calculated for the case of power-law initial spectra. We find that the shape of this ratio depends on the shape of the initial spectrum, but when scaled to linear theory depends only weakly on the redshift-space distortion parameter, beta. The point of zero-crossing of the quadrupole, kappa(sub o), is found to obey a simple scaling relation and we calculate this scale in the Zel'dovich approximation. This model is found to be in good agreement with a series of N-body simulations on scales down to the zero-crossing of the quadrupole, although the wavenumber at zero-crossing is underestimated. These results are applied to the quadrupole-to-monopole ratio found in the merged QDOT plus 1.2-Jy-IRAS redshift survey. Using a likelihood technique we have estimated that the distortion parameter is constrained to be beta greater than 0.5 at the 95 percent level. Our results are fairly insensitive to the local primordial spectral slope, but the likelihood analysis suggests n = -2 un the translinear regime. The zero-crossing scale of the quadrupole is k(sub 0) = 0.5 +/- 0.1 h Mpc(exp -1) and from this we infer that the amplitude of clustering is sigma(sub 8) = 0.7 +/- 0.05. We suggest that the success of this model is due to non-linear redshift-space effects arising from infall on to caustic and is not dominated by virialized cluster cores

  20. Non-linear PIC simulation in a penning trap

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, G. L.; Lapenta, G. M.; Finn, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We study the non-linear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  1. Characterization of porous media structure by non linear NMR methods.

    PubMed

    Capuani, S; Alesiani, M; Alessandri, F M; Maraviglia, B

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of modifying the multiple spin echoes existing theory, developed for a homogeneous system, to describe also an inhomogeneous system such as a porous medium. We report here the first experimental application of MSE methods to materials like travertine. The ratio A(2)/A(1) from water in travertine presents minima for characteristic values of the delay time tau, like what was previously observed in the trabecular bone. By a judicious choice of the delay time tau and of the G gradient strength, the MSE sequence can be made sensitive to a specific length-scale of the sample heterogeneity. Furthermore the MSE image shows a particular new contrast that makes the non linear NMR method very attractive for the assessment of variations of the porous structure in porous systems. PMID:11445306

  2. Anderson Localization, Non-linearity and Stable Genetic Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Charles L.

    2006-07-01

    In many models of genotypic evolution, the vector of genotype populations satisfies a system of linear ordinary differential equations. This system of equations models a competition between differential replication rates (fitness) and mutation. Mutation operates as a generalized diffusion process on genotype space. In the large time asymptotics, the replication term tends to produce a single dominant quasi-species, unless the mutation rate is too high, in which case the asymptotic population becomes de-localized. We introduce a more macroscopic picture of genotypic evolution wherein a random fitness term in the linear model produces features analogous to Anderson localization. When coupled with density dependent non-linearities, which limit the population of any given genotype, we obtain a model whose large time asymptotics display stable genotypic diversity.

  3. Learning Petri net models of non-linear gene interactions.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Understanding how an individual's genetic make-up influences their risk of disease is a problem of paramount importance. Although machine-learning techniques are able to uncover the relationships between genotype and disease, the problem of automatically building the best biochemical model or "explanation" of the relationship has received less attention. In this paper, I describe a method based on random hill climbing that automatically builds Petri net models of non-linear (or multi-factorial) disease-causing gene-gene interactions. Petri nets are a suitable formalism for this problem, because they are used to model concurrent, dynamic processes analogous to biochemical reaction networks. I show that this method is routinely able to identify perfect Petri net models for three disease-causing gene-gene interactions recently reported in the literature.

  4. Engineering Non-Classical Light with Non-Linear Microwaveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsmo, Arne; Clerk, Aashish; Blais, Alexandre

    The quest for ever increasing fidelity and scalability in measurement of superconducting qubits to be used for fault-tolerant quantum computing has recently led to the development of near quantum-limited broadband phase preserving amplifiers in the microwave regime. These devices are, however, more than just amplifiers: They are sources of high-quality, broadband two-mode squeezed light. We show how bottom-up engineering of Josephson junction embedded waveguides can be used to design novel squeezing spectra. Furthermore, the entanglement in the two-mode squeezed output field can be imprinted onto quantum systems coupled to the device's output. These broadband microwave amplifiers constitute a realization of non-linear waveguide QED, a very interesting playground for non-equilibrium many-body physics.

  5. Method and system for non-linear motion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ligang (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.

  6. Transformation matrices between non-linear and linear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sartain, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    In the linearization of systems of non-linear differential equations, those systems which can be exactly transformed into the second order linear differential equation Y"-AY'-BY=0 where Y, Y', and Y" are n x 1 vectors and A and B are constant n x n matrices of real numbers were considered. The 2n x 2n matrix was used to transform the above matrix equation into the first order matrix equation X' = MX. Specially the matrix M and the conditions which will diagonalize or triangularize M were studied. Transformation matrices P and P sub -1 were used to accomplish this diagonalization or triangularization to return to the solution of the second order matrix differential equation system from the first order system.

  7. Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.

  8. Non-linear radial spinwave modes in thin magnetic disks

    SciTech Connect

    Helsen, M. De Clercq, J.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Weigand, M.

    2015-01-19

    We present an experimental investigation of radial spin-wave modes in magnetic nano-disks with a vortex ground state. The spin-wave amplitude was measured using a frequency-resolved magneto-optical spectrum analyzer, allowing for high-resolution resonance curves to be recorded. It was found that with increasing excitation amplitude up to about 10 mT, the lowest-order mode behaves strongly non-linearly as the mode frequency redshifts and the resonance peak strongly deforms. This behavior was quantitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. Micromagnetic simulations showed that at higher excitation amplitudes, the spinwaves are transformed into a soliton by self-focusing, and collapse onto the vortex core, dispersing the energy in short-wavelength spinwaves. Additionally, this process can lead to switching of the vortex polarization through the injection of a Bloch point.

  9. The mathematics of non-linear metrics for nested networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Jie; Shi, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    Numerical analysis of data from international trade and ecological networks has shown that the non-linear fitness-complexity metric is the best candidate to rank nodes by importance in bipartite networks that exhibit a nested structure. Despite its relevance for real networks, the mathematical properties of the metric and its variants remain largely unexplored. Here, we perform an analytic and numeric study of the fitness-complexity metric and a new variant, called minimal extremal metric. We rigorously derive exact expressions for node scores for perfectly nested networks and show that these expressions explain the non-trivial convergence properties of the metrics. A comparison between the fitness-complexity metric and the minimal extremal metric on real data reveals that the latter can produce improved rankings if the input data are reliable.

  10. Attractor reconstruction for non-linear systems: a methodological note

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.M.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction is an important step in the process of making predictions for non-linear time-series and in the computation of certain invariant quantities used to characterize the dynamics of such series. The utility of computed predictions and invariant quantities is dependent on the accuracy of attractor reconstruction, which in turn is determined by the methods used in the reconstruction process. This paper suggests methods by which the delay and embedding dimension may be selected for a typical delay coordinate reconstruction. A comparison is drawn between the use of the autocorrelation function and mutual information in quantifying the delay. In addition, a false nearest neighbor (FNN) approach is used in minimizing the number of delay vectors needed. Results highlight the need for an accurate reconstruction in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum and in prediction algorithms.

  11. Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems progresses to new approaches in assessing hazard and risk of the extreme catastrophic events. In particular, a series of interrelated step-by-step studies of seismic process along with its non-stationary though self-organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake forecast/prediction technique that has passed control in forward real-time applications during the last two decades. The observed seismic dynamics prior to and after many mega, great, major, and strong earthquakes demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course durable phase transitions in complex hierarchical non-linear system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space and time implies that many traditional estimations of seismic hazard (from term-less to short-term ones) are usually based on erroneous assumptions of easy tractable analytical models, which leads to widespread practice of their deceptive application. The consequences of underestimation of seismic hazard propagate non-linearly into inflicted underestimation of risk and, eventually, into unexpected societal losses due to earthquakes and associated phenomena (i.e., collapse of buildings, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction, etc.). The studies aimed at forecast/prediction of extreme events (interpreted as critical transitions) in geophysical and socio-economical systems include: (i) large earthquakes in geophysical systems of the lithosphere blocks-and-faults, (ii) starts and ends of economic recessions, (iii) episodes of a sharp increase in the unemployment rate, (iv) surge of the homicides in socio-economic systems. These studies are based on a heuristic search of phenomena preceding critical transitions and application of methodologies of pattern recognition of infrequent events. Any study of rare

  12. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1994-01-11

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

  13. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, R.

    1994-08-09

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

  14. DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D

    2008-06-10

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

  15. Black hole hair removal: non-linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sen, Ashoke; Srivastava, Yogesh K.

    2010-02-01

    BMPV black holes in flat transverse space and in Taub-NUT space have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic degeneracies. It has been proposed that this difference can be accounted for by different contribution to the degeneracies of these black holes from hair modes, — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon. In this paper we explicitly construct the hair modes of these two black holes as finite bosonic and fermionic deformations of the black hole solution satisfying the full non-linear equations of motion of supergravity and preserving the supersymmetry of the original solutions. Special care is taken to ensure that these solutions do not have any curvature singularity at the future horizon when viewed as the full ten dimensional geometry. We show that after removing the contribution due to the hair degrees of freedom from the microscopic partition function, the partition functions of the two black holes agree.

  16. Neural networks: What non-linearity to choose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik YA.; Quintana, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks are now one of the most successful learning formalisms. Neurons transform inputs (x(sub 1),...,x(sub n)) into an output f(w(sub 1)x(sub 1) + ... + w(sub n)x(sub n)), where f is a non-linear function and w, are adjustable weights. What f to choose? Usually the logistic function is chosen, but sometimes the use of different functions improves the practical efficiency of the network. The problem of choosing f as a mathematical optimization problem is formulated and solved under different optimality criteria. As a result, a list of functions f that are optimal under these criteria are determined. This list includes both the functions that were empirically proved to be the best for some problems, and some new functions that may be worth trying.

  17. Computational models of signalling networks for non-linear control.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Luis A; Lones, Michael A; Turner, Alexander P; Stepney, Susan; Caves, Leo S; Tyrrell, Andy M

    2013-05-01

    Artificial signalling networks (ASNs) are a computational approach inspired by the signalling processes inside cells that decode outside environmental information. Using evolutionary algorithms to induce complex behaviours, we show how chaotic dynamics in a conservative dynamical system can be controlled. Such dynamics are of particular interest as they mimic the inherent complexity of non-linear physical systems in the real world. Considering the main biological interpretations of cellular signalling, in which complex behaviours and robust cellular responses emerge from the interaction of multiple pathways, we introduce two ASN representations: a stand-alone ASN and a coupled ASN. In particular we note how sophisticated cellular communication mechanisms can lead to effective controllers, where complicated problems can be divided into smaller and independent tasks.

  18. Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.

  19. Spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking in non-linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, Luis F.

    2010-07-29

    A recently proposed model of non-linear electrodynamics arising from a gauge invariant spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is reviewed. The potential providing the symmetry breaking is argued to arise from the integration of gauge bosons and fermions in an underlying theory. The invariant subgroups remaining after the symmetry breaking are determined, as well as the dispersion relations and polarization modes of the propagating linear sector or the model. Strong bounds upon the predicted anisotropy of the speed of light are obtained by embedding the model in the electromagnetic sector of the Standard Model Extension and taking advantage of the restrictions in the parameters derived there. Finally, a reasonable estimation of the intergalactic magnetic field is obtained by assuming that the vacuum energy of the model is described by the standard cosmological constant.

  20. Discriminative Non-Linear Stationary Subspace Analysis for Video Classification.

    PubMed

    Baktashmotlagh, Mahsa; Harandi, Mehrtash; Lovell, Brian C; Salzmann, Mathieu

    2014-12-01

    Low-dimensional representations are key to the success of many video classification algorithms. However, the commonly-used dimensionality reduction techniques fail to account for the fact that only part of the signal is shared across all the videos in one class. As a consequence, the resulting representations contain instance-specific information, which introduces noise in the classification process. In this paper, we introduce non-linear stationary subspace analysis: a method that overcomes this issue by explicitly separating the stationary parts of the video signal (i.e., the parts shared across all videos in one class), from its non-stationary parts (i.e., the parts specific to individual videos). Our method also encourages the new representation to be discriminative, thus accounting for the underlying classification problem. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on dynamic texture recognition, scene classification and action recognition. PMID:26353144

  1. PHOTON RINGS AROUND KERR AND KERR-LIKE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, Tim

    2013-11-10

    Very long baseline interferometric observations have resolved structure on scales of only a few Schwarzschild radii around the supermassive black holes at the centers of our Galaxy and M87. In the near future, such observations are expected to image the shadows of these black holes together with a bright and narrow ring surrounding their shadows. For a Kerr black hole, the shape of this photon ring is nearly circular unless the black hole spins very rapidly. Whether or not, however, astrophysical black holes are truly described by the Kerr metric as encapsulated in the no-hair theorem still remains an untested assumption. For black holes that differ from Kerr black holes, photon rings have been shown numerically to be asymmetric for small to intermediate spins. In this paper, I calculate semi-analytic expressions of the shapes of photon rings around black holes described by a new Kerr-like metric which is valid for all spins. I show that photon rings in this spacetime are affected by two types of deviations from the Kerr metric which can cause the ring shape to be highly asymmetric. I argue that the ring asymmetry is a direct measure of a potential violation of the no-hair theorem and that both types of deviations can be detected independently if the mass and distance of the black hole are known. In addition, I obtain approximate expressions of the diameters, displacements, and asymmetries of photon rings around Kerr and Kerr-like black holes.

  2. Discriminating Non-Linearity from Linearity: Its Cognitive Foundations in Five-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Van Dooren, Wim; Goudriaan, Margje N.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    People often have difficulties in understanding situations that involve non-linear processes. Also, the topic of non-linear functions is introduced relatively late in the curriculum. Previous research has nevertheless shown that already children aged 6 years and older are able to discriminate non-linear from linear processes. Within the present…

  3. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  4. Fitness Effects of Network Non-Linearity Induced by Gene Expression Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Christian; Cooper, Tim; Balazsi, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    In the non-equilibrium dynamics of growing microbial cells, metabolic enzymes can create non-linearities in metabolite concentration because of non-linear degradation (utilization): an enzyme can saturate in the process of metabolite utilization. Increasing metabolite production past the saturation point then results in an ultrasensitive metabolite response. If the production rate of a metabolite depends on a second enzyme or other protein-mediated process, uncorrelated gene expression noise can thus cause transient metabolite concentration bursts. Such bursts are physiologically unnecessary and may represent a source of selection against the ultrasensitive switch, especially if the fluctuating metabolic intermediate is toxic. Selection may therefore favor correlated gene expression fluctuations for enzymes in the same pathway, such as by same-operon membership in bacteria. Using a modified experimental lac operon system, we are undertaking a combined theoretical-experimental approach to demonstrate that (i) the lac operon has an implicit ultrasensitive switch that we predict is avoided by gene expression correlations induced by same-operon membership; (ii) bacterial growth rates are sensitive to crossing the ultrasensitive threshold. Our results suggest that correlations in intrinsic gene expression noise are exploited by evolution to ameliorate the detrimental effects of nonlinearities in metabolite concentrations.

  5. THE RESPONSE OF DRUG EXPENDITURE TO NON-LINEAR CONTRACT DESIGN: EVIDENCE FROM MEDICARE PART D*

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Schrimpf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the demand response to non-linear price schedules using data on insurance contracts and prescription drug purchases in Medicare Part D. We exploit the kink in individuals’ budget set created by the famous “donut hole,” where insurance becomes discontinuously much less generous on the margin, to provide descriptive evidence of the drug purchase response to a price increase. We then specify and estimate a simple dynamic model of drug use that allows us to quantify the spending response along the entire non-linear budget set. We use the model for counterfactual analysis of the increase in spending from “filling” the donut hole, as will be required by 2020 under the Affordable Care Act. In our baseline model, which considers spending decisions within a single year, we estimate that “filling” the donut hole will increase annual drug spending by about $150, or about 8 percent. About one-quarter of this spending increase reflects “anticipatory” behavior, coming from beneficiaries whose spending prior to the policy change would leave them short of reaching the donut hole. We also present descriptive evidence of cross-year substitution of spending by individuals who reach the kink, which motivates a simple extension to our baseline model that allows – in a highly stylized way – for individuals to engage in such cross year substitution. Our estimates from this extension suggest that a large share of the $150 drug spending increase could be attributed to cross-year substitution, and the net increase could be as little as $45 per year. PMID:26769984

  6. Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay

    2013-04-01

    The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components

  7. Non-linear evolution of the cosmic neutrino background

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Peña-Garay, Carlos E-mail: spb@ias.edu E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the non-linear evolution of the relic cosmic neutrino background by running large box-size, high resolution N-body simulations which incorporate cold dark matter (CDM) and neutrinos as independent particle species. Our set of simulations explore the properties of neutrinos in a reference ΛCDM model with total neutrino masses between 0.05-0.60 eV in cold dark matter haloes of mass 10{sup 11}−10{sup 15} h{sup −1}M{sub s}un, over a redshift range z = 0−2. We compute the halo mass function and show that it is reasonably well fitted by the Sheth-Tormen formula, once the neutrino contribution to the total matter is removed. More importantly, we focus on the CDM and neutrino properties of the density and peculiar velocity fields in the cosmological volume, inside and in the outskirts of virialized haloes. The dynamical state of the neutrino particles depends strongly on their momentum: whereas neutrinos in the low velocity tail behave similarly to CDM particles, neutrinos in the high velocity tail are not affected by the clustering of the underlying CDM component. We find that the neutrino (linear) unperturbed momentum distribution is modified and mass and redshift dependent deviations from the expected Fermi-Dirac distribution are in place both in the cosmological volume and inside haloes. The neutrino density profiles around virialized haloes have been carefully investigated and a simple fitting formula is provided. The neutrino profile, unlike the cold dark matter one, is found to be cored with core size and central density that depend on the neutrino mass, redshift and mass of the halo, for halos of masses larger than ∼ 10{sup 13.5}h{sup −1}M{sub s}un. For lower masses the neutrino profile is best fitted by a simple power-law relation in the range probed by the simulations. The results we obtain are numerically converged in terms of neutrino profiles at the 10% level for scales above ∼ 200 h{sup −1}kpc at z = 0, and are stable with

  8. Non-linear controls on the persistence of La Nina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nezio, P. N.; Deser, C.

    2013-12-01

    Non-linear controls on the persistence of La Nina Pedro DiNezio and Clara Deser Up to half of the observed La Nina events last for two years or more. Most El Nino events, in contrast, last no longer than one year. The physical processes causing this asymmetry in the duration of warm and cold ENSO events is unknown. The persistence of La Nina, not only exacerbates the climate impacts, especially in regions prone to drought, but also is highly unpredictable. In this talk we will explore the nonlinear processes that generate the persistence of La Nina in observations and in CCSM4 - a coupled climate model that simulates this feature realistically. First, we develop a non-linear delayed-oscillator model (nonlinDO) based on CCSM4's heat budget. All positive and negative feedbacks of nonlinDO capture the nonlinear and seasonal dependence exhibited by CCSM4. The nonlinear behavior is due to: 1) weaker atmospheric damping of cold events with respect to warm events, 2) stronger wind response for large warm events, and 3) weaker coupling between thermocline and sea-surface temperature anomalies when the thermocline deepens. We force the simple model with white Gaussian noise resulting in seasonal modulation of variance and skewness, and a spectral peak, that are in agreement with CCSM4. Sensitivity experiments with nonlinDO show that the thermocline nonlinearity (3) is the sole process controlling the duration of La Nina events. Linear ENSO theory indicates that La Nina events drive a delayed thermocline deepening that leads to their demise. However, the thermocline nonlinearity (3) renders this response ineffective as La Nina events become stronger. This diminishing of the delayed-thermocline feedback prevents the equatorial Pacific from returning to neutral or warm conditions and cold conditions persist for a second year. Observations show evidence for this thermocline nonlinearity suggesting that this process could be at work in the real world. Last, we show evidence that

  9. Cosmological non-linear hydrodynamics with post-Newtonian corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Puetzfeld, Dirk E-mail: hr@kasi.re.kr

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present general relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic equations in Newtonian-like forms using the post-Newtonian (PN) method. The PN approximation, based on the assumptions of weak gravitational fields and slow motions, provides a way to estimate general relativistic effects in the fully non-linear evolution stage of the large-scale cosmic structures. We extend Chandrasekhar's first-order PN (1PN) hydrodynamics based on the Minkowski background to the one based on the Robertson-Walker background. We assume the presence of Friedmann's cosmological spacetime as a background. In the background we include the 3-space curvature, the cosmological constant and general pressure. In the Newtonian order and 1PN order we include general pressure, stress, and flux. We show that the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations appear naturally in the 0PN order. The spatial gauge degree of freedom is fixed in a unique manner and the basic equations are arranged without taking the temporal gauge condition. In this way we can conveniently try alternative temporal gauge conditions depending on the mathematical convenience. We investigate a number of temporal gauge conditions under which all the remaining variables are equivalently gauge invariant. We show that compared with the action-at-a-distance nature of the Newtonian gravitational potential, 1PN corrections make the propagation speed of a perturbed potential dependent on the temporal gauge condition; we show that to 1PN order the physically relevant propagation speed of gravity is the same as the speed of light. Our aim is to present the fully non-linear cosmological 1PN equations in a form suitable for implementation in conventional Newtonian hydrodynamic simulations with minimal extensions. The 1PN terms can be considered as relativistic corrections added to the well-known Newtonian equations. The proper arrangement of the variables and equations in combination with suitable gauge conditions would allow

  10. STATISTICAL BASED NON-LINEAR MODEL UPDATING USING FEATURE EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.F.; Hemez, F.M.

    2000-10-01

    This research presents a new method to improve analytical model fidelity for non-linear systems. The approach investigates several mechanisms to assist the analyst in updating an analytical model based on experimental data and statistical analysis of parameter effects. The first is a new approach at data reduction called feature extraction. This is an expansion of the update metrics to include specific phenomena or character of the response that is critical to model application. This is an extension of the classical linear updating paradigm of utilizing the eigen-parameters or FRFs to include such devices as peak acceleration, time of arrival or standard deviation of model error. The next expansion of the updating process is the inclusion of statistical based parameter analysis to quantify the effects of uncertain or significant effect parameters in the construction of a meta-model. This provides indicators of the statistical variation associated with parameters as well as confidence intervals on the coefficients of the resulting meta-model, Also included in this method is the investigation of linear parameter effect screening using a partial factorial variable array for simulation. This is intended to aid the analyst in eliminating from the investigation the parameters that do not have a significant variation effect on the feature metric, Finally an investigation of the model to replicate the measured response variation is examined.

  11. Non-linear optical measurements using a scanned, Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.

    2015-03-01

    Oftentimes cells are removed from the body for disease diagnosis or cellular research. This typically requires fluorescent labeling followed by sorting with a flow cytometer; however, possible disruption of cellular function or even cell death due to the presence of the label can occur. This may be acceptable for ex vivo applications, but as cells are more frequently moving from the lab to the body, label-free methods of cell sorting are needed to eliminate these issues. This is especially true of the growing field of stem cell research where specialized cells are needed for treatments. Because differentiation processes are not completely efficient, cells must be sorted to eliminate any unwanted cells (i.e. un-differentiated or differentiated into an unwanted cell type). In order to perform label-free measurements, non-linear optics (NLO) have been increasingly utilized for single cell analysis because of their ability to not disrupt cellular function. An optical system was developed for the measurement of NLO in a microfluidic channel similar to a flow cytometer. In order to improve the excitation efficiency of NLO, a scanned Bessel beam was utilized to create a light-sheet across the channel. The system was tested by monitoring twophoton fluorescence from polystyrene microbeads of different sizes. Fluorescence intensity obtained from light-sheet measurements were significantly greater than measurements made using a static Gaussian beam. In addition, the increase in intensity from larger sized beads was more evident for the light-sheet system.

  12. Channel Capacity of Non-Linear Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Andrew D.; Zhao, Jian

    Since their introduction in the late 1970s, the capacity of optical communication links has grown exponentially, fuelled by a series of key innovations including movement between the three telecommunication windows of 850 nm, 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm, distributed feedback laser, erbium-doped fibre amplifiers (EDFAs), dispersion-shifted and dispersion-managed fibre links, external modulation, wavelength division multiplexing, optical switching, forward error correction (FEC), Raman amplification, and most recently, coherent detection, electronic signal processing and optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Throughout this evolution, one constant factor has been the use of single-mode optical fibre, whose fundamental principles dated back to the 1800s, when Irish scientist, John Tyndall demonstrated in a lecture to the Royal Society in London that light could be guided through a curved stream of water [1]. Following many developments, including the proposal for waveguides by J.J. Thompson [2], the presentation of detailed calculations for dielectric waveguides by Snitzer [3], the proposal [4] and fabrication [5] of ultra low loss fibres, single-mode fibres were first adopted for non-experimental use in Dorset, UK in 1975, and are still in use today, despite the evolving designs to control chromatic dispersion and non-linearity.

  13. Amplitude relations in non-linear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Du, Yi-Jian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate tree-level scattering amplitude relations in U( N) non-linear sigma model. We use Cayley parametrization. As was shown in the recent works [23,24], both on-shell amplitudes and off-shell currents with odd points have to vanish under Cayley parametrization. We prove the off-shell U(1) identity and fundamental BCJ relation for even-point currents. By taking the on-shell limits of the off-shell relations, we show that the color-ordered tree amplitudes with even points satisfy U(1)-decoupling identity and fundamental BCJ relation, which have the same formations within Yang-Mills theory. We further state that all the on-shell general KK, BCJ relations as well as the minimal-basis expansion are also satisfied by color-ordered tree amplitudes. As a consequence of the relations among color-ordered amplitudes, the total 2 m-point tree amplitudes satisfy DDM form of color decomposition as well as KLT relation.

  14. Non-linear modulation of short wavelength compressional Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B.; Bortolon, A.; Crocker, N. A.; Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H.

    2013-04-15

    Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to Almost-Equal-To 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n = 1 kink-like mode. In this paper, we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE) and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present a predator-prey type model of the curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.

  15. On classical mechanical systems with non-linear constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, Gláucio; Kobayashi, Marcelo H.

    2004-03-01

    In the present work, we analyze classical mechanical systems with non-linear constraints in the velocities. We prove that the d'Alembert-Chetaev trajectories of a constrained mechanical system satisfy both Gauss' principle of least constraint and Hölder's principle. In the case of a free mechanics, they also satisfy Hertz's principle of least curvature if the constraint manifold is a cone. We show that the Gibbs-Maggi-Appell (GMA) vector field (i.e. the second-order vector field which defines the d'Alembert-Chetaev trajectories) conserves energy for any potential energy if, and only if, the constraint is homogeneous (i.e. if the Liouville vector field is tangent to the constraint manifold). We introduce the Jacobi-Carathéodory metric tensor and prove Jacobi-Carathéodory's theorem assuming that the constraint manifold is a cone. Finally, we present a version of Liouville's theorem on the conservation of volume for the flow of the GMA vector field.

  16. Non linear processes modulated by low doses of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Alloni, Daniele; Babini, Gabriele; Morini, Jacopo; Baiocco, Giorgio

    The perturbation induced by radiation impinging on biological targets can stimulate the activation of several different pathways, spanning from the DNA damage processing to intra/extra -cellular signalling. In the mechanistic investigation of radiobiological damage this complex “system” response (e.g. omics, signalling networks, micro-environmental modifications, etc.) has to be taken into account, shifting from a focus on the DNA molecule solely to a systemic/collective view. An additional complication comes from the finding that the individual response of each of the involved processes is often not linear as a function of the dose. In this context, a systems biology approach to investigate the effects of low dose irradiations on intra/extra-cellular signalling will be presented, where low doses of radiation act as a mild perturbation of a robustly interconnected network. Results obtained through a multi-level investigation of both DNA damage repair processes (e.g. gamma-H2AX response) and of the activation kinetics for intra/extra cellular signalling pathways (e.g. NFkB activation) show that the overall cell response is dominated by non-linear processes - such as negative feedbacks - leading to possible non equilibrium steady states and to a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Together with experimental data of radiation perturbed pathways, different modelling approaches will be also discussed.

  17. Non-linear model for compression tests on articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Alfio; Guaily, Amr; Giverso, Chiara; Federico, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Hydrated soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, are often modeled as biphasic systems with individually incompressible solid and fluid phases, and biphasic models are employed to fit experimental data in order to determine the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the tissues. Two of the most common experimental setups are confined and unconfined compression. Analytical solutions exist for the unconfined case with the linear, isotropic, homogeneous model of articular cartilage, and for the confined case with the non-linear, isotropic, homogeneous model. The aim of this contribution is to provide an easily implementable numerical tool to determine a solution to the governing differential equations of (homogeneous and isotropic) unconfined and (inhomogeneous and isotropic) confined compression under large deformations. The large-deformation governing equations are reduced to equivalent diffusive equations, which are then solved by means of finite difference (FD) methods. The solution strategy proposed here could be used to generate benchmark tests for validating complex user-defined material models within finite element (FE) implementations, and for determining the tissue's mechanical and hydraulic properties from experimental data.

  18. Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten

    2014-02-27

    Different calibration techniques are available for spectroscopic applications that show nonlinear behavior. This comprehensive comparative study presents a comparison of different nonlinear calibration techniques: kernel PLS (KPLS), support vector machines (SVM), least-squares SVM (LS-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non-linear models on linear problems, robustness to small or medium sample sets, and robustness to pre-processing, are discussed. The results suggest that GPR and BANN are powerful and promising methods for handling linear as well as nonlinear systems, even when the data sets are moderately small. The LS-SVM is also attractive due to its good predictive performance for both linear and nonlinear calibrations.

  19. Optimum Damping in a Non-Linear Base Isolation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangid, R. S.

    1996-02-01

    Optimum isolation damping for minimum acceleration of a base-isolated structure subjected to earthquake ground excitation is investigated. The stochastic model of the El-Centro1940 earthquake, which preserves the non-stationary evolution of amplitude and frequency content of ground motion, is used as an earthquake excitation. The base isolated structure consists of a linear flexible shear type multi-storey building supported on a base isolation system. The resilient-friction base isolator (R-FBI) is considered as an isolation system. The non-stationary stochastic response of the system is obtained by the time dependent equivalent linearization technique as the force-deformation of the R-FBI system is non-linear. The optimum damping of the R-FBI system is obtained under important parametric variations; i.e., the coefficient of friction of the R-FBI system, the period and damping of the superstructure; the effective period of base isolation. The criterion selected for optimality is the minimization of the top floor root mean square (r.m.s.) acceleration. It is shown that the above parameters have significant effects on optimum isolation damping.

  20. Organic non-linear optics and opto-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Santillán, R.; Farfán, N.

    2010-12-01

    π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers are of great importance in physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. It is expected that, in the near future, organic materials will find widespread use in many technological applications. In the case of organic opto-electronic systems, the list of devices includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), field-effect transistors (OFET), photorefractive materials for light manipulation, among others. These materials are also used for photonic applications: all-optical switching, modulators, optical correlators, plastic waveguides, all polymeric integrated circuits, solid-state lasers, and for biophotonic applications as in the case of the development of organic labels for multiphoton microscopy and photodynamic therapy. The advances in the developing of organic compounds with better mechanical, electrical, and optical (linear and non-linear) characteristics are of a great importance for this field. Here, we present the research on this area carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óp-tica (CIO), in collaboration with Chemistry Departments of different institutions. This work focuses on the optical characterization of materials through several techniques such as TOF, FWM, TBC, THG Maker Fringes, HRS, Z-scan, and TPEF. Additionally, some applications, such as dynamic holography by using photorefractive polymers, and OPVs cells will be discussed.

  1. Experimental study of a linear/non-linear flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaas, Timothy; Gekelman, Walter; Van Compernolle, Bart

    2015-08-15

    Flux ropes are magnetic structures of helical field lines, accompanied by spiraling currents. Commonly observed on the solar surface extending into the solar atmosphere, flux ropes are naturally occurring and have been observed by satellites in the near earth and in laboratory environments. In this experiment, a single flux rope (r = 2.5 cm, L = 1100 cm) was formed in the cylindrical, magnetized plasma of the Large Plasma Device (LaPD, L = 2200 cm, r{sub plasma} = 30 cm, n{sub o} = 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −3}, T{sub e} = 4 eV, He). The flux rope was generated by a DC discharge between an electron emitting cathode and anode. This fixes the rope at its source while allowing it to freely move about the anode. At large currents (I > πr{sup 2}B{sub 0}c/2 L), the flux rope becomes helical in structure and oscillates about a central axis. Under varying Alfven speeds and injection current, the transition of the flux rope from stable to kink-unstable was examined. As it becomes non-linear, oscillations in the magnetic signals shift from sinusoidal to Sawtooth-like, associated with elliptical motion of the flux rope; or the signal becomes intermittent as its current density increases.

  2. Multigrid approaches to non-linear diffusion problems on unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the nonlinearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) multigrid method which is used to solve the non-linear equations directly, a linear multigrid method which is used to solve the linear system arising from a Newton linearization of the non-linear system, and a hybrid scheme which is based on a non-linear FAS multigrid scheme, but employs a linear solver on each level as a smoother. Results indicate that all methods are equally effective at converging the non-linear residual in a given number of grid sweeps, but that the linear solver is more efficient in cpu time due to the lower cost of linear versus non-linear grid sweeps.

  3. Non-Linear Pattern Formation in Bone Growth and Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here – chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) – which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of “group intelligence” exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called “particle swarm optimization” (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating “socially” in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or “feedback” between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the

  4. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  5. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  6. Phenomenon of Life: Between Equilibrium and Non-Linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.

    2004-12-01

    A model of ordering applicable to biological evolution is presented. It is shown that a steady state (more precisely approaching to a steady state) system of irreversible processes, under conditions of disproportionation of entropy, produces a lower-entropy product, that is, ordering. The ordering is defined as restricting of degrees of freedom: freedom of motion, interactions etc. The model differs from previous ones in that it relates the ordering to processes running not far from equilibrium, described in the linear field of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that a system, which includes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) conversion meets the demands of the physical model: it provides energy maintaining steady state conditions, and hydrolysis of ATP proceeding with consumption of water can be tightly conjugated with the most important reactions of synthesis of organic polymers (peptides, nucleotide chains etc.), which proceed with release of water. For these and other reasons ATP seems to be a key molecule of prebiotic evolution. It is argued that the elementary chemical reaction proceeding under control of an enzyme is not necessarily far from equilibrium. The experimental evidence supporting this idea, is presented. It is based on isotope data. Carbon isotope distribution in biochemical systems reveals regularity, which is inherent to steady state systems of chemical reactions, proceeding not far from equilibrium. In living organisms this feature appears at the statistical level, as many completely irreversible and non-linear processes occur in organisms. However not-far-from-equilibrium reactions are inherent to biochemical systems as a matter of principle. They are reconcilable with biochemical behavior. Extant organisms are highly evolved entities which, however, show in their basis the same features, as the simplest chemical systems must have had been involved in the origin of life. Some consequences following from the

  7. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIX. Rise and decay of field induced anisotropy in the non-linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young-Gonzales, Amanda R.; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

    2015-09-01

    For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility.

  8. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIX. Rise and decay of field induced anisotropy in the non-linear regime.

    PubMed

    Young-Gonzales, Amanda R; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

    2015-09-14

    For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility.

  9. Nonequatorial charged particle confinement around Kerr black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the nonequatorial charged particle dynamics around a rotating black hole in the presence of an external magnetic field, the latter being given by Wald’s exact analytical solution to the Maxwell’s equations in the Kerr background. At variance with the corresponding Schwarzschild case, the behavior of the particle becomes here markedly charge-sign dependent, and the more so the more the Kerr parameter increases. The interplay between the rotating black hole and the magnetic field is shown to provide a mechanism both for selective charge ejection in axially collimated jetlike trajectories, and for selective charge confinement into nonequatorial bound orbits around the hole; the possibility of such a confinement allows the fate of an accreting particle to not necessarily be doomed: infall into the hole can be prevented, and the neutrality of the Kerr source could therefore be preserved, while the charge is safely parked into bound cross-equatorial orbits all around it.

  10. Nonequatorial charged particle confinement around Kerr black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Preti, Giovanni

    2010-01-15

    We analyze the nonequatorial charged particle dynamics around a rotating black hole in the presence of an external magnetic field, the latter being given by Wald's exact analytical solution to the Maxwell's equations in the Kerr background. At variance with the corresponding Schwarzschild case, the behavior of the particle becomes here markedly charge-sign dependent, and the more so the more the Kerr parameter increases. The interplay between the rotating black hole and the magnetic field is shown to provide a mechanism both for selective charge ejection in axially collimated jetlike trajectories, and for selective charge confinement into nonequatorial bound orbits around the hole; the possibility of such a confinement allows the fate of an accreting particle to not necessarily be doomed: infall into the hole can be prevented, and the neutrality of the Kerr source could therefore be preserved, while the charge is safely parked into bound cross-equatorial orbits all around it.

  11. Vertical Distribution of Radiation Stress for Non-linear Shoaling Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, B. M.; Slinn, D. N.

    2004-12-01

    The flux of momentum directed shoreward by an incident wave field, commonly referred to as the radiation stress, plays a significant role in nearshore circulation and, therefore, has a profound impact on the transport of pollutants, biota, and sediment in nearshore systems. Having received much attention since the seminal work of Longuet-Higgins and Stewart in the early 1960's, use of the radiation stress concept continues to be refined and evidence of its utility is widespread in literature pertaining to coastal and ocean science. A number of investigations, both numerical and analytical in nature, have used the concept of the radiation stress to derive appropriate forcing mechanisms that initiate cross-shore and longshore circulation, but typically in a depth-averaged sense due to a lack of information concerning the vertical distribution of the wave stresses. While depth-averaged nearshore circulation models are still widely used today, advancements in technology have permitted the adaptation of three-dimensional (3D) modeling techniques to study flow properties of complex nearshore circulation systems. It has been shown that the resulting circulation in these 3D models is very sensitive to the vertical distribution of the nearshore forcing, which have often been implemented as either depth-uniform or depth-linear distributions. Recently, analytical expressions describing the vertical structure of radiation stress components have appeared in the literature (see Mellor, 2003; Xia et al., 2004) but do not fully describe the magnitude and structure in the region bound by the trough and crest of non-linear, propagating waves. Utilizing a three-dimensional, non-linear, numerical model that resolves the time-dependent free surface, we present mean flow properties resulting from a simulation of Visser's (1984, 1991) laboratory experiment on uniform longshore currents. More specifically, we provide information regarding the vertical distribution of radiation stress

  12. Fast non-linear gravity inversion in spherical coordinates with application to the South American Moho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valéria C. F.

    2016-10-01

    Estimating the relief of the Moho from gravity data is a computationally intensive non-linear inverse problem. What is more, the modeling must take the Earths curvature into account when the study area is of regional scale or greater. We present a regularized non-linear gravity inversion method that has a low computational footprint and employs a spherical Earth approximation. To achieve this, we combine the highly efficient Bott's method with smoothness regularization and a discretization of the anomalous Moho into tesseroids (spherical prisms). The computational efficiency of our method is attained by harnessing the fact that all matrices involved are sparse. The inversion results are controlled by three hyper-parameters: the regularization parameter, the anomalous Moho density-contrast, and the reference Moho depth. We estimate the regularization parameter using the method of hold-out cross-validation. Additionally, we estimate the density-contrast and the reference depth using knowledge of the Moho depth at certain points. We apply the proposed method to estimate the Moho depth for the South American continent using satellite gravity data and seismological data. The final Moho model is in accordance with previous gravity-derived models and seismological data. The misfit to the gravity and seismological data is worse in the Andes and best in oceanic areas, central Brazil and Patagonia, and along the Atlantic coast. Similarly to previous results, the model suggests a thinner crust of 30-35 km under the Andean foreland basins. Discrepancies with the seismological data are greatest in the Guyana Shield, the central Solimões and Amazonas Basins, the Paraná Basins, and the Borborema province. These differences suggest the existence of crustal or mantle density anomalies that were unaccounted for during gravity data processing.

  13. Comparison of Linear and Non-Linear Regression Models to Estimate Leaf Area Index of Dryland Shrubs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashti, H.; Glenn, N. F.; Ilangakoon, N. T.; Mitchell, J.; Dhakal, S.; Spaete, L.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter in global ecosystem studies. LAI is considered a forcing variable in land surface processing models since ecosystem dynamics are highly correlated to LAI. In response to environmental limitations, plants in semiarid ecosystems have smaller leaf area, making accurate estimation of LAI by remote sensing a challenging issue. Optical remote sensing (400-2500 nm) techniques to estimate LAI are based either on radiative transfer models (RTMs) or statistical approaches. Considering the complex radiation field of dry ecosystems, simple 1-D RTMs lead to poor results, and on the other hand, inversion of more complex 3-D RTMs is a demanding task which requires the specification of many variables. A good alternative to physical approaches is using methods based on statistics. Similar to many natural phenomena, there is a non-linear relationship between LAI and top of canopy electromagnetic waves reflected to optical sensors. Non-linear regression models can better capture this relationship. However, considering the problem of a few numbers of observations in comparison to the feature space (nnon-linear regression techniques were investigated to estimate LAI. Our study area is located in southwestern Idaho, Great Basin. Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp) serves a critical role in maintaining the structure of this ecosystem. Using a leaf area meter (Accupar LP-80), LAI values were measured in the field. Linear Partial Least Square regression and non-linear, tree based Random Forest regression have been implemented to estimate the LAI of sagebrush from hyperspectral data (AVIRIS-ng) collected in late summer 2014. Cross validation of results indicate that PLS can provide comparable results to Random Forest.

  14. Integration of Attributes from Non-Linear Characterization of Cardiovascular Time-Series for Prediction of Defibrillation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shandilya, Sharad; Kurz, Michael C.; Ward, Kevin R.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The timing of defibrillation is mostly at arbitrary intervals during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rather than during intervals when the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) patient is physiologically primed for successful countershock. Interruptions to CPR may negatively impact defibrillation success. Multiple defibrillations can be associated with decreased post-resuscitation myocardial function. We hypothesize that a more complete picture of the cardiovascular system can be gained through non-linear dynamics and integration of multiple physiologic measures from biomedical signals. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of 153 anonymized OOH-CA patients who received at least one defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation (VF) was undertaken. A machine learning model, termed Multiple Domain Integrative (MDI) model, was developed to predict defibrillation success. We explore the rationale for non-linear dynamics and statistically validate heuristics involved in feature extraction for model development. Performance of MDI is then compared to the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) technique. Results 358 defibrillations were evaluated (218 unsuccessful and 140 successful). Non-linear properties (Lyapunov exponent > 0) of the ECG signals indicate a chaotic nature and validate the use of novel non-linear dynamic methods for feature extraction. Classification using MDI yielded ROC-AUC of 83.2% and accuracy of 78.8%, for the model built with ECG data only. Utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, at 80% specificity level, MDI (74% sensitivity) outperformed AMSA (53.6% sensitivity). At 90% specificity level, MDI had 68.4% sensitivity while AMSA had 43.3% sensitivity. Integrating available end-tidal carbon dioxide features into MDI, for the available 48 defibrillations, boosted ROC-AUC to 93.8% and accuracy to 83.3% at 80% sensitivity. Conclusion At clinically relevant sensitivity thresholds, the MDI provides improved performance as compared to AMSA

  15. Race for the Kerr field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautcourt, G.

    2009-06-01

    Roy P. Kerr has discovered his celebrated metric 45 years ago, yet the problem to find a generalization of the Schwarzschild metric for a rotating mass was faced much earlier. Lense and Thirring, Bach, Andress, Akeley, Lewis, van Stockum and others have tried to solve it or to find an approximative solution at least. In particular Achilles Papapetrou, from 1952 to 1961 in Berlin, was interested in an exact solution. He directed the author in the late autumn of 1959 to work on the problem. Why did these pre-Kerr attempts fail? Comments based on personal reminiscences and old notes.

  16. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered. PMID:27187988

  17. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered.

  18. Non-linear characterisation of the physical model of an ancient masonry bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti Fragonara, L.; Ceravolo, R.; Matta, E.; Quattrone, A.; De Stefano, A.; Pecorelli, M.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the non-linear investigations carried out on a scaled model of a two-span masonry arch bridge. The model has been built in order to study the effect of the central pile settlement due to riverbank erosion. Progressive damage was induced in several steps by applying increasing settlements at the central pier. For each settlement step, harmonic shaker tests were conducted under different excitation levels, this allowing for the non-linear identification of the progressively damaged system. The shaker tests have been performed at resonance with the modal frequency of the structure, which were determined from a previous linear identification. Estimated non-linearity parameters, which result from the systematic application of restoring force based identification algorithms, can corroborate models to be used in the reassessment of existing structures. The method used for non-linear identification allows monitoring the evolution of non-linear parameters or indicators which can be used in damage and safety assessment.

  19. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  20. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, A.; Söllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon–photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  1. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-10-23

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures.

  2. A New Multi-tanh-Based Non-linear Function Synthesiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher Abuelma'atti, Muhammad; Radhi Al-Abbas, Saad

    2016-11-01

    A new complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transadmittance-mode with input voltage and output current, analogue non-linear odd-function synthesiser is presented. The proposed circuit is based on the assumption that a non-linear odd- function can be approximated by the summation of hyperbolic tangent (tanh) functions with different arguments. Each term of the tanh function expansion is realised by exploiting to advantage the inherent non-linearity of a current-controlled current-conveyor (CCCCII) (or an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA)) with a different bias current. The output currents of these CCCCIIs (OTAs) are weighted using the gains of current amplifiers. These weighted currents are algebraically added to form the required non-linear function. The proposed circuit is suitable for integration, can be easily extended to include higher order terms of the tanh-odd-function expansion and can be programmed to realise arbitrary hard non-linear odd-functions that cannot be easily realised using already existing techniques, based on the Taylor-series expansion, for synthesising non-linear functions. PSPICE simulation results, obtained from CCCCII-based realisations of selected hard non-linearities, demonstrating the functionality of the proposed circuit are included.

  3. Testing non-linearity and directedness of interactions between neural groups in the macaque inferotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, W A; Valdes, P; Bosch, J; Biscay, R; Jimenez, J C; Rodriguez, L M; Rodriguez, V; Kreiter, A K; Singer, W

    1999-12-15

    Information processing in the visual cortex depends on complex and context sensitive patterns of interactions between neuronal groups in many different cortical areas. Methods used to date for disentangling this functional connectivity presuppose either linearity or instantaneous interactions, assumptions that are not necessarily valid. In this paper a general framework that encompasses both linear and non-linear modelling of neurophysiological time series data by means of Local Linear Non-linear Autoregressive models (LLNAR) is described. Within this framework a new test for non-linearity of time series and for non-linearity of directedness of neural interactions based on LLNAR is presented. These tests assess the relative goodness of fit of linear versus non-linear models via the bootstrap technique. Additionally, a generalised definition of Granger causality is presented based on LLNAR that is valid for both linear and non-linear systems. Finally, the use of LLNAR for measuring non-linearity and directional influences is illustrated using artificial data, reference data as well as local field potentials (LFPs) from macaque area TE. LFP data is well described by the linear variant of LLNAR. Models of this sort, including lagged values of the preceding 25 to 60 ms, revealed the existence of both uni- and bi-directional influences between recording sites.

  4. Remote synchronization of amplitudes across an experimental ring of non-linear oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, the emergence of remote synchronization in a ring of 32 unidirectionally coupled non-linear oscillators is reported. Each oscillator consists of 3 negative voltage gain stages connected in a loop to which two integrators are superimposed and receives input from its preceding neighbour via a “mixing” stage whose gains form the main system control parameters. Collective behaviour of the network is investigated numerically and experimentally, based on a custom-designed circuit board featuring 32 field-programmable analog arrays. A diverse set of synchronization patterns is observed depending on the control parameters. While phase synchronization ensues globally, albeit imperfectly, for certain control parameter values, amplitudes delineate subsets of non-adjacent but preferentially synchronized nodes; this cannot be trivially explained by synchronization paths along sequences of structurally connected nodes and is therefore interpreted as representing a form of remote synchronization. Complex topology of functional synchronization thus emerges from underlying elementary structural connectivity. In addition to the Kuramoto order parameter and cross-correlation coefficient, other synchronization measures are considered, and preliminary findings suggest that generalized synchronization may identify functional relationships across nodes otherwise not visible. Further work elucidating the mechanism underlying this observation of remote synchronization is necessary, to support which experimental data and board design materials have been made freely downloadable.

  5. Uncertainty due to non-linearity in radiation thermometers calibrated by multiple fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-09-11

    A new method to estimate the uncertainty due to non-linearity is described on the n= 3 scheme basis. The expression of uncertainty is mathematically derived applying the random walk method. The expression is simple and requires only the temperatures of the fixed points and a relative uncertainty value for each flux-doubling derived from the non-linearity measurement. We also present an example of the method, in which the uncertainty of temperature measurement by a radiation thermometer is calculated on the basis of non-linearity measurement.

  6. Linear and non-linear fluorescence imaging of neuronal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jonathan A. N.

    -photon absorption (TPA) cross sections, Sigma2 of various fluorophores are described as well. Utilizing single-beam two-photon microscopy, action potentials were recorded optically from individual (˜1 mum) nerve terminals of the intact mouse neurohypophysis, in a single sweep. Single-trial recordings of action potentials exhibited signal-to-noise ratios ˜5 and fractional fluorescence changes of up to ˜10%. These results represent the first single-trial optical recording of action potentials from individual nerve terminals in an intact mammalian preparation using 180° detection, and may serve as an alternative to invasive electrode arrays for studying neuronal systems in vivo .

  7. Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.

  8. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  9. The use of non-linear analysis for differentiating the biomagnetic activity in ovarian lesions.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Anastasiadis, P; Kotini, A

    1999-05-01

    In this study we investigated the biomagnetic activity measured with the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in benign and malignant ovarian lesions using non-linear analysis. We used a single channel biomagnetometer SQUID in order to measure the magnetic field emitted from benign and malignant ovarian lesions. We can differentiate such biomagnetic activities using non-linear analysis. Using the application of non-linear analysis in the ovarian lesions together with the use of dimensional calculations we have observed a clear saturation value for the dimension of malignant ovarian lesions and non-saturation for benign ovarian lesions. The biomagnetic measurements with the SQUID and the application of non-linear analysis in benign and malignant ovarian lesions, is a promising procedure in assessing and differentiating ovarian tumours. PMID:15512296

  10. Characterization of non-linear distortion in hearing aids using coherence analysis. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dyrlund, O

    1989-01-01

    Coherence is a frequency-domain measure of linear dependence between input and output of a system, e.g. a hearing aid, and describes the cumulative effect of different forms of signal corruption, e.g. noise and non-linear distortion. From the coherence function, a general frequency-dependent signal-to-noise ratio can be derived. In this investigation, the applicability of this measuring technique is demonstrated in connection with non-linear distortion in hearing aids. The influence of hearing aid gain and automatic gain control is illustrated, with speech-shaped noise as input signal. For the three hearing aids tested. The gain setting influences the signal-to-noise ratio heavily due to non-linear distortion, especially near maximum gain. The introduction of automatic gain control reduces the effect of non-linear distortion somewhat at high gain settings.

  11. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and

  12. Analysis of the Non-Linearity of El Niño Southern Oscillation Teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauen, Claudia; Dommenget, Dietmar; Rezny, Michael; Wales, Scott

    2014-05-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has significant variations and non-linearities in its pattern and strength. ENSO events are shifted along the equator, with some located in the central Pacific (CP) and others in the east Pacific (EP). To study how these variations are reflected in global ENSO teleconnections we analyze observations and idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. Clear non-linearities exist in observed teleconnections of sea level pressure (SLP) and precipitation. However, it is difficult to distinguish if these are caused by the different signs, strengths or spatial patterns of events (strong El Niño events mostly being EP events and strong La Niña events mostly being CP events) or by combinations of these. Therefore, sensitivity experiments are performed with an AGCM forced with idealized EP and CP ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) patterns with varying signs and strengths. It can be shown that in general the response is stronger for warm events than for cold events and the teleconnections shift following the SST anomaly patterns. EP events show stronger non-linearities than CP events. The non-linear responses to ENSO events can be explained as a combination of non-linear responses to a linear ENSO (fixed pattern but varying signs and strengths) and a linear response to a non-linear ENSO (varying patterns). Any observed event is a combination of these aspects. While in most tropical regions these add up leading to stronger non-linear responses than expected from the single components, in some regions they cancel each other resulting in little overall non-linearity. This leads to strong regional differences in ENSO teleconnections.

  13. How does non-linear dynamics affect the baryon acoustic oscillation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-02-01

    We study the non-linear behavior of the baryon acoustic oscillation in the power spectrum and the correlation function by decomposing the dark matter perturbations into the short- and long-wavelength modes. The evolution of the dark matter fluctuations can be described as a global coordinate transformation caused by the long-wavelength displacement vector acting on short-wavelength matter perturbation undergoing non-linear growth. Using this feature, we investigate the well known cancellation of the high-k solutions in the standard perturbation theory. While the standard perturbation theory naturally satisfies the cancellation of the high-k solutions, some of the recently proposed improved perturbation theories do not guarantee the cancellation. We show that this cancellation clarifies the success of the standard perturbation theory at the 2-loop order in describing the amplitude of the non-linear power spectrum even at high-k regions. We propose an extension of the standard 2-loop level perturbation theory model of the non-linear power spectrum that more accurately models the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillation than the standard perturbation theory. The model consists of simple and intuitive parts: the non-linear evolution of the smoothed power spectrum without the baryon acoustic oscillations and the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillations due to the large-scale velocity of dark matter and due to the gravitational attraction between dark matter particles. Our extended model predicts the smoothing parameter of the baryon acoustic oscillation peak at z = 0.35 as ∼ 7.7Mpc/h and describes the small non-linear shift in the peak position due to the galaxy random motions.

  14. Fault-tolerant control for a class of non-linear systems with dead-zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mou; Jiang, Bin; Guo, William W.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed for a class of single-input and single-output non-linear systems with the unknown time-varying system fault and the dead-zone. The non-linear state observer is designed for the non-linear system using differential mean value theorem, and the non-linear fault estimator that estimates the unknown time-varying system fault is developed. On the basis of the designed fault estimator, the observer-based fault-tolerant tracking control is then developed using the backstepping technique for non-linear systems with the dead-zone. The stability of the whole closed-loop system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking control performance is guaranteed in the presence of the unknown time-varying system fault and the dead-zone. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed backstepping fault-tolerant control scheme for non-linear systems.

  15. Detecting non-linearities in neuro-electrical signals: A study of synchronous local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Gerking, Johannes; Martinerie, Jacques; Neuenschwander, Sergio; Pezard, Laurent; Renault, Bernard; Varela, Francisco J.

    The question of the presence and detection of non-linear dynamics and possibly low-dimensional chaos in the brain is still an open question, with recent results indicating that initial claims for low dimensionality were faulted by incomplete statistical testing. To make some progress on this question, our approach was to use stringent data analysis of precisely controlled and behaviorally significant neuroelectric data. There are strong indications that functional brain activity is correlated with synchronous local field potentials. We examine here such synchronous episodes in data recorded from the visual system of behaving cats and pigeons. Our purpose was to examine under these ideal conditions whether the time series showed any evidence of non-linearity concommitantly with the arising of synchrony. To test for non-linearity we have used surrogate sets for non-linear forecasting, the false nearest strands method, and an examination of deterministic vs stochastic modeling. Our results indicate that the time series under examination do show evidence for traces of non-linear dynamics but weakly, since they are not robust under changes of parameters. We conclude that low-dimensional chaos is unlikely to be found in the brain, and that a robust detection and characterization of higher-dimensional non-linear dynamics is beyond the reach of current analytical tools.

  16. Geometrically non-linear vibration of spinning structures by finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, A. Y. T.; Fung, T. C.

    1990-05-01

    The geometrically non-linear steady state vibration of spinning structures is studied. Full flap-lag-torsional gyroscopic coupling effects are considered. The non-linearity arises mainly from the non-linear axial strain-displacement relation. The equations of motion are derived from Lagrangian equations. Spatial discretization is achieved by the finite element method and steady state nodal displacements are expanded into Fourier series. The harmonic balance method gives a set of non-linear algebraic equations with the Fourier coefficients of the nodal displacements as unknowns. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved by a Newtonian algorithm iteratively. The importance of the conditions of completeness and balanceability in choosing the number of harmonic terms to be used is discussed. General frame structures with arbitrary orientation in a rotating frame can be investigated by the present method. Rotating blades and shafts are treated as special cases. Examples of a rotating ring with different orientations are given. The non-linear amplitude-frequency relation can be constructed parametrically.

  17. Massive vector particles tunneling from Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Qian; Chen, Ge-Rui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the Hawking radiation of massive spin-1 particles from 4-dimensional Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. By applying the Hamilton-Jacobi ansatz and the WKB approximation to the field equations of the massive bosons in Kerr and Kerr-Newman space-time, the quantum tunneling method is successfully implemented. As a result, we obtain the tunneling rate of the emitted vector particles and recover the standard Hawking temperature of both the two black holes.

  18. Advanced modeling of polymer non-linear stress relaxation - poly (methylmethacrylate) and polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, José R. S.; Cruz Pinto, José J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Sound models of temperature- and strain-dependent non-linear stress relaxation are still lacking. Very recent work has shown that focusing on polymers' local, non-affine, strains and stresses provides an adequate basis for developing such models and accurately predicting experimental stress relaxation moduli, the values of meaningful physical parameters and long time behavior, from experiments spanning only a few hours. A new modeling strategy that explicitly considers such non-affine local stresses and strains was applied to two amorphous polymers - a poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA, and a bisphenol-A polycarbonate, PC. The results support a view of the stress relaxation process where a temperature-dependent, truncated, approximately log-normal distribution of local cooperative (or clustering) transitions are involved, at and above a minimum (or primitive) relaxor size. Within this view, cooperativity (via the average and maximum cluster sizes) increases with decreasing temperatures. Beyond the reasonable agreement with the experiments, the model succeeds in predicting (1) the effect of increases in the fully relaxed modulus, E∞, as in semi-crystalline or strongly cross-linked polymers, (2) the strict inapplicability of time-temperature and strain-time super-positions, (3) an extended, Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts, type of relaxation response, spanning 12 or more time decades, and (4) specific, meaningful, physical parameters: a minimum activation energy (close to those of corresponding β-type transitions), the (occupied + free) volume of the primitive relaxor, and the approximate crossover temperature, Tc, and frequency, νc both of critical importance in condensed matter dynamics. The model also has the potential of incorporating the effect of changes in free volume and allows very fast computations, irrespective of the experimental time scale.

  19. Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture.

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F.

    2003-12-01

    This project covers three distinct features of thin film fracture and deformation in which the current experimental technique of nanoindentation demonstrates limitations. The first feature is film fracture, which can be generated either by nanoindentation or bulge testing thin films. Examples of both tests will be shown, in particular oxide films on metallic or semiconductor substrates. Nanoindentations were made into oxide films on aluminum and titanium substrates for two cases; one where the metal was a bulk (effectively single crystal) material and the other where the metal was a 1 pm thick film grown on a silica or silicon substrate. In both cases indentation was used to produce discontinuous loading curves, which indicate film fracture after plastic deformation of the metal. The oxides on bulk metals fractures occurred at reproducible loads, and the tensile stress in the films at fracture were approximately 10 and 15 GPa for the aluminum and titanium oxides respectively. Similarly, bulge tests of piezoelectric oxide films have been carried out and demonstrate film fracture at stresses of only 100's of MPa, suggesting the importance of defects and film thickness in evaluating film strength. The second feature of concern is film adhesion. Several qualitative and quantitative tests exist today that measure the adhesion properties of thin films. A relatively new technique that uses stressed overlayers to measure adhesion has been proposed and extensively studied. Delamination of thin films manifests itself in the form of either telephone cord or straight buckles. The buckles are used to calculate the interfacial fracture toughness of the film-substrate system. Nanoindentation can be utilized if more energy is needed to initiate buckling of the film system. Finally, deformation in metallic systems can lead to non-linear deformation due to 'bursts' of dislocation activity during nanoindentation. An experimental study to examine the structure of dislocations around

  20. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhalifah, Tariq; Choi, Yunseok

    2012-12-01

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  1. The ``Schwarzschild-Kerr'' Equilibrium Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manko, V. S.; Ruiz, E.

    2010-12-01

    We discuss the possibility of equilibrium between a Schwarzschild black hole possessing zero intrinsic angular momentum and a hyperextreme Kerr source. The balance occurs due to frame-dragging exerted by the latter source on the black-hole constituent, thus giving rise to a non-zero horizon's angular velocity parallel to the angular momentum of the Kerr object.

  2. The 'Schwarzschild-Kerr' Equilibrium Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. S.; Ruiz, E.

    2010-12-07

    We discuss the possibility of equilibrium between a Schwarzschild black hole possessing zero intrinsic angular momentum and a hyperextreme Kerr source. The balance occurs due to frame-dragging exerted by the latter source on the black-hole constituent, thus giving rise to a non-zero horizon's angular velocity parallel to the angular momentum of the Kerr object.

  3. The Kerr/CFT correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Guica, Monica; Hartman, Thomas; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-12-15

    Quantum gravity in the region very near the horizon of an extreme Kerr black hole (whose angular momentum and mass are related by J=GM{sup 2}) is considered. It is shown that consistent boundary conditions exist, for which the asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c{sub L}=(12J/({Dirac_h}/2{pi})). This implies that the near-horizon quantum states can be identified with those of (a chiral half of) a two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). Moreover, in the extreme limit, the Frolov-Thorne vacuum state reduces to a thermal density matrix with dimensionless temperature T{sub L}=(1/2{pi}) and conjugate energy given by the zero mode generator, L{sub 0}, of the Virasoro algebra. Assuming unitarity, the Cardy formula then gives a microscopic entropy S{sub micro}=(2{pi}J/({Dirac_h}/2{pi})) for the CFT, which reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S{sub macro}=(Area/4({Dirac_h}/2{pi})G). The results apply to any consistent unitary quantum theory of gravity with a Kerr solution. We accordingly conjecture that extreme Kerr black holes are holographically dual to a chiral two-dimensional conformal field theory with central charge c{sub L}=(12J/({Dirac_h}/2{pi})), and, in particular, that the near-extreme black hole GRS 1915+105 is approximately dual to a CFT with c{sub L}{approx}2x10{sup 79}.

  4. Trumpet slices in Kerr spacetimes.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Kenneth A; Baumgarte, Thomas W; Montero, Pedro J

    2014-12-31

    We introduce a new time-independent family of analytical coordinate systems for the Kerr spacetime representing rotating black holes. We also propose a (2+1)+1 formalism for the characterization of trumpet geometries. Applying this formalism to our new family of coordinate systems we identify, for the first time, analytical and stationary trumpet slices for general rotating black holes, even for charged black holes in the presence of a cosmological constant. We present results for metric functions in this slicing and analyze the geometry of the rotating trumpet surface.

  5. Instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar part 2: experimental confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Kenneth; Mazzaro, Gregory; Gallagher, Kyle; Martone, Anthony; Sherbondy, Kelly; Narayanan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Last year, we presented the theory behind "instantaneous stepped-frequency, non-linear radar". We demonstrated through simulation that certain devices (when interrogated by a multi-tone transmit signal) could be expected to produce a multi-tone output signal near harmonics of the transmitted tones. This hypothesized non-linear (multitone) response was then shown to be suitable for pulse compression via standard stepped-frequency processing techniques. At that time, however, we did not have measured data to support the theoretical and simulated results. We now present laboratory measurements confirming our initial hypotheses. We begin with a brief description of the experimental system, and then describe the data collection exercise. Finally, we present measured data demonstrating the accurate ranging of a non-linear target.

  6. Roles of Different Forms of Scale Factor in Non-linear Electrodynamics for Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Sayani; Debnath, Ujjal

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we have assumed the modified Lagrangian of non-linear electrodynamics for accelerated universe. The energy density and pressure for non-linear electromagnetic theory have been considered in terms of both electric and magnetic fields. The Einstein's filed equations have been considered in FRW universe for Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. Since we are considering the non-linear form of Lagrangian for accelerating universe, so four forms of scale factors like logamediate, intermediate, emergent and power law forms are chosen in our investigation. For every expansion, the natures of electric field and magnetic field have been shown through graphical representation. The electric and magnetic fields increase for logamediate, intermediate and emergent expansion and decrease in power law expansion.

  7. Research on non-linearity correction of 2D-PSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiawei; Chen, Sihai; Chen, Wei; Wu, Xin; Xiang, Sihua

    2009-08-01

    PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) is a kind of electrophotonic detector based on lateral photoeffect. PSD is widely used in non-contact measurement as it's highly sensitive to the position of incident light. But, it suffers from non-linearity because of nonuniform surface resistance which reduces the measuring precision and reliability. In this paper, The non-linear error of 2D-PSD(Two-dimensional PSD) is partly corrected using algorithm for duo-linear interpolation based on LabVIEW(Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench). The corrected result shows that the linearity of 2D-PSD is greatly improved without increasing the complexity of hardware. After the non-linearity correction, the usable area of PSD is extended and the precision of the measurement system is improved.

  8. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects. PMID:24615758

  9. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  10. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects.

  11. Real-Time Monitoring of Non-linear Suicidal Dynamics: Methodology and a Demonstrative Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fartacek, Clemens; Schiepek, Günter; Kunrath, Sabine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of different authors have stressed the usefulness of non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicide research and suicide prevention. This approach applies specific methods of time series analysis and, consequently, it requires a continuous and fine-meshed assessment of the processes under consideration. The technical means for this kind of process assessment and process analysis are now available. This paper outlines how suicidal dynamics can be monitored in high-risk patients by an Internet-based application for continuous self-assessment with integrated tools of non-linear time series analysis: the Synergetic Navigation System. This procedure is illustrated by data from a patient who attempted suicide at the end of a 90-day monitoring period. Additionally, future research topics and clinical applications of a non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicidology are discussed.

  12. A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring of Non-linear Suicidal Dynamics: Methodology and a Demonstrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fartacek, Clemens; Schiepek, Günter; Kunrath, Sabine; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of different authors have stressed the usefulness of non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicide research and suicide prevention. This approach applies specific methods of time series analysis and, consequently, it requires a continuous and fine-meshed assessment of the processes under consideration. The technical means for this kind of process assessment and process analysis are now available. This paper outlines how suicidal dynamics can be monitored in high-risk patients by an Internet-based application for continuous self-assessment with integrated tools of non-linear time series analysis: the Synergetic Navigation System. This procedure is illustrated by data from a patient who attempted suicide at the end of a 90-day monitoring period. Additionally, future research topics and clinical applications of a non-linear dynamic systems approach in suicidology are discussed. PMID:26913016

  14. Scanning heterodyne Kerr-effect microscope for imaging of magnetic tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, Vladimir V.; Lee, Sukwon; Kwon, Youngkun; Cho, Sunghoon; Kim, Hyuk; Chae, Jonggyn

    2006-07-01

    Design and performance of a new type of Kerr microscope based on heterodyne cross-polarized technique is presented. Weak depolarization of the probe beam due to longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect is detected by means of heterodyne mixing of the two cross-polarized and frequency shifted waves generated by Zeeman-type He-Ne laser. In comparison with the traditional homodyne method the proposed technique has better sensitivity and spatial resolution. Experimental results of imaging service magnetic tracks on real samples of magnetic disks are presented, showing better contrast and spatial resolution with respect to the images obtained from commercial devices available in the market.

  15. Analysis of linear and non-linear genotype × environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments. PMID:25101112

  16. Three-dimensional finite-difference modeling of non-linear ground notion

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1997-08-01

    We present a hybrid finite-difference technique capable of modeling non-linear soil amplification from the 3-D finite-fault radiation pattern for earthquakes in arbitrary earth models. The method is applied to model non-linear effects in the soils of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) from the 17 January 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquake. 0-7 Hz particle velocities are computed for an area of 17 km by 19 km immediately above the causative fault and 5 km below the surface where peak strike-parallel, strike-perpendicular, vertical, and total velocities reach values of 71 cm/s, 145 cm/s, 152 cm/s, and 180 cm/s, respectively. Selected Green`s functions and a soil model for the SFV are used to compute the approximate stress level during the earthquake, and comparison to the values for near-surface alluvium at the U.S. Nevada Test Site suggests that the non-linear regime may have been entered. We use selected values from the simulated particle velocity distribution at 5 km depth to compute the non-linear response in a soil column below a site within the Van Norman Complex in SFV, where the strongest ground motion was recorded. Since site-specific non- linear material parameters from the SFV are currently unavailable, values are taken from analyses of observed Test Site ground motions. Preliminary results show significant reduction of spectral velocities at the surface normalized to the peak source velocity due to non-linear effects when the peak velocity increases from 32 cm/s (approximately linear case) to 64 cm/s (30-92%), 93 cm/s (7-83%), and 124 cm/s (2-70%). The largest reduction occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz.

  17. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-12-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z~ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula.

  18. Stable clustering, the halo model and non-linear cosmological power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. E.; Peacock, J. A.; Jenkins, A.; White, S. D. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.; Efstathiou, G.; Couchman, H. M. P.

    2003-06-01

    We present the results of a large library of cosmological N-body simulations, using power-law initial spectra. The non-linear evolution of the matter power spectra is compared with the predictions of existing analytic scaling formulae based on the work of Hamilton et al. The scaling approach has assumed that highly non-linear structures obey `stable clustering' and are frozen in proper coordinates. Our results show that, when transformed under the self-similarity scaling, the scale-free spectra define a non-linear locus that is clearly shallower than would be required under stable clustering. Furthermore, the small-scale non-linear power increases as both the power spectrum index n and the density parameter Ω decrease, and this evolution is not well accounted for by the previous scaling formulae. This breakdown of stable clustering can be understood as resulting from the modification of dark matter haloes by continuing mergers. These effects are naturally included in the analytic `halo model' for non-linear structure; we use this approach to fit both our scale-free results and also our previous cold dark matter data. This method is more accurate than the commonly used Peacock-Dodds formula and should be applicable to more general power spectra. Code to evaluate non-linear power spectra using this method is available from http://as1.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/~res/software.html. Following publication, we will make the power-law simulation data publically available through the Virgo website http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/Virgo/.

  19. Genetic programming as an analytical tool for non-linear dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Woodward, A M; Gilbert, R J; Kell, D B

    1999-05-01

    By modelling the non-linear effects of membranous enzymes on an applied oscillating electromagnetic field using supervised multivariate analysis methods, Non-Linear Dielectric Spectroscopy (NLDS) has previously been shown to produce quantitative information that is indicative of the metabolic state of various organisms. The use of Genetic Programming (GP) for the multivariate analysis of NLDS data recorded from yeast fermentations is discussed, and GPs are compared with previous results using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Nets (NN). GP considerably outperforms these methods, both in terms of the precision of the predictions and their interpretability.

  20. Influence of shear in the non-linear analysis of RC members

    SciTech Connect

    Diotallevi, Pier Paolo; Landi, Luca; Cardinetti, Filippo

    2008-07-08

    The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model characterized by a beam-column finite element which is able to reproduce the non-linear flexural-shear behavior of RC structures. The paper shows a brief description of the finite element formulation, the theory used for modeling the constitutive relationship and the scheme of the algorithm, transformed in a computer program, which was developed for implementing the theoretical model. Finally it illustrates a comparison with available experimental results for the calibration and validation of the model and a study on the influence of the non-linear shear response.

  1. Airframe structural damage detection: a non-linear structural surface intensity based technique.

    PubMed

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C; Barnard, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The non-linear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection technique is extended to airframe applications. The selected test structure is an upper cabin airframe section from a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter (Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, CT). Structural damage is simulated through an impact resonator device, designed to simulate the induced vibration effects typical of non-linear behaving damage. An experimental study is conducted to prove the applicability of NSSI on complex mechanical systems as well as to evaluate the minimum sensor and actuator requirements. The NSSI technique is shown to have high damage detection sensitivity, covering an extended substructure with a single sensing location.

  2. [Non-linear rectification of sensor based on immune genetic Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lirong; Zhou, Jinyang; Niu, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    A non-linear rectification based on immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this paper, for the shortcoming of the non-linearity rectification. This algorithm introducing the biologic immune mechanism into the genetic algorithm can restrain the disadvantages that the poor precision, slow convergence speed and early maturity of the genetic algorithm. Computer simulations indicated that the algorithm not only keeps population diversity, but also increases the convergent speed, precision and the stability greatly. The results have shown the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  3. [Non-linear rectification of sensor based on immune genetic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lirong; Zhou, Jinyang; Niu, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    A non-linear rectification based on immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this paper, for the shortcoming of the non-linearity rectification. This algorithm introducing the biologic immune mechanism into the genetic algorithm can restrain the disadvantages that the poor precision, slow convergence speed and early maturity of the genetic algorithm. Computer simulations indicated that the algorithm not only keeps population diversity, but also increases the convergent speed, precision and the stability greatly. The results have shown the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  4. Structure-unknown non-linear dynamic systems: identification through neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masri, S. F.; Chassiakos, A. G.; Caughey, T. K.

    1992-03-01

    Explores the potential of using parallel distributed processing (neural network) approaches to identify the internal forces of structure-unknown non-linear dynamic systems typically encountered in the field of applied mechanics. The relevant characteristics of neural networks, such as the processing elements, network topology, and learning algorithms, are discussed in the context of system identification. The analogy of the neural network procedure to a qualitatively similar non-parametric identification approach, which was previously developed by the authors for handling arbitrary non-linear systems, is discussed. The utility of the neural network approach is demonstrated by application to several illustrative problems.

  5. Non-linear multi-plane wave solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.

    1988-12-01

    New solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) equations are constructed in Minkowski space-time for the gauge group SL(2, ℂ). After proposing a Lorentz covariant formulation of Yang's equations, a set of Ansätze for exact non-linear multiplane wave solutions are proposed. The gauge fields are rational functions of e x·ki ( K {/i 2}=0, 1≦ i≦ N) for these Ansätze. At least, three families of multisoliton type solutions are derived explicitly. Their asymptotic behaviour shows that non-linear waves scatter non-trivially in Minkowski SDYM.

  6. Propagation of the quasimonochromatic signal through medium having non-linear dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Galkin, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) fulfill the requirements for trace gas analysis, for the measurement of concentrations of most atmospheric pollutants, and is increasingly being used to measure pollutants. The medium non-linear dispersion influence for complex form of quasimonochromatic signal propagating through environment is described. It is shown, that a non-linear dispersion disturbs both a real amplitude and an imaginary phase of signal. The proofs are adduced for AM-signal. The results of a computer simulation of a process corroborate the theoretical conclusions. Noted effects may be important for the signal propagating within spectral absorption line at the TDLS.

  7. The Creative Chaos: Speculations on the Connection Between Non-Linear Dynamics and the Creative Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zausner, Tobi

    Chaos theory may provide models for creativity and for the personality of the artist. A collection of speculative hypotheses examines the connection between art and such fundamentals of non-linear dynamics as iteration, dissipative processes, open systems, entropy, sensitivity to stimuli, autocatalysis, subsystems, bifurcations, randomness, unpredictability, irreversibility, increasing levels of organization, far-from-equilibrium conditions, strange attractors, period doubling, intermittency and self-similar fractal organization. Non-linear dynamics may also explain why certain individuals suffer mental disorders while others remain intact during a lifetime of sustained creative output.

  8. Airframe structural damage detection: a non-linear structural surface intensity based technique.

    PubMed

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C; Barnard, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The non-linear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection technique is extended to airframe applications. The selected test structure is an upper cabin airframe section from a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter (Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, CT). Structural damage is simulated through an impact resonator device, designed to simulate the induced vibration effects typical of non-linear behaving damage. An experimental study is conducted to prove the applicability of NSSI on complex mechanical systems as well as to evaluate the minimum sensor and actuator requirements. The NSSI technique is shown to have high damage detection sensitivity, covering an extended substructure with a single sensing location. PMID:21476618

  9. Non-linear performance of a three-bearing rotor incorporating a squeeze-film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.; Dede, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the non-linear vibration performance of a rigid rotor supported on three bearings, one being surrounded by a squeeze-film damper. This damper relies on the pressure built up in the squeeze film to help counter-act external forces arising from unbalance and other effects. As a result a vibration orbit of a certain magnetude results. Such vibration orbits illustrate features found in other non-linear systems, in particular sub-harmonic resonances and jump phenomena. Comparisons between theoretical prediction and experimental observations of these phenomena are made.

  10. Non-perturbative aspects of particle acceleration in non-linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, David A.; Flood, Stephen P.; Wen, Haibao

    2015-04-15

    We undertake an investigation of particle acceleration in the context of non-linear electrodynamics. We deduce the maximum energy that an electron can gain in a non-linear density wave in a magnetised plasma, and we show that an electron can “surf” a sufficiently intense Born-Infeld electromagnetic plane wave and be strongly accelerated by the wave. The first result is valid for a large class of physically reasonable modifications of the linear Maxwell equations, whilst the second result exploits the special mathematical structure of Born-Infeld theory.

  11. Non-perturbative aspects of particle acceleration in non-linear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, David A.; Flood, Stephen P.; Wen, Haibao

    2015-04-01

    We undertake an investigation of particle acceleration in the context of non-linear electrodynamics. We deduce the maximum energy that an electron can gain in a non-linear density wave in a magnetised plasma, and we show that an electron can "surf" a sufficiently intense Born-Infeld electromagnetic plane wave and be strongly accelerated by the wave. The first result is valid for a large class of physically reasonable modifications of the linear Maxwell equations, whilst the second result exploits the special mathematical structure of Born-Infeld theory.

  12. Non-linear molecular pattern classification using molecular beacons with multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Hee; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Tai Hyun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2013-12-01

    In vitro pattern classification has been highlighted as an important future application of DNA computing. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of linear classifiers using DNA-based molecular computing. However, complex tasks require non-linear classification capability. Here we design a molecular beacon that can interact with multiple targets and experimentally shows that its fluorescent signals form a complex radial-basis function, enabling it to be used as a building block for non-linear molecular classification in vitro. The proposed method was successfully applied to solving artificial and real-world classification problems: XOR and microRNA expression patterns.

  13. Higher harmonics in voltage on superconductor carrying AC current due to non-linear I- V curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíková, Edita; Gömöry, Fedor; Šouc, Ján

    2004-01-01

    When superconducting wire carries AC current with amplitude exceeding its critical current, additional losses appear due to non-zero resistivity. The voltage attributed to this mechanism will contain higher harmonics because of non-linear I- V curve of superconducting material. This curve can be derived using the following simple model: parallel combination of superconductor standing for the properties of all the filaments and the normal resistor representing the matrix. I- V relation is then characterized by three parameters: the critical current, I0, the n-exponent, n, and the ratio of the cross-section to the resistivity of metallic matrix. Expressions for Fourier coefficients have been calculated for this model. Extensive analysis of the influence that the model parameters exhibit on higher harmonics have revealed some useful features: 3rd harmonic could be nicely used to detect I0 and n, while from the maximum of 5th harmonic the value of matrix resistivity can be estimated.

  14. A Quantitative and Combinatorial Approach to Non-Linear Meanings of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik; Gatza, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of how combinatorics problems have the potential to support students to establish non-linear meanings of multiplication (NLMM). The problems we analyze we have used in a series of studies with 6th, 8th, and 10th grade students. We situate the analysis in prior work on students' quantitative and multiplicative…

  15. The Poincaré-Bendixson Theorem and the non-linear Cauchy-Riemann equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, J. B.; Munaò, S.; Vandervorst, R. C. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Fiedler and Mallet-Paret (1989) prove a version of the classical Poincaré-Bendixson Theorem for scalar parabolic equations. We prove that a similar result holds for bounded solutions of the non-linear Cauchy-Riemann equations. The latter is an application of an abstract theorem for flows with a(n) (unbounded) discrete Lyapunov function.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Slider-Crank Mechanisms with Non-Linear Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, J.-S.; HUANG, C.-L.

    2001-09-01

    Previous research in finite element formulation of flexible mechanisms usually neglected high order terms in the strain-energy function. In particular, the quartic term of the displacement gradient is always neglected due to the common belief that it is not important in the dynamic analysis. In this paper, we show that this physical intuition is not always valid. By retaining all the high order terms in the strain-energy function the equations of motion naturally become non-linear, which can then be solved by the Newmark method. In the low-speed range it is found that the dynamic responses predicted by non-linear and linear approaches indeed make no significant difference. However, when the rotation speed increases up to about one-fifth of the fundamental bending natural frequency of the connecting rod, simplified approaches begin to incur noticeable error. Specifically, for a connecting rod with a slenderness ratio of 0·01 the conventional simplified approaches overestimate the vibration amplitude almost 10-fold when the rotation speed is comparable to the fundamental natural frequency of the connecting rod. Therefore, non-linear finite element formulation taking into account the complete non-linear strain is needed in analyzing high-speed flexible mechnisms with slender links.

  17. Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  18. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian; Baldi, Marco E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: v.pettorino@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β{sup 2}, with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications.

  19. Non-linear dynamic modeling of an automobile hydraulic active suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, R. Ben; Levitt, J. A.; Fassois, S. D.

    1994-09-01

    Motived by the strong need for realistically describing the dynamical behaviour of automotive systems through adequate mathematical models, a computer-stimulation-suitable non-linear quarter-car model of a hydraulic active suspension system is developed. Unlike previously available linear models characterised by idealised actuator and component behaviour, the developed model accounts for the dynamics of the main system components, including the suspension bushing, pump, accumulator, power and bypass valves, and hydraulic actuator, while also incorporating preliminary versions of the system controllers. Significant system characteristics, such as non-linear pressure-flow relationships, fluid compressibility, pump and valve non-linearities, leakages, as well as Coulomb friction, are also explicitly accounted for, and the underpinning assumptions are discussed. Simulation results obtained by exercising the model provide insight into the system behavior, illustrate the importance of the actuator/component dynamics and their associated non-linearities and reveal the inadequacy of the idealised linear models in capturing the system behaviour, demonstrate specific effects of valve leakage and fluid bulk modulus, are in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements, and stress the need for proper control law design and tuning. The developed model is particularly suitable for analysis, design, control law optimisation, and diagnostic strategies development.

  20. CONSEQUENCES OF NON-LINEAR DENSITY EFFECTS ON BUOYANCY AND PLUME BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic plumes, as turbulent streams, grow by entraining ambient water. Buoyant plumes rise and dense ones sink, but, non-linear kinetic effects can reverse the buoyant force in mid-phenomenon. The class of nascent-density plumes begin as buoyant, upwardly accelerating plumes tha...

  1. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-03-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft's control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland's continuing study of active wing load control.

  2. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  3. Using the group of non-linear cells design metamaterial bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Song, Xin; Hu, Xiaolei; Gu, Jinliang

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the wave propagation in one-dimensional metamaterial bar with attached group of non-linear local oscillators by using analytical and numerical models. The focus is on the influence of group of non-linear cells on the filtering properties of the bar in the 1000Hz to 2000Hz range. Group of Periodic cells with alternating properties exhibit interesting dynamic characteristics that enable them to act as filters. Waves can propagate along bars within specific bands of frequencies called pass bands, and attenuate within bands of frequencies called gaps. Gaps in structures with group of periodic cells are located according on the frequency of cells. From the cell, we can yield the effect negative stiffness and effect negative mass. We can also design the gaps from attached oscillators or cells. In the uniform case the gap is located around the resonant frequency of the oscillators, and thus a stop band can be created in the lower frequency range. In the case with group of non-linear cells the results show that the position of the gap can be designed, and the design depends on the amplitude and the degree of non-linear cells.

  4. Students' Preferences on Web-Based Instruction: Linear or Non-Linear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagiltay, Nergiz Ercil; Yildirim, Soner; Aksu, Meral

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study conducted on a foreign language course at a large mid-west university in the USA. In the study a web-based tool which supports both linear and non-linear learning environments was designed and developed for this course. The aim of this study was to find out students' preferences pertaining to the learning…

  5. Towards a non-linear theory for induced seismicity in shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salusti, Ettore; Droghei, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    We here analyze the pore transmission of fluid pressure pand solute density ρ in porous rocks, within the framework of the Biot theory of poroelasticity extended to include physico-chemical interactions. In more details we here analyze the effect of a strong external stress on the non-linear evolution of p and ρ in a porous rock. We here focus on the consequent deformation of the rock pores, relative to a non-linear Hooke equation among strain, linear/quadratic pressure and osmosis in 1-D. We in particular analyze cases with a large pressure, but minor than the 'rupture point'. All this gives relations similar to those discussed by Shapiro et al. (2013), which assume a pressure dependent permeability. Thus we analyze the external stress necessary to originate quick non-linear transients of combined fluid pressure and solute density in a porous matrix, which perturb in a mild (i.e. a linear diffusive phenomenon) or a more dramatic non-linear way (Burgers solitons) the rock structure. All this gives a novel, more realistic insight about the rock evolution, fracturing and micro-earthquakes under a large external stress.

  6. Introduction to the Treatment of Non-Linear Effects Using a Gravitational Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus; Esperidiao, Antonio Sergio C.; Miranda, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    We show that the treatment of pendulum movement, other than the linear approximation,may be an instructive experimentally based introduction to the physics of non-linear effects. Firstly the natural frequency of a gravitational pendulum is measured as function of its amplitude. Secondly forced oscillations of a gravitational pendulum are…

  7. A Navigational Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Hypermedia Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard H.; Balestra, Joel; Davis, Miles

    The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive model for the analysis of hypermap navigation patterns through a comparison of navigation patterns associated with a traditional linear interface versus a non-linear "hypermap" interface. Twenty-six general psychology university students studied material on bipolar…

  8. Non-Linear Editing for the Smaller College-Level Production Program, Rev. 2.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetzlaff, David

    This paper focuses on a specific topic and contention: Non-linear editing earns its place in a liberal arts setting because it is a superior tool to teach the concepts of how moving picture discourse is constructed through editing. The paper first points out that most students at small liberal arts colleges are not going to wind up working…

  9. Re-Mediating Classroom Activity with a Non-Linear, Multi-Display Presentation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, Brett; Coyle, Do

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to evaluate the use of a novel, multi-screen, non-linear presentation tool. The Thunder tool allows presenters to manipulate and annotate multiple digital slides and to concurrently display a selection of juxtaposed resources across a wall-sized projection area. Conventional, single screen presentation…

  10. A study of non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response using 120 UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; McIntyre, Neil; Oughton, Rachel H.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a catchment characteristic sensitivity analysis concerning the non-linearity of rainfall-runoff response in 120 UK catchments. Two approaches were adopted. The first approach involved, for each catchment, regression of a power-law to flow rate gradient data for recession events only. This approach was referred to as the recession analysis (RA). The second approach involved calibrating a rainfall-runoff model to the full data set (both recession and non-recession events). The rainfall-runoff model was developed by combining a power-law streamflow routing function with a one parameter probability distributed model (PDM) for soil moisture accounting. This approach was referred to as the rainfall-runoff model (RM). Step-wise linear regression was used to derive regionalization equations for the three parameters. An advantage of the RM approach is that it utilizes much more of the observed data. Results from the RM approach suggest that catchments with high base-flow and low annual precipitation tend to exhibit greater non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response. In contrast, the results from the RA approach suggest that non-linearity is linked to low evaporative demand. The difference in results is attributed to the aggregation of storm-flow and base-flow into a single system giving rise to a seemingly more non-linear response when applying the RM approach to catchments that exhibit a strongly dual storm-flow base-flow response. The study also highlights the value and limitations in a regionlization context of aggregating storm-flow and base-flow pathways into a single non-linear routing function.

  11. Disentangling redshift-space distortions and non-linear bias using the 2D power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Warren, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    We present the 2D redshift-space galaxy power spectrum, P(k, μ), measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using catalogues constructed with halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual μ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of non-linear growth and redshift-space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the μ < 0.2 simulation data, which is not impacted by RSD, we can successfully measure the non-linear bias to ˜5 per cent at k < 0.6 h Mpc-1. Using the low μ simulation data to constrain the non-linear bias, and μ ≥ 0.2 to constrain the growth rate, we show that f can be constrained to ˜26(22) per cent to a kmax < 0.4(0.6) h Mpc-1 from clustering alone using a dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual μ bins reveals interesting physical effects which arise from different methods of populating haloes with galaxies. We find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater than the non-linear growth, which differs for each galaxy model. The idea of separating non-linear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.

  12. Experimental verification of the linear and non-linear versions of a panel code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, G. J.; Katsikis, C.; Chalkias, D. S.

    2011-03-01

    In the proposed paper numerical calculations are carried out using two versions of a three-dimensional, timedomain panel method developed by the group of Prof. P. Sclavounos at MIT, i.e. the linear code SWAN2, enabling optionally the use of the instantaneous non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces and the fully non-linear SWAN4. The analytical results are compared with experimental results for three hull forms with increasing geometrical complexity, the Series 60, a reefer vessel with stern bulb and a modern fast ROPAX hull form with hollow bottom in the stern region. The details of the geometrical modeling of the hull forms are discussed. In addition, since SWAN4 does not support transom sterns, only the two versions of SWAN2 were evaluated over experimental results for the parent hull form of the NTUA double-chine, wide-transom, high-speed monohull series. The effect of speed on the numerical predictions was investigated. It is concluded that both versions of SWAN2 the linear and the one with the non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces provide a more robust tool for prediction of the dynamic response of the vessels than the non-linear SWAN4 code. In general, their results are close to what was expected on the basis of experience. Furthermore, the use of the option of non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces is beneficial for the accuracy of the predictions. The content of the paper is based on the Diploma thesis of the second author, supervised by the first one and further refined by the third one.

  13. Gravitational perturbation and Kerr/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezelbash, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We find the explicit form of two-point function for the conformal spin-2 energy momentum operators on the near horizon of a near extremal Kerr black hole by variation of a proper boundary action. In this regard, we consider an appropriate boundary action for the gravitational perturbation of the Kerr black hole. We show that the variation of the boundary action with respect to the boundary fields yields the two-point function for the energy momentum tensor of a conformal field theory. We find agreement between the two-point function and the correlators of the dual conformal field theory to the Kerr black hole.

  14. Experimental Validation of the Constant Level Method for Identification of Non-Linear Multi-Degree Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, G.

    2002-12-01

    System identification for non-linear dynamical systems could find use in many applications such as condition monitoring, finite element model validation and determination of stability. The effectiveness of existing non-linear system identification techniques is limited by various factors such as the complexity of the system under investigation and the type of non-linearities present. In this work, the constant level identification approach, which can identify multi-degree-of-freedom systems featuring any type of non-linear function, including discontinuous functions, is validated experimentally. The method is shown to identify accurately an experimental dynamical system featuring two types of stiffness non-linearity. The full equations of motion are also extracted accurately, even in the presence of a discontinuous non-linearity.

  15. Kerr-like phantom wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Galaxia; Matos, Tonatiuh; García, Nadiezhda Montelongo

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study a Kerr-like wormhole with an scalar field with opposite sign as source (Phantom). It has three parameters: mass, angular momentum and scalar field charge. This space-time has a naked ring singularity, otherwise it is regular everywhere. The main feature of this wormhole is that the mouth of the throat lies on a sphere of the same radius as the ring singularity and apparently does not allow any observer to reach the singularity, it behaves like an anti-horizon. After analyzing the geodesics of the wormhole we find that an observer can go through the wormhole without troubles, but the equator presents an infinite potential barrier which does not allow any geodesic from reaching the throat. From an analysis of the Riemann tensor we obtain that the tidal forces are small and could allow the wormhole to be traversable, from the north pole, for an observer like a human being.

  16. Non-linearity's in proxy space: Three methods to deal with the non-linear behavior of proxies in calcareous marine skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauwens, M.; Ohlsson, H.; Beelaerts, V.; Barbé, K.; Dehairs, F.; Schoukens, J.

    2009-04-01

    The reconstruction of seasonal variations in the paleo-environement is possible thanks to the bivalve shells that are commonly found back in archeological sites and that are sensitive environmental recorders. To do these reconstructions we look to the chemical composition of a shell along his growth axis. When a certain element or isotope can be related to an environmental parameter it is called a proxy for that parameter. Many elemental and isotopic have been proposed as potential temperature proxy. But the same problem is showing up over and over again: a certain elemental shows a good linear correlation with temperature, but at the moment that the intrinsic variation has to be explained, the incorporation of the proxy seems to be much more complex than assumed in the first instance. Two observations gave us the idea to use a new type of models to reconstruct temperature. In first instance we observed that all proxy incorporations were always influenced by more than one environmental parameter, which automatically implicate that the reconstruction of an environmental parameter should be done with more than one proxy input. A second observation is that some proxy-environment relations seemed to be non-linear. We propose to do climate reconstructions based on Non-linear multi-proxy models. We will present our own intuitive approach to do temperature reconstructions and we will compare our results to two recognized engineering techniques: Manifold learning and Supported vector machines. These three methods are validated on shell data of Scheldt estuarine environment using high resolution measurements of Mg, Mn, Ba, Sr and Pb on a LA-ICP-MS. The site specificity is tested for all methods using shell-data from 4 different sites along the Scheldt. Time specificity is checked by reconstructing the temperature corresponding to a shell that grew in another year. The best reconstructions are computed with the manifold learning algorithms, but the simplicity and high

  17. Kerr Black Hole Entropy and its Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ji-Jian; Li, Chuan-An; Cheng, Xie-Feng

    2016-08-01

    By constructing the four-dimensional phase space based on the observable physical quantity of Kerr black hole and gauge transformation, the Kerr black hole entropy in the phase space was obtained. Then considering the corresponding mechanical quantities as operators and making the operators quantized, entropy spectrum of Kerr black hole was obtained. Our results show that the Kerr black hole has the entropy spectrum with equal intervals, which is in agreement with the idea of Bekenstein. In the limit of large event horizon, the area of the adjacent event horizon of the black hole have equal intervals. The results are in consistent with the results based on the loop quantum gravity theory by Dreyer et al.

  18. Destroying Kerr-Sen black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-03-01

    By neglecting the self-force, self-energy, and radiative effects, it has been shown that an extremal or near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole can turn into a naked singularity when it captures charged and spinning massive particles. A straightforward question then arises: do charged and rotating black holes in string theory possess the same property? In this paper we apply Wald's gedanken experiment, in his study on the possibility of destroying extremal Kerr-Newman black holes, to the case of (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black holes. We find that feeding a test particle into a (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black hole could lead to a violation of the extremal bound for the black hole.

  19. Non-linear wave interaction in a magnetoplasma column. I - Theory. II Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J.-M.; Crawford, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of non-linear three-wave interaction for propagation along a cylindrical plasma column surrounded either by a metallic boundary, or by an infinite dielectric, and immersed in an infinite, static, axial magnetic field. An averaged Lagrangian method is used and the results are specialized to parametric amplification and mode conversion, assuming an undepleted pump wave. Computations are presented for a magneto-plasma column surrounded by free space, indicating that parametric growth rates of the order of a fraction of a decibel per centimeter should be obtainable for plausible laboratory plasma parameters. In addition, experiments on non-linear mode conversion in a cylindrical magnetoplasma column are described. The results are compared with the theoretical predictions and good qualitative agreement is demonstrated.

  20. Feature Visibility Limits in the Non-Linear Enhancement of Turbid Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    The advancement of non-linear processing methods for generic automatic clarification of turbid imagery has led us from extensions of entirely passive multiscale Retinex processing to a new framework of active measurement and control of the enhancement process called the Visual Servo. In the process of testing this new non-linear computational scheme, we have identified that feature visibility limits in the post-enhancement image now simplify to a single signal-to-noise figure of merit: a feature is visible if the feature-background signal difference is greater than the RMS noise level. In other words, a signal-to-noise limit of approximately unity constitutes a lower limit on feature visibility.

  1. Behavior of Tvd Limiters on the Solution of Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, K. R.; Lee, C.-H.

    The main objective of the present work is to solve the non-linear inviscid Burger equation using the second-order TVD scheme with the different TVD limiters. These limiters include Non-MUSCL (monotone upwind scalar conservation laws) Harten-Yee upwind limiters, Roe-Sweby upwind limiters and Davis-Yee symmetric TVD limiters. These limiters are then used in conjunction with the explicit finite difference second order TVD scheme to model the flow in which discontinuity is present. Non-linear Burger equation was solved for this purpose to capture a one dimensional traveling discontinuity. Every limiter was individually tested for its ability to resolve the discontinuity in as few mesh point as possible. In addition, each limiter's capability to eliminate spurious oscillations associated with numerical computation of discontinuities was investigated. The results showed that all the TVD limiters were able to completely eliminate the spurious oscillations except Roe-Sweby limiter that caused the solution to diverge.

  2. Origin of non-linearity in phase solubility: solubilisation by cyclodextrin beyond stoichiometric complexation.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Thomas W J; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Seishi

    2016-06-01

    The low solubility of drugs, which poses a serious problem in drug development, can in part be overcome by the use of cyclodextrins (CDs) and their derivatives. Here, the key to solubilisation is identified as the formation of inclusion complexes with the drug molecule. If inclusion complexation were the only contribution to drug solubility, it would increase linearly with CD concentration (as per the Higuchi-Connors model); this is because inclusion complexation is a 1 : 1 stoichiometric process. However, solubility curves often deviate from this linearity, whose mechanism is yet to be understood. Here we aim to clarify the origin of such non-linearity, based on the Kirkwood-Buff and the McMillan-Mayer theories of solutions. The rigorous statistical thermodynamic theory shows that non-linearity of solubilisation can be rationalised by two contributions: CD-drug interaction and the drug-induced change of CD-CD interaction. PMID:27206059

  3. Model predictive control of non-linear systems over networks with data quantization and packet loss.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jimin; Nan, Liangsheng; Tang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the approach of model predictive control (MPC) for the non-linear systems under networked environment where both data quantization and packet loss may occur. The non-linear controlled plant in the networked control system (NCS) is represented by a Tagaki-Sugeno (T-S) model. The sensed data and control signal are quantized in both links and described as sector bound uncertainties by applying sector bound approach. Then, the quantized data are transmitted in the communication networks and may suffer from the effect of packet losses, which are modeled as Bernoulli process. A fuzzy predictive controller which guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system is obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle.

  5. Model predictive control of non-linear systems over networks with data quantization and packet loss.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jimin; Nan, Liangsheng; Tang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the approach of model predictive control (MPC) for the non-linear systems under networked environment where both data quantization and packet loss may occur. The non-linear controlled plant in the networked control system (NCS) is represented by a Tagaki-Sugeno (T-S) model. The sensed data and control signal are quantized in both links and described as sector bound uncertainties by applying sector bound approach. Then, the quantized data are transmitted in the communication networks and may suffer from the effect of packet losses, which are modeled as Bernoulli process. A fuzzy predictive controller which guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system is obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26341070

  6. Model Order and Identifiability of Non-Linear Biological Systems in Stable Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Wigren, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical result that clarifies when it is at all possible to determine the nonlinear dynamic equations of a biological system in stable oscillation, from measured data. As it turns out the minimal order needed for this is dependent on the minimal dimension in which the stable orbit of the system does not intersect itself. This is illustrated with a simulated fourth order Hodgkin-Huxley spiking neuron model, which is identified using a non-linear second order differential equation model. The simulated result illustrates that the underlying higher order model of the spiking neuron cannot be uniquely determined given only the periodic measured data. The result of the paper is of general validity when the dynamics of biological systems in stable oscillation is identified, and illustrates the need to carefully address non-linear identifiability aspects when validating models based on periodic data. PMID:26671817

  7. A comparative study of new non-linear uncertainty propagation methods for space surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwood, Joshua T.; Aristoff, Jeffrey M.; Singh, Navraj; Poore, Aubrey B.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a unified testing framework for assessing uncertainty realism during non-linear uncertainty propagation under the perturbed two-body problem of celestial mechanics, with an accompanying suite of metrics and benchmark test cases on which to validate different methods. We subsequently apply the testing framework to different combinations of uncertainty propagation techniques and coordinate systems for representing the uncertainty. In particular, we recommend the use of a newly-derived system of orbital element coordinates that mitigate the non-linearities in uncertainty propagation and the recently-developed Gauss von Mises filter which, when used in tandem, provide uncertainty realism over much longer periods of time compared to Gaussian representations of uncertainty in Cartesian spaces, at roughly the same computational cost.

  8. A conformal approach for the analysis of the non-linear stability of radiation cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbe, Christian; Valiente Kroon, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-15

    The conformal Einstein equations for a trace-free (radiation) perfect fluid are derived in terms of the Levi-Civita connection of a conformally rescaled metric. These equations are used to provide a non-linear stability result for de Sitter-like trace-free (radiation) perfect fluid Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological models. The solutions thus obtained exist globally towards the future and are future geodesically complete. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the Einstein-Euler system in General Relativity using conformal methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the structural properties of the associated evolution equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We establish the non-linear stability of pure radiation cosmological models.

  9. Estimation of non-linear growth models by linearization: a simulation study using a Gompertz function.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Kaarina; Strandén, Ismo; Sevón-Aimonen, Marja-Liisa; Mäntysaari, Esa A

    2006-01-01

    A method based on Taylor series expansion for estimation of location parameters and variance components of non-linear mixed effects models was considered. An attractive property of the method is the opportunity for an easily implemented algorithm. Estimation of non-linear mixed effects models can be done by common methods for linear mixed effects models, and thus existing programs can be used after small modifications. The applicability of this algorithm in animal breeding was studied with simulation using a Gompertz function growth model in pigs. Two growth data sets were analyzed: a full set containing observations from the entire growing period, and a truncated time trajectory set containing animals slaughtered prematurely, which is common in pig breeding. The results from the 50 simulation replicates with full data set indicate that the linearization approach was capable of estimating the original parameters satisfactorily. However, estimation of the parameters related to adult weight becomes unstable in the case of a truncated data set.

  10. Non-linear gauge transformations in D = 10 SYM theory and the BCJ duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjin; Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress on scattering amplitudes in super Yang-Mills and super-string theory benefitted from the use of multiparticle superfields. They universally capture tree-level subdiagrams, and their generating series solve the non-linear equations of ten-dimensional super Yang-Mills. We provide simplified recursions for multiparticle superfields and relate them to earlier representations through non-linear gauge transformations of their generating series. Moreover, we discuss the gauge transformations which enforce their Lie symmetries as suggested by the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson duality between color and kine-matics. Another gauge transformation due to Harnad and Shnider is shown to streamline the theta-expansion of multiparticle superfields, bypassing the need to use their recursion relations beyond the lowest components. The findings of this work tremendously simplify the component extraction from kinematic factors in pure spinor superspace.

  11. A new line-of-sight approach to the non-linear Cosmic Microwave Background

    SciTech Connect

    Fidler, Christian; Koyama, Kazuya; Pettinari, Guido W. E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2015-04-01

    We develop the transport operator formalism, a new line-of-sight integration framework to calculate the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at the linear and non-linear level. This formalism utilises a transformation operator that removes all inhomogeneous propagation effects acting on the photon distribution function, thus achieving a split between perturbative collisional effects at recombination and non-perturbative line-of-sight effects at later times. The former can be computed in the framework of standard cosmological perturbation theory with a second-order Boltzmann code such as SONG, while the latter can be treated within a separate perturbative scheme allowing the use of non-linear Newtonian potentials. We thus provide a consistent framework to compute all physical effects contained in the Boltzmann equation and to combine the standard remapping approach with Boltzmann codes at any order in perturbation theory, without assuming that all sources are localised at recombination.

  12. Non-linear adaptive sliding mode switching control with average dwell-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Maoqing; Fei, Shumin

    2013-03-01

    In this article, an adaptive integral sliding mode control scheme is addressed for switched non-linear systems in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. The control law includes two parts: a slide mode controller for the reduced model of the plant and a compensation controller to deal with the non-linear systems with parameter uncertainties. The adaptive updated laws have been derived from the switched multiple Lyapunov function method, also an admissible switching signal with average dwell-time technique is given. The simplicity of the proposed control scheme facilitates its implementation and the overall control scheme guarantees the global asymptotic stability in the Lyapunov sense such that the sliding surface of the control system is well reached. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  13. Non-linear effects in the support motion of an elastically mounted slider crank mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, I.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of an in-line slider crank mechanism in which the sliding mass is elastically supported. The ratio of crank length to connecting rod length is not assumed small and relatively large displacements of the support are allowed. Ordinary and parametric non-linear terms are thus retained in the equations of motion. It is shown that the presence of parametric terms gives rise to additional conditions for resonance in the support motion. Approximate solutions are obtained for the fundamental and half subharmonic steady state responses and the effect of the non-linear and parametric terms examined. The stability of the steady state responses is considered and it is shown that instability is associated with a negative slope of the amplitude frequency characteristic.

  14. The non-linear response of a superconductor to a few-cycle THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G. L.; Xi, Xiaoxiang

    2015-03-01

    We present a time-domain analysis of the response of a BCS superconductor (in the low temperature limit) to a few cycle THz pulse whose spectral content may span the absorption threshold for pair breaking. The analysis is based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach, in combination with a model susceptibility for a superconductor that includes an explicit dependence on the energy gap. The FDTD approach allows us to calculate the THz induced current density, from which we determine the modified energy gap at each instant of time during the THz wave's passage. The resulting non-linear susceptibility causes up-conversion of the incident THz wave into odd harmonics. The model results are compared with experiment for thin NbN films in both linear and non-linear regimes. Research supported by the U.S. Dep't of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  15. Polynomial elimination theory and non-linear stability analysis for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennon, S. R.; Dulikravich, G. S.; Jespersen, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical methods are presented that exploit the polynomial properties of discretizations of the Euler equations. It is noted that most finite difference or finite volume discretizations of the steady-state Euler equations produce a polynomial system of equations to be solved. These equations are solved using classical polynomial elimination theory, with some innovative modifications. This paper also presents some preliminary results of a new non-linear stability analysis technique. This technique is applicable to determining the stability of polynomial iterative schemes. Results are presented for applying the elimination technique to a one-dimensional test case. For this test case, the exact solution is computed in three iterations. The non-linear stability analysis is applied to determine the optimal time step for solving Burgers' equation using the MacCormack scheme. The estimated optimal time step is very close to the time step that arises from a linear stability analysis.

  16. Non-Linear Filtering for Precise Point Positioning GPS/INS integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Rabbou, M.; El-Rabbany, A.

    2014-11-01

    This research investigates the performance of non-linear estimation filtering for GPS-PPP/MEMS-based inertial system. Although integrated GPS/INS system involves nonlinear motion state and measurement models, the most common estimation filter employed is extended Kalman filter. In this paper, both unscented Kalman filter and particle filter are developed and compared with extended Kalman filter. Tightly coupled mechanization is adopted, which is developed in the raw measurements domain. Un-differenced ionosphere-free linear combination of pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements is employed. The performance of the proposed non-linear filters is analyzed using real test scenario. The test results indicate that comparable accuracy-level are obtained from the proposed filters compared with extended Kalman filter in positioning, velocity and attitude when the measurement updates from GPS measurements are available.

  17. Experiments on exactly computing non-linear energy transfer rate in MASNUM-WAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xingjie; Wang, Daolong; Gao, Dalu; Zhang, Tingting

    2016-07-01

    The Webb-Resio-Tracy (WRT) method for exact computation of the non-linear energy transfer rate was implemented in MASNUM-WAM, which is a third-generation wave model solving the discrete spectral balance equation. In this paper, we describe the transformation of the spectral space in the original WRT method. Four numerical procedures were developed in which the acceleration techniques in the original WRT method, such as geometric scaling, pre-calculating, and grid-searching, are all reorganized. A series of numerical experiments including two simulations based on real data were performed. The availability of such implementation in both serial and parallel versions of the wave model was proved, and a comparison of computation times showed that some of the developed procedures provided good efficacy. With exact computation of non-linear energy transfer, MASNUM-WAM now can be used to perform numerical experiments for research purposes, which augurs well for further developments of the model.

  18. Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle. PMID:26850752

  19. Linear and non-linear forced response of a conical, ducted, laminar premixed flame

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, Nader; Brear, Michael J.; Jin, Seong-Ho; Monty, Jason P.

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamics of a ducted, conical, laminar premixed flame subjected to acoustic excitation of varying amplitudes. The flame transfer function is measured over a range of forcing frequencies and equivalence ratios. In keeping with previous works, the measured flame transfer function is in good agreement with that predicted by linear kinematic theory at low amplitudes of acoustic velocity excitation. However, a systematic departure from linear behaviour is observed as the amplitude of the velocity forcing upstream of the flame increases. This non-linearity is mostly in the phase of the transfer function and manifests itself as a roughly constant phase at high forcing amplitude. Nonetheless, as predicted by non-linear kinematic arguments, the response always remains close to linear at low forcing frequencies, regardless of the forcing amplitude. The origin of this phase behaviour is then sought through optical data post-processing. (author)

  20. Simulation of non-linear rf losses derived from characteristic Nb topography

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Xu, Chen; Kelley, Michael

    2013-09-01

    A simplified model has been developed to simulate non-linear RF losses on Nb surfaces exclusively due to topographical enhancement of surface magnetic fields. If local sharp edges are small enough, at locations where local surface fields exceed Hc, small volumes of material may become normal conducting without thermal leading to quench. These small volumes of normal material yield increases in the effective surface resistance of the Nb. Using topographic data from typical BCP?d and EP?d fine grain niobium surfaces, we have simulated field-dependent losses and found that when extrapolated to resulting cavity performance, these losses correspond well to characteristic BCP/EP high field Q0 performance differences for fine grain Nb. We describe the structure of the model, its limitations, and the effects of this type of non-linear loss contribution on SRF cavities.

  1. A non-linear finite-element model of the newborn ear canal

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Liu, Hengjin; Lutfy, Justyn; Funnell, W. Robert J.; Daniel, Sam J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional non-linear finite-element model of a 22-day-old newborn ear canal. The geometry is based on a clinical X-ray CT scan. A non-linear hyperelastic constitutive law is applied to model large deformations. The Young’s modulus of the soft tissue is found to have a significant effect on the ear-canal volume change, which ranges from approximately 27% to 75% over the static-pressure range of ±3 kPa. The effects of Poisson’s ratio and of the ratio C10:C01 in the hyperelastic model are found to be small. The volume changes do not reach a plateau at high pressures, which implies that the newborn ear-canal wall would not be rigid in tympanometric measurements. The displacements and volume changes calculated from the model are compared with available experimental data. PMID:17225406

  2. Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier

    2016-07-01

    A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.

  3. Theoretically informed entangled polymer simulations: linear and non-linear rheology of melts.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Hernandez, Abelardo; Miller, Marcus; De Pablo, Juan J.

    2013-01-02

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence in developing models and theories for the non-equilibrium behavior of polymeric liquids. The so-called “tube” models, gradually refined over decades of research, can now provide a description of the linear and non-linear rheology of entangled polymers that is qualitatively consistent with experiments. Such approaches, however, have been limited to homopolymers. Here we present a general formalism that relies on the concept of slip links to describe the dynamics of high polymers. In this work, it is shown to be capable of describing quantitatively the linear response of pure homopolymers and blends, the non-linear rheology of highly entangled systems, and the dynamics of diblock copolymers.

  4. Map Building By Non-linear Dimensionality Reduction of Historical Visibility Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yairi, Takehisa

    In recent years, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on stochastic state-transition / observation models and Bayesian estimation technique has been the mainstream of the mobile robot mapping research. In contrast to this trend, we present an alternative formulation of the map building problem from the viewpoint of non-linear dimensionality reduction or manifold learning. In this framework, the robot map building is interpreted as a problem of reconstructing the coordinates of objects so that proximities between them in the space of robot's observation history as faithfully as possible. Based on this insight, we generalize the covisibility-based mapping method which was established in previous studies into the map building based on dimensionality reduction of historical visibility data. We applied latest non-linear dimensionality reduction techniques to this framework, and compared them with classical techniques such as PCA and MDS in experimental studies.

  5. Numerical simulations for parabolic pulse shaping in non-linear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nora, R. C.; Durfee, C. G.; Carr, L. D.

    2007-03-01

    Pulses with parabolic temporal profiles have the property that they can propagate through non-linear media in a self similar manner. Parabolic pulses have been generated experimentally in fiber amplifiers. Input pulses develop into parabolic pulses by the combined action of group velocity dispersion, non-linear refractive index, and gain. In this work, we are exploring the feasibility of generating ultrafast parabolic pulses in laser resonators. We have successfully numerically simulated the generation of parabolic pulses in fiber amplifiers using two different algorithms, the Cayley method, and fourth order Runge-Kutta, to solve the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation with gain and periodic boundary conditions. In contrast to fiber amplifiers, pulses in laser resonators must maintain a stable pulse shape on each round trip through the optical cavity. We are exploring the prediction that a time dependent saturable gain will stabilize the pulse in the oscillator and yield parabolic pulses.

  6. Non-linear massive gravity as a gravitational σ-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arraut, Ivan; Chelabi, Kaddour

    2016-08-01

    We show the direct analogy between the ghost-free non-linear formulation of massive gravity and the standard σ-models well understood in the literature. This issue explains why there are two non-trivial family of solutions for the spherically symmetric case inside the non-linear massive gravity formulations with two free parameters α and β. In general, the case β < α2 has a single physical vacuum state. On the other hand, the case β=α2 contains a natural vacuum degeneracy. This is in perfect analogy with the σ-model for scalar fields where depending on the values taken by the parameters of the theory the vacuum can be single or degenerate.

  7. Explicit PREDICTOR-MULTICORRECTOR Time Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Non-Linear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, A.; Bursi, O. S.; Mancuso, M.

    2002-09-01

    Explicit predictor-multicorrector time discontinuous Galerkin (TDG) methods developed for linear structural dynamics are formulated and implemented in a form suitable for arbitrary non-linear analysis of structural dynamics problems. The formulation is intended to inherit the accuracy properties of the exact parent implicit TDG methods. To this end, suitable predictors and correctors are designed to achieve third order accuracy, large stability limits and controllable numerical dissipation by means of an algorithmic parameter. As the study of a general non-linear case is rather complex, the analysis of the convergence properties of the resulting algorithms are restricted to conservative Duffing oscillators, for which closed-form solutions are available. It is shown that the main properties of the underlying parent scheme can be retained. Finally, results of representative numerical simulations relevant to Duffing oscillators and to a stiff spring pendulum discretized with finite elements illustrate the performance of the numerical schemes and confirm the analytical estimates.

  8. Solving deterministic non-linear programming problem using Hopfield artificial neural network and genetic programming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant, P.; Ganesan, T.; Elamvazuthi, I.

    2012-11-01

    A fairly reasonable result was obtained for non-linear engineering problems using the optimization techniques such as neural network, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic independently in the past. Increasingly, hybrid techniques are being used to solve the non-linear problems to obtain better output. This paper discusses the use of neuro-genetic hybrid technique to optimize the geological structure mapping which is known as seismic survey. It involves the minimization of objective function subject to the requirement of geophysical and operational constraints. In this work, the optimization was initially performed using genetic programming, and followed by hybrid neuro-genetic programming approaches. Comparative studies and analysis were then carried out on the optimized results. The results indicate that the hybrid neuro-genetic hybrid technique produced better results compared to the stand-alone genetic programming method.

  9. Model Order and Identifiability of Non-Linear Biological Systems in Stable Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Wigren, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical result that clarifies when it is at all possible to determine the nonlinear dynamic equations of a biological system in stable oscillation, from measured data. As it turns out the minimal order needed for this is dependent on the minimal dimension in which the stable orbit of the system does not intersect itself. This is illustrated with a simulated fourth order Hodgkin-Huxley spiking neuron model, which is identified using a non-linear second order differential equation model. The simulated result illustrates that the underlying higher order model of the spiking neuron cannot be uniquely determined given only the periodic measured data. The result of the paper is of general validity when the dynamics of biological systems in stable oscillation is identified, and illustrates the need to carefully address non-linear identifiability aspects when validating models based on periodic data.

  10. Fully non-linear cosmological perturbations of multicomponent fluid and field systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2016-09-01

    We present fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in the presence of multiple components of fluids and minimally coupled scalar fields. We ignore the tensor-type perturbation. The equations are presented without taking the temporal gauge condition in the Friedmann background with general curvature and the cosmological constant. We include the anisotropic stress. Even in the absence of anisotropic stress of individual component, the multiple component nature introduces the anisotropic stress in the collective fluid quantities. We prove the Newtonian limit of multiple fluids in the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge conditions, present the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations in the presence of general relativistic pressure in the zero-shear gauge, and present the fully non-linear equations and the third-order perturbation equations of the non-relativistic pressure fluids in the CDM-comoving gauge.

  11. Growth and characterization of L-arginine sulphate: A new nanocrystal with non linear optical behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, M. M.; Patil, Smita S.

    2013-06-01

    L-arginine combines with a variety of salts and acids to form a potential non-linear optical material. Nano crystals of L-arginine-Sulphate (LAS) have been grown from solution by the slow evaporation technique for the first time. The single phase formation has been verified by XRD studies. TEM studies confirm the formation of nanocrystallites of particle size of about 34nm. The optical absorption studies shows presence of a sharp UV cut-off region at 239.57nm. Further the presence of wide transparency window in the entire visible region shows its use for optoelectronic applications. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of potassium and sulphur in the grown nanocrystal of LAS. Fungus growth has been avoided by subjecting the solution to pre-heat treatment. Preliminary studies indicate presence of non-linear optical (NLO) response.

  12. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft s control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland s continuing study of active wing load control.

  13. The identification of linear and non-linear models of a turbocharged automotive diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.; Chen, S.; Backhouse, R. J.

    1989-04-01

    The identification results obtained from a study on a Leyland TL11 turbocharged, direct injection diesel engine are presented. Two sets of data corresponding to low and high engine speed tests, which were recorded from experimental trials on the engine, are analysed. The identification of both linear and non-linear difference equation models are described to represent the relationship between the fuel rack position (input) and the engine speed (output).

  14. Finite element modelling of non-linear magnetic circuits using Cosmic NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheerer, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    The general purpose Finite Element Program COSMIC NASTRAN currently has the ability to model magnetic circuits with constant permeablilities. An approach was developed which, through small modifications to the program, allows modelling of non-linear magnetic devices including soft magnetic materials, permanent magnets and coils. Use of the NASTRAN code resulted in output which can be used for subsequent mechanical analysis using a variation of the same computer model. Test problems were found to produce theoretically verifiable results.

  15. Power quality improvement for distribution systems under non-linear conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sadaany, Ehab Fahmy

    The proliferation of non-linear and electronically switched devices has increased the presence of nonsinusoidal currents and voltages in electrical distribution systems. The analysis of harmonics on the distribution systems has been described as being essential to understanding the nature of harmonic performance. One of the basic reasons for conducting a harmonic study is to analyze the effectiveness of proposed remedies to any existing harmonic problem. The analysis and design of any mitigation equipment requires precise calculation of both voltage and current waveforms. Moreover, the parameters that affect the harmonic performance have to be accurately identified and examined. This thesis offers a new time-domain based approach for the determination of both voltage and current waveforms in non-linear distribution systems taking into account the interaction between both voltage and current harmonics (attenuation effect). In addition, the parameters that control the generation and propagation of harmonics into the distribution systems have been identified and investigated. A simple but efficient time-domain based technique has been developed and employed in order to estimate the combined non-linear load susceptance at different harmonic frequencies based on the previously calculated voltage and current waveforms and with the attenuation phenomenon considered. A novel design and implementation of reactance one-port compensators has been applied to reduce both voltage and current harmonic distortion levels in non-linear distribution systems. This application represents a significant contribution to distribution systems analysis as it successfully limits the system distortion. The performance of the proposed compensator is assessed by both simulation and experimental testing.

  16. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as a mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.

  17. FDATMOS16 non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions in urban aerosols

    DOE PAGES

    Madronich, Sasha; Kleinman, Larry; Conley, Andrew; Lee-Taylor, Julie; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, Bernard

    2015-12-17

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult’s law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: A strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as amore » mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. Furthermore, the rather low values suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions.« less

  18. An Adaptive Sequential Design for Model Discrimination and Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Nested Models

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasi, C.; May, C.

    2010-09-30

    The DKL-optimality criterion has been recently proposed for the dual problem of model discrimination and parameter estimation, for the case of two rival models. A sequential version of the DKL-optimality criterion is herein proposed in order to discriminate and efficiently estimate more than two nested non-linear models. Our sequential method is inspired by the procedure of Biswas and Chaudhuri (2002), which is however useful only in the set up of nested linear models.

  19. Non-analytic vortex core and non-linear vortex flow in bosonic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, O.; Aleiner, I. L.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the disorder limited motion of quantum vortices in a two-dimensional bosonic superfluid with a large healing length. It is shown that the excitations of low-energy degrees of freedom associated with the non-analytic reconstruction of the vortex core (Ann. Phys., 346 (2014) 195) determine strong non-linear effects in the vortex transport at velocities much smaller than Landau's critical velocity. Experiments are suggested to verify our predictions.

  20. Non-linear partitioning and organic volatility distributions of urban aerosols.

    PubMed

    Madronich, S; Conley, A J; Lee-Taylor, J; Kleinman, L I; Hodzic, A; Aumont, B

    2016-07-18

    Gas-to-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) is represented in most models by Raoult's law, and depends on the existing mass of particles into which organic gases can dissolve. This raises the possibility of non-linear response of particle-phase OA mass to the emissions of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to this partitioning mass. Implications for air quality management are evident: a strong non-linear dependence would suggest that reductions in VOC emission would have a more-than-proportionate benefit in lowering ambient OA concentrations. Chamber measurements on simple VOC mixtures generally confirm the non-linear scaling between OA and VOCs, usually stated as a mass-dependence of the measured OA yields. However, for realistic ambient conditions including urban settings, no single component dominates the composition of the organic particles, and deviations from linearity are presumed to be small. Here we re-examine the linearity question using volatility spectra from several sources: (1) chamber studies of selected aerosols, (2) volatility inferred for aerosols sampled in two megacities, Mexico City and Paris, and (3) an explicit chemistry model (GECKO-A). These few available volatility distributions suggest that urban OA may be only slightly super-linear, with most values of the normalized sensitivity exponent in the range 1.1-1.3, also substantially lower than seen in chambers for some specific aerosols. The rather low exponents suggest that OA concentrations in megacities are not an inevitable convergence of non-linear effects, but can be addressed (much like in smaller urban areas) by proportionate reductions in emissions. PMID:27092376

  1. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  2. Progress in linear optics, non-linear optics and surface alignment of liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, H.L.; Meyer, R.B.; Hurd, A.J.; Karn, A.J.; Arakelian, S.M.; Shen, Y.R.; Sanda, P.N.; Dove, D.B.; Jansen, S.A.; Hoffmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    We first discuss the progress in linear optics, in particular, the formulation and application of geometrical-optics approximation and its generalization. We then discuss the progress in non-linear optics, in particular, the enhancement of a first-order Freedericksz transition and intrinsic optical bistability in homeotropic and parallel oriented nematic liquid crystal cells. Finally, we discuss the liquid crystal alignment and surface effects on field-induced Freedericksz transition. 50 refs.

  3. Non-linear longitudinal compression effect on dynamics of the transcription bubble in DNA.

    PubMed

    Shikhovtseva, E S; Nazarov, V N

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of the dynamics of transcription bubble on the parameters of non-linear longitudinal compression is presented on the base of simple model of soliton-like conformational switchings in two-component bistable polymer molecules with energetically non-equivalent stable states. It has been shown that under certain conditions the longitudinal compression may be a trap for a conformational switching. PMID:27232455

  4. Dopamine-dependent non-linear correlation between subthalamic rhythms in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Marceglia, S; Foffani, G; Bianchi, A M; Baselli, G; Tamma, F; Egidi, M; Priori, A

    2006-01-01

    The basic information architecture in the basal ganglia circuit is under debate. Whereas anatomical studies quantify extensive convergence/divergence patterns in the circuit, suggesting an information sharing scheme, neurophysiological studies report an absence of linear correlation between single neurones in normal animals, suggesting a segregated parallel processing scheme. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys and in parkinsonian patients single neurones become linearly correlated, thus leading to a loss of segregation between neurones. Here we propose a possible integrative solution to this debate, by extending the concept of functional segregation from the cellular level to the network level. To this end, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from electrodes implanted for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of parkinsonian patients. By applying bispectral analysis, we found that in the absence of dopamine stimulation STN LFP rhythms became non-linearly correlated, thus leading to a loss of segregation between rhythms. Non-linear correlation was particularly consistent between the low-beta rhythm (13–20 Hz) and the high-beta rhythm (20–35 Hz). Levodopa administration significantly decreased these non-linear correlations, therefore increasing segregation between rhythms. These results suggest that the extensive convergence/divergence in the basal ganglia circuit is physiologically necessary to sustain LFP rhythms distributed in large ensembles of neurones, but is not sufficient to induce correlated firing between neurone pairs. Conversely, loss of dopamine generates pathological linear correlation between neurone pairs, alters the patterns within LFP rhythms, and induces non-linear correlation between LFP rhythms operating at different frequencies. The pathophysiology of information processing in the human basal ganglia therefore involves not only activities of individual rhythms, but also

  5. Parametric excitation of high-mode oscillations for a non-linear telegraph equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2000-08-31

    The problem of parametric excitation of high-mode oscillations is solved for a non-linear telegraph equation with a parametric external excitation and small diffusion. The equation is considered on a finite (spatial) interval with Neumann boundary conditions. It is shown that under a proper choice of parameters of the external excitation this boundary-value problem can have arbitrarily many exponentially stable solutions that are periodic in time and rapidly oscillate with respect to the spatial variable.

  6. A single-degree-of-freedom model for non-linear soil amplification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdik, Mustafa Ozder

    1979-01-01

    For proper understanding of soil behavior during earthquakes and assessment of a realistic surface motion, studies of the large-strain dynamic response of non-linear hysteretic soil systems are indispensable. Most of the presently available studies are based on the assumption that the response of a soil deposit is mainly due to the upward propagation of horizontally polarized shear waves from the underlying bedrock. Equivalent-linear procedures, currently in common use in non-linear soil response analysis, provide a simple approach and have been favorably compared with the actual recorded motions in some particular cases. Strain compatibility in these equivalent-linear approaches is maintained by selecting values of shear moduli and damping ratios in accordance with the average soil strains, in an iterative manner. Truly non-linear constitutive models with complete strain compatibility have also been employed. The equivalent-linear approaches often raise some doubt as to the reliability of their results concerning the system response in high frequency regions. In these frequency regions the equivalent-linear methods may underestimate the surface motion by as much as a factor of two or more. Although studies are complete in their methods of analysis, they inevitably provide applications pertaining only to a few specific soil systems, and do not lead to general conclusions about soil behavior. This report attempts to provide a general picture of the soil response through the use of a single-degree-of-freedom non-linear-hysteretic model. Although the investigation is based on a specific type of nonlinearity and a set of dynamic soil properties, the method described does not limit itself to these assumptions and is equally applicable to other types of nonlinearity and soil parameters.

  7. A Family of Ellipse Methods for Solving Non-Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, K. C.; Kanwar, V.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    This note presents a method for the numerical approximation of simple zeros of a non-linear equation in one variable. In order to do so, the method uses an ellipse rather than a tangent approach. The main advantage of our method is that it does not fail even if the derivative of the function is either zero or very small in the vicinity of the…

  8. Twofold hidden conformal symmetries of the Kerr-Newman black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.-M.; Huang, Y.-M.; Sun, J.-R.; Wu, M.-F.; Zou, S.-J.

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we suggest that there are two different individual two-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) holographically dual to the Kerr-Newman black hole, coming from the corresponding two possible limits - the Kerr/CFT and Reissner-Nordstroem/CFT correspondences, namely, there exist the Kerr-Newman/CFTs dualities. A probe scalar field at low frequencies turns out can exhibit two different two-dimensional conformal symmetries (named by J and Q pictures, respectively) in its equation of motion when the associated parameters are suitably specified. These twofold dualities are supported by the matchings of entropies, absorption cross sections, and real-time correlators computed from both the gravity and the CFT sides. Our results lead to a fascinating 'microscopic hair conjecture' - for each macroscopic hair parameter, in addition to the mass of a black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell theory, there should exist an associated holographic CFT{sub 2} description.

  9. Localization of Non-Linearly Modeled Autonomous Mobile Robots Using Out-of-Sequence Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A.; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost. PMID:22736962

  10. Fluctuating temperatures and ectotherm growth: distinguishing non-linear and time-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Higgins, Jessica K; Augustine, Kate E

    2015-07-01

    Most terrestrial ectotherms experience diurnal and seasonal variation in temperature. Because thermal performance curves are non-linear, mean performance can differ in fluctuating and constant thermal environments. However, time-dependent effects--effects of the order and duration of exposure to temperature--can also influence mean performance. We quantified the non-linear and time-dependent effects of diurnally fluctuating temperatures for larval growth rates in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L., with four main results. First, the shape of the thermal performance curve for growth rate depended on the duration of exposure: for example, optimal temperature and thermal breadth were greater for growth rates measured over short (24 h during the last instar) compared with long (the entire period of larval growth) time periods. Second, larvae reared in diurnally fluctuating temperatures had significantly higher optimal temperatures and maximal growth rates than larvae reared in constant temperatures. Third, for larvae maintained at three mean temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) and three diurnal temperature ranges (±0, ±5 and ±10°C), diurnal fluctuations had opposite effects on mean growth rates at low versus high mean temperature. Fourth, both short- and long-term thermal performance curves yielded poor predictions of the non-linear effects of fluctuating temperature on mean growth rates (compared with our experimental results) at higher mean temperatures. Our results suggest caution in using constant temperature studies to model the consequences of variable thermal environments. PMID:25987738

  11. a Frequency Domain Based NUMERIC-ANALYTICAL Method for Non-Linear Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, S.; Sekar, P.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper a multiharmonic balancing technique is used to develop certain algorithms to determine periodic orbits of non-liner dynamical systems with external, parametric and self excitations. Essentially, in this method the non-linear differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear algebraic equations in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the periodic solutions which are solved by using the Newton-Raphson technique. The method is developed such that both fast Fourier transform and discrete Fourier transform algorithms can be used. It is capable of treating all types of non-linearities and higher dimensional systems. The stability of periodic orbits is investigated by obtaining the monodromy matrix. A path following algorithm based on the predictor-corrector method is also presented to enable the bifurcation analysis. The prediction is done with a cubic extrapolation technique with an arc length incrementation while the correction is done with the use of the least square minimisation technique. The under determined system of equations is solved by singular value decomposition. The suitability of the method is demonstrated by obtaining the bifurcational behaviour of rolling contact vibrations modelled by Hertz contact law.

  12. Adaptive iterative learning control for a class of non-linearly parameterised systems with input saturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruikun; Hou, Zhongsheng; Ji, Honghai; Yin, Chenkun

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an adaptive iterative learning control scheme is proposed for a class of non-linearly parameterised systems with unknown time-varying parameters and input saturations. By incorporating a saturation function, a new iterative learning control mechanism is presented which includes a feedback term and a parameter updating term. Through the use of parameter separation technique, the non-linear parameters are separated from the non-linear function and then a saturated difference updating law is designed in iteration domain by combining the unknown parametric term of the local Lipschitz continuous function and the unknown time-varying gain into an unknown time-varying function. The analysis of convergence is based on a time-weighted Lyapunov-Krasovskii-like composite energy function which consists of time-weighted input, state and parameter estimation information. The proposed learning control mechanism warrants a L2[0, T] convergence of the tracking error sequence along the iteration axis. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the adaptive iterative learning control scheme.

  13. Drive Control of an Electric Vehicle by a Non-linear Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubin, Marizan; Ouchi, Shigeto; Anabuki, Masatoshi; Hirata, Hiroshi

    The driving force of automobiles is transmitted by the frictional force between the tires and the road surface. This frictional force is a function of the weight of the car-body and the friction coefficient μ between the tires and the road surface. The friction coefficient μ is also a function of the following parameters: the slip ratio λ determined by the car-body speed and the wheel speed, and the condition of the road surface. Slippage of automobiles which causes much damage often occurs during accelerating and braking. In this paper, we propose a new drive control system which has an effect on acceleration and braking. In the drive control system, a non-linear controller designed by using a Lyapunov function is used. This non-linear controller has two functions: first one is μ control which moves the car-body, another one is λ control. The controller is designed in order that μ and λ work at noslip and with slip respectively. As another controller, a disturbance observer is used for estimating the car-body speed which is difficult to be measured. Then, this lead to the proof of the stability condition of the combined system which consists of two controllers: the non-linear controller and the disturbance observer. Finally, the effectiveness of this control system is proved by a very satisfactory simulation and experimental results for two cases.

  14. Ion-acoustic cnoidal wave and associated non-linear ion flux in dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S. L.; Tiwari, R. S.; Mishra, M. K.

    2012-10-15

    Using reductive perturbation method with appropriate boundary conditions, coupled evolution equations for first and second order potentials are derived for ion-acoustic waves in a collisionless, un-magnetized plasma consisting of hot isothermal electrons, cold ions, and massive mobile charged dust grains. The boundary conditions give rise to renormalization term, which enable us to eliminate secular contribution in higher order terms. Determining the non secular solution of these coupled equations, expressions for wave phase velocity and averaged non-linear ion flux associated with ion-acoustic cnoidal wave are obtained. Variation of the wave phase velocity and averaged non-linear ion flux as a function of modulus (k{sup 2}) dependent wave amplitude are numerically examined for different values of dust concentration, charge on dust grains, and mass ratio of dust grains with plasma ions. It is found that for a given amplitude, the presence of positively (negatively) charged dust grains in plasma decreases (increases) the wave phase velocity. This behavior is more pronounced with increase in dust concentrations or increase in charge on dust grains or decrease in mass ratio of dust grains. The averaged non-linear ion flux associated with wave is positive (negative) for negatively (positively) charged dust grains in the plasma and increases (decreases) with modulus (k{sup 2}) dependent wave amplitude. For given amplitude, it increases (decreases) as dust concentration or charge of negatively (positively) charged dust grains increases in the plasma.

  15. Stochastic non-linear oscillator models of EEG: the Alzheimer's disease case.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanian, Parham; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Ashrafiuon, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal of the human brain is modeled as the output of stochastic non-linear coupled oscillator networks. It is shown that EEG signals recorded under different brain states in healthy as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may be understood as distinct, statistically significant realizations of the model. EEG signals recorded during resting eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting conditions in a pilot study with AD patients and age-matched healthy control subjects (CTL) are employed. An optimization scheme is then utilized to match the output of the stochastic Duffing-van der Pol double oscillator network with EEG signals recorded during each condition for AD and CTL subjects by selecting the model physical parameters and noise intensity. The selected signal characteristics are power spectral densities in major brain frequency bands Shannon and sample entropies. These measures allow matching of linear time varying frequency content as well as non-linear signal information content and complexity. The main finding of the work is that statistically significant unique models represent the EC and EO conditions for both CTL and AD subjects. However, it is also shown that the inclusion of sample entropy in the optimization process, to match the complexity of the EEG signal, enhances the stochastic non-linear oscillator model performance. PMID:25964756

  16. Localization of non-linearly modeled autonomous mobile robots using out-of-sequence measurements.

    PubMed

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost.

  17. Non-linear dynamic complexity of the human EEG during meditation.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Golocheikine, S A

    2002-09-20

    We used non-linear analysis to investigate the dynamical properties underlying the EEG in the model of Sahaja Yoga meditation. Non-linear dimensional complexity (DCx) estimates, indicating complexity of neuronal computations, were analyzed in 20 experienced meditators during rest and meditation using 62-channel EEG. When compared to rest, the meditation was accompanied by a focused decrease of DCx estimates over midline frontal and central regions. By contrast, additionally computed linear measures exhibited the opposite direction of changes: power in the theta-1 (4-6 Hz), theta-2 (6-8 Hz) and alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) frequency bands was increased over these regions. The DCx estimates negatively correlated with theta-2 and alpha-1 and positively with beta-3 (22-30 Hz) band power. It is suggested that meditative experience, characterized by less complex dynamics of the EEG, involves 'switching off' irrelevant networks for the maintenance of focused internalized attention and inhibition of inappropriate information. Overall, the results point to the idea that dynamically changing inner experience during meditation is better indexed by a combination of non-linear and linear EEG variables.

  18. Relativistic weak lensing from a fully non-linear cosmological density field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.B.; Bruni, M.; Wands, D. E-mail: marco.bruni@port.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we examine cosmological weak lensing on non-linear scales and show that there are Newtonian and relativistic contributions and that the latter can also be extracted from standard Newtonian simulations. We use the post-Friedmann formalism, a post-Newtonian type framework for cosmology, to derive the full weak-lensing deflection angle valid on non-linear scales for any metric theory of gravity. We show that the only contributing term that is quadratic in the first order deflection is the expected Born correction and lens-lens coupling term. We use this deflection angle to analyse the vector and tensor contributions to the E- and B- mode cosmic shear power spectra. In our approach, once the gravitational theory has been specified, the metric components are related to the matter content in a well-defined manner. Specifying General Relativity, we write down a complete set of equations for a GR+ΛCDM universe for computing all of the possible lensing terms from Newtonian N-body simulations. We illustrate this with the vector potential and show that, in a GR+ΛCDM universe, its contribution to the E-mode is negligible with respect to that of the conventional Newtonian scalar potential, even on non-linear scales. Thus, under the standard assumption that Newtonian N-body simulations give a good approximation of the matter dynamics, we show that the standard ray tracing approach gives a good description for a ΛCDM cosmology.

  19. Real-time non-linear flight control of a fixed-wing UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Mario

    In this thesis we studied the implementation and design of a typical configuration fixed-wing research UAV. The ultimate goal being the flight test of an advanced control technique. This objective was achieved through the achievement of several milestones that are also the subject of each chapter of this thesis. Among these include: modeling of the UAV and its experimental parameters for the realization of a non-linear simulation close to reality, the design of the non-linear flight control, the development of the control card and its software, development of the ground station's software with LabVIEW and ultimately the achievement of the flight tests. The ultimate goal which was the application of an advanced control technique in an experimental flight was successfully completed. Indeed, the experimentation of the UAV's fast dynamics inversion yielded very good results without using the classic longitudinal and lateral movements decoupling technique along with a gain scheduling based controller. Furthermore, the final system remains easy to use and completely eliminates the time between a control technique design's completion with the non-linear simulation and its implementation in the real UAV for a flight test.

  20. Multiphysics modeling of non-linear laser-matter interactions for optically active semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraczek, Brent; Kanp, Jaroslaw

    Development of photonic devices for sensors and communications devices has been significantly enhanced by computational modeling. We present a new computational method for modelling laser propagation in optically-active semiconductors within the paraxial wave approximation (PWA). Light propagation is modeled using the Streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Material response enters through the non-linear polarization, which serves as the right-hand side of the FEM calculation. Maxwell's equations for classical light propagation within the PWA can be written solely in terms of the electric field, producing a wave equation that is a form of the advection-diffusion-reaction equations (ADREs). This allows adaptation of the computational machinery developed for solving ADREs in fluid dynamics to light-propagation modeling. The non-linear polarization is incorporated using a flexible framework to enable the use of multiple methods for carrier-carrier interactions (e.g. relaxation-time-based or Monte Carlo) to enter through the non-linear polarization, as appropriate to the material type. We demonstrate using a simple carrier-carrier model approximating the response of GaN. Supported by ARL Materials Enterprise.

  1. A non-linear curvature wavefront sensor reconstruction speed and the broadband design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateen, Mala; Guyon, Olivier; Sasián, José; Garrel, Vincent; Hart, Michael

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we explain why a non-linear curvature wavefront sensor (nlCWFS) is more sensitive than conventional wavefront sensors such as the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) and the conventional curvature wavefront sensor (cCWFS) for sensing mV < 14 natural guide stars. The non-linear approach builds on the successful curvature wavefront sensing concept but uses a non-linear Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) phase diversity algorithm to reconstruct the wavefront. The nonlinear reconstruction algorithm is an advantage for sensitivity but a challenge for fast computation. The current speed is a factor of 10 to 100 times slower than needed for high performance groundbased AO. We present a two step strategy to increase the speed of the algorithm. In the last paper3 we presented laboratory results obtained with a monochromatic source, here we extend our experiment to incorporate a broadband source. The sensitivity of the nlCWFS depends on the ability to extract wavefront phase from diffraction limited speckles therefore it is essential that the speckles do not suffer from chromatic aberration when used with a polychromatic source. We discuss the design for the chromatic re-imaging optics, which through chromatic compensation, allow us to obtain diffraction limited speckles in Fresnel propagated planes on either side of the pupil plane.

  2. Reducing and meta-analysing estimates from distributed lag non-linear models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The two-stage time series design represents a powerful analytical tool in environmental epidemiology. Recently, models for both stages have been extended with the development of distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs), a methodology for investigating simultaneously non-linear and lagged relationships, and multivariate meta-analysis, a methodology to pool estimates of multi-parameter associations. However, the application of both methods in two-stage analyses is prevented by the high-dimensional definition of DLNMs. Methods In this contribution we propose a method to synthesize DLNMs to simpler summaries, expressed by a reduced set of parameters of one-dimensional functions, which are compatible with current multivariate meta-analytical techniques. The methodology and modelling framework are implemented in R through the packages dlnm and mvmeta. Results As an illustrative application, the method is adopted for the two-stage time series analysis of temperature-mortality associations using data from 10 regions in England and Wales. R code and data are available as supplementary online material. Discussion and Conclusions The methodology proposed here extends the use of DLNMs in two-stage analyses, obtaining meta-analytical estimates of easily interpretable summaries from complex non-linear and delayed associations. The approach relaxes the assumptions and avoids simplifications required by simpler modelling approaches. PMID:23297754

  3. Physiological processes non-linearly affect electrophysiological recordings during transcranial electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Noury, Nima; Hipp, Joerg F; Siegel, Markus

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a promising tool to non-invasively manipulate neuronal activity in the human brain. Several studies have shown behavioral effects of tES, but stimulation artifacts complicate the simultaneous investigation of neural activity with EEG or MEG. Here, we first show for EEG and MEG, that contrary to previous assumptions, artifacts do not simply reflect stimulation currents, but that heartbeat and respiration non-linearly modulate stimulation artifacts. These modulations occur irrespective of the stimulation frequency, i.e. during both transcranial alternating and direct current stimulations (tACS and tDCS). Second, we show that, although at first sight previously employed artifact rejection methods may seem to remove artifacts, data are still contaminated by non-linear stimulation artifacts. Because of their complex nature and dependence on the subjects' physiological state, these artifacts are prone to be mistaken as neural entrainment. In sum, our results uncover non-linear tES artifacts, show that current techniques fail to fully remove them, and pave the way for new artifact rejection methods.

  4. Non-linear analysis and calculation of the performance of a shelving protection system by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Nieto, P. J.; del Coz Díaz, J. J.; Vilán Vilán, J. A.; Suárez Sierra, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper consists on the study, analysis and calculation of the efficiency of a shelving protection system by means of the finite element method (FEM). These shelving protection systems are intended to prevent the eventual damage due to the impacts of transport elements in motion, such as: forklifts, dumpers, hand pallet trucks, and so on. The impact loads may threaten the structural integrity of the shelving system. The present structural problem is highly non-linear, due to the simultaneous presence of the following nonlinearities: material non-linearity (plasticity in this case), geometrical non-linearity (large displacements) and contact-type boundary conditions (between the rigid body and the protection system). A total of forty eight different FEM models are built varying the thickness of the steel plate (4, 5 and 6 mm), the impact height (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 meters) and the impact direction (head-on collision and side impact). Once the models are solved, the stress distribution, the overall displacements and the absorbed impact energy were calculated. In order to determine the best shelving protection's candidate, some constraints must be taken into account: the maximum allowable stress (235 MPa), the maximum displacement (0.05 m) and the absorbed impact energy (400 J according to the European Standard Rule PREN-15512). Finally, the most important results are shown and conclusions of this study are exposed.

  5. The non-linear coupled spin 2-spin 3 Cotton equation in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linander, Hampus; Nilsson, Bengt E. W.

    2016-07-01

    In the context of three-dimensional conformal higher spin theory we derive, in the frame field formulation, the full non-linear spin 3 Cotton equation coupled to spin 2. This is done by solving the corresponding Chern-Simons gauge theory system of equations, that is, using F = 0 to eliminate all auxiliary fields and thus expressing the Cotton equation in terms of just the spin 3 frame field and spin 2 covariant derivatives and tensors (Schouten). In this derivation we neglect the spin 4 and higher spin sectors and approximate the star product commutator by a Poisson bracket. The resulting spin 3 Cotton equation is complicated but can be related to linearized versions in the metric formulation obtained previously by other authors. The expected symmetry (spin 3 "translation", "Lorentz" and "dilatation") properties are verified for Cotton and other relevant tensors but some perhaps unexpected features emerge in the process, in particular in relation to the non-linear equations. We discuss the structure of this non-linear spin 3 Cotton equation but its explicit form is only presented here, in an exact but not completely refined version, in appended files obtained by computer algebra methods. Both the frame field and metric formulations are provided.

  6. Stochastic non-linear oscillator models of EEG: the Alzheimer's disease case

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanian, Parham; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Ashrafiuon, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal of the human brain is modeled as the output of stochastic non-linear coupled oscillator networks. It is shown that EEG signals recorded under different brain states in healthy as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may be understood as distinct, statistically significant realizations of the model. EEG signals recorded during resting eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting conditions in a pilot study with AD patients and age-matched healthy control subjects (CTL) are employed. An optimization scheme is then utilized to match the output of the stochastic Duffing—van der Pol double oscillator network with EEG signals recorded during each condition for AD and CTL subjects by selecting the model physical parameters and noise intensity. The selected signal characteristics are power spectral densities in major brain frequency bands Shannon and sample entropies. These measures allow matching of linear time varying frequency content as well as non-linear signal information content and complexity. The main finding of the work is that statistically significant unique models represent the EC and EO conditions for both CTL and AD subjects. However, it is also shown that the inclusion of sample entropy in the optimization process, to match the complexity of the EEG signal, enhances the stochastic non-linear oscillator model performance. PMID:25964756

  7. On the analogy between mathematical problems of non-linear filtering and quantum physics. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitter, S.K.

    1980-06-01

    The main thesis of this paper is that there are striking similarities between the mathematical problems of stochastic system theory, notably linear and non-linear filtering theory, and mathematical developments underlying quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Thus the mathematical developments of the past thirty years in functional analysis, lie groups and lie algebras, group representations, and probabilistic methods of quantum theory can serve as a guide and indicator to search for an appropriate theory of stochastic systems. In the current state of development of linear and non-linear filtering theory, it is best to proceed by 'analogy' and with care, since 'unitarity' which plays such an important part in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory is not necessarily relevant to linear and non-linear filtering theory. The partial differential equations that arise in quantum theory are generally wave equations, whereas the partial differential equations arising in filtering theory are stochastic parabolic equations. Nevertheless the possibility of passing to a wave equation by appropriate analytic continuation from the parabolic equation, reminiscent of the current program in euclidean field theory, should not be overlooked.

  8. Spherical collapse, formation hysteresis and the deeply non-linear cosmological power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    I examine differences in non-linear structure formation between cosmological models that share a z = 0 linear power spectrum in both shape and amplitude, but that differ via their growth history. N-body simulations of these models display an approximately identical large-scale-structure skeleton, but reveal deeply non-linear differences in the demographics and properties of haloes. I investigate to what extent the spherical-collapse model can help in understanding these differences, in both real and redshift space. I discuss how this is difficult to do if one attempts to identify haloes directly, because in that case one is subject to the vagaries of halo finding algorithms. However, I demonstrate that the halo model of structure formation provides an accurate non-linear response in the power spectrum, but only if results from spherical collapse that include formation hysteresis are properly incorporated. I comment on how this fact can be used to provide per cent level accurate matter power spectrum predictions for dark energy models for k ≤ 5 hMpc-1 by using the halo model as a correction to accurate ΛCDM simulations. In the appendix I provide some fitting functions for the linear-collapse threshold (δc) and virialized overdensity (Δv) that are valid for a wide range of dark energy models. I also make my spherical-collapse code available at https://github.com/alexander-mead/collapse.

  9. Defining the frame of minimum non-linear Hubble expansion variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, James H.; Wiltshire, David L.

    2016-04-01

    We characterize a cosmic rest frame in which the monopole variation of the spherically averaged non-linear Hubble expansion is most uniform, under arbitrary local Lorentz boosts of the central observer. Using the COMPOSITE sample of 4534 galaxies, we identify a degenerate set of candidate minimum non-linear variation frames, which includes the rest frame of the Local Group (LG) of galaxies, but excludes the standard cosmic microwave background (CMB) frame. Candidate rest frames defined by a boost from the LG frame close to the plane of the galaxy have a statistical likelihood similar to the LG frame. This may result from a lack of constraining data in the Zone of Avoidance. We extend our analysis to the Cosmicflows-2 (CF2) sample of 8162 galaxies. While the signature of a systematic boost offset between the CMB and LG frame averages is still detected, the spherically averaged non-linear expansion variation in all rest frames is significantly larger in the CF2 sample than would be reasonably expected. We trace this to the CF2 distances being reported without a correction for inhomogeneous distribution Malmquist bias. Systematic differences in the inclusion of the large SFI++ subsample into the COMPOSITE and CF2 catalogues are analysed. Our results highlight the importance of a careful treatment of Malmquist biases for future peculiar velocities studies, including tests of the hypothesis of Wiltshire et al. that a significant fraction of the CMB temperature dipole may be non-kinematic in origin.

  10. Localization of non-linearly modeled autonomous mobile robots using out-of-sequence measurements.

    PubMed

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost. PMID:22736962

  11. Non-linear eigensolver-based alternative to traditional SCF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, Brendan; Polizzi, Eric

    2013-03-01

    The self-consistent iterative procedure in Density Functional Theory calculations is revisited using a new, highly efficient and robust algorithm for solving the non-linear eigenvector problem (i.e. H(X)X = EX;) of the Kohn-Sham equations. This new scheme is derived from a generalization of the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm, and provides a fundamental and practical numerical solution for addressing the non-linearity of the Hamiltonian with the occupied eigenvectors. In contrast to SCF techniques, the traditional outer iterations are replaced by subspace iterations that are intrinsic to the FEAST algorithm, while the non-linearity is handled at the level of a projected reduced system which is orders of magnitude smaller than the original one. Using a series of numerical examples, it will be shown that our approach can outperform the traditional SCF mixing techniques such as Pulay-DIIS by providing a high converge rate and by converging to the correct solution regardless of the choice of the initial guess. We also discuss a practical implementation of the technique that can be achieved effectively using the FEAST solver package. This research is supported by NSF under Grant #ECCS-0846457 and Intel Corporation.

  12. Non-linear optics of nano-scale pentacene thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, I. S.; Alfaify, S.; Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Abutalib, M. M.; Al-Bassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We have found the new ways to investigate the linear/non-linear optical properties of nanostructure pentacene thin film deposited by thermal evaporation technique. Pentacene is the key material in organic semiconductor technology. The existence of nano-structured thin film was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wavelength-dependent transmittance and reflectance were calculated to observe the optical behavior of the pentacene thin film. It has been observed the anomalous dispersion at wavelength λ < 800 nm, whereas the normal dispersion was found at wavelength λ > 800. The non-linear refractive index of the deposited films was investigated. The linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film was calculated, and we observed the non-linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film at about 6 × 10-13 esu. The advantage of this work is to use of spectroscopic method to calculate the liner and non-liner optical response of pentacene thin films rather than expensive Z-scan. The calculated optical behavior of the pentacene thin films could be used in the organic thin films base advanced optoelectronic devices such as telecommunications devices.

  13. Low-amplitude non-linear volume vibrations of single microbubbles measured with an "acoustical camera".

    PubMed

    Renaud, Guillaume; Bosch, Johan G; Van Der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is based on the detection of non-linear vibrational responses of a contrast agent after its intravenous administration. Improving contrast-enhanced images requires an accurate understanding of the vibrational response to ultrasound of the lipid-coated gas microbubbles that constitute most ultrasound contrast agents. Variations in the volume of microbubbles provide the most efficient radiation of ultrasound and, therefore, are the most important bubble vibrations for medical diagnostic ultrasound imaging. We developed an "acoustical camera" that measures the dynamic volume change of individual microbubbles when excited by a pressure wave. In the work described here, the technique was applied to the characterization of low-amplitude non-linear behaviors of BR14 microbubbles (Bracco Research, Geneva, Switzerland). The amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency and the damping, the prevalence of efficient subharmonic and ultraharmonic vibrations and the amplitude dependence of the response at the fundamental frequency and at the second harmonic frequency were investigated. Because of the large number of measurements, we provide a statistical characterization of the low-amplitude non-linear properties of the contrast agent.

  14. The non-linear analysis of multi-support rotor-bearing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kicinski, J.; Drozdowski, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper contains selected parts of the simulation research of large rotor machines (200 MW power turbine-sets). These investigations were based on a non-linear theoretical model and the NLDW computer program, and were carried out in the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of PAS. A trial has been performed of the optimization of system-dynamic properties, through the suitable selection of thermally deformed bearing-bush centers line -- the so called ``hot`` line -- (due to a rotor`s geodesic line), as well as the selection of the external fixing stiffness of bearing supports. Examples are also included of the orbits of selected system nodes for two differently powered turbine-sets. On this basis, an analysis of the stability of those turbines was achieved. A significant objective of this paper is also to point out some possibilities of applying the simulation research, based on a non-linear description of the system, to the diagnostics of rotor-machinery. Non-linear analysis facilitates the possibility of easily generating vibration spectra, as well as creating simulation waterfall graphs. These properties of nonlinear analysis create convenient conditions for gaining specific diagnostic information.

  15. Impact of quadratic non-linearity on the dynamics of periodic solutions of a wave equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesov, Andrei Yu; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2002-02-28

    For the non-linear telegraph equation with homogeneous Dirichlet or Neumann conditions at the end-points of a finite interval the question of the existence and the stability of time-periodic solutions bifurcating from the zero equilibrium state is considered. The dynamics of these solutions under a change of the diffusion coefficient (that is, the coefficient of the second derivative with respect to the space variable) is investigated. For the Dirichlet boundary conditions it is shown that this dynamics substantially depends on the presence - or the absence - of quadratic terms in the non-linearity. More precisely, it is shown that a quadratic non-linearity results in the occurrence, under an unbounded decrease of diffusion, of an infinite sequence of bifurcations of each periodic solution. En route, the related issue of the limits of applicability of Yu.S. Kolesov's method of quasinormal forms to the construction of self-oscillations in singularly perturbed hyperbolic boundary value problems is studied.

  16. Reservoir computing and extreme learning machines for non-linear time-series data analysis.

    PubMed

    Butcher, J B; Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; Day, C R; Haycock, P W

    2013-02-01

    Random projection architectures such as Echo state networks (ESNs) and Extreme Learning Machines (ELMs) use a network containing a randomly connected hidden layer and train only the output weights, overcoming the problems associated with the complex and computationally demanding training algorithms traditionally used to train neural networks, particularly recurrent neural networks. In this study an ESN is shown to contain an antagonistic trade-off between the amount of non-linear mapping and short-term memory it can exhibit when applied to time-series data which are highly non-linear. To overcome this trade-off a new architecture, Reservoir with Random Static Projections (R(2)SP) is investigated, that is shown to offer a significant improvement in performance. A similar approach using an ELM whose input is presented through a time delay (TD-ELM) is shown to further enhance performance where it significantly outperformed the ESN and R(2)SP as well other architectures when applied to a novel task which allows the short-term memory and non-linearity to be varied. The hard-limiting memory of the TD-ELM appears to be best suited for the data investigated in this study, although ESN-based approaches may offer improved performance when processing data which require a longer fading memory.

  17. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puķīte, Jānis; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer-Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorptions non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries, for which the light contributing to the measurement is crossing the atmosphere under spatially well-separated paths differing strongly in length and location, like in limb geometry. In these cases, often full retrieval algorithms are applied to address the non-linearities, requiring iterative forward modelling of absorption spectra involving time-consuming wavelength-by-wavelength radiative transfer modelling. In this study, we propose to describe the non-linear effects by additional sensitivity parameters that can be used e.g. to build up a lookup table. Together with widely used box air mass factors (effective light paths) describing the linear response to the increase in the trace gas amount, the higher-order sensitivity parameters eliminate the need for repeating the radiative transfer modelling when modifying the absorption scenario even in the presence of a strong absorption background. While the higher-order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the spectral analysis (so-called DOAS fit), in practice their quantitative evaluation requires good measurement quality (typically better than that available from current measurements). Therefore, we introduce an iterative retrieval algorithm correcting for the higher-order absorption structures not yet considered in the DOAS fit as well as the absorption dependence on

  18. Are Successive Investments in Education Equally Worthwhile? Endogenous Schooling Decisions and Non-Linearities in the Earnings-Schooling Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalli, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Most of the studies that account for the endogeneity bias when estimating the returns to schooling assume that the relationship between education and earnings is linear. Studies that assume the latter relationship to be non-linear simply ignore the endogeneity bias. Moreover, they either assume an ad-hoc non-linear relationship or argue that…

  19. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  20. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations. PMID:25975362

  1. Quantum gravity of Kerr-Schild spacetimes and the logarithmic correction to Schwarzschild black hole entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal

    2016-05-01

    In the context of effective field theory, we consider quantum gravity with minimally coupled massless particles. Fixing the background geometry to be of the Kerr-Schild type, we fully determine the one-loop effective action of the theory whose finite non-local part is induced by the long-distance portion of quantum loops. This is accomplished using the non-local expansion of the heat kernel in addition to a non-linear completion technique through which the effective action is expanded in gravitational curvatures. Via Euclidean methods, we identify a logarithmic correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of Schwarzschild black hole. Using dimensional transmutation the result is shown to exhibit an interesting interplay between the UV and IR properties of quantum gravity.

  2. Towards a non-linear theory for fluid pressure and osmosis in shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droghei, Riccardo; Salusti, Ettore

    2015-04-01

    In exploiting deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, often injections of fluid and/or solute are used. To control and avoid troubles as fluid and gas unexpected diffusions, a reservoir characterization can be obtained also from observations of space and time evolution of micro-earthquake clouds resulting from such injections. This is important since several among the processes caused by fluid injections can modify the deep matrix. Information about the evolution of such micro-seismicity clouds therefore plays a realistic role in the reservoir analyses. To reach a better insight about such processes, and obtain a better system control, we here analyze the initial stress necessary to originate strong non linear transients of combined fluid pressure and solute density (osmosis) in a porous matrix. All this can indeed perturb in a mild (i.e. a linear diffusion) or dramatic non linear way the rock structure, till inducing rock deformations, micro-earthquakes or fractures. I more detail we here assume first a linear Hooke law relating strain, stress, solute density and fluid pressure, and analyze their effect in the porous rock dynamics. Then we analyze its generalization, i.e. the further non linear effect of a stronger external pressure, also in presence of a trend of pressure or solute in the whole region. We moreover characterize the zones where a sudden arrival of such a front can cause micro-earthquakes or fractures. All this allows to reach a novel, more realistic insight about the control of rock evolution in presence of strong pressure fronts. We thus obtain a more efficient reservoir control to avoid large geological perturbations. It is of interest that our results are very similar to those found by Shapiro et al.(2013) with a different approach.

  3. Unsteady Solution of Non-Linear Differential Equations Using Walsh Function Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Walsh functions form an orthonormal basis set consisting of square waves. The discontinuous nature of square waves make the system well suited for representing functions with discontinuities. The product of any two Walsh functions is another Walsh function - a feature that can radically change an algorithm for solving non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs). The solution algorithm of non-linear differential equations using Walsh function series is unique in that integrals and derivatives may be computed using simple matrix multiplication of series representations of functions. Solutions to PDEs are derived as functions of wave component amplitude. Three sample problems are presented to illustrate the Walsh function series approach to solving unsteady PDEs. These include an advection equation, a Burgers equation, and a Riemann problem. The sample problems demonstrate the use of the Walsh function solution algorithms, exploiting Fast Walsh Transforms in multi-dimensions (O(Nlog(N))). Details of a Fast Walsh Reciprocal, defined here for the first time, enable inversion of aWalsh Symmetric Matrix in O(Nlog(N)) operations. Walsh functions have been derived using a fractal recursion algorithm and these fractal patterns are observed in the progression of pairs of wave number amplitudes in the solutions. These patterns are most easily observed in a remapping defined as a fractal fingerprint (FFP). A prolongation of existing solutions to the next highest order exploits these patterns. The algorithms presented here are considered a work in progress that provide new alternatives and new insights into the solution of non-linear PDEs.

  4. Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.

    2003-04-01

    Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.

  5. Role of symmetries in the Kerr-Schild derivation of the Kerr black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Hassaïne, Mokhtar; Higuita-Borja, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    In this work we explore the consequences of considering from the very beginning the stationary and axisymmetric properties of the Kerr black hole as one attempts to derive this solution through the Kerr-Schild ansatz. The first consequence is kinematical and is based on a new stationary and axisymmetric version of the Kerr theorem that yields to the precise shear-free and geodesic null congruence of flat spacetime characterizing the Kerr solution. A straightforward advantage of this strategy is that now the parameter a appears naturally as associated to the conserved angular momentum of the geodesics due to axisymmetry. The second consequence is dynamical and takes into account the circularity theorem. In fact, a stationary-axisymmetric Kerr-Schild ansatz is in general incompatible with the circularity property warranted by vacuum Einstein equations unless the remaining angular dependence in the Kerr-Schild profile appears fixed in a precise way. Thanks to these two ingredients, the integration of the Einstein equations reduces to a simple ordinary differential equation on the radial dependence, whose integration constant is precisely the mass m . This derivation of the Kerr solution is simple but rigorous, and it may be suitable for any textbook.

  6. Experimental characterization and modeling of non-linear coupling of the LHCD power on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preynas, M.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Ekedahl, A.

    2014-02-01

    To achieve steady state operation on future tokamaks, in particular on ITER, the unique capability of a LHCD system to efficiently drive off-axis non-inductive current is needed. In this context, it is of prime importance to study and master the coupling of LH wave to the core plasma at high power density (tens of MW/m2). In some specific conditions, deleterious effects on the LHCD coupling are sometimes observed on Tore Supra. At high power the waves may modify the edge parameters that change the wave coupling properties in a non-linear manner. In this way, dedicated LHCD experiments have been performed using the LHCD system of Tore Supra, composed of two different conceptual designs of launcher: the Fully Active Multijunction (FAM) and the new Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) antennas. A nonlinear interaction between the electron density and the electric field has been characterized in a thin plasma layer in front of the two LHCD antennas. The resulting dependence of the power reflection coefficient with the LHCD power, leading occasionally to trips in the output power, is not predicted by the standard linear theory of the LH wave coupling. Therefore, it is important to investigate and understand the possible origin of such non-linear effects in order to avoid their possible deleterious consequences. The PICCOLO-2D code, which self-consistently treats the wave propagation in the antenna vicinity and its interaction with the local edge plasma density, is used to simulate Tore Supra discharges. The simulation reproduces very well the occurrence of a non-linear behavior in the coupling observed in the LHCD experiments. The important differences and trends between the FAM and the PAM antennas, especially a larger increase in RC for the FAM, are also reproduced by the PICCOLO-2D simulation. The working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling is therefore validated through this comprehensive modeling

  7. Non-linear Creep Analysis of Ceramic Specimen Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Jaswinder Singh; Khera, Saurabh

    2016-07-01

    In the present work the stress analysis of a ceramic tensile specimen is obtained. The effects of specimen geometry along with the pin loading are considered in the stress distribution calculations. Thereafter, the optimization based on a set of constraints is performed on the specimen with pinhole location, pinhole diameter, head width, neck radius and gauge length as its design variables. The work is then extended for the non-linear analysis for creep. A mathematical model is developed which is implemented using C++ code.

  8. Application of non-linear dynamics to the characterization of cardiac electrical instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Beat-to-beat alternation in the morphology of the ECG has been previously observed in hearts susceptible to fibrillation. In addition, fibrillation has been characterized by some as a chaotic state. Period doubling phenomena, such as alternation, and the onset of chaos have been connected by non-linear dynamical systems theory. In this paper, we describe the use of a technique from nonlinear dynamics theory, the construction of a first return nap, to assess the susceptibility to fibrillation threshhold in canine experiments.

  9. Characterization and modeling of performance of Polymer Composites Reinforced with Highly Non-Linear Cellulosic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozite, L.; Joffe, R.; Varna, J.; Nyström, B.

    2012-02-01

    The behaviour of highly non-linear cellulosic fibers and their composite is characterized. Micro-mechanisms occurring in these materials are identified. Mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers and composites are obtained using simple tensile test. Material visco-plastic and visco-elastic properties are analyzed using creep tests. Two bio-based resins are used in this study - Tribest and EpoBioX. The glass and flax fiber composites are used as reference materials to compare with Cordenka fiber laminates.

  10. Experimental characterization and modeling of non-linear coupling of the LHCD power on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Preynas, M.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Ekedahl, A.

    2014-02-12

    To achieve steady state operation on future tokamaks, in particular on ITER, the unique capability of a LHCD system to efficiently drive off-axis non-inductive current is needed. In this context, it is of prime importance to study and master the coupling of LH wave to the core plasma at high power density (tens of MW/m{sup 2}). In some specific conditions, deleterious effects on the LHCD coupling are sometimes observed on Tore Supra. At high power the waves may modify the edge parameters that change the wave coupling properties in a non-linear manner. In this way, dedicated LHCD experiments have been performed using the LHCD system of Tore Supra, composed of two different conceptual designs of launcher: the Fully Active Multijunction (FAM) and the new Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) antennas. A nonlinear interaction between the electron density and the electric field has been characterized in a thin plasma layer in front of the two LHCD antennas. The resulting dependence of the power reflection coefficient with the LHCD power, leading occasionally to trips in the output power, is not predicted by the standard linear theory of the LH wave coupling. Therefore, it is important to investigate and understand the possible origin of such non-linear effects in order to avoid their possible deleterious consequences. The PICCOLO-2D code, which self-consistently treats the wave propagation in the antenna vicinity and its interaction with the local edge plasma density, is used to simulate Tore Supra discharges. The simulation reproduces very well the occurrence of a non-linear behavior in the coupling observed in the LHCD experiments. The important differences and trends between the FAM and the PAM antennas, especially a larger increase in RC for the FAM, are also reproduced by the PICCOLO-2D simulation. The working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling is therefore validated through this comprehensive

  11. On psychoanalysis and non-linear dynamics: the paradigm of bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Priel, B; Schreiber, G

    1994-09-01

    Some of Freud's main theoretical conceptualizations drew on metaphors from 19th century physics. However, though the physics of Freud's era was based on deterministic Newtonian mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics, his descriptions of the dynamics of instincts, therapeutic change, and even transference, were far beyond this model. Freud's dynamic description of psychic development evokes contemporary theories of irreversible, far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics and non-linear dynamics. The present paper focuses on bifurcation theory, which offers a paradigm for the investigation of unpredictable but deterministic phenomena; this paradigm sheds a retroactive light on the classical psychoanalytical conceptualizations of complemental series, repetition compulsion, transference and cure.

  12. Fault detection in non-linear systems based on type-2 fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarinejadian, Behrooz; Ghane, Parisa; Monirvaghefi, Hossein

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for fault detection (FD) based on interval type-2 fuzzy sets. The main idea is based on a confident span using interval type-2 fuzzy systems. An estimate for upper and lower bounds of output has been taken using the designing of an optimal fuzzy system through clustering. Finally the method has been tested in two non-linear systems, a two-tank with a fluid flow and pH neutralisation process, and it is compared with a well-known method named ANFIS. Furthermore, the mathematical model and the results of simulations prove the effectiveness, usefulness and applications of our new method.

  13. Non-linear Dynamics in ETG Mode Saturation and Beam-Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.

    Non-linear mechanisms arise frequently in plasmas and beam-plasma systems resulting in dynamics not predicted by linear theory. The non-linear mechanisms can influence the time evolution of plasma instabilities and can be used to describe their saturation. Furthermore time and space averaged non-linear fields generated by instabilities can lead to collisionless transport and plasma heating. In the case of beam-plasma systems counter-intuitive beam defocusing and scaling behavior which are interesting areas of study for both Low-Temperature and High Energy Density physics. The non-linear mode interactions in form of phase coupling can describe energy transfer to other modes and can be used to describe the saturation of plasma instabilities. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical model was formulated to explain the saturation mechanism of Slab Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode observed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM), based on experimental time-series data collected through probe diagnostics [1]. ETG modes are considered to be a major player in the unexplained high levels of electron transport observed in tokamak fusion experiments and the saturation mechanism of these modes is still an active area of investigation. The data in the frequency space indicated phase coupling between 3 modes, through a higher order spectral correlation coefficient known as bicoherence. The resulting model is similar to [2], which was a treatment for ITG modes observed in the CLM and correctly predicts the observed saturation level of the ETG turbulence. The scenario is further supported by the fact that the observed mode frequencies are in close alignment with those predicted theoretical dispersion relations. Non-linear effects arise frequently in beam-plasma systems and can be important for both low temperature plasma devices commonly used for material processing as well as High Energy Density applications relevant to inertial fusion. The non-linear time averaged

  14. Extending a Lippmann style seismometer's dynamic range by using a non-linear feedback circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Spinelli, G.

    2013-10-01

    A Lippmann style seismometer (Lippmann and Gebrande, 1983) uses a single-coil velocity-feedback method in order to extend toward lower frequencies a geophone's frequency response. Strong seismic signals may saturate the electronics, sometimes clipping the signal or producing the characteristic whale-shaped recording. Adding a non linear feedback in the electronic circuit may avoid saturation, allowing the strong-motion use of the seismometer without affecting the usual performance. Such a seismometer will allow unsaturated data in epicentral area while offering nice low signal recording for far events.

  15. Synthesis of Non-linear Protein Dimers through a Genetically Encoded Thiol-ene Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Kolbus, Jessica; Chou, Chungjung; Liu, Jihe; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific incorporation of bioorthogonal unnatural amino acids into proteins provides a useful tool for the installation of specific functionalities that will allow for the labeling of proteins with virtually any probe. We demonstrate the genetic encoding of a set of alkene lysines using the orthogonal PylRS/PylTCUA pair in Escherichia coli. The installed double bond functionality was then applied in a photoinitiated thiol-ene reaction of the protein with a fluorescent thiol-bearing probe, as well as a cysteine residue of a second protein, showing the applicability of this approach in the formation of heterogeneous non-linear fused proteins. PMID:25181502

  16. A general purpose non-linear curve fitting program for the British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer.

    PubMed

    Beynon, R J

    1985-01-01

    Software for non-linear curve fitting has been written in BASIC to execute on the British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer. The program uses the direct search algorithm Pattern-search, a robust algorithm that has the additional advantage of needing specification of the function without inclusion of the partial derivatives. Although less efficient than gradient methods, the program can be readily configured to solve low-dimensional optimization problems that are normally encountered in life sciences. In writing the software, emphasis has been placed upon the 'user interface' and making the most efficient use of the facilities provided by the minimal configuration of this system.

  17. Higgs physics beyond the SM: The non-linear EFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, I.

    2016-07-01

    Depending on whether electroweak physics beyond the Standard Model is based on a linear or on a non-linear implementation of the electroweak symmetry breaking, a linear or a chiral Effective Lagrangian is more appropriate. In this talk, the main low-energy signals that allow to recognize whether the observed Higgs scalar is a dynamical (composite) particle or rather an elementary one are presented, in a model-independent way. The patterns of effective couplings produced upon the assumption of specific composite Higgs models are also discussed.=1

  18. Intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system based on the adaptive neurocontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Kobezhicov, V.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an adaptive neuro-controller for intelligent control of non-linear dynamical system. The formed as the fuzzy selective neural net the adaptive neuro-controller on the base of system's state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed adaptive neuro-controller are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed controller scheme achieves real-time control speed and the competitive performance, as compared to PID, fuzzy logic controllers.

  19. Lmfit: Non-Linear Least-Square Minimization and Curve-Fitting for Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newville, Matthew; Stensitzki, Till; Allen, Daniel B.; Rawlik, Michal; Ingargiola, Antonino; Nelson, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lmfit provides a high-level interface to non-linear optimization and curve fitting problems for Python. Lmfit builds on and extends many of the optimization algorithm of scipy.optimize, especially the Levenberg-Marquardt method from optimize.leastsq. Its enhancements to optimization and data fitting problems include using Parameter objects instead of plain floats as variables, the ability to easily change fitting algorithms, and improved estimation of confidence intervals and curve-fitting with the Model class. Lmfit includes many pre-built models for common lineshapes.

  20. The non-linear response of bubble clouds to pressure excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, D.; Bergamasco, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this article we numerically investigate the non-linear response of a bubble cloud against a periodic pressure excitation. By exciting a planar bubble curtain with an external acoustic pulse of given amplitude and frequency, we characterize the global dynamic response of the system using phase diagrams representing the void fraction against the excitation pressure. Even in the absence of mass transfer, the void fraction around which the system oscillates increases when increasing the excitation amplitude. We show how the maximum pressures reached during the collapse of bubbles are higher in polydisperse bubble clouds than in monodisperse clouds for strong pressure pulses.

  1. Simulating the effect of non-linear mode coupling in cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiessling, A.; Taylor, A. N.; Heavens, A. F.

    2011-09-01

    Fisher Information Matrix methods are commonly used in cosmology to estimate the accuracy that cosmological parameters can be measured with a given experiment and to optimize the design of experiments. However, the standard approach usually assumes both data and parameter estimates are Gaussian-distributed. Further, for survey forecasts and optimization it is usually assumed that the power-spectrum covariance matrix is diagonal in Fourier space. However, in the low-redshift Universe, non-linear mode coupling will tend to correlate small-scale power, moving information from lower to higher order moments of the field. This movement of information will change the predictions of cosmological parameter accuracy. In this paper we quantify this loss of information by comparing naïve Gaussian Fisher matrix forecasts with a maximum likelihood parameter estimation analysis of a suite of mock weak lensing catalogues derived from N-body simulations, based on the SUNGLASS pipeline, for a 2D and tomographic shear analysis of a Euclid-like survey. In both cases, we find that the 68 per cent confidence area of the Ωm-σ8 plane increases by a factor of 5. However, the marginal errors increase by just 20-40 per cent. We propose a new method to model the effects of non-linear shear-power mode coupling in the Fisher matrix by approximating the shear-power distribution as a multivariate Gaussian with a covariance matrix derived from the mock weak lensing survey. We find that this approximation can reproduce the 68 per cent confidence regions of the full maximum likelihood analysis in the Ωm-σ8 plane to high accuracy for both 2D and tomographic weak lensing surveys. Finally, we perform a multiparameter analysis of Ωm, σ8, h, ns, w0 and wa to compare the Gaussian and non-linear mode-coupled Fisher matrix contours. The 6D volume of the 1σ error contours for the non-linear Fisher analysis is a factor of 3 larger than for the Gaussian case, and the shape of the 68 per cent confidence

  2. Evaluation of frequency dependent non-linear optical property using long-range correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Yukina; Ishimaru, Hiroki; Kamiya, Muneaki; Sekino, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    We for the first time performed a systematic evaluation of dynamic second hyperpolarizabilities corresponding to all the third-order Nonlinear Optical (NLO) processes using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with exchange functional corrected for long-range interaction. We develop a program system which quantitatively evaluate the frequency dependent non-linear optical property of molecules, and apply to the polyene molecules of different lengths. The dispersion curves obtained for each NLO processes have divergence at the frequency corresponding to the one predicted by Sum Over State (SOS) interpretation of the property.

  3. Non-linear control of the ''clam'' wave energy device. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A promising wave energy device being currently investigated is the ''clam'' device. The clam extracts energy by pumping air through a specially designed (Wells) turbine. Although operation of the Wells turbine does not require a rectified air flow, some additional control will be necessary to optimize the phase of the clam motion for good efficiencies. An examination of the equation of motion in the time domain suggests the possibility of non-linear phase control by mechanical, power take-off, or pneumatic latching. Latching can be shown to increase the efficiency of the device in the longer wavelengths of the wave spectrum, i.e. those of high incident wave power.

  4. Static compressive strength prediction of open-hole structure based on non-linear shear behavior and micro-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wangnan; Cai, Hongneng; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of the strength of the constituents of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (CFRP), and a prediction of the static compressive strength of open-hole structure of polymer composites. The approach combined with non-linear analysis in macro-level and a linear elastic micromechanical failure analysis in microlevel (non-linear MMF) is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy. A face-centered cubic micromechanics model is constructed to analyze the stresses in fiber and matrix in microlevel. Non-interactive failure criteria are proposed to characterize the strength of fiber and matrix. The non-linear shear behavior of the laminate is studied experimentally, and a novel approach of cubic spline interpolation is used to capture significant non-linear shear behavior of laminate. The user-defined material subroutine UMAT for the non-linear share behavior is developed and combined in the mechanics analysis in the macro-level using the Abaqus Python codes. The failure mechanism and static strength of open-hole compressive (OHC) structure of polymer composites is studied based on non-linear MMF. The UTS50/E51 CFRP is used to demonstrate the application of theory of non-linear MMF.

  5. Extending the articulation index to account for non-linear distortions introduced by noise-suppression algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, Philipos C.; Ma, Jianfen

    2011-01-01

    The conventional articulation index (AI) measure cannot be applied in situations where non-linear operations are involved and additive noise is present. This is because the definitions of the target and masker signals become vague following non-linear processing, as both the target and masker signals are affected. The aim of the present work is to modify the basic form of the AI measure to account for non-linear processing. This was done using a new definition of the output or effective SNR obtained following non-linear processing. The proposed output SNR definition for a specific band was designed to handle cases where the non-linear processing affects predominantly the target signal rather than the masker signal. The proposed measure also takes into consideration the fact that the input SNR in a specific band cannot be improved following any form of non-linear processing. Overall, the proposed measure quantifies the proportion of input band SNR preserved or transmitted in each band after non-linear processing. High correlation (r = 0.9) was obtained with the proposed measure when evaluated with intelligibility scores obtained by normal-hearing listeners in 72 noisy conditions involving noise-suppressed speech corrupted in four different real-world maskers. PMID:21877811

  6. HIGH SPEED KERR CELL FRAMING CAMERA

    DOEpatents

    Goss, W.C.; Gilley, L.F.

    1964-01-01

    The present invention relates to a high speed camera utilizing a Kerr cell shutter and a novel optical delay system having no moving parts. The camera can selectively photograph at least 6 frames within 9 x 10/sup -8/ seconds during any such time interval of an occurring event. The invention utilizes particularly an optical system which views and transmits 6 images of an event to a multi-channeled optical delay relay system. The delay relay system has optical paths of successively increased length in whole multiples of the first channel optical path length, into which optical paths the 6 images are transmitted. The successively delayed images are accepted from the exit of the delay relay system by an optical image focusing means, which in turn directs the images into a Kerr cell shutter disposed to intercept the image paths. A camera is disposed to simultaneously view and record the 6 images during a single exposure of the Kerr cell shutter. (AEC)

  7. Kerr effect in multilayer dielectric coatings.

    PubMed

    Fedulova, Elena; Trubetskov, Michael; Amotchkina, Tatiana; Fritsch, Kilian; Baum, Peter; Pronin, Oleg; Pervak, Vladimir

    2016-09-19

    We report the utilization of the optical Kerr effect in multilayer dielectric coatings, previously discussed only theoretically. We present the design and realization of multilayer dielectric optical structures with layer-specific Kerr nonlinearities, which permit tailoring of the intensity-dependent effects. The modulation depth in reflectance reaches up to 6% for the demonstrated examples of dielectric nonlinear multilayer coatings. We show that the nonlinearity is based on the optical Kerr effect, with the recovery time faster than the laser pulse envelope of 1 ps. Due to high flexibility in design, the reported dielectric nonlinear multilayer coatings have the potential to open hitherto unprecedented possibilities in nonlinear optics and ultrafast laser applications. PMID:27661917

  8. Thermodynamic properties of a Kerr nonlinear blackbody.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ze

    2012-11-01

    Within the framework of quantum field theory, we present the superfluid state of photons in a blackbody whose interior is filled by a Kerr nonlinear crystal. The thermodynamic properties of a Kerr nonlinear blackbody are investigated. At the transition temperature, the Gibbs free energy of the two phases is continuous but the entropy density of the two phases is discontinuous. Hence, there is a jump in the entropy density and this leads to a latent heat density. The photon system undergoes a first-order phase transition from the normal to the superfluid state. The transition temperature is characteristic of a concrete crystal. The entropy density and specific heat capacity are monotonically increasing functions of the temperature but are monotonically decreasing functions of the Kerr nonlinear coefficient. PMID:23214733

  9. Effects of Kerr strong gravity on quasar x-ray microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, E.; Kantowski, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent quasar microlensing observations have constrained the sizes of X-ray emission regions to be within about 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. Therefore, the X-ray emission from lensed quasars is first strongly lensed by the black hole before it is lensed by the foreground galaxy and star fields. We present a scheme that combines the initial strong lensing of a Kerr black hole with standard linearized microlensing by intervening stars. We find that X-ray microlensed light curves incorporating Kerr strong gravity can differ significantly from standard curves. The amplitude of the fluctuations in the light curves can increase or decrease by ∼0.65-0.75 mag by including Kerr strong gravity. Larger inclination angles give larger amplitude fluctuations in the microlensing light curves. Consequently, current X-ray microlensing observations can under or overestimate the sizes of the X-ray emission regions. We estimate this bias using a simple metric based on the amplitude of magnitude fluctuations. The half-light radius of the X-ray emission region can be underestimated by up to ∼50% or overestimated by up to ∼20% depending on the spin of the black hole, the emission profile, and the inclination angle of the observer. Underestimates were found in most situations we investigated. The only exception was for a disk with large spin and a radially flat emission profile, observed nearly face-on. We thus conclude that more accurate microlensing size constraints should be obtainable by including Kerr lensing. We also find that the caustic crossing time can differ by months when Kerr strong gravity is included. A simultaneous monitoring of gravitational lensed quasars in both X-ray and optical bands with densely sampled X-ray light curves should reveal this feature. We conclude that it should be possible to constrain important parameters such as inclination angles and black hole spins from combined Kerr and microlensing effects.

  10. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2010-11-01

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a ~ 1.

  11. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Lombardo, S.; Mañas, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F.; Sommacal, M.

    2009-12-01

    may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue: Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena' Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue—Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. This special issue will be published in the paper and online version of the journal.

  12. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Lombardo, S.; Mañas, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F.; Sommacal, M.

    2009-11-01

    may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue: Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena' Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue—Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. This special issue will be published in the paper and online version of the journal.

  13. Phospholipid fatty acid biomarkers in a freshwater periphyton community exposed to uranium: discovery by non-linear statistical learning

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) have been widely used to characterize environmental microbial communities, generating community profiles that can distinguish phylogenetic or functional groups within the community. The poor specificity of organism groups with fatty acid biomarkers in the classic PLFA-microorganism associations is a confounding factor in many of the statistical classification/clustering approaches traditionally used to interpret PLFA profiles. In this paper we demonstrate that non-linear statistical learning methods, such as a support vector machine (SVM), can more accurately find patterns related to uranyl nitrate exposure in a freshwater periphyton community than linear methods, such as partial least squares discriminant analysis. In addition, probabilistic models of exposure can be derived from the identified lipid biomarkers to demonstrate the potential model-based approach that could be used in remediation. The SVM probability model separates dose groups at accuracies of ~87.0%, ~71.4%, ~87.5%, and 100% for the four groups; Control (non-amended system), low-dose (amended at 10 µg U L-1), medium dose (amended at 100 µg U L-1), and high dose (500 µg U L-1). The SVM model achieved an overall cross-validated classification accuracy of ~87% in contrast to ~59% for the best linear classifier.

  14. Magnetic levitation-based electromagnetic energy harvesting: a semi-analytical non-linear model for energy transduction

    PubMed Central

    Soares dos Santos, Marco P.; Ferreira, Jorge A. F.; Simões, José A. O.; Pascoal, Ricardo; Torrão, João; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic levitation has been used to implement low-cost and maintenance-free electromagnetic energy harvesting. The ability of levitation-based harvesting systems to operate autonomously for long periods of time makes them well-suited for self-powering a broad range of technologies. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is presented of a harvester configuration that utilizes the motion of a levitated hard-magnetic element to generate electrical power. A semi-analytical, non-linear model is introduced that enables accurate and efficient analysis of energy transduction. The model predicts the transient and steady-state response of the harvester a function of its motion (amplitude and frequency) and load impedance. Very good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment with energy errors lower than 14.15% (mean absolute percentage error of 6.02%) and cross-correlations higher than 86%. The model provides unique insight into fundamental mechanisms of energy transduction and enables the geometric optimization of harvesters prior to fabrication and the rational design of intelligent energy harvesters. PMID:26725842

  15. The Non-Linear Response of a Water Free Surface to a Pressure Distribution Moving at Constant Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.; Akylas, T. R.

    2011-11-01

    The non-linear response of a water free surface to a localized pressure distribution moving at constant speed just below the minimum phase speed (Cmin) of gravity-capillary waves is studied experimentally. The experiments are performed in a tank that is 6 m long and 0.25 m wide with water depths ranging from 15 to 40 mm. The pressure distribution is generated by blowing air on the water surface via a vertically oriented 2-mm-ID tube that is mounted on an instrument carriage. The bottom of the tank is made of clear plastic and covered with translucent paper. A checkerboard pattern is printed on the paper and this pattern is viewed from above the water surface with a high-speed digital movie camera. The images of the checkerboard pattern are distorted by refraction at the water free surface and yield qualitative observations and quantitative measurements of the temporal evolution of the wave pattern. At towing speeds close to but below Cmin, a gravity-capillary lump appears behind the pressure source. For higher speeds, but still below Cmin an unsteady wave pattern consisting of a wide V is generated. At the boundary between the two response states, the pattern is asymmetric in the cross-stream direction. Above this boundary, lumps are shed from the tips of the V and the frequency of shedding increases with towing speed.

  16. Magnetic levitation-based electromagnetic energy harvesting: a semi-analytical non-linear model for energy transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P.; Ferreira, Jorge A. F.; Simões, José A. O.; Pascoal, Ricardo; Torrão, João; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic levitation has been used to implement low-cost and maintenance-free electromagnetic energy harvesting. The ability of levitation-based harvesting systems to operate autonomously for long periods of time makes them well-suited for self-powering a broad range of technologies. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is presented of a harvester configuration that utilizes the motion of a levitated hard-magnetic element to generate electrical power. A semi-analytical, non-linear model is introduced that enables accurate and efficient analysis of energy transduction. The model predicts the transient and steady-state response of the harvester a function of its motion (amplitude and frequency) and load impedance. Very good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment with energy errors lower than 14.15% (mean absolute percentage error of 6.02%) and cross-correlations higher than 86%. The model provides unique insight into fundamental mechanisms of energy transduction and enables the geometric optimization of harvesters prior to fabrication and the rational design of intelligent energy harvesters.

  17. Performance analysis of an all-optical OFDM system in presence of non-linear phase noise.

    PubMed

    Hmood, Jassim K; Harun, Sulaiman W; Emami, Siamak D; Khodaei, Amin; Noordin, Kamarul A; Ahmad, Harith; Shalaby, Hossam M H

    2015-02-23

    The potential for higher spectral efficiency has increased the interest in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. However, the sensitivity of all-optical OFDM to fiber non-linearity, which causes nonlinear phase noise, is still a major concern. In this paper, an analytical model for estimating the phase noise due to self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an all-optical OFDM system is presented. The phase noise versus power, distance, and number of subcarriers is evaluated by implementing the mathematical model using Matlab. In order to verify the results, an all-optical OFDM system, that uses coupler-based inverse fast Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform without any nonlinear compensation, is demonstrated by numerical simulation. The system employs 29 subcarriers; each subcarrier is modulated by a 4-QAM or 16-QAM format with a symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s. The results indicate that the phase variance due to FWM is dominant over those induced by either SPM or XPM. It is also shown that the minimum phase noise occurs at -3 dBm and -1 dBm for 4-QAM and 16-QAM, respectively. Finally, the error vector magnitude (EVM) versus subcarrier power and symbol rate is quantified using both simulation and the analytical model. It turns out that both EVM results are in good agreement with each other.

  18. Magnetic levitation-based electromagnetic energy harvesting: a semi-analytical non-linear model for energy transduction.

    PubMed

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Simões, José A O; Pascoal, Ricardo; Torrão, João; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic levitation has been used to implement low-cost and maintenance-free electromagnetic energy harvesting. The ability of levitation-based harvesting systems to operate autonomously for long periods of time makes them well-suited for self-powering a broad range of technologies. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is presented of a harvester configuration that utilizes the motion of a levitated hard-magnetic element to generate electrical power. A semi-analytical, non-linear model is introduced that enables accurate and efficient analysis of energy transduction. The model predicts the transient and steady-state response of the harvester a function of its motion (amplitude and frequency) and load impedance. Very good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment with energy errors lower than 14.15% (mean absolute percentage error of 6.02%) and cross-correlations higher than 86%. The model provides unique insight into fundamental mechanisms of energy transduction and enables the geometric optimization of harvesters prior to fabrication and the rational design of intelligent energy harvesters. PMID:26725842

  19. Magnetic levitation-based electromagnetic energy harvesting: a semi-analytical non-linear model for energy transduction.

    PubMed

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Simões, José A O; Pascoal, Ricardo; Torrão, João; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P

    2016-01-04

    Magnetic levitation has been used to implement low-cost and maintenance-free electromagnetic energy harvesting. The ability of levitation-based harvesting systems to operate autonomously for long periods of time makes them well-suited for self-powering a broad range of technologies. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is presented of a harvester configuration that utilizes the motion of a levitated hard-magnetic element to generate electrical power. A semi-analytical, non-linear model is introduced that enables accurate and efficient analysis of energy transduction. The model predicts the transient and steady-state response of the harvester a function of its motion (amplitude and frequency) and load impedance. Very good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment with energy errors lower than 14.15% (mean absolute percentage error of 6.02%) and cross-correlations higher than 86%. The model provides unique insight into fundamental mechanisms of energy transduction and enables the geometric optimization of harvesters prior to fabrication and the rational design of intelligent energy harvesters.

  20. Kerr Schild metrics and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natorf, Włodzimierz

    2005-10-01

    We describe conditions assuring that the Kerr Schild type solutions of Einstein's equations with pure radiation fields are asymptotically flat at future null infinity. Such metrics cannot describe “true” gravitational radiation from bounded sources—it is shown that the Bondi news function vanishes identically. We obtain formulae for the total energy and angular momentum at ℐ. As an example we consider a non-stationary generalization of the Kerr metric given by Vaidya and Patel. Angular momentum and total energy are expressed in closed form as functions of retarded time.

  1. Non-Linear Oscillation in Ionic Current Due to Size Effect in Glass Nanopipette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Tomohide; Deng, Xiao Long; Son, Jong Wan; Kang, Eun Ji; Kawai, Tomoji; Park, Bae Ho

    2012-11-01

    We studied the size effect of the ionic current in glass pipette, and found an interesting 2.7 mHz oscillation at 50 nm. In this study, we would like to discuss the mechanism of the non-linear oscillation. Cation-rich layer with its Debye length λ exists in nanopipette, and its conductivity σd is lower than that in the central bulk layer σb in this study. The pressure difference ΔP = ΔcRT where Δc is the difference in concentrations between in and out of the pipette. Then, the ionic current I can be estimated by using Hagen-Poiseuille equation; I =π/8 η ΔcRT/l {σdr4 + (σb -σd) (λ - r) 2 (r2 + 2 rλ -λ2) } . (r : inner radius, l: pipette length, η: viscosity) The last term indicates the non-linear oscillation. Moreover, we roughly estimated λ = 2.08 ×(2r) 1 / 2. Then, the bulk layer appears appropriately when 2 r 50 nm, which causes the effective ionic current oscillation. This work was supported by KOSEF NRL Program grant funded by the Korea Government MEST (Grant No. 2010-0024525 and R0A-2008-000-20052-0), and WCU Program through the KOSEF funded by the MEST (Grant No. R31-2008-000-10057-0).

  2. A non-linear aeroelastic model for the study of flapping-wing flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larijani, Rambod Fayaz

    A non-linear aeroelastic model for the study of flapping-wing flight is presented. This model has been developed to simulate the fully stalled and attached aerodynamic behaviour of a flapping wing and can account for any forcing function. An implicit unconditionally-stable time-marching method known as the Newmark method is used to accurately model the non-linear stalled and attached flow regimes. An iteration procedure is performed at each time step to eliminate any errors associated with the temporal discretization process. A finite element formulation is used to model the elastic behaviour of the wing which is composed of a leading edge composite spar and light-weight rigid ribs covered with fabric. A viscous damping model is used to simulate the structural damping of the wing. The Newmark code generates instantaneous lift and thrust values as well as torsional and bending moments along the wing span. Average lift values are in good agreement with experimental results obtained from tests performed on a scaled down model of the ornithopter at the NRC wind tunnel in Ottawa. Furthermore, bending and twisting moments obtained from strain gages embedded in the full-scale ornithopter's wing spar show that the predicted instantaneous moments are also quite accurate. Also, comparisons with experimental data show that the Newmark code can accurately predict the twisting behaviour of the wing for zero forward speed as well as cruise conditions.

  3. Non-linear response in optical materials using ultra-short laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenasi, David

    2007-02-01

    Ultra-short lasers at elevated peek powers combined with fairly moderate single pulse energies are able to induce very interesting non-linear optical interaction channels, such as multi-photon absorption, self-phase modulation and self focusing. These non-linear optical effects can be utilized to obtain surprising material reactions inside the bulk of optical dielectrics. With a certain degree of physical understanding and engineering experience, the material reaction can be controlled and optimized to generate e.g. internal markings, wave guides, 3d data storages or diffractive optical elements. As an example, laser-induced coloring of several type of glasses have been obtained at ultra-short bulk excitation, showing a strong resemblance to surface defects observed in most glasses after ionizing (e.g. X- and gamma-ray) hard radiation treatment. These laser-induced "color-centers" can alter the optical properties in dispersion and extinction locally in a well-defined volume, which can be described as a local change in the complex refractory index (n+ik). The implementation of this new technology can be characterized as "nik-engineering". New experimental results on laser-induced sub-surface modifications utilizing near infrared femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses inside different types of transparent dielectrics are presented and discussed in respect to the potential of "nik-engineering".

  4. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Cancer Therapy--harnessing its non-linearity

    SciTech Connect

    Haar, Gail ter

    2008-06-24

    In medicine in general, and for cancer treatments in particular, there is a drive to find effective non-invasive therapies. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) represents one such technique. In principle, it is simple--a high energy ultrasound beam is brought to a tight focus within a target which may lie several centimetres below the skin surface (for example, in a tumour of the liver), and is used to destroy a selected tissue volume. The main mechanism for cell killing in a HIFU beam is heat. Ultrasound energy absorption is frequency dependent, the higher frequencies being absorbed most strongly. Significant thermal advantage may therefore be gained from non-linear propagation, which generates higher harmonics, in tissue. Acoustic cavitation and thermal exsolution of gas (boiling) also contribute to tissue damage. This activity leads to the local mechanical disruption of cells. In addition, the non-linear oscillation of these bubbles leads to enhanced energy deposition. The acoustic emissions from such bubbles are characteristic of their behaviour and may be correlated to some extent with the appearance of the disruption produced. The more widespread clinical acceptance of HIFU is awaiting faster, and more efficient, energy delivery and treatment monitoring. A better understanding of the nonlinear aspects of HIFU propagation in tissue is thus important if this technique is to benefit more patients.

  5. Non-linear dielectric signatures of entropy changes in liquids subject to time dependent electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Ranko

    2016-03-01

    A model of non-linear dielectric polarization is studied in which the field induced entropy change is the source of polarization dependent retardation time constants. Numerical solutions for the susceptibilities of the system are obtained for parameters that represent the dynamic and thermodynamic behavior of glycerol. The calculations for high amplitude sinusoidal fields show a significant enhancement of the steady state loss for frequencies below that of the low field loss peak. Also at relatively low frequencies, the third harmonic susceptibility spectrum shows a "hump," i.e., a maximum, with an amplitude that increases with decreasing temperature. Both of these non-linear effects are consistent with experimental evidence. While such features have been used to conclude on a temperature dependent number of dynamically correlated particles, Ncorr, the present result demonstrates that the third harmonic susceptibility display a peak with an amplitude that tracks the variation of the activation energy in a model that does not involve dynamical correlations or spatial scales.

  6. Monitoring Technical Conditions of Engineering Structures Using the Non-Linear Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, V. E.

    2015-11-01

    Conventional methods of monitoring technical condition are based on detection of damage in the structures of buildings or facilities during the entire period of their operation. In spite of considerable interest displayed to this issue and a significant number of publications, there is no unity of opinions. These methods differ from each other in the sets of values fixed for investigations, the techniques of their recording, transfer and further processing. Today's rules and regulations for structural designs expand the scope of application of the structures operating in the elastic-plastic stage. These damage-free structures originally display the nonlinear properties and can be adequately described only by the non-linear models. This paper presents a method for determining the type and level of non-linearity from the structural oscillations data for monitoring the change in the health of structures. It is shown that a plot of acceleration against the magnitude of the displacement represents the restoring force of a structure. If the structure is damaged during a new striking motion, the phase trajectories in plane “acceleration-displacement” will deviate from its healthy signature.

  7. Non-linear modelling and control of semi-active suspensions with variable damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huang; Long, Chen; Yuan, Chao-Chun; Jiang, Hao-Bin

    2013-10-01

    Electro-hydraulic dampers can provide variable damping force that is modulated by varying the command current; furthermore, they offer advantages such as lower power, rapid response, lower cost, and simple hardware. However, accurate characterisation of non-linear f-v properties in pre-yield and force saturation in post-yield is still required. Meanwhile, traditional linear or quarter vehicle models contain various non-linearities. The development of a multi-body dynamics model is very complex, and therefore, SIMPACK was used with suitable improvements for model development and numerical simulations. A semi-active suspension was built based on a belief-desire-intention (BDI)-agent model framework. Vehicle handling dynamics were analysed, and a co-simulation analysis was conducted in SIMPACK and MATLAB to evaluate the BDI-agent controller. The design effectively improved ride comfort, handling stability, and driving safety. A rapid control prototype was built based on dSPACE to conduct a real vehicle test. The test and simulation results were consistent, which verified the simulation.

  8. Non-linear Collective Oscillations of Electrons in a Diamagnetic Kepler Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godino, Joseph; Kunhardt, Erich; Carr, Wayne

    2001-10-01

    The Diamagnetic Kepler Trap is a potential energy well that arises from a static Coulomb potential in a superimposed uniform magnetic field. In an experimental arrangement with this configuration, we generate a system of electrons and ions by ionization of the neutral background gas that has a typical density of 10^12 particles per cubic centimeter. The lifetime of the trapped electrons is sufficiently long that we can observe collective oscillations. Here, we examine these oscillations by coupling a probe to the plasma and measuring the induced current. We find that as we deepen the potential energy well these oscillations progress through a sequence of linear, non-linear and chaotic behavior. Using the photographs of the light emission from the excited neutrals, we observe that the non-linearity of the collective oscillations results from an increase in the trapped electron density that moves in a direction parallel to the magnetic field lines. From the FFT of the induced current, we find that the transition from linearity to chaos occurs through intermittent fluctuations in the measured signal that are manifest in the broadening of the spectrum. Since the applied sphere voltage never collapses, the electrons remain trapped in the potential energy well and we conclude that the chaos results from a breakdown of the collective behavior into that of many individual singly trapped electrons.

  9. Inference of dense spectral reflectance images from sparse reflectance measurement using non-linear regression modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2015-09-01

    One method to acquire multispectral images is to sequentially capture a series of images where each image contains information from a different bandwidth of light. Another method is to use a series of beamsplitters and dichroic filters to guide different bandwidths of light onto different cameras. However, these methods are very time consuming and expensive and perform poorly in dynamic scenes or when observing transient phenomena. An alternative strategy to capturing multispectral data is to infer this data using sparse spectral reflectance measurements captured using an imaging device with overlapping bandpass filters, such as a consumer digital camera using a Bayer filter pattern. Currently the only method of inferring dense reflectance spectra is the Wiener adaptive filter, which makes Gaussian assumptions about the data. However, these assumptions may not always hold true for all data. We propose a new technique to infer dense reflectance spectra from sparse spectral measurements through the use of a non-linear regression model. The non-linear regression model used in this technique is the random forest model, which is an ensemble of decision trees and trained via the spectral characterization of the optical imaging system and spectral data pair generation. This model is then evaluated by spectrally characterizing different patches on the Macbeth color chart, as well as by reconstructing inferred multispectral images. Results show that the proposed technique can produce inferred dense reflectance spectra that correlate well with the true dense reflectance spectra, which illustrates the merits of the technique.

  10. Non-linear boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani Reffet

    1995-01-01

    The process by which a laminar boundary layer internalizes the external disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as boundary-layer receptivity. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of acoustic excitation on boundary-layer receptivity for a flat plate with distributed variable-amplitude surface roughness through measurements with a hot-wire probe. Tollmien-Schlichting mode shapes due to surface roughness receptivity have also been determined, analyzed, and shown to be in agreement with theory and other experimental work. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the surface roughness and receptivity for certain roughness configurations with constant roughness wavelength. In addition, strong non-linear receptivity effects exist for certain surface roughness configurations over a band where the surface roughness and T-S wavelength are matched. The results from the present experiment follow the trends predicted by theory and other experimental work for linear receptivity. In addition, the results show the existence of non-linear receptivity effects for certain combinations of surface roughness elements.

  11. Prediction of formability for non-linear deformation history using generalized forming limit concept (GFLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Wolfram; Suh, Joungsik

    2013-12-01

    The prediction of formability is one of the most important tasks in sheet metal process simulation. The common criterion in industrial applications is the Forming Limit Curve (FLC). The big advantage of FLCs is the easy interpretation of simulation or measurement data in combination with an ISO standard for the experimental determination. However, the conventional FLCs are limited to almost linear and unbroken strain paths, i.e. deformation histories with non-linear strain increments often lead to big differences in comparison to the prediction of the FLC. In this paper a phenomenological approach, the so-called Generalized Forming Limit Concept (GFLC), is introduced to predict the localized necking on arbitrary deformation history with unlimited number of non-linear strain increments. The GFLC consists of the conventional FLC and an acceptable number of experiments with bi-linear deformation history. With the idea of the new defined "Principle of Equivalent Pre-Forming" every deformation state built up of two linear strain increments can be transformed to a pure linear strain path with the same used formability of the material. In advance this procedure can be repeated as often as necessary. Therefore, it allows a robust and cost effective analysis of beginning instability in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for arbitrary deformation histories. In addition, the GFLC is fully downwards compatible to the established FLC for pure linear strain paths.

  12. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  13. Numerically Generated Tangent Stiffness Matrices for Geometrically Non-Linear Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Sonia

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a general numerical solution method for geometrically non-linear structures. Most common work involves tedious derivations of analytic tangent stiffness matrices. The major objective of the current work is to develop a numerically generated tangent stiffness matrix that allows for a general and easily implementable solution method. The thesis begins with the definition of the tangent stiffness matrix and a discussion of the Newton-Raphson incremental-iterative method typically used to solve geometrically non-linear problems. This is followed by a detailed description of how the tangent stiffness matrix is numerically generated using complex variable differentiation to approximate sensitivities. The thesis proceeds with details of the solution method applied to three different structural elements: 3D truss, membrane, and 3D beam. These discussions include numeric examples for each type of structure, the results of which are compared with the literature and ANSYS solutions. The results from the present work show that solutions obtained using the general numerically generated tangent stiffness matrix are accurate. While computational effort is increased, the method is especially attractive in the context of research involving small finite element models.

  14. Non linear Quasi-Geostrophic thermal convection and dynamo in a rapidly rotating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardin, P.; Guervilly, C.

    2009-12-01

    Using a combination of a quasi-geostrophic (QG) model for the velocity field and a classical spectral 3D code for the temperature field, we compute thermal convective motions in a rapidly rotating full sphere. The QG flow is computed in the equatorial plane, whereas the temperature field is calculated within the full sphere. The coupling terms are evaluated by interpolating onto the 2D (equatorial) and 3D coarse grids. Our hybrid approach allows us to compute simulations at low Ekman numbers, low Prandtl numbers and explore the strongly non-linear regime currently inaccessible with purely 3D codes. We pay particular attention to the zonal winds generated by non-linear interactions between the convection columns. Understanding these zonal winds is especially relevant for the study of atmospheric layers of planets such as Jupiter and Saturn [1] and dynamo generation in convective dynamos. Moreover the 2D/3D approach has already been used successfully to obtain dynamos driven by a QG flow with a mechanical boundary forcing [2]. Following these ideas, we solve the magnetic induction equation in 3D to obtain dynamos for low Ekman, Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers. [1] Heimpel, M.H., Aurnou, J.M., Wicht, J., 2005. Simulation of equatorial and high-latitude jets on Jupiter in a deep convection model. Nature 438, 193-196. [2] Schaeffer, N. and Cardin, P., 2006. Quasi-geostrophic kinematic dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl number. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 245, 595-604.

  15. Addressing the unemployment-mortality conundrum: non-linearity is the answer.

    PubMed

    Bonamore, Giorgio; Carmignani, Fabrizio; Colombo, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    The effect of unemployment on mortality is the object of a lively literature. However, this literature is characterized by sharply conflicting results. We revisit this issue and suggest that the relationship might be non-linear. We use data for 265 territorial units (regions) within 23 European countries over the period 2000-2012 to estimate a multivariate regression of mortality. The estimating equation allows for a quadratic relationship between unemployment and mortality. We control for various other determinants of mortality at regional and national level and we include region-specific and time-specific fixed effects. The model is also extended to account for the dynamic adjustment of mortality and possible lagged effects of unemployment. We find that the relationship between mortality and unemployment is U shaped. In the benchmark regression, when the unemployment rate is low, at 3%, an increase by one percentage point decreases average mortality by 0.7%. As unemployment increases, the effect decays: when the unemployment rate is 8% (sample average) a further increase by one percentage point decreases average mortality by 0.4%. The effect changes sign, turning from negative to positive, when unemployment is around 17%. When the unemployment rate is 25%, a further increase by one percentage point raises average mortality by 0.4%. Results hold for different causes of death and across different specifications of the estimating equation. We argue that the non-linearity arises because the level of unemployment affects the psychological and behavioural response of individuals to worsening economic conditions.

  16. Non-linear dynamical analysis of crack surface perturbations and their dependence on velocity and direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Dov; Be'ery, Ilan

    2004-04-01

    The fracture surfaces of single crystal [1 0 0] silicon specimens, fractured under three-point bending (3PB) and subjected to a high strain energy upon cracking, revealed exceptional surface perturbations, generated during the unstable propagation. While macroscopically the crack is propagating on the (1 1 1) low energy cleavage plane, microscopic examination revealed small angled deviations from and fluctuations along that plane. Furthermore, while the crack is propagating at a velocity of nearly 3000 m/s in the [1 1¯ 0] direction, its velocity in the [1 1 2¯] direction is two orders of magnitude lower, with distinctive surface perturbations. The amplitude and complexity of the perturbations increase as the normal velocity vector changes its direction and magnitude. These perturbations were recorded with a profilometer and analyzed using non-linear dynamical analysis tools. This study provides an opportunity to interpret surface phenomena of one of the most general cases of fracture and to study the effect of major variables on the nature of the perturbations involved, such as the local crack tip velocity and the crystallographic orientations. It is shown that the surface perturbations are chaotic deterministic in nature and can be described by high order non-linear differential equations; the order of the equation varying with the variations of the local velocity and direction.

  17. Non-linearities in hydrological connectivity and microbiological flux in nested catchments - implications of environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Capell, R.; Speed, M.

    2009-12-01

    The non-linearities of catchment hydrological behaviour are strongly influenced by the connectivity of hillslopes and channel networks, particularly where overland flow is an important runoff mechanism. Such surface connectivity also controls the flux of microbiological pollutants (coliform bacteria) from areas of live stock grazing which can have serious health implications for potable water supplies. We report a nested catchment study where hydrological and tracer monitoring over a two year period has been coupled with regular sampling for faecal indicator organisms (FIOs). The study has been based in catchments with mixed landuse where FIOs are derived from livestock (sheep and cows) in agricultural land and wild animals (red deer) on moorlands. At all scales (3-1800km2), high levels of FIO were transient and episodic and strongly correlated with periods of high hydrological connectivity. We show how this non-linearity in connectivity can be captured within a dynamic hydrological model. The model was used, along with climate change predictions, to assess possible scenarios of change in connectivity and microbiological contamination in catchments with different land use.

  18. Non-linear bias of cosmological halo formation in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyungjin; Iliev, Ilian T.; Shapiro, Paul R.; Srisawat, Chaichalit

    2015-06-01

    We present estimates of the non-linear bias of cosmological halo formation, spanning a wide range in the halo mass from ˜105 to ˜1012 M⊙, based upon both a suite of high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations and theoretical predictions. The halo bias is expressed in terms of the mean bias and stochasticity as a function of local overdensity (δ), under different filtering scales, which is realized as the density of individual cells in uniform grids. The sampled overdensities span a range wide enough to provide the fully non-linear bias effect on the formation of haloes. A strong correlation between δ and halo population overdensity δh is found, along with sizable stochasticity. We find that the empirical mean halo bias matches, with good accuracy, the prediction by the peak-background split method based on the excursion set formalism, as long as the empirical, globally averaged halo mass function is used. Consequently, this bias formalism is insensitive to uncertainties caused by varying halo-identification schemes, and can be applied generically. We also find that the probability distribution function of biased halo numbers has wider distribution than the pure Poisson shot noise, which is attributed to the sub-cell-scale halo correlation. We explicitly calculate this correlation function and show that both overdense and underdense regions have positive correlation, leading to stochasticity larger than the Poisson shot noise in the range of haloes and halo-collapse epochs we study.

  19. Efficient calculation of cosmological neutrino clustering in the non-linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen

    2016-06-01

    We study in detail how neutrino perturbations can be followed in linear theory by using only terms up to l=2 in the Boltzmann hierarchy. We provide a new approximation to the third moment and demonstrate that the neutrino power spectrum can be calculated to a precision of better than ~ 5% for masses up to ~ 1 eV and k lesssim 10 h/Mpc. The matter power spectrum can be calculated far more precisely and typically at least a factor of a few better than with existing approximations. We then proceed to study how the neutrino power spectrum can be reliably calculated even in the non-linear regime by using the non-linear gravitational potential, sourced by dark matter overdensities, as it is derived from semi-analytic methods based on N-body simulations in the Boltzmann evolution hierarchy. Our results agree extremely well with results derived from N-body simulations that include cold dark matter and neutrinos as independent particles with different properties.

  20. The non-linear evolution of the tearing mode in electromagnetic turbulence using gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, W. A.; Migliano, P.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S.; Weikl, A.; Zarzoso, D.; Casson, F. J.; Poli, E.; Peeters, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear evolution of a magnetic island is studied using the Vlasov gyro-kinetic code GKW. The interaction of electromagnetic turbulence with a self-consistently growing magnetic island, generated by a tearing unstable {{Δ }\\prime}>0 current profile, is considered. The turbulence is able to seed the magnetic island and bypass the linear growth phase by generating structures that are approximately an ion gyro-radius in width. The non-linear evolution of the island width and its rotation frequency, after this seeding phase, is found to be modified and is dependent on the value of the plasma beta and equilibrium pressure gradients. At low values of beta the island evolves largely independent of the turbulence, while at higher values the interaction has a dramatic effect on island growth, causing the island to grow exponentially at the growth rate of its linear phase, even though the island is larger than linear theory validity. The turbulence forces the island to rotate in the ion-diamagnetic direction as opposed to the electron diamagnetic direction in which it rotates when no turbulence is present. In addition, it is found that the mode rotation slows as the island grows in size.

  1. Distress Propagation in Complex Networks: The Case of Non-Linear DebtRank

    PubMed Central

    Bardoscia, Marco; Caccioli, Fabio; Perotti, Juan Ignacio; Vivaldo, Gianna; Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    We consider a dynamical model of distress propagation on complex networks, which we apply to the study of financial contagion in networks of banks connected to each other by direct exposures. The model that we consider is an extension of the DebtRank algorithm, recently introduced in the literature. The mechanics of distress propagation is very simple: When a bank suffers a loss, distress propagates to its creditors, who in turn suffer losses, and so on. The original DebtRank assumes that losses are propagated linearly between connected banks. Here we relax this assumption and introduce a one-parameter family of non-linear propagation functions. As a case study, we apply this algorithm to a data-set of 183 European banks, and we study how the stability of the system depends on the non-linearity parameter under different stress-test scenarios. We find that the system is characterized by a transition between a regime where small shocks can be amplified and a regime where shocks do not propagate, and that the overall stability of the system increases between 2008 and 2013. PMID:27701457

  2. Non-linear Dynamics Of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, M; Crocker, N A; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; Heidbrink, W W; Kubota, S; LeBlanc, B P

    2011-04-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]) routinely operates with neutral beam injection as the primary system for heating and current drive. The resulting fast ion population is super-Alfv enic, with velocities 1 < vfast=vAlfven < 5. This provides a strong drive for toroidicity-induced Alfv en eigenmodes (TAEs). As the discharge evolves, the fast ion population builds up and TAEs exhibit increasing bursts in amplitude and down-chirps in frequency, which eventually lead to a so-called TAE avalanche. Avalanches cause large (≤ 30%) fast ion losses over ~ 1 ms, as inferred from the neutron rate. The increased fast ion losses correlate with a stronger activity in the TAE band. In addition, it is shown that a n = 1 mode with frequency well below the TAE gap appears in the Fourier spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as a result of non-linear mode coupling between TAEs during avalanche events. The non-linear coupling between modes, which leads to enhanced fast ion transport during avalanches, is investigated.

  3. Cerebral autoregulation of preterm neonates--a non-linear control system?

    PubMed Central

    Zernikow, B; Michel, E; Kohlmann, G; Steck, J; Schmitt, R M; Jorch, G

    1994-01-01

    The low frequency cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) oscillations in neonates are commonly attributed to an under-dampened immature linear type cerebral autoregulation, and the 'instability' is regarded as causative for peri-intraventricular haemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia. In contrast, oscillations susceptible to frequency entrainment are a fundamental part of the stable function of non-linear control systems. To classify the autoregulation an observational study was done on the relationship between CBFV oscillations, heart rate variability, and artificial ventilation. In 10 preterm neonates (gestational age 26 to 35 weeks) we serially Doppler traced arterial CBFV continuously for 12 minutes between days 1 and 49 of life. The individual time series of CBFV and heart rate were subjected to spectral analysis. Forty six of 47 tracings showed significant low frequency CBFV oscillations. Low frequency heart rate oscillations were not a prerequisite thereof. All patients with < 30% of total power in the low frequency band of CBFV oscillations were on the ventilator. Three of them demonstrated a shift of spectral power from low frequency to a frequency equal or harmonic to the ventilator rate indicating entrainment. The findings of CBFV oscillations combined with entrainment classify the autoregulation as a non-linear system. It is suggested that entrainment by periodic high amplitude stimuli might challenge the regulatory capacity to its limits thus increasing the risk for cerebral damage. PMID:8198408

  4. On the formation of shocks of electromagnetic plane waves in non-linear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Demetrios; Perez, Daniel Raoul

    2016-08-01

    An influential result of F. John states that no genuinely non-linear strictly hyperbolic quasi-linear first order system of partial differential equations in two variables has a global C2-solution for small enough initial data. Inspired by recent work of D. Christodoulou, we revisit John's original proof and extract a more precise description of the behaviour of solutions at the time of shock. We show that John's singular first order quantity, when expressed in characteristic coordinates, remains bounded until the final time, which is then characterised by an inverse density of characteristics tending to zero in one point. Moreover, we study the derivatives of second order, showing again their boundedness when expressed in appropriate coordinates. We also recover John's upper bound for the time of shock formation and complement it with a lower bound. Finally, we apply these results to electromagnetic plane waves in a crystal with no magnetic properties and cubic electric non-linearity in the energy density, assuming no dispersion.

  5. Non-linear dynamics of viscoelastic liquid trilayers subjected to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetsas, George; Bontozoglou, Vasilis

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this work is to investigate the non-linear dynamics of the electro-hydrodynamic instability of a trilayer of immiscible liquids. We consider the case of a polymer film which is separated from the top electrode by two viscous fluids. We develop a computational model and carry out 2D numerical simulations fully accounting for the flow and electric field in all phases. For the numerical solution of the governing equations we employ the mixed finite element method combined with a quasi-elliptic mesh generation scheme which is capable of following the large deformations of the liquid-liquid interface. We model the viscoelastic behavior using the Phan-Thien and Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation taking fully into account the non-linear elastic effects as well as a varying shear and extensional viscosity. We perform a thorough parametric study and investigate the influence of the electric properties of fluids, applied voltage and various rheological parameters. The authors acknowledge the support by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of Greece under the action ``Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers'' (Grant Number PE8/906), co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources.

  6. NIMROD studies of RWM stability and non-linear evolution for NSTX equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, A. L.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.; Kruger, S. E.; King, J. R.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    We make use of the generalized thin resistive wall boundary condition recently implemented in NIMROD to study the linear and nonlinear RWM stability properties of a series of reconstructed NSTX equilibria. The boundary condition operates by matching the magnetic field inside the computational domain with external fields found using the Green's function method in the GRIN vacuum-field solver at the wall, and is valid for toroidal geometries with poloidal asymmetry as well as for cylindrical geometries. Time series of NSTX equilibrium reconstructions from two shots whose normalized betas span the no-wall limit are studied. The critical beta for RWM onset found by NIMROD is compared with the stability limit predicted by ideal MHD code DCON. Scans with varying wall parameters are also performed to demonstrate the approximately linear relationship between growth rate and wall resistivity, and to test the performance limits of the boundary condition. The stability of these equilibria for n>1 is also examined, with both linear and non-linear runs in preparation for examining the non-linear effects due to toroidal rotation. Research supported by U. S. DoE under grant no. DE-FG02-86ER53218.

  7. Characterization of atherosclerotic arterial tissue using multimodal non-linear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Matthäus, Christian; Meyer, Tobias; Lattermann, Annika; Dietzek, Benjamin; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2013-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the most widespread cardiovascular diseases and one of the leading cause of death in the Western World. Characterization of arterial tissue in atherosclerotic condition is extremely interesting from the diagnostic point of view. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires a morpho-functional approach. Non-linear microscopy techniques have the potential to bridge this gap by providing morpho-functional information in a label-free way. Here we employed multiple non-linear microscopy techniques, including CARS, TPF, and SHG to provide intrinsic optical contrast from various tissue components in both arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques. CARS and TPF microscopy were used to respectively image lipid depositions within plaques and elastin in the arterial wall. Cholesterol deposition in the lumen and collagen in the arterial wall were selectively imaged by SHG microscopy and distinguished by forward-backward SHG ratio. Image pattern analysis allowed characterizing collagen organization in different tissue regions. The presented method has the potential to find a stable place in clinical setting as well as to be applied in vivo in the near future.

  8. Non-linear dense core formation in the dark cloud L1517

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heigl, S.; Burkert, A.; Hacar, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present a solution for the observed core fragmentation of filaments in the Taurus L1517 dark cloud which previously could not be explained (Hacar & Tafalla 2011). Core fragmentation is a vital step for the formation of stars. Observations suggest a connection to the filamentary structure of the cloud gas, but it remains unclear which process is responsible. We show that the gravitational instability process of an infinite, isothermal cylinder can account for the exhibited fragmentation under the assumption that the perturbation grows on the dominant wavelength. We use numerical simulations with the code RAMSES, estimate observed column densities and line-of-sight velocities, and compare them to the observations. A critical factor for the observed fragmentation is that cores grow by redistributing mass within the filament and thus the density between the cores decreases over the fragmentation process. This often leads to wrong dominant wavelength estimates, as it is strongly dependent on the initial central density. We argue that non-linear effects also play an important role on the evolution of the fragmentation. Once the density perturbation grows above the critical line-mass, non-linearity leads to an enhancement of the central core density in comparison to the analytical prediction. Choosing the correct initial conditions with perturbation strengths of around 20%, leads to inclination corrected line-of-sight velocities and central core densities within the observational measurement error in a realistic evolution time.

  9. Non-linear time variant model intended for polypyrrole-based actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajollahi, Meisam; Madden, John D. W.; Sassani, Farrokh

    2014-03-01

    Polypyrrole-based actuators are of interest due to their biocompatibility, low operation voltage and relatively high strain and force. Modeling and simulation are very important to predict the behaviour of each actuator. To develop an accurate model, we need to know the electro-chemo-mechanical specifications of the Polypyrrole. In this paper, the non-linear time-variant model of Polypyrrole film is derived and proposed using a combination of an RC transmission line model and a state space representation. The model incorporates the potential dependent ionic conductivity. A function of ionic conductivity of Polypyrrole vs. local charge is proposed and implemented in the non-linear model. Matching of the measured and simulated electrical response suggests that ionic conductivity of Polypyrrole decreases significantly at negative potential vs. silver/silver chloride and leads to reduced current in the cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The next stage is to relate the distributed charging of the polymer to actuation via the strain to charge ratio. Further work is also needed to identify ionic and electronic conductivities as well as capacitance as a function of oxidation state so that a fully predictive model can be created.

  10. Multimodal non-linear optical imaging for the investigation of drug nano-/microcrystal-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Darville, Nicolas; Saarinen, Jukka; Isomäki, Antti; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Cleeren, Dirk; Sterkens, Patrick; van Heerden, Marjolein; Annaert, Pieter; Peltonen, Leena; Santos, Hélder A; Strachan, Clare J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Drug nano-/microcrystals are being used for sustained parenteral drug release, but safety and efficacy concerns persist as the knowledge of the in vivo fate of long-living particulates is limited. There is a need for techniques enabling the visualization of drug nano-/microcrystals in biological matrices. The aim of this work was to explore the potential of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, supported by other non-linear optical methods, as an emerging tool for the investigation of cellular and tissue interactions of unlabeled and non-fluorescent nano-/microcrystals. Raman and CARS spectra of the prodrug paliperidone palmitate (PP), paliperidone (PAL) and several suspension stabilizers were recorded. PP nano-/microcrystals were incubated with RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and their cellular disposition was investigated using a fully-integrated multimodal non-linear optical imaging platform. Suitable anti-Stokes shifts (CH stretching) were identified for selective CARS imaging. CARS microscopy was successfully applied for the selective three-dimensional, non-perturbative and real-time imaging of unlabeled PP nano-/microcrystals having dimensions larger than the optical lateral resolution of approximately 400nm, in relation to the cellular framework in cell cultures and ex vivo in histological sections. In conclusion, CARS microscopy enables the non-invasive and label-free imaging of (sub)micron-sized (pro-)drug crystals in complex biological matrices and could provide vital information on poorly understood nano-/microcrystal-cell interactions in future.

  11. [Cells in the system of multicelular organisms from positions of non-linear dynamics].

    PubMed

    Kotolupov, V A; Isaeva, V V

    2012-01-01

    The organism physiological systems forming a hierarchic network with mutual dependence and subordination can be considered as systems with non-linear dynamics including positive and negative feedbacks. In the course of evolution there occurred selection of robust, flexible, modular systems capable for adaptive self-organization by non-linear interaction of components, which leads to formation of the ordered in space and time robust and plastic organization of the whole. Cells of multicellular organisms are capable for coordinated "social" behavior with formation of ordered cell assemblies, which provides a possibility of morphological and functional variability correlating with manifestations of the large spectrum of adaptive reactions. The multicellular organism is the multilevel system with hierarchy of numerous subsystems capable for adaptive self-organization; disturbance of their homeostasis can lead to pathological changes. The healthy organism regulates homeostasis, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of cells serving its parts and construction blocks by preserving its integrity and controlling behavior of cells. The systemic approach taking into account biological regularities of the appearance and development of functions in evolution of multicellular organisms opens new possibilities for diagnostics and treatment of many diseases.

  12. HPLC monitoring of spontaneous non-linear peptidization dynamics of selected amino acids in solution.

    PubMed

    Godziek, Agnieszka; Maciejowska, Anna; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Kowalska, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    This is our new study in a series of publications devoted to exploration of applicability of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to providing answers to difficult questions from the area of the reaction kinetics and mechanisms with non-linear reactions. Although an excellent analytical performance of HPLC is an indisputable fact, so far its performance as a tool in the kinetic and mechanistic studies has been tested to a lesser extent. In our earlier studies, spontaneous peptidization dynamics of amino acids in solution was demonstrated by means of HPLC upon a few amino acid examples, and on that basis a theoretical model has been developed, anticipating an interdependence of dynamics on chemical structures of amino acids involved. In order to expand the spectrum of experimentally investigated amino acid cases, in this study we present the results valid for three novel amino acids of significant life sciences importance, which differ in terms of peptidization dynamics. Experimental evidence originates from the achiral HPLC with the evaporative light scattering detection and MS detection. A conclusion is drawn that different spontaneous peptidization dynamics of amino acids may significantly influence chemical composition of proteins encountered in living organisms. Hence, a need emerges for systematic physicochemical studies on spontaneous non-linear peptidization dynamics of proteinogenic amino acids in liquid abiotic (but also in the biotic) systems.

  13. Nanodiscs allow phage display selection for ligands to non-linear epitopes on membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, Marina; Hänel, Karen; Möckel, Luis; Willbold, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we exploited a method that uses polytopic membrane proteins as targets for phage display selections. Membrane proteins represent the largest class of drug targets and drug discovery is mostly based on the identification of ligands binding to target molecules. The screening of a phage display library for ligands against membrane proteins is typically hindered by the requirement of these proteins for a membrane environment, which is necessary to retain correct folding and epitope formation. Especially in proteins with multiple transmembrane domains, epitopes often are non-linear and consist of a combination of loops between transmembrane stretches of the proteins. Here, we have used bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as a model of polytopic membrane protein, assembled into nanoscale phospholipid bilayers, so called nanodiscs, to screen a phage display library for potential ligands. Nanodiscs provide a native-like environment to membrane proteins and thus selection of ligands can take place in a near physiological state. Screening a 12-mer phage display peptide library against bR nanodiscs led to the isolation of phage clones binding specifically to bR. We were further able to identify the binding site of selected phage clones proving that the clones bind to extramembranous, non-linear epitopes of bR. Thus, nanodiscs provide a suitable and general tool that allows screening of a phage display library against membrane proteins in a near native environment.

  14. Sub-diffraction imaging on standard microscopes through photobleaching microscopy with non-linear processing.

    PubMed

    Munck, Sebastian; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Sannerud, Ragna; Menchon, Silvia A; Jose, Liya; Heintzmann, Rainer; Verstreken, Patrik; Annaert, Wim

    2012-05-01

    Visualization of organelles and molecules at nanometer resolution is revolutionizing the biological sciences. However, such technology is still limited for many cell biologists. We present here a novel approach using photobleaching microscopy with non-linear processing (PiMP) for sub-diffraction imaging. Bleaching of fluorophores both within the single-molecule regime and beyond allows visualization of stochastic representations of sub-populations of fluorophores by imaging the same region over time. Our method is based on enhancing the probable positions of the fluorophores underlying the images. The random nature of the bleached fluorophores is assessed by calculating the deviation of the local actual bleached fluorescence intensity to the average bleach expectation as given by the overall decay of intensity. Subtracting measured from estimated decay images yields differential images. Non-linear enhancement of maxima in these diffraction-limited differential images approximates the positions of the underlying structure. Summing many such processed differential images yields a super-resolution PiMP image. PiMP allows multi-color, three-dimensional sub-diffraction imaging of cells and tissues using common fluorophores and can be implemented on standard wide-field or confocal systems.

  15. Visualizing the spatial gene expression organization in the brain through non-linear similarity embeddings.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Ahmed; van de Giessen, Martijn; van der Maaten, Laurens; Huisman, Sjoerd; Reinders, Marcel; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2015-02-01

    The Allen Brain Atlases enable the study of spatially resolved, genome-wide gene expression patterns across the mammalian brain. Several explorative studies have applied linear dimensionality reduction methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classical Multi-Dimensional Scaling (cMDS) to gain insight into the spatial organization of these expression patterns. In this paper, we describe a non-linear embedding technique called Barnes-Hut Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (BH-SNE) that emphasizes the local similarity structure of high-dimensional data points. By applying BH-SNE to the gene expression data from the Allen Brain Atlases, we demonstrate the consistency of the 2D, non-linear embedding of the sagittal and coronal mouse brain atlases, and across 6 human brains. In addition, we quantitatively show that BH-SNE maps are superior in their separation of neuroanatomical regions in comparison to PCA and cMDS. Finally, we assess the effect of higher-order principal components on the global structure of the BH-SNE similarity maps. Based on our observations, we conclude that BH-SNE maps with or without prior dimensionality reduction (based on PCA) provide comprehensive and intuitive insights in both the local and global spatial transcriptome structure of the human and mouse Allen Brain Atlases.

  16. A Fully Associative, Non-Linear Kinematic, Unified Viscoplastic Model for Titanium Based Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; Castelli, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    Specific forms for both the Gibb's and complementary dissipation potentials are chosen such that a complete (i.e., fully associative) potential based multiaxial unified viscoplastic model is obtained. This model possesses one tensorial internal state variable that is associated with dislocation substructure, with an evolutionary law that has nonlinear kinematic hardening and both thermal and strain induced recovery mechanisms. A unique aspect of the present model is the inclusion of non-linear hardening through the use of a compliance operator, derived from the Gibb's potential, in the evolution law for the back stress. This non-linear tensorial operator is significant in that it allows both the flow and evolutionary laws to be fully associative (and therefore easily integrated) and greatly influences the multiaxial response under non-proportional loading paths. In addition to this nonlinear compliance operator, a new consistent, potential preserving, internal strain unloading criterion has been introduced to prevent abnormalities in the predicted stress-strain curves, which are present with nonlinear hardening formulations, during unloading and reversed loading of the external variables. Specification of an experimental program for the complete determination of the material functions and parameters for characterizing a metallic matrix, e.g., TIMETAL 21S, is given. The experiments utilized are tensile, creep, and step creep tests. Finally, a comparison of this model and a commonly used Bodner-Partom model is made on the basis of predictive accuracy and numerical efficiency.

  17. Haematite natural crystals: non-linear initial susceptibility at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Suarez, S.; Martín-Hernández, F.

    2016-06-01

    Several works have reported that haematite has non-linear initial susceptibility at room temperature, like pyrrhotite or titanomagnetite, but there is no explanation for the observed behaviours yet. This study sets out to determine which physical property (grain size, foreign cations content and domain walls displacements) controls the initial susceptibility. The performed measurements include microprobe analysis to determine magnetic phases different to haematite; initial susceptibility (300 K); hysteresis loops, SIRM and backfield curves at 77 and 300 K to calculate magnetic parameters and minor loops at 77 K, to analyse initial susceptibility and magnetization behaviours below Morin transition. The magnetic moment study at low temperature is completed with measurements of zero field cooled-field cooled and AC susceptibility in a range from 5 to 300 K. The minor loops show that the non-linearity of initial susceptibility is closely related to Barkhausen jumps. Because of initial magnetic susceptibility is controlled by domain structure it is difficult to establish a mathematical model to separate magnetic subfabrics in haematite-bearing rocks.

  18. Linear and non-linear control techniques applied to actively lubricated journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletti, R.; Santos, I. F.

    2003-03-01

    The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can use the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can use the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurized oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and a non-linear controller, applied to a tilting-pad journal bearing, are analysed and discussed. Important conclusions about the application of integral controllers, responsible for changing the rotor-bearing equilibrium position and consequently the "passive" oil film damping coefficients, are achieved. Numerical results show an effective vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0-80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated, illustrating clearly one of its most promising applications.

  19. Non-linear alignment of El Niño to the 11-yr solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Warren B.; Liu, Zhengyu

    2008-10-01

    El Nino/La Nina episodes represent warm/cool phases of 2- to 7-yr period El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere system. Modeling studies find ENSO self-excited or driven by ambient noise. Here we find most El Nino and La Nina episodes from 1900-2005 grouped into non-commuting pairs that repeat every ~11 yrs, aligned with rising and falling transition phases of the ~11-yr period quasi-decadal oscillation (QDO). These alignments arise from non-linear phase locking of 3rd and 5th harmonics near 3.6- and 2.2-yr to the 1st harmonic near 11-yr period. Here we find these alignments replicated in both coupled general circulation model and conceptual model driven by 11-yr solar forcing, wherein the solar-forced 1st harmonic initiates a non-linear cascade of higher odd harmonics that are phase-locked with the same alignments as observed. These solar-forced 3rd and 5th harmonics explain ~52% of inter-annual variance in the Nino-3 temperature index from 1900-2005.

  20. Visual Detection Under Uncertainty Operates Via an Early Static, Not Late Dynamic, Non-Linearity

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Signals in the environment are rarely specified exactly: our visual system may know what to look for (e.g., a specific face), but not its exact configuration (e.g., where in the room, or in what orientation). Uncertainty, and the ability to deal with it, is a fundamental aspect of visual processing. The MAX model is the current gold standard for describing how human vision handles uncertainty: of all possible configurations for the signal, the observer chooses the one corresponding to the template associated with the largest response. We propose an alternative model in which the MAX operation, which is a dynamic non-linearity (depends on multiple inputs from several stimulus locations) and happens after the input stimulus has been matched to the possible templates, is replaced by an early static non-linearity (depends only on one input corresponding to one stimulus location) which is applied before template matching. By exploiting an integrated set of analytical and experimental tools, we show that this model is able to account for a number of empirical observations otherwise unaccounted for by the MAX model, and is more robust with respect to the realistic limitations imposed by the available neural hardware. We then discuss how these results, currently restricted to a simple visual detection task, may extend to a wider range of problems in sensory processing. PMID:21212835

  1. Strong Glacial Cooling In The Middle Tropical Troposphere Due To Non-linear Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, S. J.; Lohmann, G.

    Numerical experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model for glacial and interglacial climates have been performed. Our model experiments reveal that slightly cooler tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) relative to the ones previously recon- structed by the CLIMAP project (1981) are sufficient to exhibit a strong glacial cool- ing reconstructed by tropical snow lines. The increased cooling in our experiments can be attributed to two non-linear effects: Firstly, there is an increased environmental lapse rate in the free atmosphere. Slightly cooler glacial SSTs provide for less abso- lute moisture content and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation of moisture is accountable for an increased lapse rate. In our LGM simulation we find an additional two degrees cooling in the tropical middle troposphere. Secondly, the surface air temperature near tropical glaciers is further cooled by a longer duration of snow cover. Our model result provides a consistent view of the last glacial maximum climate with much colder tem- peratures than today in the tropical mountains in concordance with moderate lowering of tropical SSTs. We propose that these non-linearities in the climate system are also important when detecting global warming from tropical snow lines.

  2. Cauchy problem for non-linear systems of equations in the critical case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaikina, E. I.; Naumkin, P. I.; Shishmarev, I. A.

    2004-12-01

    The large-time asymptotic behaviour is studied for a system of non-linear evolution dissipative equations \\displaystyle u_t+\\mathscr N(u,u)+\\mathscr Lu=0, \\qquad x\\in\\mathbb R^n, \\quad t>0, \\displaystyle u(0,x)=\\widetilde u(x), \\qquad x\\in\\mathbb R^n, where \\mathscr L is a linear pseudodifferential operator \\mathscr Lu=\\overline{\\mathscr F}_{\\xi\\to x}(L(\\xi)\\widehat u(\\xi)) and the non-linearity \\mathscr N is a quadratic pseudodifferential operator \\displaystyle \\mathscr N(u,u)=\\overline{\\mathscr F}_{\\xi\\to x}\\sum_{k,l=1}^m\\int_{\\mathbb R^n}A^{kl}(t,\\xi,y)\\widehat u_k(t,\\xi-y)\\widehat u_l(t,y)\\,dy,where \\widehat u\\equiv\\mathscr F_{x\\to\\xi}u is the Fourier transform. Under the assumptions that the initial data \\widetilde u\\in\\mathbf H^{\\beta,0}\\cap\\mathbf H^{0,\\beta}, \\beta>n/2 are sufficiently small, where \\displaystyle \\mathbf H^{n,m}=\\{\\phi\\in\\mathbf L^2:\\Vert\\langle x\\rangle^m\\lang......\\phi(x)\\Vert _{\\mathbf L^2}<\\infty\\}, \\qquad \\langle x\\rangle=\\sqrt{1+x^2}\\,,is a Sobolev weighted space, and that the total mass vector \\displaystyle M=\\int\\widetilde u(x)\\,dx\

  3. A new adaptive multiple modelling approach for non-linear and non-stationary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Gong, Yu; Hong, Xia

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive multiple modelling algorithm for non-linear and non-stationary systems. This simple modelling paradigm comprises K candidate sub-models which are all linear. With data available in an online fashion, the performance of all candidate sub-models are monitored based on the most recent data window, and M best sub-models are selected from the K candidates. The weight coefficients of the selected sub-model are adapted via the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm, while the coefficients of the remaining sub-models are unchanged. These M model predictions are then optimally combined to produce the multi-model output. We propose to minimise the mean square error based on a recent data window, and apply the sum to one constraint to the combination parameters, leading to a closed-form solution, so that maximal computational efficiency can be achieved. In addition, at each time step, the model prediction is chosen from either the resultant multiple model or the best sub-model, whichever is the best. Simulation results are given in comparison with some typical alternatives, including the linear RLS algorithm and a number of online non-linear approaches, in terms of modelling performance and time consumption.

  4. Applying Differential Transforms and ADER to Multi-Dimensional Atmospheric Transport and Non-Linear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Differential Transforms (DTs), a core component of so-called "automatic" or "algorithmic" differentiation, offer significant flexibility and efficiency to any numerical method. The i-th and j-th DT, U(i,j), of a function, u(x,y), is simply U(i,j)=1/(i!j!)*∂(i+j)u/∂xi∂yj. Being a term in the Taylor series of u(x,y) makes the reverse transform trivial. This relation also computes initial DTs from known spatial derivatives. What is novel about DTs is how they simplify a complex PDE system, transforming most arithmetic, trigonometric, and other operators into simple recurrence relations in derivative space. This allows one to simply and quickly compute analytical derivatives of highly complex and non-linear functions. Consider a pseudo-conservation law system, u(x)t+f(u,x)x=s(u,x), for instance. The fluxes and source terms could be (and often are) highly complex, non-linear functions of the state vector and independent variables. Regardless of the spatial discretization (variational / finite-element, weak / finite-volume, or strong / finite-difference), one nearly always must resort to tensored quadrature to evaluate face fluxes and body source terms, and this treatment is expensive. However, if one uses DTs to analytically compute spatial derivatives of the flux and source terms, given spatial derivatives of u, then the fluxes and source terms are directly expanded as polynomials, allowing for significantly cheaper, quadrature-free integration, sampling, and differentiation with a single dot product. Besides being simpler, this also allows flexibility for Galerkin methods in particular to analytically and cheaply compute body integrals, which are often approximated inexactly with quadrature. Computing Nth-order DTs in D dimensions is of O(D2*N) complexity, and whether for transport or non-linear compressible Euler equations, they are cheaper to compute and integrate analytically than quadrature. Further, because time-dependent PDE systems relate spatial

  5. A fully non-linear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator for simulation of fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. In this article, the non-linear single-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. The finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker-Planck-Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable on high-performance computing systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. The collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.

  6. [Analysis Methods of Short-term Non-linear Heart Rate Variability and Their Application in Clinical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chi, Xianglin; Zhou, Jianhua; Shi, Ping; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-02-01

    The linear analysis for heart rate variability (HRV), including time domain method, frequency domain method and time-frequency analysis, has reached a lot of consensus. The non-linear analysis has also been widely applied in biomedical and clinical researches. However, for non-linear HRV analysis, especially for short-term non-linear HRV analysis, controversy still exists, and a unified standard and conclusion has not been formed. This paper reviews and discusses three short-term non-linear HRV analysis methods (fractal dimension, entropy and complexity) and their principles, progresses and problems in clinical application in detail, in order to provide a reference for accurate application in clinical medicine.

  7. A fully non-linear multi-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator for simulation of fusion plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.

    2016-04-04

    Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. The non-linear single-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. Moreover, the finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker–Planck–Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable on high-performance computingmore » systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. As a result, the collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.« less

  8. Blow-up of solutions of an abstract Cauchy problem for a formally hyperbolic equation with double non-linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpusov, M. O.; Panin, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    We consider an abstract Cauchy problem for a formally hyperbolic equation with double non-linearity. Under certain conditions on the operators in the equation, we prove its local (in time) solubility and give sufficient conditions for finite-time blow-up of solutions of the corresponding abstract Cauchy problem. The proof uses a modification of a method of Levine. We give examples of Cauchy problems and initial-boundary value problems for concrete non-linear equations of mathematical physics.

  9. A novel benzene quantitative analysis method using miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuxiang; Liu, Fuqi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel benzene quantitative analysis method utilizing miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system was investigated. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was installed for electrical current-voltage data measurement. Measurement data was analyzed by non-linear bistable dynamics system. Results demonstrated that this method realized benzene concentration quantitative determination. This method is promising in laboratory safety management in benzene leak detection. PMID:26218927

  10. A novel benzene quantitative analysis method using miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuxiang; Liu, Fuqi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel benzene quantitative analysis method utilizing miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system was investigated. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was installed for electrical current-voltage data measurement. Measurement data was analyzed by non-linear bistable dynamics system. Results demonstrated that this method realized benzene concentration quantitative determination. This method is promising in laboratory safety management in benzene leak detection.

  11. A non-Linear transport model for determining shale rock characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Iftikhar; Malik, Nadeem

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs consist of tight porous rocks which are characterised by nano-scale size porous networks with ultra-low permeability [1,2]. Transport of gas through them is not well understood at the present time, and realistic transport models are needed in order to determine rock properties and for estimating future gas pressure distribution in the reservoirs. Here, we consider a recently developed non-linear gas transport equation [3], ∂p-+ U ∂p- = D ∂2p-, t > 0, (1) ∂t ∂x ∂x2 complimented with suitable initial and boundary conditions, in order to determine shale rock properties such as the permeability K, the porosity φ and the tortuosity, τ. In our new model, the apparent convection velocity, U = U(p,px), and the apparent diffusivity D = D(p), are both highly non-linear functions of the pressure. The model incorporate various flow regimes (slip, surface diffusion, transition, continuum) based upon the Knudsen number Kn, and also includes Forchchiemers turbulence correction terms. In application, the model parameters and associated compressibility factors are fully pressure dependent, giving the model more realism than previous models. See [4]. Rock properties are determined by solving an inverse problem, with model parameters adjustment to minimise the error between the model simulation and available data. It is has been found that the proposed model performs better than previous models. Results and details of the model will be presented at the conference. Corresponding author: namalik@kfupm.edu.sa and nadeem_malik@cantab.net References [1] Cui, X., Bustin, A.M. and Bustin, R., "Measurements of gas permeability and diffusivity of tight reservoir rocks: different approaches and their applications", Geofluids 9, 208-223 (2009). [2] Chiba R., Fomin S., Chugunov V., Niibori Y. and Hashida T., "Numerical Simulation of Non Fickian Diffusion and Advection in a Fractured Porous Aquifer", AIP Conference Proceedings 898, 75 (2007

  12. Laboratory Observations Consistent with Non-linear Decay of a Kinetic Alfvén Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. E.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S. T.; Sydora, R. D.; Lin, Y.; Pribyl, P.; Guice, D.; Rossi, G.; Klein, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Alfvén waves, a fundamental mode of magnetized plasmas, are ubiquitous in space plasmas. For example, a cascade of non-linearly interacting Alfvén waves is believed to play a key role in solar wind turbulence. At perpendicular length scales below the ion gyroradius, this takes the form of Kinetic Alfvén Waves (KAWs). Theoretical predictions show that these Alfvén waves may be unstable to various decay instabilities (e.g. [1,2]). In particular, theory predicts that a KAW may decay into two daughter KAWs even at very low amplitude (δB/B<10-3). Given the turbulent nature of solar wind observations and limited data-points, laboratory experiments may play a vital role in exploring the key physics responsible. The present work, conducted at UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD) represents the first fundamental laboratory study of the non-linear Alfvén wave interactions responsible for Alfvén wave decay instabilities. These experiments include the first laboratory observation of the Alfvén-acoustic mode coupling at the heart of the Parametric Decay Instability [3]. More recently, laboratory efforts have focused on the predicted non-linear decay of one KAW into two daughter KAWs. In these experiments, a single high-frequency ω/Ωi~0.7 Alfvén wave is launched, resulting in two daughter modes with frequencies and wave numbers that suggest co-propagating KAWs produced by decay of the pump wave. The observed process is parametric in nature, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump mode amplitude. Efforts are underway to fully characterize this set of experiments and compare with decay instabilities predicted by theory and simulations. [1] JV Hollweg, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23 431 (1994).[2] YM Voitenko, Journal of plasma physics 60.03 (1998).[3] S Dorfman and T Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 195001 (2013). Supported by DOE, NSF, and DOE FES and NASA Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowships

  13. Laboratory Study of Non-linear Decay of a Kinetic Shear Alfvén Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. E.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S. T.; Pribyl, P.; Lin, Y.; Sydora, R. D.; Rossi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Alfvén waves, a fundamental mode of magnetized plasmas, are ubiquitous in space plasmas. For example, a cascade of non-linearly interacting Alfvén waves is believed to play a key role in solar wind turbulence. At perpendicular length scales below the ion gyroradius, this takes the form of Kinetic Alfvén Waves (KAWs). Theoretical predictions show that these Alfvén waves may be unstable to various decay instabilities (e.g. [1,2]) even at very low amplitudes (δB/B<10-3) [2]. Given the turbulent nature of solar wind observations and limited spacecraft spacial resolution, laboratory experiments can play a vital role in exploring the key physics responsible. The present work, conducted at UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD) represents the first fundamental laboratory study of the non-linear Alfvén wave interactions responsible for Alfvén wave decay instabilities. These experiments include the first laboratory observation of the Alfvén-acoustic mode coupling at the heart of the Parametric Decay Instability [3]. More recently, laboratory efforts have focused on the non-linear decay of a KAW into daughter KAWs. In these experiments, a single high-frequency ω/Ωi~0.7 Alfvén wave is launched, resulting in three daughter modes with frequencies and wave numbers that suggest co-propagating KAWs produced by decay of the pump wave. The observed process is parametric in nature, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump mode amplitude. The decay is only observed when there is significant power in the right-hand circularly polarized pump branch; this branch has a phase speed different from the left hand mode at the ω/Ωi where the process is seen. Efforts are underway to fully characterize this set of experiments and compare with decay instabilities predicted by theory and simulations. [1] JV Hollweg, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 23 431 (1994). [2] YM Voitenko, Journal of plasma physics 60.03 (1998). [3] S Dorfman and T Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110

  14. Non-linear power law approach for spatial and temporal pattern analysis of salt marsh evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Cornacchia, L.; Valentini, E.; Bozzeda, F.

    2013-11-01

    Many complex systems on the Earth surface show non-equilibrium fluctuations, often determining the spontaneous evolution towards a critical state. In this context salt marshes are characterized by complex patterns both in geomorphological and ecological features, which often appear to be strongly correlated. A striking feature in salt marshes is vegetation distribution, which can self-organize in patterns over time and space. Self-organized patchiness of vegetation can often give rise to power law relationships in the frequency distribution of patch sizes. In cases where the whole distribution does not follow a power law, the variance of scale in its tail may often be disregarded. To this end, the research aims at how changes in the main climatic and hydrodynamic variables may influence such non-linearity, and how numerical thresholds can describe this. Since it would be difficult to simultaneously monitor the presence and typology of vegetation and channel sinuosity through in situ data, and even harder to analyze them over medium to large time-space scales, remote sensing offers the ability to analyze the scale invariance of patchiness distributions. Here, we focus on a densely vegetated and channelized salt marsh (Scheldt estuary Belgium-the Netherlands) by means of the sub-pixel analysis on satellite images to calculate the non-linearity in the values of the power law exponents due to the variance of scale. The deviation from power laws represents stochastic conditions under climate drivers that can be hybridized on the basis of a fuzzy Bayesian generative algorithm. The results show that the hybrid approach is able to simulate the non-linearity inherent to the system and clearly show the existence of a link between the autocorrelation level of the target variable (i.e. size of vegetation patches), due to its self-organization properties, and the influence exerted on it by the external drivers (i.e. climate and hydrology). Considering the results of the

  15. Surface and Atmospheric Parameter Retrieval From AVIRIS Data: The Importance of Non-Linear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green Robert O.; Moreno, Jose F.

    1996-01-01

    AVIRIS data represent a new and important approach for the retrieval of atmospheric and surface parameters from optical remote sensing data. Not only as a test for future space systems, but also as an operational airborne remote sensing system, the development of algorithms to retrieve information from AVIRIS data is an important step to these new approaches and capabilities. Many things have been learned since AVIRIS became operational, and the successive technical improvements in the hardware and the more sophisticated calibration techniques employed have increased the quality of the data to the point of almost meeting optimum user requirements. However, the potential capabilities of imaging spectrometry over the standard multispectral techniques have still not been fully demonstrated. Reasons for this are the technical difficulties in handling the data, the critical aspect of calibration for advanced retrieval methods, and the lack of proper models with which to invert the measured AVIRIS radiances in all the spectral channels. To achieve the potential of imaging spectrometry, these issues must be addressed. In this paper, an algorithm to retrieve information about both atmospheric and surface parameters from AVIRIS data, by using model inversion techniques, is described. Emphasis is put on the derivation of the model itself as well as proper inversion techniques, robust to noise in the data and an inadequate ability of the model to describe natural variability in the data. The problem of non-linear effects is addressed, as it has been demonstrated to be a major source of error in the numerical values retrieved by more simple, linear-based approaches. Non-linear effects are especially critical for the retrieval of surface parameters where both scattering and absorption effects are coupled, as well as in the cases of significant multiple-scattering contributions. However, sophisticated modeling approaches can handle such non-linear effects, which are especially

  16. Kerr-Newman Electron as Spinning Soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Measurable parameters of the electron indicate that its background should be described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) solution. The spin/mass ratio of the electron is extreme large, and the black hole horizons disappear, opening a topological defect of space-time - the Kerr singular ring of Compton size, which may be interpreted as a closed fundamental string of low energy string theory. The singular and two-sheeted structure of the corresponding Kerr space has to be regularised, and we consider the old problem of regularising the source of the KN solution. As a development of the earlier Keres-Israel-Hamity-López model, we describe the model of smooth and regular source forming a gravitating and relativistically rotating soliton based on the chiral field model and the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. The model reveals some new remarkable properties: (1) the soliton forms a relativistically rotating bubble of Compton radius, which is filled by the oscillating Higgs field in a pseudo-vacuum state; (2) the boundary of the bubble forms a domain wall which interpolates between the internal flat background and the external exact Kerr-Newman (KN) solution; (3) the phase transition is provided by a system of chiral fields; (4) the vector potential of the external the KN solution forms a closed Wilson loop which is quantised, giving rise to a quantised spin of the soliton; (5) the soliton is bordered by a closed string, which is a part of the general complex stringy structure.

  17. Kerr black holes with scalar hair.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen

    2014-06-01

    We present a family of solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field, describing asymptotically flat, spinning black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon. These hairy black holes (HBHs) are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Besides mass M and angular momentum J, they carry a conserved, continuous Noether charge Q measuring the scalar hair. HBHs branch off from the Kerr metric at the threshold of the superradiant instability and reduce to spinning boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon area. They overlap with Kerr black holes for a set of (M, J) values. A single Killing vector field preserves the solutions, tangent to the null geodesic generators of the event horizon. HBHs can exhibit sharp physical differences when compared to the Kerr solution, such as J/M^{2}>1, a quadrupole moment larger than J^{2}/M, and a larger orbital angular velocity at the innermost stable circular orbit. Families of HBHs connected to the Kerr geometry should exist in scalar (and other) models with more general self-interactions.

  18. Slim Disks Around Kerr Black Holes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander

    2009-08-01

    We investigate stationary slim accretion disks around Kerr black holes. We construct a new numerical method based on the relaxation technique. We systematically cover the whole parameter space relevant to stellar mass X-ray binaries. We also notice some non-monotonic features in the disk structure, overlooked in previous studies.

  19. Scalar Green function of the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Chen, Yanbei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study the scalar Green function in the Kerr spacetime using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) methods. The Green function can be expressed by Fourier-transforming to its frequency-domain counterpart, and with the help of complex analysis it can be divided into parts: 1) the "direct part," which propagates on the light cone and dominates at very early times; 2) the "quasinormal-mode part," which represents the waves traveling around the photon sphere and is important at early and intermediate times; and 3) the "tail part," which is due to scattering by the Coulomb-type potential and becomes more important at later times. We focus on the "quasinormal-mode part" of the Green function and derive an approximate analytical formula for it using WKB techniques. This approximate Green function diverges at points that are connected by null geodesics, and it recovers the fourfold singular structure of Green functions that are seen in Schwarzschild and other spacetimes. It also carries unique signatures of the Kerr spacetime such as frame dragging. Along the way, we also derive approximate quasinormal-mode wave functions and expressions for the black hole excitation factors in the Kerr spacetime. We expect this work to benefit the understanding of both wave propagation and the problem of self-force in the Kerr spacetime.

  20. Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kerr Center, situated on 16 acres three miles south of Ada, Oklahoma, houses the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The division develops strategies and technologies to protect and restore grou...

  1. SLIM DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, Aleksander

    2009-08-01

    We investigate stationary slim accretion disks around Kerr black holes. We construct a new numerical method based on the relaxation technique. We systematically cover the whole parameter space relevant to stellar mass X-ray binaries. We also notice some non-monotonic features in the disk structure, overlooked in previous studies.

  2. Generation of generalized Kerr-Schild metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapova, Galina V.

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of PHD work is to study the properties of the generalized Kerr- Schild transformation. Particularly, one uses the non-vacuum exact solutions of Einstein equations as a background for such solutions. One construct and investigate generalized Kerr-Schild spaces as a background for Conformaly - flat solutions of the Einstein equations, transforming into known Kerr-Schild vacuum solutions. Some cosmological models describing island systems with an asymptotic behavior of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models has been investigated. The possibility of obtaining vacuum and electrovacuum solutions of the Einstein equations by means of generalized Kerr-Schild transformation on a vacuum isometric space-times has been studied. The abstract contains references to 5 publications as well as references to 8 bibliographical sources. The doctoral work has been carried out under the supervision of Professor N.V. Mitskevich. Official reviewers: Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences L.P. Grishchuk and Candidat of Physical and Mathematical Sciences: V.I. Khlebnikov.

  3. Precise relativistic orbits in Kerr and Kerr (anti) de Sitter spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraniotis, G. V.

    2004-10-01

    The timelike geodesic equations resulting from the Kerr gravitational metric element are derived and solved exactly including the contribution from the cosmological constant. The geodesic equations are derived, by solving the Hamilton Jacobi partial differential equation by separation of variables. The solutions can be applied in the investigation of the motion of a test particle in the Kerr and Kerr (anti) de Sitter gravitational fields. In particular, we apply the exact solutions of the timelike geodesics: (i) to the precise calculation of dragging (Lense Thirring effect) of a satellite's spherical polar orbit in the gravitational field of Earth assuming Kerr geometry; (ii) assuming the galactic centre is a rotating black hole we calculate the precise dragging of a stellar polar orbit around the galactic centre for various values of the Kerr parameter including those supported by recent observations. The exact solution of non-spherical geodesics in Kerr geometry is obtained by using the transformation theory of elliptic functions. The exact solution of spherical polar geodesics with a nonzero cosmological constant can be expressed in terms of Abelian modular theta functions that solve the corresponding Jacobi's inversion problem.

  4. Non-linear dual-phase-lag model for analyzing heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bio-heat transfer model based on temperature dependent metabolic heat generation rate is derived to analyze the heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation treatment. The numerical solution of the present non-linear problem has been done by finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) method which combines the essence of Runge-Kutta (4,5) method together with finite difference scheme. Our study demonstrates that at the thermal ablation position temperature predicted by non-linear and linear DPL models show significant differences. A comparison has been made among non-linear DPL, thermal wave and Pennes model and it has been found that non-linear DPL and thermal wave bio-heat model show almost same nature whereas non-linear Pennes model shows significantly different temperature profile at the initial stage of thermal ablation treatment. The effect of Fourier number and Vernotte number (relaxation Fourier number) on temperature profile in presence and absence of externally applied heat source has been studied in detail and it has been observed that the presence of externally applied heat source term highly affects the efficiency of thermal treatment method. PMID:27503734

  5. Non-linear dual-phase-lag model for analyzing heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bio-heat transfer model based on temperature dependent metabolic heat generation rate is derived to analyze the heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation treatment. The numerical solution of the present non-linear problem has been done by finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) method which combines the essence of Runge-Kutta (4,5) method together with finite difference scheme. Our study demonstrates that at the thermal ablation position temperature predicted by non-linear and linear DPL models show significant differences. A comparison has been made among non-linear DPL, thermal wave and Pennes model and it has been found that non-linear DPL and thermal wave bio-heat model show almost same nature whereas non-linear Pennes model shows significantly different temperature profile at the initial stage of thermal ablation treatment. The effect of Fourier number and Vernotte number (relaxation Fourier number) on temperature profile in presence and absence of externally applied heat source has been studied in detail and it has been observed that the presence of externally applied heat source term highly affects the efficiency of thermal treatment method.

  6. Stress Induced in Periodontal Ligament under Orthodontic Loading (Part II): A Comparison of Linear Versus Non-Linear Fem Study

    PubMed Central

    Hemanth, M; Deoli, Shilpi; Raghuveer, H P; Rani, M S; Hegde, Chatura; Vedavathi, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Simulation of periodontal ligament (PDL) using non-linear finite element method (FEM) analysis gives better insight into understanding of the biology of tooth movement. The stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusion and lingual root torque using non-linear properties. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional (3D) FEM model of the maxillary incisors was generated using Solidworks modeling software. Stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusive and lingual root torque movements by 3D FEM using ANSYS software. These stresses were compared with linear and non-linear analyses. Results: For intrusive and lingual root torque movements, distribution of stress over the PDL was within the range of optimal stress value as proposed by Lee, but was exceeding the force system given by Proffit as optimum forces for orthodontic tooth movement with linear properties. When same force load was applied in non-linear analysis, stresses were more compared to linear analysis and were beyond the optimal stress range as proposed by Lee for both intrusive and lingual root torque. To get the same stress as linear analysis, iterations were done using non-linear properties and the force level was reduced. Conclusion: This shows that the force level required for non-linear analysis is lesser than that of linear analysis. PMID:26435629

  7. Step-response of a torsional device with multiple discontinuous non-linearities: Formulation of a vibratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krak, Michael D.; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    A vehicle clutch damper is intentionally designed to contain multiple discontinuous non-linearities, such as multi-staged springs, clearances, pre-loads, and multi-staged friction elements. The main purpose of this practical torsional device is to transmit a wide range of torque while isolating torsional vibration between an engine and transmission. Improved understanding of the dynamic behavior of the device could be facilitated by laboratory measurement, and thus a refined vibratory experiment is proposed. The experiment is conceptually described as a single degree of freedom non-linear torsional system that is excited by an external step torque. The single torsional inertia (consisting of a shaft and torsion arm) is coupled to ground through parallel production clutch dampers, which are characterized by quasi-static measurements provided by the manufacturer. Other experimental objectives address physical dimensions, system actuation, flexural modes, instrumentation, and signal processing issues. Typical measurements show that the step response of the device is characterized by three distinct non-linear regimes (double-sided impact, single-sided impact, and no-impact). Each regime is directly related to the non-linear features of the device and can be described by peak angular acceleration values. Predictions of a simplified single degree of freedom non-linear model verify that the experiment performs well and as designed. Accordingly, the benchmark measurements could be utilized to validate non-linear models and simulation codes, as well as characterize dynamic parameters of the device including its dissipative properties.

  8. Kerr black holes with Proca hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen; Rúnarsson, Helgi

    2016-08-01

    Bekenstein proved that in Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to one (or many) real, Abelian, Proca field, stationary black holes (BHs) cannot have Proca hair. Dropping Bekenstein's assumption that matter inherits spacetime symmetries, we show this model admits asymptotically flat, stationary, axi-symmetric, regular on and outside an event horizon BHs with Proca hair, for an even number of real (or an arbitrary number of complex) Proca fields. To establish it, we start by showing that a test, complex Proca field can form bound states, with real frequency, around Kerr BHs: stationary Proca clouds. These states exist at the threshold of superradiance. It was conjectured in [1, 2], that the existence of such clouds at the linear level implies the existence of a new family of BH solutions at the nonlinear level. We confirm this expectation and explicitly construct examples of such Kerr BHs with Proca hair (KBHsPH). For a single complex Proca field, these BHs form a countable number of families with three continuous parameters (ADM mass, ADM angular momentum and Noether charge). They branch off from the Kerr solutions that can support stationary Proca clouds and reduce to Proca stars [3] when the horizon size vanishes. We present the domain of existence of one family of KBHsPH, as well as its phase space in terms of ADM quantities. Some physical properties of the solutions are discussed; in particular, and in contrast with Kerr BHs with scalar hair, some spacetime regions can be counter-rotating with respect to the horizon. We further establish a no-Proca-hair theorem for static, spherically symmetric BHs but allowing the complex Proca field to have a harmonic time dependence, which shows BHs with Proca hair in this model require rotation and have no static limit. KBHsPH are also disconnected from Kerr-Newman BHs with a real, massless vector field.

  9. Measurement of the Beam Longitudinal Profile in a Storage Ring by Non-Linear Laser Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid-state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of un trapped particles, and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets ("ghost bunches").

  10. Obtaining General Relativity's N-body non-linear Lagrangian from iterative, linear algebraic scaling equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordtvedt, K.

    2015-11-01

    A local system of bodies in General Relativity whose exterior metric field asymptotically approaches the Minkowski metric effaces any effects of the matter distribution exterior to its Minkowski boundary condition. To enforce to all orders this property of gravity which appears to hold in nature, a method using linear algebraic scaling equations is developed which generates by an iterative process an N-body Lagrangian expansion for gravity's motion-independent potentials which fulfills exterior effacement along with needed metric potential expansions. Then additional properties of gravity - interior effacement and Lorentz time dilation and spatial contraction - produce additional iterative, linear algebraic equations for obtaining the full non-linear and motion-dependent N-body gravity Lagrangian potentials as well.

  11. Generating Invariants for Non-linear Hybrid Systems by Linear Algebraic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matringe, Nadir; Moura, Arnaldo Vieira; Rebiha, Rachid

    We describe powerful computational methods, relying on linear algebraic methods, for generating ideals for non-linear invariants of algebraic hybrid systems. We show that the preconditions for discrete transitions and the Lie-derivatives for continuous evolution can be viewed as morphisms and so can be suitably represented by matrices. We reduce the non-trivial invariant generation problem to the computation of the associated eigenspaces by encoding the new consecution requirements as specific morphisms represented by matrices. More specifically, we establish very general sufficient conditions that show the existence and allow the computation of invariant ideals. Our methods also embody a strategy to estimate degree bounds, leading to the discovery of rich classes of inductive, i.e. provable, invariants. Our approach avoids first-order quantifier elimination, Grobner basis computation or direct system resolution, thereby circumventing difficulties met by other recent techniques.

  12. Can the ZoMBieS method be used to characterise scintillator non-linearity?

    PubMed

    Bignell, L J

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of the detection efficiency as a function of deposited electron energy in a liquid scintillation cocktail between 4 keV and 49 keV are obtained using the ZoMBieS method. Comparison is made between the measured data and the Poisson-Birks detection efficiency model. Measurements of the Birks non-linearity parameter, kB, and the linearised scintillation response of each photomultiplier, ω(i), were made using these data. However, the value of kB that best linearises the scintillator response is found to vary depending upon which photomultiplier is used in its determination, and the measured kB and ω(i) vary depending on the external source geometry. The cause of this behaviour is unknown. The triple-coincident detection efficiency appears to be unaffected by any systematic errors.

  13. Mean Field Strategies Induce Unrealistic Non-Linearities in Calcium Puffs

    PubMed Central

    Solovey, Guillermo; Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2011-01-01

    Mean field models are often useful approximations to biological systems, but sometimes, they can yield misleading results. In this work, we compare mean field approaches with stochastic models of intracellular calcium release. In particular, we concentrate on calcium signals generated by the concerted opening of several clustered channels (calcium puffs). To this end we simulate calcium puffs numerically and then try to reproduce features of the resulting calcium distribution using mean field models were all the channels open and close simultaneously. We show that an unrealistic non-linear relationship between the current and the number of open channels is needed to reproduce the simulated puffs. Furthermore, a single channel current which is five times smaller than the one of the stochastic simulations is also needed. Our study sheds light on the importance of the stochastic kinetics of the calcium release channel activity to estimate the release fluxes. PMID:21869877

  14. In vitro exposure: Linear and non-linear thermodynamic events in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paffi, Alessandra; Liberti, Micaela; Apollonio, Francesca; Sheppard, Asher; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-10-01

    We conducted an electromagnetic-thermal analysis of Petri dishes filled with different medium volumes under different radio frequency exposure conditions with the aim of identifying linear and non-linear parameters that might explain contradictory results of many in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments. We found that power loss density and temperature depend on shape, size, and orientation of the exposed sample with respect to direction of incident energy, showing that the liquid medium acts as a receiving antenna. In addition, we investigated the possibility of convection from thermodynamic principles within the liquid medium. For a 35 mm diameter Petri dish, a 2 or 4 ml medium volume is too small to support vertical convection. Conversely, horizontal convective motion is possible for H-polarization exposures at 1.8 GHz. PMID:25995097

  15. Non Linear Analyses for the Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Mixed R.C.-Masonry Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liberatore, Laura; Tocci, Cesare; Masiani, Renato

    2008-07-08

    In this work the seismic behavior of masonry buildings with mixed structural system, consisting of perimeter masonry walls and internal r.c. frames, is studied by means of non linear static (pushover) analyses. Several aspects, like the distribution of seismic action between masonry and r.c. elements, the local and global behavior of the structure, the crisis of the connections and the attainment of the ultimate strength of the whole structure are examined. The influence of some parameters, such as the masonry compressive and tensile strength, on the structural behavior is investigated. The numerical analyses are also repeated on a building in which the r.c. internal frames are replaced with masonry walls.

  16. Origin of the effective mobility in non-linear active micro-rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; Pérez-Madrid, A.

    2016-10-01

    The distinction between the damping coefficient and the effective non-linear mobility of driven particles in active micro-rheology of supercooled liquids is explained in terms of individual and collective dynamics. The effective mobility arises as a collective effect which gives insight into the energy landscape of the system. On the other hand, the damping coefficient is a constant that modulates the effect of external forces over the thermal energy which particles have at their disposition to perform Brownian motion. For long times, these thermal fluctuations become characterized in terms of an effective temperature that is a consequence of the dynamic coupling between kinetic and configurational degrees of freedom induced by the presence of the strong external force. The interplay between collective mobility and effective temperature allows to formulate a generalized Stokes-Einstein relation that may be used to determine the collective diffusion coefficient. The explicit relations we deduce reproduce simulation data remarkably well.

  17. Modeling and analysis of aircraft non-linear components for harmonics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, K.J.; Voss, J.

    1995-12-31

    Modern commercial aircraft Electric Power Systems (EPS) include many nonlinear components which produce harmonics. The addition of all the current harmonics could result in a power system with unacceptable levels of voltage distortion. It is important to be able to predict the levels of voltage distortion at early program stages to correct any potential problems and avoid costly redesigns. In this paper the nature and sources of harmonic producing equipment are described. These sources of harmonics and their effect on aircraft power system operation are described. Models for various aircraft non-linear components are developed in this paper. These component models are used in a model of the Boeing 777 EPS which is used to calculate voltage harmonics for various airplane configurations and flight conditions. A description of this model and the models used for various components are given. Tests performed to validate these models are described. Comparison of experimental results with analytical model predictions are given.

  18. Can the ZoMBieS method be used to characterise scintillator non-linearity?

    PubMed

    Bignell, L J

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of the detection efficiency as a function of deposited electron energy in a liquid scintillation cocktail between 4 keV and 49 keV are obtained using the ZoMBieS method. Comparison is made between the measured data and the Poisson-Birks detection efficiency model. Measurements of the Birks non-linearity parameter, kB, and the linearised scintillation response of each photomultiplier, ω(i), were made using these data. However, the value of kB that best linearises the scintillator response is found to vary depending upon which photomultiplier is used in its determination, and the measured kB and ω(i) vary depending on the external source geometry. The cause of this behaviour is unknown. The triple-coincident detection efficiency appears to be unaffected by any systematic errors. PMID:24291527

  19. Ultrafast Rotation of Light Fields Applied to Highly Non-Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéré, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    Femtosecond laser beams can exhibit spatio-temporal couplings (STC), i.e. a temporal dependence of their spatial properties, or vice versa. Although these couplings have long been considered as detrimental for high-intensity and ultrafast experiments, moderate and controlled STC provide a powerful means of controlling high-intensity laser-matter interactions. This talk will first explain the basics of a particular STC, where the propagation direction of laser light rotates in time on the femtosecond time scale. Laser pulses with such ultrafast wavefront rotation can be used to generate attosecond pulses of light through non-linear optical processes. We show that these pulses, periodically generated in each laser cycle, can then be emitted in spatially separated beamlets. This effects provides a new type of light sources called attosecond lighthouses, and can be exploited for ultrafast measurements with femtosecond resolution, in a scheme called photonic streaking.

  20. The cosmic microwave background bispectrum from the non-linear evolution of the cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Bernardeau, Francis E-mail: uzan@iap.fr

    2010-07-01

    This article presents the first computation of the complete bispectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies arising from the evolution of all cosmic fluids up to second order, including neutrinos. Gravitational couplings, electron density fluctuations and the second order Boltzmann equation are fully taken into account. Comparison to limiting cases that appeared previously in the literature are provided. These are regimes for which analytical insights can be given. The final results are expressed in terms of equivalent f{sub NL} for different configurations. It is found that for moments up to l{sub max} = 2000, the signal generated by non-linear effects is equivalent to f{sub NL} ≅ 5 for both local-type and equilateral-type primordial non-Gaussianity.

  1. Linearisation of asymmetrical Doherty amplifier by the even-order non-linear signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleš-Ilić, Nataša; Atanasković, Aleksandar; Blau, Kurt; Hein, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    This paper considers the linearisation of an asymmetrical two-way Doherty amplifier by the method that uses the second harmonics and fourth-order non-linear signals for linearisation. These even-order signals for linearisation are extracted at the output of the peaking amplifier, adjusted in amplitude and phase and injected at the input and output of the carrier amplifier transistor in the Doherty configuration. The effect of linearisation has been experimentally confirmed on a fabricated asymmetrical Doherty amplifier with the additional circuit for linearisation. The suppression of the third-order intermodulation products has been carried out for two-tone test, 64QAM and WCDMA digitally modulated signals in a range of signal power.

  2. Comparison of algorithms for non-linear inverse 3D electrical tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Marc; Cox, Simon J; Blott, Barry H; Daniell, Geoffrey J

    2002-02-01

    Non-linear electrical impedance tomography reconstruction algorithms usually employ the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme to image the conductivity distribution inside the body. For complex 3D problems, the application of this method is not feasible any more due to the large matrices involved and their high storage requirements. In this paper we demonstrate the suitability of an alternative conjugate gradient reconstruction algorithm for 3D tomographic imaging incorporating adaptive mesh refinement and requiring less storage space than the Newton-Raphson scheme. We compare the reconstruction efficiency of both algorithms for a simple 3D head model. The results show that an increase in speed of about 30% is achievable with the conjugate gradient-based method without loss of accuracy.

  3. Robust MPC for a non-linear system - a neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzar, Marcel; Witczak, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to design a robust actuator fault-tolerant control for a non-linear discrete-time system. Considered system is described by the Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) model obtained with recurrent neural network. The proposed solution starts with a discretetime quasi-LPV system identification using artificial neural network. Subsequently, the robust controller is proposed, which does not take into account actuator saturation level and deals with the previously estimated faults. To check if the compensation problem is feasible, the robust invariant set is employed, which takes into account actuator saturation level. When the current state does not belong to the set, then a predictive control is performed in order to make such set larger. This makes it possible to increase the domain of attraction, which makes the proposed methodology an efficient solution for the fault-tolerant control. The last part of the paper presents an experimental results regarding wind turbines.

  4. Numerical Demultiplexing of Color Image Sensor Measurements via Non-linear Random Forest Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Cho, Daniel; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The simultaneous capture of imaging data at multiple wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum is highly challenging, requiring complex and costly multispectral image devices. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of simultaneous multispectral imaging using conventional image sensors with color filter arrays via a novel comprehensive framework for numerical demultiplexing of the color image sensor measurements. A numerical forward model characterizing the formation of sensor measurements from light spectra hitting the sensor is constructed based on a comprehensive spectral characterization of the sensor. A numerical demultiplexer is then learned via non-linear random forest modeling based on the forward model. Given the learned numerical demultiplexer, one can then demultiplex simultaneously-acquired measurements made by the color image sensor into reflectance intensities at discrete selectable wavelengths, resulting in a higher resolution reflectance spectrum. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of such a method for the purpose of simultaneous multispectral imaging.

  5. Non-Linear Dynamics Approach to Assessing Woody-Encroachment in Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, N. A.; Nippert, J. B.; Van Vleck, E.

    2015-12-01

    Woody species are encroaching on grasslands globally. Here, we investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of this encroachment in relation to climate and fire regimes in the central U.S. A low-dimensional model is used to assess stability of species composition. Sixe years of eddy covariance data at a paired grassland and woody encroachment site at the Konza Prairie LTER site are used to verify carbon and water dynamics. Historical aerial photography and remote sensing data are used to quantify the spatial diffusion of woody tree fraction into grasslands. Non-linear dynamics approaches are used to quantify the stability of vegetation and the presence of tipping points in relation to woody fraction, fire frequency and precipitation and temperature variability. Understanding the roles of multiple confounding forcing factors operating at disparate timescales is essential for predicting future woody encroachment and the water and climate implications of land cover transitions.

  6. Non-linear characteristics and long-range correlations in Asian stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Ma, K.; Cai, X.

    2007-05-01

    We test several non-linear characteristics of Asian stock markets, which indicates the failure of efficient market hypothesis and shows the essence of fractal of the financial markets. In addition, by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to investigate the long range correlation of the volatility in the stock markets, we find that the crossover phenomena exist in the results of DFA. Further, in the region of small volatility, the scaling behavior is more complicated; in the region of large volatility, the scaling exponent is close to 0.5, which suggests the market is more efficient. All these results may indicate the possibility of characteristic multifractal scaling behaviors of the financial markets.

  7. Damping and non-linearity of a levitating magnet in rotation above a superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druge, J.; Jean, C.; Laurent, O.; Méasson, M.-A.; Favero, I.

    2014-07-01

    We study the dissipation of moving magnets in levitation above a superconductor. The rotation motion is analyzed using optical tracking techniques. It displays a remarkable regularity together with long damping time up to several hours. The magnetic contribution to the damping is investigated in detail by comparing 14 distinct magnetic configurations and points towards amplitude-dependent dissipation mechanisms. The non-linear dynamics of the mechanical rotation motion is also revealed and described with an effective Duffing model. The magnetic mechanical damping is consistent with measured hysteretic cycles M(H) that are discussed within a modified critical state model. The obtained picture of the coupling of levitating magnets to their environment sheds light on their potential as ultra-low dissipation mechanical oscillators for high precision physics.

  8. Numerical Demultiplexing of Color Image Sensor Measurements via Non-linear Random Forest Modeling.

    PubMed

    Deglint, Jason; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Cho, Daniel; Clausi, David A; Wong, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous capture of imaging data at multiple wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum is highly challenging, requiring complex and costly multispectral image devices. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of simultaneous multispectral imaging using conventional image sensors with color filter arrays via a novel comprehensive framework for numerical demultiplexing of the color image sensor measurements. A numerical forward model characterizing the formation of sensor measurements from light spectra hitting the sensor is constructed based on a comprehensive spectral characterization of the sensor. A numerical demultiplexer is then learned via non-linear random forest modeling based on the forward model. Given the learned numerical demultiplexer, one can then demultiplex simultaneously-acquired measurements made by the color image sensor into reflectance intensities at discrete selectable wavelengths, resulting in a higher resolution reflectance spectrum. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of such a method for the purpose of simultaneous multispectral imaging. PMID:27346434

  9. Highly non-linear solid core photonic crystal fiber with one nano hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Bhardwaj, Vanita; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The numerical study of newly designed solid core photonic crystal fiber (SCPCF) having three hexagonal air hole rings in cladding region and one small nano hole at the center are presented. By using full vectorial finite element method (FV-FEM), we analyses the optical properties like effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss of the proposed PCF. Results show that the change in core diameter controls the effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss. A low effective area (3.34 µm2), high nonlinearity (36.34 W-1km-1) and low confinement loss (0.00106 dB/km) are achieved at the communication wavelength 1.55 µm for the SCPCF having core air hole diameter 0.10 µm, cladding air holes diameter 1.00 µm and pitch 2.50 µm. This type of PCF is very useful in non-linear applications such as supercontinuum generation, four wave mixing, second harmonic generation etc.

  10. Ongoing electroencephalographic signal study of simple arithmetic using linear and non-linear measures.

    PubMed

    Micheloyannis, Sifis; Papanikolaou, Elias; Bizas, Emmanuel; Stam, Cornelis J; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2002-06-01

    This study examined patterns of variation in the ongoing electroencephalogram during performance of three visual tasks. One task required exact arithmetic calculations on Arabic numerals. A second task involved pseudoword processing as a control for the verbal (phonological) component that is, by definition, part of arithmetic tasks. A third task primarily required visual/graphemic processing, which is also involved in the other two tasks. Spectral power in the alpha range was lowest during the pseudoword task, followed by power during the arithmetic task, and finally by power in the visual task, indicating more prominent desynchronization during engagement in the analysis of word-like printed material. Finally, linear (power in the gamma range) and non-linear measures (correlation dimension) provided evidence of predominant right hemisphere engagement during the arithmetic task.

  11. Non-linear Parameter Estimates from Non-stationary MEG Data

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vargas, Juan D.; López, Jose D.; Baker, Adam; Castellanos-Dominguez, German; Woolrich, Mark W.; Barnes, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to estimate key electrophysiological parameters from resting state data. In this paper, we focus on the estimation of head-position parameters. The recovery of these parameters is especially challenging as they are non-linearly related to the measured field. In order to do this we use an empirical Bayesian scheme to estimate the cortical current distribution due to a range of laterally shifted head-models. We compare different methods of approaching this problem from the division of M/EEG data into stationary sections and performing separate source inversions, to explaining all of the M/EEG data with a single inversion. We demonstrate this through estimation of head position in both simulated and empirical resting state MEG data collected using a head-cast. PMID:27597815

  12. Non-linear interactions of plasma waves in the context of solar particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos-Cruz, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.

    2001-08-01

    Stochastic particle acceleration in plasmas by means of MHD turbulence in-volves a wide range of alternatives according to, the specific wave mode, the frequency regime of the turbulence, the kind of particles to be accelerated, the assumed plasma model and so on. At present most of the alternatives have been studied with relatively deepness, though some features are not yet com-pletely understood. One of them is the delimitation of the real importance of non-lineal effects of turbulence waves in the process of particle acceleration. In this work we analyse such effects taking into account the temporal evolution of the turbulence. For illustration we exemplify our analysis with the fast MHD mode. Our results show that in some specific stages of the turbulence evolu-tion, non-linear interactions have important effects in the process of particle acceleration.

  13. Relativistic cosmic ray spectra in the full non-linear theory of shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.; Ellison, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The non-linear theory of shock acceleration was generalized to include wave dynamics. In the limit of rapid wave damping, it is found that a finite ave velocity tempers the acceleration of high Mach number shocks and limits the maximum compression ratio even when energy loss is important. For a given spectrum, the efficiency of relativistic particle production is essentially independent of v sub Ph. For the three families shown, the percentage of kinetic energy flux going into relativistic particles is (1) 72%, 2) 44%, and (3) 26% (this includes the energy loss at the upper energy cuttoff). Even small v sub ph, typical of the HISM, produce quasi-universal spectra that depend only weakly on the acoustic Mach number. These spectra should be close enough to e(-2) to satisfy cosmic ray source requirements.

  14. Non-linear electroencephalogram dynamics in patients with spontaneous nocturnal migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Fritzer, G; Göder, R; Niederberger, U; Gerber, W D; Aldenhoff, J

    2001-08-24

    The present study was conducted to examine non-linear electroencephalogram (EEG) measures during the development of a spontaneous migraine attack. We investigated the sleep EEG of five patients with migraine without aura in the pain-free interval and at the onset of a nocturnal attack. Sleep EEG recordings were analysed using the method of global dimensional complexity compared to conventional sleep scoring techniques. We found no divergence between classical sleep architecture and the estimated dimensional course nor any relevant short-term changes related to the onset of headache. There was, however, a loss of dimensional complexity in the first two non-rapid eye movement sleep states in the migraine night, with statistical significance during the second sleep cycle. For the first time, these results provide evidence of a global dimension decrease that is related to cortical network changes during a migraine attack. PMID:11502356

  15. The massive O(N) non-linear sigma model at high orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijnens, Johan; Carloni, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    We extend our earlier work on the massive O(N) non-linear sigma model to other observables. We derive expressions at leading order in the large N expansion at all orders in the loop expansion for the decay constant, vacuum expectation value, meson-meson scattering and the scalar and vector form factors. This is done using cactus diagram resummation using a generalized gap equation and other recursion relations. For general N we derive the expressions for the n-th-loop-order leading logarithms (M/Flog (/M))n, up to five loops for the decay constant and vacuum expectation value (VEV) and up to four loops for meson-meson scattering, the scalar and vector form factors. We also quote our earlier result for the mass. The large N results do not give a good approximation for the case N=3. We use our results to study the convergence of the perturbative series and compare with elastic unitarity.

  16. Tracing Analytic Ray Curves for Light and Sound Propagation in Non-Linear Media.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qi; Yeh, Hengchin; Manocha, Dinesh

    2016-11-01

    The physical world consists of spatially varying media, such as the atmosphere and the ocean, in which light and sound propagates along non-linear trajectories. This presents a challenge to existing ray-tracing based methods, which are widely adopted to simulate propagation due to their efficiency and flexibility, but assume linear rays. We present a novel algorithm that traces analytic ray curves computed from local media gradients, and utilizes the closed-form solutions of both the intersections of the ray curves with planar surfaces, and the travel distance. By constructing an adaptive unstructured mesh, our algorithm is able to model general media profiles that vary in three dimensions with complex boundaries consisting of terrains and other scene objects such as buildings. Our analytic ray curve tracer with the adaptive mesh improves the efficiency considerably over prior methods. We highlight the algorithm's application on simulation of visual and sound propagation in outdoor scenes.

  17. Non-linear Parameter Estimates from Non-stationary MEG Data

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vargas, Juan D.; López, Jose D.; Baker, Adam; Castellanos-Dominguez, German; Woolrich, Mark W.; Barnes, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to estimate key electrophysiological parameters from resting state data. In this paper, we focus on the estimation of head-position parameters. The recovery of these parameters is especially challenging as they are non-linearly related to the measured field. In order to do this we use an empirical Bayesian scheme to estimate the cortical current distribution due to a range of laterally shifted head-models. We compare different methods of approaching this problem from the division of M/EEG data into stationary sections and performing separate source inversions, to explaining all of the M/EEG data with a single inversion. We demonstrate this through estimation of head position in both simulated and empirical resting state MEG data collected using a head-cast.

  18. Halo Reduction By Means of Non Linear Optical Elements in the NLC Final Focus System

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei

    2001-07-23

    In the Beam Delivery Systems (BDS) for linear colliders that have been designed or built, collimators (or scrapers) are used to suppress backgrounds due to the beam halo. Off-energy and off-axis particles are stopped on the collimator jaws, physically limiting the acceptance of the system. This concept does not scale well to higher beam energy, higher intensity or lower emittance. The increased beam density requires longer and more demanding collimator regions. In contrast, this paper studies the possibility of inserting non-linear optical elements into the Final Focus in order to effectively increase the acceptance of the system. This technique could make the traditional collimation scheme obsolete so that only protection collimators would be needed.

  19. In vitro exposure: Linear and non-linear thermodynamic events in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paffi, Alessandra; Liberti, Micaela; Apollonio, Francesca; Sheppard, Asher; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-10-01

    We conducted an electromagnetic-thermal analysis of Petri dishes filled with different medium volumes under different radio frequency exposure conditions with the aim of identifying linear and non-linear parameters that might explain contradictory results of many in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments. We found that power loss density and temperature depend on shape, size, and orientation of the exposed sample with respect to direction of incident energy, showing that the liquid medium acts as a receiving antenna. In addition, we investigated the possibility of convection from thermodynamic principles within the liquid medium. For a 35 mm diameter Petri dish, a 2 or 4 ml medium volume is too small to support vertical convection. Conversely, horizontal convective motion is possible for H-polarization exposures at 1.8 GHz.

  20. Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Time-Domain Controlled Inversion Source

    2006-11-16

    Software that simulates and inverts time-domain electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a step-wise source signal from either galvanic (grounded wires) or inductive (magnetic loops) sources. The inversion process is carried inductive (magnetic loops) sources. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code TEM3D ver. 2.0. The upgrade includes the following components: (1) Improved (faster)memory access during gradient computation. (2) Data parellelization scheme: Multiple transmitters (sources) can be distributed accross several banks of processors (daa-planes). Similarly, the receivers of each source are also distributed accross the corresponding data-plane. (3) Improved data-IO.« less

  1. Numerical Demultiplexing of Color Image Sensor Measurements via Non-linear Random Forest Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Deglint, Jason; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Cho, Daniel; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous capture of imaging data at multiple wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum is highly challenging, requiring complex and costly multispectral image devices. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of simultaneous multispectral imaging using conventional image sensors with color filter arrays via a novel comprehensive framework for numerical demultiplexing of the color image sensor measurements. A numerical forward model characterizing the formation of sensor measurements from light spectra hitting the sensor is constructed based on a comprehensive spectral characterization of the sensor. A numerical demultiplexer is then learned via non-linear random forest modeling based on the forward model. Given the learned numerical demultiplexer, one can then demultiplex simultaneously-acquired measurements made by the color image sensor into reflectance intensities at discrete selectable wavelengths, resulting in a higher resolution reflectance spectrum. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of such a method for the purpose of simultaneous multispectral imaging. PMID:27346434

  2. Design and fabrication of ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber with low non-linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiale; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Guiyao; Xia, Changming; Liu, Jiantao; Zheng, Yan; Tian, Hongchun; Hou, Zhiyun

    2015-05-01

    We report on an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber fabricated by laser sintering technology combined with a solution doping method. This novel fabrication process has never been reported to the best of our knowledge. Together with low non-linearity, this PCF combines the advantages of high pump absorption efficiency and bend-insensitive, which makes this fiber predestinated for the high power fiber laser applications. The fiber laser experiment was conducted with a simple Fabry-Perot cavity to verify the performance of the PCF. A high slope efficiency of ~70.6% was obtained from a 1.5 m-long fiber. During the experiment, no roll over was observed up to the highest power level, which was only limited by the available pump power. The experimental results reveal the enormous output power scaling potential of the PCF.

  3. A non-linear iterative method for multi-layer DOT sub-surface imaging system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hsiang-Wen; Wu, Shih-Yang; Sun, Hao-Jan; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) has become an emerging non-invasive technology, and has been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Functional near-infrared (FNIR) is one of the important applications of DOT. However, FNIR is used to reconstruct two-dimensional (2D) images for the sake of good spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper we propose a multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) based data extraction algorithm method in order to increase the spatial and temporal resolution. The non-linear iterative method is used to reconstruct better resolution images layer by layer. In terms of theory, the simulation results and original images are nearly identical. The proposed reconstruction method performs good spatial resolution, and has a depth resolutions capacity of three layers.

  4. Non-linear substructure approach for dynamic analysis of rigid-flexible multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, A. Q.; Liew, K. M.

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents a substructure synthesis method (SSM) for nonlinear analysis of multibody systems. The detailed derivation of the equation of motion which takes into account the geometric nonlinear effects of large rotation undergoing small strain elastic deformation is presented. Using the substructure synthesis approach, the equation of motion is condensed through the boundary conditions at the interface between the flexible and rigid substructures. As a result, equations of motion for multi-flexible-body systems including the geometric non-linear effects of large rotation are derived. To demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the proposed approach, an example of a two-link manipulator was chosen for this presentation. The results using the linear and nonlinear models are presented to highlight the effects of geometric nonlinearities.

  5. Reprint of : Dynamics of coupled vibration modes in a quantum non-linear mechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadze, G.; Dukalski, M.; Blanter, Ya. M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the behaviour of two non-linearly coupled flexural modes of a doubly clamped suspended beam (nanomechanical resonator). One of the modes is externally driven. We demonstrate that classically, the behavior of the non-driven mode is reminiscent of that of a parametrically driven linear oscillator: it exhibits a threshold behavior, with the amplitude of this mode below the threshold being exactly zero. Quantum-mechanically, we were able to access the dynamics of this mode below the classical parametric threshold. We show that whereas the mean displacement of this mode is still zero, the mean squared displacement is finite and at the threshold corresponds to the occupation number of 1/2. This finite displacement of the non-driven mode can serve as an experimentally verifiable quantum signature of quantum motion.

  6. Non-linear Conjugate Gradient Time-Domain Controlled Inversion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Gregory A.; Commer, Michael

    2006-11-16

    Software that simulates and inverts time-domain electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a step-wise source signal from either galvanic (grounded wires) or inductive (magnetic loops) sources. The inversion process is carried inductive (magnetic loops) sources. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria. The software is an upgrade from the code TEM3D ver. 2.0. The upgrade includes the following components: (1) Improved (faster)memory access during gradient computation. (2) Data parellelization scheme: Multiple transmitters (sources) can be distributed accross several banks of processors (daa-planes). Similarly, the receivers of each source are also distributed accross the corresponding data-plane. (3) Improved data-IO.

  7. Non-linear Parameter Estimates from Non-stationary MEG Data.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vargas, Juan D; López, Jose D; Baker, Adam; Castellanos-Dominguez, German; Woolrich, Mark W; Barnes, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to estimate key electrophysiological parameters from resting state data. In this paper, we focus on the estimation of head-position parameters. The recovery of these parameters is especially challenging as they are non-linearly related to the measured field. In order to do this we use an empirical Bayesian scheme to estimate the cortical current distribution due to a range of laterally shifted head-models. We compare different methods of approaching this problem from the division of M/EEG data into stationary sections and performing separate source inversions, to explaining all of the M/EEG data with a single inversion. We demonstrate this through estimation of head position in both simulated and empirical resting state MEG data collected using a head-cast. PMID:27597815

  8. Ultra-slim plastic endomicroscope objective for non-linear microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kyrish, Matthew; Utzinger, Urs; Descour, Michael R.; Baggett, Brenda K.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-01-01

    Non-linear microscopy has the potential to provide clinically useful information on the structure of biological tissue in vivo via an endomicroscope. The ability to use plastic as the optical material in a multiphoton objective was evaluated based on several criteria including autofluorescence, injection molding induced birefringence, and pulse broadening due to group velocity dispersion. An all-plastic, refractive ultra-slim endoscope objective was built with design specifications of NA = 0.4, FOV = 250 μm, 1.27 mm outer diameter, and 0.8 mm clear aperture. Initial images of second-harmonic generation signal (illumination at 780 nm) in collagen fibers and two-photon excited fluorescence (illumination at 920 nm) of Convallaria rhizome are reported. PMID:21503069

  9. Instantaneous Non-Linear Processing by Pulse-Coupled Threshold Units

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Stefan; Diesmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary theory of spiking neuronal networks is based on the linear response of the integrate-and-fire neuron model derived in the diffusion limit. We find that for non-zero synaptic weights, the response to transient inputs differs qualitatively from this approximation. The response is instantaneous rather than exhibiting low-pass characteristics, non-linearly dependent on the input amplitude, asymmetric for excitation and inhibition, and is promoted by a characteristic level of synaptic background noise. We show that at threshold the probability density of the potential drops to zero within the range of one synaptic weight and explain how this shapes the response. The novel mechanism is exhibited on the network level and is a generic property of pulse-coupled networks of threshold units. PMID:20856583

  10. ANALYSIS OF HIGH FIELD NON-LINEAR LOSSES ON SRF SURFACES DUE TO SPECIFIC TOPOGRAPHIC ROUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xu,Charles Reece,Michael Kelley

    2012-07-01

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities will eventually be limited by the realization of fundamental material limits, whether it is Hc1 or Hsh, or some derivative thereof, at which the superconductivity is lost. Before reaching this fundamental field limit at the macro level, it must be encountered at localized, perhaps microscopic, sites of field enhancement due to local topography. If such sites are small enough, they may produce thermally stabilized normal-conducting regions which contribute non-linear losses when viewed from the macro resonant field perspective, and thus produce degradation in Q0. We have undertaken a calculation of local surface magnetic field enhancement from specific fine topographic structure by conformal mapping method and numerically. A solution of the resulting normal conducting volume has been derived and the corresponding RF Ohmic loss simulated.

  11. Non-linear electro-optical effects in the study of the helical smectic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicka, K.; Kuczyński, W.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the non-linear electro-optical effects for the well-known prototype liquid crystal material (MHPOBC) are presented. The method to identify liquid crystalline phases and to determine temperatures of phase transitions based on the analysis of the second harmonic component of electro-optical response spectra is used. Applying that method, the values of the frequency (?) at which the second harmonic electro-optic response (EOR) possesses an extremum are determined for each smectic phase. We suggest that this characteristic frequency correspond to the phase-type mode processes. Furthermore, we show that the usually neglected results on heating can be useful in discussions of dynamical behaviour of second harmonic EOR in case of smectic phases.

  12. Numerical Demultiplexing of Color Image Sensor Measurements via Non-linear Random Forest Modeling.

    PubMed

    Deglint, Jason; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Cho, Daniel; Clausi, David A; Wong, Alexander

    2016-06-27

    The simultaneous capture of imaging data at multiple wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum is highly challenging, requiring complex and costly multispectral image devices. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of simultaneous multispectral imaging using conventional image sensors with color filter arrays via a novel comprehensive framework for numerical demultiplexing of the color image sensor measurements. A numerical forward model characterizing the formation of sensor measurements from light spectra hitting the sensor is constructed based on a comprehensive spectral characterization of the sensor. A numerical demultiplexer is then learned via non-linear random forest modeling based on the forward model. Given the learned numerical demultiplexer, one can then demultiplex simultaneously-acquired measurements made by the color image sensor into reflectance intensities at discrete selectable wavelengths, resulting in a higher resolution reflectance spectrum. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of such a method for the purpose of simultaneous multispectral imaging.

  13. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions. PMID:26561090

  14. Non-linear plasma effects on laser-induced terahertz emission from the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Jin, Z.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.

    2012-02-01

    Power, spectral characteristics, and angle distribution of terahertz (THz) radiation from air irradiated by a single (ω) or coupled (ω, 2ω) femtosecond laser pulses are analyzed for higher intensities, for which non-linear plasma effects on the pulse propagation become essential, by means of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations exploiting the self-consistent plasma kinetics. THz radiation is shown to be a result of beat waves generated at ionization front with fundamental and second harmonic waves. At lower intensities, the THz power growth is far faster than the linear; at pulse intensities over I > 1015 W/cm2, the power increases slower than the linear. Along with the forward emission, strong power in around 30o angles occurs at high intensities. Ionization of air results in poor focusing of laser pulses and, therefore, lower efficiency of THz emission.

  15. A New Class of Non-Linear, Finite-Volume Methods for Vlasov Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J W; Hittinger, J A

    2009-11-24

    Methods for the numerical discretization of the Vlasov equation should efficiently use the phase space discretization and should introduce only enough numerical dissipation to promote stability and control oscillations. A new high-order, non-linear, finite-volume algorithm for the Vlasov equation that discretely conserves particle number and controls oscillations is presented. The method is fourth-order in space and time in well-resolved regions, but smoothly reduces to a third-order upwind scheme as features become poorly resolved. The new scheme is applied to several standard problems for the Vlasov-Poisson system, and the results are compared with those from other finite-volume approaches, including an artificial viscosity scheme and the Piecewise Parabolic Method. It is shown that the new scheme is able to control oscillations while preserving a higher degree of fidelity of the solution than the other approaches.

  16. Synthesis, crystal growth and studies on non-linear optical property of new chalcones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.; Ashalatha, B. V.; Indira, J.; Lobo, K. G.

    2006-09-01

    The synthesis, crystal growth and non-linear optical (NLO) property of new chalcone derivatives are reported. 4-Propyloxy and 4-butoxy benzaldehydes were made to under go Claisen-Schmidt condensation with 4-methoxy, 4-nitro and 4-phenoxy acetophenones to form corresponding chalcones. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral data. The Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of these compounds was measured by powder technique using Nd:YAG laser. Among tested compounds three chalcones showed NLO property. The chalcone 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-propyloxy phenyl)-2-propen-1-one exhibited SHG conversion efficiency 2.7 times that of urea. The bulk crystal of 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one (crystal size 65×28×15 mm 3) was grown by slow-evaporation technique from acetone. Microhardness of the crystal was tested by Vicker's microhardness method.

  17. Induced Li-site vacancies and non-linear optical behavior of doped lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, D.; Betzler, K.; Hesse, H.

    2001-04-01

    Second-order non-linear optical (NLO) properties of doped lithium niobate (LN) crystals (abbreviated as M:LN, where M=Mg 2+,Zn 2+, and In 3+, respectively) have been quantitatively studied from the chemical bond viewpoint. Our results show that the second-order NLO response of doped LN crystals decreases remarkably with increasing dopant concentration in the crystal. The approximately linear composition-property correlation in these doped LN crystals is quantitatively expressed in the current work. A comparison of the different influences of Mg, Zn and In dopants, respectively, shows that these dopants affect the NLO properties of LN crystals mainly via the number of Li-site vacancies induced.

  18. The Search for Non-Linear Exposure-Response Relationships at Ambient Levels in Environmental Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, Morton

    2005-01-01

    Environmental exposures to ambient air particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and to dioxin and related compounds are of considerable public health concern, and risk assessments for them have generally been based on linear, non-threshold models derived from epidemiological study data. While the epidemiological databases for PM, O3, and ETS have been sufficient to show that adverse health effects are occurring, the relative risks have been quite low, and it has not been possible, to date, to identify thresholds or non-linear relationships for them. For dioxin and related compounds, the evidence for excess cancer risks has been inadequate to establish causality, and there is suggestive evidence that hormesis may have occurred. PMID:19330159

  19. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

  20. Wave Driven Non-linear Flow Oscillator for the 22-Year Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Wolff, Charles L.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the Earth's atmosphere, a zonal flow oscillation is observed with periods between 20 and 32 months, the Quasi Biennial Oscillation. This oscillation does not require external time dependent forcing but is maintained by non-linear wave momentum deposition. It is proposed that such a mechanism also drives long-period oscillations in planetary and stellar interiors. We apply this mechanism to generate a flow oscillation for the 22-year solar cycle. The oscillation would occur just below the convective envelope where waves can propagate. Using scale analysis, we present results from a simplified model that incorporates Hines' gravity wave parameterization. Wave amplitudes less than 10 m/s can produce reversing zonal flows of 25 m/s that should be sufficient to generate a corresponding oscillation in the poloidal magnetic field. Low buoyancy frequency and the associated increase in turbulence help to produce the desired oscillation period of the flow.