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Sample records for ketone body metabolism

  1. Cerebral ketone body metabolism.

    PubMed

    Morris, A A M

    2005-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.

  2. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

  3. Ketone body metabolism and its defects.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Toshiyuki; Mitchell, Grant; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Hori, Tomohiro; Orii, Kenji; Aoyama, Yuka

    2014-07-01

    Acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), the two main ketone bodies of humans, are important vectors of energy transport from the liver to extrahepatic tissues, especially during fasting, when glucose supply is low. Blood total ketone body (TKB) levels should be evaluated in the context of clinical history, such as fasting time and ketogenic stresses. Blood TKB should also be evaluated in parallel with blood glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). The FFA/TKB ratio is especially useful for evaluation of ketone body metabolism. Defects in ketogenesis include mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase (mHS) deficiency and HMG-CoA lyase (HL) deficiency. mHS deficiency should be considered in non-ketotic hypoglycemia if a fatty acid beta-oxidation defect is suspected, but cannot be confirmed. Patients with HL deficiency can develop hypoglycemic crises and neurological symptoms even in adolescents and adults. Succinyl-CoA-3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency and beta-ketothiolase (T2) deficiency are two defects in ketolysis. Permanent ketosis is pathognomonic for SCOT deficiency. However, patients with "mild" SCOT mutations may have nonketotic periods. T2-deficient patients with "mild" mutations may have normal blood acylcarnitine profiles even in ketoacidotic crises. T2 deficient patients cannot be detected in a reliable manner by newborn screening using acylcarnitines. We review recent data on clinical presentation, metabolite profiles and the course of these diseases in adults, including in pregnancy.

  4. Ketone bodies and two-compartment tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2012-01-01

    We have previously suggested that ketone body metabolism is critical for tumor progression and metastasis. Here, using a co-culture system employing human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts, we provide new evidence to directly support this hypothesis. More specifically, we show that the enzymes required for ketone body production are highly upregulated within cancer-associated fibroblasts. This appears to be mechanistically controlled by the stromal expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and/or serum starvation. In addition, treatment with ketone bodies (such as 3-hydroxy-butyrate, and/or butanediol) is sufficient to drive mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells. This observation was also validated by unbiased proteomic analysis. Interestingly, an MCT1 inhibitor was sufficient to block the onset of mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells, suggesting a possible avenue for anticancer therapy. Finally, using human breast cancer tumor samples, we directly confirmed that the enzymes associated with ketone body production (HMGCS2, HMGCL and BDH1) were preferentially expressed in the tumor stroma. Conversely, enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1) and mitochondrial biogenesis (HSP60) were selectively associated with the epithelial tumor cell compartment. Our current findings are consistent with the “two-compartment tumor metabolism” model. Furthermore, they suggest that we should target ketone body metabolism as a new area for drug discovery, for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. PMID:23082721

  5. Ketone bodies and brain glutamate and GABA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Daikhin, Y; Yudkoff, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of ketone bodies on brain metabolism of glutamate and GABA were studied in three different systems: synaptosomes, cultured astrocytes and the whole animal. In synaptosomes the addition of either acetoacetate or 3-OH-butyrate was associated with diminished consumption of glutamate via transamination to aspartate and increased formation of labelled GABA from either L-[2H5-2,3,3,4, 4]glutamine or L-[15N]glutamine. There was no effect of ketone bodies on synaptosomal GABA transamination. An increase of total forebrain GABA and a diminution of aspartate was noted when mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3-OH-butyrate. In cultured astrocytes the addition of acetoacetate to the medium was associated with a significantly enhanced rate of citrate production and with a diminution in the rate of conversion of [15N]glutamate to [15N]aspartate. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the metabolism of ketone bodies to acetyl-CoA results in a diminution of the pool of brain oxaloacetate, which is consumed in the citrate synthetase reaction (oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA --> citrate). As less oxaloacetate is available to the aspartate aminotransferase reaction, thereby lowering the rate of glutamate transamination, more glutamate becomes accessible to the glutamate decarboxylase pathway, thereby favoring the synthesis of GABA.

  6. Regulation of Ketone Body Metabolism and the Role of PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Dean, Matthew; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenesis and ketolysis are central metabolic processes activated during the response to fasting. Ketogenesis is regulated in multiple stages, and a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is one of the key transcription factors taking part in this regulation. PPARα is an important element in the metabolic network, where it participates in signaling driven by the main nutrient sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) and induces hormonal mediators, such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). This work describes the regulation of ketogenesis and ketolysis in normal and malignant cells and briefly summarizes the positive effects of ketone bodies in various neuropathologic conditions. PMID:27983603

  7. Ketone bodies in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    McNally, Melanie A; Hartman, Adam L

    2012-04-01

    Seizures that are resistant to standard medications remain a major clinical problem. One underutilized option for patients with medication-resistant seizures is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The diet received its name based on the observation that patients consuming this diet produce ketone bodies (e.g., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). Although the exact mechanisms of the diet are unknown, ketone bodies have been hypothesized to contribute to the anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effects. In this review, anticonvulsant properties of ketone bodies and the ketogenic diet are discussed (including GABAergic and glutamatergic effects). Because of the importance of ketone body metabolism in the early stages of life, the effects of ketone bodies on developing neurons in vitro also are discussed. Understanding how ketone bodies exert their effects will help optimize their use in treating epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Ketone Bodies in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Melanie A.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures that are resistant to standard medications remain a major clinical problem. One underutilized option for patients with medication-resistant seizures is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The diet received its name based on the observation that patients consuming this diet produce ketone bodies (e.g., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). Although the exact mechanisms of the diet are unknown, ketone bodies have been hypothesized to contribute to the anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effects. In this review, anticonvulsant properties of ketone bodies and the ketogenic diet are discussed (including GABAergic and glutamatergic effects). Because of the importance of ketone body metabolism in the early stages of life, the effects of ketone bodies on developing neurons in vitro also are discussed. Understanding how ketone bodies exert their effects will help optimize their use in treating epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:22268909

  9. Hyperpolarized ketone body metabolism in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jack J; Ball, Daniel R; Lau, Angus Z; Tyler, Damian J

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the use of 13 C-labelled acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate as novel hyperpolarized substrates in the study of cardiac metabolism. [1- 13 C]Acetoacetate was synthesized by catalysed hydrolysis, and both it and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate were hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Their metabolism was studied in isolated, perfused rat hearts. Hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]acetoacetate metabolism was also studied in the in vivo rat heart in the fed and fasted states. Hyperpolarization of [1- 13 C]acetoacetate and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate provided liquid state polarizations of 8 ± 2% and 3 ± 1%, respectively. The hyperpolarized T 1 values for the two substrates were 28 ± 3 s (acetoacetate) and 20 ± 1 s (β-hydroxybutyrate). Multiple downstream metabolites were observed within the perfused heart, including acetylcarnitine, citrate and glutamate. In the in vivo heart, an increase in acetylcarnitine production from acetoacetate was observed in the fed state, as well as a potential reduction in glutamate. In this work, methods for the generation of hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]acetoacetate and [1- 13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate were investigated, and their metabolism was assessed in both isolated, perfused rat hearts and in the in vivo rat heart. These preliminary investigations show that DNP can be used as an effective in vivo probe of ketone body metabolism in the heart. © 2018 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multi-dimensional roles of ketone bodies in fuel metabolism, signaling, and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Puchalska, Patrycja; Crawford, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Ketone body metabolism is a central node in physiological homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how ketones serve discrete fine-tuning metabolic roles that optimize organ and organism performance in varying nutrient states, and protect from inflammation and injury in multiple organ systems. Traditionally viewed as metabolic substrates enlisted only in carbohydrate restriction, recent observations underscore the importance of ketone bodies as vital metabolic and signaling mediators when carbohydrates are abundant. Complementing a repertoire of known therapeutic options for diseases of the nervous system, prospective roles for ketone bodies in cancer have arisen, as have intriguing protective roles in heart and liver, opening therapeutic options in obesity-related and cardiovascular disease. Controversies in ketone metabolism and signaling are discussed to reconcile classical dogma with contemporary observations. PMID:28178565

  11. Evidence for hypothalamic ketone body sensing: impact on food intake and peripheral metabolic responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Lionel; Geller, Sarah; Fioramonti, Xavier; Hébert, Audrey; Repond, Cendrine; Leloup, Corinne; Pellerin, Luc

    2016-01-15

    Monocarboxylates have been implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. Among them, the putative role of ketone bodies produced notably during high-fat diet (HFD) has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of a specific rise in cerebral ketone bodies on food intake and energy homeostasis regulation. A carotid infusion of ketone bodies was performed on mice to stimulate sensitive brain areas for 6 or 12 h. At each time point, food intake and different markers of energy homeostasis were analyzed to reveal the consequences of cerebral increase in ketone body level detection. First, an increase in food intake appeared over a 12-h period of brain ketone body perfusion. This stimulated food intake was associated with an increased expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptides NPY and AgRP as well as phosphorylated AMPK and is due to ketone bodies sensed by the brain, as blood ketone body levels did not change at that time. In parallel, gluconeogenesis and insulin sensitivity were transiently altered. Indeed, a dysregulation of glucose production and insulin secretion was observed after 6 h of ketone body perfusion, which reversed to normal at 12 h of perfusion. Altogether, these results suggest that an increase in brain ketone body concentration leads to hyperphagia and a transient perturbation of peripheral metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β‐hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post‐exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise‐trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti‐lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. PMID:27861911

  13. Regulation of glucose and ketone-body metabolism in brain of anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, Neil B.; Ross, Peter S.; Berger, Michael; Goodman, Michael N.

    1974-01-01

    1. The effects of starvation and diabetes on brain fuel metabolism were examined by measuring arteriovenous differences for glucose, lactate, acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate across the brains of anaesthetized fed, starved and diabetic rats. 2. In fed animals glucose represented the sole oxidative fuel of the brain. 3. After 48h of starvation, ketone-body concentrations were about 2mm and ketone-body uptake accounted for 25% of the calculated O2 consumption: the arteriovenous difference for glucose was not diminished, but lactate release was increased, suggesting inhibition of pyruvate oxidation. 4. In severe diabetic ketosis, induced by either streptozotocin or phlorrhizin (total blood ketone bodies >7mm), the uptake of ketone bodies was further increased and accounted for 45% of the brain's oxidative metabolism, and the arteriovenous difference for glucose was decreased by one-third. The arteriovenous difference for lactate was increased significantly in the phlorrhizin-treated rats. 5. Infusion of 3-hydroxybutyrate into starved rats caused marked increases in the arteriovenous differences for lactate and both ketone bodies. 6. To study the mechanisms of these changes, steady-state concentrations of intermediates and co-factors of the glycolytic pathway were determined in freeze-blown brain. 7. Starved rats had increased concentrations of acetyl-CoA. 8. Rats with diabetic ketosis had increased concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate and decreased concentrations of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, indicating an inhibition of phosphofructokinase. 9. The concentrations of acetyl-CoA, glycogen and citrate, a potent inhibitor of phosphofructokinase, were increased in the streptozotocin-treated rats. 10. The data suggest that cerebral glucose uptake is decreased in diabetic ketoacidosis owing to inhibition of phosphofructokinase as a result of the increase in brain citrate. 11. The inhibition of brain pyruvate oxidation in starvation and diabetes can be related to the

  14. Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    increased ADP/ATP, NAD +/NADH and oxygen consumption in docetaxel treated cells compared to control knock down cells, therefore induced metabolic...substrate for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP biosynthesis. Next, we examined NAD +/NADH levels in OXC1 knock down prostate cancer cells...The results showed that after docetaxel treatment, NAD + level was significantly increased in OXCT1 knock down cells compared to control knock down

  15. Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John C.; Verdin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) has been looked upon as a carrier of energy from liver to peripheral tissues during fasting or exercise. However, βOHB also signals via extracellular receptors and acts as an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). These recent findings support a model in which βOHB functions to link the environment, in this case the diet, and gene expression via chromatin modifications. Here, we review the regulation and functions of ketone bodies, the relationship between ketone bodies and calorie restriction, and the implications of HDAC inhibition by the ketone body βOHB in the modulation of metabolism, and diseases of aging. PMID:24140022

  16. Improved cerebral energetics and ketone body metabolism in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens V; Christensen, Sofie K; Nissen, Jakob D

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming evident that type 2 diabetes mellitus is affecting brain energy metabolism. The importance of alternative substrates for the brain in type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ketone bodies are relevant candidates to compensate for cerebral glucose hypometabolism and unravel the functionality of cerebral mitochondria in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acutely isolated cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices of db/db mice were incubated in media containing [U-13C]glucose, [1,2-13C]acetate or [U-13C]β-hydroxybutyrate and tissue extracts were analysed by mass spectrometry. Oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis of brain mitochondria of db/db mice were assessed by Seahorse XFe96 and luciferin-luciferase assay, respectively. Glucose hypometabolism was observed for both cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices of db/db mice. Significant increased metabolism of [1,2-13C]acetate and [U-13C]β-hydroxybutyrate was observed for hippocampal slices of db/db mice. Furthermore, brain mitochondria of db/db mice exhibited elevated oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis rate. This study provides evidence of several changes in brain energy metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The increased hippocampal ketone body utilization and improved mitochondrial function in db/db mice, may act as adaptive mechanisms in order to maintain cerebral energetics during hampered glucose metabolism. PMID:28058963

  17. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebral Ketone Metabolism During Development and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism of ketones is a normal part of the process of brain development. While the mature brain relies on glucose as a primary fuel source, metabolism of ketone bodies remains an alternative energy source under conditions of starvation. The neuroprotective properties of brain ketone metabolism make this alternative substrate a viable therapeutic option for various pathologies. Since the ability to revert to utilizing ketones as an alternative substrate is greatest in the younger post-weaned brain, this particular therapeutic approach remains an untapped resource particularly for pediatric pathological conditions. PMID:22104087

  19. Ketone bodies as epigenetic modifiers.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hai-Bin; Crawford, Peter A

    2018-07-01

    Ketone body metabolism is a dynamic and integrated metabolic node in human physiology, whose roles include but extend beyond alternative fuel provision during carbohydrate restriction. Here we discuss the most recent observations suggesting that ketosis coordinates cellular function via epigenomic regulation. Ketosis has been linked to covalent modifications, including lysine acetylation, methylation, and hydroxybutyrylation, to key histones that serve as dynamic regulators of chromatin architecture and gene transcription. Although it remains to be fully established whether these changes to the epigenome are attributable to ketone bodies themselves or other aspects of ketotic states, the regulated genes mediate classical responses to carbohydrate restriction. Direct regulation of gene expression may occur in-vivo via through ketone body-mediated histone modifications during adherence to low-carbohydrate diets, fasting ketosis, exogenous ketone body therapy, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Additional convergent functional genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics studies are required in both animal models and in humans to identify the molecular mechanisms through which ketosis regulates nuclear signaling events in a myriad of conditions relevant to disease, and the contexts in which the benefits of ketosis might outweigh the risks.

  20. Perspectives on the metabolic management of epilepsy through dietary reduction of glucose and elevation of ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Greene, Amanda E; Todorova, Mariana T; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2003-08-01

    Brain cells are metabolically flexible because they can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate). Metabolic control theory applies principles of bioenergetics and genome flexibility to the management of complex phenotypic traits. Epilepsy is a complex brain disorder involving excessive, synchronous, abnormal electrical firing patterns of neurons. We propose that many epilepsies with varied etiologies may ultimately involve disruptions of brain energy homeostasis and are potentially manageable through principles of metabolic control theory. This control involves moderate shifts in the availability of brain energy metabolites (glucose and ketone bodies) that alter energy metabolism through glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. These shifts produce adjustments in gene-linked metabolic networks that manage or control the seizure disorder despite the continued presence of the inherited or acquired factors responsible for the epilepsy. This hypothesis is supported by information on the management of seizures with diets including fasting, the ketogenic diet and caloric restriction. A better understanding of the compensatory genetic and neurochemical networks of brain energy metabolism may produce novel antiepileptic therapies that are more effective and biologically friendly than those currently available.

  1. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems.

    PubMed

    Thevenet, Jonathan; De Marchi, Umberto; Domingo, Jaime Santo; Christinat, Nicolas; Bultot, Laurent; Lefebvre, Gregory; Sakamoto, Kei; Descombes, Patrick; Masoodi, Mojgan; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides have been used as part of a ketogenic diet effective in reducing epileptic episodes. The health benefits of the derived medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are thought to result from the stimulation of liver ketogenesis providing fuel for the brain. We tested whether MCFAs have direct effects on energy metabolism in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human astrocytes and neurons. Using single-cell imaging, we observed an acute pronounced reduction of the mitochondrial electrical potential and a concomitant drop of the NAD(P)H signal in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Despite the observed effects on mitochondrial function, MCFAs did not lower intracellular ATP levels or activate the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase. ATP concentrations in astrocytes were unaltered, even when blocking the respiratory chain, suggesting compensation through accelerated glycolysis. The MCFA decanoic acid (300 μM) promoted glycolysis and augmented lactate formation by 49.6%. The shorter fatty acid octanoic acid (300 μM) did not affect glycolysis but increased the rates of astrocyte ketogenesis 2.17-fold compared with that of control cells. MCFAs may have brain health benefits through the modulation of astrocyte metabolism leading to activation of shuttle systems that provide fuel to neighboring neurons in the form of lactate and ketone bodies.-Thevenet, J., De Marchi, U., Santo Domingo, J., Christinat, N., Bultot, L., Lefebvre, G., Sakamoto, K., Descombes, P., Masoodi, M., Wiederkehr, A. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems. © FASEB.

  2. Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L

    2010-01-01

    The developing central nervous system has the capacity to metabolize ketone bodies. It was once accepted that on weaning, the ‘post-weaned/adult’ brain was limited solely to glucose metabolism. However, increasing evidence from conditions of inadequate glucose availability or increased energy demands has shown that the adult brain is not static in its fuel options. The objective of this review is to summarize the body of literature specifically regarding cerebral ketone metabolism at different ages, under conditions of starvation and after various pathologic conditions. The evidence presented supports the following findings: (1) there is an inverse relationship between age and the brain’s capacity for ketone metabolism that continues well after weaning; (2) neuroprotective potentials of ketone administration have been shown for neurodegenerative conditions, epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, and traumatic brain injury; and (3) there is an age-related therapeutic potential for ketone as an alternative substrate. The concept of cerebral metabolic adaptation under various physiologic and pathologic conditions is not new, but it has taken the contribution of numerous studies over many years to break the previously accepted dogma of cerebral metabolism. Our emerging understanding of cerebral metabolism is far more complex than could have been imagined. It is clear that in addition to glucose, other substrates must be considered along with fuel interactions, metabolic challenges, and cerebral maturation. PMID:17684514

  3. Inborn errors of ketogenesis and ketone body utilization.

    PubMed

    Sass, Jörn Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate and 3-hydroxy-n-butyric acid are metabolites derived from fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids such as leucine. They are mainly produced in the liver via reactions catalyzed by the ketogenic enzymes mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A lyase. After prolonged starvation, ketone bodies can provide up to two-thirds of the brain's energy requirements. The rate-limiting enzyme of ketone body utilization (ketolysis) is succinyl-coenzyme A:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase. The subsequent step of ketolysis is catalyzed by 2-methylactoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, which is also involved in isoleucine catabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism affecting those four enzymes are presented and discussed in the context of differential diagnoses. While disorders of ketogenesis can present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, inborn errors of ketolysis are characterized by metabolic decompensations with ketoacidosis. If those diseases are considered early and appropriate treatment is initiated without delay, patients with inborn errors of ketone body metabolism often have a good clinical outcome.

  4. Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype?

    PubMed

    Pinckaers, Philippe J M; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bailey, David; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-03-01

    Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Dietary strategies to increase endogenous ketone body availability (i.e., a ketogenic diet) require a diet high in lipids and low in carbohydrates for ~4 days to induce nutritional ketosis. However, a high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet may impair exercise performance via reducing the capacity to utilize carbohydrate, which forms a key fuel source for skeletal muscle during intense endurance-type exercise. Recently, ketone body supplements (ketone salts and esters) have emerged and may be used to rapidly increase ketone body availability, without the need to first adapt to a ketogenic diet. However, the extent to which ketone bodies regulate skeletal muscle bioenergetics and substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance-type exercise of varying intensity and duration remains unknown. Therefore, at present there are no data available to suggest that ingestion of ketone bodies during exercise improves athletes' performance under conditions where evidence-based nutritional strategies are applied appropriately.

  5. Advanced selective non-invasive ketone body detection sensors based on new ionophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyapalan, A.; Sarswat, P. K.; Zhu, Y.; Free, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    New molecules and methods were examined that can be used to detect trace level ketone bodies. Diseases such as type 1 diabetes, childhood hypo-glycaemia-growth hormone deficiency, toxic inhalation, and body metabolism changes are linked with ketone bodies concentration. Here we introduce, selective ketone body detection sensors based on small, environmentally friendly organic molecules with Lewis acid additives. Density functional theory (DFT) simulation of the sensor molecules (Bromo-acetonaphthone tungstate (BANT) and acetonaphthophenyl ether propiono hydroxyl tungstate (APPHT)), indicated a fully relaxed geometry without symmetry attributes and specific coordination which enhances ketone bodies sensitivity. A portable sensing unit was made in which detection media containing ketone bodies at low concentration and new molecules show color change in visible light as well as unique irradiance during UV illumination. RGB analysis, electrochemical tests, SEM characterization, FTIR, absorbance and emission spectroscopy were also performed in order to validate the ketone sensitivity of these new molecules.

  6. The Failing Heart Relies on Ketone Bodies as a Fuel.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Gregory; Martin, Ola J; Horton, Julie L; Lai, Ling; Vega, Rick B; Leone, Teresa C; Koves, Timothy; Gardell, Stephen J; Krüger, Marcus; Hoppel, Charles L; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Crawford, Peter A; Muoio, Deborah M; Kelly, Daniel P

    2016-02-23

    Significant evidence indicates that the failing heart is energy starved. During the development of heart failure, the capacity of the heart to utilize fatty acids, the chief fuel, is diminished. Identification of alternate pathways for myocardial fuel oxidation could unveil novel strategies to treat heart failure. Quantitative mitochondrial proteomics was used to identify energy metabolic derangements that occur during the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in well-defined mouse models. As expected, the amounts of proteins involved in fatty acid utilization were downregulated in myocardial samples from the failing heart. Conversely, expression of β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1, a key enzyme in the ketone oxidation pathway, was increased in the heart failure samples. Studies of relative oxidation in an isolated heart preparation using ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance combined with targeted quantitative myocardial metabolomic profiling using mass spectrometry revealed that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to oxidizing ketone bodies as a fuel source in the context of reduced capacity to oxidize fatty acids. Distinct myocardial metabolomic signatures of ketone oxidation were identified. These results indicate that the hypertrophied and failing heart shifts to ketone bodies as a significant fuel source for oxidative ATP production. Specific metabolite biosignatures of in vivo cardiac ketone utilization were identified. Future studies aimed at determining whether this fuel shift is adaptive or maladaptive could unveil new therapeutic strategies for heart failure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The contribution of ketone bodies to basal and activity-dependent neuronal oxidation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Golam MI; Jiang, Lihong; Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of ketone bodies to replace glucose in support of neuronal function is unresolved. Here, we determined the contributions of glucose and ketone bodies to neocortical oxidative metabolism over a large range of brain activity in rats fasted 36 hours and infused intravenously with [2,4-13C2]-D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Three animal groups and conditions were studied: awake ex vivo, pentobarbital-induced isoelectricity ex vivo, and halothane-anesthetized in vivo, the latter data reanalyzed from a recent study. Rates of neuronal acetyl-CoA oxidation from ketone bodies (VacCoA-kbN) and pyruvate (VpdhN), and the glutamate-glutamine cycle (Vcyc) were determined by metabolic modeling of 13C label trapped in major brain amino acid pools. VacCoA-kbN increased gradually with increasing activity, as compared with the steeper change in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate (VtcaN), supporting a decreasing percentage of neuronal ketone oxidation: ∼100% (isoelectricity), 56% (halothane anesthesia), 36% (awake) with the BHB plasma levels achieved in our experiments (6 to 13 mM). In awake animals ketone oxidation reached saturation for blood levels >17 mM, accounting for 62% of neuronal substrate oxidation, the remainder (38%) provided by glucose. We conclude that ketone bodies present at sufficient concentration to saturate metabolism provides full support of basal (housekeeping) energy needs and up to approximately half of the activity-dependent oxidative needs of neurons. PMID:24780902

  8. The contribution of ketone bodies to basal and activity-dependent neuronal oxidation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Golam M I; Jiang, Lihong; Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L

    2014-07-01

    The capacity of ketone bodies to replace glucose in support of neuronal function is unresolved. Here, we determined the contributions of glucose and ketone bodies to neocortical oxidative metabolism over a large range of brain activity in rats fasted 36 hours and infused intravenously with [2,4-(13)C₂]-D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Three animal groups and conditions were studied: awake ex vivo, pentobarbital-induced isoelectricity ex vivo, and halothane-anesthetized in vivo, the latter data reanalyzed from a recent study. Rates of neuronal acetyl-CoA oxidation from ketone bodies (V(acCoA-kbN)) and pyruvate (V(pdhN)), and the glutamate-glutamine cycle (V(cyc)) were determined by metabolic modeling of (13)C label trapped in major brain amino acid pools. V(acCoA-kbN) increased gradually with increasing activity, as compared with the steeper change in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate (V(tcaN)), supporting a decreasing percentage of neuronal ketone oxidation: ∼100% (isoelectricity), 56% (halothane anesthesia), 36% (awake) with the BHB plasma levels achieved in our experiments (6 to 13 mM). In awake animals ketone oxidation reached saturation for blood levels >17 mM, accounting for 62% of neuronal substrate oxidation, the remainder (38%) provided by glucose. We conclude that ketone bodies present at sufficient concentration to saturate metabolism provides full support of basal (housekeeping) energy needs and up to approximately half of the activity-dependent oxidative needs of neurons.

  9. Is there an astrocyte-neuron ketone body shuttle?

    PubMed

    Guzmán, M; Blázquez, C

    2001-01-01

    Ketone bodies can replace glucose as the major source of brain energy when glucose becomes scarce. Although it is generally assumed that the liver supplies extrahepatic tissues with ketone bodies, recent evidence shows that astrocytes are also ketogenic cells. Moreover, the partitioning of fatty acids between ketogenesis and ceramide synthesis de novo might control the survival/death decision of neural cells. These findings support the notion that astrocytes might supply neurons with ketone bodies in situ, and raise the possibility that astrocyte ketogenesis is a cytoprotective pathway.

  10. Successful adaptation to ketosis by mice with tissue-specific deficiency of ketone body oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.; Wentz, Anna E.; André d'Avignon, D.

    2013-01-01

    During states of low carbohydrate intake, mammalian ketone body metabolism transfers energy substrates originally derived from fatty acyl chains within the liver to extrahepatic organs. We previously demonstrated that the mitochondrial enzyme coenzyme A (CoA) transferase [succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT), encoded by nuclear Oxct1] is required for oxidation of ketone bodies and that germline SCOT-knockout (KO) mice die within 48 h of birth because of hyperketonemic hypoglycemia. Here, we use novel transgenic and tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice to demonstrate that ketone bodies do not serve an obligate energetic role within highly ketolytic tissues during the ketogenic neonatal period or during starvation in the adult. Although transgene-mediated restoration of myocardial CoA transferase in germline SCOT-KO mice is insufficient to prevent lethal hyperketonemic hypoglycemia in the neonatal period, mice lacking CoA transferase selectively within neurons, cardiomyocytes, or skeletal myocytes are all viable as neonates. Like germline SCOT-KO neonatal mice, neonatal mice with neuronal CoA transferase deficiency exhibit increased cerebral glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and, while these neonatal mice exhibit modest hyperketonemia, they do not develop hypoglycemia. As adults, tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice tolerate starvation, exhibiting only modestly increased hyperketonemia. Finally, metabolic analysis of adult germline Oxct1+/− mice demonstrates that global diminution of ketone body oxidation yields hyperketonemia, but hypoglycemia emerges only during a protracted state of low carbohydrate intake. Together, these data suggest that, at the tissue level, ketone bodies are not a required energy substrate in the newborn period or during starvation, but rather that integrated ketone body metabolism mediates adaptation to ketogenic nutrient states. PMID:23233542

  11. Successful adaptation to ketosis by mice with tissue-specific deficiency of ketone body oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cotter, David G; Schugar, Rebecca C; Wentz, Anna E; d'Avignon, D André; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-02-15

    During states of low carbohydrate intake, mammalian ketone body metabolism transfers energy substrates originally derived from fatty acyl chains within the liver to extrahepatic organs. We previously demonstrated that the mitochondrial enzyme coenzyme A (CoA) transferase [succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT), encoded by nuclear Oxct1] is required for oxidation of ketone bodies and that germline SCOT-knockout (KO) mice die within 48 h of birth because of hyperketonemic hypoglycemia. Here, we use novel transgenic and tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice to demonstrate that ketone bodies do not serve an obligate energetic role within highly ketolytic tissues during the ketogenic neonatal period or during starvation in the adult. Although transgene-mediated restoration of myocardial CoA transferase in germline SCOT-KO mice is insufficient to prevent lethal hyperketonemic hypoglycemia in the neonatal period, mice lacking CoA transferase selectively within neurons, cardiomyocytes, or skeletal myocytes are all viable as neonates. Like germline SCOT-KO neonatal mice, neonatal mice with neuronal CoA transferase deficiency exhibit increased cerebral glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and, while these neonatal mice exhibit modest hyperketonemia, they do not develop hypoglycemia. As adults, tissue-specific SCOT-KO mice tolerate starvation, exhibiting only modestly increased hyperketonemia. Finally, metabolic analysis of adult germline Oxct1(+/-) mice demonstrates that global diminution of ketone body oxidation yields hyperketonemia, but hypoglycemia emerges only during a protracted state of low carbohydrate intake. Together, these data suggest that, at the tissue level, ketone bodies are not a required energy substrate in the newborn period or during starvation, but rather that integrated ketone body metabolism mediates adaptation to ketogenic nutrient states.

  12. Antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Haces, María L; Hernández-Fonseca, Karla; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Montiel, Teresa; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Massieu, Lourdes

    2008-05-01

    Ketone bodies play a key role in mammalian energy metabolism during the suckling period. Normally ketone bodies' blood concentration during adulthood is very low, although it can rise during starvation, an exogenous infusion or a ketogenic diet. Whenever ketone bodies' levels increase, their oxidation in the brain rises. For this reason they have been used as protective molecules against refractory epilepsy and in experimental models of ischemia and excitotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of these compounds are not completely understood. Here, we studied a possible antioxidant capacity of ketone bodies and whether it contributes to the protection against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemia. We report for the first time the scavenging capacity of the ketone bodies, acetoacetate (AcAc) and both the physiological and non-physiological isomers of beta-hydroxybutyrate (D- and L-BHB, respectively), for diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxyl radicals (.OH) were effectively scavenged by D- and L-BHB. In addition, the three ketone bodies were able to reduce cell death and ROS production induced by the glycolysis inhibitor, iodoacetate (IOA), while only D-BHB and AcAc prevented neuronal ATP decline. Finally, in an in vivo model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, the administration of D- or L-BHB, but not of AcAc, was able to prevent the hypoglycemia-induced increase in lipid peroxidation in the rat hippocampus. Our data suggest that the antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage in in vitro and in vivo models associated with free radical production and energy impairment.

  13. Biomarkers, ketone bodies, and the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, Theodore B

    2015-03-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (spAD) has three successive phases: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Individuals in the preclinical phase are cognitively normal. Diagnosis of preclinical spAD requires evidence of pathologic brain changes provided by established biomarkers. Histopathologic features of spAD include (i) extra-cellular cerebral amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles that embody hyperphosphorylated tau; and (ii) neuronal and synaptic loss. Amyloid-PET brain scans conducted during spAD's preclinical phase have disclosed abnormal accumulations of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in cognitively normal, high-risk individuals. However, this measure correlates poorly with changes in cognitive status. In contrast, MRI measures of brain atrophy consistently parallel cognitive deterioration. By the time dementia appears, amyloid deposition has already slowed or ceased. When a new treatment offers promise of arresting or delaying progression of preclinical spAD, its effectiveness must be inferred from intervention-correlated changes in biomarkers. Herein, differing tenets of the amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH) and the mitochondrial cascade hypothesis (MCH) are compared. Adoption of the ACH suggests therapeutic research continue to focus on aspects of the amyloid pathways. Adoption of the MCH suggests research emphasis be placed on restoration and stabilization of mitochondrial function. Ketone ester (KE)-induced elevation of plasma ketone body (KB) levels improves mitochondrial metabolism and prevents or delays progression of AD-like pathologic changes in several AD animal models. Thus, as a first step, it is imperative to determine whether KE-caused hyperketonemia can bring about favorable changes in biomarkers of AD pathology in individuals who are in an early stage of AD's preclinical phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Brianna J.; Cox, Pete J.; Evans, Rhys D.; Santer, Peter; Miller, Jack J.; Faull, Olivia K.; Magor-Elliott, Snapper; Hiyama, Satoshi; Stirling, Matthew; Clarke, Kieran

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate “ketogenic” diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB) concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS); sodium plus potassium βHB. Methods and Results: In the first study, 15 participants consumed KE or KS drinks that delivered ~12 or ~24 g of βHB. Both drinks elevated blood D-βHB concentrations (D-βHB Cmax: KE 2.8 mM, KS 1.0 mM, P < 0.001), which returned to baseline within 3–4 h. KS drinks were found to contain 50% of the L-βHB isoform, which remained elevated in blood for over 8 h, but was not detectable after 24 h. Urinary excretion of both D-βHB and L-βHB was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was in proportion to the blood AUC. D-βHB, but not L-βHB, was slowly converted to breath acetone. The KE drink decreased blood pH by 0.10 and the KS drink increased urinary pH from 5.7 to 8.5. In the second study, the effect of a meal before a KE drink on blood D-βHB concentrations was determined in 16 participants. Food lowered blood D-βHB Cmax by 33% (Fed 2.2 mM, Fasted 3.3 mM, P < 0.001), but did not alter acetoacetate or breath acetone concentrations. All ketone drinks lowered blood glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations, and had similar effects on blood electrolytes, which remained normal. In the final study, participants were given KE over 9 h as three drinks (n = 12) or a continuous nasogastric infusion (n = 4) to maintain blood D-βHB concentrations greater than 1 mM. Both drinks and

  15. The collective therapeutic potential of cerebral ketone metabolism in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L.; Matsumoto, Joyce H.

    2014-01-01

    The postinjury period of glucose metabolic depression is accompanied by adenosine triphosphate decreases, increased flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway, free radical production, activation of poly-ADP ribose polymerase via DNA damage, and inhibition of glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (a key glycolytic enzyme) via depletion of the cytosolic NAD pool. Under these post-brain injury conditions of impaired glycolytic metabolism, glucose becomes a less favorable energy substrate. Ketone bodies are the only known natural alternative substrate to glucose for cerebral energy metabolism. While it has been demonstrated that other fuels (pyruvate, lactate, and acetyl-L-carnitine) can be metabolized by the brain, ketones are the only endogenous fuel that can contribute significantly to cerebral metabolism. Preclinical studies employing both pre- and postinjury implementation of the ketogenic diet have demonstrated improved structural and functional outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) models, mild TBI/concussion models, and spinal cord injury. Further clinical studies are required to determine the optimal method to induce cerebral ketone metabolism in the postinjury brain, and to validate the neuroprotective benefits of ketogenic therapy in humans. PMID:24721741

  16. The collective therapeutic potential of cerebral ketone metabolism in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Prins, Mayumi L; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2014-12-01

    The postinjury period of glucose metabolic depression is accompanied by adenosine triphosphate decreases, increased flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway, free radical production, activation of poly-ADP ribose polymerase via DNA damage, and inhibition of glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (a key glycolytic enzyme) via depletion of the cytosolic NAD pool. Under these post-brain injury conditions of impaired glycolytic metabolism, glucose becomes a less favorable energy substrate. Ketone bodies are the only known natural alternative substrate to glucose for cerebral energy metabolism. While it has been demonstrated that other fuels (pyruvate, lactate, and acetyl-L-carnitine) can be metabolized by the brain, ketones are the only endogenous fuel that can contribute significantly to cerebral metabolism. Preclinical studies employing both pre- and postinjury implementation of the ketogenic diet have demonstrated improved structural and functional outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) models, mild TBI/concussion models, and spinal cord injury. Further clinical studies are required to determine the optimal method to induce cerebral ketone metabolism in the postinjury brain, and to validate the neuroprotective benefits of ketogenic therapy in humans. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Yudai; Takagi, Tetsuo; Inai, Makoto; Nishimura, Shuhei; Urashima, Shogo; Honda, Kazumitsu; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Terada, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

  18. Regulation of hypothalamic neuronal sensing and food intake by ketone bodies and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henri M; Levin, Barry E

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) alter their activity when ambient levels of metabolic substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids (FA), change. To assess the relationship between a high-fat diet (HFD; 60%) intake on feeding and serum and VMH FA levels, rats were trained to eat a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5%) or an HFD in 3 h/day and were monitored with VMH FA microdialysis. Despite having higher serum levels, HFD rats had lower VMH FA levels but ate less from 3 to 6 h of refeeding than did LFD rats. However, VMH β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and VMH-to-serum β-OHB ratio levels were higher in HFD rats during the first 1 h of refeeding, suggesting that VMH astrocyte ketone production mediated their reduced intake. In fact, using calcium imaging in dissociated VMH neurons showed that ketone bodies overrode normal FA sensing, primarily by exciting neurons that were activated or inhibited by oleic acid. Importantly, bilateral inhibition of VMH ketone production with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase inhibitor reversed the 3- to 6-h HFD-induced inhibition of intake but had no effect in LFD-fed rats. These data suggest that a restricted HFD intake regimen inhibits caloric intake as a consequence of FA-induced VMH ketone body production by astrocytes.

  19. Regulation of Hypothalamic Neuronal Sensing and Food Intake by Ketone Bodies and Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A.; Miziorko, Henri M.; Levin, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) alter their activity when ambient levels of metabolic substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids (FA), change. To assess the relationship between a high-fat diet (HFD; 60%) intake on feeding and serum and VMH FA levels, rats were trained to eat a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5%) or an HFD in 3 h/day and were monitored with VMH FA microdialysis. Despite having higher serum levels, HFD rats had lower VMH FA levels but ate less from 3 to 6 h of refeeding than did LFD rats. However, VMH β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and VMH-to-serum β-OHB ratio levels were higher in HFD rats during the first 1 h of refeeding, suggesting that VMH astrocyte ketone production mediated their reduced intake. In fact, using calcium imaging in dissociated VMH neurons showed that ketone bodies overrode normal FA sensing, primarily by exciting neurons that were activated or inhibited by oleic acid. Importantly, bilateral inhibition of VMH ketone production with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase inhibitor reversed the 3- to 6-h HFD-induced inhibition of intake but had no effect in LFD-fed rats. These data suggest that a restricted HFD intake regimen inhibits caloric intake as a consequence of FA-induced VMH ketone body production by astrocytes. PMID:24379353

  20. A ketogenic diet increases transport and oxidation of ketone bodies in RG2 and 9L gliomas without affecting tumor growth.

    PubMed

    De Feyter, Henk M; Behar, Kevin L; Rao, Jyotsna U; Madden-Hennessey, Kirby; Ip, Kevan L; Hyder, Fahmeed; Drewes, Lester R; Geschwind, Jean-François; de Graaf, Robin A; Rothman, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    The dependence of tumor cells, particularly those originating in the brain, on glucose is the target of the ketogenic diet, which creates a plasma nutrient profile similar to fasting: increased levels of ketone bodies and reduced plasma glucose concentrations. The use of ketogenic diets has been of particular interest for therapy in brain tumors, which reportedly lack the ability to oxidize ketone bodies and therefore would be starved during ketosis. Because studies assessing the tumors' ability to oxidize ketone bodies are lacking, we investigated in vivo the extent of ketone body oxidation in 2 rodent glioma models. Ketone body oxidation was studied using (13)C MR spectroscopy in combination with infusion of a (13)C-labeled ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate) in RG2 and 9L glioma models. The level of ketone body oxidation was compared with nontumorous cortical brain tissue. The level of (13)C-beta-hydroxybutyrate oxidation in 2 rat glioma models was similar to that of contralateral brain. In addition, when glioma-bearing animals were fed a ketogenic diet, the ketone body monocarboxylate transporter was upregulated, facilitating uptake and oxidation of ketone bodies in the gliomas. These results demonstrate that rat gliomas can oxidize ketone bodies and indicate upregulation of ketone body transport when fed a ketogenic diet. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that brain tumors are metabolically inflexible and show the need for additional research on the use of ketogenic diets as therapy targeting brain tumor metabolism. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The inverse problem of brain energetics: ketone bodies as alternative substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvetti, D.; Occhipinti, R.; Somersalo, E.

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about brain energy metabolism under ketosis, although there is evidence that ketone bodies have a neuroprotective role in several neurological disorders. We investigate the inverse problem of estimating reaction fluxes and transport rates in the different cellular compartments of the brain, when the data amounts to a few measured arterial venous concentration differences. By using a recently developed methodology to perform Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis and a new five compartment model of the astrocyte-glutamatergic neuron cellular complex, we are able to identify the preferred biochemical pathways during shortage of glucose and in the presence of ketone bodies in the arterial blood. The analysis is performed in a minimally biased way, therefore revealing the potential of this methodology for hypothesis testing.

  2. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  3. Ketone bodies protection against HIV-1 Tat-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Bhatt, Dhaval; Geiger, Nicholas H; Rosenberger, Thad A; Haughey, Norman J; Masino, Susan A; Geiger, Jonathan D

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a syndrome that ranges clinically from subtle neuropsychological impairments to profoundly disabling HIV-associated dementia. Not only is the pathogenesis of HAND unclear, but also effective treatments are unavailable. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein (HIV-1 Tat) is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND, in part, because of its well-characterized ability to directly excite neurons and cause neurotoxicity. Consistent with previous findings from others, we demonstrate here that HIV-1 Tat induced neurotoxicity, increased intracellular calcium, and disrupted a variety of mitochondria functions, such as reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing levels of reactive oxygen species, and decreasing bioenergetic efficiency. Of therapeutic importance, we show that treatment of cultured neurons with ketone bodies normalized HIV-1 Tat induced changes in levels of intracellular calcium, mitochondrial function, and neuronal cell death. Ketone bodies are normally produced in the body and serve as alternative energy substrates in tissues including brain and can cross the blood-brain barrier. Ketogenic strategies have been used clinically for treatment of neurological disorders and our current results suggest that similar strategies may also provide clinical benefits in the treatment of HAND. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Leptin controls ketone body utilization in hypothalamic neuron.

    PubMed

    Narishima, Ryota; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Shinya; Yoshida, Saki; Tanaka, Shinya; Fukui, Tetsuya

    2011-03-03

    Leptin is an appetite-controlling peptide secreted from adipose tissue. Previously, we showed that the gene expression of acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS), the ketone body-utilizing enzyme for lipid synthesis, was suppressed by leptin deficiency-induced obesity in white adipose tissue. In this study, to clarify the effects of leptin on ketone body utilization in the central nervous system, we examined the effects of leptin signaling on AACS expression. In situ hybridization analysis of ob/ob and db/db mice revealed that AACS mRNA level was reduced by leptin deficiency in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) in hypothalamus but not in other brain regions. Moreover, AACS mRNA level was increased by leptin treatment both in primary cultured neural cells and in N41 neural-like cells. In N41 cells, AACS level was decreased by AMPK inducer but increased by AMPK inhibitor. These results suggest that the up-regulation of AACS expression by leptin is due to the suppression of AMPK activity via neural leptin signaling and that the deficiency of this regulation may be responsible for neurological disorders in central appetite control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The interconversion and disposal of ketone bodies in untreated and injured post-absorptive rats

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Roger N.

    1973-01-01

    [3-14C]Acetoacetate and β-hydroxy[3-14C]butyrate were used to investigate the kinetics of ketone body metabolism in rats 3h after bilateral hind-limb ischaemia and in controls, both groups being in the post-absorptive state and in a 20°C environment. Calculations were carried out as described by Heath & Barton (1973) and the following conclusions were reached. 1. In both injured and control rats, the rates of irreversible disposal (extrahepatic utilization) of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were proportional within experimental error to their blood concentrations up to at least 0.4mm (the maximum found in these rats), implying that they were determined, via these concentrations, by the rates of production by the liver. 2. Conversion of blood β-hydroxybutyrate into blood acetoacetate took place mainly in the liver, but the reverse process occurred mainly in extrahepatic tissues. 3. The `metabolic clearance rate' (the volume of blood which, if completely cleared of substrate in unit time, would give a disposal rate equal to that in the whole animal) was calculated for β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Comparison with the cardiac output showed that in control rats the proportion of circulating β-hydroxybutyrate extracted was lower than that of acetoacetate, clearance of which appeared almost complete. After injury both metabolic clearance rates decreased, probably because of the lower cardiac output. 4. After injury, because the average blood concentrations of ketone bodies, especially acetoacetate, were higher, the mean total rate of disposal also increased. Assuming complete oxidation, the mean contribution of ketone bodies to the whole body O2 consumption rose from 7 to 15%. PMID:4798577

  6. The interconversion and disposal of ketone bodies in untreated and injured post-absorptive rats.

    PubMed

    Barton, R N

    1973-11-01

    [3-(14)C]Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxy[3-(14)C]butyrate were used to investigate the kinetics of ketone body metabolism in rats 3h after bilateral hind-limb ischaemia and in controls, both groups being in the post-absorptive state and in a 20 degrees C environment. Calculations were carried out as described by Heath & Barton (1973) and the following conclusions were reached. 1. In both injured and control rats, the rates of irreversible disposal (extrahepatic utilization) of beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were proportional within experimental error to their blood concentrations up to at least 0.4mm (the maximum found in these rats), implying that they were determined, via these concentrations, by the rates of production by the liver. 2. Conversion of blood beta-hydroxybutyrate into blood acetoacetate took place mainly in the liver, but the reverse process occurred mainly in extrahepatic tissues. 3. The ;metabolic clearance rate' (the volume of blood which, if completely cleared of substrate in unit time, would give a disposal rate equal to that in the whole animal) was calculated for beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Comparison with the cardiac output showed that in control rats the proportion of circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate extracted was lower than that of acetoacetate, clearance of which appeared almost complete. After injury both metabolic clearance rates decreased, probably because of the lower cardiac output. 4. After injury, because the average blood concentrations of ketone bodies, especially acetoacetate, were higher, the mean total rate of disposal also increased. Assuming complete oxidation, the mean contribution of ketone bodies to the whole body O(2) consumption rose from 7 to 15%.

  7. Ketones blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  8. Mitoketoscins: Novel mitochondrial inhibitors for targeting ketone metabolism in cancer stem cells (CSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Ozsvari, Bela; Sotgia, Federica; Simmons, Katie; Trowbridge, Rachel; Foster, Richard; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have now well-established that epithelial cancer cells can utilize ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and aceto-acetate) as mitochondrial fuels, to actively promote tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. The two critical metabolic enzymes implicated in this process are OXCT1 and ACAT1, which are both mitochondrial proteins. Importantly, over-expression of OXCT1 or ACAT1 in human breast cancer cells is sufficient to genetically drive tumorigenesis and/or lung metastasis, validating that they indeed behave as metabolic “tumor promoters”. Here, we decided to target these two enzymes, which give cancer cells the ability to recycle ketone bodies into Acetyl-CoA and, therefore, to produce increased ATP. Briefly, we used computational chemistry (in silico drug design) to select a sub-set of potentially promising compounds that spatially fit within the active site of these enzymes, based on their known 3D crystal structures. These libraries of compounds were then phenotypically screened for their effects on total cellular ATP levels. Positive hits were further validated by metabolic flux analysis. Our results indicated that four of these compounds effectively inhibited mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Two of these compounds also induced a reactive glycolytic phenotype in cancer cells. Most importantly, using the mammosphere assay, we showed that these compounds can be used to functionally inhibit cancer stem cell (CSC) activity and propagation. Finally, our molecular modeling studies directly show how these novel compounds are predicted to bind to the active catalytic sites of OXCT1 and ACAT1, within their Coenzyme A binding site. As such, we speculate that these mitochondrial inhibitors are partially mimicking the structure of Coenzyme A. Thus, we conclude that OXCT1 and ACAT1 are important new therapeutic targets for further drug development and optimization. We propose that this new class of drugs should be termed “mitoketoscins”, to reflect

  9. Differential utilization of ketone bodies by neurons and glioma cell lines: a rationale for ketogenic diet as experimental glioma therapy.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Gabriele D; Brucker, Daniel P; Bähr, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Hattingen, Elke; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2011-07-26

    Even in the presence of oxygen, malignant cells often highly depend on glycolysis for energy generation, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. One strategy targeting this metabolic phenotype is glucose restriction by administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet. Under these conditions, ketone bodies are generated serving as an important energy source at least for non-transformed cells. To investigate whether a ketogenic diet might selectively impair energy metabolism in tumor cells, we characterized in vitro effects of the principle ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate in rat hippocampal neurons and five glioma cell lines. In vivo, a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet was examined in an orthotopic xenograft glioma mouse model. The ketone body metabolizing enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (BDH1 and 2), 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) were expressed at the mRNA and protein level in all glioma cell lines. However, no activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway was observed in glioma cells, consistent with the absence of substantial 3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism and subsequent accumulation of succinate. Further, 3-hydroxybutyrate rescued hippocampal neurons from glucose withdrawal-induced cell death but did not protect glioma cell lines. In hypoxia, mRNA expression of OXCT1, ACAT1, BDH1 and 2 was downregulated. In vivo, the ketogenic diet led to a robust increase of blood 3-hydroxybutyrate, but did not alter blood glucose levels or improve survival. In summary, glioma cells are incapable of compensating for glucose restriction by metabolizing ketone bodies in vitro, suggesting a potential disadvantage of tumor cells compared to normal cells under a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet. Further investigations are necessary to identify co-treatment modalities, e.g. glycolysis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents that efficiently target non-oxidative pathways.

  10. The depolarizing action of GABA in cultured hippocampal neurons is not due to the absence of ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Kim, Jimok; Alger, Bradley E; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Two recent reports propose that the depolarizing action of GABA in the immature brain is an artifact of in vitro preparations in which glucose is the only energy source. The authors argue that this does not mimic the physiological environment because the suckling rats use ketone bodies and pyruvate as major sources of metabolic energy. Here, we show that availability of physiologically relevant levels of ketone bodies has no impact on the excitatory action of GABA in immature cultured hippocampal neurons. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), the primary ketone body in the neonate rat, affected neither intracellular calcium elevation nor membrane depolarizations induced by the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, when assessed with calcium imaging or perforated patch-clamp recording, respectively. These results confirm that the addition of ketone bodies to the extracellular environment to mimic conditions in the neonatal brain does not reverse the chloride gradient and therefore render GABA hyperpolarizing. Our data are consistent with the existence of a genuine "developmental switch" mechanism in which GABA goes from having a predominantly excitatory role in immature cells to a predominantly inhibitory one in adults.

  11. Ketone bodies are protective against oxidative stress in neocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Davis, Laurie M; Sullivan, Patrick G; Maalouf, Marwan; Simeone, Timothy A; van Brederode, Johannes; Rho, Jong M

    2007-06-01

    Ketone bodies (KB) have been shown to prevent neurodegeneration in models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. One possibility is that KB may exert antioxidant activity. In the current study, we explored the effects of KB on rat neocortical neurons exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or diamide - a thiol oxidant and activator of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). We found that: (i) KB completely blocked large inward currents induced by either H(2)O(2) or diamide; (ii) KB significantly decreased the number of propidium iodide-labeled cells in neocortical slices after exposure to H(2)O(2) or diamide; (iii) KB significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in dissociated neurons and in isolated neocortical mitochondria; (iv) the electrophysiological effects of KB in neurons exposed to H(2)O(2) or diamide were mimicked by bongkrekic acid and cyclosporin A, known inhibitors of mPT, as well as by catalase and DL - dithiothreitol, known antioxidants; (v) diamide alone did not significantly alter basal ROS levels in neurons, supporting previous studies indicating that diamide-induced neuronal injury may be mediated by mPT opening; and (vi) KB significantly increased the threshold for calcium-induced mPT in isolated mitochondria. Taken together, our data suggest that KB may prevent mPT and oxidative injury in neocortical neurons, most likely by decreasing mitochondrial ROS production.

  12. Involvement of brain ketone bodies and the noradrenergic pathway in diabetic hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kinuyo; Kinoshita, Mika; Yamada, Shunji; Imamura, Takuya; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro

    2011-03-01

    Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes leads to hyperphagia and severe ketosis. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that ketone bodies act on the hindbrain as a starvation signal to induce diabetic hyperphagia. Injection of an inhibitor of monocarboxylate transporter 1, a ketone body transporter, into the fourth ventricle normalized the increase in food intake in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Blockade of catecholamine synthesis in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) also restored food intake to normal levels in diabetic animals. On the other hand, hindbrain injection of the ketone body induced feeding, hyperglycemia, and fatty acid mobilization via increased sympathetic activity and also norepinephrine release in the PVN. This result provides evidence that hyperphagia in STZ-induced type 1 diabetes is signaled by a ketone body sensed in the hindbrain, and mediated by noradrenergic inputs to the PVN.

  13. Ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate blocks the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Nguyen, Kim Y.; Grant, Ryan W.; Goldberg, Emily L.; Bodogai, Monica; Kim, Dongin; D'Agostino, Dominic; Planavsky, Noah; Lupfer, Christopher; Kanneganti, Thirumala D.; Kang, Seokwon; Horvath, Tamas L.; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Crawford, Peter A.; Biragyn, Arya; Alnemri, Emad; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2015-01-01

    Ketone bodies , β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate support mammalian survival during states of energy deficit by serving as alternative source of ATP1. BHB levels are elevated during starvation, high-intensity exercise or by the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet2. Prolonged caloric restriction or fasting reduces inflammation as immune system adapts to low glucose supply and energy metabolism switches towards mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and ketolysis2-6. However, role of ketones bodies in regulation of innate immune response is unknown. We report that BHB, but neither acetoacetate nor structurally-related short chain fatty acids, butyrate and acetate, suppresses activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to several structurally unrelated NLRP3 activators, without impacting NLRC4, AIM2 or non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, BHB inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome by preventing K+ efflux and reducing ASC oligomerization and speck formation. The inhibitory effects of BHB on NLRP3 were not dependent on chirality or classical starvation regulated mechanisms like AMPK, reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy or glycolytic inhibition. BHB blocked NLRP3 inflammasome without undergoing oxidation in TCA cycle, independently of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), Sirt2, receptor Gpr109a and inhibition of NLRP3 did not correlate with magnitude of histone acetylation in macrophages. BHB reduced the NLRP3 inflammasome mediated IL-1β and IL-18 production in human monocytes. In vivo, BHB attenuates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in mouse models of NLRP3-mediated diseases like Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS), Familial Cold Autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) and urate crystal induce body cavity inflammation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of caloric restriction or ketogenic diets may be mechanistically linked to BHB-mediated inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and point to the potential

  14. Ketone isosteres of 2-N-acetamidosugars as substrates for metabolic cell surface engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Howard C.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2000-08-22

    Novel chemical reactivity can be engendered on cell surfaces by the metabolic incorporation of unnatural sugars into cell surface glycoconjuagtes. 2-N-Acetamido sugars such as GalNAc and GlcNAc are abundant components of cell surface glycoconjugates, and hence attractive targets for metabolic cell surface engineering. Here we report (1) the synthesis of isosteric analogs bearing a ketone group in place of the N-acetamido group, and (2) evaluation of their metabolic incorporation into mammalian cell surface glycans. A ketone isostere of GalNAc was metabolized by CHO cells through the salvage pathway and delivered to O-linked glycoproteins on the cell surface. Its residence atmore » the core position of O-linked glycans is suggested by studies with a-benzyl GalNAc, an inhibitor of O-linked oligosaccharide extension. A mutant CHO cell line lacking endogenous UDP-GalNAc demonstrated enhanced metabolism of the GalNAc analog, suggesting that competition with native intermediates might limits enzymatic transformation in mammalian cells. A ketone isostere of GlcNAc could not be detected on CHO or human cell surfaces after incubation. Thus, the enzymes in the GlcNAc salvage pathway might be less permissive of unnatural substrates than those comprising the GalNAc salvage pathway. Alternatively, high levels of endogenous GlcNAc derivatives might compete with the ketone isostere and prevent its incorporation into oligosaccharides.« less

  15. The AMP-activated protein kinase is involved in the regulation of ketone body production by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, C; Woods, A; de Ceballos, M L; Carling, D; Guzmán, M

    1999-10-01

    The possible role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a highly conserved stress-activated kinase, in the regulation of ketone body production by astrocytes was studied. AMPK activity in rat cortical astrocytes was three times higher than in rat cortical neurons. AMPK in astrocytes was shown to be functionally active. Thus, incubation of astrocytes with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), a cell-permeable activator of AMPK, stimulated both ketogenesis from palmitate and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I. This was concomitant to a decrease of intracellular malonyl-CoA levels and an inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase/fatty acid synthesis and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase/cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, in microdialysis experiments AICAR was shown to stimulate brain ketogenesis markedly. The effect of chemical hypoxia on AMPK and the ketogenic pathway was studied subsequently. Incubation of astrocytes with azide led to a remarkable drop of fatty acid beta-oxidation. However, activation of AMPK during hypoxia compensated the depression of beta-oxidation, thereby sustaining ketone body production. This effect seemed to rely on the cascade hypoxia --> increase of the AMP/ATP ratio --> AMPK stimulation --> acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition --> decrease of malonyl-CoA concentration --> carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deinhibition --> enhanced ketogenesis. Furthermore, incubation of neurons with azide blunted lactate oxidation, but not 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. Results show that (a) AMPK plays an active role in the regulation of ketone body production by astrocytes, and (b) ketone bodies produced by astrocytes during hypoxia might be a substrate for neuronal oxidative metabolism.

  16. GABA action in immature neocortical neurons directly depends on the availability of ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Rheims, Sylvain; Holmgren, Carl D; Chazal, Genevieve; Mulder, Jan; Harkany, Tibor; Zilberter, Tanya; Zilberter, Yuri

    2009-08-01

    In the early postnatal period, energy metabolism in the suckling rodent brain relies to a large extent on metabolic pathways alternate to glucose such as the utilization of ketone bodies (KBs). However, how KBs affect neuronal excitability is not known. Using recordings of single NMDA and GABA-activated channels in neocortical pyramidal cells we studied the effects of KBs on the resting membrane potential (E(m)) and reversal potential of GABA-induced anionic currents (E(GABA)), respectively. We show that during postnatal development (P3-P19) if neocortical brain slices are adequately supplied with KBs, E(m) and E(GABA) are both maintained at negative levels of about -83 and -80 mV, respectively. Conversely, a KB deficiency causes a significant depolarization of both E(m) (>5 mV) and E(GABA) (>15 mV). The KB-mediated shift in E(GABA) is largely determined by the interaction of the NKCC1 cotransporter and Cl(-)/HCO3 transporter(s). Therefore, by inducing a hyperpolarizing shift in E(m) and modulating GABA signaling mode, KBs can efficiently control the excitability of neonatal cortical neurons.

  17. Ketones and Human Performance.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan M; Deuster, Patricia A

    Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal. A potential role for ketosis as a performance enhancer was first introduced in 1983 with the idea that chronic ketosis without caloric restriction could preserve submaximal exercise capability by sparing glycogen or conserving the limited carbohydrate stores. Few human studies on the effects of a ketogenic diet on performance have yielded positive results, and most studies have yielded equivocal or null results, and a few negative results. Many questions about ketones relevant to Special Operations Forces (SOF) remain unanswered. At present, a ketogenic diet and/or a ketone supplement do not appear confer performance benefits for SOF. Instead, Operators should engage with their unit dietitian to develop individualized nutritional strategies based on unique mission requirements. The authors review the concept of a ketogenic diet, describe some potential benefits and risks of ketosis, review the performance literature and how to measure ketone status, and then summarize the landscape in 2017. 2017.

  18. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Emilie; Abou-Hamdan, Mhamad; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Nieoullon, André; de Reggi, Max; Gharib, Bouchra

    2010-04-23

    The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH) production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. The rate of cerebral utilization of glucose, ketone bodies, and oxygen: a comparative in vivo study of infant and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, G; Persson, B

    1976-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by means of Celabeled microspheres in infant (20-day-old) and adult (3-month-old) rats, anesthetised with Na-5-ethyl-5-(1-methylpropyl)2-thiobarbituric acid. Cerebral arteriovenous differences of acetoacetate, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, lactate, and oxygen and brain DNA content were determined in other groups of similarly treated infant and adult animals fed or starved for 48 or 72 hr. The mean CBF values of 0.48+/-0.04 and 0.62+/-0.07 ml/(g X min), +/- SEM, in infant and adult animals, respectively, were not significantly different. CBF was unaffected by starvation. At any given arterial concentration the cerebral arteriovenous difference of acetoacetate was significantly higher in infant than adult rats. The same was true for D-beta-hydroxybutyrate at arterial concentrations above 1 mmol/liter. There was an approximately linear relationship between arterial concentration of acetoacetate and its cerebral arteriovenous difference in both infant and adult rats. A similar relationship was found for D-beta-hydroxybutyrate only in infant animals. In the fed state, the cerebral uptake of glucose and ketone bodies (micromoles per (mg DNA X min)) was not different in infant and adult rats. During starvation, cerebral uptake of ketone bodies expressed as micromoles per (mg DNA X min) was higher in infant than adult rats, indicating a higher rate of utilization of ketone bodies per cell in these animals. For glucose, no such difference was found in either fed or starved groups (Table 3). The average percentage of the total cerebral uptake of substrates (micromoles per min) accounted for by ketone bodies increased in both infant and adult rats during starvation. This percentage value was clearly higher in infant than adult rats during starvation. After 72 hr of starvation the values were 38.8% and 15.2% in infant and adult rats, respectively (Fig. 3). Calculated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), assuming complete

  20. Fast quantification of short chain fatty acids and ketone bodies by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after facile derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mingfei; Cao, Huachuan

    2018-04-15

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ketone bodies recently emerged as important physiological relevant metabolites because of their association with microbiota, immunology, obesity and other metabolic states. They were commonly analyzed by GC-MS with long run time and laborious sample preparation. In this study we developed a novel LC-MS/MS method using fast derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction to detect SCFA and ketone bodies in plasma and feces. Several different derivatization reagents were evaluated to compare the efficiency, the sensitivity and chromatographic separation of structural isomers. O‑benzylhydroxylamine was selected for its superior overall performance in reaction time and isomeric separation that allowed the measurement of each SCFAs and ketone bodies free from interferences. The derivatization procedure is facile and reproducible in aqueous-organic medium, which abolished the evaporation procedure hampering the analysis of volatile short chain acids. Enhancement in sensitivity remarkably improved the detection limit of SCFA and ketone bodies to sub-fmol level. This novel method was applied to quantify these metabolites in fecal and plasma samples from lean and DIO mouse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycemia, ketonemia, and brain enzymes of ketone body utilization in suckling and adult rats undernourished from intrauterine life.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, F; Rodríguez, C; Pascual-Leone, A M

    1985-05-01

    The effect of undernutrition from the 16th day of pregnancy up to 70th day of life on blood glucose and ketone bodies and on several brain mitochondrial enzymes related to energy metabolism or biosynthetic function was investigated. Undernutrition in perinatal period was established by means of a food restriction to pregnant rats and, later, to the lactating mother; undernourished postweaned rats received half the diet consumed by the controls. Body and brain weight from undernourished rats was less than controls throughout the entire period studied. Glycemia and ketonemia were also always lower than controls. Cytochrome c oxidase, citrate synthase, 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, 3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase, and acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase activities during the suckling period were in most stages lower than controls; subsequently, activities in undernourished rats reached or surpassed the control values. These results could explain the "catch up" phenomenon in several ultrastructural parameters found by other authors in undernourished postweaned rats.

  2. The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Marwan; Rho, Jong M; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-03-01

    Both calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet possess broad therapeutic potential in various clinical settings and in various animal models of neurological disease. Following calorie restriction or consumption of a ketogenic diet, there is notable improvement in mitochondrial function, a decrease in the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators and an increase in the activity of neurotrophic factors. However, despite these intriguing observations, it is not yet clear which of these mechanisms account for the observed neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, limited compliance and concern for adverse effects hamper efforts at broader clinical application. Recent research aimed at identifying compounds that can reproduce, at least partially, the neuroprotective effects of the diets with less demanding changes to food intake suggests that ketone bodies might represent an appropriate candidate. Ketone bodies protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury and are associated with mitochondrial effects similar to those described during calorie restriction or ketogenic diet treatment. The present review summarizes the neuroprotective effects of calorie restriction, of the ketogenic diet and of ketone bodies, and compares their putative mechanisms of action.

  3. Ketone bodies do not directly alter excitatory or inhibitory hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Thio, L L; Wong, M; Yamada, K A

    2000-01-25

    To determine the effect of the ketone bodies beta-hydroxybutyrate (betaHB) and acetoacetate (AA) on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian CNS. The ketogenic diet is presumed to be an effective anticonvulsant regimen for some children with medically intractable seizures. However, its mechanism of action remains a mystery. According to one hypothesis, ketone bodies have anticonvulsant properties. The authors examined the effect of betaHB and AA on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slices and cultured hippocampal neurons. In cultured neurons, their effect was also directly assayed on postsynaptic receptor properties. Finally, their ability to prevent spontaneous seizures was determined in a hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slice model. betaHB and AA did not alter synaptic transmission in these models. The anticonvulsant properties of the ketogenic diet do not result from a direct effect of ketone bodies on the primary voltage and ligand gated ion channels mediating excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmission in the hippocampus.

  4. Concentrations of ketone bodies in the blood of the green lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) in different physiological situations.

    PubMed

    Pontes, R de C; Cartaxo, A C; Jonas, R

    1988-01-01

    1. The concentrations of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate have been determined in the blood of the green lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) in fed animals and in animals starved for periods from one week to about four months. 2. The concentrations of acetoacetate are low and unaltered in fed and starved animals, being in the range from 0.014 to 0.018 mM. 3. The concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate are high: 2.67 mM, in fed animals, falling during starvation down to 0.26 mM. 4. The 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio is high, 151, in fed animals, falling down to 17. 5. The possible importance of ketone bodies in the metabolism of Ameiva ameiva is discussed.

  5. Role of VMH ketone bodies in adjusting caloric intake to increased dietary fat content in DIO and DR rats.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henry M; Levin, Barry E

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of astrocyte-derived ketone bodies in regulating the early changes in caloric intake of diet induced-obese (DIO) versus diet-resistant (DR) rats fed a 31.5% fat high-energy (HE) diet. After 3 days on chow or HE diet, DR and DIO rats were assessed for their ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) ketone bodies levels and neuronal ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) sensing using microdialysis coupled to continuous food intake monitoring and calcium imaging in dissociated neurons, respectively. DIO rats ate more than DR rats over 3 days of HE diet intake. On day 3 of HE diet intake, DR rats reduced their caloric intake while DIO rats remained hyperphagic. Local VMH astrocyte ketone bodies production was similar between DR and DIO rats during the first 6 h after dark onset feeding but inhibiting VMH ketone body production in DR rats on day 3 transiently returned their intake of HE diet to the level of DIO rats consuming HE diet. In addition, dissociated VMN neurons from DIO and DR rats were equally sensitive to the largely excitatory effects of β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus while DR rats respond to increased VMH ketone levels by decreasing their intake after 3 days of HE diet, this is not the case of DIO rats. These data suggest that DIO inherent leptin resistance prevents ketone bodies inhibitory action on food intake.

  6. Decreasing the Rate of Metabolic Ketone Reduction in the Discovery of a Clinical Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Diabetes

    DOE PAGES

    Griffith, David A.; Kung, Daniel W.; Esler, William P.; ...

    2014-11-25

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitors offer significant potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hepatic steatosis, and cancer. However, the identification of tool compounds suitable to test the hypothesis in human trials has been challenging. An advanced series of spirocyclic ketone-containing ACC inhibitors recently reported by Pfizer were metabolized in vivo by ketone reduction, which complicated human pharmacology projections. We disclose that this metabolic reduction can be greatly attenuated through introduction of steric hindrance adjacent to the ketone carbonyl. Incorporation of weakly basic functionality improved solubility and led to the identification of 9 as a clinical candidate formore » the treatment of T2DM. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated dose-proportional increases in exposure, single-dose inhibition of de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and changes in indirect calorimetry consistent with increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation. In conclusion, this demonstration of target engagement validates the use of compound 9 to evaluate the role of DNL in human disease.« less

  7. Ketone Bodies as a Possible Adjuvant to Ketogenic Diet in PDHc Deficiency but Not in GLUT1 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Habarou, F; Bahi-Buisson, N; Lebigot, E; Pontoizeau, C; Abi-Warde, M T; Brassier, A; Le Quan Sang, K H; Broissand, C; Vuillaumier-Barrot, S; Roubertie, A; Boutron, A; Ottolenghi, C; de Lonlay, P

    2018-01-01

    Ketogenic diet is the first line therapy for neurological symptoms associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (PDHD) and intractable seizures in a number of disorders, including GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS). Because high-fat diet raises serious compliance issues, we investigated if oral L,D-3-hydroxybutyrate administration could be as effective as ketogenic diet in PDHD and GLUT1-DS. We designed a partial or total progressive substitution of KD with L,D-3-hydroxybutyrate in three GLUT1-DS and two PDHD patients. In GLUT1-DS patients, we observed clinical deterioration including increased frequency of seizures and myoclonus. In parallel, ketone bodies in CSF decreased after introducing 3-hydroxybutyrate. By contrast, two patients with PDHD showed clinical improvement as dystonic crises and fatigability decreased under basal metabolic conditions. In one of the two PDHD children, 3-hydroxybutyrate has largely replaced the ketogenic diet, with the latter that is mostly resumed only during febrile illness. Positive direct effects on energy metabolism in PDHD patients were suggested by negative correlation between ketonemia and lactatemia (r 2  = 0.59). Moreover, in cultured PDHc-deficient fibroblasts, the increase of CO 2 production after 14 C-labeled 3-hydroxybutyrate supplementation was consistent with improved Krebs cycle activity. However, except in one patient, ketonemia tended to be lower with 3-hydroxybutyrate administration compared to ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate may be an adjuvant treatment to ketogenic diet in PDHD but not in GLUT1-DS under basal metabolic conditions. Nevertheless, ketogenic diet is still necessary in PDHD patients during febrile illness.

  8. Cerebral utilization of glucose, ketone bodies and oxygen in starving infant rats and the effect of intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, G

    1976-10-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous differences of acetoacetate, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, lactate and oxygen and brain DNA content was measured at 20 days of age in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) rats and normal littermates after 48 and 72 h of starvation. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with labeled microspheres in other comparable groups of IUGR and control rats. CBF was similar in IUGR and normal littermates (0.57+/-0.09 and 0.58+/-0.10 ml/min respectively). After 48 h of starvation, arterial glucose was significantly lower in IUGR than control animals but the arterial concentrations of ketone bodies were similar. After 48 h of starvation, cerebral arteriovenous difference of beta-hydroxybutyrate was significantly higher in control than IUGR rats also when expressed per mg brain DNA as was the fractional uptake of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate. After 72 h of starvation, arterial concentrations of ketone bodies were significantly lower in IUGR rats than controls but the fractional uptake of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate was increased compared to IUGR rats starved for 48 h. The average percentage of calculated total substrate uptake (mumol/min) accounted for by ketone bodies increased in control animals from 31.1% after 48 h of starvation to 41.0% after 72 h of starvation. In IUGR rats these percentage values were 26.5 and 25.7 respectively. After 72 h of starvation the fraction of total cerebral uptake of substrates accounted for by ketone bodies was significantly higher in control that IUGR rats. As total cerebral uptake of substrates was similar between IUGR and control animals it is concluded that IUGR rats are more dependent on glucose as a substrate for the brain during starvation.

  9. Medium-chain triglycerides in infant formulas and their relation to plasma ketone body concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wu, P Y; Edmond, J; Auestad, N; Rambathla, S; Benson, J; Picone, T

    1986-04-01

    A mild ketosis is known to prevail in the mother, fetus, and newborn infant during the 3rd trimester and in the early neonatal period. It has been shown that during an equivalent period in the rat ketone bodies are readily oxidized and serve as key substrates for lipogenesis in brain. Since medium-chain triglycerides are known to be ketogenic, preterm infants may benefit from dietary medium-chain triglycerides beyond the point of enhanced fat absorption. Our objective was to determine the ketogenic response in preterm infants (gestational age: 33 +/- 0.8 wk) fed three different isocaloric formulas by measuring the concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in the plasma of these infants. At the time of entrance to the study the infants were receiving 110 kcal/kg/24 h. Study I (11 infants): the infants were fed sequentially in the order; PM 60/40 (PM), Special Care Formula (SCF), and Similac 20 (SIM). In SCF greater than 50% of the fat consists of medium-chain length fatty acids while PM and SIM contain about 25%. The concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma was significantly higher when infants were fed SCF than PM and SIM [0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.05 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively (p less than 0.01)]. Study II (12 infants); the infants were fed SCF, then SIM, or the reverse. The concentration of acetoacetate in plasma was 0.05 +/- 0.01 and 0.03 +/- 0.01 mM when infants were fed SCF and SIM, respectively (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). The concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma were similar to those measured in study I for the respective formulas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Depolarizing actions of GABA in immature neurons depend neither on ketone bodies nor on pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Tyzio, Roman; Allene, Camille; Nardou, Romain; Picardo, Michel A; Yamamoto, Sumii; Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Caiati, Maddalena D; Rheims, Sylvain; Minlebaev, Marat; Milh, Mathieu; Ferré, Pascal; Khazipov, Rustem; Romette, Jean-Louis; Lorquin, Jean; Cossart, Rosa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Nehlig, Astrid; Cherubini, Enrico; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2011-01-05

    GABA depolarizes immature neurons because of a high [Cl(-)](i) and orchestrates giant depolarizing potential (GDP) generation. Zilberter and coworkers (Rheims et al., 2009; Holmgren et al., 2010) showed recently that the ketone body metabolite DL-3-hydroxybutyrate (DL-BHB) (4 mM), lactate (4 mM), or pyruvate (5 mM) shifted GABA actions to hyperpolarizing, suggesting that the depolarizing effects of GABA are attributable to inadequate energy supply when glucose is the sole energy source. We now report that, in rat pups (postnatal days 4-7), plasma D-BHB, lactate, and pyruvate levels are 0.9, 1.5, and 0.12 mM, respectively. Then, we show that DL-BHB (4 mM) and pyruvate (200 μM) do not affect (i) the driving force for GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents (DF(GABA)) in cell-attached single-channel recordings, (2) the resting membrane potential and reversal potential of synaptic GABA(A) receptor-mediated responses in perforated patch recordings, (3) the action potentials triggered by focal GABA applications, or (4) the GDPs determined with electrophysiological recordings and dynamic two-photon calcium imaging. Only very high nonphysiological concentrations of pyruvate (5 mM) reduced DF(GABA) and blocked GDPs. Therefore, DL-BHB does not alter GABA signals even at the high concentrations used by Zilberter and colleagues, whereas pyruvate requires exceedingly high nonphysiological concentrations to exert an effect. There is no need to alter conventional glucose enriched artificial CSF to investigate GABA signals in the developing brain.

  11. Activation of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase is associated with elevated ketone body levels in the elasmobranch Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Treberg, Jason R; Crockett, Elizabeth L; Driedzic, William R

    2006-01-01

    Elasmobranch fishes are an ancient group of vertebrates that have unusual lipid metabolism whereby storage lipids are mobilized from the liver for peripheral oxidation largely as ketone bodies rather than as nonesterified fatty acids under normal conditions. This reliance on ketones, even when feeding, implies that elasmobranchs are chronically ketogenic. Compared to specimens sampled within 2 d of capture (recently captured), spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias that were held for 16-33 d without apparent feeding displayed a 4.5-fold increase in plasma concentration of d- beta -hydroxybutyrate (from 0.71 to 3.2 mM) and were considered ketotic. Overt activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in liver mitochondria from ketotic dogfish was characterized by an increased apparent maximal activity, a trend of increasing affinity (reduced apparent K(m); P=0.09) for l-carnitine, and desensitization to the inhibitor malonyl-CoA relative to recently captured animals. Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (ACoAT) activity in isolated liver mitochondria was also markedly increased in the ketotic dogfish compared to recently captured fish, whereas no difference in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity was found between these groups, suggesting that ACoAT plays a more important role in the activation of ketogenesis in spiny dogfish than in mammals and birds.

  12. Caffeine intake increases plasma ketones: an acute metabolic study in humans.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Camille; St-Pierre, Valérie; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Hennebelle, Marie; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2017-04-01

    Brain glucose uptake declines during aging and is significantly impaired in Alzheimer's disease. Ketones are the main alternative brain fuel to glucose so they represent a potential approach to compensate for the brain glucose reduction. Caffeine is of interest as a potential ketogenic agent owing to its actions on lipolysis and lipid oxidation but whether it is ketogenic in humans is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the acute ketogenic effect of 2 doses of caffeine (2.5; 5.0 mg/kg) in 10 healthy adults. Caffeine given at breakfast significantly stimulated ketone production in a dose-dependent manner (+88%; +116%) and also raised plasma free fatty acids. Whether caffeine has long-term ketogenic effects or could enhance the ketogenic effect of medium chain triglycerides remains to be determined.

  13. Raspberry Ketone

    MedlinePlus

    ... raspberry ketone solution to the scalp might increase hair growth in people with hair loss. Male pattern baldness ( ... raspberry ketone solution to the scalp might increase hair growth in people with male pattern baldness Obesity. Early ...

  14. Pyruvate and ketone-body transport across the mitochondrial membrane. Exchange properties, pH-dependence and mechanism of the carrier.

    PubMed

    Halestrap, A P

    1978-06-15

    The effects of exchangeable ions and pH on the efflux of pyruvate from preloaded mitochondria are reported. Efflux obeys first-order kinetics, and the stimulation of efflux by exchangeable ions such as acetoacetate and lactate obeys Michaelis--Menten kinetics. The apparent Km value +/- S.E. for acetoacetate was 0.56 +/- 0.14 mM (n = 5) and that for lactate 12.3 +/- 2.3 mM (n = 6). The Vmax. values +/- S.E. at 0 degrees C were 16.2 +/- 2.0 and 21.9 +/- 2.7 nmol/min per mg of protein. The exchange of a variety of other substituted monocarboxylates was also studied. Efflux was also stimulated by increasing the external pH. The data gave a pK for the transport process of 8.35 and a Vmax. of 3.31 +/- 0.14 nmol/min per mg. The similarity of the Vmax. values for various exchangeable ions but the difference of this from the Vmax. in the absence of exchangeable ions may indicate that transport of pyruvate occurs with H+ and not in exchange for an OH- ion. The inhibition of transport by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate took several seconds to reach completion at 0 degrees C. It is proposed that inhibition occurs by binding to the substrate site and subsequent reaction with an -SH group on the inside of the membrane. The inhibitor can be displaced by substrates that can also enter the mitochondria independently of the carrier and so compete with the inhibitor for the substrate-binding site on the inside of the membrane. A mechanism for transport is proposed that invokes a transition state of pyruvate involving addition of an -SH group to the 2-carbon of pyruvate. Evidence is presented that suggests that ketone bodies may cross the mitochondrial membrane either on the carrier or by free diffusion. The physiological involvement of the carrier in ketone-body metabolism is discussed. The role of ketone bodies and pH in the physiological regulation of pyruvate transport is considered.

  15. HMGCS2 promotes autophagic degradation of the amyloid-β precursor protein through ketone body-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Tian; Zhu, Bing-Lin; Lai, Yu-Jie; Long, Yan; Zha, Jing-Si; Hu, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, John H; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2017-04-29

    HMGCS2 (mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-COA synthase 2) is a control enzyme in ketogenesis. The mitochondrial localization and interaction with APP (β-amyloid precursor protein) suggest that HMGCS2 may play a role in the pathophysiology of AD (Alzheimer's disease). Here we report that overexpression of HMGCS2 decreased levels of APP and related CTFs (carboxy-terminal fragments), which was largely prevented by an autophagic inhibitor chloroquine. In addition, HMGCS2 enhancement of autophagic marker LC3II was diminished by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mechanistic target of rapamycin. Moreover, deprivation of EBSS (Earle's Balanced Salt Solution) significantly augmented the effect of HMGCS2 on LC3II, while acetoacetate reversed the reduction of LC3II, APP and CTFs which was induced by HMGCS2 knockdown. In the presence of acetoacetate, rapamycin failed to induce further increase of LC3II, which mimicked the effect of HMGCS2 overexpression. Finally, HMGCS2 enhanced the antioxidant response. Collectively, HMGCS2 shares with ketone bodies common features in autophagic clearance of APP and CTFs, suggesting that ketone bodies play an important role in HMGCS2 regulation of the autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ketone bodies effectively compete with glucose for neuronal acetyl-CoA generation in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Valente-Silva, Paula; Lemos, Cristina; Köfalvi, Attila; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Jones, John G

    2015-09-01

    Ketone bodies can be used for cerebral energy generation in situ, when their availability is increased as during fasting or ingestion of a ketogenic diet. However, it is not known how effectively ketone bodies compete with glucose, lactate, and pyruvate for energy generation in the brain parenchyma. Hence, the contributions of exogenous 5.0 mM [1-(13)C]glucose and 1.0 mM [2-(13)C]lactate + 0.1 mM pyruvate (combined [2-(13)C]lactate + [2-(13)C]pyruvate) to acetyl-CoA production were measured both without and with 5.0 mM [U-(13)C]3-hydroxybutyrate in superfused rat hippocampal slices by (13)C NMR non-steady-state isotopomer analysis of tissue glutamate and GABA. Without [U-(13)C]3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, combined lactate + pyruvate, and unlabeled endogenous sources contributed (mean ± SEM) 70 ± 7%, 10 ± 2%, and 20 ± 8% of acetyl-CoA, respectively. With [U-(13)C]3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose contributions significantly fell from 70 ± 7% to 21 ± 3% (p < 0.0001), combined lactate + pyruvate and endogenous contributions were unchanged, and [U-(13)C]3-hydroxybutyrate became the major acetyl-CoA contributor (68 ± 3%)--about three-times higher than glucose. A direct analysis of the GABA carbon 2 multiplet revealed that [U-(13)C]3-hydroxybutyrate contributed approximately the same acetyl-CoA fraction as glucose, indicating that it was less avidly oxidized by GABAergic than glutamatergic neurons. The appearance of superfusate lactate derived from glycolysis of [1-(13)C]glucose did not decrease significantly in the presence of 3-hydroxybutyrate, hence total glycolytic flux (Krebs cycle inflow + exogenous lactate formation) was attenuated by 3-hydroxybutyrate. This indicates that, under these conditions, 3-hydroxybutyrate inhibited glycolytic flux upstream of pyruvate kinase. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Inverse relationship between brain glucose and ketone metabolism in adults during short-term moderate dietary ketosis: A dual tracer quantitative positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Croteau, Etienne; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; St-Pierre, Valérie; Hennebelle, Marie; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2017-07-01

    Ketones (principally β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (AcAc)) are an important alternative fuel to glucose for the human brain, but their utilisation by the brain remains poorly understood. Our objective was to use positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the impact of diet-induced moderate ketosis on cerebral metabolic rate of acetoacetate (CMRa) and glucose (CMRglc) in healthy adults. Ten participants (35 ± 15 y) received a very high fat ketogenic diet (KD) (4.5:1; lipid:protein plus carbohydrates) for four days. CMRa and CMRglc were quantified by PET before and after the KD with the tracers, 11 C-AcAc and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG), respectively. During the KD, plasma ketones increased 8-fold ( p = 0.005) while plasma glucose decreased by 24% ( p = 0.005). CMRa increased 6-fold ( p = 0.005), whereas CMRglc decreased by 20% ( p = 0.014) on the KD. Plasma ketones were positively correlated with CMRa (r = 0.93; p < 0.0001). After four days on the KD, CMRa represented 17% of whole brain energy requirements in healthy adults with a 2-fold difference across brain regions (12-24%). The CMR of ketones (AcAc and β-hydroxybutyrate combined) while on the KD was estimated to represent about 33% of brain energy requirements or approximately double the CMRa. Whether increased ketone availability raises CMR of ketones to the same extent in older people as observed here or in conditions in which chronic brain glucose hypometabolism is present remains to be determined.

  18. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  19. INSECT FAT BODY: ENERGY, METABOLISM, AND REGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Arrese, Estela L.; Soulages, Jose L.

    2010-01-01

    The fat body plays major roles in the life of insects. It is a dynamic tissue involved in multiple metabolic functions. One of these functions is to store and release energy in response to the energy demands of the insect. Insects store energy reserves in the form of glycogen and triglycerides in the adipocytes, the main fat body cell. Insect adipocytes can store a great amount of lipid reserves as cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Lipid metabolism is essential for growth and reproduction and provides energy needed during extended nonfeeding periods. This review focuses on energy storage and release and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms underlying these processes in insects. PMID:19725772

  20. Combination of aerobic exercise and an arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine mixture increases fat mobilization and ketone body synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Keisuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Takai, Shoko; Ikegami, Shuji; Fujita, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    During exercise, blood levels of several hormones increase acutely. We hypothesized that consumption of a specific combination of amino acids (arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine; A-mix) may be involved in secretion of glucagon, and when combined with exercise may promote fat catabolism. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomized in a crossover study to ingest either A-mix (3 g/dose) or placebo (3 g of dextrin/dose). Thirty minutes after ingesting, each condition subsequently performed workload trials on a cycle ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption for 1 h. After oral intake of A-mix, the concentrations of plasma ketone bodies and adrenalin during and post-exercise were significantly increased. The area under the curve for glycerol and glucagon was significantly increased in the post-exercise by A-mix administration. These results suggest that pre-exercise ingestion of A-mix causes a shift of energy source from carbohydrate to fat combustion by increasing secretion of adrenalin and glucagon.

  1. Aging Impairs Myocardial Fatty Acid and Ketone Oxidation and Modifies Cardiac Functional and Metabolic Responses to Insulin in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Ledee, Dolena; Ning, Xue-Han

    2010-07-02

    Aging presumably initiates shifts in substrate oxidation mediated in part by changes in insulin sensitivity. Similar shifts occur with cardiac hypertrophy and may contribute to contractile dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that aging modifies substrate utilization and alters insulin sensitivity in mouse heart when provided multiple substrates. In vivo cardiac function was measured with microtipped pressure transducers in the left ventricle from control (4–6 mo) and aged (22–24 mo) mice. Cardiac function was also measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate and anaplerotic fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle (CAC) by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acidsmore » (FFA), acetoacetate, lactate, and unlabeled glucose. Stroke volume and cardiac output were diminished in aged mice in vivo, but pressure development was preserved. Systolic and diastolic functions were maintained in aged isolated hearts. Insulin prompted an increase in systolic function in aged hearts, resulting in an increase in cardiac efficiency. FFA and ketone flux were present but were markedly impaired in aged hearts. These changes in myocardial substrate utilization corresponded to alterations in circulating lipids, thyroid hormone, and reductions in protein expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)4. Insulin further suppressed FFA oxidation in the aged. Insulin stimulation of anaplerosis in control hearts was absent in the aged. The aged heart shows metabolic plasticity by accessing multiple substrates to maintain function. However, fatty acid oxidation capacity is limited. Impaired insulin-stimulated anaplerosis may contribute to elevated cardiac efficiency, but may also limit response to acute stress through depletion of CAC intermediates.« less

  2. Excitatory action of GABA on immature neurons is not due to absence of ketone bodies metabolites or other energy substrates.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Tyzio, Roman; Nehlig, Astrid

    2011-09-01

    Brain slices incubated with glucose have provided most of our knowledge on cellular, synaptic, and network driven mechanisms. It has been recently suggested that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) excites neonatal neurons in conventional glucose-perfused slices but not when ketone bodies metabolites, pyruvate, and/or lactate are added, suggesting that the excitatory actions of GABA are due to energy deprivation when glucose is the sole energy source. In this article, we review the vast number of studies that show that slices are not energy deprived in glucose-containing medium, and that addition of other energy substrates at physiologic concentrations does not alter the excitatory actions of GABA on neonatal neurons. In contrast, lactate, like other weak acids, can produce an intracellular acidification that will cause a reduction of intracellular chloride and a shift of GABA actions. The effects of high concentrations of lactate, and particularly of pyruvate (4-5 mm), as used are relevant primarily to pathologic conditions; these concentrations not being found in the brain in normal "control" conditions. Slices in glucose-containing medium may not be ideal, but additional energy substrates neither correspond to physiologic conditions nor alter GABA actions. In keeping with extensive observations in a wide range of animal species and brain structures, GABA depolarizes immature neurons and the reduction of the intracellular concentration of chloride ([Cl(-)](i)) is a basic property of brain maturation that has been preserved throughout evolution. In addition, this developmental sequence has important clinical implications, notably concerning the higher incidence of seizures early in life and their long-lasting deleterious sequels. Immature neurons have difficulties exporting chloride that accumulates during seizures, leading to permanent increase of [Cl(-)](i) that converts the inhibitory actions of GABA to excitatory and hampers the efficacy of GABA-acting antiepileptic

  3. Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poff, AM; Ari, C; Arnold, P; Seyfried, TN; D’Agostino, DP

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells express an abnormal metabolism characterized by increased glucose consumption owing to genetic mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction. Previous studies indicate that unlike healthy tissues, cancer cells are unable to effectively use ketone bodies for energy. Furthermore, ketones inhibit the proliferation and viability of cultured tumor cells. As the Warburg effect is especially prominent in metastatic cells, we hypothesized that dietary ketone supplementation would inhibit metastatic cancer progression in vivo. Proliferation and viability were measured in the highly metastatic VM-M3 cells cultured in the presence and absence of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB). Adult male inbred VM mice were implanted subcutaneously with firefly luciferase-tagged syngeneic VM-M3 cells. Mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with either 1,3-butanediol (BD) or a ketone ester (KE), which are metabolized to the ketone bodies βHB and acetoacetate. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Survival time, tumor growth rate, blood glucose, blood βHB and body weight were measured throughout the survival study. Ketone supplementation decreased proliferation and viability of the VM-M3 cells grown in vitro, even in the presence of high glucose. Dietary ketone supplementation with BD and KE prolonged survival in VM-M3 mice with systemic metastatic cancer by 51 and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05). Ketone administration elicited anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo independent of glucose levels or calorie restriction. The use of supplemental ketone precursors as a cancer treatment should be further investigated in animal models to determine potential for future clinical use. PMID:24615175

  4. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Cole, Mark A.; Cochlin, Lowri E.; Carter, Emma; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Pichulik, Tica; Gulston, Melanie K.; Atherton, Helen J.; Schroeder, Marie A.; Deacon, Robert M. J.; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M. Todd; Pawlosky, Robert; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Tyler, Damian J.; Griffin, Julian L.; Robertson, Jeremy; Veech, Richard L.; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies are the most energy-efficient fuel and yield more ATP per mole of substrate than pyruvate and increase the free energy released from ATP hydrolysis. Elevation of circulating ketones via high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets has been used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. Ketones may also be beneficial for muscle and brain in times of stress, such as endurance exercise. The challenge has been to raise circulating ketone levels by using a palatable diet without altering lipid levels. We found that blood ketone levels can be increased and cholesterol and triglycerides decreased by feeding rats a novel ketone ester diet: chow that is supplemented with (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as 30% of calories. For 5 d, rats on the ketone diet ran 32% further on a treadmill than did control rats that ate an isocaloric diet that was supplemented with either corn starch or palm oil (P < 0.05). Ketone-fed rats completed an 8-arm radial maze test 38% faster than did those on the other diets, making more correct decisions before making a mistake (P < 0.05). Isolated, perfused hearts from rats that were fed the ketone diet had greater free energy available from ATP hydrolysis during increased work than did hearts from rats on the other diets as shown by using [31P]-NMR spectroscopy. The novel ketone diet, therefore, improved physical performance and cognitive function in rats, and its energy-sparing properties suggest that it may help to treat a range of human conditions with metabolic abnormalities.—Murray, A. J., Knight, N. S., Cole, M. A., Cochlin, L. E., Carter, E., Tchabanenko, K., Pichulik, T., Gulston, M. K., Atherton, H. J., Schroeder, M. A., Deacon, R. M. J., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., Pawlosky, R., Rawlins, J. N. P., Tyler, D. J., Griffin, J. L., Robertson, J., Veech, R. L., Clarke, K. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance. PMID:27528626

  5. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885

  6. Optimized preoperative fasting times decrease ketone body concentration and stabilize mean arterial blood pressure during induction of anesthesia in children younger than 36 months: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Nils; Beck, Christiane; Huber, Dirk; Sander, Bjoern; Boehne, Martin; Boethig, Dietmar; Leffler, Andreas; Sümpelmann, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In pediatric anesthesia, preoperative fasting guidelines are still often exceeded. The objective of this noninterventional clinical observational cohort study was to evaluate the effect of an optimized preoperative fasting management (OPT) on glucose concentration, ketone bodies, acid-base balance, and change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during induction of anesthesia in children. Children aged 0-36 months scheduled for elective surgery with OPT (n = 50) were compared with peers studied before optimizing preoperative fasting time (OLD) (n = 50) who were matched for weight, age, and height. In children with OPT (n = 50), mean fasting time (6.0 ± 1.9 h vs 8.5 ± 3.5 h, P < 0.001), deviation from guideline (ΔGL) (1.2 ± 1.4 h vs 3.7 ± 3.1 h, P < 0.001, ΔGL>2 h 8% vs 70%), ketone bodies (0.2 ± 0.2 mmol·l(-1) vs 0.6 ± 0.6 mmol·l(-1) , P < 0.001), and incidence of hypotension (MAP <40 mmHg, 0 vs 5, P = 0.022) were statistically significantly lower and MAP after induction was statistically significantly higher (55.2 ± 9.5 mmHg vs 50.3 ± 9.8 mmHg, P = 0.015) as compared to children in the OLD (n = 50) group. Glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, base excess, and anion gap did not significantly differ. Optimized fasting times improve the metabolic and hemodynamic condition during induction of anesthesia in children younger than 36 months of age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. High anion gap metabolic acidosis induced by cumulation of ketones, L- and D-lactate, 5-oxoproline and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Heireman, Laura; Mahieu, Boris; Helbert, Mark; Uyttenbroeck, Wim; Stroobants, Jan; Piqueur, Marian

    2017-07-27

    Frequent causes of high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) are lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis and impaired renal function. In this case report, a HAGMA caused by ketones, L- and D-lactate, acute renal failure as well as 5-oxoproline is discussed. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with lowered consciousness, hyperventilation, diarrhoea and vomiting. The patient had suffered uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, underwent gastric bypass surgery in the past and was chronically treated with high doses of paracetamol and fosfomycin. Urosepsis was diagnosed, whilst laboratory analysis of serum bicarbonate concentration and calculation of the anion gap indicated a  HAGMA. L-lactate, D-lactate, β-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone and 5-oxoproline serum levels were markedly elevated and renal function was impaired. We concluded that this case of HAGMA was induced by a variety of underlying conditions: sepsis, hyperglycaemia, prior gastric bypass surgery, decreased renal perfusion and paracetamol intake. Risk factors for 5-oxoproline intoxication present in this case are female gender, sepsis, impaired renal function and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, chronic antibiotic treatment with fosfomycin might have played a role in the increased production of 5-oxoproline. Paracetamol-induced 5-oxoproline intoxication should be considered as a cause of HAGMA in patients with female gender, sepsis, impaired renal function or uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, even when other more obvious causes of HAGMA such as lactate, ketones or renal failure can be identified.

  8. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics. PMID:25379174

  9. Gas-chromatographic resolution of enantiomeric secondary alcohols. Stereoselective reductive metabolism of ketones in rabbit-liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Gal, J; DeVito, D; Harper, T W

    1981-01-01

    Chiral secondary alcohols were treated with (S)-(-)-1-phenylethyl isocyanate. For each racemic alcohol, the resulting diastereomeric urethane derivatives were resolved on flexible fused-silica capillary GLC columns with retention times of 15 min or less. Derivatization of individual enantiomers showed that the urethane derivatives of (R)-(-)-2-octanol, (R)-(+)-1-phenylethyl alcohol, and (S)-(+)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-phenylethanol are eluted before the corresponding diastereomers. The procedure is simple and rapid, and is suitable for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of chiral alcohols extracted from biological media. A series of aliphatic alcohols, aryl alkyl carbinols, and arylalkyl alkyl carbinols were resolved with the procedure, and the degree of resolution varied from good to excellent. Eight achiral ketones were incubated, individually, with rabbit-liver 90,000 g supernatant fractions, and the enantiomeric composition of the alcohol metabolites was determined with the GLC procedure. The reductions proceeded with high stereoselectivity to give alcohol products of 90% or greater enantiomeric purity. The reduction of 2-octanone and acetophenone gave predominant alcohols of (S)-configuration, in agreement with the Baumann-Prelog rule. The configuration of the predominant alcohols arising in the reduction of the remainder of the ketones could not be firmly established, but the evidence suggests that they are also of the (S)-configuration. Fluorine or methyl substitution in the ortho position of acetophenone produced an increase in the stereoselectivity, and the alcohol produced from ortho-methylacetophenone was enantiomerically greater than 99% pure.

  10. A Ketone Ester Diet Increases Brain Malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling Proteins 4 and 5 while Decreasing Food Intake in the Normal Wistar Rat*

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M. Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain l-glutamate by 15–20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain. PMID:20529850

  11. A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L

    2010-08-20

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain L-glutamate by 15-20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain.

  12. Clinical review: Ketones and brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain's energy needs, more efficiently than glucose. Studies suggest that during times of acute brain injury, cerebral uptake of ketones increases significantly. Researchers have thus attempted to attenuate the effects of cerebral injury by administering ketones exogenously. Hypertonic saline is commonly utilized for management of intracranial hypertension following cerebral injury. A solution containing both hypertonic saline and ketones may prove ideal for managing the dual problems of refractory intracranial hypertension and low cerebral energy levels. The purpose of the present review is to explore the physiology of ketone body utilization by the brain in health and in a variety of neurological conditions, and to discuss the potential for ketone supplementation as a therapeutic option in traumatic brain injury. PMID:21489321

  13. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Le Foll, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where “metabolic sensing neurons” integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:27122369

  14. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... acidity of body fluids) or ketosis (a condition characterized by increased production of ketone bodies...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... acidity of body fluids) or ketosis (a condition characterized by increased production of ketone bodies...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... acidity of body fluids) or ketosis (a condition characterized by increased production of ketone bodies...

  18. The Ketone Body, β-Hydroxybutyrate Stimulates the Autophagic Flux and Prevents Neuronal Death Induced by Glucose Deprivation in Cortical Cultured Neurons.

    PubMed

    Camberos-Luna, Lucy; Gerónimo-Olvera, Cristian; Montiel, Teresa; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Massieu, Lourdes

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is the major energy substrate in brain, however, during ketogenesis induced by starvation or prolonged hypoglycemia, the ketone bodies (KB), acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) can substitute for glucose. KB improve neuronal survival in diverse injury models, but the mechanisms by which KB prevent neuronal damage are still not well understood. In the present study we have investigated whether protection by the D isomer of BHB (D-BHB) against neuronal death induced by glucose deprivation (GD), is related to autophagy. Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradation process activated during nutritional stress, which leads to the digestion of damaged proteins and organelles providing energy for cell survival. Results show that autophagy is activated in cortical cultured neurons during GD, as indicated by the increase in the levels of the lipidated form of the microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II), and the number of autophagic vesicles. At early phases of glucose reintroduction (GR), the levels of p62 declined suggesting that the degradation of the autophagolysosomal content takes place at this time. In cultures exposed to GD and GR in the presence of D-BHB, the levels of LC3-II and p62 rapidly declined and remained low during GR, suggesting that the KB stimulates the autophagic flux preventing autophagosome accumulation and improving neuronal survival.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of ketone bodies in human plasma by precolumn derivatization with p-nitrobenzene diazonium fluoroborate.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Susumu; Shinohara, Kumiko; Nakagawa, Saori; Kubota, Ai; Inamura, Katsushi; Watanabe, Gen; Hirayama, Satoshi; Miida, Takashi; Ohta, Shin

    2009-01-01

    We developed and validated a sensitive and convenient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the specific determination of ketone bodies (acetoacetate and D-3-hydroxybutyrate) in human plasma. p-Nitrobenzene diazonium fluoroborate (diazo reagent) was used as a precolumn derivatization agent, and 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid was used as an internal standard. After the reaction, excess diazo reagent and plasma proteins were removed by passing through a solid-phase cartridge (C(18)). The derivatives retained on the cartridge were eluted with methanol, introduced into the HPLC system, and then detected with UV at 380 nm. A calibration curve for acetoacetate standard solution with a 20-microl injection volume showed good linearity in the range of 1 to 400 microM with a 0.9997 correlation coefficient. For the determination of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, it was converted to acetoacetate before reaction with the diazo reagent by an enzymatic coupling method using D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. A calibration curve for D-3-hydroxybutyrate standard solution also showed good linearity in the range of 1.5 to 2000 microM with a 0.9988 correlation coefficient. Analytical recoveries of acetoacetate and D-3-hydroxybutyrate in human plasma were satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to samples from diabetic patients, and results were consistent with those obtained using the thio-NAD enzymatic cycling method used in clinical laboratories.

  20. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Carola W.; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses. PMID:28824441

  1. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  2. Gravity, body mass and composition, and metabolic rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The scale effects of increased gravitational loading by chronic centrifugation on metabolic rate and body composition in metabolically mature mammals were investigated. Individual oxygen consumption rates in groups of 12 each, 8-month-old, hamster, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits were measured at weekly intervals at 1.0 g, then 2.0 g for 6 weeks. Metabolic rate was increased significantly in all species, and stabilized after 2 weeks at 2.0 g. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the larger the animal the greater was the increase in mass-specific metabolic rate, or metabolic intensity, over the 1.0 g value for the same animal, with the result that the interspecies allometric scaling relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is different at 2.0 g compared 10 1.0 g. Analysis of covariance shows that the postioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17% at 2.0 g at the P .001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8% at the P = 0.008 level. Thus, the hypothesis that augmented gravitational loading should shift the allometric relationship between metabolic rate and body size by an increase in both parameters is supported.

  3. Short-chain fatty acids and ketones directly regulate sympathetic nervous system via G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41).

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ikuo; Inoue, Daisuke; Maeda, Takeshi; Hara, Takafumi; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Miyauchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Makio; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2011-05-10

    The maintenance of energy homeostasis is essential for life, and its dysregulation leads to a variety of metabolic disorders. Under a fed condition, mammals use glucose as the main metabolic fuel, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also contribute a significant proportion of daily energy requirement. Under ketogenic conditions such as starvation and diabetes, ketone bodies produced in the liver from fatty acids are used as the main energy sources. To balance energy intake, dietary excess and starvation trigger an increase or a decrease in energy expenditure, respectively, by regulating the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The regulation of metabolic homeostasis by glucose is well recognized; however, the roles of SCFAs and ketone bodies in maintaining energy balance remain unclear. Here, we show that SCFAs and ketone bodies directly regulate SNS activity via GPR41, a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor for SCFAs, at the level of the sympathetic ganglion. GPR41 was most abundantly expressed in sympathetic ganglia in mouse and humans. SCFA propionate promoted sympathetic outflow via GPR41. On the other hand, a ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate, produced during starvation or diabetes, suppressed SNS activity by antagonizing GPR41. Pharmacological and siRNA experiments indicated that GPR41-mediated activation of sympathetic neurons involves Gβγ-PLCβ-MAPK signaling. Sympathetic regulation by SCFAs and ketone bodies correlated well with their respective effects on energy consumption. These findings establish that SCFAs and ketone bodies directly regulate GPR41-mediated SNS activity and thereby control body energy expenditure in maintaining metabolic homeostasis.

  4. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47%) and triacylglycerol (22%). Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range. PMID:25119752

  5. Predictive comparisons of procalcitonin (PCT) level, arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR), APACHE III score and multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS) in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Chan-Hee; Yun, Jang-Woon; Lee, Young-Suk

    2004-02-29

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a newly introduced marker of systemic inflammation and bacterial infection. A marked increase in circulating PCT level in critically ill patients has been related with the severity of illness and poor survival. The goal of this study was to compare the prognostic power of PCT and three other parameters, the arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR), the acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score and the multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS), in the differentiation between survivors and nonsurvivors of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The study was performed in 95 patients over 16 years of age who met the criteria of SIRS. PCT and AKBR were assayed in arterial blood samples. The APACHE III score and MODS were recorded after the first 24 hours of surgical ICU (SICU) admission and then daily for two weeks or until either discharge or death. The patients were divided into two groups, survivors (n=71) and nonsurvivors (n=24), in accordance with the ICU outcome. They were also divided into three groups according to the trend of PCT level: declining, increasing or no change. Significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors were found in APACHE III score and MODS throughout the study period, but in PCT value only up to the 7th day and in AKBR only up to the 3rd day. PCT values of the three groups were not significantly different on the first day between survivors and nonsurvivors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for prediction of mortality by PCT, AKBR, APACHE III score and MODS were 0.690, 0.320, 0.915 and 0.913, respectively, on the admission day. In conclusion, PCT could have some use as a mortality predictor in SIRS patients but was less reliable than APACHE III score or MODS.

  6. Oxidative impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation involves activation of protein phosphatase 2A and is prevented by ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Marwan; Rho, Jong M

    2008-11-15

    Previous studies have shown that ketone bodies (KB) exert antioxidant effects in experimental models of neurological disease. In the present study, we explored the effects of the KB acetoacetate (ACA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) using electrophysiological, fluorescence imaging, and enzyme assay techniques. We found that: 1) a combination of ACA and BHB (1 mM each) prevented impairment of LTP by H(2)O(2) (200 microM); 2) KB significantly lowered intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)--measured with the fluorescent indicator carboxy-H(2)DCFDA (carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate)--in CA1 pyramidal neurons exposed to H(2)O(2); 3) the effect of KB on LTP was replicated by the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor fostriecin; 4) KB prevented impairment of LTP by the PP2A activator C(6) ceramide; 5) fostriecin did not prevent the increase in ROS levels in CA1 pyramidal neurons exposed to H(2)O(2), and C(6) ceramide did not increase ROS levels; 6) PP2A activity was enhanced by both H(2)O(2) and rotenone (a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that increases endogenous superoxide production); and 7) KB inhibited PP2A activity in protein extracts from brain tissue treated with either H(2)O(2) or ceramide. We propose that oxidative impairment of hippocampal LTP is associated with PP2A activation, and that KB prevent this impairment in part by inducing PP2A inhibition through an antioxidant mechanism.

  7. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kendig, Eric L.; Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267; Chen, Ying

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipidmore » for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and

  8. A Bio-Catalytic Approach to Aliphatic Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Mingyong; Deng, Jin; Woodruff, Adam P.; Zhu, Minshan; Zhou, Jun; Park, Sun Wook; Li, Hui; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Kechun

    2012-01-01

    Depleting oil reserves and growing environmental concerns have necessitated the development of sustainable processes to fuels and chemicals. Here we have developed a general metabolic platform in E. coli to biosynthesize carboxylic acids. By engineering selectivity of 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and screening for promiscuous aldehyde dehydrogenases, synthetic pathways were constructed to produce both C5 and C6 acids. In particular, the production of isovaleric acid reached 32 g/L (0.22 g/g glucose yield), which is 58% of the theoretical yield. Furthermore, we have developed solid base catalysts to efficiently ketonize the bio-derived carboxylic acids such as isovaleric acid and isocaproic acid into high volume industrial ketones: methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, yield 84%), diisobutyl ketone (DIBK, yield 66%) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK, yield 81%). This hybrid “Bio-Catalytic conversion” approach provides a general strategy to manufacture aliphatic ketones, and represents an alternate route to expanding the repertoire of renewable chemicals. PMID:22416247

  9. A bio-catalytic approach to aliphatic ketones.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Mingyong; Deng, Jin; Woodruff, Adam P; Zhu, Minshan; Zhou, Jun; Park, Sun Wook; Li, Hui; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Kechun

    2012-01-01

    Depleting oil reserves and growing environmental concerns have necessitated the development of sustainable processes to fuels and chemicals. Here we have developed a general metabolic platform in E. coli to biosynthesize carboxylic acids. By engineering selectivity of 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and screening for promiscuous aldehyde dehydrogenases, synthetic pathways were constructed to produce both C5 and C6 acids. In particular, the production of isovaleric acid reached 32 g/L (0.22 g/g glucose yield), which is 58% of the theoretical yield. Furthermore, we have developed solid base catalysts to efficiently ketonize the bio-derived carboxylic acids such as isovaleric acid and isocaproic acid into high volume industrial ketones: methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, yield 84%), diisobutyl ketone (DIBK, yield 66%) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK, yield 81%). This hybrid "Bio-Catalytic conversion" approach provides a general strategy to manufacture aliphatic ketones, and represents an alternate route to expanding the repertoire of renewable chemicals.

  10. Metabolic connectomics targeting brain pathology in dementia with Lewy bodies

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Silvia P; Tettamanti, Marco; Sala, Arianna; Presotto, Luca; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cappa, Stefano F; Magnani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies is characterized by α-synuclein accumulation and degeneration of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways. To gain an overview of brain systems affected by neurodegeneration, we characterized the [18F]FDG-PET metabolic connectivity in 42 dementia with Lewy bodies patients, as compared to 42 healthy controls, using sparse inverse covariance estimation method and graph theory. We performed whole-brain and anatomically driven analyses, targeting cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways, and the α-synuclein spreading. The first revealed substantial alterations in connectivity indexes, brain modularity, and hubs configuration. Namely, decreases in local metabolic connectivity within occipital cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, and increases within frontal, temporal, parietal, and basal ganglia regions. There were also long-range disconnections among these brain regions, all supporting a disruption of the functional hierarchy characterizing the normal brain. The anatomically driven analysis revealed alterations within brain structures early affected by α-synuclein pathology, supporting Braak’s early pathological staging in dementia with Lewy bodies. The dopaminergic striato-cortical pathway was severely affected, as well as the cholinergic networks, with an extensive decrease in connectivity in Ch1-Ch2, Ch5-Ch6 networks, and the lateral Ch4 capsular network significantly towards the occipital cortex. These altered patterns of metabolic connectivity unveil a new in vivo scenario for dementia with Lewy bodies underlying pathology in terms of changes in whole-brain metabolic connectivity, spreading of α-synuclein, and neurotransmission impairment. PMID:27306756

  11. Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular foci—such as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesis—to high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionality—and dysfunctionality—of the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable. PMID:23057741

  12. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carola W; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2017-01-01

    Key Points Rectal probing is subject to procedural bias. This method is suitable for first-line phenotyping, provided probe depth and measurement duration are standardized. It is also useful for detecting individuals with out-of-range body temperatures (during hypothermia, torpor).The colonic temperature attained by inserting the probe >2 cm deep is a measure of deep (core) body temperature.IR imaging of the skin is useful for detecting heat leaks and autonomous thermoregulatory alterations, but it does not measure body temperature.Temperature of the hairy or shaved skin covering the inter-scapular brown adipose tissue can be used as a measure of BAT thermogenesis. However, obtaining such measurements of sufficient quality is very difficult, and interpreting them can be tricky. Temperature differences between the inter-scapular and lumbar areas can be a better measure of the thermogenic activity of inter-scapular brown adipose tissue.Implanted probes for precise determination of BAT temperature (changes) should be fixed close to the Sulzer's vein. For measurement of BAT thermogenesis, core body temperature and BAT temperature should be recorded simultaneously.Tail temperature is suitable to compare the presence or absence of vasoconstriction or vasodilation.Continuous, longitudinal monitoring of core body temperature is preferred over single probing, as the readings are taken in a non-invasive, physiological context.Combining core body temperature measurements with metabolic rate measurements yields insights into the interplay between heat production and heat loss (thermal conductance), potentially revealing novel thermoregulatory phenotypes. Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from

  13. Identity of SMCT1 (SLC5A8) as a neuron-specific Na+-coupled transporter for active uptake of L-lactate and ketone bodies in the brain.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pamela M; Gopal, Elangovan; Ananth, Sudha; Zhuang, Lina; Itagaki, Shiro; Prasad, Balakrishna M; Smith, Sylvia B; Prasad, Puttur D; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2006-07-01

    SMCT1 is a sodium-coupled (Na(+)-coupled) transporter for l-lactate and short-chain fatty acids. Here, we show that the ketone bodies, beta-d-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, and the branched-chain ketoacid, alpha-ketoisocaproate, are also substrates for the transporter. The transport of these compounds via human SMCT1 is Na(+)-coupled and electrogenic. The Michaelis constant is 1.4 +/- 0.1 mm for beta-d-hydroxybutyrate, 0.21 +/- 0.04 mm for acetoacetate and 0.21 +/- 0.03 mm for alpha-ketoisocaproate. The Na(+) : substrate stoichiometry is 2 : 1. As l-lactate and ketone bodies constitute primary energy substrates for neurons, we investigated the expression pattern of this transporter in the brain. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate widespread expression of SMCT1 mRNA in mouse brain. Immunofluorescence analysis shows that SMCT1 protein is expressed exclusively in neurons. SMCT1 protein co-localizes with MCT2, a neuron-specific Na(+)-independent monocarboxylate transporter. In contrast, there was no overlap of signals for SMCT1 and MCT1, the latter being expressed only in non-neuronal cells. We also demonstrate the neuron-specific expression of SMCT1 in mixed cultures of rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. This represents the first report of an Na(+)-coupled transport system for a major group of energy substrates in neurons. These findings suggest that SMCT1 may play a critical role in the entry of l-lactate and ketone bodies into neurons by a process driven by an electrochemical Na(+) gradient and hence, contribute to the maintenance of the energy status and function of neurons.

  14. Menopause, the metabolic syndrome, and mind-body therapies

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682

  15. Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation

    PubMed Central

    Galgani, J; Ravussin, E

    2010-01-01

    Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on body weight regulation implying a normal physiology in an ‘obesogenic’ environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and body weight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in body weight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on body weight regulation is also presented. PMID:19136979

  16. Integrating Cellular Metabolism into a Multiscale Whole-Body Model

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Markus; Schaller, Stephan; Borchers, Steffen; Findeisen, Rolf; Lippert, Jörg; Kuepfer, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development. PMID:23133351

  17. Carotid body, insulin, and metabolic diseases: unraveling the links

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Sílvia V.; Sacramento, Joana F.; Guarino, Maria P.; Gonzalez, Constancio; Obeso, Ana; Diogo, Lucilia N.; Monteiro, Emilia C.; Ribeiro, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in arterial blood O2, CO2, and pH levels. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis activate the CB, which respond by increasing the action potential frequency in their sensory nerve, the carotid sinus nerve (CSN). CSN activity is integrated in the brain stem to induce a panoply of cardiorespiratory reflexes aimed, primarily, to normalize the altered blood gases, via hyperventilation, and to regulate blood pressure and cardiac performance, via sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Besides its role in the cardiorespiratory control the CB has been proposed as a metabolic sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis and, more recently, in the regulation of whole body insulin sensitivity. Hypercaloric diets cause CB overactivation in rats, which seems to be at the origin of the development of insulin resistance and hypertension, core features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Consistent with this notion, CB sensory denervation prevents metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in hypercaloric feed animal. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is another chronic disorder characterized by increased CB activity and intimately related with several metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. In this manuscript we review in a concise manner the putative pathways linking CB chemoreceptors deregulation with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension. Also, the link between chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and insulin resistance is discussed. Then, a final section is devoted to debate strategies to reduce CB activity and its use for prevention and therapeutics of metabolic diseases with an emphasis on new exciting research in the modulation of bioelectronic signals, likely to be central in the future. PMID:25400585

  18. Regulation of metabolism and body fat mass by leptin.

    PubMed

    Baile, C A; Della-Fera, M A; Martin, R J

    2000-01-01

    The relative stability of body weight over the long term and under a variety of environmental conditions that alter short-term energy intake and expenditure provides strong evidence for the regulation of body energy content. The lipostatic theory of energy balance regulation proposed 40 years ago that circulating factors, generated in proportion to body fat stores, acted as signals to the brain, eliciting changes in energy intake and expenditure. The discovery of leptin and its receptors has now provided a molecular basis for this theory. Leptin functions as much more than an adipocyte-derived signal of lipid stores, however. Although suppression of food intake is an important centrally mediated effect of leptin, considerable evidence indicates that leptin also functions both directly and indirectly, via the brain, to orchestrate complex metabolic changes in a number of organs and tissues, altering nutrient flux to favor energy expenditure over energy storage.

  19. A comparative study of ketone body metabolism between the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and the sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Chandrasena, L G; Emmanuel, B; Hamar, D W; Howard, B R

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetoacetate (AcAc) have been measured in camels (Camelus dromedarius) and sheep (Ovis aries). The activity of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BHB-deH2) (E.C. 1.1.1.30) was studied in the rumen epithelium and the liver of these animals. 2. Concentrations of plasma BHB and AcAc in the camel were in respective order 33 and 4 times lower than that of the sheep. The ratios of BHB to AcAc were 0.61 and 4.8 for the camel and sheep, respectively. 3. The activity of BHB-deH2 in the rumen epithelium of the camel and sheep were 7.15 and 66 mumol/hr/g wet wt tissue, respectively. The activity in both species was higher in the rumen epithelium than in the liver.

  20. Effects of very-low-carbohydrate (horsemeat- or beef-based) diets and restricted feeding on weight gain, feed and energy efficiency, as well as serum levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin and ketone bodies in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Youn; Yang, Young-Hoon; Kim, Choong-Nam; Lee, Chong-Eon; Kim, Kyu-Il

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial or harmful effect of the low-carbohydrate (low-carb), high-protein, high-fat diet (Atkins diet) has not been clearly demonstrated. We determined the effect of a low-carb diet and restricted feeding (70% ad libitum intake) on serum levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, ketone bodies and insulin in rats. In experiment 1, each of 4 groups with 10 adult rats was assigned to a high-carb diet (AIN-93G) + ad libitum intake or restricted feeding, or a low-carb diet (53% horsemeat) + ad libitum intake or restricted feeding (2 x 2 factorial). In experiment 2, each of 3 groups with 10 adult rats was assigned to a control (AIN-93G) or low-carb diets (53% beef or horsemeat). Restricted feeding and the low-carb diet reduced (p<0.01) serum triacylglycerol compared with ad libitum intake and the AIN-93G diet, respectively (experiment 1). The dietary effect on serum total cholesterol, high-density or low-density lipid cholesterol appeared to be inconsistent, but restricted feeding increased the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The serum ketone body level was increased by the low-carb diet compared with AIN-93G (experiment 2). Restricted feeding and a low-carb diet are beneficial for alleviating cardiovascular disease risk factors, and their effects are additive, restricted feeding being more pronounced. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Gravity, Body Mass and Composition, and Metabolic Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic rate and body composition as a function of sex and age were defined in 5 species of common laboratory mammals, the mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig and rabbit. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates were measured individually in 6 male and 6 female animals for each of 8 age cohorts ranging from 1 month to 2 years, and for each of the species. From the results it is evident that among these small mammals there is no indication of scaling of muscularity to body size, despite the 100-fold difference in body mass represented by the skeletal musculature seems to reach a pronounced peak value at age 2 to 3 months and then declines, the fraction of the fat-free body represented by other body components in older animals must increase complementarily. Under normal gravity conditions muscularity in small laboratory mammals displays large, systematic variation as a function both of species and age. This variation must be considered when such animals are subjects of experiments to study the effects of altered gravitational loading on the skeletal musculature of the mammal.

  2. Regional body fat distribution and metabolic profile in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Piché, Marie-Eve; Lapointe, Annie; Weisnagel, S John; Corneau, Louise; Nadeau, André; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how body fat distribution variables were associated with metabolic parameters in a sample of 113 postmenopausal women not receiving hormone therapy (56.9 +/- 4.4 years, 28.4 +/- 5.1 kg/m(2)). Body fat distribution variables (visceral adipose tissue [AT], subcutaneous AT, and total midthigh AT) were measured using computed tomography; body fat mass was assessed by hydrostatic weighing; insulin sensitivity was determined with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations were measured by a 75-g oral glucose load; and (high-sensitivity) C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured using a highly sensitive assay. After controlling for fat mass, visceral AT was positively associated with plasma triglyceride, hs-CRP, FPG, and 2hPG, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin sensitivity. Total midthigh AT was negatively associated with apolipoprotein B, FPG, and 2hPG, and positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Stepwise multiple regression analyses including abdominal visceral AT, subcutaneous AT and total midthigh AT as independent variables showed that abdominal visceral AT best predicted the variance in plasma triglyceride, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, hs-CRP, FPG, 2hPG, and insulin sensitivity. Abdominal subcutaneous AT was a significant predictor of only insulin sensitivity, whereas total midthigh AT predicted HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, and apolipoprotein B. These multivariate analyses also indicated that total midthigh AT was favorably related to these outcomes, whereas abdominal visceral AT and subcutaneous AT were unfavorably related. These results confirmed that abdominal visceral fat is a critical correlate of metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women. In addition, a higher proportion of AT located in the total midthigh depot is associated with a favorable

  3. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  4. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl Isobutyl Ketone ( MIBK ) ; CASRN 108 - 10 - 1 ; Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  5. Metabolism and ventilation in hypoxic rats: effect of body mass.

    PubMed

    Mortola, J P; Matsuoka, T; Saiki, C; Naso, L

    1994-07-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured by the flow-through method, and ventilation (VE) by the barometric technique in post-weaning age rats of 50, 100, 250 and 400 g, (5 males and 5 females in each group), at ambient temperature congruent to 24 degrees C. In normoxia, VO2, VCO2 and VE decreased with the increase in body weight (BW), whether normalization was by BW or by BW minus the weights of fat and skeleton; VE/VO2 and rectal temperature remained constant. In hypoxia (10% inspired O2), VE VO2 increased in all groups, to 2-2.5 times the normoxic values, because of a significant increase in VE (hyperpnea) and decrease in VO2 (hypometabolism); arterial PCO2, measured in some 100 g and 400 g rats, dropped similarly. However, the hyperpnea was about twice as large, and metabolism and body temperature decreased significantly less, in the 400 g than in the 50 g rats. The cost (ml O2) of breathing, computed in the paralysed animal artificially ventilated, averaged approximately 0.7% (normoxia) and 2% of VO2 (hypoxia), with no systematic differences with BW. The results agree with the concept that the metabolic response to hypoxia can be an important determinant of the magnitude of the hyperpnea.

  6. Whole body protein metabolism in children with cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Daley, S E; Pearson, A D; Craft, A W; Kernahan, J; Wyllie, R A; Price, L; Brock, C; Hetherington, C; Halliday, D; Bartlett, K

    1996-01-01

    Whole body protein synthesis and catabolism were measured using the [ring-2H5]phenylalanine and [1-13C]leucine primed constant infusion technique in 32 paediatric patients with cancer at different stages of treatment. Rates of synthesis (S) and catabolism (C) derived from the [ring-2H5]phenylalanine and [1-13C]leucine models were 4.7 (SD 1.3) (S) and 6.0 (1.5) (C) g/d/kg, and 5.5 (0.8) (S) and 6.8 (1.2) (C) g/d/kg, respectively. These results show that these two tracer techniques give similar results in this study population. Comparison of these values with results previously reported for groups of control children using the [ring-2H5]phenylalanine model (S = 3.69 and 3.93; C = 4.09 and 4.28 g/d/kg) and the [1-13C]leucine model (S = 4.32; C = 4.85 g/d/kg) show that rates of synthesis and catabolism were higher in cancer patients than in controls. Thus whole body protein turnover is increased in children under treatment for cancer. Other indices of metabolism such as plasma amino acids and intermediary metabolites were also measured and showed that, although subjects were in isotopic steady state, there were significant metabolic changes during the course of the primed constant infusions used to measure protein turnover. PMID:8984910

  7. Sirtuin 3 mediates neuroprotection of ketones against ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junxiang; Han, Pengcheng; Tang, Zhiwei; Liu, Qingwei; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death. Growing evidence indicates that ketone bodies have beneficial effects in treating stroke, but their underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study showed ketone bodies reduced reactive oxygen species by using NADH as an electron donor, thus increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio. In this study, we investigated whether mitochondrial NAD+-dependent Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) could mediate the neuroprotective effects of ketone bodies after ischemic stroke. We injected mice with either normal saline or ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) at 30 minutes after ischemia induced by transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We found that ketone treatment enhanced mitochondria function, reduced oxidative stress, and therefore reduced infarct volume. This led to improved neurologic function after ischemia, including the neurologic score and the performance in Rotarod and open field tests. We further showed that ketones' effects were achieved by upregulating NAD+-dependent SIRT3 and its downstream substrates forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the penumbra region since knocking down SIRT3 in vitro diminished ketones' beneficial effects. These results provide us a foundation to develop novel therapeutics targeting this SIRT3-FoxO3a-SOD2 pathway. PMID:26058697

  8. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Metabolism. In: Tortora GJ, Derrickson ... Physiology . 14th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2014:chap ...

  9. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... El metabolismo Metabolism Basics Our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism, the chemical ... that convert the fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving to thinking ...

  10. Body composition in patients with classical homocystinuria: body mass relates to homocysteine and choline metabolism.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Soraia; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Bandeira, Isabel Cristina; D'Almeida, Vânia; de Souza, Carolina Fischinger Moura; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Castro, Kamila; Tonon, Tássia; Nalin, Tatiéle; Imbard, Apolline; Blom, Henk J; Schwartz, Ida V D

    2014-08-10

    Classical homocystinuria is a rare genetic disease caused by cystathionine β-synthase deficiency, resulting in homocysteine accumulation. Growing evidence suggests that reduced fat mass in patients with classical homocystinuria may be associated with alterations in choline and homocysteine pathways. This study aimed to evaluate the body composition of patients with classical homocystinuria, identifying changes in body fat percentage and correlating findings with biochemical markers of homocysteine and choline pathways, lipoprotein levels and bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores. Nine patients with classical homocystinuria were included in the study. Levels of homocysteine, methionine, cysteine, choline, betaine, dimethylglycine and ethanolamine were determined. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in patients and in 18 controls. Data on the last BMD measurement and lipoprotein profile were obtained from medical records. Of 9 patients, 4 (44%) had a low body fat percentage, but no statistically significant differences were found between patients and controls. Homocysteine and methionine levels were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), while cysteine showed a positive correlation with BMI (p<0.05). There was a trend between total choline levels and body fat percentage (r=0.439, p=0.07). HDL cholesterol correlated with choline and ethanolamine levels (r=0.757, p=0.049; r=0.847, p=0.016, respectively), and total cholesterol also correlated with choline levels (r=0.775, p=0.041). There was no association between BMD T-scores and body composition. These results suggest that reduced fat mass is common in patients with classical homocystinuria, and that alterations in homocysteine and choline pathways affect body mass and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (<2 weeks) exposure to DLAN are unspecified. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations would arise in response to just 2 weeks of DLAN. Specifically, we predicted that mice exposed to dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  12. Metabolic profiling of body fluids and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Jäger, Christian; Galozzi, Sara; Barkovits, Katalin; Marcus, Katrin; Mollenhauer, Brit; Hiller, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Metabolome analyses of body fluids are challenging due pre-analytical variations, such as pre-processing delay and temperature, and constant dynamical changes of biochemical processes within the samples. Therefore, proper sample handling starting from the time of collection up to the analysis is crucial to obtain high quality samples and reproducible results. A metabolomics analysis is divided into 4 main steps: 1) Sample collection, 2) Metabolite extraction, 3) Data acquisition and 4) Data analysis. Here, we describe a protocol for gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolic analysis for biological matrices, especially body fluids. This protocol can be applied on blood serum/plasma, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of humans and other vertebrates. It covers sample collection, sample pre-processing, metabolite extraction, GC-MS measurement and guidelines for the subsequent data analysis. Advantages of this protocol include: •Robust and reproducible metabolomics results, taking into account pre-analytical variations that may occur during the sampling process•Small sample volume required•Rapid and cost-effective processing of biological samples•Logistic regression based determination of biomarker signatures for in-depth data analysis.

  13. Ontogenetic body-mass scaling of resting metabolic rate covaries with species-specific metabolic level and body size in spiders and snakes.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas S

    2009-08-01

    According to common belief, metabolic rate usually scales with body mass to the 3/4-power, which is considered by some to be a universal law of nature. However, substantial variation in the metabolic scaling exponent (b) exists, much of which can be related to the overall metabolic level (L) of various taxonomic groups of organisms, as predicted by the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries (MLB) hypothesis. Here the MLB hypothesis was tested using data for intraspecific (ontogenetic) body-mass scaling of resting metabolic rate in spiders and boid snakes. As predicted, in both animal groups b varies mostly between 2/3 and 1, and is significantly negatively related to L. L is, in turn, negatively related to species-specific body mass (M(m): estimated as the mass at the midpoint of a scaling relationship), and as a result, larger species tend to have steeper metabolic scaling slopes (b) than smaller species. After adjusting for the effects of M(m), b and L are still negatively related, though significantly only in the spiders, which exhibit a much wider range of L than the snakes. Therefore, in spiders and snakes the intraspecific scaling of metabolic rate with body mass itself scales with interspecific variation in both metabolic level and body mass.

  14. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 deficiency and ketone utilization.

    PubMed

    van Hasselt, Peter M; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Monroe, Glen R; Ruiter, Jos P N; Turkenburg, Marjolein; Geerlings, Maartje J; Duran, Karen; Harakalova, Magdalena; van der Zwaag, Bert; Monavari, Ardeshir A; Okur, Ilyas; Sharrard, Mark J; Cleary, Maureen; O'Connell, Nuala; Walker, Valerie; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; de Vries, Maaike C; Visser, Gepke; Houwen, Roderick H J; van der Smagt, Jasper J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Wanders, Ronald J A; van Haaften, Gijs

    2014-11-13

    Ketoacidosis is a potentially lethal condition caused by the imbalance between hepatic production and extrahepatic utilization of ketone bodies. We performed exome sequencing in a patient with recurrent, severe ketoacidosis and identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SLC16A1, also called MCT1). Genetic analysis in 96 patients suspected of having ketolytic defects yielded seven additional inactivating mutations in MCT1, both homozygous and heterozygous. Mutational status was found to be correlated with ketoacidosis severity, MCT1 protein levels, and transport capacity. Thus, MCT1 deficiency is a novel cause of profound ketoacidosis; the present work suggests that MCT1-mediated ketone-body transport is needed to maintain acid-base balance.

  15. A new way to produce hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Newport, Mary T; VanItallie, Theodore B; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, Michael Todd; Veech, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Providing ketone bodies to the brain can bypass metabolic blocks to glucose utilization and improve function in energy-starved neurons. For this, plasma ketones must be elevated well above the ≤ 0.2 mM default concentrations normally prevalent. Limitations of dietary methods currently used to produce therapeutic hyperketonemia have stimulated the search for better approaches. Described herein is a new way to produce therapeutic hyperketonemia, entailing prolonged oral administration of a potent ketogenic agent--ketone monoester (KME)--to a patient with Alzheimer's disease dementia and a pretreatment Mini-Mental State Examination score of 12. The patient improved markedly in mood, affect, self-care, and cognitive and daily activity performance. The KME was well tolerated throughout the 20-month treatment period. Cognitive performance tracked plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, with noticeable improvements in conversation and interaction at the higher levels, compared with predose levels. KME-induced hyperketonemia is robust, convenient, and safe, and the ester can be taken as an oral supplement without changing the habitual diet. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Cellular metabolic rates from primary dermal fibroblast cells isolated from birds of different body masses.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-10-01

    The rate of metabolism is the speed at which organisms use energy, an integration of energy transformations within the body; it governs biological processes that influence rates of growth and reproduction. Progress at understanding functional linkages between whole organism metabolic rate and underlying mechanisms that influence its magnitude has been slow despite the central role this issue plays in evolutionary and physiological ecology. Previous studies that have attempted to relate how cellular processes translate into whole-organism physiology have done so over a range of body masses of subjects. However, the data still remains controversial when observing metabolic rates at the cellular level. To bridge the gap between these ideas, we examined cellular metabolic rate of primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from 49 species of birds representing a 32,000-fold range in body masses to test the hypothesis that metabolic rate of cultured cells scales with body size. We used a Seahorse XF-96 Extracellular flux analyzer to measure cellular respiration in fibroblasts. Additionally, we measured fibroblast size and mitochondrial content. We found no significant correlation between cellular metabolic rate, cell size, or mitochondrial content and body mass. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between cellular basal metabolic rate and proton leak in these cells. We conclude that metabolic rate of cells isolated in culture does not scale with body mass, but cellular metabolic rate is correlated to growth rate in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scaling of number, size, and metabolic rate of cells with body size in mammals.

    PubMed

    Savage, Van M; Allen, Andrew P; Brown, James H; Gillooly, James F; Herman, Alexander B; Woodruff, William H; West, Geoffrey B

    2007-03-13

    The size and metabolic rate of cells affect processes from the molecular to the organismal level. We present a quantitative, theoretical framework for studying relationships among cell volume, cellular metabolic rate, body size, and whole-organism metabolic rate that helps reveal the feedback between these levels of organization. We use this framework to show that average cell volume and average cellular metabolic rate cannot both remain constant with changes in body size because of the well known body-size dependence of whole-organism metabolic rate. Based on empirical data compiled for 18 cell types in mammals, we find that many cell types, including erythrocytes, hepatocytes, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, follow a strategy in which cellular metabolic rate is body size dependent and cell volume is body size invariant. We suggest that this scaling holds for all quickly dividing cells, and conversely, that slowly dividing cells are expected to follow a strategy in which cell volume is body size dependent and cellular metabolic rate is roughly invariant with body size. Data for slowly dividing neurons and adipocytes show that cell volume does indeed scale with body size. From these results, we argue that the particular strategy followed depends on the structural and functional properties of the cell type. We also discuss consequences of these two strategies for cell number and capillary densities. Our results and conceptual framework emphasize fundamental constraints that link the structure and function of cells to that of whole organisms.

  18. Engineering β-oxidation in Yarrowia lipolytica for methyl ketone production.

    PubMed

    Hanko, Erik K R; Denby, Charles M; Sànchez I Nogué, Violeta; Lin, Weiyin; Ramirez, Kelsey J; Singer, Christine A; Beckham, Gregg T; Keasling, Jay D

    2018-05-28

    Medium- and long-chain methyl ketones are fatty acid-derived compounds that can be used as biofuel blending agents, flavors and fragrances. However, their large-scale production from sustainable feedstocks is currently limited due to the lack of robust microbial biocatalysts. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising biorefinery platform strain for the production of methyl ketones from renewable lignocellulosic biomass due to its natively high flux towards fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we report the metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica to produce long- and very long-chain methyl ketones. Truncation of peroxisomal β-oxidation by chromosomal deletion of pot1 resulted in the biosynthesis of saturated, mono-, and diunsaturated methyl ketones in the C 13 -C 23 range. Additional overexpression and peroxisomal targeting of a heterologous bacterial methyl ketone biosynthesis pathway yielded an initial titer of 151.5 mg/L of saturated methyl ketones. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the cultures were found to substantially impact cell morphology and methyl ketone biosynthesis. Bioreactor cultivation under optimized conditions resulted in a titer of 314.8 mg/L of total methyl ketones, representing more than a 6000-fold increase over the parental strain. This work highlights the potential of Y. lipolytica to serve as chassis organism for the biosynthesis of acyl-thioester derived long- and very long-chain methyl ketones. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  20. Hibernation in black bears: independence of metabolic suppression from body temperature.

    PubMed

    Tøien, Øivind; Blake, John; Edgar, Dale M; Grahn, Dennis A; Heller, H Craig; Barnes, Brian M

    2011-02-18

    Black bears hibernate for 5 to 7 months a year and, during this time, do not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. We measured metabolic rate and body temperature in hibernating black bears and found that they suppress metabolism to 25% of basal rates while regulating body temperature from 30° to 36°C, in multiday cycles. Heart rates were reduced from 55 to as few as 9 beats per minute, with profound sinus arrhythmia. After returning to normal body temperature and emerging from dens, bears maintained a reduced metabolic rate for up to 3 weeks. The pronounced reduction and delayed recovery of metabolic rate in hibernating bears suggest that the majority of metabolic suppression during hibernation is independent of lowered body temperature.

  1. BAD-Dependent Regulation of Fuel Metabolism and KATP Channel Activity Confers Resistance to Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fisher, Jill K.; Szlyk, Benjamin; Polak, Klaudia; Wiwczar, Jessica; Tanner, Geoffrey R.; Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary; Danial, Nika N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Neuronal excitation can be substantially modulated by alterations in metabolism, as evident from the anticonvulsant effect of diets that reduce glucose utilization and promote ketone body metabolism. We provide genetic evidence that BAD, a protein with dual functions in apoptosis and glucose metabolism, imparts reciprocal effects on metabolism of glucose and ketone bodies in brain cells. These effects involve phospho-regulation of BAD and are independent of its apoptotic function. BAD modifications that reduce glucose metabolism produce a marked increase in the activity of metabolically sensitive KATP channels in neurons, as well as resistance to behavioral and electrographic seizures in vivo. Seizure resistance is reversed by genetic ablation of the KATP channel, implicating the BAD-KATP axis in metabolic control of neuronal excitation and seizure responses. PMID:22632729

  2. Glycogen metabolism protects against metabolic insult to preserve carotid body function during glucose deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Andrew P; Turner, Philip J; Carter, Paul; Leadbeater, Wendy; Ray, Clare J; Hauton, David; Buckler, Keith J; Kumar, Prem

    2014-01-01

    The view that the carotid body (CB) type I cells are direct physiological sensors of hypoglycaemia is challenged by the finding that the basal sensory neuronal outflow from the whole organ is unchanged in response to low glucose. The reason for this difference in viewpoint and how the whole CB maintains its metabolic integrity when exposed to low glucose is unknown. Here we show that, in the intact superfused rat CB, basal sensory neuronal activity was sustained during glucose deprivation for 29.1 ± 1.2 min, before irreversible failure following a brief period of excitation. Graded increases in the basal discharge induced by reducing the superfusate led to proportional decreases in the time to the pre-failure excitation during glucose deprivation which was dependent on a complete run-down in glycolysis and a fall in cellular energy status. A similar ability to withstand prolonged glucose deprivation was observed in isolated type I cells. Electron micrographs and immunofluorescence staining of rat CB sections revealed the presence of glycogen granules and the glycogen conversion enzymes glycogen synthase I and glycogen phosphorylase BB, dispersed throughout the type I cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, pharmacological attenuation of glycogenolysis and functional depletion of glycogen both significantly reduced the time to glycolytic run-down by ∼33 and 65%, respectively. These findings suggest that type I cell glycogen metabolism allows for the continuation of glycolysis and the maintenance of CB sensory neuronal output in periods of restricted glucose delivery and this may act as a key protective mechanism for the organ during hypoglycaemia. The ability, or otherwise, to preserve energetic status may thus account for variation in the reported capacity of the CB to sense physiological glucose concentrations and may even underlie its function during pathological states associated with augmented CB discharge. PMID:25063821

  3. Glycogen metabolism protects against metabolic insult to preserve carotid body function during glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew P; Turner, Philip J; Carter, Paul; Leadbeater, Wendy; Ray, Clare J; Hauton, David; Buckler, Keith J; Kumar, Prem

    2014-10-15

    The view that the carotid body (CB) type I cells are direct physiological sensors of hypoglycaemia is challenged by the finding that the basal sensory neuronal outflow from the whole organ is unchanged in response to low glucose. The reason for this difference in viewpoint and how the whole CB maintains its metabolic integrity when exposed to low glucose is unknown. Here we show that, in the intact superfused rat CB, basal sensory neuronal activity was sustained during glucose deprivation for 29.1 ± 1.2 min, before irreversible failure following a brief period of excitation. Graded increases in the basal discharge induced by reducing the superfusate PO2 led to proportional decreases in the time to the pre-failure excitation during glucose deprivation which was dependent on a complete run-down in glycolysis and a fall in cellular energy status. A similar ability to withstand prolonged glucose deprivation was observed in isolated type I cells. Electron micrographs and immunofluorescence staining of rat CB sections revealed the presence of glycogen granules and the glycogen conversion enzymes glycogen synthase I and glycogen phosphorylase BB, dispersed throughout the type I cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, pharmacological attenuation of glycogenolysis and functional depletion of glycogen both significantly reduced the time to glycolytic run-down by ∼33 and 65%, respectively. These findings suggest that type I cell glycogen metabolism allows for the continuation of glycolysis and the maintenance of CB sensory neuronal output in periods of restricted glucose delivery and this may act as a key protective mechanism for the organ during hypoglycaemia. The ability, or otherwise, to preserve energetic status may thus account for variation in the reported capacity of the CB to sense physiological glucose concentrations and may even underlie its function during pathological states associated with augmented CB discharge. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014

  4. Acetone and Butanone Metabolism of the Denitrifying Bacterium “Aromatoleum aromaticum” Demonstrates Novel Biochemical Properties of an ATP-Dependent Aliphatic Ketone Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Schühle, Karola

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic and aerobic metabolism of acetone and butanone in the betaproteobacterium “Aromatoleum aromaticum” is initiated by their ATP-dependent carboxylation to acetoacetate and 3-oxopentanoic acid, respectively. Both reactions are catalyzed by the same enzyme, acetone carboxylase, which was purified and characterized. Acetone carboxylase is highly induced under growth on acetone or butanone and accounts for at least 5.5% of total cell protein. The enzyme consists of three subunits of 85, 75, and 20 kDa, respectively, in a (αβγ)2 composition and contains 1 Zn and 2 Fe per heterohexamer but no organic cofactors. Chromatographic analysis of the ATP hydrolysis products indicated that ATP was exclusively cleaved to AMP and 2 Pi. The stoichiometry was determined to be 2 ATP consumed per acetone carboxylated. Purified acetone carboxylase from A. aromaticum catalyzes the carboxylation of acetone and butanone as the only substrates. However, the enzyme shows induced (uncoupled) ATPase activity with many other substrates that were not carboxylated. Acetone carboxylase is a member of a protein family that also contains acetone carboxylases of various other organisms, acetophenone carboxylase of A. aromaticum, and ATP-dependent hydantoinases/oxoprolinases. While the members of this family share several characteristic features, they differ with respect to the products of ATP hydrolysis, subunit composition, and metal content. PMID:22020645

  5. Plasticity in body temperature and metabolic capacity sustains winter activity in a small endotherm (Rattus fuscipes).

    PubMed

    Glanville, Elsa J; Seebacher, Frank

    2010-03-01

    Small mammals that remain active throughout the year at a constant body temperature have a much greater energy and food requirement in winter. Lower body temperatures in winter may offset the increased energetic cost of remaining active in the cold, if cellular metabolism is not constrained by a negative thermodynamic effect. We aimed to determine whether variable body temperatures can be advantageous for small endotherms by testing the hypothesis that body temperature fluctuates seasonally in a wild rat (Rattus fuscipes); conferring an energy saving and reducing food requirements during resource restricted winter. Additionally we tested whether changes in body temperature affected tissue specific metabolic capacity. Winter acclimatized rats had significantly lower body temperatures and thicker fur than summer acclimatized rats. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and the activity of enzymes that control oxidative (citrate synthase, cytochrome c-oxidase) and anaerobic (lactate dehydrogenase) metabolism were elevated in winter and were not negatively affected by the lower body temperature. Energy transfer modeling showed that lower body temperatures in winter combined with increased fur thickness to confer a 25 kJ day(-1) energy saving, with up to 50% owing to reduced body temperature alone. We show that phenotypic plasticity at multiple levels of organization is an important component of the response of a small endotherm to winter. Mitochondrial function compensates for lower winter body temperatures, buffering metabolic heat production capacity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy comparison of Korean ginseng and American ginseng on body temperature and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Mi-Hwi; Kim, Eung-Hwi; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Park, In-Sun; Yang, Duck-Choon; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng has beneficial effects in cancer, diabetes and aging. There are two main varieties of ginseng: Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). There are anecdotal reports that American ginseng helps reduce body temperature, whereas Korean ginseng improves blood circulation and increases body temperature; however, their respective effects on body temperature and metabolic parameters have not been studied. We investigated body temperature and metabolic parameters in mice using a metabolic cage. After administering ginseng extracts acutely (single dose of 1000 mg/kg) or chronically (200 mg/kg/day for four weeks), core body temperature, food intake, oxygen consumption and activity were measured, as well as serum levels of pyrogen-related factors and mRNA expression of metabolic genes. Acute treatment with American ginseng reduced body temperature compared with PBS-treated mice during the night; however, there was no significant effect of ginseng treatment on body temperature after four weeks of treatment. VO 2, VCO 2, food intake, activity and energy expenditure were unchanged after both acute and chronic ginseng treatment compared with PBS treatment. In acutely treated mice, serum thyroxin levels were reduced by red and American ginseng, and the serum prostaglandin E2 level was reduced by American ginseng. In chronically treated mice, red and white ginseng reduced thyroxin levels. We conclude that Korean ginseng does not stimulate metabolism in mice, whereas a high dose of American ginseng may reduce night-time body temperature and pyrogen-related factors.

  7. Engineering ..beta..-Oxidation in Yarrowia lipolytica for Methyl Ketone Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta; Ramirez, Kelsey J; Singer, Christine

    Medium- and long-chain methyl ketones are fatty acid-derived compounds that can be used as biofuel blending agents, flavors and fragrances. However, their large-scale production from sustainable feedstocks is currently limited due to the lack of robust microbial biocatalysts. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising biorefinery platform strain for the production of methyl ketones from renewable lignocellulosic biomass due to its natively high flux towards fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we report the metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica to produce long- and very long-chain methyl ketones. Truncation of peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation by chromosomal deletion of pot1 resulted in themore » biosynthesis of saturated, mono-, and diunsaturated methyl ketones in the C13-C23 range. Additional overexpression and peroxisomal targeting of a heterologous bacterial methyl ketone biosynthesis pathway yielded an initial titer of 151.5 mg/L of saturated methyl ketones. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the cultures were found to substantially impact cell morphology and methyl ketone biosynthesis. Bioreactor cultivation under optimized conditions resulted in a titer of 314.8 mg/L of total methyl ketones, representing more than a 6000-fold increase over the parental strain. This work highlights the potential of Y. lipolytica to serve as chassis organism for the biosynthesis of acyl-thioester derived long- and very long-chain methyl ketones.« less

  8. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  9. A body composition model to estimate mammalian energy stores and metabolic rates from body mass and body length, with application to polar bears.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Péter K; Klanjscek, Tin; Derocher, Andrew E; Obbard, Martyn E; Lewis, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    Many species experience large fluctuations in food availability and depend on energy from fat and protein stores for survival, reproduction and growth. Body condition and, more specifically, energy stores thus constitute key variables in the life history of many species. Several indices exist to quantify body condition but none can provide the amount of stored energy. To estimate energy stores in mammals, we propose a body composition model that differentiates between structure and storage of an animal. We develop and parameterize the model specifically for polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps) but all concepts are general and the model could be easily adapted to other mammals. The model provides predictive equations to estimate structural mass, storage mass and storage energy from an appropriately chosen measure of body length and total body mass. The model also provides a means to estimate basal metabolic rates from body length and consecutive measurements of total body mass. Model estimates of body composition, structural mass, storage mass and energy density of 970 polar bears from Hudson Bay were consistent with the life history and physiology of polar bears. Metabolic rate estimates of fasting adult males derived from the body composition model corresponded closely to theoretically expected and experimentally measured metabolic rates. Our method is simple, non-invasive and provides considerably more information on the energetic status of individuals than currently available methods.

  10. BAD-dependent regulation of fuel metabolism and K(ATP) channel activity confers resistance to epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fisher, Jill K; Szlyk, Benjamin; Polak, Klaudia; Wiwczar, Jessica; Tanner, Geoffrey R; Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary; Danial, Nika N

    2012-05-24

    Neuronal excitation can be substantially modulated by alterations in metabolism, as evident from the anticonvulsant effect of diets that reduce glucose utilization and promote ketone body metabolism. We provide genetic evidence that BAD, a protein with dual functions in apoptosis and glucose metabolism, imparts reciprocal effects on metabolism of glucose and ketone bodies in brain cells. These effects involve phosphoregulation of BAD and are independent of its apoptotic function. BAD modifications that reduce glucose metabolism produce a marked increase in the activity of metabolically sensitive K(ATP) channels in neurons, as well as resistance to behavioral and electrographic seizures in vivo. Seizure resistance is reversed by genetic ablation of the K(ATP) channel, implicating the BAD-K(ATP) axis in metabolic control of neuronal excitation and seizure responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Anna G.; Kluge, Holger; Hirche, Frank; Kiowski, Andreas; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Corrent, Etienne; Bartelt, Jörg; König, Bettina; Stangl, Gabriele I.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu) displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2) and four-fold (L4) higher Leu contents than the recommended amount (control). We found that the L4 diet led to a pronounced increase in BCKDH activity in the brain (2.5-fold, P < 0.05), liver (1.8-fold, P < 0.05) and cardiac muscle (1.7-fold, P < 0.05), whereas we found no changes in enzyme activity in the pancreas, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa. The L2 diet had only weak effects on BCKDH activity. Both high Leu diets reduced the concentrations of free valine and isoleucine in nearly all tissues. In the brain, high Leu diets modified the amount of tryptophan available: for serotonin synthesis. Compared to the controls, pigs treated with the high Leu diets consumed less food, showed increased plasma concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced levels of circulating serotonin. In conclusion, excessive Leu can stimulate BCKDH activity in several tissues, including the brain. Changes in cerebral tryptophan, along with the changes in amino acid-derived metabolites in the plasma may limit the use of high Leu diets to treat muscle atrophy or to increase muscle growth. PMID:26930301

  12. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by increasing serum ketone body production as a complementary energy source for neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Yamamoto, Tomiya; Yaku, Keisuke; Hirota, Shiori; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kawabe, Kouichi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2016-09-25

    1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is naturally obtained from the rhizomes and seeds of Alpinia galangal. Here, we examined the effect of ACA on learning and memory in senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8). In mice that were fed a control diet containing 0.02% ACA for 25 weeks, the learning ability in the Morris water maze test was significantly enhanced in comparison with mice that were fed the control diet alone. In the Y-maze test, SAMP8 mice showed decreased spontaneous alterations in comparison with senescence-accelerated resistant/1 (SAMR1) mice, a homologous control, which was improved by ACA pretreatment. Serum metabolite profiles were obtained by GC-MS analysis, and each metabolic profile was plotted on a 3D score plot. Based upon the diagram, it can be seen that the distribution areas for the three groups were completely separate. Furthermore, the contents of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid in the serum of SAMP8-ACA mice were higher than those of SAMP8-control mice and SAMR1-control mice. We also found that SAMR1 mice did not show histological abnormalities, whereas histological damage in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in SAMP8-control mice was observed. However, SAMP8-ACA mice were observed in a similar manner as SAMR1 mice. These findings confirm that ACA increases the serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid levels and thus these fuels might contribute to the maintenance of the cognitive performance of SAMP8 mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic adaptations to HFHS overfeeding: how whole body and tissues postprandial metabolic flexibility adapt in Yucatan mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Rémond, Didier; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Rambeau, Mathieu; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Dardevet, Dominique; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed to metabolically characterize the postprandial adaptations of the major tissues involved in energy, lipids and amino acids metabolisms in mini-pigs. Mini-pigs were fed on high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 2 months and several tissues explored for metabolic analyses. Further, the urine metabolome was followed over the time to picture the metabolic adaptations occurring at the whole body level following overfeeding. After 2 months of HFHS consumption, mini-pigs displayed an obese phenotype characterized by high circulating insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. At the tissue level, a general (muscle, adipose tissue, intestine) reduction in the capacity to phosphorylate glucose was observed. This was also supported by the enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis potential, despite the concomitant normoglycaemia, suggesting that the high circulating insulin levels would be enough to maintain glucose homoeostasis. The HFHS feeding also resulted in a reduced capacity of two other pathways: the de novo lipogenesis, and the branched-chain amino acids transamination. Finally, the follow-up of the urine metabolome over the time allowed determining breaking points in the metabolic trajectory of the animals. Several features confirmed the pertinence of the animal model, including increased body weight, adiposity and porcine obesity index. At the metabolic level, we observed a perturbed glucose and amino acid metabolism, known to be related to the onset of the obesity. The urine metabolome analyses revealed several metabolic pathways potentially involved in the obesity onset, including TCA (citrate, pantothenic acid), amino acids catabolism (cysteine, threonine, leucine).

  14. Size matters: plasticity in metabolic scaling shows body-size may modulate responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Carey, Nicholas; Sigwart, Julia D

    2014-08-01

    Variability in metabolic scaling in animals, the relationship between metabolic rate ( R: ) and body mass ( M: ), has been a source of debate and controversy for decades. R: is proportional to MB: , the precise value of B: much debated, but historically considered equal in all organisms. Recent metabolic theory, however, predicts B: to vary among species with ecology and metabolic level, and may also vary within species under different abiotic conditions. Under climate change, most species will experience increased temperatures, and marine organisms will experience the additional stressor of decreased seawater pH ('ocean acidification'). Responses to these environmental changes are modulated by myriad species-specific factors. Body-size is a fundamental biological parameter, but its modulating role is relatively unexplored. Here, we show that changes to metabolic scaling reveal asymmetric responses to stressors across body-size ranges; B: is systematically decreased under increasing temperature in three grazing molluscs, indicating smaller individuals were more responsive to warming. Larger individuals were, however, more responsive to reduced seawater pH in low temperatures. These alterations to the allometry of metabolism highlight abiotic control of metabolic scaling, and indicate that responses to climate warming and ocean acidification may be modulated by body-size. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in whole-body metabolic parameters associated with radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, I.

    1994-10-01

    Continuous irradiation of experimental animals is an appropriate model for the research in space radiobiology. The onset and recovery of radiation injury can be estimated on the basis of the concentration/content of glycogen in liver, the phospholipid content in thymus and other radiosensitive organs and the triacylglycerol concentration in bone marrow. Further, the picture of the metabolism in irradiated organism may be completed by the analysis of serum glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone levels.

  16. Metabolic Differences between Dogs of Different Body Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Sebastien; Kennedy, Adam D.; Beloshapka, Alison; Kaput, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris, has been selectively bred to produce extreme diversity in phenotype and genotype. Dogs have an immense diversity in weight and height. Specific differences in metabolism have not been characterized in small dogs as compared to larger dogs. Objectives This study aims to identify metabolic, clinical, and microbiota differences between small and larger dogs. Methods Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, clinical chemistry analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 16S pyrosequencing were used to characterize blood metabolic, clinical, and fecal microbiome systems, respectively. Eighty-three canines from seven different breeds, fed the same kibble diet for 5 weeks, were used in the study. Results 449 metabolites, 16 clinical parameters, and 6 bacteria (at the genus level) were significantly different between small and larger dogs. Hierarchical clustering of the metabolites yielded 8 modules associated with small dog size. Conclusion Small dogs had a lower antioxidant status and differences in circulating amino acids. Some of the amino acid differences could be attributed to differences in microflora. Additionally, analysis of small dog metabolites and clinical parameters reflected a network which strongly associates with kidney function. PMID:29225968

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer improves body composition and modulates metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Giulia; Almeida, Ana; Ravasco, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review article is to present the most recent intervention studies with EPA on nutritional outcomes in cancer patients, e.g. nutritional status, weight & lean body mass. For this purpose a PubMed(®) and MedLine(®) search of the published literature up to and including January 2014 that contained the keywords: cancer, sarcopenia, EPA, ω-3 fatty acids, weight, intervention trial, muscle mass was conducted. The collected data was summarized and written in text format and in tables that contained: study design, patient' population, sample size, statistical significance and results of the intervention. The paper will cover malignancy, body composition, intervention with EPA, physiological mechanisms of action of EPA, effect of EPA on weight and body composition, future research. In cancer patients deterioration of muscle mass can be present regardless of body weight or Body Mass Index (BMI). Thus, sarcopenia in cancer patients with excessive fat mass (FM), entitled sarcopenic obesity, has gained greater relevance in clinical practice; it can negatively influence patients' functional status, tolerance to treatments & disease prognosis. The search for an effective nutritional intervention that improves body composition (preservation of muscle mass and muscle quality) is of utmost importance for clinicians and patients. The improvement of muscle quality is an even more recent area of interest because it has probable implications in patients' prognosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been identified as a promising nutrient with the wide clinical benefits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain EPA potential benefits on body composition: inhibition of catabolic stimuli by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines production and enhancing insulin sensitivity that induces protein synthesis; also, EPA may attenuate deterioration of nutritional status resulting from antineoplastic therapies by improving calorie and protein intake as well. Indeed

  18. BLOOD PLASMA PROTEIN GIVEN BY VEIN UTILIZED IN BODY METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Russell L.; Mahoney, Earle B.; Whipple, George H.

    1934-01-01

    Large amounts of normal blood plasma can be given intravenously to normal dogs over several weeks without causing any significant escape by way of the urine. There appears to be no renal threshold for plasma protein even with high plasma protein concentration (9.7 per cent). Dogs receiving sugar by mouth and plasma by vein can be kept practically in nitrogen equilibrium and it would seem that the injected protein must be utilized by the body. If this can happen in this emergency we may suspect that normally there is a certain amount of "give and take" between body protein and plasma protein. Plasma protein fed by mouth under identical conditions shows the same general reaction as noted with plasma by vein but the urinary nitrogen is a little higher and suggests that the injected protein is utilized a little more completely to form new protein. The difference may be explained as due to deaminization in the case of protein by mouth. During fasting periods the blood plasma proteins are used up and the total circulating protein may even decrease to one-half the normal level. The plasma protein concentration changes but little and the significant change is a shrinkage of plasma volume. All these facts point to a dynamic equilibrium between tissue protein and plasma protein depending upon the physiological needs of the moment. In the absence of food protein the body can use material coming from one body protein to fabricate badly needed protein material of different character. PMID:19870245

  19. Valproate causes metabolic disturbance in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, D M; Dick, D J; Wilson, L; Sherratt, H S; Alberti, K G

    1986-01-01

    Valproate is an important anticonvulsant which is rarely associated with fatal hepatotoxicity. Previous experiments have shown that valproate inhibits several metabolic processes in isolated rat hepatocytes and when administered to starved rats causes a fall in the blood concentrations of glucose and ketone bodies. Since these changes may be related to the hepatotoxicity, the effect of valproate administration on intermediary metabolism in man was studied. One gram of valproate given orally to fasted normal humans caused a 78% fall in the concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate and a 60% fall in total ketones. Also the concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, alanine and glycerol increased after valproate administration. Similar changes were observed after intravenous administration of 400 mg of valproate. Valproate clearly has a significant effect on intermediary metabolism in the liver and this is probably related to the mechanism of the hepatotoxicity. PMID:3084712

  20. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling of metabolic heat production rate on body mass is investigated for five species of small laboratory mammal in order to define selection of animals of metabolic rates and size range appropriate for the measurement of changes in the scaling relationship upon exposure to weightlessness in Shuttle/Spacelab experiment. Metabolic rates were measured according to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production for individual male and female Swiss-Webster mice, Syrian hamsters, Simonsen albino rats, Hartley guinea pigs and New Zealand white rabbits, which range in mass from 0.05 to 5 kg mature body size, at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The metabolic intensity, defined as the heat produced per hour per kg body mass, is found to decrease dramatically with age until the animals are 6 to 8 months old, with little or no sex difference. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, the relation of metabolic rate to total body mass is found to obey a power law of index 0.676, which differs significantly from the classical value of 0.75. When the values for the mice are removed, however, an index of 0.749 is obtained. It is thus proposed that six male animals, 8 months of age, of each of the four remaining species be used to study the effects of gravitational loading on the metabolic energy requirements of terrestrial animals.

  1. Value of point-of-care ketones in assessing dehydration and acidosis in children with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jason A; Waltzman, Mark; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    Children with gastroenteritis often develop dehydration with metabolic acidosis. Serum ketones are frequently elevated in this population. The goal was to determine the relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and both the degree of dehydration and the magnitude of acidosis. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective trial of crystalloid administration for rapid rehydration. Children 6 months to 6 years of age with gastroenteritis and dehydration were enrolled. A point-of-care serum ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) concentration was obtained at the time of study enrollment. The relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and a prospectively assigned and previously validated clinical dehydration score, and serum bicarbonate concentration, was analyzed. A total of 188 patients were enrolled. The median serum ketone concentration was elevated at 3.1 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.2 to 4.6 mmol/L), and the median dehydration score was consistent with moderate dehydration. A significant positive relationship was found between serum ketone concentration and the clinical dehydration score (Spearman's rho = 0.22, p = 0.003). Patients with moderate dehydration had a higher median serum ketone concentration than those with mild dehydration (3.6 mmol/L vs. 1.4 mmol/L, p = 0.007). Additionally, the serum ketone concentration was inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate concentration (ρ = -0.26, p < 0.001). Children with gastroenteritis and dehydration have elevated serum ketone concentrations that correlate with both degree of dehydration and magnitude of metabolic acidosis. Point-of-care serum ketone measurement may be a useful tool to inform management decisions at the point of triage or in the initial evaluation of children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Exercise-Induced Changes in Metabolic Resposes to Infection in Trained Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-20

    superimposed on fasting reduced it in sedentary rats (24). Swimming amplified fasting ketosis and diminished infection ketonemia and markedly decreased...Ketone body metabolism in the ketosis of starvation and alloxan diabetes. J. Biol. Chem. 245:4382-4390, 1970. 22. MOSES, L. E. Determination of oxygen

  3. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ketones Prevent Oxidative Impairment of Hippocampal Synaptic Integrity through KATP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Abdelwahab, Mohammed G.; Lee, Soo Han; O’Neill, Derek; Thompson, Roger J.; Duff, Henry J.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Rho, Jong M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and metabolic therapies are increasingly being considered for a variety of neurological disorders, based in part on growing evidence for the neuroprotective properties of the ketogenic diet (KD) and ketones. Earlier, we demonstrated that ketones afford hippocampal synaptic protection against exogenous oxidative stress, but the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that ketones may modulate neuronal firing through interactions with ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Here, we used a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and biochemical assays to determine whether hippocampal synaptic protection by ketones is a consequence of KATP channel activation. Ketones dose-dependently reversed oxidative impairment of hippocampal synaptic integrity, neuronal viability, and bioenergetic capacity, and this action was mirrored by the KATP channel activator diazoxide. Inhibition of KATP channels reversed ketone-evoked hippocampal protection, and genetic ablation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel subunit Kir6.2, a critical component of KATP channels, partially negated the synaptic protection afforded by ketones. This partial protection was completely reversed by co-application of the KATP blocker, 5-hydoxydecanoate (5HD). We conclude that, under conditions of oxidative injury, ketones induce synaptic protection in part through activation of KATP channels. PMID:25848768

  5. Predictive value of body mass index to metabolic syndrome risk factors in Syrian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Bakir, Mohamad Adel

    2017-06-25

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic health problem in both developing and developed countries. There is much evidence that obesity among adolescents contributed significantly to the development of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in adulthood. Very limited information exists on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity determined by body mass index and the major metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of 2064 apparently healthy Syrian adolescents aged 18 to 19 years from Damascus city, in Syria, was performed. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the national criteria for each determined metabolic risk factor. Individuals with a body mass index 25 to 29.9 were classified as overweight, whereas individuals with a body mass index ≥30 were classified as obese. A receiver operating characteristics curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the body mass index for defining overweight and obesity, and to indicate the performance of body mass index as a predictor of risk factors. The obtained data showed that blood pressure and the overall mean concentrations of fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly higher in overweight and obese adolescent groups (p <0.0001) in comparison with the normal group. Based on receiver operating characteristics calculation for body mass index and some metabolic risks, the data suggest the best body mass index cut-offs ranged between 23.25 and 24.35 kg/m 2 . A strong association

  6. Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas Stewart

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during active exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (scaling as M (1)). This dependence of b on activity level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.

  7. The Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, and Metabolic Measures among Participants with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijuan; Cordeiro, Lorraine S.; Liu, Jinghua; Ma, Yunsheng

    2017-01-01

    The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 240). Three randomly selected 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant at baseline and at the one-year visit. Skipped breakfast was seen in 32.9% at baseline and in 17.4% at the one-year visit, respectively. At baseline, after adjustment for demographics and physical activity, participants who ate breakfast had a higher thiamin, niacin, and folate intake than did breakfast skippers (p < 0.05); other selected parameters including body weight, dietary quality scores, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups (p ≥ 0.05). From baseline to one year, after adjustment for covariates, mean fat intake increased by 2.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): −1.0, 6.5%) of total energy in breakfast skippers in comparison to the 1.2% decrease observed in breakfast eaters (95% CI: −3.4, 1.1%) (p = 0.02). Mean changes in other selected parameters showed no significant differences between breakfast skippers and eaters (p > 0.05). This study did not support the hypothesis that skipping breakfast has impact on body weight, nutrient intakes, and selected metabolic measures in participants with MetS. PMID:28420112

  8. Thermoneutral zone and scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 4-species animal model suitable for experimental study of the effect of change in gravitational loading on the scale relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is used to study the effect of temperature on metabolic rate in six male animals, 8-10 months of age, of each of the four species in the ambient temperature range 20-36 C. The measurements taken permitted partitioning of total body heat output into sensible heat loss by radiation, conduction and convection, and into latent heat loss by evaporation of water from the body surface. It is shown that the condition of thermoneutrality is important for metabolic scale effect studies, and that the thermoneutral zone for the species considered here is a narrow one.

  9. Volatilization of ketones from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The overall mass-transfer coefficients for the volatilization from water of acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-octanone were measured simultaneously with the oxygen-absorption coefficient in a laboratory stirred water bath. The liquid-film and gas-film coefficients of the two-film model were determined for the ketones from the overall coefficients, and both film resistances were important for volatilization of the ketones.The liquid-film coefficients for the ketones varied with the 0.719 power of the molecular-diffusion coefficient, in agreement with the literature. The liquid-film coefficients showed a variable dependence on molecular weight, with the dependence ranging from the −0.263 power for acetone to the −0.378 power for 2-octanone. This is in contrast with the literature where a constant −0.500 power dependence on the molecular weight is assumed.The gas-film coefficients for the ketones showed no dependence on molecular weight, in contrast with the literature where a −0.500 power is assumed.

  10. Bacterial production of methyl ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for increasing production of methyl ketones in a genetically modified host cell that overproduces .beta.-ketoacyl-CoAs through a re-engineered .beta.-oxidation pathway and overexpresses FadM.

  11. Body Temperature and Energy Metabolism of Brown Lemming in Relation to Running Speed,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    ADASOG 382 ARCTIC INST OF NORTH AMERICA ARLINGTON VA F/B 6/16 BOOT TEMPERATURE AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF BROWN LEMMING IN RELA--ETC(U) W4LSIID 1979 T...M CASEY N00014-75-C-0635UNCLASSIFIEDh l o I - Body temperature and energy metabolism *of brown lemming in relation to running speed) by Timothy M...Casey Dept. of E. Physiology Cook College, Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 C2 Running head: Metabolism and Tb of running lemmings. ALU

  12. The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Isaac, Nick J B; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-09-01

    1. The power-law dependence of metabolic rate on body mass has major implications at every level of ecological organization. However, the overwhelming majority of studies examining this relationship have used basal or resting metabolic rates, and/or have used data consisting of species-averaged masses and metabolic rates. Field metabolic rates are more ecologically relevant and are probably more directly subject to natural selection than basal rates. Individual rates might be more important than species-average rates in determining the outcome of ecological interactions, and hence selection. 2. We here provide the first comprehensive database of published field metabolic rates and body masses of individual birds and mammals, containing measurements of 1498 animals of 133 species in 28 orders. We used linear mixed-effects models to answer questions about the body mass scaling of metabolic rate and its taxonomic universality/heterogeneity that have become classic areas of controversy. Our statistical approach allows mean scaling exponents and taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling to be analysed in a unified way while simultaneously accounting for nonindependence in the data due to shared evolutionary history of related species. 3. The mean power-law scaling exponents of metabolic rate vs. body mass relationships were 0.71 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.625-0.795] for birds and 0.64 (95% CI 0.564-0.716) for mammals. However, these central tendencies obscured meaningful taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling exponents. The primary taxonomic level at which heterogeneity occurred was the order level. Substantial heterogeneity also occurred at the species level, a fact that cannot be revealed by species-averaged data sets used in prior work. Variability in scaling exponents at both order and species levels was comparable to or exceeded the differences 3/4-2/3 = 1/12 and 0.71-0.64. 4. Results are interpreted in the light of a variety of existing theories. In particular, results

  13. Selenium in the environment, metabolism and involvement in body functions.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Youcef; Hornick, Jean-Luc; Istasse, Louis; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2013-03-13

    Selenium (Se³⁴₇₉) is a metalloid which is close to sulfur (S) in terms of properties. The Se concentration in soil varies with type, texture and organic matter content of the soil and with rainfall. Its assimilation by plants is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil (redox status, pH and microbial activity). The presence of Se in the atmosphere is linked to natural and anthropogenic activities. Selenoproteins, in which selenium is present as selenocysteine, present an important role in many body functions, such as antioxidant defense and the formation of thyroid hormones. Some selenoprotein metabolites play a role in cancer prevention. In the immune system, selenium stimulates antibody formation and activity of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells. The mechanisms of intestinal absorption of selenium differ depending on the chemical form of the element. Selenium is mainly absorbed in the duodenum and caecum by active transport through a sodium pump. The recommended daily intake of selenium varies from 60 μg/day for women, to 70 μg/day for men. In growing ruminants the requirements are estimated at 100 μg/kg dry matter and 200 μg/Kg for pregnant or lactating females. A deficiency can cause reproductive disorders in humans and animals.

  14. Metabolic syndrome in Turner syndrome and relation between body composition and clinical, genetic, and ultrasonographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Brambilla, Paola; Maffè, Gabriella Carnevale; Klersy, Catherine; Albertini, Riccardo; Introzzi, Francesca; Bozzola, Elena; Bozzola, Mauro; Larizza, Daniela

    2014-04-01

    An increased relative risk of diabetes, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and hypertension have been reported in Turner syndrome (TS) patients. No data are currently available on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in TS subjects. We evaluated the frequency of metabolic syndrome in obese and nonobese patients with TS. We evaluated 85 TS patients (27.05 ± 11.17 years). Obesity was defined as standard deviation score body mass index (SDS-BMI) ≥ 2 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) in adult patients. We classified metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Hepatic ultrasound was performed in all girls. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.7% (12.5% obese and 4.3% nonobese, P=0.16) and associated with visceral adiposity (P=0.008). Abnormalities in glucose metabolism and hypertension were not associated with genetic or therapeutic factors. The karyotype 45,X was associated with atherogenic profile. Pathological waist circumference was more frequent in girls treated with estro-progestin (P=0.03). Evidence of fatty liver was associated with metabolic syndrome (P=0.03) and insulin resistance (P=0.05). Elevated liver enzymes were found in 15 subjects and were not related to treatment or ultrasound abnormalities. Prevalence of each component of metabolic syndrome in TS patients is partially influenced by genetic makeup and treatment. Hepatosteatosis was associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, but not to elevated liver enzymes.

  15. The Metabolic Phenotype in Obesity: Fat Mass, Body Fat Distribution, and Adipose Tissue Function.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Gijs H

    2017-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic poses a major public health issue since obesity predisposes towards several chronic diseases. BMI and total adiposity are positively correlated with cardiometabolic disease risk at the population level. However, body fat distribution and an impaired adipose tissue function, rather than total fat mass, better predict insulin resistance and related complications at the individual level. Adipose tissue dysfunction is determined by an impaired adipose tissue expandability, adipocyte hypertrophy, altered lipid metabolism, and local inflammation. Recent human studies suggest that adipose tissue oxygenation may be a key factor herein. A subgroup of obese individuals - the 'metabolically healthy obese' (MHO) - have a better adipose tissue function, less ectopic fat storage, and are more insulin sensitive than obese metabolically unhealthy persons, emphasizing the central role of adipose tissue function in metabolic health. However, controversy has surrounded the idea that metabolically healthy obesity may be considered really healthy since MHO individuals are at increased (cardio)metabolic disease risk and may have a lower quality of life than normal weight subjects due to other comorbidities. Detailed metabolic phenotyping of obese persons will be invaluable in understanding the pathophysiology of metabolic disturbances, and is needed to identify high-risk individuals or subgroups, thereby paving the way for optimization of prevention and treatment strategies to combat cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Role of leptin in body temperature regulation and lipid metabolism following splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Rosa, T S; Amorim, C E N; Barros, C C; Haro, A S; Wasinski, F; Russo, F J; Bacurau, R F P; Araujo, R C

    2015-12-01

    The physiological changes in serum triglycerides and body temperature that are induced by splenectomy are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate parameters related to lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as thermoregulation, in splenectomized mice. Splenectomized and sham-operated WT mice (C57Bl/6) and ob/ob mice were randomly divided and treated with a standard or high fat diet, and several metabolic parameters and the body temperature were investigated. Splenectomy induced a significant increase in triglyceride levels regardless of the diet. It was found that the splenectomized WT mice showed greater serum leptin and insulin levels compared with the sham-operated mice. Additionally, the body temperatures of the splenectomized WT mice were greater than the body temperatures of the control animals regardless of diet; this result too was observed without any significant change in the temperature of the splenectomized ob/ob animals. The results suggest that splenectomy interferes with serum triglyceride metabolism and body temperature regardless of the fat content in the diet and that leptin is involved in the regulation of body temperature related to splenectomy.

  17. The influence of metabolic heat production on body temperature of a small lizard, Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard P; Au, Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Little is known about the impact of increased metabolism on body temperatures of small ectotherms. We found that postprandial metabolic rates of 5 g Anolis carolinensis lizards were elevated by factorial increases of 2.3+/-1.0 (mean+/-S.E.) at 26 degrees C and 3.8+/-2.1 at 30 degrees C over their fasting rates. Cloacal body temperatures exceeded environmental temperatures by a small amount in fasted individuals (26 degrees C: 0.3+/-0.02 degrees C, 30 degrees C: 0.3+/-0.02 degrees C), and by a significantly larger amount in fed individuals (26 degrees C: 1.0+/-0.06 degrees C, 30 degrees C: 0.8+/-0.08 degrees C). We conclude that an increased metabolic rate due to specific dynamic action leads to a small but significant elevation of body temperature in this species. Comparisons with thermal increments reported for a large (750 g) varanid lizard suggest that body size has only a minor influence on body-air temperature differentials of ectotherms. This is consistent with theoretical predictions. Finally, endogenous heat production could help elevate body temperatures in the wild and therefore play a minor role in thermoregulation.

  18. The effect of temperature and body weight on the routine metabolic rate and postprandial metabolic response in mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Igor; Booth, Mark A

    2009-09-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA) is the energy expended on the physiological processes associated with meal digestion and is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the meal and the body weight (BW) and temperature of the organism. This study assessed the effects of temperature and body weight on the routine metabolic rate (RMR) and postprandial metabolic response in mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus. RMR and SDA were established at 3 temperatures (14, 20 and 26 degrees C). 5 size classes of mulloway ranging from 60 g to 1.14 kg were used to establish RMR with 3 of the 5 size classes (60, 120 and 240 g) used to establish SDA. The effect of body size on the mass-specific RMR (mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) varied significantly depending on the temperature; there was a greater relative increase in the mass-specific RMR for smaller mulloway with increasing temperature. No statistical differences were found between the mass exponent (b) values at each temperature when tested against H(0): b=0.8. The gross RMR of mulloway (mg O(2) fish(-1) h(-1)) can be described as function of temperature (T; 14-26 degrees C) as: (0.0195T-0.0454)BW(g)(0.8) and the mass-specific RMR (mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) can be described as: (21.042T-74.867)BW(g)(-0.2). Both SDA duration and time to peak SDA were influenced by temperature and body weight; SDA duration occurred within 41-89 h and peak time occurred within 17-38 h of feeding. The effect of body size on peak metabolic rate varied significantly depending on temperature, generally increasing with temperature and decreasing with increasing body size. Peak gross oxygen consumption (MO(2): mg O(2) fish(-1) h(-1)) scaled allometrically with BW. Temperature, but not body size, significantly affected SDA scope, although the difference was numerically small. There was a trend for MO(2) above RMR over the SDA period to increase with temperature; however, this was not statistically significant. The average proportion of energy expended over the SDA period

  19. Upper body fat predicts metabolic syndrome similarly in men and women.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M; Williams, Corbin; Vega, Gloria L

    2018-04-23

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors including dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, hypertension, a pro-inflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. All of these factors are accentuated by obesity. However, obesity can be defined by body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, or by body fat distribution. The latter consists of upper body fat (subcutaneous and visceral fat) and lower body fat (gluteofemoral fat). Waist circumference is a common surrogate marker for upper body fat. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2006 was examined for associations of metabolic risk factors with percent body fat, waist circumference, and BMI. Associations between absolute measures of waist circumference and risk factors were similiar for men and women. The similarities of associations between waist circumference and risk factors suggests that greater visceral fat in men does not accentuate the influence of upper body fat on risk factors. Different waist concumference values should not be used to define abdominal obesity in men and women. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  20. [Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and its value for a human body].

    PubMed

    Lyzohub, V H; Zaval's'ka, T V; Horna, O O; Pliskevych, D A; Savchenko, O V

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of metabolism of polynonsaturated fat acids in a human body as antiatherogenous which prevents the development of cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, hypertension), as well as oncological diseases, a peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum.

  1. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N

    2014-08-12

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)-dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level.

  2. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  3. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21

    PubMed Central

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)–dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level. PMID:25082895

  4. Fat body glycogen serves as a metabolic safeguard for the maintenance of sugar levels in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takayuki; Habara, Okiko; Kubo, Hitomi; Nishimura, Takashi

    2018-03-14

    Adapting to changes in food availability is a central challenge for survival. Glucose is an important resource for energy production, and therefore many organisms synthesize and retain sugar storage molecules. In insects, glucose is stored in two different forms: the disaccharide trehalose and the branched polymer glycogen. Glycogen is synthesized and stored in several tissues, including in muscle and the fat body. Despite the major role of the fat body as a center for energy metabolism, the importance of its glycogen content remains unclear. Here, we show that glycogen metabolism is regulated in a tissue-specific manner under starvation conditions in the fruit fly Drosophila The mobilization of fat body glycogen in larvae is independent of Adipokinetic hormone (Akh, the glucagon homolog) but is regulated by sugar availability in a tissue-autonomous manner. Fat body glycogen plays a crucial role in the maintenance of circulating sugars, including trehalose, under fasting conditions. These results demonstrate the importance of fat body glycogen as a metabolic safeguard in Drosophila . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complex interactions between carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism underlie the body's remarkable ability to adapt to a variety of diets. But any imbalances between the intake and utilization rates of these macronutrients will result in changes in body weight and composition. Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes in both obese and nonobese men and women. No model parameters were adjusted to fit these data other than the initial conditions for each subject group (e.g., initial body weight and body fat mass). The model provides the first realistic simulations of how diet perturbations result in adaptations of whole body energy expenditure, fuel selection, and various metabolic fluxes that ultimately give rise to body weight change. The validated model was used to estimate free-living energy intake during a long-term weight loss intervention, a variable that has never previously been measured accurately. PMID:19934407

  6. Circulating omentin-1 might be associated with metabolic health status in different phenotypes of body size.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Shahab; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Mohammadi, Chonur; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Maghbooli, Zhila

    2017-12-01

    Adipokines are mediators of body composition and are involved in obesity complications. This study aimed to assess the association of circulating omentin-1, vaspin, and RBP-4 with body composition indices and metabolic health status (MHS) in different phenotypes of body size. A total of 350 subjects were included in the current cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured using a body composition analyzer, and serum concentrations of omentin-1, vaspin, and RBP-4 were assessed by ELISA kits. Circulating omentin-1 was significantly (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, P = 0.01) and marginally (OR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.00-1.75, P = 0.06) associated with MHS in the overweight and obese subjects, respectively. But no association was seen between omentin-1 and MHS in normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of vaspin and RBP-4 were not correlated with MHS. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between circulating omentin-1 and body mass index (BMI) as well as fat percentage (P = 0.02) in the MHS group. Serum vaspin concentrations were not related to body composition components in both groups. In addition, in the MHS group, circulating RBP-4 was positively correlated with fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (p < 0.0001) and was negatively correlated with fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW) (p < 0.0001). In contrast, in the metabolically unhealthy group, RBP-4 was negatively correlated with fat percentage, FM, and BMI (p < 0.0001) and was positively correlated with FFM and TBW (p < 0.0001). This study showed that circulating levels of omentin-1 are useful predictors of metabolic health status in overweight and obese people.

  7. Migrant Asian Indians in New Zealand; prediction of metabolic syndrome using body weights and measures.

    PubMed

    Jowitt, Ljiljana M; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand was to determine cut-off points for body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio that best discriminate for increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One hundred and seventy-five (90F, 85M) Asian Indian volunteers (aged >50 y) were recruited from urban Auckland, New Zealand. Body weight, height and waist and hip circumferences were measured using standard techniques. Waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body mass index were derived. Total and percent body fat by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting glucose, insulin and lipids were measured. Three measures of metabolic risk were determined: the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, the McAuley score for insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation criteria. Body mass index, percent body fat and anthropometric measurements of central adiposity generally did not perform well as indicators of metabolic risk in this high risk population of Asian Indian migrants. Our data support the use of lower ethnic specific body mass index and waist circumference for Asian Indian women and men. The discriminatory power of waist-to-height ratio was similar to that of body mass index. Hence, waist-to-height ratio could be used as a simple screening tool. A recommendation, of a waist-to- height ratio of less than 0.5 that would underpin the simple public health message of "your waist circumference should be less than half your height".

  8. Impact of brown adipose tissue on body fatness and glucose metabolism in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, M; Yoneshiro, T; Aita, S; Kameya, T; Sugie, H; Saito, M

    2014-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is involved in the regulation of whole-body energy expenditure and adiposity. Some clinical studies have reported an association between BAT and blood glucose in humans. To examine the impact of BAT on glucose metabolism, independent of that of body fatness, age and sex in healthy adult humans. Two hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (184 males and 76 females, 20-72 years old) underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography after 2 h of cold exposure to assess maximal BAT activity. Blood parameters including glucose, HbA1c and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured by conventional methods, and body fatness was estimated from body mass index (BMI), body fat mass and abdominal fat area. The impact of BAT on body fatness and blood parameters was determined by logistic regression with the use of univariate and multivariate models. Cold-activated BAT was detected in 125 (48%) out of 260 subjects. When compared with subjects without detectable BAT, those with detectable BAT were younger and showed lower adiposity-related parameters such as the BMI, body fat mass and abdominal fat area. Although blood parameters were within the normal range in the two subject groups, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in the BAT-positive group. Blood glucose also tended to be lower in the BAT-positive group. Logistic regression demonstrated that BAT, in addition to age and sex, was independently associated with BMI, body fat mass, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. For blood parameters, multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, sex and body fatness revealed that BAT was a significantly independent determinant of glucose and HbA1c. BAT, independent of age, sex and body fatness, has a significant impact on glucose metabolism in adult healthy humans.

  9. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds.

  10. Hepatic growth hormone and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in body growth, steatosis and metabolic liver cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Kristina M.; Themanns, Madeleine; Friedbichler, Katrin; Kornfeld, Jan-Wilhelm; Esterbauer, Harald; Tuckermann, Jan P.; Moriggl, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the control of processes that are essential for the maintenance of vital body functions including energy supply and growth control. GH and GCs have been well characterized to regulate systemic energy homeostasis, particular during certain conditions of physical stress. However, dysfunctional signaling in both pathways is linked to various metabolic disorders associated with aberrant carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In liver, GH-dependent activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 controls a variety of physiologic functions within hepatocytes. Similarly, GCs, through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), influence many important liver functions such as gluconeogenesis. Studies in hepatic Stat5 or GR knockout mice have revealed that they similarly control liver function on their target gene level and indeed, the GR functions often as a cofactor of STAT5 for GH-induced genes. Gene sets, which require physical STAT5–GR interaction, include those controlling body growth and maturation. More recently, it has become evident that impairment of GH-STAT5 signaling in different experimental models correlates with metabolic liver disease, ranging from hepatic steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While GH-activated STAT5 has a protective role in chronic liver disease, experimental disruption of GC-GR signaling rather seems to ameliorate metabolic disorders under metabolic challenge. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about hepatic GH-STAT5 and GC-GR signaling in body growth, metabolism, and protection from fatty liver disease and HCC development. PMID:22564914

  11. Energy Metabolism in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial β oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

  12. No effect of adjunctive, repeated dose intranasal insulin treatment on body metabolism in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Li, Xue; Liu, Emily; Copeland, Paul; Freudenreich, Oliver; Goff, Donald C.; Henderson, David C.; Song, Xueqin; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effect of adjunctive intranasal insulin therapy on body metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Method Each subject had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and had been on stable dose of antipsychotic agent for at least one month. In an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects received either intranasal insulin (40IU 4 times per day) or placebo. The whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess body composition. Lipid particles were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All assessments were conducted at baseline, and repeated at week 8. Results A total number of 39 subjects completed the study (18 in the insulin group, 21 in the placebo group). There were no significant differences between the two groups in week 8 changes for body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, as well as various measures of lipid particles (p′s > 0.100). The DXA assessment showed no significant differences between the two groups in week 8 changes for fat mass, lean mass or total mass (p's > 0.100). Conclusion In the present study, adjunctive therapy of intranasal insulin did not seem to improve body metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. The implications for future studies were discussed. PMID:23434504

  13. Metabolic costs of capital energy storage in a small-bodied ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D

    2017-04-01

    Reproduction is energetically financed using strategies that fall along a continuum from animals that rely on stored energy acquired prior to reproduction (i.e., capital breeders) to those that rely on energy acquired during reproduction (i.e., income breeders). Energy storage incurs a metabolic cost. However, previous studies suggest that this cost may be minimal for small-bodied ectotherms. Here I test this assumption. I use a laboratory feeding experiment with the European green crab Carcinus maenas to establish individuals with different amounts of energy storage. I then demonstrate that differences in energy storage account for 26% of the variation in basal metabolic costs. The magnitudes of these costs for any individual crab vary through time depending on the amount of energy it has stored, as well as on temperature-dependent metabolism. I use previously established relationships between temperature- and mass-dependent metabolic rates, combined with a feasible annual pattern of energy storage in the Gulf of Maine and annual sea surface temperature patterns in this region, to estimate potential annual metabolic costs expected for mature female green crabs. Results indicate that energy storage should incur an ~8% increase in metabolic costs for female crabs, relative to a hypothetical crab that did not store any energy. Translated into feeding, for a medium-sized mature female (45 mm carapace width), this requires the consumption of an additional ~156 mussels annually to support the metabolic cost of energy storage. These results indicate, contrary to previous assumptions, that the cost of energy storage for small-bodied ectotherms may represent a considerable portion of their basic operating energy budget. An inability to meet these additional costs of energy storage may help explain the recent decline of green crabs in the Gulf of Maine where reduced prey availability and increased consumer competition have combined to hamper green crab foraging success in

  14. Metabolic, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during exercise after lower vs. whole body precooling.

    PubMed

    White, Andrea T; Davis, Scott L; Wilson, Thad E

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the thermoregulatory, metabolic, and perceptual effects of lower body (LBI) and whole body (WBI) immersion precooling techniques during submaximal exercise. Eleven healthy men completed two 30-min cycling bouts at 60% of maximal O(2) uptake preceded by immersion to the suprailiac crest (LBI) or clavicle (WBI) in 20 degrees C water. WBI produced significantly lower rectal temperature (T(re)) during minutes 24-30 of immersion and lower T(re), mean skin temperature, and mean body temperature for the first 24, 14, and 16 min of exercise, respectively. Body heat storage rates differed significantly for LBI and WBI during immersion and exercise, although no net differences were observed between conditions. For WBI, metabolic heat production and heart rate were significantly higher during immersion but not during exercise. Thermal sensation was significantly lower (felt colder) and thermal discomfort was significantly higher (less comfortable) for WBI during immersion and exercise. In conclusion, WBI and LBI attenuated T(re) increases during submaximal exercise and produced similar net heat storage over the protocol. LBI minimized metabolic increases and negative perceptual effects associated with WBI.

  15. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-01

    A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

  16. Body Mass Index-Independent Metabolic Alterations in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Ribichini, Danilo; Vicennati, Valentina; Pizza, Fabio; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montagna, Pasquale; Pasquali, Renato; Pagotto, Uberto

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To contribute to the anthropometric and metabolic phenotyping of orexin-A–deficient narcoleptic patients, and to explore a possible risk of their developing a metabolic syndrome. Design: We performed a cross-sectional study comparing metabolic alterations in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) and patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time. Setting: University hospital. Patients: Fourteen patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and 14 sex and age-matched patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Metabolic parameters were evaluated by measuring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (also with abdominal computed tomography), blood pressure, and daily calorie intake (3-day diary). Chronotypes were assessed through the morningness-eveningness questionnaire. Lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid orexin-A determination and HLA typing were performed. Patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (all HLA DQB1*0602 positive and with cerebrospinal fluid orexin-A levels < 110 pg/mL) had a higher BMI and BMI-independent metabolic alterations, namely waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose/insulin ratio (an insulin resistance index), with respect to patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (cerebrospinal fluid orexin-A levels > 300 pg/mL). Despite lower daily food intake, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy displayed significant alterations in metabolic parameters resulting in a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in more than half the cases. Conclusions: BMI-independent metabolic alterations and the relative hypophagia of patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, as compared with patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time, suggest that orexin-A influences the etiology of this phenotype. Moreover, considering that these dysmetabolic alterations are present from a young age, a careful metabolic

  17. Effects of chronic forced circadian desynchronization on body weight and metabolism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Leandro P; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Chiesa, Juan J; Golombek, Diego A

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic functions are synchronized by the circadian clock setting daily patterns of food intake, nutrient delivery, and behavioral activity. Here, we study the impact of chronic jet-lag (CJL) on metabolism, and test manipulations aimed to overcome potential alterations. We recorded weight gain in C57Bl/6 mice under chronic 6 h advances or delays of the light-dark cycle every 2 days (ChrA and ChrD, respectively). We have previously reported ChrA, but not ChrD, to induce forced desynchronization of locomotor activity rhythms in mice (Casiraghi et al. 2012). Body weight was rapidly increased under ChrA, with animals tripling the mean weight gain observed in controls by day 10, and doubling it by day 30 (6% vs. 2%, and 15% vs. 7%, respectively). Significant increases in retroperitoneal and epidydimal adipose tissue masses (172% and 61%, respectively), adipocytes size (28%), and circulating triglycerides (39%) were also detected. Daily patterns of food and water intake were abolished under ChrA In contrast, ChrD had no effect on body weight. Wheel-running, housing of animals in groups, and restriction of food availability to hours of darkness prevented abnormal increase in body weight under ChrA Our findings suggest that the observed alterations under ChrA may arise either from a direct effect of circadian disruption on metabolism, from desynchronization between feeding and metabolic rhythms, or both. Direction of shifts, timing of feeding episodes, and other reinforcing signals deeply affect the outcome of metabolic function under CJL Such features should be taken into account in further studies of shift working schedules in humans. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  18. Energy metabolism, body composition, and urea generation rate in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Sivakumar; Vilar, Enric; Berdeprado, Jocelyn; Farrington, Ken

    2013-10-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) adequacy is currently assessed using normalized urea clearance (Kt/V), although scaling based on Watson volume (V) may disadvantage women and men with low body weight. Alternative scaling factors such as resting energy expenditure and high metabolic rate organ mass have been suggested. The relationship between such factors and uremic toxin generation has not been established. We aimed to study the relationship between body size, energy metabolism, and urea generation rate. A cross-sectional cohort of 166 HD patients was studied. Anthropometric measurements were carried on all. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry, fat-free mass by bio-impedance and total energy expenditure by combining resting energy expenditure with a questionnaire-derived physical activity data. High metabolic rate organ mass was calculated using a published equation and urea generation rate using formal urea kinetic modeling. Metabolic factors including resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure and fat-free mass correlated better with urea generation rate than did Watson volume. Total energy expenditure and fat-free mass (but not Watson Volume) were independent predictors of urea generation rate, the model explaining 42% of its variation. Small women (metabolism, body composition and physical activity play important roles in small solute uremic toxin generation in HD patients and hence may impact on minimum dialysis requirements. Small women generate relatively more small solute toxins than other groups and thus may have a higher relative need for dialysis. © 2013 The Authors. Hemodialysis

  19. Impact of Hypoglycemia on Brain Metabolism During Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Dave, Kunjan R

    2018-04-10

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease afflicting millions of people worldwide. A substantial fraction of world's total healthcare expenditure is spent on treating diabetes. Hypoglycemia is a serious consequence of anti-diabetic drug therapy, because it induces metabolic alterations in the brain. Metabolic alterations are one of the central mechanisms mediating hypoglycemia-related functional changes in the brain. Acute, chronic, and/or recurrent hypoglycemia modulate multiple metabolic pathways, and exposure to hypoglycemia increases consumption of alternate respiratory substrates such as ketone bodies, glycogen, and monocarboxylates in the brain. The aim of this review is to discuss hypoglycemia-induced metabolic alterations in the brain in glucose counterregulation, uptake, utilization and metabolism, cellular respiration, amino acid and lipid metabolism, and the significance of other sources of energy. The present review summarizes information on hypoglycemia-induced metabolic changes in the brain of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and the manner in which they may affect brain function.

  20. Energy metabolism in the liver.

    PubMed

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic function is controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is converted into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is subsequently oxidized in the mitochondria to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and/or cholesterol esters in hepatocytes. These complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as very low-density lipoprotein particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source for endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue, resulting in release of nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in hepatic mitochondria though β-oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver energy metabolism is tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal signals. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis but suppresses gluconeogenesis, and glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze key steps of metabolic pathways, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  1. Detrimental and protective fat: body fat distribution and its relation to metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Booth, Andrea; Magnuson, Aaron; Foster, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous comorbidities that include, but are not limited to, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Current evidence suggests, however, obesity itself is not an exclusive predictor of metabolic dysregulation but rather adipose tissue distribution. Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat accumulation, the detrimental distribution, commonly associated with visceral obesity. Increased lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue, however, is associated with a reduced risk of obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation and even enhanced insulin sensitivity, thus, storage in this region is considered protective. The proposed mechanisms that causally relate the differential outcomes of adipose tissue distribution are often attributed to location and/or adipocyte regulation. Visceral adipose tissue effluent to the portal vein drains into the liver where hepatocytes are directly exposed to its metabolites and secretory products, whereas the subcutaneous adipose tissue drains systemically. Adipose depots are also inherently different in numerous ways such as adipokine release, immunity response and regulation, lipid turnover, rate of cell growth and death, and response to stress and sex hormones. Proximal extrinsic factors also play a role in the differential drive between adipose tissue depots. This review focuses on the deleterious mechanisms postulated to drive the differential metabolic response between central and lower body adipose tissue distribution.

  2. The effect of caffeine and albuterol on body composition and metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ann G.; Arceneaux, Kenneth P.; Chu, Jessica T.; Jacob, Gregory; Schreiber, Allyson L.; Tipton, Russell C.; Yu, Ying; Johnson, William D.; Greenway, Frank L.; Primeaux, Stefany D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Caffeine and ephedrine was an effective combination therapy for weight loss until ephedrine was removed from the market due to safety concerns. We investigated the combination of caffeine and albuterol as a possibly safer alternative to ephedrine. Design and Methods In a series of experiments using cultured adipocytes, rat models, and humans, we evaluated the effects of caffeine and albuterol on lipolysis, metabolic rate, food intake, and body composition. Results Both caffeine and albuterol enhanced lipolysis in cultured adipocytes. Acute treatment of humans with caffeine and/or albuterol increased resting metabolic rate. Longer-term studies of rats revealed a trend for increased metabolic rate with albuterol treatment. There was increased lean mass gain concurrent with decreased fat mass gain with caffeine/albuterol treatment that was greater than albuterol treatment alone. Conclusions In rats, albuterol with caffeine produced significantly greater increases in lean body mass and reductions in fat mass without changes in food intake after 4-8 weeks of treatment. Since caffeine and albuterol are approved for the treatment of asthma in children and adolescents at the doses tested and change body composition without changing food intake, this combination may deserve further exploration for use in treating pediatric obesity. PMID:26239482

  3. Metabolic rate measurements comparing supine with upright upper-body exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Loftin, Karin C.; Beene, Donya; Freeman-Perez, Sondra; Hnatt, Linda

    1993-01-01

    The ground-based study that tested the hypothesis that metabolic rates during supine and upright upper-body exercises are similar (mean value of 200 kcal/h) is presented. Six subjects each performed supine or upright exercise at three exercise stations, a hand-cycle ergometer, a rope-pull device, and a torque wrench. After a baseline measurement of the metabolic rate at rest, the metabolic rate was measured twice at each exercise station. The mean metabolic rates (kcal/h) during supine (n = 6) and upright control (n = 4) exercise stations were not significantly different except for the rope-pull station, 153.5 +/- 16.6 (supine) as compared to 247.0 +/- 21.7 (upright), p is less than 0.05. This difference may be due in part to an increased mechanical efficiency of supine exercises (15.0 +/- 0.7 percent) as compared to that of upright exercises (11.0 +/- 1.08 percent), p is less than 0.05. The net energy input was significantly smaller for the supine rope-pull exercise (64 +/- 18) as compared to upright (176 +/- 20). The relationship between best-rest exercises, metabolic rates, and the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) should be examined to determine the true risk of DCS in spaceflight extravehicular activities.

  4. Metabolic heat production, heat loss and the circadian rhythm of body temperature in the rat.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, Roberto

    2003-05-01

    Metabolic heat production (calculated from oxygen consumption), dry heat loss (measured in a calorimeter) and body temperature (measured by telemetry) were recorded simultaneously at 6 min intervals over five consecutive days in rats maintained in constant darkness. Robust circadian rhythmicity (confirmed by chi square periodogram analysis) was observed in all three variables. The rhythm of heat production was phase-advanced by about half an hour in relation to the body temperature rhythm, whereas the rhythm of heat loss was phase-delayed by about half an hour. The balance of heat production and heat loss exhibited a daily oscillation 180 deg out of phase with the oscillation in body temperature. Computations indicated that the amount of heat associated with the generation of the body temperature rhythm (1.6 kJ) corresponds to less than 1 % of the total daily energy budget (172 kJ) in this species. Because of the small magnitude of the fraction of heat balance associated with the body temperature rhythm, it is likely that the daily oscillation in heat balance has a very slow effect on body temperature, thus accounting for the 180 deg phase difference between the rhythms of heat balance and body temperature.

  5. Asian Americans have greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome despite lower body mass index.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, L P; Wong, E C; Shin, J J; Fortmann, S P; Lauderdale, D S

    2011-03-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome for Asian Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), given that existing evidence shows racial/ethnic heterogeneity exists in how BMI predicts metabolic syndrome. Electronic health records of 43,507 primary care patients aged 35 years and older with self-identified race/ethnicity of interest (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese or NHW) were analyzed in a mixed-payer, outpatient-focused health-care organization in the San Francisco Bay Area. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is significantly higher in Asians compared with NHWs for every BMI category. For women at the mean age of 55 and BMI of 25  kg  m(-2), the predicted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 12% for NHW women compared with 30% for Asians; similarly for men, the predicted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 22% for NHWs compared with 43% of Asians. Compared with NHW women and men with a BMI of 25  kg  m(-2), comparable prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed at BMI of 19.6  kg  m(-2) for Asian women and 19.9  kg  m(-2) for Asian men. A similar pattern was observed in disaggregated Asian subgroups. In spite of the lower BMI values and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity than NHWs, Asian Americans have higher rates of metabolic syndrome over the range of BMI. Our results indicate that BMI ranges for defining overweight/obesity in Asian populations should be lower than for NHWs.

  6. Turtles (Chelodina longicollis) regulate muscle metabolic enzyme activity in response to seasonal variation in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, F; Sparrow, J; Thompson, M B

    2004-04-01

    Fluctuations in the thermal environment may elicit different responses in animals: migration to climatically different areas, regulation of body temperature, modification of biochemical reaction rates, or assuming a state of dormancy. Many ectothermic reptiles are active over a range of body temperatures that vary seasonally. Here we test the hypothesis that metabolic enzyme activity acclimatises seasonally in freshwater turtles (Chelodina longicollis) in addition to, or instead of, behavioural regulation of body temperatures. We measured body temperatures in free-ranging turtles (n = 3) by radiotelemetry, and we assayed phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activities in early autumn (March, n = 10 turtles), late autumn (May, n = 7) and mid-winter (July, n = 7) over a range of assay temperatures (10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C). Body temperatures were either not different from, or higher than expected from a theoretical null-distribution of a randomly moving animal. Field body temperatures at any season were lower, however, than expected from animals that maximised their sun exposure. Turtles maintained constant PFK, LDH and CCO activities in different months, despite body temperature differences of nearly 13.0 degrees C between March (average daily body temperature = 24.4 degrees C) and July (average = 11.4 degrees C). CS activity did not vary between March and May (average daily body temperature = 20.2 degrees C), but it decreased in July. Thus C. longicollis use a combination of behavioural thermoregulation and biochemical acclimatisation in response to seasonally changing thermal conditions. Ectothermic reptiles were often thought not to acclimatise biochemically, and our results show that behavioural attainment of a preferred body temperature is not mandatory for activity or physiological performance in turtles. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  7. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  8. Association between ratio indexes of body composition phenotypes and metabolic risk in Italian adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, M; Lara, J; Mocciaro, G; Prado, C M; Battezzati, A; Leone, A; Tagliabue, A; de Amicis, R; Vignati, L; Bertoli, S; Siervo, M

    2016-12-01

    The ratio between fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) has been used to discriminate individual differences in body composition and improve prediction of metabolic risk. Here, we evaluated whether the use of a visceral adipose tissue-to-fat-free mass index (VAT:FFMI) ratio was a better predictor of metabolic risk than a fat mass index to fat-free mass index (FMI:FFMI) ratio. This is a cross-sectional study including 3441 adult participants (age range 18-81; men/women: 977/2464). FM and FFM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and VAT by ultrasonography. A continuous metabolic risk Z score and harmonised international criteria were used to define cumulative metabolic risk and metabolic syndrome (MetS), respectively. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to test associations between body composition indexes and metabolic risk. In unadjusted models, VAT:FFMI was a better predictor of MetS (OR 8.03, 95%CI 6.69-9.65) compared to FMI:FFMI (OR 2.91, 95%CI 2.45-3.46). However, the strength of association of VAT:FFMI and FMI:FFMI became comparable when models were adjusted for age, gender, clinical and sociodemographic factors (OR 4.06, 95%CI 3.31-4.97; OR 4.25, 95%CI 3.42-5.27, respectively). A similar pattern was observed for the association of the two indexes with the metabolic risk Z score (VAT:FFMI: unadjusted b = 0.69 ± 0.03, adjusted b = 0.36 ± 0.03; FMI:FFMI: unadjusted b = 0.28 ± 0.028, adjusted b = 0.38 ± 0.02). Our results suggest that there is no real advantage in using either VAT:FFMI or FMI:FFMI ratios as a predictor of metabolic risk in adults. However, these results warrant confirmation in longitudinal studies. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Obesity, regional body fat distribution, and the metabolic syndrome in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Harris, Tamara B; Katsiaras, Andreas; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Nevitt, Michael; Holvoet, Paul; Newman, Anne B

    2005-04-11

    The metabolic syndrome is a disorder that includes dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension and is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We determined whether patterns of regional fat deposition are associated with metabolic syndrome in older adults. A cross-sectional study was performed that included a random, population-based, volunteer sample of Medicare-eligible adults within the general communities of Pittsburgh, Pa, and Memphis, Tenn. The subjects consisted of 3035 men and women aged 70 to 79 years, of whom 41.7% were black. Metabolic syndrome was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, including serum triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, glucose level, blood pressure, and waist circumference. Visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, intermuscular, and subcutaneous thigh adipose tissue was measured by computed tomography. Visceral adipose tissue was associated with the metabolic syndrome in men who were of normal weight (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 2.1, 1.6-2.9), overweight (1.8, 1.5-2.1), and obese (1.2, 1.0-1.5), and in women who were of normal weight (3.3, 2.4-4.6), overweight (2.4, 2.0-3.0), and obese (1.7, 1.4-2.1), adjusting for race. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was associated with the metabolic syndrome only in normal-weight men (1.3, 1.1-1.7). Intermuscular adipose tissue was associated with the metabolic syndrome in normal-weight (2.3, 1.6-3.5) and overweight (1.2, 1.1-1.4) men. In contrast, subcutaneous thigh adipose tissue was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome in obese men (0.9, 0.8-1.0) and women (0.9, 0.9-1.0). In addition to general obesity, the distribution of body fat is independently associated with the metabolic syndrome in older men and women, particularly among those of normal body weight.

  10. Targeting of astrocytic glucose metabolism by beta-hydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Valdebenito, Rocío; Ruminot, Iván; Garrido-Gerter, Pamela; Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Forero-Quintero, Linda; Alegría, Karin; Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W; Barros, L Felipe

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of ketogenic diets and intermittent fasting against neurological disorders has brought interest to the effects of ketone bodies on brain cells. These compounds are known to modify the metabolism of neurons, but little is known about their effect on astrocytes, cells that control the supply of glucose to neurons and also modulate neuronal excitability through the glycolytic production of lactate. Here we have used genetically-encoded Förster Resonance Energy Transfer nanosensors for glucose, pyruvate and ATP to characterize astrocytic energy metabolism at cellular resolution. Our results show that the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate strongly inhibited astrocytic glucose consumption in mouse astrocytes in mixed cultures, in organotypic hippocampal slices and in acute hippocampal slices prepared from ketotic mice, while blunting the stimulation of glycolysis by physiological and pathophysiological stimuli. The inhibition of glycolysis was paralleled by an increased ability of astrocytic mitochondria to metabolize pyruvate. These results support the emerging notion that astrocytes contribute to the neuroprotective effect of ketone bodies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. A conserved role for syndecan family members in the regulation of whole-body energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Klimentidis, Yann C; Casazza, Krista; Chambers, Michelle Moses; Cho, Ruth; Harbison, Susan T; Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia; Zhang, Shaoyan; Leips, Jeff; Fernandez, Jose R

    2010-06-23

    Syndecans are a family of type-I transmembrane proteins that are involved in cell-matrix adhesion, migration, neuronal development, and inflammation. Previous quantitative genetic studies pinpointed Drosophila Syndecan (dSdc) as a positional candidate gene affecting variation in fat storage between two Drosophila melanogaster strains. Here, we first used quantitative complementation tests with dSdc mutants to confirm that natural variation in this gene affects variability in Drosophila fat storage. Next, we examined the effects of a viable dSdc mutant on Drosophila whole-body energy metabolism and associated traits. We observed that young flies homozygous for the dSdc mutation had reduced fat storage and slept longer than homozygous wild-type flies. They also displayed significantly reduced metabolic rate, lower expression of spargel (the Drosophila homologue of PGC-1), and reduced mitochondrial respiration. Compared to control flies, dSdc mutants had lower expression of brain insulin-like peptides, were less fecund, more sensitive to starvation, and had reduced life span. Finally, we tested for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human SDC4 gene and variation in body composition, metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and sleep traits in a cohort of healthy early pubertal children. We found that SNP rs4599 was significantly associated with resting energy expenditure (P = 0.001 after Bonferroni correction) and nominally associated with fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and sleep duration (P = 0.044). On average, children homozygous for the minor allele had lower levels of glucose, higher resting energy expenditure, and slept shorter than children homozygous for the common allele. We also observed that SNP rs1981429 was nominally associated with lean tissue mass (P = 0.035) and intra-abdominal fat (P = 0.049), and SNP rs2267871 with insulin sensitivity (P = 0.037). Collectively, our results in Drosophila and humans argue that syndecan family

  12. Metabolic changes in humans following total body irradiation. Report for February 1960-October 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    These studies are designed to obtain new information about the metabolic effects of total body and partial body irradiation so as to have a better understanding of the acute and subacute effects of irradiation in the human. The initial studies are pointed toward the elucidation of biological indicators of radiation effects in humans. The major parameters being investigated at present are urinary amino aciduria and alterations in immunological patterns. Certain other parameters such as creatine and creatinine excretion and hematological effects are also being followed. The long-term program envisions carrying out the various observations at dose levels of 100 radmore » and gradually increasing the dose to 150, 200, 250 and 300 rad. Eventually doses up to 600 rad are anticipated. Also comparison of effects of radiomimetic drugs with total body radiation will be studied.« less

  13. Relation of body weight and food consumption to metabolic rate of juvenile Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Xin-Hua

    2000-12-01

    The metabolic rate of Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus (C & V), was estimated in laboratory at temperature 25.2±0.5°C. The fresh weight of the fish was 4.64 52.28 g (average of 17.81±0.33 g). The routine metabolism was related to body weight by the exponential equation: R r =14.966 W 0.74 ( r=0.934). The rate of feeding metabolism increased linearly with food consumption. Feeding metabolic rate was 1.8 2.4 times the routine metabolic rate.

  14. Effects of abuse pattern of gestational toluene exposure on metabolism, feeding and body composition.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Patricia A; Fata, Ellen; Bowen, Scott E; Jen, K-L Catherine; Coscina, Donald V

    2008-03-18

    Inhalant abuse during pregnancy lowers birth weight and impedes early development. These studies explored the effects of brief, repeated, prenatal toluene exposures in pregnant female rats on body weight, metabolic rate, body composition, and food intake in their offspring. Rats were exposed to 0, 8000, 12,000, or 16,000 ppm of toluene twice daily for 15 min from gestational days 8 to 20. The effects of such exposures on post-weaning litter weights, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide output, and body fat content were determined in 2 cohorts (n=23, n=24) of offspring. Food intakes and weight changes in response to 3 different diets (regular chow, purified diet, purified high fat diet) were examined in another cohort (n=24) from postnatal days 72 to 116. Litter weights showed a significant linear decrease as a function of toluene dose. Offspring exposed to the 16,000 ppm toluene dose displayed statistically lower energy expenditures than control rats. Male rats exposed to 8000 or 16,000 ppm toluene had significantly greater percentage of body fat as well as total body fat than the other groups. Toluene also significantly suppressed weight gain over the time chow was consumed compared to the 0 ppm control group. Finally there were trends for a main effect of toluene dose on food intake during chow and during high fat diet consumption, with rats in the 12,000 ppm group consuming more than the 0 ppm group on both diets. These data suggest that, in addition to other previously documented abnormalities in neurological development and behavior, the physiological regulation of metabolism and body composition in males as well as food intake and weight gain in both sexes may be altered by prenatal exposure to toluene.

  15. Association of regular walking and body mass index on metabolic syndrome among an elderly Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soonyoung; Kim, Dong-Il

    2018-06-01

    Aging is associated with increased body fat and lower lean body mass, which leads to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the association of regular participation in walking and body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome and its 5 criteria in elderly Koreans. A total of 3554 (male = 1581, female = 1973) elderly subjects (age ≥ 65 years), who participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Participation in walking activity, BMI, metabolic syndrome and its 5 criteria; waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels, were measured. Subjects were categorized into four groups based on the duration and regularity of their walks and BMI. In the regular walking (≥30 min of continuous walking a day, on ≥5 days a week) and normal weight (BMI < 23 kg/m 2 ) group, WC, SBP, DBP, FG, and TG levels were significantly lower, and HDL-C levels were significantly higher, compared to the non-regular walking and overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m 2 ) group. Furthermore, the odds of metabolic syndrome was 4.36 times higher (Odds ratio [OR]: 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37-5.63) in the non-regular walking and overweight group than that of the regular walking and normal weight group after controlling for the influence of age, sex, and smoking status. Moreover, The BMI (β = 0.328, R 2  = 0.152) were more contributing factors than Regular walking (β = -0.011) for metabolic syndrome. In conclusions, regular participation in walking activity and implementing weight control may reduce the incidence rate of metabolic syndrome in elderly Koreans, with weight management serving as the greater influences of the two. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier

  16. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide

  17. Whole-body metabolism varies across the estrous cycle in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Parker, G C; McKee, M E; Bishop, C; Coscina, D V

    2001-10-01

    Food intake in rats and other mammals is lowest at estrus and highest at diestrus. While much is known about the effects of different estrous phases on energy intake, as well as some of the metabolic effects the associated hormones exert, little has been reported about changes in whole-body metabolism that accompany those phases. This study investigates how energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) vary in intact female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) tested mid-light cycle over 2 h on days associated with estrus vs. diestrus. Rats showed small but reliable decreases in body weight on days associated with estrus, but not diestrus. EE was significantly increased by approximately 21% on the day associated with estrus compared to diestrus. At the same time, RQ was significantly decreased by approximately 7% on the day associated with estrus, indicating a relative shift to fat over carbohydrate as the energy substrate to support energetic needs. Future investigations of ingestive processes can integrate the present findings to investigate how gender differences in feeding and metabolism contribute to regulatory behaviors.

  18. Metabolic Profiles and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Cordyceps bassiana Fruiting Bodies According to Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seok-Young; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana. PMID:24058459

  19. Metabolic rate and body size are linked with perception of temporal information☆

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kevin; McNally, Luke; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Cooper, Natalie; Jackson, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Body size and metabolic rate both fundamentally constrain how species interact with their environment, and hence ultimately affect their niche. While many mechanisms leading to these constraints have been explored, their effects on the resolution at which temporal information is perceived have been largely overlooked. The visual system acts as a gateway to the dynamic environment and the relative resolution at which organisms are able to acquire and process visual information is likely to restrict their ability to interact with events around them. As both smaller size and higher metabolic rates should facilitate rapid behavioural responses, we hypothesized that these traits would favour perception of temporal change over finer timescales. Using critical flicker fusion frequency, the lowest frequency of flashing at which a flickering light source is perceived as constant, as a measure of the maximum rate of temporal information processing in the visual system, we carried out a phylogenetic comparative analysis of a wide range of vertebrates that supported this hypothesis. Our results have implications for the evolution of signalling systems and predator–prey interactions, and, combined with the strong influence that both body mass and metabolism have on a species' ecological niche, suggest that time perception may constitute an important and overlooked dimension of niche differentiation. PMID:24109147

  20. Differential ammonia metabolism in Aedes aegypti fat body and midgut tissues

    PubMed Central

    Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Zhang, Quigfen; Thorson, Kelsey; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Miesfeld, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand at the tissue level how Aedes aegypti copes with toxic ammonia concentrations that result from the rapid metabolism of blood meal proteins, we investigated the incorporation of 15N from 15NH4Cl into amino acids using an in vitro tissue culture system. Fat body or midgut tissues from female mosquitoes were incubated in an Aedes saline solution supplemented with glucose and 15NH4Cl for 10–40 minutes. The media was then mixed with deuterium-labeled amino acids, dried and derivatized. The 15N-labeled and unlabeled amino acids in each sample were quantified by mass spectrometry techniques. The results demonstrate that both tissues efficiently incorporate ammonia into amino acids, however, the specific metabolic pathways are distinct. In the fat body, the 15N from 15NH4Cl is first incorporated into the amide side chain of Gln and then into the amino group of Gln, Glu, Ala and Pro. This process mainly occurs via the glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GltS) pathway. In contrast, 15N in midgut is first incorporated into the amino group of Glu and Ala, and then into the amide side chain of Gln. Interestingly, our data show that the GS/GltS pathway is not functional in the midgut. Instead, midgut cells detoxify ammonia by glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and GS. These data provide new insights into ammonia metabolism in A. aegypti mosquitoes. PMID:20206632

  1. Impact of Active Metabolism on Chlamydia trachomatis Elementary Body Transcript Profile and Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Scott; Grieshaber, Nicole; Yang, Hong; Baxter, Briana; Hackstadt, Ted; Omsland, Anders

    2018-07-15

    Bacteria of the genus Chlamydia include the significant human pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae All chlamydiae are obligate intracellular parasites that depend on infection of a host cell and transition through a biphasic developmental cycle. Following host cell invasion by the infectious elementary body (EB), the pathogen transitions to the replicative but noninfectious reticulate body (RB). Differentiation of the RB back to the EB is essential to generate infectious progeny. While the EB form has historically been regarded as metabolically inert, maintenance of infectivity during incubation with specific nutrients has revealed active maintenance of the infectious phenotype. Using transcriptome sequencing, we show that the transcriptome of extracellular EBs incubated under metabolically stimulating conditions does not cluster with germinating EBs but rather with the transcriptome of EBs isolated directly from infected cells. In addition, the transcriptional profile of the extracellular metabolizing EBs more closely resembled that of EB production than germination. Maintenance of infectivity of extracellular EBs was achieved by metabolizing chemically diverse compounds, including glucose 6-phosphate, ATP, and amino acids, all of which can be found in extracellular environments, including mucosal secretions. We further show that the EB cell type actively maintains infectivity in the inclusion after terminal differentiation. Overall, these findings contribute to the emerging understanding that the EB cell form is actively maintained through metabolic processes after terminal differentiation to facilitate prolonged infectivity within the inclusion and under host cell free conditions, for example, following deposition at mucosal surfaces. IMPORTANCE Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are responsible for a wide range of diseases in both animal and human hosts. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, C

  2. Detraining increases body fat and weight and decreases VO2peak and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Arciero, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Competitive collegiate swimmers commonly take a month off from swim training after their last major competition. This abrupt cessation of intense physical training has not been well studied and may lead to physiopsychological decline. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of swim detraining (DT) on body composition, aerobic fitness, resting metabolism, mood state, and blood lipids in collegiate swimmers. Eight healthy endurance-trained swimmers (V(O2)peak, 46.7 ± 10.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 2 identical test days, 1 in the trained (TR) state and 1 in the detrained (~5 weeks) state (DT). Body composition and circumferences, maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2)peak), resting metabolism (RMR), blood lipids, and mood state were measured. After DT, body weight (TR, 68.9 ± 9.7 vs. DT, 69.8 ± 9.8 kg; p = 0.03), fat mass (TR, 14.7 ± 7.6 vs. DT, 16.5 ± 7.4 kg; p = 0.001), and waist circumference (TR, 72.7 ± 3.1 vs. DT, 73.8 ± 3.6 cm; p = 0.03) increased, whereas V(O2)peak (TR, 46.7 ± 10.8 vs. DT, 43.1 ± 10.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p = 0.02) and RMR (TR, 1.34 ± 0.2 vs. DT, 1.25 ± 0.17 kcal · min(-1); p = 0.008) decreased, and plasma triglycerides showed a trend to increase (p = 0.065). Our data suggest that DT after a competitive collegiate swim season adversely affects body composition, fitness, and metabolism. Athletes and coaches need to be aware of the negative consequences of detraining from swimming, and plan off-season training schedules accordingly to allow for adequate rest/recovery and prevent overuse injuries. It's equally important to mitigate the negative effects on body composition, aerobic fitness and metabolism so performance may continue to improve over the long term.

  3. The relationship of body fat to metabolic disease: influence of sex and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Anne E

    2008-12-01

    Clinical investigations designed to determine risk profiles for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are usually performed in homogenous populations and often focus on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and fasting triglyceride (TG) levels. However, there are major ethnic differences in the relationship of these risk factors to outcomes. For example, the BMI risk threshold may be higher in blacks than in whites and higher in women than in men. Furthermore, a WC that predicts an obese BMI in white women only predicts a BMI in the overweight category in black women. In addition, overweight black men have a greater risk of developing type 2 DM than do overweight black women. Although TG levels are excellent predictors of insulin resistance in whites, they are not effective markers of insulin resistance in blacks. Among the criteria sets currently available to predict the development of CVD and type 2 DM, the most well known is the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome has 5 criteria: central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, fasting hyperglycemia, and hypertension. To make the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, 3 of the 5 factors must be present. For central obesity and low HDL, the metabolic syndrome guidelines are sex specific. Diagnostic guidelines should also take ethnic differences into account, particularly in the diagnosis of central obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

  4. Deficiency of leptin receptor in myeloid cells disrupts hypothalamic metabolic circuits and causes body weight increase.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanqing; Vidal-Itriago, Andrés; Milanova, Irina; Korpel, Nikita L; Kalsbeek, Martin J; Tom, Robby Zachariah; Kalsbeek, Andries; Hofmann, Susanna M; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2018-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine produced by adipose tissue that acts mainly on the hypothalamus to regulate appetite and energy homeostasis. Previous studies revealed that the leptin receptor is expressed not only in neurons, but also in glial cells. Microglia are resident immune cells in the brain that play an essential role in immune defense and neural network development. Previously we reported that microglial morphology and cytokine production are changed in the leptin receptor deficient db/db mouse, suggesting that leptin's central effects on metabolic control might involve signaling through microglia. In the current study, we aimed to uncover the role of leptin signaling in microglia in systemic metabolic control. We generated a mouse model with leptin receptor deficiency, specifically in the myeloid cells, to determine the role of microglial leptin signaling in the development of metabolic disease and to investigate microglial functions. We discovered that these mice have increased body weight with hyperphagia. In the hypothalamus, pro-opiomelanocortin neuron numbers in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and α-MSH projections from the ARC to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) decreased, which was accompanied by the presence of less ramified microglia with impaired phagocytic capacity in the PVN. Myeloid cell leptin receptor deficient mice partially replicate the db/db phenotype. Leptin signaling in hypothalamic microglia is important for microglial function and a correct formation of the hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating metabolism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Body composition and metabolic changes during a 520-day mission simulation to Mars.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F; Macchi, C; Eberini, I; Masini, M A; Botta, M; Vassilieva, G; Nichiporuk, I; Monici, M; Santucci, D; Celotti, F; Magni, P; Ruscica, M

    2018-03-12

    The "Mars-500 project" allowed to evaluate the changes in psychological/physiological adaptation over a prolonged confinement, in order to gather information for future missions. Here, we evaluated the impact of confinement and isolation on body composition, glucose metabolism/insulin resistance and adipokine levels. The "Mars-500 project" consisted of 520 consecutive days of confinement from June 3, 2010 to Nov 4, 2011. The crew was composed of six male subjects (three Russians, two Europeans, and one Chinese) with a median age of 31 years (range 27-38 years). During the 520-day confinement, total body mass and BMI progressively decreased, reaching a significant difference at the end (417 days) of the observation period (- 9.2 and - 5.5%, respectively). Fat mass remained unchanged. A progressive and significant increase of fasting plasma glucose was observed between 249 and 417 days (+ 10/+ 17% vs baseline), with a further increase at the end of confinement (up to + 30%). Median plasma insulin showed a non-significant early increment (60 days; + 86%). Total adiponectin halved (- 47%) 60 days after hatch closure, remaining at this nadir (- 51%) level for a further 60 days. High molecular weight adiponectin remained significantly lower from 60 to 168 days. Based on these data, countermeasures may be envisioned to balance the potentially harmful effects of prolonged confinement, including a better exercise program, with accurate monitoring of (1) the individual activity and (2) the relationship between body composition and metabolic derangement.

  6. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms.

  7. The phytochemical glaucarubinone promotes mitochondrial metabolism, reduces body fat, and extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zarse, K; Bossecker, A; Müller-Kuhrt, L; Siems, K; Hernandez, M A; Berendsohn, W G; Birringer, M; Ristow, M

    2011-04-01

    Naturally occurring compounds that promote energy expenditure and delay aging in model organisms may be of significant interest, since these substances potentially provide pharmaceutical approaches to tackle obesity and promote healthy lifespan in humans. We aimed to test whether pharmaceutical concentrations of glaucarubinone, a cytotoxic and antimalarial quassinoid known from different species of the plant family Simaroubaceae, are capable of affecting metabolism and/or extending lifespan in a nematodal model organism for aging processes, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Adult C. elegans roundworms, maintained on agar plates, were fed with E. coli strain OP50 bacteria, and glaucarubinone was applied to the agar to test (i) whether it alters respiration rates and mitochondrial activity, (ii) whether it affects body fat content, and (iii) whether it may promote longevity by quantifying survival in the presence and absence of the compound. We have found that glaucarubinone induces oxygen consumption and reduces body fat content of C. elegans. Moreover and consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, glaucarubinone extends C. elegans lifespan when applied at a concentration of 1 or 10 nanomolar. Taken together, glaucarubinone is capable of reducing body fat and promoting longevity in C. elegans, tentatively suggesting that this compound may promote metabolic health and lifespan in mammals and possibly humans. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Mammalian basal metabolic rate is proportional to body mass2/3

    PubMed Central

    White, Craig R.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between mammalian basal metabolic rate (BMR, ml of O2 per h) and body mass (M, g) has been the subject of regular investigation for over a century. Typically, the relationship is expressed as an allometric equation of the form BMR = aMb. The scaling exponent (b) is a point of contention throughout this body of literature, within which arguments for and against geometric (b = 2/3) and quarter-power (b = 3/4) scaling are made and rebutted. Recently, interest in the topic has been revived by published explanations for quarter-power scaling based on fractal nutrient supply networks and four-dimensional biology. Here, a new analysis of the allometry of mammalian BMR that accounts for variation associated with body temperature, digestive state, and phylogeny finds no support for a metabolic scaling exponent of 3/4. Data encompassing five orders of magnitude variation in M and featuring 619 species from 19 mammalian orders show that BMR ∝ M2/3. PMID:12637681

  9. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Methods: Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets f...

  10. Skeletal Muscle Thermogenesis and Its Role in Whole Body Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Jose Luis; Reis, Felipe C. G.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes has become a major epidemic across the globe. Controlling obesity has been a challenge since this would require either increased physical activity or reduced caloric intake; both are difficult to enforce. There has been renewed interest in exploiting pathways such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated uncoupling in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue to increase energy expenditure to control weight gain. However, relying on UCP1-based thermogenesis alone may not be sufficient to control obesity in humans. On the other hand, skeletal muscle is the largest organ and a major contributor to basal metabolic rate and increasing energy expenditure in muscle through nonshivering thermogenic mechanisms, which can substantially affect whole body metabolism and weight gain. In this review we will describe the role of Sarcolipin-mediated uncoupling of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase (SERCA) as a potential mechanism for increased energy expenditure both during cold and diet-induced thermogenesis. PMID:29086530

  11. Loss of astrocyte cholesterol synthesis disrupts neuronal function and alters whole-body metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Heather A; Perry, Rachel J; Moreira, Gabriela V; Shulman, Gerald I; Horton, Jay D; Kahn, C Ronald

    2017-01-31

    Cholesterol is important for normal brain function. The brain synthesizes its own cholesterol, presumably in astrocytes. We have previously shown that diabetes results in decreased brain cholesterol synthesis by a reduction in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2)-regulated transcription. Here we show that coculture of control astrocytes with neurons enhances neurite outgrowth, and this is reduced with SREBP2 knockdown astrocytes. In vivo, mice with knockout of SREBP2 in astrocytes have impaired brain development and behavioral and motor defects. These mice also have altered energy balance, altered body composition, and a shift in metabolism toward carbohydrate oxidation driven by increased glucose oxidation by the brain. Thus, SREBP2-mediated cholesterol synthesis in astrocytes plays an important role in brain and neuronal development and function, and altered brain cholesterol synthesis may contribute to the interaction between metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and altered brain function.

  12. Loss of astrocyte cholesterol synthesis disrupts neuronal function and alters whole-body metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Heather A.; Perry, Rachel J.; Moreira, Gabriela V.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Horton, Jay D.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is important for normal brain function. The brain synthesizes its own cholesterol, presumably in astrocytes. We have previously shown that diabetes results in decreased brain cholesterol synthesis by a reduction in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2)-regulated transcription. Here we show that coculture of control astrocytes with neurons enhances neurite outgrowth, and this is reduced with SREBP2 knockdown astrocytes. In vivo, mice with knockout of SREBP2 in astrocytes have impaired brain development and behavioral and motor defects. These mice also have altered energy balance, altered body composition, and a shift in metabolism toward carbohydrate oxidation driven by increased glucose oxidation by the brain. Thus, SREBP2-mediated cholesterol synthesis in astrocytes plays an important role in brain and neuronal development and function, and altered brain cholesterol synthesis may contribute to the interaction between metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and altered brain function. PMID:28096339

  13. Cycling to School and Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Agostinis-Sobrinho, Cesar; Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Amaya-Tambo, Deisy Constanza; Villa-González, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between cycling to/from school and body composition, physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome among a sample of Colombian children and adolescents. During the 2014-2015 school year, we examined a cross-sectional component of the Association for muscular strength with early manifestation of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Colombian children and adolescents (FUPRECOL) study. Participants included 2877 youths (54.5% girls) from Bogota, Colombia. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure the frequency and mode of commuting to school. Four components of physical fitness were measured: (1) anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference); (2) musculoskeletal (handgrip and standing long jump test); (3) motor (speed-agility test; 4 × 10-meter shuttle run); and (4) cardiorespiratory (20-m shuttle run test [20mSRT]). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined by the definitions provided by the International Diabetes Federation. Twenty-three percent of the sample reported commuting by cycle. Active commuting boys had a likelihood of having an unhealthy 4 × 10 m value (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.98; P = .038) compared with the reference group (passive commuters). Active commuting girls showed a lower likelihood of having unhealthy a 20mSRT value (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99; P = .047) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.35-0.99; P = .048) compared with passive commuters. Regular cycling to school may to be associated with better physical fitness and a lower incidence of metabolic syndrome than passive transport, especially in girls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in body composition and metabolic profile during interleukin 6 inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Bruno; Dutheil, Fréderic; Giraud, Charlotte; Courteix, Daniel; Sapin, Vincent; Frayssac, Thomas; Mathieu, Sylvain; Malochet‐Guinamand, Sandrine; Soubrier, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti‐interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA. Methods Twenty‐one active RA patients treated with TCZ were included in a 1 year open follow‐up study. Waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, serum levels of adipokines and pancreatic/gastrointestinal hormones, and body composition (dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry) were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months of treatment. At baseline, RA patients were compared with 21 non‐RA controls matched for age, sex, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Results Compared with controls, body composition was altered in RA with a decrease in total and appendicular lean mass, whereas fat composition was not modified. Among RA patients, 28.6% had a skeletal muscle mass index below the cut‐off point for sarcopaenia (4.8% of controls). After 1 year of treatment with TCZ, there was a significant weight gain without changes for fat mass. In contrast, an increase in lean mass was observed with a significant gain in appendicular lean mass and skeletal muscle mass index between 6 and 12 months. Distribution of the fat was modified with a decrease in trunk/peripheral fat ratio and an increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and atherogenic index were observed. Conclusions Despite weight gain during treatment

  15. Association Between Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Plasma Folate Concentrations With Child Metabolic Health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Hu, Frank B; Mistry, Kamila B; Zhang, Cuilin; Ren, Fazheng; Huo, Yong; Paige, David; Bartell, Tami; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Ji, Zhicheng; Chen, Zhu; Ji, Yuelong; Pearson, Colleen; Ji, Hongkai; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-08-01

    Previous reports have linked maternal prepregnancy obesity with low folate concentrations and child overweight or obesity (OWO) in separate studies. To our knowledge, the role of maternal folate concentrations, alone or in combination with maternal OWO, in child metabolic health has not been examined in a prospective birth cohort. To test the hypotheses that maternal folate concentrations can significantly affect child metabolic health and that sufficient maternal folate concentrations can mitigate prepregnancy obesity-induced child metabolic risk. This prospective birth cohort study was conducted at the Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. It included 1517 mother-child dyads recruited at birth from 1998 to 2012 and followed up prospectively up to 9 years from 2003 to 2014. Child body mass index z score calculated according to US reference data, OWO defined as a body mass index in the 85th percentile or greater for age and sex, and metabolic biomarkers (leptin, insulin, and adiponectin). The mean (SD) age was 28.6 (6.5) years for mothers and 6.2 (2.4) years for the children. An L-shaped association between maternal folate concentrations and child OWO was observed: the risk for OWO was higher among those in the lowest quartile (Q1) as compared with those in Q2 through Q4, with an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.13-1.87). The highest risk for child OWO was found among children of obese mothers with low folate concentrations (odds ratio, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.91-4.86) compared with children of normal-weight mothers with folate concentrations in Q2 through Q4 after accounting for multiple covariables. Among children of obese mothers, their risk for OWO was associated with a 43% reduction (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.95) if their mothers had folate concentrations in Q2 through Q4 compared with Q1. Similar patterns were observed for child metabolic biomarkers. In this urban low-income prospective birth cohort, we demonstrated an L-shaped association between

  16. [Effect of biologically active food additives on energy metabolism and human body weight].

    PubMed

    Gapparov, M M

    1999-01-01

    Review is devoted to analysis of human energy requirements depending on age, sex, occupational and living condition. Special attention was paid to importance of strict balance in organism between consumption and expense of energy. Modern views on mechanism of action food supplements as additional instrument of regulation of energy metabolism for correction of surplus body weight is given. Review is the first attempt of systematisation of biologically active food supplements according to their mechanism of action both on nutrition processes and on biochemical mechanisms of assimilation and utilisation of macronutrients, in particular of fats and carbohydrates.

  17. Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Zhang, Qin-Zeng; Sakuyama, Shu; Matsushima, Satoshi

    2009-07-24

    The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method to monitor fatty acid metabolism in human. We have developed the measurement system in situ for human lip surface lipids using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) - attenuated total reflection (ATR) detection system with special adaptor to monitor metabolic changes of lipids in human body. As human lip surface lipids may not be much affected by skin sebum constituents and may be affected directly by the lipid constituents of diet, we could detect changes of FTIR-ATR spectra, especially at 3005 to approximately 3015 cm(-1), of lip surface polyunsaturated fatty acids in a duration time-dependent manner after intake of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing triglyceride diet. The ingested DHA appeared on the lip surface and was detected by FTIR-ATR directly and non-invasively. It was found that the metabolic rates of DHA for male volunteer subjects with age 60s were much lower than those with age 20s. Lipid hydroperoxides were found in lip lipids which were extracted from the lip surface using a mixture of ethanol/ethylpropionate/iso-octane solvents, and were the highest in the content just before noon. The changes of lipid hydroperoxides were detected also in situ with FTIR-ATR at 968 cm(-1). The measurements of lip surface lipids with FTIR-ATR technique may advance the investigation of human lipid metabolism in situ non-invasively.

  18. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals at 2.0 g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is postulated that augmentation of gravitational loading should produce a shift in the classic Kleiber mammalian allometric relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass by an increase in both these parameters. Oxygen consumption rate and body mass measurements of 10 male rabbits 8 months of age were obtained initially for 1.0 g, and then over a 9-week period of chronic centrifugation at 2.0 g. Analysis of covariance showed that the positioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17 percent from that at 1.0 g at the P less than 0.001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8 percent at the P = 0.008 level. It is concluded that abatement of gravitational loading in spaceflight will result in a lowering of both allometric parameters.

  19. Ketones block amyloid entry and improve cognition in an Alzheimer's model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun Xiang; Maalouf, Marwan; Han, Pengcheng; Zhao, Minglei; Gao, Ming; Dharshaun, Turner; Ryan, Christopher; Whitelegge, Julian; Wu, Jie; Eisenberg, David; Reiman, Eric M; Schweizer, Felix E; Shi, Jiong

    2016-03-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is responsible for 60%-80% of dementia cases, and the most opportune time for preventive intervention is in the earliest stage of its preclinical phase. As traditional mitochondrial energy substrates, ketone bodies (ketones, for short), beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate, have been reported to provide symptomatic improvement and disease-modifying activity in epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, ketones are thought as more than just metabolites and also as endogenous factors protecting against AD. In this study, we discovered a novel neuroprotective mechanism of ketones in which they blocked amyloid-β 42, a pathologic hallmark protein of AD, entry into neurons. The suppression of intracellular amyloid-β 42 accumulation rescued mitochondrial complex I activity, reduced oxidative stress, and improved synaptic plasticity. Most importantly, we show that peripheral administration of ketones significantly reduced amyloid burden and greatly improved learning and memory ability in a symptomatic mouse model of AD. These observations provide us insights to understand and to establish a novel therapeutic use of ketones in AD prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Familial resemblance of body composition, physical activity, and resting metabolic rate in pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Djafarian, Kurosh; Speakman, John R; Stewart, Joanne; M Jackson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although parental obesity is a well-established predisposing factor for the development of obesity, associations between regional body compositions, resting metabolic rates (RMR), and physical activity (PA) of parents and their pre-school children remain unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-child correlations for total and regional body compositions, resting energy expenditures, and physical activity. Methods: Participants were 89 children aged 2-6 years and their parents, consisting of 61 families. Resting metabolic rate was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Total and regional body compositions were measured by both dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and deuterium dilution. Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer. Results: There was a significant parent-offspring regression for total fat free mass (FFM) between children and their mothers (P=0.02), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (average of father and mother value) (P=0.002) when measured by DXA. The same was true for fat mass (FM) between children and mothers (P<0.01), fathers (P=0.02), and mid-parent (P=0.001). There was no significant association between children and parents for physical activity during the entire week, weekend, weekdays, and different parts of days, except for morning activity, which was positively related to the mothers’ morning activities (P<0.01) and mid-parent (P=0.009). No association was found between RMR of children and parents before and after correction for FFM and FM. Conclusion: These data suggest a familial resemblance for total body composition between children and their parents. Our data showed no familial resemblance for PA and RMR between children and their parents. PMID:26989715

  1. Fuel cell performance of pendent methylphenyl sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Stanis, Ronald J.; Song, Yang; Hu, Wei; Cornelius, Chris J.; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Baijun; Guiver, Michael D.

    2017-11-01

    Meta- and para-linked homopolymers bearing 3-methylphenyl (Me) pendent groups were postsulfonated to create sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) backbone isomers, which are referred to as Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK. Their thermal and oxidative stability, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol permeability, and proton conductivity are characterized. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK proton conductivities at 100 °C are 116 and 173 mS cm-1, respectively. Their methanol permeabilities are 3.3-3.9 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, and dimensional swelling at 100 °C is 16.4-17.5%. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and electrochemical properties were evaluated within a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). When O2 is used as the oxidant at 80 °C and 100% RH, the maximum power density of Me-m-SPEEKK reaches 657 mW cm-2, which is higher than those of Nafion 115 (552 mW cm-2). DMFC performance is 85 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with 2.0 M methanol using Me-p-SPEEKK due to its low MeOH crossover. In general, these electrochemical results are comparable to Nafion. These ionomer properties, combined with a potentially less expensive and scalable polymer manufacturing process, may broaden their potential for many practical applications.

  2. Quantitative analysis of drug effects at the whole-body level: a case study for glucose metabolism in malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Snoep, Jacky L; Green, Kathleen; Eicher, Johann; Palm, Daniel C; Penkler, Gerald; du Toit, Francois; Walters, Nicolas; Burger, Robert; Westerhoff, Hans V; van Niekerk, David D

    2015-12-01

    We propose a hierarchical modelling approach to construct models for disease states at the whole-body level. Such models can simulate effects of drug-induced inhibition of reaction steps on the whole-body physiology. We illustrate the approach for glucose metabolism in malaria patients, by merging two detailed kinetic models for glucose metabolism in the parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the human red blood cell with a coarse-grained model for whole-body glucose metabolism. In addition we use a genome-scale metabolic model for the parasite to predict amino acid production profiles by the malaria parasite that can be used as a complex biomarker. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    PubMed Central

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  4. Energy metabolism in feasting and fasting.

    PubMed

    Owen, O E; Reichard, G A; Patel, M S; Boden, G

    1979-01-01

    During feasting on a balanced carbohydrate, fat, and protein meal resting metabolic rate, body temperature and respiratory quotient all increase. The dietary components are utilized to replenish and augment glycogen and fat stores in the body. Excessive carbohydrate is also converted to lipid in the liver and stored along with the excessive lipids of dietary origin as triglycerides in adipose tissue, the major fuel storage depot. Amino acids in excess of those needed for protein synthesis are preferentially catabolized over glucose and fat for energy production. This occurs because there are no significant storage sites for amino acids or proteins, and the accumulation of nitrogenous compounds is ill tolerated. During fasting, adipose tissue, muscle, liver, and kidneys work in concert to supply, to convert, and to conserve fuels for the body. During the brief postabsorptive period, blood fuel homeostasis is maintained primarily by hepatic glycogenolysis and adipose tissue lipolysis. As fasting progresses, muscle proteolysis supplies glycogenic amino acids for heightened hepatic gluconeogenesis for a short period of time. After about three days of starvation, the metabolic profile is set to conserve protein and to supply greater quantities of alternate fuels. In particular, free fatty acids and ketone bodies are utilized to maintain energy needs. The ability of the kidney to conserve ketone bodies prevents the loss of large quantities of these valuable fuels in the urine. This delicate interplay among liver, muscle, kidney, and adipose tissue maintains blood fuel homeostasis and allows humans to survive caloric deprivation for extended periods.

  5. Androgen excess and metabolic disorders in women with PCOS: beyond the body mass index.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, R A; Calogero, A E; Di Mauro, M; Mongioi', L M; Cannarella, R; Rosta, G; La Vignera, S

    2018-04-01

    Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest. A comprehensive MEDLINE ® search was performed using relevant key terms for PCOS and DM II. Insulin-induced hyperandrogenism could impair pancreatic β-cell function, the SC abdominal adipocytes' lipid storage capacity, leading to intra-abdominal adipocyte hypertrophy and lipotoxicity, which in turn promotes insulin resistance, and could enhance NAFLD. Fetal hyperandrogenism exposure prompts to metabolic disorders. Treatment with flutamide showed to partially reverse insulin resistance. Metabolic impairment seems not to be dependent only on the total fat mass content and body weight in women with PCOS and might be ascribed to the androgen excess.

  6. Effects of body mass and water temperature on routine metabolism of American paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J T; Mims, S D; Wright, R A

    2013-04-01

    This study quantified the effects of temperature and fish mass on routine metabolism of the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Thermal sensitivity, as measured by Q(10) value, was low in P. spathula. Mean Q(10) was 1·78 while poikilotherms are generally expected to have Q(10) values in the 2·00-2·50 range. Mass-specific metabolism did not decrease with increased fish size to the extent that this phenomenon is observed in teleosts, as evidenced by a mass exponent (β) value of 0·92 for P. spathula compared with 0·79 in a review of teleost species. Other Acipenseriformes have exhibited relatively high β values for mass-specific respiration. Overall P. spathula metabolism appears to be more dependent on body mass and less dependent on temperature than for many other fishes. An equation utilizing temperature and fish mass to estimate gross respiration for P. spathula was derived and this equation was applied to respiratory data from other Acipenseriformes to assess inter-species variation. Polyodon spathula respiration rates across water temperature and fish mass appear most similar to those of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Neuronal hypothalamic regulation of body metabolism and bone density is galanin dependent.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Anna; Sato, Kazusa; Nagano, Kenichi; Rowe, Glenn; Gori, Francesca; Baron, Roland

    2018-06-01

    In the brain, the ventral hypothalamus (VHT) regulates energy and bone metabolism. Whether this regulation uses the same or different neuronal circuits is unknown. Alteration of AP1 signaling in the VHT increases energy expenditure, glucose utilization, and bone density, yet the specific neurons responsible for each or all of these phenotypes are not identified. Using neuron-specific, genetically targeted AP1 alterations as a tool in adult mice, we found that agouti-related peptide-expressing (AgRP-expressing) or proopiomelanocortin-expressing (POMC-expressing) neurons, predominantly present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) within the VHT, stimulate whole-body energy expenditure, glucose utilization, and bone formation and density, although their effects on bone resorption differed. In contrast, AP1 alterations in steroidogenic factor 1-expressing (SF1-expressing) neurons, present in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), increase energy but decrease bone density, suggesting that these effects are independent. Altered AP1 signaling also increased the level of the neuromediator galanin in the hypothalamus. Global galanin deletion (VHT galanin silencing using shRNA) or pharmacological galanin receptor blockade counteracted the observed effects on energy and bone. Thus, AP1 antagonism reveals that AgRP- and POMC-expressing neurons can stimulate body metabolism and increase bone density, with galanin acting as a central downstream effector. The results obtained with SF1-expressing neurons, however, indicate that bone homeostasis is not always dictated by the global energy status, and vice versa.

  8. Anthropometry and Body Composition of Preterm Neonates in the Light of Metabolic Programming.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais

    2018-01-01

    The improved survival of preterm infants has led to increased interest regarding their health as adults. In the context of metabolic programming, the connection between perinatal and early postnatal nutrition and growth with health in later life has brought to the fore the role of catch-up growth during the first months of preterm infants' lives and its association with body fat and obesity in childhood or puberty. A state-of-the art review was conducted in order to assess the way catch-up is evaluated, in terms of timing and rate. Adequate growth is of major importance for neurodevelopment; however, it may compete with adiposity or metabolic health. Studies based on body composition assessment have given conflicting results as regards the effect of early versus late and rapid versus slow catch-up growth on later health, mainly attributed to the lack of established criteria and definitions. Given that adequate early nutrition is crucial for the neurodevelopment of preterm infants, further studies are needed on the role of catch-up growth in long-term outcome, using generally accepted qualitative and quantitative criteria.

  9. Prolonged whole body immersion in cold water: hormonal and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Deuster, P A; Ryan, C J; Doubt, T J

    1990-03-01

    To characterize metabolic and hormonal responses during prolonged whole body immersion, 16 divers wearing dry suits completed four immersions in 5 degrees C water during each of two 5-day air saturation dives at 6.1 meters of sea water. One immersion began in the AM (1000 h) and one began in the PM (2200 h) to evaluate diurnal variations. Venous blood samples were obtained before and after completion of each immersion. Cortisol and ACTH levels demonstrated diurnal variation, with larger increases occurring after PM immersions. A greater than three-fold postimmersion increase occurred in norepinephrine (NE). There were significant increases in triiodothyronine (T3) uptake and epinephrine, but no change in T3, thyroxine, thyrotrophic hormone, and dopamine. Postimmersion free fatty acid levels increased 409% from preimmersion levels; glucose levels declined, and lactate increased significantly. Only changes in NE correlated significantly with changes in rectal temperature. In summary, when subjects are immersed in cold water for prolonged periods, with a slow rate of body cooling afforded by thermal protection and intermittent exercise, hormonal and metabolic changes occur that are similar in direction and magnitude to short-duration unprotected exposures. Except for cortisol and ACTH, none of the other measured variables exhibited diurnal alterations.

  10. A Conserved Role for Syndecan Family Members in the Regulation of Whole-Body Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria; Klimentidis, Yann C.; Casazza, Krista; Moses Chambers, Michelle; Cho, Ruth; Harbison, Susan T.; Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia; Zhang, Shaoyan; Leips, Jeff; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Syndecans are a family of type-I transmembrane proteins that are involved in cell-matrix adhesion, migration, neuronal development, and inflammation. Previous quantitative genetic studies pinpointed Drosophila Syndecan (dSdc) as a positional candidate gene affecting variation in fat storage between two Drosophila melanogaster strains. Here, we first used quantitative complementation tests with dSdc mutants to confirm that natural variation in this gene affects variability in Drosophila fat storage. Next, we examined the effects of a viable dSdc mutant on Drosophila whole-body energy metabolism and associated traits. We observed that young flies homozygous for the dSdc mutation had reduced fat storage and slept longer than homozygous wild-type flies. They also displayed significantly reduced metabolic rate, lower expression of spargel (the Drosophila homologue of PGC-1), and reduced mitochondrial respiration. Compared to control flies, dSdc mutants had lower expression of brain insulin-like peptides, were less fecund, more sensitive to starvation, and had reduced life span. Finally, we tested for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human SDC4 gene and variation in body composition, metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and sleep traits in a cohort of healthy early pubertal children. We found that SNP rs4599 was significantly associated with resting energy expenditure (P = 0.001 after Bonferroni correction) and nominally associated with fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and sleep duration (P = 0.044). On average, children homozygous for the minor allele had lower levels of glucose, higher resting energy expenditure, and slept shorter than children homozygous for the common allele. We also observed that SNP rs1981429 was nominally associated with lean tissue mass (P = 0.035) and intra-abdominal fat (P = 0.049), and SNP rs2267871 with insulin sensitivity (P = 0.037). Collectively, our results in Drosophila and humans

  11. Effects of season, temperature, and body mass on the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae).

    PubMed

    Toledo, Luís F; Brito, Simone P; Milsom, William K; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study examined how the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards, a species that undergoes large ontogenetic changes in body weight with associated changes in life-history traits, is affected by changes in body mass, body temperature, season, and life-history traits. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) in 90 individuals ranging in body mass from 10.4 g to 3.75 kg at three experimental temperatures (17 degrees , 25 degrees , and 30 degrees C) over the four seasons. We found that standard metabolic rate scaled to the power of 0.84 of body mass at all experimental temperatures in all seasons and that thermal sensitivity of metabolism was relatively low (Q(10) approximately 2.0-2.5) over the range from 17 degrees to 30 degrees C regardless of body size or season. Metabolic rates did vary seasonally, being higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter at the same temperatures, and this was true regardless of animal size. Finally, in this study, the changes in life-history traits that occurred ontogenetically were not accompanied by significant changes in metabolic rate.

  12. Homologation Reaction of Ketones with Diazo Compounds.

    PubMed

    Candeias, Nuno R; Paterna, Roberta; Gois, Pedro M P

    2016-03-09

    This review covers the addition of diazo compounds to ketones to afford homologated ketones, either in the presence or in the absence of promoters or catalysts. Reactions with diazoalkanes, aryldiazomethanes, trimethylsilyldiazomethane, α-diazo esters, and disubstituted diazo compounds are covered, commenting on the complex regiochemistry of the reaction and the nature of the catalysts and promoters. The recent reports on the enantioselective version of ketone homologation reactions are gathered in one section, followed by reports on the use of cyclic ketones ring expansion in total synthesis. Although the first reports of this reaction appeared in the literature almost one century ago, the recent achievements, in particular, for the asymmetric version, forecast the development of new breakthroughs in the synthetically valuable field of diazo chemistry.

  13. Long-term body weight fluctuation is associated with metabolic syndrome independent of current body mass index among Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiming; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Murata, Chiyoe; Wada, Keiko; Otsuka, Rei; Nagasawa, Nobue; Ishikawa, Miyuki; Sugiura, Kaichiro; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Hori, Yoko; Kondo, Takaaki; Toyoshima, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    The relation between weight fluctuation and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is fairly consistent, although the physiologic basis for the relationship is uncertain. In the present study the association between long-term weight fluctuation and the development of metabolic syndrome (MS), a potent CVD risk factor, was investigated. A cross-sectional study of 664 Japanese men aged 40-49 years was conducted. The root mean square error around the slope of weight on age (weight - RMSE) was calculated by a simple linear regression model, in which the subject's actual weights at ages 20, 25, 30 years and 5 years prior to the study, as well as current weight, were dependent variables against the subject's age as the independent variable. Weight-RMSE was significantly and positively associated with the prevalence of each MS components (high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high fasting glucose, and obesity). Such associations, as well as clustering of the MS component together with RMSE increase, were apparent among subjects with body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2, although the prevalence of MS or its components was much higher among overweight subjects (BMI >or=25 kg/m2). Development of MS possibly explains the risk of CVD not only in overweight or obese persons, but also in normal-weight persons with large weight fluctuation.

  14. Components of feed efficiency in broiler breeding stock: energetics, performance, carcass composition, metabolism, and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Skinner-Noble, D O; Teeter, R G

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify factors influencing feed conversion in broilers. The first experiment was conducted to develop a test for body temperature (BT) under mild handling stress. In the first experiment, BT was recorded periodically with birds briefly restrained after they had been removed from feed with either continuous lighting or 16L:8D. Body temperature was affected by photoperiod and declined following feed removal. The second experiment was conducted to investigate metabolic-physiologic differences existing between good (G) and poor (P) converting broilers, initially classified in a commercial breeding company's feed conversion (FCR) test. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BT were measured at the beginning and end of the FCR test following appropriate time without feed. Heat production (HP) was recorded throughout the study both for BMR calculations and to measure net energy (NE). Excreta were collected for measurement of AME, and at study termination, birds were analyzed for carcass composition. The G and P converters, however, had similar BMR and feed consumption but differed in AME (58 kcal/kg) and total NE (184 kcal/kg). Generally, G and P broilers had similar starting BW, but the G broilers gained more weight on the same amount of feed than did P broilers. The two BT measurements recorded in the present study were correlated with each other. The BT was also correlated with subsequent gain and FCR, indicating potential use as an indicator trait for feed conversion. Further, the data indicated that processes other than basal metabolism (measured as average hourly HP) may impact FCR. These might include variability in fear response during BT measurement or variations in bird activity level.

  15. Green tea supplementation affects body weight, lipids, and lipid peroxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Sanchez, Karah; Leyva, Misti J; Wu, Mingyuan; Betts, Nancy M; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2010-02-01

    To compare the effects of supplementation of green tea beverage or green tea extracts with controls on body weight, glucose and lipid profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and safety parameters in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Randomized, controlled prospective trial. General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) at University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC). Thirty-five subjects with obesity and metabolic syndrome were recruited in age- and gender-matched trios and were randomly assigned to the control (4 cups water/d), green tea (4 cups/d), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water/d) group for 8 weeks. The tea and extract groups had similar dosing of epiogallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the active compound in green tea. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipids, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based lipid particle size, safety parameters, biomarkers of oxidative stress (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [LDL], myeloperoxidase [MPO], malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenals [MDA and HNE]), and free catechins were analyzed at screen and at 4 and 8 weeks of the study. Pairwise comparisons showed green tea beverage and green tea extracts caused a significant decrease in body weight and body mass index (BMI) versus controls at 8 weeks (-2.5 +/- 0.7 kg, p < 0.01, and -1.9 +/- 0.6, p < 0.05, respectively). Green tea beverage showed a decreasing trend in LDL-cholesterol and LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) versus controls (p < 0.1). Green tea beverage also significantly decreased MDA and HNE (-0.39 +/- 0.06 microM, p < 0.0001) versus controls. Plasma free catechins were detectable in both beverage and extract groups versus controls at screen and at 8 weeks, indicating compliance and bioavailability of green tea catechins. Green tea beverage consumption (4 cups/d) or extract supplementation (2 capsules/d) for 8 weeks significantly decreased body weight and BMI. Green tea beverage further lowered lipid peroxidation versus age- and

  16. Effect of oral cinnamon intervention on metabolic profile and body composition of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double -blind control trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta Jain, Sonal; Puri, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani

    2017-06-12

    Nutritional modulation remains central to the management of metabolic syndrome. Intervention with cinnamon in individuals with metabolic syndrome remains sparsely researched. We investigated the effect of oral cinnamon consumption on body composition and metabolic parameters of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. In this 16-week double blind randomized control trial, 116 individuals with metabolic syndrome were randomized to two dietary intervention groups, cinnamon [6 capsules (3 g) daily] or wheat flour [6 capsules (2.5 g) daily]. Body composition, blood pressure and metabolic parameters were assessed. Significantly greater decrease [difference between means, (95% CI)] in fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) [0.3 (0.2, 0.5) p = 0.001], glycosylated haemoglobin (mmol/mol) [2.6 (0.4, 4.9) p = 0.023], waist circumference (cm) [4.8 (1.9, 7.7) p = 0.002] and body mass index (kg/m2 ) [1.3 (0.9, 1.5) p = 0.001] was observed in the cinnamon group compared to placebo group. Other parameters which showed significantly greater improvement were: waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Prevalence of defined metabolic syndrome was significantly reduced in the intervention group (34.5%) vs. the placebo group (5.2%). A single supplement intervention with 3 g cinnamon for 16 weeks resulted in significant improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of Asian Indians in north India. The clinical trial was retrospectively registered (after the recruitment of the participants) in ClinicalTrial.gov under the identification number: NCT02455778 on 25th May 2015.

  17. Similar metabolic response to lower- versus upper-body interval exercise or endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Francois, Monique E; Graham, Matthew J; Parr, Evelyn B; Rehrer, Nancy J; Lucas, Samuel J E; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    To compare energy use and substrate partitioning arising from repeated lower- versus upper-body sprints, or endurance exercise, across a 24-h period. Twelve untrained males (24±4 y) completed three trials in randomized order: (1) repeated sprints (five 30-s Wingate, 4.5-min recovery) on a cycle ergometer (SIT Legs ); (2) 50-min continuous cycling at 65% V̇O 2 max (END); (3) repeated sprints on an arm-crank ergometer (SIT Arms ). Respiratory gas exchange was assessed before and during exercise, and at eight points across 22h of recovery. Metabolic rate was elevated to greater extent in the first 8h after SIT Legs than SIT Arms (by 0.8±1.1kJ/min, p=0.03), and tended to be greater than END (by 0.7±1.3kJ/min, p=0.08). Total 24-h energy use (exercise+recovery) was equivalent between SIT Legs and END (p = 0.55), and SIT Legs and SIT Arms (p=0.13), but 24-h fat use was higher with SIT Legs than END (by 26±38g, p=0.04) and SIT Arms (by 27±43g, p=0.05), whereas carbohydrate use was higher with SIT Arms than SIT Legs (by 32±51g, p=0.05). Plasma volume-corrected post-exercise and fasting glucose and lipid concentrations were unchanged. Despite much lower energy use during five sprints than 50-min continuous exercise, 24-h energy use was not reliably different. However, (i) fat metabolism was greater after sprints, and (ii) carbohydrate metabolism was greater in the hours after sprints with arms than legs, while 24-h energy usage was comparable. Thus, sprints using arms or legs may be an important adjunct exercise mode for metabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Whole-body and splanchnic amino acid metabolism in sheep during an acute endotoxin challenge.

    PubMed

    McNeil, C J; Hoskin, S O; Bremner, D M; Holtrop, G; Lobley, G E

    2016-07-01

    Supplemented protein or specific amino acids (AA) are proposed to help animals combat infection and inflammation. The current study investigates whole-body and splanchnic tissue metabolism in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge with or without a supplement of six AA (cysteine, glutamine, methionine, proline, serine and threonine). Eight sheep were surgically prepared with vascular catheters across the gut and liver. On two occasions, four sheep were infused through the jugular vein for 20 h with either saline or LPS from Escherichia coli (2 ng/kg body weight per min) in a random order, plus saline infused into the mesenteric vein; the other four sheep were treated with saline or LPS plus saline or six AA infused via the jugular vein into the mesenteric vein. Whole-body AA irreversible loss rate (ILR) and tissue protein metabolism were monitored by infusion of [ring-2H2]phenylalanine. LPS increased (P<0·001) ILR (+17 %), total plasma protein synthesis (+14 %) and lymphocyte protein synthesis (+386 %) but decreased albumin synthesis (-53 %, P=0·001), with no effect of AA infusion. Absorption of dietary AA was not reduced by LPS, except for glutamine. LPS increased the hepatic removal of leucine, lysine, glutamine and proline. Absolute hepatic extraction of supplemented AA increased, but, except for glutamine, this was less than the amount infused. This increased net appearance across the splanchnic bed restored arterial concentrations of five AA to, or above, values for the saline-infused period. Infusion of key AA does not appear to alter the acute period of endotoxaemic response, but it may have benefits for the chronic or recovery phases.

  19. Ovine prenatal growth restriction impacts glucose metabolism and body composition throughout life in both sexes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P; Horgan, Graham W; Adam, Clare L

    2018-05-22

    Low birthweight is a risk factor for later adverse health. Here the impact of placentally-mediated prenatal growth-restriction followed by postnatal nutrient abundance on growth, glucose metabolism and body composition was assessed in both sexes at key stages from birth to mid-adult life. Singleton-bearing adolescent dams were fed control or high nutrient intakes to induce normal or growth-restricted pregnancies, respectively. Restricted lambs had ~40% reduced birthweight. Fractional growth rates were higher in restricted lambs of both sexes predominantly during suckling/juvenile phases. Thereafter, rates and patterns of growth differed by sex. Absolute catch-up was not achieved and restricted offspring had modestly reduced weight and stature at mid-adulthood necropsy (~109 weeks). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed lower bone mineral density in restricted versus normal lambs at 11, 41, 64 and 107 weeks, with males>females from 41 weeks onwards. Body fat percentage was higher in females versus males throughout, in restricted versus normal lambs at weaning (both sexes), and in restricted versus normal females at mid-adulthood. Insulin secretion after glucose-challenge was greater in restricted versus normal of both sexes at 7 weeks, and in restricted-males at 32 weeks. In both sexes fasting glucose concentrations were greater in restricted offspring across the life-course, while glucose area-under-the-curve after challenge was higher in restricted offspring at 32, 60, 85 and 106 weeks, indicative of persistent glucose intolerance. Therefore prenatal growth-restriction has negative consequences for body composition and metabolism throughout the life-course with the effects modulated by sex differences in postnatal growth rates, fat deposition and bone mass accrual.

  20. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Tanvig, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. In Denmark one third of all pregnant women are overweight and 12 % are obese. Perhaps even more concerning, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has also been evident over recent decades. The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal exposure to certain environmental factors and subsequent development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, resulting in over-nutrition of the fetus, are major contributors to obesity and metabolic disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth and to define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Data on 366,886 singletons were extracted and analyzed using multivariate linear regressions. We found that birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI and decreased with smoking. Reference curves were

  1. Activation of Acetone and Other Simple Ketones in Anaerobic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Heider, Johann; Schühle, Karola; Frey, Jasmin; Schink, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Acetone and other ketones are activated for subsequent degradation through carboxylation by many nitrate-reducing, phototrophic, and obligately aerobic bacteria. Acetone carboxylation leads to acetoacetate, which is subsequently activated to a thioester and degraded via thiolysis. Two different types of acetone carboxylases have been described, which require either 2 or 4 ATP equivalents as an energy supply for the carboxylation reaction. Both enzymes appear to combine acetone enolphosphate with carbonic phosphate to form acetoacetate. A similar but more complex enzyme is known to carboxylate the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a metabolic intermediate in anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism in denitrifying bacteria, with simultaneous hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP. Obligately anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria activate acetone to a four-carbon compound as well, but via a different process than bicarbonate- or CO2-dependent carboxylation. The present evidence indicates that either carbon monoxide or a formyl residue is used as a cosubstrate, and that the overall ATP expenditure of this pathway is substantially lower than in the known acetone carboxylase reactions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effects of a nonnutritive sweetener on body adiposity and energy metabolism in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitsutomi, Kimihiko; Masaki, Takayuki; Shimasaki, Takanobu; Gotoh, Koro; Chiba, Seiichi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) have been studied in terms of their potential roles in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and related metabolic disorders. Several studies have suggested that NNSs have several specific effects on metabolism such as reduced postprandial hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. However, the detailed effects of NNSs on body adiposity and energy metabolism have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of an NNS on energy metabolism in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). DIO mice were divided into NNS-administered (4% NNS in drinking water), sucrose-administered (33% sucrose in drinking water), and control (normal water) groups. After supplementation for 4 weeks, metabolic parameters, including uncoupling protein (UCP) levels and energy expenditure, were assessed. Sucrose supplementation increased hyperglycemia, body adiposity, and body weight compared to the NNS-administered and control groups (P<0.05 for each). In addition, NNS supplementation decreased hyperglycemia compared to the sucrose-administered group (P<0.05). Interestingly, NNS supplementation increased body adiposity, which was accompanied by hyperinsulinemia, compared to controls (P<0.05 for each). NNS also increased leptin levels in white adipose tissue and triglyceride levels in tissues compared to controls (P<0.05 for each). Notably, compared to controls, NNS supplementation decreased the UCP1 level in brown adipose tissue and decreased O2 consumption in the dark phase. NNSs may be good sugar substitutes for people with hyperglycemia, but appear to influence energy metabolism in DIO mice. © 2013.

  3. Intermittent metabolic switching, neuroplasticity and brain health

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Moehl, Keelin; Ghena, Nathaniel; Schmaedick, Maggie; Cheng, Aiwu

    2018-01-01

    During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease. Here, we consider how intermittent metabolic switching, repeating cycles of a metabolic challenge that induces ketosis (fasting and/or exercise) followed by a recovery period (eating, resting and sleeping), may optimize brain function and resilience throughout the lifespan, with a focus on the neuronal circuits involved in cognition and mood. Such metabolic switching impacts multiple signalling pathways that promote neuroplasticity and resistance of the brain to injury and disease. PMID:29321682

  4. The acute effects of time-of-day-dependent high fat feeding on whole body metabolic flexibility in mice.

    PubMed

    Joo, J; Cox, C C; Kindred, E D; Lashinger, L M; Young, M E; Bray, M S

    2016-09-01

    Both circadian disruption and timing of feeding have important roles in the development of metabolic disease. Despite growing acceptance that the timing of food consumption has long-term impact on metabolic homeostasis, little is known regarding the immediate influence on whole body metabolism, or the mechanisms involved. We aimed to examine the acute effects of time-of-day-dependent high fat feeding on whole body substrate metabolism and metabolic plasticity, and to determine the potential contribution of the adipocyte circadian clock. Mice were fed a regimen of 4-h meal at the beginning and end of the dark (waking) cycle, separated by 4 h of fasting. Daily experimental conditions consisted of either an early very high fat or high fat (EVHF or EHF, 60 or 45% kcals from fat, respectively) or late (LVHF or LHF) meal, paired with a low fat (LF, 10% kcals from fat) meal. Metabolic parameters, glucose tolerance, body fat composition and weight were assessed. To determine the role of the adipocyte circadian clock, an aP2-CLOCK mutant (ACM) mouse model was used. Mice in the EVHF or EHF groups showed a 13.2 or 8.84 higher percentage of caloric intake from fat and had a 0.013 or 0.026 lower daily average respiratory exchange ratio, respectively, compared with mice eating the opposite feeding regime. Changes in glucose tolerance, body fat composition and weight were not significant at the end of the 9-day restricted feeding period. ACM mice did not exhibit different metabolic responses to the feeding regimes compared with wild-type littermates. Circadian clock disruption did not influence the short-term response to timed feeding. Both the total fat composition of diet and the timing of fat intake may differentially mediate the effect of timed feeding on substrate metabolism, but may not induce acute changes in metabolic flexibility.

  5. Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-11-06

    Despite a general trend for larger mammals to have larger brains, humans are the primates with the largest brain and number of neurons, but not the largest body mass. Why are great apes, the largest primates, not also those endowed with the largest brains? Recently, we showed that the energetic cost of the brain is a linear function of its numbers of neurons. Here we show that metabolic limitations that result from the number of hours available for feeding and the low caloric yield of raw foods impose a tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons, which explains the small brain size of great apes compared with their large body size. This limitation was probably overcome in Homo erectus with the shift to a cooked diet. Absent the requirement to spend most available hours of the day feeding, the combination of newly freed time and a large number of brain neurons affordable on a cooked diet may thus have been a major positive driving force to the rapid increased in brain size in human evolution.

  6. Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Despite a general trend for larger mammals to have larger brains, humans are the primates with the largest brain and number of neurons, but not the largest body mass. Why are great apes, the largest primates, not also those endowed with the largest brains? Recently, we showed that the energetic cost of the brain is a linear function of its numbers of neurons. Here we show that metabolic limitations that result from the number of hours available for feeding and the low caloric yield of raw foods impose a tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons, which explains the small brain size of great apes compared with their large body size. This limitation was probably overcome in Homo erectus with the shift to a cooked diet. Absent the requirement to spend most available hours of the day feeding, the combination of newly freed time and a large number of brain neurons affordable on a cooked diet may thus have been a major positive driving force to the rapid increased in brain size in human evolution. PMID:23090991

  7. Toxigenic and metabolic causes of ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Martina M; Hajja, Waddah; Al-Khatib, Sofian; Hazeghazam, Maryam; Sreedhar, Dharmashree; Li, Rebecca Na; Wong-McKinstry, Edna; Carlson, Richard W

    2012-10-01

    Ketoacidotic syndromes are frequently encountered in acute care medicine. This article focuses on ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes associated with intoxications, alcohol abuse, starvation, and certain dietary supplements as well as inborn errors of metabolism. Although all of these various processes are characterized by the accumulation of ketone bodies and metabolic acidosis, there are differences in the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and principles of therapy for these heterogeneous disorders. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for these disorders are presented, as well as guidance regarding identification and management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic organization of the spotted ratfish, Hydrolagus colliei (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes): insight into the evolution of energy metabolism in the chondrichthyan fishes.

    PubMed

    Speers-Roesch, Ben; Robinson, Jacob William; Ballantyne, James Stuart

    2006-08-01

    The metabolic organization of a holocephalan, the spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei), was assessed using measurements of key enzymes of several metabolic pathways in four tissues and plasma concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) to ascertain if the Holocephali differ metabolically from the Elasmobranchii since these groups diverged ca. 400 Mya. Activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase indicate that fatty acid oxidation occurs in liver and kidney but not in heart or white muscle. This result mirrors the well-established absence of lipid oxidation in elasmobranch muscle, and more recent studies showing that elasmobranch kidney possesses a capacity for lipid oxidation. High activities in oxidative tissues of enzymes of ketone body metabolism, including D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, indicate that, like elasmobranchs, ketone bodies are of central importance in spotted ratfish. Like many carnivorous fishes, enzyme activities demonstrate that amino acids are metabolically important, although the concentration of plasma FAA was relatively low. NEFA concentrations are lower than in teleosts, but higher than in most elasmobranchs and similar to that in some "primitive" ray-finned fishes. NEFA composition is comparable to other marine temperate fishes, including high levels of n-6 and especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The metabolic organization of the spotted ratfish is similar to that of elasmobranchs: a reduced capacity for lipid oxidation in muscle, lower plasma NEFA levels, and an emphasis on ketone bodies as oxidative fuel. This metabolic strategy was likely present in the common chondrichthyan ancestor, and may be similar to the ancestral metabolic state of fishes. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Uptake of aldehydes and ketones at typical indoor concentrations by houseplants.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akira; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-11-01

    The uptake rates of low-molecular weight aldehydes and ketones by peace lily (Spathiphyllum clevelandii) and golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) leaves at typical indoor ambient concentrations (10(1)-10(2) ppbv) were determined. The C3-C6 aldehydes and C4-C6 ketones were taken up by the plant leaves, but the C3 ketone acetone was not. The uptake rate normalized to the ambient concentration C(a) ranged from 7 to 19 mmol m(-2) s(-1) and from 2 to 7 mmol m(-2) s(-1) for the aldehydes and ketones, respectively. Longer-term fumigation results revealed that the total uptake amounts were 30-100 times as much as the amounts dissolved in the leaf, suggesting that volatile organic carbons are metabolized in the leaf and/or translocated through the petiole. The ratio of the intercellular concentration to the external (ambient) concentration (C(i)/C(a)) was significantly lower for most aldehydes than for most ketones. In particular, a linear unsaturated aldehyde, crotonaldehyde, had a C(i)/C(a) ratio of approximately 0, probably because of its highest solubility in water.

  10. Maternal Fuels and Metabolic Measures During Pregnancy and Neonatal Body Composition: The Healthy Start Study

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Allison L.; Brinton, John T.; Glueck, Deborah H.; Martinez, Mercedes; Kohn, Mary; Harrod, Curtis; Friedman, Jacob E.; Dabelea, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Context: The impact of specific maternal fuels and metabolic measures during early and late gestation on neonatal body composition is not well defined. Objective: To determine how circulating maternal glucose, lipids, and insulin resistance in the first and second halves of pregnancy influence neonatal body composition. Design: A prospective pre-birth cohort enrolling pregnant women, the Healthy Start Study, was conducted, in which fasting maternal serum samples were collected twice during pregnancy to measure glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acids. Neonatal body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography. Setting: An observational epidemiology study of pregnant women attending obstetric clinics at the University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center. Participants: This analysis includes 804 maternal-neonate pairs. Results: A strong positive linear relationship between maternal estimated insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) in the first half of pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (FM) and FM percentage (FM%) was detected, independent of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). In the second half of pregnancy, positive linear relationships between maternal glucose levels and offspring FM and FM% were observed, independent of prepregnancy BMI. An inverse relationship was detected between high-density lipoprotein in the first half of pregnancy and FM, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Free fatty acid levels in the second half of pregnancy were positively associated with higher birth weight, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Conclusion: Maternal insulin resistance in the first half of pregnancy is highly predictive of neonatal FM%, whereas maternal glycemia, even within the normal range, is an important driver of neonatal adiposity in later pregnancy, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Our data provide additional insights on potential maternal factors

  11. The lateral hypothalamic area revisited: neuroanatomy, body weight regulation, neuroendocrinology and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bernardis, L L; Bellinger, L L

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews findings that have accumulated since the original description of the syndrome that follows destruction of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). These data comprise the areas of neuroanatomy, body weight regulation, neuroendocrinology, neurochemistry, and intermediary metabolism. Neurons in the LHA are the largest in the hypothalamus, and are topographically well organized. The LHA belongs to the parasympathetic area of the hypothalamus, and connects with all major parts of the brain and the major hypothalamic nuclei. Rats with LHA lesions regulate their body weight set point in a primary manner and not because of destruction of a "feeding center". The lower body weight is not due to finickiness. In the early stages of the syndrome, catabolism and running activity are enhanced, and so is the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as shown by increased norepinephrine excretion that normalizes one mo later. The LHA plays a role in the feedback control of body weight regulation different from ventromedial (VMN) and dorsomedial (DMN). Tissue preparations from the LHA promote glucose utilization and insulin release. Although it does not belong to the classical hypothysiotropic area of the hypothalamus, the LHA does affect neuroendocrine secretions. No plasma data on growth hormone are available following electrolytic lesions LHA but electrical stimulation fails to elicit GH secretion. Nevertheless, antiserum raised against the 1-37 fragment of human GHRF stains numerous perikarya in the dorsolateral LHA. The plasma circadian corticosterone rhythm is disrupted in LHA lesioned rats, but this is unlikely due to destruction of intrinsic oscillators. Stimulation studies show a profound role of the LHA in glucose metabolism (glycolysis, glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis), this mechanism being cholinergic. Its role in lipolysis appears not to be critical. In general, stimulation of the VMN elicits opposite effects. Lesion studies in rats show altered

  12. Dietary protein modulates circadian changes in core body temperature and metabolic rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miki, Takanori; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2008-02-01

    We assessed the contribution of dietary protein to circadian changes in core body temperature (Tb) and metabolic rate in freely moving rats. Daily changes in rat intraperitoneal temperature, locomotor activity (LMA), whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured before and during 4 days of consuming a 20% protein diet (20% P), a protein-free diet (0% P), or a pair-fed 20% P diet (20% P-R). Changes in Tb did not significantly differ between the 20% P and 20% P-R groups throughout the study. The Tb in the 0% P group remained elevated during the dark (D) phase throughout the study, but VO2, VCO2, and LMA increased late in the study when compared with the 20% P-R group almost in accordance with elevated Tb. By contrast, during the light (L) phase in the 0% P group, Tb became elevated early in the study and thereafter declined with a tendency to accompany significantly lower VO2 and VCO2 when compared with the 20% P group, but not the 20% P-R group. The respiratory quotient (RQ) in the 0% P group declined throughout the D phase and during the early L phase. By contrast, RQ in the 20% P-R group consistently decreased from the late D phase to the end of the L phase. Our findings suggest that dietary protein contributes to the maintenance of daily oscillations in Tb with modulating metabolic rates during the D phase. However, the underlying mechanisms of Tb control during the L phase remain obscure.

  13. Gestational Heat Stress Alters Postnatal Offspring Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Parameters in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Seibert, Jacob T.; Johnson, Jay S.; Pearce, Sarah C.; Selsby, Joshua T.; Gabler, Nicholas K.; Lucy, Matthew C.; Safranski, Timothy J.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Ross, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    The study objectives were to test the hypothesis that heat stress (HS) during gestational development alters postnatal growth, body composition, and biological response to HS conditions in pigs. To investigate this, 14 first parity crossbred gilts were exposed to one of four environmental treatments (TNTN, TNHS, HSTN, or HSHS) during gestation. TNTN and HSHS dams were exposed to thermal neutral (TN, cyclical 18–22°C) or HS conditions (cyclical 28–34°C) during the entire gestation, respectively. Dams assigned to HSTN and TNHS treatments were heat-stressed for the first or second half of gestation, respectively. Postnatal offspring were exposed to one of two thermal environments for an acute (24 h) or chronic (five weeks) duration in either constant TN (21°C) or HS (35°C) environment. Exposure to chronic HS during their growth phase resulted in decreased longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area (LDA) in offspring from HSHS and HSTN treated dams whereas LDA was larger in offspring from dams in TNTN and TNHS conditions. Irrespective of HS during prepubertal postnatal growth, pigs from dams that experienced HS during the first half of gestation (HSHS and HSTN) had increased (13.9%) subcutaneous fat thickness compared to pigs from dams exposed to TN conditions during the first half of gestation. This metabolic repartitioning towards increased fat deposition in pigs from dams heat-stressed during the first half of gestation was accompanied by elevated blood insulin concentrations (33%; P = 0.01). Together, these results demonstrate HS during the first half of gestation altered metabolic and body composition parameters during future development and in biological responses to a subsequent HS challenge. PMID:25383953

  14. [BODY ADIPOSITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP OF METABOLIC SYNDROME COMPONENTS IN COLOMBIAN ADULTS].

    PubMed

    González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-10-01

    recently, Bergman et al. have introduced a new index of adiposity, namely, body adiposity index (BAI), as a marker of obesity excess body fat in clinical practice. We aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to assess the predicting ability of BAI in various atherogenic indices, MetS and its components among adult from Bogota, Colombia. cross-sectional study in 690 male. MetS components (waist circumference ≥ 90 cm; fasting plasma glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL, blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mm Hg; triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL and HDL-c ≤ 40 mg/dL were measured. Atherogenic indices (cholesterol/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c, triglycerides/HDL-c, lipid-metabolic index [LMI] and MetS score) were calculated. the prevalence of obesity by BAI (cut-point > 26.1%) and MetS was 50.1% and 19.1%, respectively. Subjects with MetS and obesity by BAI, show lower HDL-c levels and more frequently components of MetS (waist circumference, cholesterol and serum triglycerides). Predicting ability of BAI with a greater odds for atherogenic indices were 1.78 (95%CI 1.25 to 2.55), 1.46 (95%CI 1.01 to 2.14), 1.97 (95% 1.29 to 3.02), 2.04 (95%CI 1.23 to 3.39) and 1.47 (95%CI 1.03 to 2.11), elevation in LDL-c, LMI, MetS score and cholesterol/ HDL-c, and triglyceride/HDL-c, respectively (p < 0.05). subjects with higher levels of BAI show raised prevalence of obesity and positively associated with components of MetS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasticity in body composition in breeding birds: what drives the metabolic costs of egg production?

    PubMed

    Vézina, François; Williams, Tony D

    2003-01-01

    Body composition in vertebrates is known to show phenotypic plasticity, and changes in organ masses are usually rapid and reversible. One of the most rapid and reversible changes is the transformation of the female avian reproductive organs before breeding. This provides an excellent system to investigate the effects of plasticity in organ size on basal metabolic rate (BMR) through relationships between organ masses and BMR. We compared body composition of female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) during various reproductive stages over 3 yr and investigated the pattern of changes in reproductive and nonreproductive organ mass during follicular development and ovulation. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between organ mass and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in nonbreeding, laying, and chick-rearing females. Our analysis revealed marked variation in organ masses between breeding stages but no consistent pattern among years except for kidney and pectoralis muscle. Furthermore, changes in nonreproductive organs did not parallel the cycle of growth and regression of the reproductive organs. The oviduct gained 62% of its 22-fold increase in mass in only 3 d, and oviduct regression was just as rapid and began even before the final egg of the clutch was laid, with 42% of the oviduct mass lost before laying of the final egg. In laying females, 18% of variation in mass-corrected RMR was explained by the mass of the oviduct (r2=0.18, n=80, P<0.0005), while pectoralis muscle mass in nonbreeding individuals and liver and gizzard mass in chick-rearing females were the only organs significantly related to RMR (r2=0.31-0.44). We suggest that the nonreproductive organs are affected more by changes in local ecological conditions than the reproductive state itself and that the activity and maintenance cost of the oviduct is high enough that selection has led to a very tight size-function relationship for this organ.

  16. Body weight and basal metabolic rate in childhood narcolepsy: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongwen; Wu, Huijuan; Stone, William S; Zhuang, Jianhua; Qiu, Linli; Xu, Xing; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Zhengqing; Han, Fang; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to document the trajectory of weight gain and body mass index (BMI) in children with type 1 narcolepsy, and to analyze basal metabolic rate (BMR). A total of 65 Chinese children with type 1 narcolepsy with a disease duration ≤12 months were included. In addition, 79 healthy age-matched students were enrolled as controls. Height and body weight were measured every six months for up to 36 months to calculate BMI growth. BMR was measured using COSMED K4b2 indirect calorimetry in 34 patients and 30 healthy controls at six months. At the end of 36 months, the BMR was compared among 18 patients and 16 healthy controls. The children with type 1 narcolepsy showed higher BMIs at follow-up assessments. At the end of the study, 38.46% of the patients were obese and an additional 26.15% were overweight. The patients' BMI growth at six, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of follow-up was significantly higher, but not at month 36. The patients' basal energy expenditure was significantly lower than that of the controls at six months but not at 36 months. BMI increased rapidly in children with type 1 narcolepsy after disease onset, but BMI growth decreased gradually with prolonged disease. Decreased BMR is an important cause underlying rapid weight gain. The gradual restoration of BMI growth and BMR in narcolepsy emphasizes the importance of compensatory metabolic mechanisms in this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biphasic Effect of Melanocortin Agonists on Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M.; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Miller, Nicole R.; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons; these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress. PMID:24981835

  18. Body composition, nutritional status, and endothelial function in physically active men without metabolic syndrome--a 25 year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pigłowska, Małgorzata; Kostka, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Bill-Bielecka, Mirosława; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the relationship between body composition, metabolic parameters and endothelial function among physically active healthy middle-aged and older men. Out of 101 asymptomatic men prospectively tracked for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (mean observation period 25.1 years), 55 metabolically healthy individuals who maintained stable leisure time physical activity (LTPA) level throughout the observation and agreed to participate in the body composition assessment were recruited (mean age 60.3 ± 9.9 years). Body composition and raw bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Microvascular endothelial function was evaluated by means of the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using Endo-PAT2000 system. Strong correlations were observed between lifetime physical activity (PA), aerobic fitness and most of analyzed body composition parameters. The strongest inverse correlation was found for fat mass (p < 0.01) while positive relationship for fat-free mass (p < 0.01), total body water (p < 0.05 for current aerobic capacity and p < 0.01 for historical PA), body cell mass (p < 0.001), muscle mass (p < 0.001), calcium and potassium (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 for current aerobic capacity and p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 for historical PA, respectively) and glycogen mass (p < 0.001). Among metabolic parameters, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and uric acid were significantly associated with most body composition indicators. Regarding endothelial function, a negative correlation was found for RHI and body mass (p < 0.05) while positive relationship for RHI and body cell mass (p < 0.05), calcium (p < 0.05) and potassium mass (p < 0.05). Impaired endothelial function was observed among 8 subjects. Among bioelectrical parameters, impedance (Z) and resistance (R) normalized for subjects' height were negatively related with body mass, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (p < 0.001); while reactance (Xc

  19. A multi-tissue type genome-scale metabolic network for analysis of whole-body systems physiology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions provide a biologically meaningful mechanistic basis for the genotype-phenotype relationship. The global human metabolic network, termed Recon 1, has recently been reconstructed allowing the systems analysis of human metabolic physiology and pathology. Utilizing high-throughput data, Recon 1 has recently been tailored to different cells and tissues, including the liver, kidney, brain, and alveolar macrophage. These models have shown utility in the study of systems medicine. However, no integrated analysis between human tissues has been done. Results To describe tissue-specific functions, Recon 1 was tailored to describe metabolism in three human cells: adipocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes. These cell-specific networks were manually curated and validated based on known cellular metabolic functions. To study intercellular interactions, a novel multi-tissue type modeling approach was developed to integrate the metabolic functions for the three cell types, and subsequently used to simulate known integrated metabolic cycles. In addition, the multi-tissue model was used to study diabetes: a pathology with systemic properties. High-throughput data was integrated with the network to determine differential metabolic activity between obese and type II obese gastric bypass patients in a whole-body context. Conclusion The multi-tissue type modeling approach presented provides a platform to study integrated metabolic states. As more cell and tissue-specific models are released, it is critical to develop a framework in which to study their interdependencies. PMID:22041191

  20. The metabolic impact of β-hydroxybutyrate on neurotransmission: Reduced glycolysis mediates changes in calcium responses and KATP channel receptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lund, Trine M; Ploug, Kenneth B; Iversen, Anne; Jensen, Anders A; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2015-03-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate for neurons, and ketone bodies are known to be alternative substrates. However, the capacity of ketone bodies to support different neuronal functions is still unknown. Thus, a change in energy substrate from glucose alone to a combination of glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate might change neuronal function as there is a known coupling between metabolism and neurotransmission. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the effects of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate on glycolysis and neurotransmission in cultured murine glutamatergic neurons. Previous studies have shown an effect of β-hydroxybutyrate on glucose metabolism, and the present study further specified this by showing attenuation of glycolysis when β-hydroxybutyrate was present in these neurons. In addition, the NMDA receptor-induced calcium responses in the neurons were diminished in the presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, whereas a direct effect of the ketone body on transmitter release was absent. However, the presence of β-hydroxybutyrate augmented transmitter release induced by the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide, thus giving an indirect indication of the involvement of KATP channels in the effects of ketone bodies on transmitter release. Energy metabolism and neurotransmission are linked and involve ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels. However, it is still unclear how and to what degree available energy substrate affects this link. We investigated the effect of changing energy substrate from only glucose to a combination of glucose and R-β-hydroxybutyrate in cultured neurons. Using the latter combination, glycolysis was diminished, NMDA receptor-induced calcium responses were lower, and the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide caused a higher transmitter release. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Effects of body position on thermal, cardiorespiratory and metabolic activity in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Amer; Schulze, Karl F; Ohira-Kist, Kiyoko; Kashyap, Sudha; Fifer, William P; Myers, Michael M; Sahni, Rakesh

    2009-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) infants sleeping prone are known to exhibit many physiological differences from those sleeping supine, including lower energy expenditure (heat production) and higher surface temperature. This apparent increase in heat storage suggests that heat loss may be inhibited in the prone position which, in turn, might influence cardiorespiratory activity. To determine the effects of body position (prone vs. supine) on absolute surface temperature profile (heat storage), central-peripheral (C-P) thermal gradients (vasomotor response), cardiorespiratory activity and metabolic gas exchange in growing LBW infants. Six-hour continuous recordings of absolute surface temperature profiles, cardiorespiratory activity and O2 and CO2 exchange, along with minute-to-minute assessment of behavioral sleep states were performed in 32 healthy growing LBW infants (birth weight 805-1590 g, gestational age 26-35 weeks and postconceptional age at study 33-38 weeks). Each infant was randomly assigned to the prone or supine position for the first 3 h of the study and then reversed for the second 3 h. Surface temperatures were recorded from 4 sites (forehead, flank, forearm and leg) and averaged each minute. Central (forehead and flank)-to-peripheral (forearm and leg) and forehead-to-environment (H-E) thermal gradients were calculated from the surface temperatures. Corresponding sleep states were aligned with minute averages obtained from the temperature and cardiorespiratory measurements. Data were then sorted for prone and supine positions during quiet (QS) and active sleep (AS) and compared using paired t-tests. In the prone position during both AS and QS, infants had higher forehead, flank, forearm and leg surface temperatures, narrower C-P gradients, higher heart rates and respiratory frequency, and lower heart rate and respiratory variability. Despite similar environmental temperatures, the H-E gradient was higher in the prone position. In the prone position infants

  2. A Ketone Ester Drink Increases Postexercise Muscle Glycogen Synthesis in Humans.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, David A; Cox, Peter J; Kirk, Tom; Stradling, Huw; Impey, Samuel G; Clarke, Kieran

    2017-09-01

    Physical endurance can be limited by muscle glycogen stores, in that glycogen depletion markedly reduces external work. During carbohydrate restriction, the liver synthesizes the ketone bodies, D-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate from fatty acids. In animals and in the presence of glucose, D-β-hydroxybutyrate promotes insulin secretion and increases glycogen synthesis. Here we determined whether a dietary ketone ester, combined with plentiful glucose, can increase postexercise glycogen synthesis in human skeletal muscle. After an interval-based glycogen depletion exercise protocol, 12 well-trained male athletes completed a randomized, three-arm, blinded crossover recovery study that consisted of consumption of either a taste-matched, zero-calorie control or a ketone monoester drink, followed by a 10-mM glucose clamp or saline infusion for 2 h. The three postexercise conditions were control drink then saline infusion, control drink then hyperglycemic clamp, or ketone ester drink then hyperglycemic clamp. Skeletal muscle glycogen content was determined in muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis taken before and after the 2-h clamps. The ketone ester drink increased blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations to a maximum of 5.3 versus 0.7 mM for the control drink (P < 0.0001). During the 2-h glucose clamps, insulin levels were twofold higher (31 vs 16 mU·L, P < 0.01) and glucose uptake 32% faster (1.66 vs 1.26 g·kg, P < 0.001). The ketone drink increased by 61 g, the total glucose infused for 2 h, from 197 to 258 g, and muscle glycogen was 50% higher (246 vs 164 mmol glycosyl units per kilogram dry weight, P < 0.05) than after the control drink. In the presence of constant high glucose concentrations, a ketone ester drink increased endogenous insulin levels, glucose uptake, and muscle glycogen synthesis.

  3. Hot flashes, core body temperature, and metabolic parameters in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Janet S; Gilchrist, Janet M; Chen, Kong; Gautam, Shiva; Freedman, Robert R

    2004-01-01

    To examine core body temperature, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient among breast cancer survivors experiencing hot flashes and compare these data to published studies from healthy women. In an observational study, nine breast cancer survivors with daily hot flashes who met specified criteria spent 24 hours in a temperature- and humidity-controlled whole-room indirect calorimeter (ie, metabolic room). Demographic and disease/treatment information were obtained and the following were measured: hot flashes via sternal skin conductance monitoring (sampled every second); core body temperature via an ingested radiotelemetry pill (sampled every 10 seconds); and energy expenditure and respiratory quotient via a whole-room indirect calorimeter (calculated every minute). Circadian analysis of core temperature indicated wide variability with disrupted circadian rhythm noted in all women. Core temperature began to rise 20 minutes pre-flash to 7 minutes pre-flash (0.09 degrees C increase). Increases in energy expenditure and respiratory quotient increased with each hot flash. Findings are comparable to published data from healthy women and warrant replication in larger, more diverse samples of women treated for breast cancer.

  4. Whole body and forearm substrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism: evidence of increased basal muscle protein breakdown.

    PubMed

    Riis, Anne Lene Dalkjaer; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Gjedde, Signe; Nørrelund, Helene; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Nair, K S; Ivarsen, Per; Weeke, Jørgen; Møller, Niels

    2005-06-01

    Thyroid hormones have significant metabolic effects, and muscle wasting and weakness are prominent clinical features of chronic hyperthyroidism. To assess the underlying mechanisms, we examined seven hyperthyroid women with Graves' disease before (Ht) and after (Eut) medical treatment and seven control subjects (Ctr). All subjects underwent a 3-h study in the postabsorptive state. After regional catheterization, protein dynamics of the whole body and of the forearm muscles were measured by amino acid tracer dilution technique using [15N]phenylalanine and [2H4]tyrosine. Before treatment, triiodothyronine was elevated (6.6 nmol/l) and whole body protein breakdown was increased 40%. The net forearm release of phenylalanine was increased in hyperthyroidism (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): -7.0 +/- 1.2 Ht vs. -3.8 +/- 0.8 Eut (P = 0.04), -4.2 +/- 0.3 Ctr (P = 0.048). Muscle protein breakdown, assessed by phenylalanine rate of appearance, was increased (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): 15.5 +/- 2.0 Ht vs. 9.6 +/- 1.4 Eut (P = 0.03), 9.9 +/- 0.6 Ctr (P = 0.02). Muscle protein synthesis rate did not differ significantly. Muscle mass and muscle function were decreased 10-20% before treatment. All abnormalities were normalized after therapy. In conclusion, our results show that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased muscle amino acid release resulting from increased muscle protein breakdown. These abnormalities can explain the clinical manifestations of sarcopenia and myopathy.

  5. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  6. Flipping the Metabolic Switch: Understanding and Applying Health Benefits of Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Moehl, Keelin; Donahoo, William T.; Marosi, Krisztina; Lee, Stephanie; Mainous, Arch G.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Mattson, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a term used to describe a variety of eating patterns in which no or few calories are consumed for time periods that can range from 12 hours to several days, on a recurring basis. Here we focus on the physiological responses of major organ systems, including the musculoskeletal system, to the onset of the metabolic switch – the point of negative energy balance at which liver glycogen stores are depleted and fatty acids are mobilized (typically beyond 12 hours after cessation of food intake). Emerging findings suggest the metabolic switch from glucose to fatty acid-derived ketones represents an evolutionarily conserved trigger point that shifts metabolism from lipid/cholesterol synthesis and fat storage to mobilization of fat through fatty acid oxidation and fatty-acid derived ketones, which serve to preserve muscle mass and function. Thus, IF regimens that induce the metabolic switch have the potential to improve body composition in overweight individuals. Moreover, IF regimens also induce the coordinated activation of signaling pathways that optimize physiological function, enhance performance, and slow aging and disease processes. Future randomized controlled IF trials should use biomarkers of the metabolic switch (e.g., plasma ketone levels) as a measure of compliance and the magnitude of negative energy balance during the fasting period. PMID:29086496

  7. Flipping the Metabolic Switch: Understanding and Applying the Health Benefits of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Moehl, Keelin; Donahoo, William T; Marosi, Krisztina; Lee, Stephanie A; Mainous, Arch G; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Mattson, Mark P

    2018-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a term used to describe a variety of eating patterns in which no or few calories are consumed for time periods that can range from 12 hours to several days, on a recurring basis. This review is focused on the physiological responses of major organ systems, including the musculoskeletal system, to the onset of the metabolic switch: the point of negative energy balance at which liver glycogen stores are depleted and fatty acids are mobilized (typically beyond 12 hours after cessation of food intake). Emerging findings suggest that the metabolic switch from glucose to fatty acid-derived ketones represents an evolutionarily conserved trigger point that shifts metabolism from lipid/cholesterol synthesis and fat storage to mobilization of fat through fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid-derived ketones, which serve to preserve muscle mass and function. Thus, IF regimens that induce the metabolic switch have the potential to improve body composition in overweight individuals. Moreover, IF regimens also induce the coordinated activation of signaling pathways that optimize physiological function, enhance performance, and slow aging and disease processes. Future randomized controlled IF trials should use biomarkers of the metabolic switch (e.g., plasma ketone levels) as a measure of compliance and of the magnitude of negative energy balance during the fasting period. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Change in Body Weight from Age 20 Years Is a Powerful Determinant of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lind, Lars; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Higher body weight is a well-known determinant of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. It is however less well studied how the change in weight from age 20 years to middle age or old age affects MetS development. In the community-based EpiHealth (n = 19,000, age range 45 to 75 years, 56% females) and PIVUS (n = 1000, all aged 70 years, 50% females) studies, the participants were asked about their body weight at age 20 years. Data were collected to determine MetS prevalence (NCEP ATP III criteria). In EpiHealth, the probability of having MetS increased fairly linearly with increasing weight from age 20 in the obese [odds ratios (OR) 1.04 per kg change in weight, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.05, P < 0.0001], as well as in the overweight (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.14-1.17, P < 0.0001) and normal-weight (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.14-1.21, P < 0.0001), subjects after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) at age 20, alcohol intake, smoking, education, and exercise habits. Also in the PIVUS study, the change in weight over 50 years was related to prevalent MetS (OR 1.08 per kg change in weight, 95% CI 1.06-1.10, P < 0.0001). In both studies, self-reported BMI at age 20 was related to prevalent MetS. Self-reported weight gain from age 20 was strongly and independently associated with prevalent MetS both in middle age or old age. Interestingly, this relationship was not restricted only to obese subjects. Our data provide additional support for the importance of maintaining a stable weight throughout life.

  9. Metabolism, body size and life span: a case study in evolutionarily divergent populations of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans).

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Anne; Vleck, David

    2010-11-01

    We present a case study of metabolism, life history and aging in the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans). Early research in the field supported the rate-of-living hypothesis as an explanation of aging, which was based on an apparent negative relationship between mass-specific metabolic rate and lifespan in endotherms. This hypothesis in its original form has not withstood additional tests and comparisons between the two main lineages of endotherms-birds and mammals, but there is still much to be discovered of the causative links among rate of oxygen consumption, physiology and life history, particularly in ectothermic reptiles. We present data that show adult short-lived snakes, from naturally occurring ecotypes of garter snakes, have higher mass-specific resting metabolic rates at any given body mass (metabolic intensity) across a series of normal activity temperatures (15-32°C). The short-lived ecotype in this geographic region reaches a larger body size, and has life-history traits that place it at the fast end of a pace-of-life continuum (fast growth, early maturation, high reproductive output) relative to individuals of the small-bodied long-lived ecotype. The difference between ecotypes in metabolic intensity, even after acclimation to identical conditions, may reflect evolutionary divergence and genetic differences between ecotypes. The difference in metabolic intensity is not, however, present at birth, so an alternative is that developmental environment may permanently influence metabolic rate and life history. Such developmental canalization could lead to altered gene expression via environmental influences on the epigenome and result in altered metabolic trajectories in the snakes' natural habitats.

  10. Colorimetric Recognition of Aldehydes and Ketones.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Fang, Ming; LaGasse, Maria K; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2017-08-07

    A colorimetric sensor array has been designed for the identification of and discrimination among aldehydes and ketones in vapor phase. Due to rapid chemical reactions between the solid-state sensor elements and gaseous analytes, distinct color difference patterns were produced and digitally imaged for chemometric analysis. The sensor array was developed from classical spot tests using aniline and phenylhydrazine dyes that enable molecular recognition of a wide variety of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes and ketones, as demonstrated by hierarchical cluster, principal component, and support vector machine analyses. The aldehyde/ketone-specific sensors were further employed for differentiation among and identification of ten liquor samples (whiskies, brandy, vodka) and ethanol controls, showing its potential applications in the beverage industry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nile Red Detection of Bacterial Hydrocarbons and Ketones in a High-Throughput Format

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon, Neissa M.; Aukema, Kelly G.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT A method for use in high-throughput screening of bacteria for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and ketones by monitoring fluorescent light emission in the presence of Nile red is described. Nile red has previously been used to screen for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and fatty acid esters, but this is the first report of screening for recombinant bacteria making hydrocarbons or ketones. The microtiter plate assay was evaluated using wild-type and recombinant strains of Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli expressing the enzyme OleA, previously shown to initiate hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The strains expressing exogenous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia oleA, with increased levels of ketone production as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were distinguished with Nile red fluorescence. Confocal microscopy images of S. oneidensis oleA-expressing strains stained with Nile red were consistent with a membrane localization of the ketones. This differed from Nile red staining of bacterial PHB or algal lipid droplets that showed intracellular inclusion bodies. These results demonstrated the applicability of Nile red in a high-throughput technique for the detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones. PMID:21712420

  12. Metabolism as a tool for understanding human brain evolution: lipid energy metabolism as an example.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu Pei; Yang, Hao; Wu, Jiang Wei; Gauthier, Nicolas; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Mitchell, Grant A

    2014-12-01

    Genes and the environment both influence the metabolic processes that determine fitness. To illustrate the importance of metabolism for human brain evolution and health, we use the example of lipid energy metabolism, i.e. the use of fat (lipid) to produce energy and the advantages that this metabolic pathway provides for the brain during environmental energy shortage. We briefly describe some features of metabolism in ancestral organisms, which provided a molecular toolkit for later development. In modern humans, lipid energy metabolism is a regulated multi-organ pathway that links triglycerides in fat tissue to the mitochondria of many tissues including the brain. Three important control points are each suppressed by insulin. (1) Lipid reserves in adipose tissue are released by lipolysis during fasting and stress, producing fatty acids (FAs) which circulate in the blood and are taken up by cells. (2) FA oxidation. Mitochondrial entry is controlled by carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1). Inside the mitochondria, FAs undergo beta oxidation and energy production in the Krebs cycle and respiratory chain. (3) In liver mitochondria, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway produces ketone bodies for the brain and other organs. Unlike most tissues, the brain does not capture and metabolize circulating FAs for energy production. However, the brain can use ketone bodies for energy. We discuss two examples of genetic metabolic traits that may be advantageous under most conditions but deleterious in others. (1) A CPT1A variant prevalent in Inuit people may allow increased FA oxidation under nonfasting conditions but also predispose to hypoglycemic episodes. (2) The thrifty genotype theory, which holds that energy expenditure is efficient so as to maximize energy stores, predicts that these adaptations may enhance survival in periods of famine but predispose to obesity in modern dietary environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p < 0.01) 1-14 days postpartum compared with normal group. The DC group also had higher cholesterol and triglyceride values (p < 0.05) 28-42 days postpartum and higher milk fat/protein ratio (p < 0.01) on the first month of lactation compared with normal profile group. Despite long post-calving anoestrous period (71 +/- 5.0 days; mean +/- SEM) DC group had 64.7% first service pregnancy rate (normal group 48.6% and PLP group 37.5%). This study did not find any detrimental effect of prolonged anovulatory period postpartum on subsequent fertility.

  14. The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones is a useful chemical transformation with a long history. Several chemists have claimed that they discovered the conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones yet in fact the reaction is actually known for centuries.

  15. Lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin additions.

    PubMed

    Tarr, James C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2009-09-03

    Lanthanum tricyanide efficiently catalyzes a benzoin-type coupling between acyl silanes and ketones. Yields range from moderate to excellent over a broad substrate scope encompassing aryl, alkyl, electron-rich, and sterically hindered ketones.

  16. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum tricyanide efficiently catalyzes a benzoin-type coupling between acyl silanes and ketones. Yields range from moderate to excellent over a broad substrate scope encompassing aryl, alkyl, electron-rich, and sterically hindered ketones. PMID:19655731

  17. Blockade of oestrogen biosynthesis in peripubertal boys: effects on lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Hero, Matti; Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Dunkel, Leo

    2006-09-01

    In males, the pubertal increase in sex hormone production has been associated with proatherogenic changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Aromatase inhibitors, a novel treatment modality for some growth disorders, may significantly influence these risk factors for cardiovascular disease by suppressing oestrogen biosynthesis and stimulating gonadal androgen production. In the current study, we explored the effects of aromatase inhibition on lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, body composition and serum adiponectin in peripubertal boys. Prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical study. Thirty-one boys, aged 9.0-14.5 years, with idiopathic short stature were treated with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (2.5 mg/day) or placebo for 2 years. During the treatment, the concentrations of sex hormones, IGF-I, lipids, lipoproteins and adiponectin were followed-up. The percentage of fat mass (FM) was assessed by skinfold measurements and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. In pubertal boys, who received letrozole, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased by 0.47 mmol/l (P<0.01) during the study. Simultaneously, their percentage of FM decreased from 17.0 to 10.5 (P<0.001), in an inverse relationship with serum testosterone. The concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and HOMA index remained at pretreatment level in both groups. Serum adiponectin decreased similarly in letrozole- and placebo-treated pubertal boys (2.9 and 3.3 mg/l respectively). In males, aromatase inhibition reduces HDL-C and decreases relative FM after the start of puberty. The treatment does not adversely affect insulin sensitivity in lean subjects.

  18. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  19. IMPACT OF GENETIC STRAIN ON BODY FAT LOSS, FOOD CONSUMPTION, METABOLISM, VENTILATION, AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN FREE RUNNING FEMALE RATS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Physiologic data associated with different strains of common laboratory rat strains.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , and A. Johnstone. Impact of Genetic Strain on Body Fat Loss, Food Consumption, Metabolism, Ventilation, and Motor Activity in Free Running Female Rats. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 153: 56-63, (2016).

  20. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  1. Metabolic changes in malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Emery, P W

    2005-10-01

    This paper is concerned with malnutrition caused by inadequate intake of all the major nutrients rather than deficiency diseases relating to a single micronutrient. Three common situations are recognised: young children in third world countries with protein-energy malnutrition; adults in the same countries who are chronically adapted to subsisting on marginally inadequate diets; and patients who become malnourished as a result of chronic diseases. In all these situations infectious diseases are often also present, and this complicates the interpretation of biochemical and physiological observations. The metabolic response to starvation is primarily concerned with maintaining a supply of water-soluble substrates to supply energy to the brain. Thus there is an initial rise in metabolic rate, reflecting gluconeogenic activity. As fasting progresses, gluconeogenesis is suppressed to minimise muscle protein breakdown and ketones become the main fuel for the brain. With chronic underfeeding the basal metabolic rate per cell appears to fall, but the mechanistic basis for this is not clear. The main adaptation to chronic energy deficiency is slow growth and low adult body size, although the reduction in energy requirement achieved by this is partially offset by the preservation of the more metabolically active organs at the expense of muscle, which has a lower metabolic rate. The interaction between malnutrition and the metabolic response to trauma has been studied using an animal model. The rise in energy expenditure and urinary nitrogen excretion following surgery were significantly attenuated in malnourished rats, suggesting that malnutrition impairs the ability of the body to mobilise substrates to support inflammatory and reparative processes. However, the healing process in wounded muscle remained unimpaired in malnutrition, suggesting that this process has a high biological priority.

  2. Computer-aided prediction of xenobiotic metabolism in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhentsev, V. M.; Tarasova, O. A.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Rudik, A. V.; Lagunin, A. A.; Filimonov, D. A.; Poroikov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The review describes the major databases containing information about the metabolism of xenobiotics, including data on drug metabolism, metabolic enzymes, schemes of biotransformation and the structures of some substrates and metabolites. Computational approaches used to predict the interaction of xenobiotics with metabolic enzymes, prediction of metabolic sites in the molecule, generation of structures of potential metabolites for subsequent evaluation of their properties are considered. The advantages and limitations of various computational methods for metabolism prediction and the prospects for their applications to improve the safety and efficacy of new drugs are discussed. Bibliography — 165 references.

  3. Engineering E. coli for simultaneous glucose–xylose utilization during methyl ketone production

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xi; Goh, Ee-Been; Beller, Harry R.

    Previously, we developed an E. coli strain that overproduces medium-chain methyl ketones for potential use as diesel fuel blending agents or as flavors and fragrances. To date, the strain's performance has been optimized during growth with glucose. However, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates also contain a substantial portion of hemicellulose-derived xylose, which is typically the second most abundant sugar after glucose. Commercialization of the methyl ketone-producing technology would benefit from the increased efficiency resulting from simultaneous, rather than the native sequential (diauxic), utilization of glucose and xylose. In this study, genetic manipulations were performed to alleviate carbon catabolite repression in our mostmore » efficient methyl ket one-producing strain. A strain engineered for constitutive expression of xylF and xylA (involved in xylose transport and metabolism) showed synchronized glucose and xylose consumption rates. However, this newly acquired capability came at the expense of methyl ketone titer, which decreased fivefold. Further efforts were made to improve methyl ketone production in this strain, and we found that two strategies were effective at enhancing methyl ketone titer: (1) chromosomal deletion of pgi (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) to increase intracellular NADPH supply and (2) downregulation of CRP (cAMP receptor protein) expression by replacement of the native RBS with an RBS chosen based upon mutant library screening results. Combining these strategies resulted in the most favorable overall phenotypes for simultaneous glucose-xylose consumption without compromising methyl ketone titer at both 1 and 2% total sugar concentrations in shake flasks. This work demonstrated a strategy for engineering simultaneous utilization of C 6 and C 5 sugars in E. coli without sacrificing production of fatty acid-derived compounds.« less

  4. Engineering E. coli for simultaneous glucose–xylose utilization during methyl ketone production

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xi; Goh, Ee-Been; Beller, Harry R.

    2018-01-27

    Previously, we developed an E. coli strain that overproduces medium-chain methyl ketones for potential use as diesel fuel blending agents or as flavors and fragrances. To date, the strain's performance has been optimized during growth with glucose. However, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates also contain a substantial portion of hemicellulose-derived xylose, which is typically the second most abundant sugar after glucose. Commercialization of the methyl ketone-producing technology would benefit from the increased efficiency resulting from simultaneous, rather than the native sequential (diauxic), utilization of glucose and xylose. In this study, genetic manipulations were performed to alleviate carbon catabolite repression in our mostmore » efficient methyl ket one-producing strain. A strain engineered for constitutive expression of xylF and xylA (involved in xylose transport and metabolism) showed synchronized glucose and xylose consumption rates. However, this newly acquired capability came at the expense of methyl ketone titer, which decreased fivefold. Further efforts were made to improve methyl ketone production in this strain, and we found that two strategies were effective at enhancing methyl ketone titer: (1) chromosomal deletion of pgi (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) to increase intracellular NADPH supply and (2) downregulation of CRP (cAMP receptor protein) expression by replacement of the native RBS with an RBS chosen based upon mutant library screening results. Combining these strategies resulted in the most favorable overall phenotypes for simultaneous glucose-xylose consumption without compromising methyl ketone titer at both 1 and 2% total sugar concentrations in shake flasks. This work demonstrated a strategy for engineering simultaneous utilization of C 6 and C 5 sugars in E. coli without sacrificing production of fatty acid-derived compounds.« less

  5. Impact of body mass index and metabolic phenotypes on coronary artery disease according to glucose tolerance status.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, K; Matsubayashi, Y; Yamamoto, M; Osawa, T; Ishizawa, M; Kaneko, M; Matsunaga, S; Kato, K; Seida, H; Yamanaka, N; Kodama, S; Sone, H

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of obesity, as defined by body mass index (BMI), and a metabolically unhealthy phenotype on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) according to glucose tolerance status. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 123,746 Japanese men aged 18-72years (normal glucose tolerance: 72,047; prediabetes: 39,633; diabetes: 12,066). Obesity was defined as a BMI≥25kg/m 2 . Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as those with one or more of the following conditions: hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and/or low HDL cholesterol. A Cox proportional hazards regression model identified variables related to CAD incidence. The prevalences of obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes and diabetes were 21%, 34% and 53%, whereas those for metabolically unhealthy people were 43%, 60% and 79%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that a metabolically unhealthy phenotype increases hazard ratios (HRs) for CAD compared with a metabolically healthy phenotype, regardless of glucose tolerance status (normal glucose tolerance: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.32-2.95; prediabetes: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.85-4.55; diabetes: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.18-3.06). HRs for CAD among metabolically unhealthy non-obese diabetes patients and obese diabetes patients with a metabolically unhealthy status were 6.14 (95% CI: 3.94-9.56) and 7.86 (95% CI: 5.21-11.9), respectively, compared with non-obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance and without a metabolically unhealthy status. A metabolically unhealthy state can associate with CAD independently of obesity across all glucose tolerance stages. Clinicians may need to consider those with at least one or more conditions indicating a metabolically unhealthy state as being at high risk for CAD regardless of glucose tolerance status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Body energy metabolism and oxidative stress in mice supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) associated to oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, Flavia; Dalalio, Felipe; Teodoro, Bruno; Prado, Ieda; Curti, Carlos; Alberici, Luciane

    2014-10-01

    Some fatty acids may play an important role in regulating metabolism through PPARs activation. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce body fat accumulation and increase body metabolism; this effect has been associated with up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and PPARalfa activation. Oleic acid has shown beneficial effects on health, decreasing oxidative stress and improving clinical conditions related to obesity. Therefore, in this work, we addressed the effects of a oleic plus CLA-supplemented murine diet on body metabolism, mitochondrial energetics and oxidative stress in the liver, as well as on other associated morphological and functional parameters in C57BL/6 mice. The diet was supplemented with 2% CLA mixture (cis-9, trans-10 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers; 45% of each isomer) and/or 0.7% olive oil on alternating days (60 days) by gavage. The results showed that diet supplementation with CLA increases body metabolism and reduces lipid accumulation in adipose tissues. Groups that received oleic acid (oleic and CLA oleic) showed decreased levels of total cholesterol and cholesterol non-HDL, and increased levels of HDL-cholesterol. Livers of mice fed a diet supplemented with CLA showed high levels UCP2 mRNA, and the isolated hepatic mitochondria showed indications of UCP activity and increased ROS generation. Oleic acid partially reversed the lower lipid accumulation increasing PPARgamma content, reversed the higher ROS generation by liver mitochondria and improved liver oxidative status. These results indicate a beneficial and secure dose of CLA and oleic acid for diet supplementation in mice, which increases body metabolism inducing UCP2 overexpression/activity in liver while preserving the redox state of the liver. Therefore, diet supplementation with CLA associated to oleic acid may be regarded as a potential strategy for controlling obesity and oxidative stress. Supported by FAPESP. Copyright © 2014. Published by

  7. Ketone-DNA: a versatile postsynthetic DNA decoration platform.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Sheppard, T L

    2001-12-13

    [reaction: see text] A general strategy for the functional diversification of DNA oligonucleotides under physiological conditions was developed. We describe the synthesis of DNA molecules bearing ketone ports (ketone-DNA) and the efficient postsynthetic decoration of ketone-DNA with structurally diverse aminooxy compounds.

  8. 40 CFR 721.4568 - Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone. 721... Substances § 721.4568 Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ketone (PMN No. P-91-1321) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  11. The Effect of Normobaric Hypoxic Confinement on Metabolism, Gut Hormones, and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Mekjavic, Igor B.; Amon, Mojca; Kölegård, Roger; Kounalakis, Stylianos N.; Simpson, Liz; Eiken, Ola; Keramidas, Michail E.; Macdonald, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of normobaric hypoxia on metabolism, gut hormones, and body composition, 11 normal weight, aerobically trained (O2peak: 60.6 ± 9.5 ml·kg−1·min−1) men (73.0 ± 7.7 kg; 23.7 ± 4.0 years, BMI 22.2 ± 2.4 kg·m−2) were confined to a normobaric (altitude ≃ 940 m) normoxic (NORMOXIA; PIO2 ≃ 133.2 mmHg) or normobaric hypoxic (HYPOXIA; PIO was reduced from 105.6 to 97.7 mmHg over 10 days) environment for 10 days in a randomized cross-over design. The wash-out period between confinements was 3 weeks. During each 10-day period, subjects avoided strenuous physical activity and were under continuous nutritional control. Before, and at the end of each exposure, subjects completed a meal tolerance test (MTT), during which blood glucose, insulin, GLP-1, ghrelin, peptide-YY, adrenaline, noradrenaline, leptin, and gastro-intestinal blood flow and appetite sensations were measured. There was no significant change in body weight in either of the confinements (NORMOXIA: −0.7 ± 0.2 kg; HYPOXIA: −0.9 ± 0.2 kg), but a significant increase in fat mass in NORMOXIA (0.23 ± 0.45 kg), but not in HYPOXIA (0.08 ± 0.08 kg). HYPOXIA confinement increased fasting noradrenaline and decreased energy intake, the latter most likely associated with increased fasting leptin. The majority of all other measured variables/responses were similar in NORMOXIA and HYPOXIA. To conclude, normobaric hypoxic confinement without exercise training results in negative energy balance due to primarily reduced energy intake. PMID:27313541

  12. Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein metabolism in whole body and in selected tissues.

    PubMed

    Holecek, M; Muthny, T; Kovarik, M; Sispera, L

    2009-01-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite with protein anabolic effect. The aim of the study was to examine the role of exogenous HMB on leucine and protein metabolism in whole body and selected tissues. Rats were administered by HMB (0.1 g/kg b.w.) or by saline. The parameters of whole-body protein metabolism were evaluated 24 h later using L-[1-14C]leucine and L-[3,4,5-3H]phenylalanine. Changes in proteasome dependent proteolysis and protein synthesis were determined according the "chymotrypsin-like" enzyme activity and labeled leucine and phenylalanine incorporation into the protein. A decrease in leucine clearance and whole-body protein turnover (i.e., a decrease in whole-body proteolysis and protein synthesis) was observed in HMB treated rats. Proteasome-dependent proteolysis decreased significantly in skeletal muscle, changes in heart, liver, jejunum, colon, kidney, and spleen were insignificant. Decrease in protein synthesis was observed in the heart, colon, kidney, and spleen, while an increase was observed in the liver. There were no significant changes in leucine oxidation. We conclude that protein anabolic effect of HMB in skeletal muscle is related to inhibition of proteolysis in proteasome. Alterations in protein synthesis in visceral tissues may affect several important functions and the metabolic status of the whole body.

  13. Correlations of metabolic rate and body acceleration in three species of coastal sharks under contrasting temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Lear, Karissa O; Whitney, Nicholas M; Brewster, Lauran R; Morris, Jack J; Hueter, Robert E; Gleiss, Adrian C

    2017-02-01

    The ability to produce estimates of the metabolic rate of free-ranging animals is fundamental to the study of their ecology. However, measuring the energy expenditure of animals in the field has proved difficult, especially for aquatic taxa. Accelerometry presents a means of translating metabolic rates measured in the laboratory to individuals studied in the field, pending appropriate laboratory calibrations. Such calibrations have only been performed on a few fish species to date, and only one where the effects of temperature were accounted for. Here, we present calibrations between activity, measured as overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), and metabolic rate, measured through respirometry, for nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum), lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) and blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus). Calibrations were made at a range of volitional swimming speeds and experimental temperatures. Linear mixed models were used to determine a predictive equation for metabolic rate based on measured ODBA values, with the optimal model using ODBA in combination with activity state and temperature to predict metabolic rate in lemon and nurse sharks, and ODBA and temperature to predict metabolic rate in blacktip sharks. This study lays the groundwork for calculating the metabolic rate of these species in the wild using acceleration data. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Stereoselective borylative ketone-diene coupling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P

    2011-10-07

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)(2) and P(t-Bu)(3), ketones, dienes, and B(2)(pin)(2) undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Stereoselective Borylative Ketone-Diene Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P.

    2011-01-01

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)2 and P(t-Bu)3, ketones, dienes, and B2(pin)2 undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. PMID:21905748

  16. Cyanidin-3-glucoside increases whole body energy metabolism by upregulating brown adipose tissue mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    You, Yilin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Liu, Xiaomeng; Liang, Chen; Meng, Minghui; Huang, Yuanyuan; Han, Xue; Guo, Jielong; Guo, Yu; Ren, Chenglong; Zhang, Qianwen; Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Guojie; Jin, Wanzhu; Huang, Weidong; Zhan, Jicheng

    2017-11-01

    Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and function increases energy expenditure and may protect against obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is an anthocyanin compound that occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of C3G on the prevention of obesity. Db/db mice received C3G dissolved in drinking water for 16 wk; drinking water served as the vehicle treatment. The total body weight, energy intake, metabolic rate, and physical activity were measured. The lipid droplets, gene expression and protein expression were evaluated by histochemical staining, real-time PCR, and western blots. We found that C3G increased energy expenditure, limited weight gain, maintained glucose homeostasis, reversed hepatic steatosis, improved cold tolerance, and enhanced BAT activity in obese db/db mice. C3G also induces brown-like adipocytes (beige) formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) of db/db mice model. We also found that C3G potently regulates the transcription of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) both in BAT and sWAT through increasing mitochondrial number and function. Our results suggest that C3G plays a role in regulating systemic energy balance, which may have potential therapeutic implications for the prevention and control of obesity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lanou, Amy J; Glass, Jolie

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of a low-fat, plant-based diet on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity, while controlling for exercise in free-living individuals. In an outpatient setting, 64 overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a low-fat, vegan diet or a control diet based on National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, without energy intake limits, and were asked to maintain exercise unchanged. Dietary intake, body weight and composition, resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, and insulin sensitivity were measured at baseline and 14 weeks. Mean +/- standard deviation intervention-group body weight decreased 5.8 +/- 3.2 kg, compared with 3.8 +/- 2.8 kg in the control group (P = .012). In a regression model of predictors of weight change, including diet group and changes in energy intake, thermic effect of food, resting metabolic rate, and reported energy expenditure, significant effects were found for diet group (P < .05), thermic effect of food (P < .05), and resting metabolic rate (P < .001). An index of insulin sensitivity increased from 4.6 +/- 2.9 to 5.7 +/- 3.9 (P = .017) in the intervention group, but the difference between groups was not significant (P = .17). Adoption of a low-fat, vegan diet was associated with significant weight loss in overweight postmenopausal women, despite the absence of prescribed limits on portion size or energy intake.

  18. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Bisschop, P H; De Sain-Van Der Velden, M G M; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, A J; Sauerwein, H P; Romijn, J A

    2003-08-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets with identical protein content and low-carbohydrate/high-fat (2% and 83% of total energy, respectively), intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat (44% and 41% of total energy, respectively), and high-carbohydrate/low-fat (85% and 0% of total energy, respectively) content in six healthy men. Whole body protein metabolism was assessed by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, postabsorptive leucine kinetics, and fibrinogen and albumin synthesis by infusion of [1-(13)C]leucine and [1-(13)C]valine. The low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet resulted in lower absorptive and postabsorptive plasma insulin concentrations, and higher rates of nitrogen excretion compared with the other two diets: 15.3 +/- 0.9 vs. 12.1 +/- 1.1 (P = 0.03) and 10.8 +/- 0.5 g/24 h (P = 0.005), respectively. Postabsorptive rates of appearance of leucine and of leucine oxidation were not different among the three diets. In addition, dietary carbohydrate content did not affect the synthesis rates of fibrinogen and albumin. In conclusion, eucaloric carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-h nitrogen loss but does not affect postabsorptive protein metabolism at the hepatic and whole body level. By deduction, dietary carbohydrate is required for an optimal regulation of absorptive, rather than postabsorptive, protein metabolism.

  19. Hippo Signaling: Key Emerging Pathway in Cellular and Whole-Body Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Amin; Lupse, Blaz; Maedler, Kathrin

    2018-05-05

    The evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway is a key regulator of organ size and tissue homeostasis. Its dysregulation is linked to multiple pathological disorders. In addition to regulating development and growth, recent studies show that Hippo pathway components such as MST1/2 and LATS1/2 kinases, as well as YAP/TAZ transcriptional coactivators, are regulated by metabolic pathways and that the Hippo pathway controls metabolic processes at the cellular and organismal levels in physiological and metabolic disease states such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disorders, and cancer. In this review we summarize the connection between key Hippo components and metabolism, and how this interplay regulates cellular metabolism and metabolic pathways. The emerging function of Hippo in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions is highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlations between the circadian patterns of body temperature, metabolism and breathing in rats.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P

    2007-02-15

    It had been demonstrated previously that the circadian patterns of activity and state of arousal are not essential for the manifestation of the daily patterns of pulmonary ventilation (V(E)), tidal volume (V(T)) and breathing frequency (f). In this study we investigated the extent of the linkage between the circadian pattern of breathing and those of body temperature (T(b)) and metabolic rate (oxygen consumption, V(O2), and carbon dioxide production, V(CO2)). Rats were instrumented for measurements of T(b) (by telemetry), and placed in a chamber for continuous 13-day period of measurement of breathing (by a modification of the barometric methodology), and of V(O2) and V(CO2) (by an open flow method). After the first 4 days in control conditions under a 12 h light:12 h dark (L:D) cycle, a perturbation was introduced on day 4, with an L-phase prolongation of 12 h, and on day 9, with an D-phase prolongation of 12 h. During the control days 1-4, all variables had daily oscillations (higher values in D), in phase with each other. During the perturbations (days 4-13), changes in T(b), V(O2) and V(CO2), averaged over the whole period, correlated significantly better with f than with V(T). Day-by-day X-Y loops indicated that V (E), V(T) and f could lead significantly the changes of T(b), V(O2) and V(CO2), and that these relations changed throughout the perturbation period. In addition, f and V(T) did not change necessarily in phase with each other. It is concluded that neither the oscillation in T(b) nor that in metabolism can be considered the direct cause of the daily oscillation of breathing. Presumably, the circadian pattern of breathing reflects the interplay of the daily patterns of many variables, none acting as the primary guide of the breathing daily rhythm.

  1. Decreased carbon shunting from glucose towards oxidative metabolism in diet-induced ketotic rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Shenghui; Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Puchowicz, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanistic link of ketosis to neuroprotection under certain pathological conditions continues to be explored. We investigated whether chronic ketosis induced by ketogenic diet results in the partitioning of ketone bodies towards oxidative metabolism in brain. We hypothesized that diet-induced ketosis results in increased shunting of ketone bodies towards citric acid cycle (CAC) and amino acids with decreased carbon shunting from glucose. Rats were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diets for 3.5 weeks and then infused with [U-13C]glucose or [U-13C]acetoacetate tracers. Concentrations and 13C-labeling pattern of CAC intermediates and amino acids were analyzed from brain homogenates using stable isotopomer mass spectrometry analysis. The contribution of [U-13C]glucose to acetyl-CoA and amino acids decreased by ~30% in the KG group vs STD, whereas [U-13C]acetoacetate contributions were more than 2-fold higher. The concentration of GABA remained constant across all groups; however, the 13C-labeling of GABA was markedly increased in the KG group infused with [U-13C]acetoacetate compared to STD. This study reveals that there is a significant contribution of ketone bodies to oxidative metabolism and GABA in diet-induced ketosis. We propose that this represents a fundamental mechanism of neuroprotection under pathological conditions. PMID:25314677

  2. Rapid Intravenous Sodium Acetoacetate Infusion in Man METABOLIC AND KINETIC RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Owen, O. E.; Reichard, G. A.; Markus, H.; Boden, G.; Mozzoli, M. A.; Shuman, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    The metabolic and kinetic responses to rapidly intravenously administered sodium acetoacetate (1.0 mmol/kg body wt) was studied after an overnight fast in 12 male and female adults weighing between 88 and 215% of average body weight. Blood was obtained before, during, and after the infusion for determination of circulating concentrations of immunoreactive insulin, glucose, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids. In three obese subjects the studies were repeated after 3 and 24 days of total starvation. After the overnight fast acetoacetate rose rapidly reaching a peak concentration at the end of the infusion; β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations also increased rapidly and exceeded those of acetoacetate 10 min postinfusion. Total ketone body concentration at the end of the infusion period was comparable to that found after prolonged starvation. After the initial mixing period, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate and total ketone bodies rapidly declined in a parallel manner. There were no obvious differences between the subjects with regard to their blood concentrations of ketone bodies. The mean plasma free fatty acid concentration decreased significantly during the 20th to 90th min postinfusion period; for example the control concentration of 0.61 mmol/liter fell to 0.43 mmol/liter at 60 min. In the three obese subjects studied repeatedly, fasting plasma free fatty acids decreased with acetoacetate infusion from 0.92 to 0.46 mmol/liter after the 3 day fast and from 1.49 to 0.71 mmol/liter after the 24 day fast. Acetoacetate infusion caused no changes in blood glucose concentration after an overnight fast. However, in the three obese subjects restudied after 3- and 24-day fasts blood glucose decreased, respectively, from 3.49 to 3.22 mmol/liter and from 4.07 to 3.49 mmol/liter. The mean serum insulin concentration in all subjects significantly increased from 21 to 46 μU/ml at the completion of the infusion and rapidly declined. In the three obese subjects

  3. Whole-body vibration to prevent intensive care unit-acquired weakness: safety, feasibility, and metabolic response.

    PubMed

    Wollersheim, Tobias; Haas, Kurt; Wolf, Stefan; Mai, Knut; Spies, Claudia; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Wernecke, Klaus-D; Spranger, Joachim; Weber-Carstens, Steffen

    2017-01-09

    Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness in critically ill patients is a common and significant complication affecting the course of critical illness. Whole-body vibration is known to be effective muscle training and may be an option in diminishing weakness and muscle wasting. Especially, patients who are immobilized and not available for active physiotherapy may benefit. Until now whole-body vibration was not investigated in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. We investigated the safety, feasibility, and metabolic response of whole-body vibration in critically ill patients. We investigated 19 mechanically ventilated, immobilized ICU patients. Passive range of motion was performed prior to whole-body vibration therapy held in the supine position for 15 minutes. Continuous monitoring of vital signs, hemodynamics, and energy metabolism, as well as intermittent blood sampling, took place from the start of baseline measurements up to 1 hour post intervention. We performed comparative longitudinal analysis of the phases before, during, and after intervention. Vital signs and hemodynamic parameters remained stable with only minor changes resulting from the intervention. No application had to be interrupted. We did not observe any adverse event. Whole-body vibration did not significantly and/or clinically change vital signs and hemodynamics. A significant increase in energy expenditure during whole-body vibration could be observed. In our study the application of whole-body vibration was safe and feasible. The technique leads to increased energy expenditure. This may offer the chance to treat patients in the ICU with whole-body vibration. Further investigations should focus on the efficacy of whole-body vibration in the prevention of ICU-acquired weakness. Applicability and Safety of Vibration Therapy in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01286610 . Registered 28 January 2011.

  4. ACSL5 Genotype Influence On Fatty Acid Metabolism: A Cellular, Tissue, And Whole-Body Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Abishankari; Liaghati, Awa; Chan, Jessica; Lamothe, Gilles; Dent, Robert; Doucet, Éric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Prud'homme, Denis; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Tesson, Frédérique

    2018-03-29

    significantly affect whole body metabolism and response to lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME IS IMPROVED AFTER WHOLE BODY VIBRATION EXERCISES.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Sá-Caputo, Danúbia C; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Dionello, Carla; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Morel, Daniele Soares; Frederico, Eric Heleno; Neves, Mario F; Oliveira, Ricardo; Oigman, Wille; Marin, Pedro J; Paiva, Dulciane N; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Whole body vibration exercises (WBVE) improve the quality of life (QoL) of different populations. Metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) may be favored by physical activity. Questionnaires are used to assess the QoL. The aim was to evaluate the QoL of patients with MetS that have undergone WBVE with a brief WHOQOL (WHOQOL-BREF). MetS patients were randomly divided into three groups: (i) control group (CG), (ii) treated with WBVE once per week (WBVE1) and (iii) treated with WBVE twice per week (WBVE2). In the first session, the patient was sat in a chair in front of the platform with the feet on its base in 3 peak to peak displacements (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mm) and frequency of 5 Hz was used. From the second to the last session, patients were subjected to the same protocol, however they were standing on the base of the platform and the frequency was increased up to 14 Hz. The patients fulfilled the WHOQOL-BREF before the first and after the last sessions. Cronbach coefficients were determined to each domain of the WHOQOL-BREF and test Wilcoxon (p<0.05) was used. The patients of the WBVE1 group had improvements in the physical, psychological and environment domains while in the WBVE2, the improvements were in the physical and social relationships domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. It was observed that the WBVE in a protocol (one or two times per week) with a progressive and increased frequency improves the QoL of patients with MetS in different domains of the WHOQOL-BREF.

  6. Ketone esters increase brown fat in mice and overcome insulin resistance in other tissues in the rat.

    PubMed

    Veech, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is classically activated by sympathetic nervous stimulation resulting from exposure to cold. Feeding a high-fat diet also induces development of brown fat, but is decreased by caloric restriction. Blood ketone bodies, which function as alternative energy substrates to glucose, are increased during caloric restriction. Here we discuss the unexpected observation that feeding an ester of ketone bodies to the mouse, which increases blood ketone body concentrations, results in an activation of brown fat. The mechanism of this activation of brown fat is similar to that occurring from cold exposure in that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels are increased as are levels of the transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, which is also increased by ketone ester feeding. Other effects of feeding ketone esters, in addition to their ability to induce brown fat, are discussed such as their ability to overcome certain aspects of insulin resistance and to ameliorate the accumulation of amyloid and phosphorylated tau protein in brain, and improve cognitive function, in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Benziger, Catherine P; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru's capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0-1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose.

  8. Novel proton exchange membranes based on structure-optimized poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s and nanocrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chuangjiang; Wei, Yingcong; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Baijun; Sun, Zhaoyan; Gu, Yan; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Two sulfonated fluorenyl-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) were synthesized as the matrix of composite proton exchange membranes by directly sulfonating copolymer precursors comprising non-sulfonatable fluorinated segments and sulfonatable fluorenyl-containing segments. Surface-modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was produced as the "performance-enhancing" filler by treating the microcrystalline cellulose with acid. Two families of SFPEEKK/NCC nanocomposite membranes with various NCC contents were prepared via a solution-casting procedure. Results revealed that the insertion of NCC at a suitable ratio could greatly enhance the proton conductivity of the pristine membranes. For example, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK-60/NCC-4 (SFPEEKK with 60% fluorenyl segments in the repeating unit, and inserted with 4% NCC) composite membrane was as high as 0.245 S cm-1 at 90 °C, which was 61.2% higher than that of the corresponding pure SFPEEKK-60 membrane. This effect could be attributed to the formation of hydrogen bond networks and proton conduction paths through the interaction between -SO3H/-OH groups on the surface of NCC particles and -SO3H groups on the SFPEEKK backbones. Furthermore, the chemically modified NCC filler and the optimized chemical structure of the SFPEEKK matrix also provided good dimensional stability and mechanical properties of the obtained nanocomposites. In conclusion, these novel nanocomposites can be promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cells at moderate temperatures.

  9. From whole body to cellular models of hepatic triglyceride metabolism: man has got to know his limitations

    PubMed Central

    Green, Charlotte J.; Pramfalk, Camilla; Morten, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a main metabolic organ in the human body and carries out a vital role in lipid metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, encompassing a spectrum of conditions from simple fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) through to cirrhosis. Although obesity is a known risk factor for hepatic steatosis, it remains unclear what factor(s) is/are responsible for the primary event leading to retention of intrahepatocellular fat. Studying hepatic processes and the etiology and progression of disease in vivo in humans is challenging, not least as NAFLD may take years to develop. We present here a review of experimental models and approaches that have been used to assess liver triglyceride metabolism and discuss their usefulness in helping to understand the aetiology and development of NAFLD. PMID:25352434

  10. Effects of pistachio nuts on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a 24-wk, randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Saluja, Shelza

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pistachio nuts as an adjunct to diet and exercise on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. In this 24-wk randomized control trial, 60 individuals with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to either pistachio (intervention group) or control group (diet as per weight and physical activity profile, modulated according to dietary guidelines for Asian Indians) after 3 wk of a diet and exercise run in. In the first group, unsalted pistachios (20% energy) were given daily. A standard diet and exercise protocol was followed for both groups. Body weight, waist circumference (WC), magnetic resonance imaging estimation of intraabdominal adipose tissue and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, free fatty acids (FFAs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, leptin, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assessed before and after the intervention. Statistically significant improvement in mean values for various parameters in the intervention group compared with control group were as follows: WC (P < 0.02), FBG (P < 0.04), total cholesterol (P < 0.02), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.006), hs-CRP (P < 0.05), TNF-α (P < 0.03), FFAs (P < 0.001), TBARS (P < 0.01), and adiponectin levels (P < 0.001). A single food intervention with pistachios leads to beneficial effects on the cardiometabolic profile of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body fat distribution, metabolic and inflammatory markers and retinal microvasculature in school-age children. The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Gishti, O; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Wong, T Y; Ikram, M K; Gaillard, R

    2015-10-01

    To examine the associations of body fatness, metabolic and inflammatory markers with retinal vessel calibers among children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 4145 school-age children. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.8, 8.0 years), we measured body mass index, total and abdominal fat mass, metabolic and inflammatory markers (blood levels of lipids, insulin and C-peptide and C-reactive protein) and retinal vascular calibers from retinal photographs. We observed that compared with normal weight children, obese children had narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (difference -0.21 s.d. score (SDS; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.35, -0.06)), but not venular caliber. Continuous analyses showed that higher body mass index and total body fat mass, but not android/gynoid fat mass ratio and pre-peritoneal fat mass, were associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (P<0.05 for body mass index and total body fat mass), but not with retinal venular caliber. Lipid and insulin levels were not associated with retinal vessel calibers. Higher C-reactive protein was associated with only wider retinal venular caliber (difference 0.10 SDS (95% CI 0.06, 0.14) per SDS increase in C-reactive protein). This latter association was not influenced by body mass index. Higher body fatness is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber, whereas increased C-reactive protein levels are associated with wider retinal venular caliber. Increased fat mass and inflammation correlate with microvascular development from school-age onwards.

  12. Nile Red Detection of Bacterial Hydrocarbons and Ketones in a High-Throughput Format

    SciTech Connect

    Pinzon, NM; Aukema, KG; Gralnick, JA

    A method for use in high-throughput screening of bacteria for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and ketones by monitoring fluorescent light emission in the presence of Nile red is described. Nile red has previously been used to screen for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and fatty acid esters, but this is the first report of screening for recombinant bacteria making hydrocarbons or ketones. The microtiter plate assay was evaluated using wild-type and recombinant strains of Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli expressing the enzyme OleA, previously shown to initiate hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The strains expressing exogenous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia oleA, with increased levels of ketone productionmore » as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were distinguished with Nile red fluorescence. Confocal microscopy images of S. oneidensis oleA-expressing strains stained with Nile red were consistent with a membrane localization of the ketones. This differed from Nile red staining of bacterial PHB or algal lipid droplets that showed intracellular inclusion bodies. These results demonstrated the applicability of Nile red in a high-throughput technique for the detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones. IMPORTANCE In recent years, there has been renewed interest in advanced biofuel sources such as bacterial hydrocarbon production. Previous studies used solvent extraction of bacterial cultures followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantify ketones and hydrocarbons (Beller HR, Goh EB, Keasling JD, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 1212-1223, 2010; Sukovich DJ, Seffernick JL, Richman JE, Gralnick JA, Wackett LP, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 3850-3862, 2010). While these analyses are powerful and accurate, their labor-intensive nature makes them intractable to high-throughput screening; therefore, methods for rapid identification of bacterial strains that are overproducing hydrocarbons are needed. The use of high

  13. Equation-derived body fat percentage indicates metabolic abnormalities among normal-weight adults in a rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Yaling; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong

    2017-07-08

    Obesity classification using body mass index (BMI) may miss subjects with elevated body fat percentage (BF%) and related metabolic risk factors. We aimed to evaluate whether BF% calculated by equations could provide more information about metabolic risks, in addition to BMI classification, in a cross-sectional rural Chinese population. A total of 2,990 men and women aged 18-80 years were included in this study. BF% was calculated using previously validated Chinese-specific equations. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. In total, 33.6% men and 32.9% women were overweight/obese according to BMI classification. Among those within the normal BMI range, 25.4% men and 54.7% women were indicated as overweight or obese given their elevated BF% (men: BF% ≥ 20%; women: BF% ≥ 30%). In both men and women, compared with those with normal BMI and BF% (NBB), subjects with normal BMI but elevated BF% (NBOB) were more likely to carry abnormal serum lipid profile and to have higher risks of metabolic syndrome. The multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for metabolic syndrome were 5.45 (2.37-9.53, P < 0.001) and 5.65 (3.36-9.52, P < 0.001) for men and women, respectively. Moreover, the women with NBOB also showed higher blood pressure and serum uric acid than women with NBB. Our study suggested that high BF% based on equations may indicate adverse metabolic profiles among rural Chinese adults with a normal BMI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  15. Using in vitro derived enzymatic reaction rates of metabolism to inform pesticide body burdens in amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. To assess the potential metabolic activation of broad use pesticides in amphibians, in vitro and in vivo metabolic rate cons...

  16. Whole-Body Vibration Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Exercise in Male Leptin Receptor–Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wenger, Karl H.; Misra, Sudipta; Davis, Catherine L.; Pollock, Norman K.; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ding, Kehong; Isales, Carlos M.; Hamrick, Mark W.; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Mattson, Mark P.; Cutler, Roy G.; Yu, Jack C.

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether WBV recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor–deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise (TE) or WBV for 3 months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with WT and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following TE or WBV. Both interventions reduced body weight in db/db mice and normalized muscle fiber diameter. TE or WBV also attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy in visceral adipose tissue and reduced hepatic lipid content in db/db mice. Although the effects of leptin receptor deficiency on cortical bone structure were not eliminated by either intervention, exercise and WBV increased circulating levels of osteocalcin in db/db mice. In the context of increased serum osteocalcin, the modest effects of TE and WBV on bone geometry, mineralization, and biomechanics may reflect subtle increases in osteoblast activity in multiple areas of the skeleton. Taken together, these observations indicate that WBV recapitulates the effects of exercise on metabolism in type 2 diabetes. PMID:28323991

  17. Whole-body pre-cooling does not alter human muscle metabolism during sub-maximal exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Booth, J; Wilsmore, B R; Macdonald, A D; Zeyl, A; Mcghee, S; Calvert, D; Marino, F E; Storlien, L H; Taylor, N A

    2001-06-01

    Muscle metabolism was investigated in seven men during two 35 min cycling trials at 60% peak oxygen uptake, at 35 degrees C and 50% relative humidity. On one occasion, exercise was preceded by whole-body cooling achieved by immersion in water during a reduction in temperature from 29 to 24 degrees C, and, for the other trial, by immersion in water at a thermoneutral temperature (control, 34.8 degrees C). Pre-cooling did not alter oxygen uptake during exercise (P > 0.05), whilst the change in cardiac frequency and body mass both tended to be lower following pre-cooling (0.05 < P < 0.10). When averaged over the exercise period, muscle and oesophageal temperatures after pre-cooling were reduced by 1.5 and 0.6 degrees C respectively, compared with control (P < 0.05). Pre-cooling had a limited effect on muscle metabolism, with no differences between the two conditions in muscle glycogen, triglyceride, adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate, creatine or lactate contents at rest, or following exercise. These data indicate that whole-body pre-cooling does not alter muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. It is more likely that thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain are reduced, through lower muscle and core temperatures.

  18. Effect of hypoxia on metabolic rate, core body temperature, and c-fos expression in the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Otukonyong, Effiong; Abdellatif, Ahmed; Soyinka, Julius O

    2012-10-01

    Recent investigations of hypoxia physiology in the naked mole rat have opened up an interesting line of research into the basic physiological and genomic alterations that accompany hypoxia survival. The extent to which such findings connect the effect of hypoxia to metabolic rate (O₂ consumption), core body temperature (Tb), and transcripts encoding the immediate early gene product (such as c-fos) under a constant ambient temperature (Ta) is not well known. We investigated this issue in the current study. Our first sets of experiments measured Tb and metabolic rates during exposure of naked mole rats to hypoxia over a constant Ta. Hypoxia significantly decreased metabolic rates in the naked mole rat. Although core Tb also decreased during hypoxia, the effect of hypoxia in suppressing core Tb was not significant. The second series of experiments revealed that c-fos protein and mRNA expression in the hippocampus neurons (CA1) increased in naked mole rats that were repeatedly exposed to 3% O₂ for 60 min per day for 5 days when compared to normoxia. Our findings provide evidence for the up-regulation of c-fos and suppression of metabolic rate in hypoxia tolerating naked mole rats under constant ambient temperature. Metabolic suppression and c-fos upregulation constitute part of the physiological complex associated with adaptation to hypoxia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Body mass index, metabolic factors, and striatal activation during stressful and neutral-relaxing states: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Potenza, Marc N; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hong, Kwangik A; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-02-01

    Stress is associated with alterations in neural motivational-reward pathways in the ventral striatum (VS), hormonal/metabolic changes, and weight increases. The relationship between these different factors is not well understood. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) status and hormonal/metabolic factors would be associated with VS activation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain responses of overweight and obese (OW/OB: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2): N=27) individuals with normal weight (NW: BMI<18.5-24.9 kg/m(2): N=21) individuals during exposure to personalized stress, alcohol cue, and neutral-relaxing situations using a validated, autobiographical, script-driven, guided-imagery paradigm. Metabolic factors, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and leptin, were examined for their association with VS activation. Consistent with previous studies, stress and alcohol cue exposure each increased activity in cortico-limbic regions. Compared with NW individuals, OW/OB individuals showed greater VS activation in the neutral-relaxing and stress conditions. FPG was correlated with VS activation. Significant associations between VS activation and metabolic factors during stress and relaxation suggest the involvement of metabolic factors in striatal dysfunction in OW/OB individuals. This relationship may contribute to non-homeostatic feeding in obesity.

  20. Body Mass Index, Metabolic Factors, and Striatal Activation During Stressful and Neutral-Relaxing States: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Potenza, Marc N; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hong, Kwangik A; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Stress is associated with alterations in neural motivational-reward pathways in the ventral striatum (VS), hormonal/metabolic changes, and weight increases. The relationship between these different factors is not well understood. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) status and hormonal/metabolic factors would be associated with VS activation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain responses of overweight and obese (OW/OB: BMI ⩾25 kg/m2: N=27) individuals with normal weight (NW: BMI<18.5–24.9 kg/m2: N=21) individuals during exposure to personalized stress, alcohol cue, and neutral-relaxing situations using a validated, autobiographical, script-driven, guided-imagery paradigm. Metabolic factors, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and leptin, were examined for their association with VS activation. Consistent with previous studies, stress and alcohol cue exposure each increased activity in cortico-limbic regions. Compared with NW individuals, OW/OB individuals showed greater VS activation in the neutral-relaxing and stress conditions. FPG was correlated with VS activation. Significant associations between VS activation and metabolic factors during stress and relaxation suggest the involvement of metabolic factors in striatal dysfunction in OW/OB individuals. This relationship may contribute to non-homeostatic feeding in obesity. PMID:21048702

  1. The metabolic cost of nesting: body condition and blood parameters of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger in Central Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Barão-Nóbrega, José António Lemos; Marioni, Boris; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Nogueira, António José Arsénia; Lima, Emerson Silva; Magnusson, William Ernest; Da Silveira, Ronis; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz

    2018-01-01

    Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood parameters of nesting females. Body condition and plasmatic concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, lactate and uric acid of nesting females were significantly different from those of non-nesting females and males in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Our study also demonstrated that nest age and distance to water had a negative effect on female body condition in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Female C. crocodilus attending older nests or nests built further away from permanent water bodies tended to have lower body condition. Our results demonstrate that the nesting strategy of C. crocodilus has a metabolic cost associated with nest attendance for nesting females, which appear to depend on accumulated energetic reserves during nest attendance. In contrast, nest attendance had little effect on the physiology of female M. niger.

  2. Impact of body mass index, metabolic health and weight change on incident diabetes in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Suk; Chang, Yoosoo; Eun Yun, Kyung; Kim, Chan-Won; Choi, Eun-Suk; Kwon, Min-Jung; Cho, Juhee; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Soo Kim, Hyun; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo; Ryu, Seungho

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an impact of body mass index (BMI) and weight change on the risk of diabetes according to metabolic health status. Cohort study of 34,999 Korean men and women 30-59 years of age free of diabetes at baseline were followed-up annually or biennially for an average of 5.1 years. Being metabolically healthy was defined as not having any metabolic syndrome component. During 176,878.6 person-years of follow-up, 889 participants developed diabetes (incidence rate 5.0 per 1000 person-years). Compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals, the adjusted hazard ratios for diabetes in metabolically unhealthy obese and in metabolically healthy obese were 13.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8-19.0) and 2.7 (95% CI: 1.7-4.3), respectively. The aHR (95% CI) for incident diabetes for weight changes of <-0.9, 0.5 to 2.0, and ≥2.1 kg compared to a weight change of -0.9 to 0.4 kg (reference) were 0.80 (0.66-0.97), 0.99 (0.82-1.20), and 1.24 (1.02-1.49), respectively (P-trend<0.001). In this large cohort of young and middle age Koreans, metabolic health status, obesity, and weight change were all independently associated with increased incidence of diabetes over 5 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  3. Rapid Weight Loss vs. Slow Weight Loss: Which is More Effective on Body Composition and Metabolic Risk Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Ghanavati, Matin; Lamuchi-Deli, Nasrin; Payami, Seyedeh Arefeh; Alavi-Rad, Sara; Boustaninejad, Mehdi; Afrisham, Reza; Abbasnezhad, Amir; Alipour, Meysam

    2017-01-01

    Background Achieving weight loss (WL) in a short time regardless of its consequences has always been the focus of many obese and overweight people. In this study, anthropometric and metabolic effects of two diets for rapid and slow WL and their consequences were examined. Methods Forty-two obese and overweight individuals were randomly divided to 2 groups; rapid WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 5 weeks) and slow WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 15 weeks). To compare the effects of the rate of WL in 2 groups, the same amount of was achieved with different durations. Anthropometric indices, lipid, and glycemic profiles, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated before and after the intervention. Results Both protocols of rapid WL and slow WL caused reduction in waist circumference, hip circumference, total body water, body fat mass, lean body mass, and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Further reduction in waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and percentage of body fat was observed in slow WL and decreased total body water, lean body mass, fat free mass, and RMR was observed in rapid WL. Improvement in lipid and glycemic profiles was observed in both groups. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein and fasting blood sugar, improvement of insulin resistance, and sensitivity were more significant in rapid WL in comparison to slow WL. Conclusions Weight Loss regardless of its severity could improve anthropometric indicators, although body composition is more favorable following a slow WL. Both diets improved lipid and glycemic profiles. In this context, rapid WL was more effective. (IRCT2016010424699N2) PMID:29201070

  4. Rapid Weight Loss vs. Slow Weight Loss: Which is More Effective on Body Composition and Metabolic Risk Factors?

    PubMed

    Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Ghanavati, Matin; Lamuchi-Deli, Nasrin; Payami, Seyedeh Arefeh; Alavi-Rad, Sara; Boustaninejad, Mehdi; Afrisham, Reza; Abbasnezhad, Amir; Alipour, Meysam

    2017-07-01

    Achieving weight loss (WL) in a short time regardless of its consequences has always been the focus of many obese and overweight people. In this study, anthropometric and metabolic effects of two diets for rapid and slow WL and their consequences were examined. Forty-two obese and overweight individuals were randomly divided to 2 groups; rapid WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 5 weeks) and slow WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 15 weeks). To compare the effects of the rate of WL in 2 groups, the same amount of was achieved with different durations. Anthropometric indices, lipid, and glycemic profiles, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated before and after the intervention. Both protocols of rapid WL and slow WL caused reduction in waist circumference, hip circumference, total body water, body fat mass, lean body mass, and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Further reduction in waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and percentage of body fat was observed in slow WL and decreased total body water, lean body mass, fat free mass, and RMR was observed in rapid WL. Improvement in lipid and glycemic profiles was observed in both groups. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein and fasting blood sugar, improvement of insulin resistance, and sensitivity were more significant in rapid WL in comparison to slow WL. Weight Loss regardless of its severity could improve anthropometric indicators, although body composition is more favorable following a slow WL. Both diets improved lipid and glycemic profiles. In this context, rapid WL was more effective. (IRCT2016010424699N2).

  5. Citrulline Supplementation Induces Changes in Body Composition and Limits Age-Related Metabolic Changes in Healthy Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Moinard, Christophe; Le Plenier, Servane; Noirez, Philippe; Morio, Béatrice; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Kharchi, Caroline; Ferry, Arnaud; Neveux, Nathalie; Cynober, Luc; Raynaud-Simon, Agathe

    2015-07-01

    Aging is associated with profound metabolic disturbances, and citrulline may be of use to limit them. The aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term effect of citrulline supplementation on metabolism in healthy aged rats. Twenty-month-old male rats were randomly assigned to be fed (ad libitum) for 12 wk with either a citrulline-enriched diet (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅  d(-1)) or a standard diet [rendered isonitrogenous by addition of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs)]. Motor activity and muscle strength were measured, body composition was assessed, and muscle metabolism (protein structure, mitochondrial exploration, and transductional factors) and lipid metabolism (lipoprotein composition and sensitivity to oxidative stress) were explored. Compared with the NEAA-treated group, citrulline supplementation was associated with lower mortality (0% vs. 20%; P = 0.05), 9% higher lean body mass (P < 0.05), and 13% lower fat mass (P < 0.05). Compared with the NEAA-treated group, citrulline-treated rats had greater muscle mass (+14-48% depending on type of muscle; P < 0.05 for tibialis, gastrocnemius, and plantaris). Susceptibility to oxidation of lipoproteins, as measured by the maximal concentration of 7-ketocholesterol after copper-induced VLDL and LDL oxidation, was lower in citrulline-treated rats than in NEAA-treated rats (187 ± 8 μmol/L vs. 243 ± 7 μmol/L; P = 0.0005). Citrulline treatment in male aged rats favorably modulates body composition and protects against lipid oxidation and, thus, emerges as an interesting candidate to help prevent the aging process. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Three-body system metaphor for the two-slit experiment and Escherichia coli lactose–glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori; Yamato, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We compare the contextual probabilistic structures of the seminal two-slit experiment (quantum interference experiment), the system of three interacting bodies and Escherichia coli lactose–glucose metabolism. We show that they have the same non-Kolmogorov probabilistic structure resulting from multi-contextuality. There are plenty of statistical data with non-Kolmogorov features; in particular, the probabilistic behaviour of neither quantum nor biological systems can be described classically. Biological systems (even cells and proteins) are macroscopic systems and one may try to present a more detailed model of interactions in such systems that lead to quantum-like probabilistic behaviour. The system of interactions between three bodies is one of the simplest metaphoric examples for such interactions. By proceeding further in this way (by playing with n-body systems) we shall be able to find metaphoric mechanical models for complex bio-interactions, e.g. signalling between cells, leading to non-Kolmogorov probabilistic data. PMID:27091163

  7. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Fei; Ma, Cong; Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Zeng, Qiang; Fei, Ao

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 12,018 Chinese adults were included. Body composition indices, such as BMI, BFP, WHtR, and WHR, and metabolic parameters, such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2h PBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and white blood cell count (WBC), were measured and analyzed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results: All body composition indices and metabolic parameters except 2h PBG differed significantly between males and females (all P < 0.001). BMI was positively associated with SBP, DBP, LDL-C, TC, TG, FBG, 2h PBG, HbA1c, FINS, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, and WBC, and inversely associated with HDL-C; similar relationships were identified between the metabolic parameters and BFP, WHtR, and WHR. In the multivariate analysis, the odds of impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and increased hs-CRP were 1.36, 1.92, 3.44, and 1.27 times greater in the overweight group than those in the normal weight group, respectively, and 1.66, 3.26, 7.53, and 1.70 times greater in the obese group than those in the normal weight group, respectively. The odds of dyslipidemia and hs-CRP were 1

  8. δ 13C variation in scallop shells: Increasing metabolic carbon contribution with body size?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrain, Anne; Paulet, Yves-Marie; Chauvaud, Laurent; Dunbar, Robert; Mucciarone, David; Fontugne, Michel

    2004-09-01

    We examined δ 13C values of shallow and deep-water scallop shells as well as δ 13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the Bay of Brest in western Brittany. Time series of shell calcite δ 13C do not reflect seasonal variation in seawater δ 13C, but rather show a consistent pattern of decreasing δ 13C with age, suggesting a metabolic effect rather than direct environmental control. This δ 13C trend reflects an increasing contribution of metabolic CO 2 to skeletal carbonate throughout ontogeny, although this respired CO 2 does not seem to be the major source of skeletal carbon (contribution of only 10% over the first year of life). We propose a model of this effect that depends on the availability of metabolic carbon relative to the carbon requirements for calcification. A ratio of "respired to precipitated carbon" is calculated, and represents the amount of metabolic carbon available for calcification. Interestingly, this ratio increases throughout ontogeny suggesting a real increase of metabolic carbon utilization into the skeleton relative to carbon from seawater DIC. This ratio allows us to separate two different populations of Pecten maximus of different water depth. It is therefore suggested that shell δ 13C might be used to track differences in the metabolic activity of scallops from different populations.

  9. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lisa A; Båge, Renée; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-10-20

    Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Multiparous dairy cows (n = 73) of SR and SH breeds were selected and divided into three groups based on their body condition score (BCS) after parturition. Selected plasma metabolites were determined, milk progesterone profiles were identified and body condition was scored. Over-conditioned cows and atypical progesterone profiles were more common among SR cows. Insulin sensitivity was lower and IGF 1 higher among SR cows. Insulin was positively related to body condition, but not related to breed. Atypical progesterone profiles were more common and insulin sensitivity lower in SR than in SH cows, but the SR breed had a higher proportion of over-conditioned SR cows. It is reasonable to assume that breed differences in body condition contributed to these results.

  10. Pregnancy Suppresses the Daily Rhythmicity of Core Body Temperature and Adipose Metabolic Gene Expression in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wharfe, Michaela D; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Waddell, Brendan J; Mark, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Maternal adaptations in lipid metabolism are crucial for pregnancy success due to the role of white adipose tissue as an energy store and the dynamic nature of energy needs across gestation. Because lipid metabolism is regulated by the rhythmic expression of clock genes, it was hypothesized that maternal metabolic adaptations involve changes in both adipose clock gene expression and the rhythmic expression of downstream metabolic genes. Maternal core body temperature (Tc) was investigated as a possible mechanism driving pregnancy-induced changes in clock gene expression. Gonadal adipose tissue and plasma were collected from C57BL/6J mice before and on days 6, 10, 14, and 18 of pregnancy (term 19 d) at 4-hour intervals across a 24-hour period. Adipose expression of clock genes and downstream metabolic genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and Tc was measured by intraperitoneal temperature loggers. Adipose clock gene expression showed robust rhythmicity throughout pregnancy, but absolute levels varied substantially across gestation. Rhythmic expression of the metabolic genes Lipe, Pnpla2, and Lpl was clearly evident before pregnancy; however, this rhythmicity was lost with the onset of pregnancy. Tc rhythm was significantly altered by pregnancy, with a 65% decrease in amplitude by term and a 0.61°C decrease in mesor between days 6 and 18. These changes in Tc, however, did not appear to be linked to adipose clock gene expression across pregnancy. Overall, our data show marked adaptations in the adipose clock in pregnancy, with an apparent decoupling of adipose clock and lipolytic/lipogenic gene rhythms from early in gestation.

  11. [Hormonal regulation of metabolism in the human body in microgravity and during simulation of its physiological effects].

    PubMed

    Larina, I M

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigations into the effects of space flight and simulation experiments of various length on the hormonal regulation of metabolism in the human body. Microgravity was shown to instigate shifts on different levels of the hormonal regulation and consequent adjustment of metabolism to this new environment. For instance, adaptation occurs on the level of basal secretory activity resulting in altered metabolism and formation of a pool of hormones. Metabolism readaptation to the Earth's gravity is dependent on polymorphic processes in the system of hormonal regulation developing in the course of time. Trends in the hormonal regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism during early adaptation point to inequality of contributions of the antidiuretic hormone, natriuretic peptide, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In the ground-based simulations responses of the hormonal regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism differ in intensity and types of hormones involved. Temperature variation can modify reactions of the comosis and volume regulating hormones at the beginning of adaptation. Physical-chemical regulation of calcium homeostasis in microgravity reveals itself by a rapid decline of the calcium-binding ability of blood buffers and, later on, degradation of the relative ability of extraplasmic structures to bind calcium. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the diurnal rhythm of the suprarenal steroidogenesis are indicative of modification of intensity of reactions of the main biosynthetic sequences. Countermeasures used by test-subjects in these investigations loosened significantly the aldosterone-secreting biosynthetic sequences but were favorable to the synthesis of testosterone and hydrocortisone. Some of the highly variable processes of hormonal regulation were mute to the diurnal rhythms in the pre-flight and preexperimental periods.

  12. Effects of food texture change on metabolic parameters: short- and long-term feeding patterns and body weight.

    PubMed

    Labouré, H; Saux, S; Nicolaidis, S

    2001-03-01

    A complete diet was prepared with cooked pieces of meat, beans, cream starch, and water and presented to the rats in two different textures: a blended purée and a rough mixture that required a lot of chewing. We hypothesized that this texture modification might change both anticipatory reflexes and feeding behavior. Feeding rate, meal size, intermeal intervals, and their correlation were monitored in response to each texture. The long-term (6 wk) effect on body weight was assessed. Periprandial plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and lipid concentrations were assayed. Whole and background metabolism, respiratory quotient, and locomotion were measured using a computerized calorimeter of original design. In the short term, rats preferred the mixture. However, after 3 wk, they ingested more purée than mixture and gained more body weight per gram of food ingested as purée. Insulin response declined earlier with the mixture. During meals, glycerol and free fatty acid increased earlier with purée, whereas in the postprandial period, glycerol increased earlier with mixture. The metabolic rate, however, was not significantly affected. We concluded that texture, an everyday manipulation performed on food for human consumption, affects not only palatability of ingestants but also their metabolic management in the short and long term.

  13. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. Methods This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. Results There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Conclusion Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure. PMID:23271912

  14. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = -2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = -3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = -1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure.

  15. Circannual body reserve dynamics and metabolic profile changes in Romane ewes grazing on rangelands.

    PubMed

    González-García, E; Gozzo de Figuereido, V; Foulquie, D; Jousserand, E; Autran, P; Camous, S; Tesniere, A; Bocquier, F; Jouven, M

    2014-01-01

    Throughout an entire year, 41 Romane ewes reared in an extensive rangeland were used to investigate temporal changes in body reserves (BRs) and profiles of related metabolites and metabolic hormones. Ewes were allocated to homogeneous groups according to BW and BCS and were distributed by parity (primiparous [PRIM], n = 21; multiparous [MULT], n = 20) and litter size (LSi; lambing singletons [SING], n = 21 or TWINS, n = 20). The feeding system was based on rotational grazing of rangeland paddocks and progressive supplementation with hay, silage, and barley at late pregnancy during the winter. Individual BW, BCS, plasma NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB), glucose, insulin, leptin, and triiodothyronine (T3) were monitored at -56, -12, 8, 49, 76, 107, 156, 195, 216, 246, and 301 d relative to lambing. The BR mobilization was observed from late pregnancy to the end of suckling and varied as a function of the ewe energy balance but also because of transitions from fertilized to native rangeland paddocks and by supplementation. Contrarily, BR accretion occurred from weaning, during the dry-off, and until the start of the next pregnancy. Lipolysis was well reflected by NEFA, β-OHB, and T3 kinetics. Mean BW (but not mean BCS) was affected by parity (MULT > PRIM), whereas both BW and BCS were influenced by LSi (SING > TWINS) but only for MULT. The most drastic BW loss was observed during the mid-suckling period (49 d in milk [DIM]) in all ewes. The lack of effects of LSi in PRIM but not in MULT was also evident in the majority of blood plasma kinetics, which were affected (P < 0.0001) by physiological stage in all ewes. A tendency to ketosis (β-OHB) was found in ewes nursing TWINS around lambing, irrespective of parity. Glucose concentrations were greater during suckling and dry-off, and a peak (0.96 ± 0.05 g/L) was attained at 156 DIM in MULT nursing TWINS. The highest plasma leptin concentration was observed during the start and the middle of the next pregnancy in MULT

  16. Green Tea Improves Metabolic Biomarkers, not Weight or Body Composition: A Pilot Study in Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stendell-Hollis, Nicole R; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thompson, Patricia A; Bea, Jennifer W; Cussler, Ellen C; Hakim, Iman A

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight status after breast cancer treatment may increase a woman’s risk for recurrent disease and/or early onset cardiovascular disease. Green tea has been proposed to promote weight loss and favourably modify glucose, insulin and blood lipids. This pilot study tested the effect of daily decaffeinated green tea consumption for 6 months on weight and body composition, select metabolic parameters, and lipid profiles in overweight breast cancer survivors. Methods The effect of daily decaffeinated green tea intake on weight, body composition and changes in resting metabolic rate, energy intake, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and lipids was evaluated in overweight breast cancer survivors. Participants had a mean weight of 80.2 kg; BMI 30.1 kg/m2; and body fat 46.4%. Participants (N=54) were randomised to 960 mL decaffeinated green or placebo tea daily for 6 months. Results Average tea intake among study completers (N=39) was 5952 ± 1176 mL/week and was associated with a significant reduction in energy intake (P =0.02). Change in body weight of −1.2 kg (green tea) versus + 0.2 kg (placebo) suggests a weight change effect, but was not statistically significant. Decaffeinated green tea intake was associated with elevated HDL levels (P=0.003) and non-significant improvements in the HOMA-IR (−1.1±5.9: green tea; +3.2±7.2: herbal) and the HDL/LDL ratio. Conclusions Intake of decaffeinated green tea for 6 months was associated with a slight reduction in body weight and improved HDL and glucose homeostasis in overweight breast cancer survivors. PMID:20807303

  17. Metabolic Rate Regulation by the Renin-Angiotensin System: Brain vs. Body

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Justin L.; Rahmouni, Kamal; Liu, Xuebo; Sigmund, Curt D.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports a role for the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the regulation of metabolic function, but an apparent paradox exists where genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the RAS occasionally have similar physiological effects as chronic angiotensin infusion. Similarly, while RAS targeting in animal models has robust metabolic consequences, effects in humans are more subtle. Here we review the data supporting a role for the RAS in metabolic rate regulation and propose a model where the local brain RAS works in opposition to the peripheral RAS, thus helping to explain the paradoxically similar effects of RAS supplementation and inhibition. Selectively modulating the peripheral RAS or brain RAS may thus provide a more effective treatment paradigm for obesity and obesity-related disorders. PMID:22491893

  18. Metabolic Abnormalities Are Common among South American Hispanics Subjects with Normal Weight or Excess Body Weight: The CRONICAS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benziger, Catherine P.; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to characterize metabolic status by body mass index (BMI) status. Methods The CRONICAS longitudinal study was performed in an age-and-sex stratified random sample of participants aged 35 years or older in four Peruvian settings: Lima (Peru’s capital, costal urban, highly urbanized), urban and rural Puno (both high-altitude), and Tumbes (costal semirural). Data from the baseline study, conducted in 2010, was used. Individuals were classified by BMI as normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2), and as metabolically healthy (0–1 metabolic abnormality) or metabolically unhealthy (≥2 abnormalities). Abnormalities included individual components of the metabolic syndrome, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. Results A total of 3088 (age 55.6±12.6 years, 51.3% females) had all measurements. Of these, 890 (28.8%), 1361 (44.1%) and 837 (27.1%) were normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Overall, 19.0% of normal weight in contrast to 54.9% of overweight and 77.7% of obese individuals had ≥3 risk factors (p<0.001). Among normal weight individuals, 43.1% were metabolically unhealthy, and age ≥65 years, female, and highest socioeconomic groups were more likely to have this pattern. In contrast, only 16.4% of overweight and 3.9% of obese individuals were metabolically healthy and, compared to Lima, the rural and urban sites in Puno were more likely to have a metabolically healthier profile. Conclusions Most Peruvians with overweight and obesity have additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, as well as a majority of those with a healthy weight. Prevention programs aimed at individuals with a normal BMI, and those who are overweight and obese, are urgently needed, such as screening for elevated fasting cholesterol and glucose. PMID:26599322

  19. Association of PCK1 with Body Mass Index and Other Metabolic Features in Patients With Psychotropic Treatments.

    PubMed

    Saigi-Morgui, Núria; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Delacrétaz, Aurélie; Quteineh, Lina; Choong, Eva; Gholamrezaee, Mehdi; Magistretti, Pierre; Aubry, Jean-Michel; von Gunten, Armin; Preisig, Martin; Castelao, Enrique; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Kutalik, Zoltán; Conus, Philippe; Eap, Chin B

    2015-10-01

    Weight gain is a major health problem among psychiatric populations. It implicates several receptors and hormones involved in energy balance and metabolism. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 is a rate-controlling enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis, glyceroneogenesis and cataplerosis and has been related to obesity and diabetes phenotypes in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 polymorphisms with metabolic traits in psychiatric patients treated with psychotropic drugs inducing weight gain and in general population samples. One polymorphism (rs11552145G > A) significantly associated with body mass index in the psychiatric discovery sample (n = 478) was replicated in 2 other psychiatric samples (n1 = 168, n2 = 188), with AA-genotype carriers having lower body mass index as compared to G-allele carriers. Stronger associations were found among women younger than 45 years carrying AA-genotype as compared to G-allele carriers (-2.25 kg/m, n = 151, P = 0.009) and in the discovery sample (-2.20 kg/m, n = 423, P = 0.0004). In the discovery sample for which metabolic parameters were available, AA-genotype showed lower waist circumference (-6.86 cm, P = 0.008) and triglycerides levels (-5.58 mg/100 mL, P < 0.002) when compared to G-allele carriers. Finally, waist-to-hip ratio was associated with rs6070157 (proxy of rs11552145, r = 0.99) in a population-based sample (N = 123,865, P = 0.022). Our results suggest an association of rs11552145G > A polymorphism with metabolic-related traits, especially in psychiatric populations and in women younger than 45 years.

  20. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exercise is considered as one of the most effective means of countering symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MS) such as obesity and hyperglycemia. Rodent models of forced or voluntary exercise are often used to study the mechanisms of MS and type 2 diabetes. However, there is little known on the impact of genetic strain on the metabolic response to exercise. We studied the effects of housing rats with running wheels (RW) for 65 days compared to sedentary (SED) housing in five female rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE), Wistar (WIS), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). Key parameters measured were total distance run, body composition, food consumption, motor activity, ventilatory responses by plethysmography, and resting metabolic rate (MR). WKY and SHR ran significantly more than the WIS, LE, and SD strains. Running-induced reduction in body fat was affected by strain but not by distance run. LE's lost 6% fat after 21 d of running whereas WKY's lost 2% fat but ran 40% more than LE's. LE and WIS lost body weight while the SHR and WKY strains gained weight during running. Food intake with RW was markedly increased in SHR, WIS, and WKY while LE and SD showed modest increases. Exploratory motor activity was reduced sharply by RW in all but the SD strain. Ventilatory parameters were primarily altered by RW in the SHR, WKY, and WIS strains. MR was unaffected by RW. In an overall ranking of physiological and behavioral responses to RW, the SD strain was considered the least responsive whereas the WIS was scored as most responsive. In terms of RW-induced fat loss, the LE strain appears to be the most ideal. These results should be useful in the future selection of rat models to study benefits of volitional exercise. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Improved body weight and metabolic outcomes in overweight or obese psychiatric patients switched to amisulpride from other atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Bai, Ya-Mei; Wang, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Lai, I-Ching; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Chen, Shiow-Yi; Gau, Susan S F; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2009-12-01

    Switching to a different second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) with a lower risk of weight gain is recommended for overweight or obese psychiatric patients undergoing SGA treatment. However, there have been no complete reports regarding the long-term metabolic effects of switching to amisulpride. In this open-label 1-year study, we investigated the effects on body weight and other metabolic profiles when psychiatric patients treated with another SGA were switched to amisulpride treatment. Forty-six schizophrenia or schizoaffective inpatients with a body mass index greater than 27 kg/m were enrolled in the switch group. These patients were cross-titrated to amisulpride treatment and followed up for 1 year prospectively. Another 46 inpatients matched with the baseline body mass index of those in the switch group were enrolled as the control group retrospectively. The results showed that the switch group had greater weight loss than the control group (7.80 +/- 6.67 vs 2.60 +/- 6.23 kg, respectively; repeated-measure analysis of variance, P < 0.0005). During the treatment course, the amisulpride-treated patients showed significantly decreased fasting triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, and insulin resistance levels; decreased diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate; and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after switching to amisulpride (all with a P < 0.05). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in amisulpride-treated patients also decreased significantly from 65.2% to 30.4% (McNemar test, P < 0.0005). These findings suggest that switching to amisulpride could be an effective treatment of overweight or obese psychiatric patients treated previously with other SGAs.

  2. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Sanders-Tordecilla, Alejandra; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; Cobo-Mejía, Elisa Andrea; Castellanos-Vega, Rocío Del Pilar; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine

    2017-09-13

    High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF%) and fat mass index (FMI) for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years). Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001). BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components ( p < 0.05). ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m² in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m² in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes' thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  3. The relationship between core body temperature and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine metabolism in rats: implications for neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Goni-Allo, Beatriz; O Mathúna, Brian; Segura, Mireia; Puerta, Elena; Lasheras, Berta; de la Torre, Rafael; Aguirre, Norberto

    2008-04-01

    A close relationship appears to exist between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced changes in core body temperature and long-term serotonin (5-HT) loss. We investigated whether changes in core body temperature affect MDMA metabolism. Male Wistar rats were treated with MDMA at ambient temperatures of 15, 21.5, or 30 degrees C to prevent or exacerbate MDMA-induced hyperthermia. Plasma concentrations of MDMA and its main metabolites were determined for 6 h. Seven days later, animals were killed and brain indole content was measured. The administration of MDMA at 15 degrees C blocked the hyperthermic response and long-term 5-HT depletion found in rats treated at 21.5 degrees C. At 15 degrees C, plasma concentrations of MDMA were significantly increased, whereas those of three of its main metabolites were reduced when compared to rats treated at 21.5 degrees C. By contrast, hyperthermia and indole deficits were exacerbated in rats treated at 30 degrees C. Noteworthy, plasma concentrations of MDMA metabolites were greatly enhanced in these animals. Instrastriatal perfusion of MDMA (100 microM for 5 h at 21 degrees C) did not potentiate the long-term depletion of 5-HT after systemic MDMA. Furthermore, interfering in MDMA metabolism using the catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor entacapone potentiated the neurotoxicity of MDMA, indicating that metabolites that are substrates for this enzyme may contribute to neurotoxicity. This is the first report showing a direct relationship between core body temperature and MDMA metabolism. This finding has implications on both the temperature dependence of the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxicity and human use, as hyperthermia is often associated with MDMA use in humans.

  4. Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores.

    PubMed

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Moerman, S; Bogaert, H; Depreester, E; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5) were selected based on BCS at the beginning of the study (2mo before expected parturition date). During the study, animals were monitored weekly for BCS and backfat thickness and in the last 2wk, blood samples were taken for determination of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Animals underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test in the third week before the expected parturition date. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test consisted of 4 consecutive insulin infusions with increasing insulin doses: 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 5mIU/kg per minute. For each insulin infusion period, a steady state was defined as a period of 30min where no or minor changes of the glucose infusion were necessary to keep the blood glucose concentration constant and near basal levels. During the steady state, the glucose infusion rate [steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) in µmol/kg per minute] and NEFA concentration [steady state NEFA concentration (SSNEFA) in mmol/L] were determined and reflect the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Dose response curves were created based on the insulin concentrations during the steady state and the SSGIR or SSNEFA. The shape of the dose response curves is determined by the concentration of insulin needed to elicit the half maximal effect (EC50) and the maximal SSGIR or the minimal SSNEFA for the glucose or fatty acid metabolism, respectively. The maximal SSGIR was negatively associated with variables reflecting adiposity of the cows (BCS, backfat thickness, NEFA concentration during the dry period, and absolute weight of the different adipose depots determined after euthanasia and dissection of the different depots), whereas the EC50 of the glucose metabolism was

  5. Understanding and managing disturbances in insulin metabolism and body weight in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moran, L; Norman, R J

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common clinical and metabolic condition in women of reproductive age. It is associated with short-term reproductive and long-term metabolic dysfunction. Treatment has traditionally focused on fertility and hormonal therapy. However, general obesity, central obesity and insulin resistance are strongly implicated in its aetiology and improving these factors has proved highly successful in some clinical situations, reducing the need for costly assisted reproduction. A low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet is thought to improve insulin sensitivity, aid in weight loss and reduction of metabolic and reproductive symptoms and improve the long-term maintenance of a reduced weight. However, there has been recent community interest in adopting a protocol advocating a moderate increase in dietary protein for improving weight loss and PCOS symptoms. Altering the glycaemic index of the diet has also received considerable attention as a regime for promoting satiety and reducing metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Exercise and other lifestyle changes are essential for altering the short- and long-term effects of PCOS. It is vital that the efficacy of these strategies is assessed so that accurate medical and dietetic advice can be given both to patients and to the health-care community.

  6. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates thatmore » Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.« less

  7. Can ketones compensate for deteriorating brain glucose uptake during aging? Implications for the risk and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; St-Pierre, Valérie; Vandenberghe, Camille; Pierotti, Tyler; Fortier, Mélanie; Croteau, Etienne; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Brain glucose uptake is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A key question is whether cognitive decline can be delayed if this brain energy defect is at least partly corrected or bypassed early in the disease. The principal ketones (also called ketone bodies), β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the brain's main physiological alternative fuel to glucose. Three studies in mild-to-moderate AD have shown that, unlike with glucose, brain ketone uptake is not different from that in healthy age-matched controls. Published clinical trials demonstrate that increasing ketone availability to the brain via moderate nutritional ketosis has a modest beneficial effect on cognitive outcomes in mild-to-moderate AD and in mild cognitive impairment. Nutritional ketosis can be safely achieved by a high-fat ketogenic diet, by supplements providing 20-70 g/day of medium-chain triglycerides containing the eight- and ten-carbon fatty acids octanoate and decanoate, or by ketone esters. Given the acute dependence of the brain on its energy supply, it seems reasonable that the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at AD mandates consideration of how the underlying problem of deteriorating brain fuel supply can be corrected or delayed. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. CardioNet: a human metabolic network suited for the study of cardiomyocyte metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karlstädt, Anja; Fliegner, Daniela; Kararigas, Georgios; Ruderisch, Hugo Sanchez; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2012-08-29

    Availability of oxygen and nutrients in the coronary circulation is a crucial determinant of cardiac performance. Nutrient composition of coronary blood may significantly vary in specific physiological and pathological conditions, for example, administration of special diets, long-term starvation, physical exercise or diabetes. Quantitative analysis of cardiac metabolism from a systems biology perspective may help to a better understanding of the relationship between nutrient supply and efficiency of metabolic processes required for an adequate cardiac output. Here we present CardioNet, the first large-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network of the human cardiomyocyte comprising 1793 metabolic reactions, including 560 transport processes in six compartments. We use flux-balance analysis to demonstrate the capability of the network to accomplish a set of 368 metabolic functions required for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the cell. Taking the maintenance of ATP, biosynthesis of ceramide, cardiolipin and further important phospholipids as examples, we analyse how a changed supply of glucose, lactate, fatty acids and ketone bodies may influence the efficiency of these essential processes. CardioNet is a functionally validated metabolic network of the human cardiomyocyte that enables theorectical studies of cellular metabolic processes crucial for the accomplishment of an adequate cardiac output.

  9. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Abubakar, Mustapha; Jenab, Mazda; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena A; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika; Palmqvist, Richard; Nyström, Hanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Freisling, Heinz; Kong, So Yeon; Tsilidis, Kostas; Muller, David C; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown. The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered

  10. Longitudinal changes in body composition and metabolic profile between exercise clinical trials in men with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Martin, Heather; Metz, Alyse; Khalil, Refka E.; Dolbow, David R.; Gater, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Longitudinal design. Objectives The study was undertaken to determine the effects of cessation of exercise interventions on body composition and metabolic profiles in men with chronic SCI. Settings Clinical trials within a Medical Center. Methods Eleven men with motor complete SCI were followed on average over a period of 2.5 years. Six men were involved in two different exercise interventions (functional electrical stimulation cycling versus arm cycling ergometer), 5 days/week for 16 weeks (exercise group), and five men served as a control (control group). Anthropometrics and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were captured to measure changes in lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percentage FM before, immediately after exercise, and after a period of 2.5 years. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and lipid panel were also measured. Results Thigh circumference increased by 8.5% following exercise (P = 0.042) and remained 6.4% greater than baseline measurements (P = 0.012). Leg LM increased by 9% following the exercise intervention (P = 0.03) and decreased by 16% in the follow-up visit (P = 0.02). Percentage trunk and total body FM increased by 4.5% (P = 0.008) and 3.5% (P = 0.019) in the follow-up visit, respectively, and whole body LM increased by 8.4% and decreased back by 5.4% following a 2.5 year-period. BMR significantly decreased by 15.5% following the exercise (P = 0.029) interventions. Conclusion Exercise training is accompanied with positive changes in body composition as well as compensatory decrease in BMR, that regressed back following 2.5 years of exercise cessation. Participation in an exercise trial is unlikely to confound the measurements of a follow-up trial. PMID:27077574

  11. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database....

  13. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  14. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  15. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  16. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; West,; Ryan, M [Madison, WI

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  17. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  18. Ketones prevent synaptic dysfunction induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Vallejo, Johana; Rho, Jong M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Ketones have previously shown beneficial effects in models of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly against associated mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. However, evidence of a synaptic protective effect of ketones remains lacking. We tested the effects of ketones on synaptic impairment induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) inhibitors using electrophysiological, reactive oxygen species (ROS) imaging and biochemical techniques. MRC inhibitors dose-dependently suppressed both population spike (PS) and field potential amplitudes in the CA1 hippocampus. Pre-treatment with ketones strongly prevented changes in the PS, whereas partial protection was seen in the field potential. Rotenone (Rot; 100 nmol/L), a MRC I inhibitor, suppressed synaptic function without altering ROS levels and PS depression by Rot was unaffected by antioxidants. In contrast, antioxidant-induced PS recovery against the MRC II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 1 mmol/L) was similar to the synaptic protective effects of ketones. Ketones also suppressed ROS generation induced by 3-NP. Finally, ketones reversed the decreases in ATP levels caused by Rot and 3-NP. In summary, our data demonstrate that ketones can preserve synaptic function in CA1 hippocampus induced by MRC dysfunction, likely through an antioxidant action and enhanced ATP generation. PMID:20374433

  19. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (P<0.05) after multivariate adjustments including dietary intervention groups and baseline body weight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (P trend =0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (P trend =0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin

  20. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... anabolism, small molecules are changed into larger, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Catabolism (pronounced: kuh-TAB-uh- ... this process, cells break down large molecules (mostly carbohydrates and ... body to move. As complex chemical units are broken down into more simple ...

  1. Measures of body adiposity and visceral adiposity index as predictors of metabolic syndrome among Thai women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Techatraisak, Kitirat; Wongmeerit, Krissanee; Dangrat, Chongdee; Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Indhavivadhana, Suchada

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between measures of body adiposity and visceral adiposity index (VAI) and risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to identify the optimal cut-off points of each measurement in Thai polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A cross-sectional study was completed physical examination, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profiles of 399 PCOS and 42 age-matched normal controls. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and VAI were calculated. Associations between different measures and MS were evaluated and the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to determine appropriate cut-off points for identifying MS. Percentage of MS in PCOS was 24.6%, whereas none MS in controls. Previously recommended cut-off values for body adiposity and VAI were significantly associated with MS. ROC curve analysis of the only PCOS showed newly obtained optimal cut-off points for BMI and VAI of ≥28 kg/m(2) (AUC = 0.90) and >5.6 (AUC = 0.94), respectively. Values found to be more accurate than the original ones. VAI was the best predictor, followed by BMI and WHtR. All body adiposity and VAI parameters can predict the risk of MS. Optimal values for Thai PCOS were ≥28 kg/m(2) for BMI, ≥0.85 for WHR, ≥0.5 for WHtR and >5.6 for VAI.

  2. The human body metabolism process mathematical simulation based on Lotka-Volterra model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliynyk, Andriy; Oliynyk, Eugene; Pyptiuk, Olexandr; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Szatkowska, Małgorzata; Uvaysova, Svetlana; Kozbekova, Ainur

    2017-08-01

    The mathematical model of metabolism process in human organism based on Lotka-Volterra model has beeng proposed, considering healing regime, nutrition system, features of insulin and sugar fragmentation process in the organism. The numerical algorithm of the model using IV-order Runge-Kutta method has been realized. After the result of calculations the conclusions have been made, recommendations about using the modeling results have been showed, the vectors of the following researches are defined.

  3. Metabolic remodeling of substrate utilization during heart failure progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Song, Jiangping; Hu, Shengshou

    2018-05-23

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by a decline in cardiac systolic or diastolic function, which leaves the heart unable to pump enough blood to meet the normal physiological requirements of the human body. It is a serious disease burden worldwide affecting nearly 23 million patients. The concept that heart failure is "an engine out of fuel" has been generally accepted and metabolic remodeling has been recognized as an important aspect of this condition; it is characterized by defects in energy production and changes in metabolic pathways involved in the regulation of essential cellular functions such as the process of substrate utilization, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and high-energy phosphate metabolism. Advances in second-generation sequencing, proteomics, and metabolomics have made it possible to perform comprehensive tests on genes and metabolites that are crucial in the process of HF, thereby providing a clearer and comprehensive understanding of metabolic remodeling during HF. In recent years, new metabolic changes such as ketone bodies and branched-chain amino acids were demonstrated as alternative substrates in end-stage HF. This systematic review focuses on changes in metabolic substrate utilization during the progression of HF and the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Accordingly, the conventional concepts of metabolic remodeling characteristics are reviewed, and the latest developments, particularly multi-omics studies, are compiled.

  4. Potential Synergies of β-Hydroxybutyrate and Butyrate on the Modulation of Metabolism, Inflammation, Cognition, and General Health

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LCHFD), also known as the ketogenic diet, has cycled in and out of popularity for decades as a therapeutic program to treat metabolic syndrome, weight mismanagement, and drug-resistant disorders as complex as epilepsy, cancer, dementia, and depression. Despite the benefits of this diet, health care professionals still question its safety due to the elevated serum ketones it induces and the limited dietary fiber. To compound the controversy, patient compliance with the program is poor due to the restrictive nature of the diet and symptoms related to energy deficit and gastrointestinal adversity during the introductory and energy substrate transition phase of the diet. The studies presented here demonstrate safety and efficacy of the diet including the scientific support and rationale for the administration of exogenous ketone bodies and ketone sources as a complement to the restrictive dietary protocol or as an alternative to the diet. This review also highlights the synergy provided by exogenous ketone, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), accompanied by the short chain fatty acid, butyrate (BA) in the context of cellular and physiological outcomes. More work is needed to unveil the molecular mechanisms by which this program provides health benefits.

  5. Kinetic model of whole-body vanadium metabolism: studies in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.W.; Hansard, S.L. II; Ammerman, C.B.

    1986-08-01

    A compartmental model for vanadium metabolism in sheep has been proposed. The model is consistent with data obtained from sheep fed a control diet (2.6 ppm vanadium) containing 0 or 200 ppm supplemental vanadium. Sheep were administered UYV dioxovanadium either orally or intravenously. Blood feces, and urine radioactivity were monitored for 6 days postdosing. Several new insights regarding vanadium metabolism are suggested and tested against the data using the model. Some of these include 1) significant absorption of UYV occurs from the upper gastrointestinal tract; 2) an in vivo process is necessary in order for UYV dioxovanadium to be convertedmore » into a more biologically reactive species; 3) at steady state the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts contain at least 10- and 100-fold more mass of vanadium, respectively, than does blood. No statistically significant differences in transport rate constants were found between animals receiving 0 and 200 ppm supplemental dietary vanadium. The availability of a model will enable the refinement of future studies regarding vanadium metabolism in the ruminant.« less

  6. Adverse metabolic effects of a hypercaloric, high-fat diet in rodents precede observable changes in body weight.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah D; Pesarchuk, Eric; Don-Wauchope, Andrew; El Zimaity, Hala; Holloway, Alison C

    2011-09-01

    Although a high-fat diet (HFD) is recognized as an important contributor to obesity, human research is limited by confounders such as income, whereas animal research has typically examined diet during specific developmental periods rather than throughout the lifespan. We hypothesized that the use of an HFD in short-term studies as has been commonly done in animals does not adequately reflect the lifelong dietary patterns seen frequently in humans with consequent metabolic disturbances. We examined the impact of HFD from weaning until 39 weeks (middle age) on the metabolism of male rats. At 7, 26, and 39 weeks, glucose tolerance tests were performed, a subset of animals was euthanized, and serum and tissues were collected. After 4 weeks, preceding increased body weight, HFD animals had increased intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, and hyperglycemia. Hyperinsulinemia was insufficient to maintain normoglycemia, and beta cell mass and glucagon-like peptide 1 decreased over time in HFD and control animals. Despite lacking significant lipid abnormalities, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was evident by 39 weeks. Our HFD model demonstrated that significant metabolic abnormalities may go undetected by current standard screening such as weighing and biochemistry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomical and metabolic small-animal whole-body imaging using ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the wide use of animals for human disease studies, small animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose metabolic information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image coregistration, the spatial resolution of the metabolic imaging modality is not improved. We present a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT) system that can provide both assessments in a single modality. Utilizing the novel design of confocal full-ring light delivery and ultrasound transducer array detection, RC-PACT provides full-view cross-sectional imaging with high spatial resolution. Scanning along the orthogonal direction provides three-dimensional imaging. While the mouse anatomy was imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, the glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. Through mouse tumor models, we demonstrate that RC-PACT may be a paradigm shifting imaging method for preclinical research.

  8. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  9. Effect of environmental temperature on body temperature and metabolic heat production in a heterothermic rodent, Spermophilus tereticaudus.

    PubMed

    Wooden, K Mark; Walsberg, Glenn E

    2002-07-01

    This study quantifies the thermoregulatory ability and energetics of a mammal, the round-tailed ground squirrel Spermophilus tereticaudus, that can relax thermoregulatory limits without becoming inactive. We measured body temperature and metabolic rate in animals exposed for short periods (1 h) to air temperatures ranging from 10 to 45 degrees C and for long periods (8 h) to air temperatures ranging from 10 to 30 degrees C. Within 45 min of exposure to air temperatures ranging from 10 to 45 degrees C, the mean body temperatures of alert and responsive animals ranged from 32.1 degrees C (T(air)=10 degrees C) to 40.4 degrees C (T(air)=45 degrees C). This thermolability provided significant energetic savings below the thermoneutral zone, ranging from 0.63 W (18 %) at 10 degrees C to 0.43 W (43 %) at 30 degrees C. When exposed for 8 h to air temperatures between 10 and 30 degrees C, animals varied their body temperature significantly over time. At all air temperatures, the lowest body temperature (maintained for at least 1 h) was 31.2 degrees C. The highest body temperatures (maintained for at least 1 h) were 33.6 degrees C at 10 degrees C, 35.3 degrees C at 20 degrees C and 36.3 degrees C at 30 degrees C. The energetic savings realized by maintaining the minimum rather than the maximum body temperature was 0.80 W (25 %) at 10 degrees C, 0.71 W (33 %) at 20 degrees C and 0.40 W (47 %) at 30 degrees C. This study demonstrates in several ways the ability of this species to adjust energy expenditure through heterothermy.

  10. Functional electrical stimulation cycling improves body composition, metabolic and neural factors in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Griffin, L; Decker, M J; Hwang, J Y; Wang, B; Kitchen, K; Ding, Z; Ivy, J L

    2009-08-01

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at a heightened risk of developing type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct an analysis of metabolic, body composition, and neurological factors before and after 10 weeks of functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling in persons with SCI. Eighteen individuals with SCI received FES cycling 2-3 times per week for 10 weeks. Body composition was analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) neurological classification of SCI test battery was used to assess motor and sensory function. An oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and insulin-response test was performed to assess blood glucose control. Additional metabolic variables including plasma cholesterol (total-C, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglyceride, and inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CRP) were also measured. Total FES cycling power and work done increased with training. Lean muscle mass also increased, whereas, bone and adipose mass did not change. The ASIA motor and sensory scores for the lower extremity significantly increased with training. Blood glucose and insulin levels were lower following the OGTT after 10 weeks of training. Triglyceride levels did not change following training. However, levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CRP were all significantly reduced.

  11. Study of bone mineral metabolism. [during body immobilization, bed rest, and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    The use of Sr-85 as an indicator of the skeletal location and relative amount of bone demineralization which occurs during immobilization of the body or body parts, bed-rest or space flight was studied. The bone mineral replacement which occurs after immobilization was measured rather than the bone loss which occurs during immobilization. In a study with two adult beagle dogs, the Sr-85 uptake in a leg which had been immobilized for two months was 400 percent higher than the uptake in the legs in regular use. This increased uptake probably resulted from only a few percent loss in bone mineral and indicates that losses less than one percent can be easily detected and located. The sensitivity, simplicity, and low radiation dose associated with the use of this method indicates that it should receive consideration for use on humans in bed-rest and space flight studies. Methods for measuring changes in total body nitrogen and in assisting the Johnson Space Center in calibrating a whole body counter for total body potassium measurements were also investigated.

  12. Caloric restriction in lean and obese strains of laboratory rat: effects on body composition, metabolism, growth and overall health.

    PubMed

    Aydin, C; Jarema, K A; Phillips, P M; Gordon, C J

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improved longevity with caloric restriction (CR) in rodents. Little is known regarding effects of CR in genetically lean versus obese strains. Long-Evans (LE) and Brown Norway (BN) rats make an ideal comparison for a CR study because the percentage body fat of young adult LE rats is double that of BN rats. Male LE and BN rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or were calorically restricted to 80 or 90% of their AL weight. The percentages of fat, lean and fluid mass were measured non-invasively at 2- to 4-week intervals. Metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of CR. Overall health was scored monthly. The percentage of fat of the LE strain decreased with CR, whereas the percentage of fat of the BN strain remained above the AL group for several months. The percentage of lean mass increased above the AL for both strains subjected to CR. The percentage of fluid was unaffected by CR. The average metabolic rate over 22 h of the BN rats subjected to CR was reduced, whereas that of LE rats was increased slightly above the AL group. The respiratory quotient of BN rats was decreased with CR. Overall health of the CR LE group was significantly improved compared with that of the AL group, whereas health of the CR BN rats was impaired compared with the AL group. Overall, the lean BN and obese LE strains differ markedly in fat utilization and metabolic response to prolonged CR. There appears to be little benefit of CR in the lean strain. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Muslim bodybuilders often continue training during Ramadan. However, the effect of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders. Methods Sixteen men were allocated to two groups: Eight practicing resistance training in the late afternoon in a fasted state (FAST), and eight training in the late evening in an acutely fed state (FED) during Ramadan. All visited the laboratory in the morning two days before the start of Ramadan (Bef-R) and on the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R) for anthropometric measurement, completion of a dietary questionnaire, and provision of fasting blood and urine samples. Results Body mass and body fat percentage remained unchanged in FAST and FED during the whole period of the investigation. Both FAST and FED experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urine specific gravity (1%; p = 0.028, p = 0.004 respectively), serum concentrations of urea (4%, p = 0.006; 7%, p = 0.004 respectively), creatinine (5%, p = 0.015; 6%, p = 0.04 respectively), uric acid (17%; p < 0.001, p = 0.04 respectively), sodium (1%; p = 0.029, p = 0.019 respectively), chloride (2%; p = 0.039, p = 0.004 respectively), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11%, p = 0.04; 10%, p = 0.04 respectively). Conclusion Hypertrophic training in a fasted or in a fed state during Ramadan does not affect body mass and body composition of bodybuilders. Additionally, Ramadan fasting induced changes in urinary and some biochemical parameters, but these changes were not different according to when the training occurred. PMID:23617897

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (P<0.05), total cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels (P<0.01), BP, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001) decreased, whereas SHBG (P<0.001) and metabolic syndrome factors (P<0.01) improved in the exercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (P<0.05). Our findings indicate that aerobic exercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  15. [Analysis of body composition and resting metabolic rate of 858 middle-aged and elderly people in urban area of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Yu, D N; Xian, T Z; Wang, L J; Cheng, B; Sun, M X; Guo, L X

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To understand the overweight rate and obesity rate in middle-aged and elderly people in urban area of Beijing, and analyze the changes of body composition and resting metabolic rate with age. Methods: From November 2014 to December 2015, body composition measurement and resting metabolic rate detection were conducted among 858 people aged 51 to 99 years, including 760 men, 98 women, who received physical examination at Beijing Hospital. Results: The overweight rate was 51.4 % , and the obesity rate was 16.9 % . The overweight rate was 26.5 % and the obesity rate was 14.3 % in women, significantly lower than those in men (54.6 % and 17.2 % ) ( P <0.001). The distribution of skeletal muscle volume, muscle index, body fat percentage, visceral fat area and resting metabolic rate in different age groups were different ( P <0.001). In the normal weight group, the skeletal muscle volume, muscle index and resting metabolic rate in age group ≥80 years decreased obviously ( P <0.05). At the same time, the body fat percentage and visceral fat area increased obviously ( P <0.05). However, the skeletal muscle volume, muscle index and resting metabolic rate of the overweight and obese groups began to decrease obviously in age group 70- years ( P <0.05), and the decrease in age group ≥80 years was more obvious. At the same time, body fat percentage and visceral fat area increased significantly in age group 70- years ( P <0.05). Conclusion: The overweight and obesity rates were high in the middle-aged and elderly people in the urban area of Beijing, and the rates were higher in men than in women. With the increase of age, the skeletal muscle volume, muscle index and resting metabolic rate gradually decreased, while the percentage of body fat and visceral fat area increased; Overweight and obese people had earlier changes in body composition and resting metabolic rate.

  16. Effect of alternate energy substrates on mammalian brain metabolism during ischemic events.

    PubMed

    Koppaka, S S; Puchowicz; LaManna, J C; Gatica, J E

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of brain metabolism and cerebral blood flow involves complex control systems with several interacting variables at both cellular and organ levels. Quantitative understanding of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous brain control mechanisms during internal and external stimuli requires the development and validation of a computational (mathematical) model of metabolic processes in brain. This paper describes a computational model of cellular metabolism in blood-perfused brain tissue, which considers the astrocyte-neuron lactate-shuttle (ANLS) hypothesis. The model structure consists of neurons, astrocytes, extra-cellular space, and a surrounding capillary network. Each cell is further compartmentalized into cytosol and mitochondria. Inter-compartment interaction is accounted in the form of passive and carrier-mediated transport. Our model was validated against experimental data reported by Crumrine and LaManna, who studied the effect of ischemia and its recovery on various intra-cellular tissue substrates under standard diet conditions. The effect of ketone bodies on brain metabolism was also examined under ischemic conditions following cardiac resuscitation through our model simulations. The influence of ketone bodies on lactate dynamics on mammalian brain following ischemia is studied incorporating experimental data.

  17. Meal replacement based on Human Ration modulates metabolic risk factors during body weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alves, Natalia Elizabeth Galdino; Enes, Bárbara Nery; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha

    2014-04-01

    A meal replacement may be an effective strategy in the management of obesity to increase antioxidant intake, attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a new nutritional supplement to reduce metabolic risk parameters in obese women. In a randomized controlled crossover study (2 × 2), 22 women (percentage body fat 40.52 ± 3.75%; body mass index-BMI 28.72 ± 2.87 kg/m²; 35.04 ± 5.6 years old) were allocated into two treatments: hypocaloric diet and drink containing "Human Ration" (HR) consumption (CRHR), and hypocaloric diet and control drink consumption (CR). The study consisted of 2 periods of 5 weeks with 1 week of washout in two orders (CR → CRHR and CRHR → CR). Caloric restriction was 15%, based on estimated energy requirement. Anthropometric, clinical and metabolic risk parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of each period. Some metabolic risk factors were favorably modulated in both interventions: reduction in body weight (CR -0.74 ± 1.27 kg; p = 0.01; CRHR -0.77 ± 1.3 kg; p = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) (CR -0.27 ± 0.51 kg/m²; p = 0.02; CRHR -0.30 ± 0.52 kg/m²; p = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (CR -0.35 ± 0.82; p = 0.02, CRHR -0.41 ± 0.83; p = 0.03). However, CRHR reduced waist circumference (-2.54 ± 2.74 cm; p < 0.01) and gynoid fat (-0.264 ± 0.28 g; p < 0.01), and increased HDL-c levels (0.08 ± 0.15 mmol/l; p = 0.04). Associated with hypocaloric diet, the intake of a nutritional supplement rich in phytochemicals as a breakfast substitute for 5 weeks had no additional effect on weight reduction than caloric restriction alone, but increased central lipolysis and improved the lipoprotein profile.

  18. [Effects of growth hormone treatment on anthropometrics, metabolic risk, and body composition variables in small for gestational age patients].

    PubMed

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Olga; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children without catch-up growth can benefit from treatment with growth hormone (rhGH). However, they should be monitored very closely because they are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. A group of 28 SGA children with a mean age of 8.79 years and undergoing treatment with rhGH were selected for evaluation. Over the course of 4 years, an annual evaluation was performed on the anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], growth rate, blood pressure and waist perimeter), metabolic risk variables (glycaemia, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol ratio, insulinaemia, insulin-like growth factor 1[IGF1], IGF binding protein-3 [IGFBP-3], IGF1/IGFBP3 ratio, and HOMA index), and body composition variables. Treatment with rhGH was associated with a significant increase in height (-2.76±.11 SD to -1.53±.17 SD, P=.000), weight (-1.50±.09 SD to -1.21±.13 SD; P=.016), and growth rate (-1.43±.35 SD to .41±.41 SD; P=.009), without a corresponding change in the BMI. Insulinaemia (9.33±1.93mU/ml to 16.55±1.72mU/ml; P=.044) and the HOMA index (3.63±.76 to 6.43±.67; P=.042) increased, approaching insulin resistance levels. No changes were observed in the lipid profile. Body composition changes were observed, with a significant increase in lean mass (73.19±1.26 to 78.74±1.31; P=.037), and a reduction of fat mass (26.81±1.26 to 21.26±1.31; P=.021). Treatment with rhGH is effective for improving anthropometric variables in SGA patients who have not experienced a catch-up growth. It also produces changes in body composition, which may lead to a reduction in risk of metabolic syndrome. However, some insulin resistance was observed. It is important to follow up this patient group in order to find out whether these changes persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Adult Onset Global Loss of the Fto Gene Alters Body Composition and Metabolism in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Sara; Teboul, Lydia; Tung, Y. C. Loraine; Rimmington, Debra; Bosch, Fatima; Jimenez, Veronica; Yeo, Giles S. H.; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Coll, Anthony P.; Cox, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    The strongest BMI–associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake. PMID:23300482

  20. Ketones and lactate increase cancer cell “stemness”, driving recurrence, metastasis and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Lin, Zhao; Pavlides, Stephanos; Wang, Chengwang; Flomenberg, Neal; Knudsen, Erik S; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we showed that high-energy metabolites (lactate and ketones) “fuel” tumor growth and experimental metastasis in an in vivo xenograft model, most likely by driving oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in breast cancer cells. To mechanistically understand how these metabolites affect tumor cell behavior, here we used genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Human breast cancer cells (MCF7) were cultured with lactate or ketones, and then subjected to transcriptional analysis (exon-array). Interestingly, our results show that treatment with these high-energy metabolites increases the transcriptional expression of gene profiles normally associated with “stemness”, including genes upregulated in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, we observe that lactate and ketones promote the growth of bonafide ES cells, providing functional validation. The lactate- and ketone-induced “gene signatures” were able to predict poor clinical outcome (including recurrence and metastasis) in human breast cancer patients. Taken together, our results are consistent with the idea that lactate and ketone utilization in cancer cells promotes the “cancer stem cell” phenotype, resulting in significant decreases in patient survival. One possible mechanism by which high-energy metabolites might induce stemness is by increasing the pool of Acetyl-CoA, leading to increased histone acetylation and elevated gene expression. Thus, our results mechanistically imply that clinical outcome in breast cancer could simply be determined by epigenetics and energy metabolism, rather than by the accumulation of specific “classical” gene mutations. We also suggest that high-risk cancer patients (identified by the lactate/ketone gene signatures) could be treated with new therapeutics that target oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, such as the anti-oxidant and “mitochondrial poison” metformin. Finally, we propose that this new approach to personalized cancer medicine be termed

  1. Assessing and managing body condition score for the prevention of metabolic disease in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, John R; Kay, Jane K; Friggens, Nic C; Loor, Juan J; Berry, Donagh P

    2013-07-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is an assessment of a cow's body fat (and muscle) reserves, with low values reflecting emaciation and high values equating to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. The BCS at which a cow calves, her nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS lost after calving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Genetics, peripartum nutrition, and management are factors that likely interact with BCS to determine the risk of health disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The utility of fat mass index vs. body mass index and percentage of body fat in the screening of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Huiping; Liu, Yanping

    2013-07-03

    It has been well documented that obesity is closely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although body mass index (BMI) is the most frequently used method to assess overweightness and obesity, this method has been criticized because BMI does not always reflect true body fatness, which may be better evaluated by assessment of body fat and fat-free mass. The objective of this study was to investigate the best indicator to predict the presence of MetS among fat mass index, BMI and percentage of body fat (BF %) and determine its optimal cut-off value in the screening of MetS in practice. A cross-sectional study of 1698 subjects (aged 20-79 years) who participated in the annual health check-ups was employed. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Sex-specific FMI quartiles were defined as follows: Q1: <4.39, Q2:4.39- < 5.65, Q3:5.65- < 7.03, Q4:≥7.03,in men; and Q1:<5.25, Q2:5.25- < 6.33, Q3:6.33- < 7.93,Q4:≥7.93, in women. MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The association between FMI quartiles and MetS was assessed using Binary logistic regression. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cutoff points for BMI,BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity in men and women. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for the presence of MetS in the highest FMI quartile versus lowest quartile were 79.143(21.243-294.852) for men (P < 0.01) and 52.039(4.144-653.436) for women (P < 0.01) after adjusting age, BMI, BF%, TC, LDL, CRP, smoking status and exercise status, and the odds ratios were 9.166(2.157-38.952) for men (P < 0.01) and 25.574(1.945-336.228) for women (P < 0.05) when WC was also added into the adjustment. It was determined that BMI values of 27.45 and 23.85 kg/m2, BF% of 23.95% and 31.35% and FMI of 7.00 and 7.90 kg/m2 were the

  3. Ethanol exposure induces the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype and lethal tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Rubin, Emanuel; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how alcohol consumption promotes the onset of human breast cancer(s). One hypothesis is that ethanol induces metabolic changes in the tumor microenvironment, which then enhances epithelial tumor growth. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we used a co-culture system consisting of human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts. Here, we show that ethanol treatment (100 mM) promotes ROS production and oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts, which is sufficient to induce myofibroblastic differentiation. Oxidative stress in stromal fibroblasts also results in the onset of autophagy/mitophagy, driving the induction of ketone body production in the tumor microenvironment. Interestingly, ethanol has just the opposite effect in epithelial cancer cells, where it confers autophagy resistance, elevates mitochondrial biogenesis and induces key enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1/OXCT1). During co-culture, ethanol treatment also converts MCF7 cells from an ER(+) to an ER(-) status, which is thought to be associated with “stemness,” more aggressive behavior and a worse prognosis. Thus, ethanol treatment induces ketone production in cancer-associated fibroblasts and ketone re-utilization in epithelial cancer cells, fueling tumor cell growth via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS). This “two-compartment” metabolic model is consistent with previous historical observations that ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde (which induces oxidative stress) and then ultimately to acetyl-CoA (a high-energy mitochondrial fuel), or can be used to synthesize ketone bodies. As such, our results provide a novel mechanism by which alcohol consumption could metabolically convert “low-risk” breast cancer patients to “high-risk” status, explaining tumor recurrence or disease progression. Hence, our findings have clear implications for both breast cancer prevention and therapy. Remarkably, our results

  4. Effects of the administration of Lactobacilli on body growth and on the metabolic profile in growing Maltese goat kids.

    PubMed

    Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Liotta, Luigi; Chiofalo, Biagina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some lactobacilli on body growth and on the metabolic-nutritional status in growing goat kids. Twenty growing Maltese goat kids (10 Control and 10 Bios) were studied. The animals of the Bios group received a concentrate including 1 g x kg(-1) of SEB Bovino (spray-dried), Akron S.r.l., Italy, with non bacterial components: gum arabic, soybean meal, silicate alum of magnesium, and with bacterial components: 10(11) cfu kg(-1) each of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri. Monthly, bio-metric and weight evaluations were carried out on each animal and individual blood samples were taken. The Bios group showed the highest body weight (Control 19 vs. Bios 23 kg P < 0.001), anamorphosis (Control 71 vs. Bios 78 P < 0.05) and body proportion (Control 35 vs. Bios 41 P < 0.001) indices; the lowest levels of Non Esterified Fatty Acids (Control 0.778 vs. Bios 0.403 mmol L(-1) P < 0.001), triglycerides (Control 0.21 vs. Bios 0.18 mmol L(-1) P < 0.05), urea (Control 8.83 vs. Bios 7.65 mmol L(-1) P < 0.05) and the highest levels of Alkaline Phosphatase (Control 270 vs. Bios 851 U L(-1) P < 0.01) and Creatine Kinase (Control 173 vs. Bios 285 U L(-1) P < 0.01). The results testify to the better metabolic activity of the Bios group which achieved, at the end of the trial (7 months old), about 99% of the morphological development of the adult, therefore an adequate structure for mating and going into production within the first year of life.

  5. Ablation of the GNB3 gene in mice does not affect body weight, metabolism or blood pressure, but causes bradycardia

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yuanchao; Sun, Zhizeng; Guo, Ang; Song, Long-sheng; Grobe, Justin L.; Chen, Songhai

    2014-01-01

    G protein β3 (Gβ3) is an isoform of heterotrimeric G protein β subunits involved in transducing G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Polymorphisms in Gβ3 (GNB3) are associated with many human disorders (e.g. hypertension, diabetes and obesity) but the role of GNB3 in these pathogeneses remains unclear. Here, Gβ3-null mice (GNB3−/−) were characterized to determine how Gβ3 functions to regulate blood pressure, body weight and metabolism. We found Gβ3 expression restricted to limited types of tissues, including the retina, several regions of brain and heart ventricles. Gβ3-deficient mice were normal as judged by body weight gain by age or by feeding with high-fat diet (HFD); glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity; baseline blood pressure and angiotensin II infusion-induced hypertension. During tail-cuff blood pressure measurements, however, Gβ3-null mice had slower heart rates (~450 vs ~500 beats/min). This bradycardia was not observed in isolated and perfused Gβ3-null mouse hearts. Moreover, mouse hearts isolated from GNB3−/− and controls responded equivalently to muscarinic receptor- and β-adrenergic receptor-stimulated bradycardia and tachycardia, respectively. Since no difference was seen in isolated hearts, Gβ3 is unlikely to be involved directly in the GPCR signaling activity that controls heart pacemaker activity. These results demonstrate that although Gβ3 appears dispensable in mice for regulation of blood pressure, body weight and metabolic features associated with obesity and diabetes, Gβ3 may regulate heart rate. PMID:25093805

  6. Body composition, metabolism, sleep, psychological and eating patterns of overtraining syndrome: Results of the EROS study (EROS-PROFILE).

    PubMed

    Cadegiani, Flavio A; Kater, Claudio E

    2018-08-01

    Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0.004); increased duration of work or study (p < 0.001); decreased libido (p = 0.024); decreased calorie (p < 0.001), carbohydrate (p < 0.001) and protein (p < 0.001) intakes; decreased mood states (p < 0.001); decreased basal metabolic rate (p = 0.013) and fat burning (p < 0.001); increased body fat (p = 0.006); decreased muscle mass (p = 0.008); and decreased hydration (p < 0.001). Levels were similar between OTS and NCS, except for worsened fatigue (p < 0.001) and vigour (p = 0.001) in OTS. Reduced calorie intake, worsened sleep, and increased cognitive activity are likely OTS triggers. OTS appears to induce dehydration, increase body fat, decrease libido, and worsen mood.

  7. Molecular hydrogen affects body composition, metabolic profiles, and mitochondrial function in middle-aged overweight women.

    PubMed

    Korovljev, D; Trivic, T; Drid, P; Ostojic, S M

    2018-02-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) effectively treats obesity-related disorders in animal models, yet no studies have investigated the effectiveness and safety of H 2 for improving biomarkers of obesity in humans. In this double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial, we evaluated the effects of H 2 intervention on body composition, hormonal status, and mitochondrial function in ten (n = 10) middle-aged overweight women. Volunteers received either hydrogen-generating minerals (supplying ~6 ppm of H 2 per day) or placebo by oral administration of caplets for 4 weeks. The primary end-point of treatment efficacy was the change in the body fat percentage from baseline to 4 weeks. In addition, assessment of other body composition indices, screening laboratory studies, and evaluation of side effects were performed before and at follow-up. Clinical trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov , ID number NCT02832219. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups for changes in weight, body mass index, and body circumferences at 4-week follow-up (P > 0.05). H 2 treatment significantly reduced body fat percentage (3.2 vs. 0.9%, P = 0.05) and arm fat index (9.7 vs. 6.0%, P = 0.01) compared to placebo administration, respectively. This was accompanied by a significant drop in serum triglycerides after H 2 intervention comparing to placebo (21.3 vs. 6.5%; P = 0.04), while other blood lipids remained stable during the study (P > 0.05). Fasting serum insulin levels dropped by 5.4% after H 2 administration, while placebo intervention augmented insulin response by 29.3% (P = 0.01). It appears that orally administered H 2 as a blend of hydrogen-generating minerals might be a beneficial agent in the management of body composition and insulin resistance in obesity.

  8. Proandrogenic and Antiandrogenic Progestins in Transgender Youth: Differential Effects on Body Composition and Bone Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tack, Lloyd J W; Craen, Margarita; Lapauw, Bruno; Goemaere, Stefan; Toye, Kaatje; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vandewalle, Sara; T'Sjoen, Guy; Zmierczak, Hans-Georg; Cools, Martine

    2018-06-01

    Progestins can be used to attenuate endogenous hormonal effects in late-pubertal transgender (trans) adolescents (Tanner stage B4/5 and G4/5). Currently, no data are available on the effects of progestins on the development of bone mass or body composition in trans youth. To study prospectively the evolution of body composition and bone mass in late-pubertal trans adolescents using the proandrogenic or antiandrogenic progestins lynestrenol (L) and cyproterone acetate (CA), respectively. Forty-four trans boys (Tanner B4/5) and 21 trans girls (Tanner G4/5) were treated with L or CA for 11.6 (4 to 40) and 10.6 (5 to 31) months, respectively. Anthropometry, grip strength, body composition, and bone mass, size, and density were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography before the start of progestin and before addition of cross-sex hormones. Using L, lean mass [+3.2 kg (8.6%)] and grip strength [+3 kg (10.6%)] significantly increased, which coincided with a more masculine body shape in trans boys. Trans girls showed loss of lean mass [-2.2 kg (4.7%)], gain of fat mass [+1.5 kg (9.4%)], and decreased grip strength Z scores. CA limited normal bone expansion and impeded pubertal bone mass accrual, mostly at the lumbar spine [Z score: -0.765 to -1.145 (P = 0.002)]. L did not affect physiological bone development. Proandrogenic and antiandrogenic progestins induce body composition changes in line with the desired appearance within 1 year of treatment. Bone health, especially at the lumbar spine, is of concern in trans girls, as bone mass accrual is severely affected by androgen suppressive therapy.

  9. High salt intake reprioritizes osmolyte and energy metabolism for body fluid conservation.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Kento; Daub, Steffen; Zhang, Yahua; Klein, Janet D; Nakano, Daisuke; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Lantier, Louise; LaRocque, Lauren M; Marton, Adriana; Neubert, Patrick; Schröder, Agnes; Rakova, Natalia; Jantsch, Jonathan; Dikalova, Anna E; Dikalov, Sergey I; Harrison, David G; Müller, Dominik N; Nishiyama, Akira; Rauh, Manfred; Harris, Raymond C; Luft, Friedrich C; Wassermann, David H; Sands, Jeff M; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake. We observed that the renal concentration mechanism couples natriuresis with correspondent renal water reabsorption, limits natriuretic osmotic diuresis, and results in concurrent extracellular volume conservation and concentration of salt excreted into urine. This water-conserving mechanism of dietary salt excretion relies on urea transporter-driven urea recycling by the kidneys and on urea production by liver and skeletal muscle. The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. This natriuretic-ureotelic, water-conserving principle relies on metabolism-driven extracellular volume control and is regulated by concerted liver, muscle, and renal actions.

  10. High salt intake reprioritizes osmolyte and energy metabolism for body fluid conservation

    PubMed Central

    Kitada, Kento; Daub, Steffen; Zhang, Yahua; Klein, Janet D.; Nakano, Daisuke; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Lantier, Louise; LaRocque, Lauren M.; Marton, Adriana; Neubert, Patrick; Schröder, Agnes; Rakova, Natalia; Jantsch, Jonathan; Dikalova, Anna E.; Dikalov, Sergey I.; Harrison, David G.; Müller, Dominik N.; Nishiyama, Akira; Rauh, Manfred; Harris, Raymond C.; Luft, Friedrich C.; Wasserman, David H.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2017-01-01

    Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake. We observed that the renal concentration mechanism couples natriuresis with correspondent renal water reabsorption, limits natriuretic osmotic diuresis, and results in concurrent extracellular volume conservation and concentration of salt excreted into urine. This water-conserving mechanism of dietary salt excretion relies on urea transporter–driven urea recycling by the kidneys and on urea production by liver and skeletal muscle. The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. This natriuretic-ureotelic, water-conserving principle relies on metabolism-driven extracellular volume control and is regulated by concerted liver, muscle, and renal actions. PMID:28414295

  11. Metabolic imaging in obesity: underlying mechanisms and consequences in the whole body.

    PubMed

    Iozzo, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a phenotype resulting from a series of causative factors with a variable risk of complications. Etiologic diversity requires personalized prevention and treatment. Imaging procedures offer the potential to investigate the interplay between organs and pathways underlying energy intake and consumption in an integrated manner, and may open the perspective to classify and treat obesity according to causative mechanisms. This review illustrates the contribution provided by imaging studies to the understanding of human obesity, starting with the regulation of food intake and intestinal metabolism, followed by the role of adipose tissue in storing, releasing, and utilizing substrates, including the interconversion of white and brown fat, and concluding with the examination of imaging risk indicators related to complications, including type 2 diabetes, liver pathologies, cardiac and kidney diseases, and sleep disorders. The imaging modalities include (1) positron emission tomography to quantify organ-specific perfusion and substrate metabolism; (2) computed tomography to assess tissue density as an indicator of fat content and browning/ whitening; (3) ultrasounds to examine liver steatosis, stiffness, and inflammation; and (4) magnetic resonance techniques to assess blood oxygenation levels in the brain, liver stiffness, and metabolite contents (triglycerides, fatty acids, glucose, phosphocreatine, ATP, and acetylcarnitine) in a variety of organs. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Lundy, Bronwen; Rogers, Margot A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Halson, Shona; McKune, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a “Baseline” week (100% of regular training load), a “Build” week (~120% of Baseline load), two “Loading” weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two “Recovery” weeks (~80% of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. Results The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = <0.001), body mass (F(2,19.242) = 4.3362, p = 0.03), fat mass (F(2,20.35) = 56.2494, p = <0.001) and HRV (F(2,22.608) = 6.5212, p = 0.005); all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87) = 8.2622, p = <0.001), aerobic performance (F(5,118.26) = 2.766, p = 0.02) and increase in total mood disturbance (F(5, 110.61) = 8.1159, p = <0.001). Conclusion Intensified training periods elicit greater energy demands in trained cyclists, which, if not sufficiently compensated with increased dietary intake, appears to provoke a cascade of metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in an attempt to restore homeostasis

  13. Three-body system metaphor for the two-slit experiment and Escherichia coli lactose-glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanari; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2016-05-28

    We compare the contextual probabilistic structures of the seminal two-slit experiment (quantum interference experiment), the system of three interacting bodies andEscherichia colilactose-glucose metabolism. We show that they have the same non-Kolmogorov probabilistic structure resulting from multi-contextuality. There are plenty of statistical data with non-Kolmogorov features; in particular, the probabilistic behaviour of neither quantum nor biological systems can be described classically. Biological systems (even cells and proteins) are macroscopic systems and one may try to present a more detailed model of interactions in such systems that lead to quantum-like probabilistic behaviour. The system of interactions between three bodies is one of the simplest metaphoric examples for such interactions. By proceeding further in this way (by playing withn-body systems) we shall be able to find metaphoric mechanical models for complex bio-interactions, e.g. signalling between cells, leading to non-Kolmogorov probabilistic data. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels.

    PubMed

    Goh, Ee-Been; Baidoo, Edward E K; Keasling, Jay D; Beller, Harry R

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered Escherichia coli to overproduce saturated and monounsaturated aliphatic methyl ketones in the C₁₁ to C₁₅ (diesel) range; this group of methyl ketones includes 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, which are of importance to the flavor and fragrance industry and also have favorable cetane numbers (as we report here). We describe specific improvements that resulted in a 700-fold enhancement in methyl ketone titer relative to that of a fatty acid-overproducing E. coli strain, including the following: (i) overproduction of β-ketoacyl coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters achieved by modification of the β-oxidation pathway (specifically, overexpression of a heterologous acyl-CoA oxidase and native FadB and chromosomal deletion of fadA) and (ii) overexpression of a native thioesterase (FadM). FadM was previously associated with oleic acid degradation, not methyl ketone synthesis, but outperformed a recently identified methyl ketone synthase (Solanum habrochaites MKS2 [ShMKS2], a thioesterase from wild tomato) in β-ketoacyl-CoA-overproducing strains tested. Whole-genome transcriptional (microarray) studies led to the discovery that FadM is a valuable catalyst for enhancing methyl ketone production. The use of a two-phase system with decane enhanced methyl ketone production by 4- to 7-fold in addition to increases from genetic modifications.

  15. Ketone EC50 values in the Microtox test.

    PubMed

    Chen, H F; Hee, S S

    1995-03-01

    The Microtox EC50 values for the following ketones are reported in the following homologous series: straight chain methyl ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-hepatonone, 2-octanone, 2-decanone, and 2-tridecanone); methyl ketones substituted at one alpha carbon (3-methyl-2-butanone; 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone); methyl substituted at two alpha carbons (2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-pentanone); phenyl groups replacing methyl in acetone (acetophenone; benzophenone); methyl groups substituted at the alpha carbons of cyclohexanone; and 2,3- 2,4-, and 2,5-hexanediones, most for the first time. While there were linear relationships between log EC50 and MW for the straight chain methyl ketones, and for methyl substitution at the alpha carbon for methyl ketones, there were no other linear relationships. As molecular weight increased, the EC50 values of soluble ketones decreased; as distance between two carbonyl groups decreased so too did EC50 values. Thus, for the ketones the geometry around the carbonyl group is an important determinant of toxicity as well as MW, water solubility, and octanol/water coefficient.

  16. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M.; Bonfleur, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca2+ mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats. PMID:25714886

  17. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Lubaczeuski, C; Balbo, S L; Ribeiro, R A; Vettorazzi, J F; Santos-Silva, J C; Carneiro, E M; Bonfleur, M L

    2015-05-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca(2+) mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  18. Metabolic stability of new anticonvulsants in body fluids and organ homogenates.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Dorota; Goldnik, Anna; Pluciński, Franciszek; Mazurek, Aleksander P; Jakubiak, Anna; Lis, Ewa; Tazbir, Piotr; Koziorowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The stability as a function of time of compounds with established anticonvulsant activity: picolinic acid benzylamide (Pic-BZA), picolinic acid 2-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-2-F-BZA), picolinic acid 3-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-3-F-BZA), picolinic acid 4-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-4-F-BZA) and picolinic acid 2-methylbenzylamide (Pic-2-Me-BZA) in body fluids and homogenates of body organs were determined after incubation. It was found that they decompose relatively rapidly in liver and kidney and are stable against enzymes present in body fluids and some organs. These results are consistent with the bond strength expressed as total energy of amide bonds (calculated by quantum chemical methods) in the studied anticonvulsants. The calculated values of the amide bond energy are: 199.4 kcal/mol, 200.2 kcal/mol, 207.5 kcal/mol, 208.4 kcal/mol and 198.2 kcal/mol, respectively. The strength of the amide bonds in the studied anticonvulsants correctly reflects their stability in liver or kidney.

  19. Metabolic changes in serum metabolome in response to a meal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Aahana; Müllner, Elisabeth; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Moazzami, Ali A

    2017-03-01

    The change in serum metabolic response from fasting state to postprandial state provides novel insights into the impact of a single meal on human metabolism. Therefore, this study explored changes in serum metabolite profile after a single meal. Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. They received a meal consisting of refined wheat bread (50 g carbohydrates, 9 g protein, 4.2 g fat and 2.7 g dietary fibre), 40 g cucumber and 300 mL noncaloric orange drink. Blood samples were collected at fasting and five postprandial time points. Metabolic profile was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Changes over time were assessed with multivariate models and ANOVA, with baseline as control. The metabolomic analyses demonstrated alterations in phospholipids, amino acids and their breakdown products, glycolytic products, acylcarnitines and ketone bodies after a single meal. More specifically, phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and citrate displayed an overall declining pattern, while leucine, isoleucine, methionine and succinate increased initially but declined thereafter. A sharp decline in acylcarnitines and ketone bodies and increase in glycolytic products postprandially suggest a switch in the body's energy source from β-oxidation to glycolysis. Moreover, individuals with relatively high postprandial insulin responses generated a higher postprandial leucine responses compared to participants with lower insulin responses. The study demonstrated complex changes from catabolic to anabolic metabolism after a meal and indicated that the extent of postprandial responses is different between individuals with high and low insulin response.

  20. Direct α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols in water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoqiang; Li, Qiong; Feng, Jiange; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Zuojun; Wang, Xicheng; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Mu, Xindong

    2014-01-01

    The direct α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols has emerged as a new green protocol to construct C-C bonds with H2 O as the sole byproduct. In this work, a very simple and convenient Pd/C catalytic system for the direct α-alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols in pure water is developed. Based on this catalytic system, aqueous mixtures of dilute acetone, 1-butanol, and ethanol (mimicking ABE fermentation products) can be directly transformed into C5 -C11 or longer-chain ketones and alcohols, which are precursors to fuels. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Group III/IV muscle afferents limit the intramuscular metabolic perturbation during whole body exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, Tyler S.; Sidhu, Simranjit K.; Weavil, Joshua C.; Hureau, Thomas J.; Jessop, Jacob E.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Richardson, Russell S.; Amann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Key points The purpose of this study was to determine the role of group III/IV muscle afferents in limiting the endurance exercise‐induced metabolic perturbation assayed in muscle biopsy samples taken from locomotor muscle.Lumbar intrathecal fentanyl was used to attenuate the central projection of μ‐opioid receptor‐sensitive locomotor muscle afferents during a 5 km cycling time trial.The findings suggest that the central projection of group III/IV muscle afferent feedback constrains voluntary neural ‘drive’ to working locomotor muscle and limits the exercise‐induced intramuscular metabolic perturbation.Therefore, the CNS might regulate the degree of metabolic perturbation within locomotor muscle and thereby limit peripheral fatigue. It appears that the group III/IV muscle afferents are an important neural link in this regulatory mechanism, which probably serves to protect locomotor muscle from the potentially severe functional impairment as a consequence of severe intramuscular metabolic disturbance. Abstract To investigate the role of metabo‐ and mechanosensitive group III/IV muscle afferents in limiting the intramuscular metabolic perturbation during whole body endurance exercise, eight subjects performed 5 km cycling time trials under control conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing lower limb muscle afferent feedback (FENT). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after exercise. Motoneuronal output was estimated through vastus lateralis surface electromyography (EMG). Exercise‐induced changes in intramuscular metabolites were determined using liquid and gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry. Quadriceps fatigue was quantified by pre‐ to post‐exercise changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch torque (ΔQTsingle) evoked by electrical femoral nerve stimulation. Although motoneuronal output was 21 ± 12% higher during FENT compared to CTRL (P < 0.05), time to complete the time trial

  2. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  3. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

  4. Velocity, aerobic power and metabolic cost of whole body and arms only front crawl swimming at various stroke rates.

    PubMed

    Morris, Kirstin S; Osborne, Mark A; Shephard, Megan E; Skinner, Tina L; Jenkins, David G

    2016-05-01

    Stroke rate (SR) has not been considered in previous research examining the relative roles of the limbs in front-crawl performance. This study compared velocity, aerobic power ([Formula: see text]) and metabolic cost (C) between whole body (WB) and arms only (AO) front-crawl swimming across various intensities while controlling SR. Twenty Australian national swimmers performed six 200 m front-crawl efforts under two conditions: (1) WB swimming and, (2) AO swimming. Participants completed the 200 m trials under three SR conditions: "low" (22-26 stroke-cycles min(-1)), "moderate" (30-34 stroke-cycles min(-1) and "high" (38-42 stroke-cycles min(-1)). [Formula: see text] was continuously measured, with C, velocity, SR, and kick rate calculated for each effort. Regardless of the SR condition and sex, AO velocity was consistently lower than WB velocity by ~11.0 % (p < 0.01). AO [Formula: see text] was lower than WB [Formula: see text] at all SR conditions for females (p < 0.01) and at the "high" SR for males (p < 0.01). C did not differ between WB and AO at any SR for both sexes (p > 0.01). When C was expressed as a function of velocity, WB and AO regression equations differed for males (p = 0.01) but not for females (p = 0.087). Kick rate increased as SR increased (p < 0.01), though the kick-to-stroke rate ratio remained constant. Elite swimmers gain ~11 % in velocity from their kick and, when used in conjunction with the arm stroke at the swimmers' preferred frequency, the metabolic cost of WB and AO swimming is the same. Coaches should consider these results when prescribing AO sets if their intention is to reduce the metabolic load.

  5. Effect of Breathwalk on body composition, metabolic and mood state in chronic hepatitis C patients with insulin resistance syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Vandyck, M; Roman, S; Vázquez, JL; Huacuja, L; Khalsa, G; Troyo-Sanromán, R; Panduro, A

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To identify the anthropometric, metabolic and mood state in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients from the west of Mexico and to evaluate the effect of Breathwalk (BW), a combination of walking, synchronized breathing and focussed attention, on those patients. METHODS: In an experimental study, 17 patients with serological and molecular diagnosis of HCV, not receiving pharmacological treatment, were studied. One hour sessions of BW were practiced 3 times at week for six months. Body composition was assessed by electric impedance. Biochemical profiles and insulin resistance (IR) risk was assessed by conventional methods. Mood state was evaluated with specific and open questions at the beginning and at the end of the program. RESULTS: Seventy percent of patients were overweight or obese, and 77% of the patients presented with IR at the beginning of the study. Improvements were observed at the 3rd mo, and statistically significant differences were recorded at the 6th mo using the fitness score (76 vs 83, P < 0.01), in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (106 ± 93 U/L vs 59 ± 32 U/L, P < 0.01), total bilirubin (0.09 ± 1 mg/dL vs 0.62 ± 0.2 mg/dL, P < 0.01), ALT/AST ratio (1.04 vs 0.70, P < 0.01), triglycerides (165 ±86 mg/dL vs 124 ± 49 mg/dL, P < 0.01) and the IR risk (4.0 vs 2.7). Most patients (88%) indicated to feel better at the end of BW (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Breathwalk has an important effect on body composition, lipid profile and liver enzymes. It is also easy, inexpensive and has a beneficial effect on metabolic and mood state in HCV patients. PMID:18069762

  6. Weight, body condition, milk production, and metabolism of Nellore cows when their calves are submitted to different supplementation levels.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Aline; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; da Silva Amorim, Lincoln; Detmann, Edenio; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; de Souza Duarte, Márcio; Henrique de Moura, Felipe; Prímola de Melo, Luciano; Henrique Silva E Paiva, Paulo; Manso, Marcos Rocha; Valério de Carvalho, Victor

    2017-02-01

    Creep feeding has been used to reduce calves' nutritional dependence on the cow, but research results under tropical conditions have not been conclusive about the effects on the cow. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high and low supplementation levels for Nellore heifer calves on performance, milk production, and metabolic profile of their mothers. Fifty multiparous Nellore cows and their respective calves were used. The following treatments were evaluated: 0-control, no supplement was fed to calves; 3-calves received supplement in the amount of 3 g/kg of body weight (BW); 6-calves received supplement in the amount of 6 g/kg of BW. There was no significant effect of level of supplementation offered to offspring on cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and subcutaneous fat thickness (P > 0.05). Level of supplementation of heifer calves did not significantly affect milk production corrected to 4% of fat (P > 0.05). Fat, protein, lactose, and total solids of the milk also did not differ among supplementation strategies (P > 0.05). Level of supplement fed to calves had no effect on cows' glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, total protein, and albumin levels (P > 0.05), but cows nursing calves that did not receive supplement had lower level of serum urea N (SUN; P < 0.05). We conclude that creep feeding in the amounts of 3 or 6 g/kg of BW daily has no major impact on dams' performance and metabolism.

  7. Amino Acid-based Formula in Cow's Milk Allergy: Long-term Effects on Body Growth and Protein Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Nocerino, Rita; Frediani, Tullio; Lucarelli, Sandra; Di Scala, Carmen; Varin, Elena; Leone, Ludovica; Muraro, Antonella; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    The long-term effects of amino acid-based formula (AAF) in the treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA) are largely unexplored. The present study comparatively evaluates body growth and protein metabolism in CMA children treated with AAF or with extensively hydrolyzed whey formula (eHWF), and healthy controls. A 12-month multicenter randomized control trial was conducted in outpatients with CMA (age 5-12 m) randomized in 2 groups, treated with AAF (group 1) and eHWF (group 2), and compared with healthy controls (group 3) fed with follow-on (if age <12 months) or growing-up formula (if age >12 months). At enrolment (T0), after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), and 12 months (T12) a clinical evaluation was performed. At T0 and T3, in subjects with CMA serum levels of albumin, urea, total protein, retinol-binding protein, and insulin-like growth factor 1 were measured. Twenty-one subjects in group 1 (61.9% boys, age 6.5 ± 1.5 months), 19 in group 2 (57.9% boys, age 7 ± 1.7 months) and 25 subjects in group 3 (48% boys, age 5.5 ± 0.5 months) completed the study. At T0, the weight z score was similar in group 1 (-0.74) and 2 (-0.76), with differences compared to group 3 (-0.17, P < 0.05). At T12, the weight z score value was similar between the 3 groups without significant differences. There were no significant changes in protein metabolism in children in groups 1 and 2. Long-term treatment with AAF is safe and allows adequate body growth in children with CMA.

  8. Effects of coconut oil consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat.

    PubMed

    Valente, Flávia Xavier; Cândido, Flávia Galvão; Lopes, Lílian Lelis; Dias, Desirrê Morais; Carvalho, Samantha Dalbosco Lins; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Bressan, Josefina

    2018-06-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a medium-chain fatty acid source with popularly attributed benefits on obesity management. However, its role on obesity requires elucidation due to its saturated nature. In the study herein, we investigated acute effects of VCO consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat. Fifteen adult women with excess body fat (37.43 ± 0.83%) participated in this randomized, crossover, controlled study. Two isocaloric mixed breakfasts containing 25 mL of VCO or control (extra-virgin olive oil-C) were evaluated. Resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation rate (FOR), diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) and appetitive subjective responses were assessed at fasting and postprandial periods (up to 240 min). Cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed at fasting and up to 180 min postprandially. VCO did not affect REE, FOR, and DIT compared to C. In addition, VCO did not cause deleterious change in triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides/HDL-c ratio, uric acid, glucose and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR) (P time×treatment  > 0.05). However, VCO suppressed less hunger (P time×treatment  = 0.003), total satiety (P iAUC  = 0.021) and total fullness (P iAUC  = 0.035) responses than C. VCO consumption did not acutely change energy metabolism and cardiometabolic risk markers when added to a mixed breakfast but promoted less appetitive responses.

  9. Fetal Programming of Body Composition, Obesity, and Metabolic Function: The Role of Intrauterine Stress and Stress Biology

    PubMed Central

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Swanson, James M.; Cooper, Dan M.; Wing, Deborah A.; Waffarn, Feizal; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, physiological, cellular, and molecular evidence suggests that the origins of obesity and metabolic dysfunction can be traced back to intrauterine life and supports an important role for maternal nutrition prior to and during gestation in fetal programming. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms is an area of interest and intense investigation. In this perspectives paper we propose that in addition to maternal nutrition-related processes it may be important to concurrently consider the potential role of intrauterine stress and stress biology. We frame our arguments in the larger context of an evolutionary-developmental perspective that supports roles for both nutrition and stress as key environmental conditions driving natural selection and developmental plasticity. We suggest that intrauterine stress exposure may interact with the nutritional milieu, and that stress biology may represent an underlying mechanism mediating the effects of diverse intrauterine perturbations, including but not limited to maternal nutritional insults (undernutrition and overnutrition), on brain and peripheral targets of programming of body composition, energy balance homeostasis, and metabolic function. We discuss putative maternal-placental-fetal endocrine and immune/inflammatory candidate mechanisms that may underlie the long-term effects of intrauterine stress. We conclude with a commentary of the implications for future research and clinical practice. PMID:22655178

  10. Continuous metabolic syndrome risk score, body mass index percentile, and leisure time physical activity in American children.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Ike S; Boltri, John M; Lyn, Rodney; Davis-Smith, Monique

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine independent and joint association of body mass index (BMI) percentile and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) risk score in 12- to 17-year-old American children. The 2003 to 2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were used for this investigation. LTPA was determined by self-report. cMetS risk score was calculated using standardized residuals of arterial blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose, waist circumference, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate association of BMI percentile and LTPA with cMetS risk score, adjusting for confounders. Increased BMI percentile and LTPA were each associated with increased and decreased cMetS risk score, respectively ((P<.01). There was a gradient of increasing cMetS risk score by BMI percentile cutpoints, from healthy weight (-0.77) to overweight (3.43) and obesity (6.40) ((P<.05). A gradient of decreasing cMetS risk score from sedentary (0.88) to moderate (0.17) and vigorous (-0.42) LTPA levels was also observed (P<.01). The result of this study suggests that promoting LTPA at all levels of weight status may help to reverse the increasing trends of metabolic syndrome in US children. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. GSK-3β Function in Bone Regulates Skeletal Development, Whole-Body Metabolism, and Male Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J. R.; Bush, J. R.; Bell, G. I.; Aubrey, L. A.; Dupuis, H.; Ferron, M.; Kream, B.; DiMattia, G.; Patel, S.; Woodgett, J. R.; Karsenty, G.; Hess, D. A.; Beier, F.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) is an essential negative regulator or “brake” on many anabolic-signaling pathways including Wnt and insulin. Global deletion of GSK-3β results in peri-natal lethality and various skeletal defects. The goal of our research was to determine GSK-3β cell-autonomous effects and postnatal roles in the skeleton. We used the 3.6-kb Col1a1 promoter to inactivate the Gsk3b gene (Col1a1-Gsk3b knockout) in skeletal cells. Mutant mice exhibit decreased body fat and postnatal bone growth, as well as delayed development of several skeletal elements. Surprisingly, the mutant mice display decreased circulating glucose and insulin levels despite normal expression of GSK-3β in metabolic tissues. We showed that these effects are due to an increase in global insulin sensitivity. Most of the male mutant mice died after weaning. Prior to death, blood glucose changed from low to high, suggesting a possible switch from insulin sensitivity to resistance. These male mice die with extremely large bladders that are preceded by damage to the urogenital tract, defects that are also seen type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest that skeletal-specific deletion of GSK-3β affects global metabolism and sensitizes male mice to developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:23904355

  12. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women--waist circumference more strongly related than body mass index.

    PubMed

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, R P; Veenhouwer, J F; Grobbee, D E

    2002-08-01

    To examine the association between measures of obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated black female hypertensive subjects. Cross-sectional study. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Women with hypertension and without known diabetes mellitus or secondary causes of hypertension. In total 124 women participated, with a mean age of 56.9 years (standard deviation (SD) 11.0) and mean body mass index (BMI) of 34.1 kg/m2 (SD 8.1). Blood pressure, glucose, insulin and lipid levels. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were more strongly associated with insulin, uric acid, glucose and triglycerides than was BMI. Statistically significant associations were found between waist circumference and low high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol (standardised regression coefficient -0.006, standard error of the mean (SEM) 0.002), log triglycerides (0.007, SEM 0.003), uric acid (0.002, SEM 0.001) and log insulin (0.012, SEM 0.003). BMI was only significantly associated with uric acid (0.002, SEM 0.002) and log insulin (0.009, SEM 0.004). In a group of black hypertensive women measures of central obesity were more strongly associated with components of the metabolic syndrome than BMI.

  13. Metabolic expenditures of lunge feeding rorquals across scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Jean; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Shadwick, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti) and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals), the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting individual prey

  14. Metabolic Expenditures of Lunge Feeding Rorquals Across Scale: Implications for the Evolution of Filter Feeding and the Limits to Maximum Body Size

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Jean; Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Shadwick, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti) and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals), the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half . These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting individual prey items to

  15. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  16. Mauna Kea III: Metabolic Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Supplementation During Exercise at 4100 M Altitude.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    not significantly altered by altitude or diet. B-hydroxybutyrate was measured in urine and serum as an index of ketosis . Uzine B-hydroxybutyrate in 24...h urine samples is shown in Table 6. In general, Urin B-ydrxybtyrae i 24h uine10 44~ -W the incidence of ketosis was markedly less in the EX + CHO...Ketone body metabolism in ketosis of starvation and alloxan diabetes. J. Biol. Chem. 245:4382-4390, 1970. 22. NORTON, A.C. Development and testing of a

  17. Associations among serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R; Olsen, Jesse R; Jeffress, Erin J; Moore, Dale A; Kastelic, John P

    2013-11-09

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions. Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body condition was monitored for all cows weekly for 7 weeks post calving; cows with uterine inflammatory conditions were also re-evaluated 2 weeks later. Blood samples were collected from 1 week prior to calving to 7 weeks after calving for determination of serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1. Cows with metritis or clinical endometritis had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 compared to normal cows (P < 0.05). Furthermore, serum leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 were higher in cows with subclinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P < 0.05), and insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were lower in cows with metritis or clinical endometritis. Cows with low BCS (2 and 2.5) had significantly higher adiponectin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 than those with high BCS (3 to 4). Cows with persistent uterine inflammatory conditions had higher adiponectin, leptin TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and insulin compared to normal and spontaneously recovered cows, except for IGF-1 (P < 0.05). Serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin

  18. Associations among serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions. Methods Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body c