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Sample records for ketone reducing biocatalysts

  1. Engineering Cofactor Preference of Ketone Reducing Biocatalysts: A Mutagenesis Study on a γ-Diketone Reductase from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Serving as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Katzberg, Michael; Skorupa-Parachin, Nàdia; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie-Françoise; Bertau, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of pharmaceuticals and catalysts more and more relies on enantiopure chiral building blocks. These can be produced in an environmentally benign and efficient way via bioreduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by dehydrogenases. A productive source of these biocatalysts is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose genome also encodes a reductase catalyzing the sequential reduction of the γ-diketone 2,5-hexanedione furnishing the diol (2S,5S)-hexanediol and the γ-hydroxyketone (5S)-hydroxy-2-hexanone in high enantio- as well as diastereoselectivity (ee and de >99.5%). This enzyme prefers NADPH as the hydrogen donating cofactor. As NADH is more stable and cheaper than NADPH it would be more effective if NADH could be used in cell-free bioreduction systems. To achieve this, the cofactor binding site of the dehydrogenase was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the rational approach based on a homology model of the enzyme allowed us to generate a mutant enzyme having a relaxed cofactor preference and thus is able to use both NADPH and NADH. Results obtained from other mutants are discussed and point towards the limits of rationally designed mutants. PMID:20480039

  2. Engineering cofactor preference of ketone reducing biocatalysts: A mutagenesis study on a γ-diketone reductase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serving as an example.

    PubMed

    Katzberg, Michael; Skorupa-Parachin, Nàdia; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie-Françoise; Bertau, Martin

    2010-04-14

    The synthesis of pharmaceuticals and catalysts more and more relies on enantiopure chiral building blocks. These can be produced in an environmentally benign and efficient way via bioreduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by dehydrogenases. A productive source of these biocatalysts is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose genome also encodes a reductase catalyzing the sequential reduction of the gamma-diketone 2,5-hexanedione furnishing the diol (2S,5S)-hexanediol and the gamma-hydroxyketone (5S)-hydroxy-2-hexanone in high enantio- as well as diastereoselectivity (ee and de >99.5%). This enzyme prefers NADPH as the hydrogen donating cofactor. As NADH is more stable and cheaper than NADPH it would be more effective if NADH could be used in cell-free bioreduction systems. To achieve this, the cofactor binding site of the dehydrogenase was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the rational approach based on a homology model of the enzyme allowed us to generate a mutant enzyme having a relaxed cofactor preference and thus is able to use both NADPH and NADH. Results obtained from other mutants are discussed and point towards the limits of rationally designed mutants.

  3. Stereoselective Reduction of Prochiral Ketones by Plant and Microbial Biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Javidnia, K.; Faghih-Mirzaei, E.; Miri, R.; Attarroshan, M.; Zomorodian, K.

    2016-01-01

    Chiral alcohols are the key chiral building blocks to many enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals. The biocatalytic approach in asymmetric reduction of corresponding prochiral ketones to the preparation of these optically pure substances is one of the most promising routes. The stereoselective reduction of different kinds of prochiral ketones catalyzed by various plants and microorganisms was studied in this work. Benzyl acetoacetate, methyl 3-oxopentanoate, ethyl 3-oxopentanoate, and ethyl butyryl acetate were chosen as the model substrates for β-ketoesters. Benzoyl acetonitrile, 3-chloro propiophenone, and 1-acetyl naphthalene were chosen as aromatic aliphatic ketones. Finally, 2-methyl benzophenone and 4-chloro benzophenone were selected as diaryl ketones. Plant catalysis was conducted by Daucus carota, Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnus sativus. For microbial catalysis, Aspergillus foetidus, Penicillum citrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichia fermentans, and Rhodotrula glutinis were chosen. Chiral alcohols were obtained in high yields and with optical purity. A superiority in the microorganisms' performance in the bioreduction of prochiral ketones was detected. Among microorganisms, Rhodotrula glutinis showed remarkable results with nearly all substrates and is proposed for future studies. PMID:27168684

  4. Immobilization of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 for efficient asymmetric reduction of ketones and biocatalyst recycling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacterium Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst with exclusive anti-Prelog stereoselectivity for the reduction of prochiral ketones that can be used to make valuable chiral alcohols such as (R)-4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-ol. Although it has promising catalytic properties, its stability and reusability are relatively poor compared to other biocatalysts. Hence, we explored various materials for immobilizing the active cells, in order to improve the operational stability of biocatalyst. Results It was found that Ca-alginate give the best immobilized biocatalyst, which was then coated with chitosan to further improve its mechanical strength and swelling-resistance properties. Conditions were optimized for formation of reusable immobilized beads which can be used for repeated batch asymmetric reduction of 4′-chloroacetophenone. The optimized immobilized biocatalyst was very promising, with a specific activity of 85% that of the free-cell biocatalyst (34.66 μmol/min/g dw of cells for immobilized catalyst vs 40.54 μmol/min/g for free cells in the asymmetric reduction of 4′-chloroacetophenone). The immobilized cells showed better thermal stability, pH stability, solvent tolerance and storability compared with free cells. After 25 cycles reaction, the immobilized beads still retained >50% catalytic activity, which was 3.5 times higher than degree of retention of activity by free cells reused in a similar way. The cells could be recultured in the beads to regain full activity and perform a further 25 cycles of the reduction reaction. The external mass transfer resistances were negligible as deduced from Damkohler modulus Da < <1, and internal mass transfer restriction affected the reduction action but was not the principal rate-controlling step according to effectiveness factors η < 1 and Thiele modulus 0.3<∅ <1. Conclusions Ca-alginate coated with chitosan is a highly effective material for immobilization of

  5. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide / sulfonated polyether ether ketone composite membrane for electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetharaman, S.; Ramya, K.; Dhathathreyan, K. S.

    2013-06-01

    A simple and effective method for the preparation of sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) based composites with electrochemical reduced graphene oxide (EGO) as inorganic fillers has been described. The resulting dispersions are homogeneous and the cast membranes show significant improvement on tensile strength and thermal properties. It has high ionic conductivity and is cost effective making it a promising alternative membrane for electrochemical applications.

  6. Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-Related Behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ari, Csilla; Kovács, Zsolt; Juhasz, Gabor; Murdun, Cem; Goldhagen, Craig R.; Koutnik, Andrew P.; Poff, Angela M.; Kesl, Shannon L.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), more distance traveled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats) and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy through a

  7. Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-Related Behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats.

    PubMed

    Ari, Csilla; Kovács, Zsolt; Juhasz, Gabor; Murdun, Cem; Goldhagen, Craig R; Koutnik, Andrew P; Poff, Angela M; Kesl, Shannon L; D'Agostino, Dominic P

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), more distance traveled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats) and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy through a

  8. [Verification of processing theory of "reducing ketone and dryness, and increasing ester and effect" for bran-fried atractylodes].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Long; Wiu, Hui; Shan, Guo-Shun; Jia, Tian-Zhu

    2013-10-01

    We previously proposed the processing theory of "reducing ketone and dryness, and increasing ester and effect" for bran-fried atractylodes, and made a preliminary study. To further verify the science and rationality of the theory, we determined the changes in the content of atractylenolide I, II, III and atractylon in atractylodes after and before being fried with bran, in order to compare the effect of raw and bran-fried atractylodes on the water intake and urination in rats in this study. The effect of raw and bran-fried atractylodes on the content of four gastrointestinal hormones and two neurotransmitters in serum was observed in an attempt to verify the science and rationality the processing theory of "reducing ketone and dryness, and increasing ester and effect" for bran-fried atractylodes.

  9. Raspberry Ketone

    MedlinePlus

    ... and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking raspberry ketone if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Diabetes: Raspberry ketone might lower blood sugar levels. In theory, raspberry ketone might make blood sugar drop too ...

  10. Biocatalysts: Beautiful creatures

    SciTech Connect

    Saibi, Walid; Abdeljalil, Salma; Masmoudi, Khaled; Gargouri, Ali

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzymes are vital tools. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bifunctional enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peculiar biocatalysts. -- Abstract: The chemical industry has come under increasing pressure to make chemical production more eco-friendly and independent to fossil resources. The development of industrial processes based on micro-organisms can especially help to eliminate the use or the generation of hazardous substances and can support the transition from dependence on fossil resources towards real sustainable and eco-safety industrial processes. The biocatalysts are the best solution given by nature that can be used to improve some biotechnological applications. In this research review, we report some peculiar properties of biocatalysts, implicated in a range of metabolic pathways and biotechnological tools.

  11. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  12. Outrunning Nature: Directed Evolution of Superior Biocatalysts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodyer, Ryan; Chen, Wilfred; Zhao, Huimin

    2004-01-01

    The development of enzymes as biocatalysts for industrial use and the emergence of directed evolution in the invention of advanced biocatalysts are discussed and illustrated. Thus, directed evolution has bridged the functional gap between natural and specially designed biocatalysts.

  13. Biocatalysts with enhanced inhibitor tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Shihui; Linger, Jeffrey; Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed herein are biocatalysts for the production of biofuels, including microorganisms that contain genetic modifications conferring tolerance to growth and fermentation inhibitors found in many cellulosic feedstocks. Methods of converting cellulose-containing materials to fuels and chemicals, as well as methods of fermenting sugars to fuels and chemicals, using these biocatalysts are also disclosed.

  14. Anaerobic oxidation of n-alkenes by sulphate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfatiferula: n-ketones as potential metabolites.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Vincent; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Rontani, Jean-François; Cros, Magali; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès

    2011-11-01

    Two alkene-degrading sulphate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfatiferula (Desulfatiferula olefinivorans strain LM2801(T) and Desulfatiferula sp. strain BE2801) were investigated for their 1-alkene metabolism. Their total cellular fatty acids were predominantly C-even when they were grown on C-even 1-alkene (1-hexadecene), whereas a mixture of fatty acids with C-odd or C-even carbon chains predominated when cells were grown on C-odd 1-alkene (1-pentadecene). This is consistent with the fatty acid composition of other sulphate-reducing strains previously reported to grow on n-alkenes. Linear and 3-OH-fatty acids appear to be the main fatty acids produced by the two Desulfatiferula strains. The analysis of their neutral lipids led to identifying several n-alkanols and n-ketones with the same number of carbon atoms as the alkene growth substrate and with functionality located between C-1 and C-5. Growth of strains LM2801(T) and BE2801 on (per) deuterated 1-alkenes provided direct evidence of their anaerobic transformation to corresponding 1-alkanols, n-ketones and linear (3-OH-) fatty acids. These results demonstrate that Desulfatiferula strains oxidize a 1-alkene by oxidation of the double bond at C-1, but also at C-2 to C-5 (after eventual isomerization of the double bond) yielding the corresponding C-2 to C-5 n-ketones (via the corresponding n-alkanols). The formation of specific 3-OH-fatty acids by elongation of shorter chain fatty acids was also demonstrated. Based on our observations, pathways for anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism in sulphate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfatiferula are proposed. They indicate that n-ketones can constitute new metabolites of the biodegradation of n-alkenes in anaerobic environments. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocatalyst Development by Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Si, Tong; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Biocatalysis has emerged as a great addition to traditional chemical processes for production of bulk chemicals and pharmaceuticals. To overcome the limitations of naturally occurring enzymes, directed evolution has become the most important tool for improving critical traits of biocatalysts such as thermostability, activity, selectivity, and tolerance towards organic solvents for industrial applications. Recent advances in mutant library creation and high-throughput screening have greatly facilitated the engineering of novel and improved biocatalysts. This review provides an update of the recent developments in the use of directed evolution to engineer biocatalysts for practical applications. PMID:22310212

  16. AKR1B10 induces cell resistance to daunorubicin and idarubicin by reducing C13 ketonic group

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Linlin; Shen Honglin; Huang Chenfei; Jing, Hongwu; Cao Deliang

    2011-08-15

    Daunorubicin, idarubicin, doxorubicin and epirubicin are anthracyclines widely used for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, and breast, lung, and liver cancers, but tumor resistance limits their clinical success. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 B10 (AKR1B10) is an NADPH-dependent enzyme overexpressed in liver and lung carcinomas. This study was aimed to determine the role of AKR1B10 in tumor resistance to anthracyclines. AKR1B10 activity toward anthracyclines was measured using recombinant protein. Cell resistance to anthracycline was determined by ectopic expression of AKR1B10 or inhibition by epalrestat. Results showed that AKR1B10 reduces C13-ketonic group on side chain of daunorubicin and idarubicin to hydroxyl forms. In vitro, AKR1B10 converted daunorubicin to daunorubicinol at V{sub max} of 837.42 {+-} 81.39 nmol/mg/min, K{sub m} of 9.317 {+-} 2.25 mM and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} of 3.24. AKR1B10 showed better catalytic efficiency toward idarubicin with V{sub max} at 460.23 {+-} 28.12 nmol/mg/min, K{sub m} at 0.461 {+-} 0.09 mM and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} at 35.94. AKR1B10 was less active toward doxorubicin and epirubicin with a C14-hydroxyl group. In living cells, AKR1B10 efficiently catalyzed reduction of daunorubicin (50 nM) and idarubicin (30 nM) to corresponding alcohols. Within 24 h, approximately 20 {+-} 2.7% of daunorubicin (1 {mu}M) or 23 {+-} 2.3% of idarubicin (1 {mu}M) was converted to daunorubicinol or idarubicinol in AKR1B10 expression cells compared to 7 {+-} 0.9% and 5 {+-} 1.5% in vector control. AKR1B10 expression led to cell resistance to daunorubicin and idarubicin, but inhibitor epalrestat showed a synergistic role with these agents. Together our data suggest that AKR1B10 participates in cellular metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, resulting in drug resistance. These data are informative for the clinical use of idarubicin and daunorubicin. - Highlights: > This study defines enzyme activity of AKR1B10 protein towards daunorubicin, idarubicin

  17. Novel biocatalysts for white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Drepper, Thomas; Eggert, Thorsten; Hummel, Werner; Leggewie, Christian; Pohl, Martina; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2006-01-01

    White Biotechnology uses microorganisms and enzymes to manufacture a large variety of chemical products. Therefore, the demand for new and useful biocatalysts is steadily and rapidly increasing. We have developed methods for the isolation of new enzyme genes, constructed novel expression systems, and optimized existing enzymes for biotechnological applications by methods of directed evolution. Furthermore, we have isolated and characterized biocatalysts relevant for the preparation of enantiopure compounds.

  18. Ketones blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  19. Raspberry ketone fails to reduce adiposity beyond decreasing food intake in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Bradley M; Diamond, Stephanie A; Banh, Taylor; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cole, Rachel M; Li, Jinhui; Simons, Christopher T; Bruno, Richard S; Belury, Martha A; Vodovotz, Yael

    2017-04-05

    As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, identifying novel nutritional therapies to enhance weight loss are needed. Raspberry ketone (RK; 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one) is a bioactive phytochemical that is marketed as a weight loss supplement in the United States, yet there is scant scientific evidence demonstrating that RK promotes weight loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RK on accumulation of adipose mass, hepatic lipid storage, and levels of plasma adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were individually housed and fed a HF control diet (45% kcal from fat) for two weeks to induce weight gain, then assigned to HF control, high-dose (1.74% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (HRK), low-dose (0.25% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (LRK), or a pair-fed group (PF) fed similar food intake to LRK mice. Following five weeks of feeding, mice fed LRK and HRK diets showed reduced food intake and body weight compared to mice maintained on control diet. When normalized to body weight, mice fed HRK diet exhibited decreased inguinal fat mass and increased liver mass compared to the control group. Hepatic steatosis was lowest in mice fed HRK diet, whereas LRK diet did not have an effect when compared to the PF group. Plasma adiponectin concentration was unaffected by RK and pair-feeding. Our findings demonstrate that RK supplementation has limited benefit to adipose loss beyond reducing energy intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. The present study supports the need for appropriate study design when validating weight-loss supplements.

  20. Co‐immobilized Phosphorylated Cofactors and Enzymes as Self‐Sufficient Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Chemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Velasco‐Lozano, Susana; Benítez‐Mateos, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Enzyme cofactors play a major role in biocatalysis, as many enzymes require them to catalyze highly valuable reactions in organic synthesis. However, the cofactor recycling is often a hurdle to implement enzymes at the industrial level. The fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts co‐immobilizing phosphorylated cofactors (PLP, FAD+, and NAD+) and enzymes onto the same solid material is reported to perform chemical reactions without exogeneous addition of cofactors in aqueous media. In these self‐sufficient heterogeneous biocatalysts, the immobilized enzymes are catalytically active and the immobilized cofactors catalytically available and retained into the solid phase for several reaction cycles. Finally, we have applied a NAD+‐dependent heterogeneous biocatalyst to continuous flow asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones, thus demonstrating the robustness of this approach for large scale biotransformations. PMID:28000978

  1. Co-immobilized Phosphorylated Cofactors and Enzymes as Self-Sufficient Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Chemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Lozano, Susana; Benítez-Mateos, Ana I; López-Gallego, Fernando

    2017-01-16

    Enzyme cofactors play a major role in biocatalysis, as many enzymes require them to catalyze highly valuable reactions in organic synthesis. However, the cofactor recycling is often a hurdle to implement enzymes at the industrial level. The fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts co-immobilizing phosphorylated cofactors (PLP, FAD(+) , and NAD(+) ) and enzymes onto the same solid material is reported to perform chemical reactions without exogeneous addition of cofactors in aqueous media. In these self-sufficient heterogeneous biocatalysts, the immobilized enzymes are catalytically active and the immobilized cofactors catalytically available and retained into the solid phase for several reaction cycles. Finally, we have applied a NAD(+) -dependent heterogeneous biocatalyst to continuous flow asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones, thus demonstrating the robustness of this approach for large scale biotransformations.

  2. Mild Deoxygenation of Aromatic Ketones and Aldehydes over Pd/C Using Polymethylhydrosiloxane as the Reducing Agent**

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexey; Gustafson, Karl P J; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Verho, Oscar; Bäckvall, Jan-E; Adolfsson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a practical and mild method for the deoxygenation of a wide range of benzylic aldehydes and ketones is described, which utilizes heterogeneous Pd/C as the catalyst together with the green hydride source, polymethylhydrosiloxane. The developed catalytic protocol is scalable and robust, as exemplified by the deoxygenation of ethyl vanillin, which was performed on a 30 mmol scale in an open-to-air setup using only 0.085 mol % Pd/C catalyst to furnish the corresponding deoxygenated product in 93 % yield within 3 hours at room temperature. Furthermore, the Pd/C catalyst was shown to be recyclable up to 6 times without any observable decrease in efficiency and it exhibited low metal leaching under the reaction conditions. PMID:25728614

  3. Purification and characterization of a novel alcohol dehydrogenase from Leifsonia sp. strain S749: a promising biocatalyst for an asymmetric hydrogen transfer bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kousuke; Makino, Yoshihide; Itoh, Nobuya

    2005-07-01

    To find microorganisms that could reduce phenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PTK) to (S)-1-phenyltrifluoroethanol [(S)-PTE], styrene-assimilating bacteria (ca. 900 strains) isolated from soil samples were screened. We found that Leifsonia sp. strain S749 was the most suitable strain for the conversion of PTK to (S)-PTE in the presence of 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor. The enzyme corresponding to the reaction was purified homogeneity, characterized and designated Leifsonia alcohol dehydrogenase (LSADH). The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of 110,000 and was composed of four identical subunits (molecular weight, 26,000). LSADH required NADH as a cofactor, showed little activity with NADPH, and reduced a wide variety of aldehydes and ketones. LSADH catalyzed the enantioselective reduction of some ketones with high enantiomeric excesses (e.e.): PTK to (S)-PTE (>99% e.e.), acetophenone to (R)-1-phenylethanol (99% e.e.), and 2-heptanone to (R)-2-heptanol (>99% e.e.) in the presence of 2-propanol without an additional NADH regeneration system. Therefore, it would be a useful biocatalyst.

  4. Ketones: metabolism's ugly duckling.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, Theodore B; Nufert, Thomas H

    2003-10-01

    Ketones were first discovered in the urine of diabetic patients in the mid-19th century; for almost 50 years thereafter, they were thought to be abnormal and undesirable by-products of incomplete fat oxidation. In the early 20th century, however, they were recognized as normal circulating metabolites produced by liver and readily utilized by extrahepatic tissues. In the 1920s, a drastic "hyperketogenic" diet was found remarkably effective for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in children. In 1967, circulating ketones were discovered to replace glucose as the brain's major fuel during the marked hyperketonemia of prolonged fasting. Until then, the adult human brain was thought to be entirely dependent upon glucose. During the 1990s, diet-induced hyperketonemia was found therapeutically effective for treatment of several rare genetic disorders involving impaired neuronal utilization of glucose or its metabolic products. Finally, growing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced bioenergetic efficiency occur in brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because ketones are efficiently used by mitochondria for ATP generation and may also help protect vulnerable neurons from free radical damage, hyperketogenic diets should be evaluated for ability to benefit patients with PD, AD, and certain other neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Fueling Performance: Ketones Enter the Mix.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brendan; D'Agostino, Dominic P

    2016-09-13

    Ketone body metabolites serve as alternative energy substrates during prolonged fasting, calorie restriction, or reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Using a ketone ester supplement, Cox et al. (2016) demonstrate that acute nutritional ketosis alters substrate utilization patterns during exercise, reduces lactate production, and improves time-trial performance in elite cyclists.

  6. Mild deoxygenation of aromatic ketones and aldehydes over Pd/C using polymethylhydrosiloxane as the reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexey; Gustafson, Karl P J; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Verho, Oscar; Bäckvall, Jan-E; Adolfsson, Hans

    2015-04-20

    Herein, a practical and mild method for the deoxygenation of a wide range of benzylic aldehydes and ketones is described, which utilizes heterogeneous Pd/C as the catalyst together with the green hydride source, polymethylhydrosiloxane. The developed catalytic protocol is scalable and robust, as exemplified by the deoxygenation of ethyl vanillin, which was performed on a 30 mmol scale in an open-to-air setup using only 0.085 mol % Pd/C catalyst to furnish the corresponding deoxygenated product in 93 % yield within 3 hours at room temperature. Furthermore, the Pd/C catalyst was shown to be recyclable up to 6 times without any observable decrease in efficiency and it exhibited low metal leaching under the reaction conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  7. Maximization of cell viability rather than biocatalyst activity improves whole-cell ω-oxyfunctionalization performance.

    PubMed

    Kadisch, Marvin; Julsing, Mattijs K; Schrewe, Manfred; Jehmlich, Nico; Scheer, Benjamin; von Bergen, Martin; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    It is a common misconception in whole-cell biocatalysis to refer to an enzyme as the biocatalyst, thereby neglecting the structural and metabolic framework provided by the cell. Here, the low whole-cell biocatalyst stability, that is, the stability of specific biocatalyst activity, in a process for the terminal oxyfunctionalization of renewable fatty acid methyl esters was investigated. This reaction, which is difficult to achieve by chemical means, is catalyzed by Escherichia coli featuring the monooxygenase system AlkBGT and the uptake facilitator AlkL from Pseudomonas putida GPo1. Corresponding products, that is, terminal alcohols, aldehydes, and acids, constitute versatile bifunctional building blocks, which are of special interest for polymer synthesis. It could clearly be shown that extensive dodecanoic acid methyl ester uptake mediated by high AlkL levels leads to whole-cell biocatalyst toxification. Thus, cell viability constitutes the primary factor limiting biocatalyst stability and, as a result, process durability. Hence, a compromise had to be found between low biocatalyst activity due to restricted substrate uptake and poor biocatalyst stability due to AlkL-mediated toxification. This was achieved by the fine-tuning of heterologous alkL expression, which, furthermore, enabled the identification of the alkBGT expression level as another critical factor determining biocatalyst stability. Controlled synthesis of AlkL and reduced alkBGT expression finally enabled an increase of product titers by a factor of 4.3 up to 229 g Lorg(-1) in a two-liquid phase bioprocess setup. Clearly, ω-oxyfunctionalization process performance was determined by cell viability and thus biocatalyst stability rather than the maximally achievable specific biocatalyst activity. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 874-884. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Screening, Molecular Cloning, and Biochemical Characterization of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pichia pastoris Useful for the Kinetic Resolution of a Racemic β-Hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl Ketone.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Dalia; Duangdee, Nongnaphat; Gröger, Harald; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hummel, Werner

    2016-07-15

    The stereoselective synthesis of chiral 1,3-diols with the aid of biocatalysts is an attractive tool in organic chemistry. Besides the reduction of diketones, an alternative approach consists of the stereoselective reduction of β-hydroxy ketones (aldols). Thus, we screened for an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) that would selectively reduce a β-hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl ketone. One potential starting material for this process is readily available by aldol addition of acetone to 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone. Over 200 strains were screened, and only a few yeast strains showed stereoselective reduction activities. The enzyme responsible for the reduction of the β-hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl ketone was identified after purification and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis. As a result, a new NADP(+) -dependent ADH from Pichia pastoris (PPADH) was identified and confirmed to be capable of stereospecific and diastereoselective reduction of the β-hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl ketone to its corresponding 1,3-diol. The gene encoding PPADH was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). To determine the influence of an N- or C-terminal His-tag fusion, three different recombinant plasmids were constructed. Interestingly, the variant with the N-terminal His-tag showed the highest activity; consequently, this variant was purified and characterized. Kinetic parameters and the dependency of activity on pH and temperature were determined. PPADH shows a substrate preference for the reduction of linear and branched aliphatic aldehydes. Surprisingly, the enzyme shows no comparable activity towards ketones other than the β-hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl ketone.

  9. Reduced platelets and bacteria adhesion on poly(ether ether ketone) by photoinduced and self-initiated graft polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Takaharu; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Kakinoki, Sachiro; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is a super engineering plastic, which has good mechanical properties and is resistant to physical and chemical stimuli. We have, therefore, attempted to use PEEK in cardiovascular devices. Synthetic cardiovascular devices require both high hemocompatibility and anti-inflammatory activity in addition to the mechanical properties. We modified the PEEK surface by photoinduced and self-initiated graft polymerization with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC; PMPC-grafted PEEK) for obtaining good antithrombogenicity. Polymerization was carried out on the surface of PEEK under radiation of ultraviolet (UV) light during which we controlled monomer concentrations, temperatures, and UV intensities. The biological performance of the PMPC-grafted PEEK was examined and compared with that of unmodified PEEK. With increase in the thickness of the PMPC layer, the amount of fibrinogen adsorption decreased significantly in comparison to that in the case of unmodified PEEK. When placed in contact with human platelet-rich plasma, surface of the PMPC-grafted PEEK clearly showed inhibition of platelet adhesion and activation. Also, bacterial adhesion was reduced dramatically on the PMPC-grafted PEEK. Thus, the PMPC grafting on PEEK improved the antithrombogenicity.

  10. Keratinolytic protease: a green biocatalyst for leather industry.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhen; Yong, Yang-Chun; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-09-18

    Depilation/unhairing is the crucial but heavy pollution process in leather industry. Traditional inorganic sulfide treatment was the most widely used depilation technique in the past decades, which was usually detrimental to leather quality and resulted in serious environmental pollution. Using biocatalysts to substitute inorganic sulfide showed great advantages in environment protection and unhairing efficiency. Keratinolytic protease is one of the excellent biocatalysts to hydrolyze disulfide bond-rich proteins of hair and has little damage to leather. Biological treatment with keratinolytic proteases could largely reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastewater effluent from the leather industry. But low thermostability and substrate specificity or specific activity of these enzymes limited their practical application. Therefore, recent progresses on protein engineering strategies (site-directed mutagenesis, protein fusion, N/C-terminus truncation, and domain swapping) used to enhance the keratinolytic enzyme performance were presented.

  11. Ketones and Human Performance.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan M; Deuster, Patricia A

    Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal. A potential role for ketosis as a performance enhancer was first introduced in 1983 with the idea that chronic ketosis without caloric restriction could preserve submaximal exercise capability by sparing glycogen or conserving the limited carbohydrate stores. Few human studies on the effects of a ketogenic diet on performance have yielded positive results, and most studies have yielded equivocal or null results, and a few negative results. Many questions about ketones relevant to Special Operations Forces (SOF) remain unanswered. At present, a ketogenic diet and/or a ketone supplement do not appear confer performance benefits for SOF. Instead, Operators should engage with their unit dietitian to develop individualized nutritional strategies based on unique mission requirements. The authors review the concept of a ketogenic diet, describe some potential benefits and risks of ketosis, review the performance literature and how to measure ketone status, and then summarize the landscape in 2017. 2017.

  12. Whole-cell biotransformation with recombinant cytochrome P450 for the selective oxidation of Grundmann's ketone.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, Alba; von Bühler, Clemens J; Tieves, Florian; Fernández, Susana; Ferrero, Miguel; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2014-10-15

    25-Hydroxy-Grundmann's ketone is a key building block in the chemical synthesis of vitamin D3 and its derivatives through convergent routes. Generally, the chemical synthesis of this compound involves tedious procedures and results in a mixture of several products. Recently, the selective hydroxylation of Grundmann's ketone at position C25 by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 154E1 from Thermobifida fusca YX was described. In this study a recombinant whole-cell biocatalyst was developed and applied for hydroxylation of Grundmann's ketone. Biotransformation was performed by Escherichia coli cells expressing CYP154E1 along with two redox partner systems, Pdx/PdR and YkuN/FdR. The system comprising CYP154E1/Pdx/PdR showed the highest production of 25-hydroxy-Grundmann's ketone and resulted in 1.1mM (300mgL(-1)) product concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Volatilization of ketones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Volatilization fluxes of seven ketones were measured over a range of temperatures. Gas-film coefficients were calculated from these volatilization fluxes and related to the gas-film coefficient for the evaporation of water. These relations, when combined with an equation for estimating the gas-film coefficient for evaporation of water from a canal, permit estimating gas-film coefficients for the volatilization of ketones from streams and rivers.

  14. Rhodium-catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of α-Dehydroamino Ketones: A General Approach to Chiral α-amino Ketones.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenchao; Wang, Qingli; Xie, Yun; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-01-01

    Rhodium/DuanPhos-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of aliphatic α-dehydroamino ketones has been achieved and afforded chiral α-amino ketones in high yields and excellent enantioselectives (up to 99 % ee), which could be reduced further to chiral β-amino alcohols by LiAlH(tBuO)3 with good yields. This protocol provides a readily accessible route for the synthesis of chiral α-amino ketones and chiral β-amino alcohols.

  15. New generation of biocatalysts for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nestl, Bettina M; Hammer, Stephan C; Nebel, Bernd A; Hauer, Bernhard

    2014-03-17

    The use of enzymes as catalysts for the preparation of novel compounds has received steadily increasing attention over the past few years. High demands are placed on the identification of new biocatalysts for organic synthesis. The catalysis of more ambitious reactions reflects the high expectations of this field of research. Enzymes play an increasingly important role as biocatalysts in the synthesis of key intermediates for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, and new enzymatic technologies and processes have been established. Enzymes are an important part of the spectrum of catalysts available for synthetic chemistry. The advantages and applications of the most recent and attractive biocatalysts--reductases, transaminases, ammonia lyases, epoxide hydrolases, and dehalogenases--will be discussed herein and exemplified by the syntheses of interesting compounds.

  16. Outrunning Nature: Directed Evolution of Superior Biocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodyer, Ryan; Chen, Wilfred; Zhao, Huimin

    2004-01-01

    Driven by recent technical advances in genetic engineering and new societal needs, the use of enzymes and microorganisms as catalysts to synthesize chemicals and materials is rapidly expanding. One of the key technical drivers is the development of various directed evolution methods for biocatalyst discovery and optimization. Although it essentially replicates the Darwinian evolutionary processes in a test tube, directed evolution can create biocatalysts with better catalytic performance than Nature's own products within weeks or months rather than eons. In this article, both the technologies and applications of directed evolution in biocatalysis are discussed.

  17. The search for the ideal biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Burton, Stephanie G; Cowan, Don A; Woodley, John M

    2002-01-01

    While the use of enzymes as biocatalysts to assist in the industrial manufacture of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals has enormous potential, application is frequently limited by evolution-led catalyst traits. The advent of designer biocatalysts, produced by informed selection and mutation through recombinant DNA technology, enables production of process-compatible enzymes. However, to fully realize the potential of designer enzymes in industrial applications, it will be necessary to tailor catalyst properties so that they are optimal not only for a given reaction but also in the context of the industrial process in which the enzyme is applied.

  18. Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

    2003-12-01

    isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans although B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. For successful production of ethanol from pyruvate, both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AHD) need to be produced at optimal levels in these biocatalysts. A plasmid containing the S. ventriculi pdc gene and the adh gene from geobacillus stearothermophilus was constructed using plasmid pWH1520 that was successfully used for expression of pdc in B. megaterium. The resulting portable ethanol (PET) plasmid, pJAM423, was transformed into B. megaterium. After xylose induction, a significant fraction of cell cytoplasm was composed of the S. ventriculi PDC and G. stearothermophilus ADH proteins. In preliminary experiments, the amount of ethanol produced by b. megaterium with plasmid pJAM423 was about twice (20 mM) of the bacterium without the plasmid. These results show that the PET operon is functional in B. megaterium but high level ethanol production needs further genetic and metabolic engineering. A genetic transfer system for the second generation biocatalysts needs to be developed for transferring the plasmid pJAM423 and its derivatives for engineering these organisms for ethanol production from biomass derived sugars and cellulose to ethanol. One of the new biocatalysts, strain P4-102B was found to be transformable with plasmids and the method for introducing plasmid pJAM423 into this strain and expression of the encoded DNA is being optimized. These new second generation biocatalysts have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource for production of fuels and chemicals.

  19. Synthesis of methyl ketones by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Park, John; Rodríguez-Moyá, María; Li, Mai; Pichersky, Eran; San, Ka-Yiu; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2012-11-01

    Methyl ketones are a group of highly reduced platform chemicals with widespread applications in the fragrance, flavor and pharmacological industries. Current methods for the industrial production of methyl ketones include oxidation of hydrocarbons, but recent advances in the characterization of methyl ketone synthases from wild tomato have sparked interest towards the development of microbial platforms for the industrial production of methyl ketones. A functional methyl ketone biosynthetic pathway was constructed in Escherichia coli by over-expressing two genes from Solanum habrochaites: shmks2, encoding a 3-ketoacyl-ACP thioesterase, and shmks1, encoding a beta-decarboxylase. These enzymes enabled methyl ketone synthesis from 3-ketoacyl-ACP, an intermediate in the fatty acid biosynthetic cycle. The production of 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, and 2-tridecanone by MG1655 pTH-shmks2-shmks1 was initially detected by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses at levels close to 6 mg/L. The deletion of major fermentative pathways leading to ethanol (adhE), lactate (ldhA), and acetate (pta, poxB) production allowed for the carbon flux to be redirected towards methyl ketone production, doubling total methyl ketone concentration. Variations in methyl ketone production observed under different working volumes in flask experiments led to a more detailed analysis of the effects of oxygen availability on methyl ketone concentration in order to determine optimal levels of oxygen. The methyl ketone concentration achieved with MG1655 ∆adhE ∆ldhA ∆poxB ∆pta pTrcHis2A-shmks2-shmks1, the best performer strain in this study, was approximately 500 mg/L, the highest reported for an engineered microorganism. Through the establishment of optimal operating conditions and by executing rational metabolic engineering strategies, we were able to increase methyl ketone concentrations by almost 75-fold from the initial confirmatory levels.

  20. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  1. Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected. PMID:21731544

  2. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  3. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  4. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 03 / 002 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ( CAS No . 108 - 10 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordan

  5. Comparison of Properties among Dendritic and Hyperbranched Poly(ether ether ketone)s and Linear Poly(ether ketone)s.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Atsushi

    2016-02-16

    Poly(ether ether ketone) dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy)-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketone)s having the same hydroxyl groups in the side chains as the chain ends of the dendrimer and hyperbranched polymers. Their properties, such as solubilities, reduced viscosities, and thermal properties, were compared with one another. Similar comparisons were also carried out among the corresponding methoxy group polymers, and the size of the molecules was shown to affect the properties.

  6. Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription.

    PubMed

    Veech, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Ketosis induced by starvation or feeding a ketogenic diet has widespread and often contradictory effects due to the simultaneous elevation of both ketone bodies and free fatty acids. The elevation of ketone bodies increases the energy of ATP hydrolysis by reducing the mitochondrial NAD couple and oxidizing the coenzyme Q couple, thus increasing the redox span between site I and site II. In contrast, metabolism of fatty acids leads to a reduction of both mitochondrial NAD and mitochondrial coenzyme Q causing a decrease in the ΔG of ATP hydrolysis. In contrast, feeding ketone body esters leads to pure ketosis, unaccompanied by elevation of free fatty acids, producing a physiological state not previously seen in nature. The effects of pure ketosis on transcription and upon certain neurodegenerative diseases make approach not only interesting, but of potential therapeutic value.

  7. Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Veech, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis induced by starvation or feeding a ketogenic diet has widespread and often contradictory effects due to the simultaneous elevation of both ketone bodies and free fatty acids. The elevation of ketone bodies increases the energy of ATP hydrolysis by reducing the mitochondrial NAD couple and oxidizing the coenzyme Q couple, thus increasing the redox span between site I and site II. In contrast, metabolism of fatty acids leads to a reduction of both mitochondrial NAD and mitochondrial coenzyme Q causing a decrease in the ΔG of ATP hydrolysis. In contrast, feeding ketone body esters leads to pure ketosis, unaccompanied by elevation of free fatty acids, producing a physiological state not previously seen in nature. The effects of pure ketosis on transcription and upon certain neurodegenerative diseases make approach not only interesting, but of potential therapeutic value. PMID:24714648

  8. Biocatalysts Immobilized in Ultrathin Ordered Films

    PubMed Central

    Sołoducho, Jadwiga; Cabaj, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The immobilization of enzymes and other proteins into ordered thin materials has attracted considerable attention over the past few years. This research has demonstrated that biomolecules immobilized in different [Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)/Langmuir-Schaefer (LS)] matrixes retain their functional characteristics to a large extent. These new materials are of interest for applications as biosensors and biocatalysts. We review the growing field of oxidases immobilized onto ordered Langmiur-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer films. Strategies for the preparation of solid supports and the essential properties of the resulting materials with respect to the envisaged applications are presented. Basic effects of the nature of the adsorption and various aspects of the application of these materials as biosensors, biocatalysts are discussed. Outlook of potential applications and further challenges are also provided. PMID:22163470

  9. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  10. Sirtuin 3 mediates neuroprotection of ketones against ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yin, Junxiang; Han, Pengcheng; Tang, Zhiwei; Liu, Qingwei; Shi, Jiong

    2015-11-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death. Growing evidence indicates that ketone bodies have beneficial effects in treating stroke, but their underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study showed ketone bodies reduced reactive oxygen species by using NADH as an electron donor, thus increasing the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. In this study, we investigated whether mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) could mediate the neuroprotective effects of ketone bodies after ischemic stroke. We injected mice with either normal saline or ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) at 30 minutes after ischemia induced by transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We found that ketone treatment enhanced mitochondria function, reduced oxidative stress, and therefore reduced infarct volume. This led to improved neurologic function after ischemia, including the neurologic score and the performance in Rotarod and open field tests. We further showed that ketones' effects were achieved by upregulating NAD(+)-dependent SIRT3 and its downstream substrates forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the penumbra region since knocking down SIRT3 in vitro diminished ketones' beneficial effects. These results provide us a foundation to develop novel therapeutics targeting this SIRT3-FoxO3a-SOD2 pathway.

  11. Sirtuin 3 mediates neuroprotection of ketones against ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junxiang; Han, Pengcheng; Tang, Zhiwei; Liu, Qingwei; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death. Growing evidence indicates that ketone bodies have beneficial effects in treating stroke, but their underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study showed ketone bodies reduced reactive oxygen species by using NADH as an electron donor, thus increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio. In this study, we investigated whether mitochondrial NAD+-dependent Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) could mediate the neuroprotective effects of ketone bodies after ischemic stroke. We injected mice with either normal saline or ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) at 30 minutes after ischemia induced by transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We found that ketone treatment enhanced mitochondria function, reduced oxidative stress, and therefore reduced infarct volume. This led to improved neurologic function after ischemia, including the neurologic score and the performance in Rotarod and open field tests. We further showed that ketones' effects were achieved by upregulating NAD+-dependent SIRT3 and its downstream substrates forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the penumbra region since knocking down SIRT3 in vitro diminished ketones' beneficial effects. These results provide us a foundation to develop novel therapeutics targeting this SIRT3-FoxO3a-SOD2 pathway. PMID:26058697

  12. Whole-cell biocatalysts for biodiesel fuel production.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Hama, S; Tamalampudi, S; Noda, H

    2008-12-01

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF), which refers to fatty acid alkyl esters, has attracted considerable attention as an environmentally friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. Alkali catalysis is widely applied for the commercial production of BDF. However, enzymatic transesterification offers considerable advantages, including reducing process operations in biodiesel fuel production and an easy separation of the glycerol byproduct. The high cost of the lipase enzyme is the main obstacle for a commercially feasible enzymatic production of biodiesel fuels. To reduce enzyme associated process costs, the immobilization of fungal mycelium within biomass support particles (BSPs) as well as expression of the lipase enzyme on the surface of yeast cells has been developed to generate whole-cell biocatalysts for industrial applications.

  13. Novel multienzyme oxidative biocatalyst for lignin bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Crestini, Claudia; Melone, Federica; Saladino, Raffaele

    2011-08-15

    A novel multienzyme biocatalyst, based on coimmobilization of the laccase and horseradish peroxidase by cross linking and layer-by-layer coating with polyelectrolyte, was designed, synthesized and applied at the development of an oxidative cascade process on lignin. The efficiency and specificity of the new LbL-multienzyme system, the occurrence of a synergy of the co-immobilized enzymes, the lignin oxidation pathway and the nature of the structural modifications occurred in treated lignins have been investigated in the present effort by means of GPC analysis and quantitative (31)P NMR techniques.

  14. Monolayer patterning using ketone dipoles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Xue, Yi; Pašková, Tereza; Zimmt, Matthew B

    2013-08-14

    The self-assembly of multi-component monolayers with designed patterns requires molecular recognition among components. Dipolar interactions have been found to influence morphologies of self-assembled monolayers and can affect molecular recognition functions. Ketone groups have large dipole moments (2.6 D) and are easily incorporated into molecules. The potential of ketone groups for dipolar patterning has been evaluated through synthesis of two 1,5-disubstituted anthracenes bearing mono-ketone side chains, STM characterization of monolayers self-assembled from their single and two component solutions and molecular mechanics simulations to determine their self-assembly energetics. The results reveal that (i) anthracenes bearing self-repulsive mono-ketone side chains assemble in an atypical monolayer morphology that establishes dipolar attraction, instead of repulsion, between ketones in adjacent side chains; (ii) pairs of anthracene molecules whose self-repulsive ketone side chains are dipolar complementary spontaneously assemble compositionally patterned monolayers, in which the two components segregate into neighboring, single component columns, driven by side chain dipolar interactions; (iii) compositionally patterned monolayers also assemble from dipolar complementary anthracene pairs that employ different dipolar groups (ketones or CF2 groups) in their side chains; (iv) the ketone group, with its larger dipole moment and size, provides comparable driving force for patterned monolayer formation to that of the smaller dipole, and smaller size, CF2 group.

  15. Directed evolution: tailoring biocatalysts for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren

    2013-12-01

    Current challenges and promises of white biotechnology encourage protein engineers to use a directed evolution approach to generate novel and useful biocatalysts for various sets of applications. Different methods of enzyme engineering have been used in the past in an attempt to produce enzymes with improved functions and properties. Recent advancement in the field of random mutagenesis, screening, selection and computational design increased the versatility and the rapid development of enzymes under strong selection pressure with directed evolution experiments. Techniques of directed evolution improve enzymes fitness without understanding them in great detail and clearly demonstrate its future role in adapting enzymes for use in industry. Despite significant advances to date regarding biocatalyst improvement, there still remains a need to improve mutagenesis strategies and development of easy screening and selection tools without significant human intervention. This review covers fundamental and major development of directed evolution techniques, and highlights the advances in mutagenesis, screening and selection methods with examples of enzymes developed by using these approaches. Several commonly used methods for creating molecular diversity with their advantages and disadvantages including some recently used strategies are also discussed.

  16. Archaeal Enzymes and Applications in Industrial Biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeal enzymes are playing an important role in industrial biotechnology. Many representatives of organisms living in “extreme” conditions, the so-called Extremophiles, belong to the archaeal kingdom of life. This paper will review studies carried by the Exeter group and others regarding archaeal enzymes that have important applications in commercial biocatalysis. Some of these biocatalysts are already being used in large scale industrial processes for the production of optically pure drug intermediates and amino acids and their analogues. Other enzymes have been characterised at laboratory scale regarding their substrate specificity and properties for potential industrial application. The increasing availability of DNA sequences from new archaeal species and metagenomes will provide a continuing resource to identify new enzymes of commercial interest using both bioinformatics and screening approaches. PMID:26494981

  17. Postgenomic approaches to using corynebacteria as biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Vertès, Alain A; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum exhibits numerous ideal intrinsic attributes as a factory of primary and secondary metabolites. The versatile capabilities of this organism have long been implemented at the industrial scale to produce an array of amino acids at high yields and conversion rates, thereby enabling the development of an entire industry. The postgenomic era provides a new technological platform not only to further optimize the intrinsic attributes of C. glutamicum whole cells as biocatalysts, but also to dramatically expand the product portfolio that can be manufactured by this organism, from amino acids to commodity chemicals. This review addresses the methods and strain optimization strategies enabled by genomic information and associated techniques. Their implementation has provided important additional incremental improvements to the economics of industry-scale manufacturing in which C. glutamicum and its episomal elements are used as a performing host-vector system.

  18. Archaeal Enzymes and Applications in Industrial Biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Littlechild, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Archaeal enzymes are playing an important role in industrial biotechnology. Many representatives of organisms living in "extreme" conditions, the so-called Extremophiles, belong to the archaeal kingdom of life. This paper will review studies carried by the Exeter group and others regarding archaeal enzymes that have important applications in commercial biocatalysis. Some of these biocatalysts are already being used in large scale industrial processes for the production of optically pure drug intermediates and amino acids and their analogues. Other enzymes have been characterised at laboratory scale regarding their substrate specificity and properties for potential industrial application. The increasing availability of DNA sequences from new archaeal species and metagenomes will provide a continuing resource to identify new enzymes of commercial interest using both bioinformatics and screening approaches.

  19. Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John C.; Verdin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) has been looked upon as a carrier of energy from liver to peripheral tissues during fasting or exercise. However, βOHB also signals via extracellular receptors and acts as an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). These recent findings support a model in which βOHB functions to link the environment, in this case the diet, and gene expression via chromatin modifications. Here, we review the regulation and functions of ketone bodies, the relationship between ketone bodies and calorie restriction, and the implications of HDAC inhibition by the ketone body βOHB in the modulation of metabolism, and diseases of aging. PMID:24140022

  20. Highly engineered biocatalysts for efficient small molecule pharmaceutical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Jim

    2016-12-01

    Technologies for the engineering of biocatalysts for efficient synthesis of pharmaceutical targets have advanced dramatically over the last few years. Integration of computational methods for structural modeling, combined with high through put methods for expression and screening of biocatalysts and algorithms for mining experimental data, have allowed the creation of highly engineered biocatalysts for the efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Methods for the synthesis of chiral alcohols and amines have been particularly successful, along with the creation of non-natural activities for such desirable reactions as cyclopropanation and esterification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regio- and Stereoselective Modification of Chiral α-Amino Ketones by Pd-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation.

    PubMed

    Huwig, Kai; Schultz, Katharina; Kazmaier, Uli

    2015-07-27

    Chiral α-amino ketones are excellent nucleophiles for stereoselective palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylations. Both chiral as well as achiral allylic substrates can be applied, while the stereochemical outcome of the reaction is controlled by the chiral ketone enolate. The substituted amino ketones formed can be reduced stereoselectively, and up to five consecutive stereogenic centers can be obtained. This approach can be used for the synthesis of highly substituted piperidine derivatives.

  2. Biocatalysts and their small molecule products from metagenomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Hala A.; Feng, Zhiyang; Brady, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of bacteria present in environmental samples have never been cultured and therefore they have not been available to exploit their ability to produce useful biocatalysts or collections of biocatalysts that can biosynthesize interesting small molecules. Metagenomic libraries constructed using DNA extracted directly from natural bacterial communities offer access to the genetic information present in the genomes of these as yet uncultured bacteria. This review highlights recent efforts to recover both discrete enzymes and small molecules from metagenomic libraries. PMID:22455793

  3. Understanding biocatalyst inhibition by carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Jarboe, Laura R.; Royce, Liam A.; Liu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical in terms of their flexibility and usage as precursors for a variety of industrial chemicals. It has been demonstrated that such carboxylic acids can be fermentatively produced using engineered microbes, such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, like many other attractive biorenewable fuels and chemicals, carboxylic acids become inhibitory to these microbes at concentrations below the desired yield and titer. In fact, their potency as microbial inhibitors is highlighted by the fact that many of these carboxylic acids are routinely used as food preservatives. This review highlights the current knowledge regarding the impact that saturated, straight-chain carboxylic acids, such as hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and lauric acids can have on E. coli and S. cerevisiae, with the goal of identifying metabolic engineering strategies to increase robustness. Key effects of these carboxylic acids include damage to the cell membrane and a decrease of the microbial internal pH. Certain changes in cell membrane properties, such as composition, fluidity, integrity, and hydrophobicity, and intracellular pH are often associated with increased tolerance. The availability of appropriate exporters, such as Pdr12, can also increase tolerance. The effect on metabolic processes, such as maintaining appropriate respiratory function, regulation of Lrp activity and inhibition of production of key metabolites such as methionine, are also considered. Understanding the mechanisms of biocatalyst inhibition by these desirable products can aid in the engineering of robust strains with improved industrial performance. PMID:24027566

  4. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  5. Understanding biocatalyst inhibition by carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Jarboe, Laura R; Royce, Liam A; Liu, Ping

    2013-09-03

    Carboxylic acids are an attractive biorenewable chemical in terms of their flexibility and usage as precursors for a variety of industrial chemicals. It has been demonstrated that such carboxylic acids can be fermentatively produced using engineered microbes, such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, like many other attractive biorenewable fuels and chemicals, carboxylic acids become inhibitory to these microbes at concentrations below the desired yield and titer. In fact, their potency as microbial inhibitors is highlighted by the fact that many of these carboxylic acids are routinely used as food preservatives. This review highlights the current knowledge regarding the impact that saturated, straight-chain carboxylic acids, such as hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and lauric acids can have on E. coli and S. cerevisiae, with the goal of identifying metabolic engineering strategies to increase robustness. Key effects of these carboxylic acids include damage to the cell membrane and a decrease of the microbial internal pH. Certain changes in cell membrane properties, such as composition, fluidity, integrity, and hydrophobicity, and intracellular pH are often associated with increased tolerance. The availability of appropriate exporters, such as Pdr12, can also increase tolerance. The effect on metabolic processes, such as maintaining appropriate respiratory function, regulation of Lrp activity and inhibition of production of key metabolites such as methionine, are also considered. Understanding the mechanisms of biocatalyst inhibition by these desirable products can aid in the engineering of robust strains with improved industrial performance.

  6. Characterization of an Allylic/Benzyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Yokenella sp. Strain WZY002, an Organism Potentially Useful for the Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated Alcohols from Allylic Aldehydes and Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiangxian; Wang, Yifang; Xiong, Bin; Wu, Tingting; Xie, Liping; Yu, Meilan

    2014-01-01

    A novel whole-cell biocatalyst with high allylic alcohol-oxidizing activities was screened and identified as Yokenella sp. WZY002, which chemoselectively reduced the C=O bond of allylic aldehydes/ketones to the corresponding α,β-unsaturated alcohols at 30°C and pH 8.0. The strain also had the capacity of stereoselectively reducing aromatic ketones to (S)-enantioselective alcohols. The enzyme responsible for the predominant allylic/benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity was purified to homogeneity and designated YsADH (alcohol dehydrogenase from Yokenella sp.), which had a calculated subunit molecular mass of 36,411 Da. The gene encoding YsADH was subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant YsADH protein was characterized. The enzyme strictly required NADP(H) as a coenzyme and was putatively zinc dependent. The optimal pH and temperature for crotonaldehyde reduction were pH 6.5 and 65°C, whereas those for crotyl alcohol oxidation were pH 8.0 and 55°C. The enzyme showed moderate thermostability, with a half-life of 6.2 h at 55°C. It was robust in the presence of organic solvents and retained 87.5% of the initial activity after 24 h of incubation with 20% (vol/vol) dimethyl sulfoxide. The enzyme preferentially catalyzed allylic/benzyl aldehydes as the substrate in the reduction of aldehydes/ketones and yielded the highest activity of 427 U mg−1 for benzaldehyde reduction, while the alcohol oxidation reaction demonstrated the maximum activity of 79.9 U mg−1 using crotyl alcohol as the substrate. Moreover, kinetic parameters of the enzyme showed lower Km values and higher catalytic efficiency for crotonaldehyde/benzaldehyde and NADPH than for crotyl alcohol/benzyl alcohol and NADP+, suggesting the nature of being an aldehyde reductase. PMID:24509923

  7. Characterization of an allylic/benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Yokenella sp. strain WZY002, an organism potentially useful for the synthesis of α,β-unsaturated alcohols from allylic aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiangxian; Wang, Yifang; Xiong, Bin; Wu, Tingting; Xie, Liping; Yu, Meilan; Wang, Zhao

    2014-04-01

    A novel whole-cell biocatalyst with high allylic alcohol-oxidizing activities was screened and identified as Yokenella sp. WZY002, which chemoselectively reduced the C=O bond of allylic aldehydes/ketones to the corresponding α,β-unsaturated alcohols at 30°C and pH 8.0. The strain also had the capacity of stereoselectively reducing aromatic ketones to (S)-enantioselective alcohols. The enzyme responsible for the predominant allylic/benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity was purified to homogeneity and designated YsADH (alcohol dehydrogenase from Yokenella sp.), which had a calculated subunit molecular mass of 36,411 Da. The gene encoding YsADH was subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant YsADH protein was characterized. The enzyme strictly required NADP(H) as a coenzyme and was putatively zinc dependent. The optimal pH and temperature for crotonaldehyde reduction were pH 6.5 and 65°C, whereas those for crotyl alcohol oxidation were pH 8.0 and 55°C. The enzyme showed moderate thermostability, with a half-life of 6.2 h at 55°C. It was robust in the presence of organic solvents and retained 87.5% of the initial activity after 24 h of incubation with 20% (vol/vol) dimethyl sulfoxide. The enzyme preferentially catalyzed allylic/benzyl aldehydes as the substrate in the reduction of aldehydes/ketones and yielded the highest activity of 427 U mg(-1) for benzaldehyde reduction, while the alcohol oxidation reaction demonstrated the maximum activity of 79.9 U mg(-1) using crotyl alcohol as the substrate. Moreover, kinetic parameters of the enzyme showed lower Km values and higher catalytic efficiency for crotonaldehyde/benzaldehyde and NADPH than for crotyl alcohol/benzyl alcohol and NADP(+), suggesting the nature of being an aldehyde reductase.

  8. Simultaneous biocatalyst production and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation for bioconversion of cyclohexanone by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Yong-Cheol; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Kyungmoon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) catalyzing Baeyer-Villiger oxidation converts cyclic ketones into optically pure lactones, which have been used as building blocks in organic synthesis. A recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pMM4 expressing CHMO originated from Acinetobacter sp. NCIB 9871 was used to produce epsilon-caprolactone through a simultaneous biocatalyst production and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation (SPO) process. A fed-batch process was designed to obtain high cell density for improving production of epsilon-caprolactone. The fed-batch SPO process gave the best results, 10.2 g/L of epsilon-caprolactone and 0.34 g/(L.h) of productivity, corresponding to a 10.5- and 3.4-fold enhancement compared with those of the batch SPO, respectively.

  9. Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype?

    PubMed

    Pinckaers, Philippe J M; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bailey, David; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-03-01

    Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Dietary strategies to increase endogenous ketone body availability (i.e., a ketogenic diet) require a diet high in lipids and low in carbohydrates for ~4 days to induce nutritional ketosis. However, a high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet may impair exercise performance via reducing the capacity to utilize carbohydrate, which forms a key fuel source for skeletal muscle during intense endurance-type exercise. Recently, ketone body supplements (ketone salts and esters) have emerged and may be used to rapidly increase ketone body availability, without the need to first adapt to a ketogenic diet. However, the extent to which ketone bodies regulate skeletal muscle bioenergetics and substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance-type exercise of varying intensity and duration remains unknown. Therefore, at present there are no data available to suggest that ingestion of ketone bodies during exercise improves athletes' performance under conditions where evidence-based nutritional strategies are applied appropriately.

  10. Volatilization of ketones from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The overall mass-transfer coefficients for the volatilization from water of acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-octanone were measured simultaneously with the oxygen-absorption coefficient in a laboratory stirred water bath. The liquid-film and gas-film coefficients of the two-film model were determined for the ketones from the overall coefficients, and both film resistances were important for volatilization of the ketones.The liquid-film coefficients for the ketones varied with the 0.719 power of the molecular-diffusion coefficient, in agreement with the literature. The liquid-film coefficients showed a variable dependence on molecular weight, with the dependence ranging from the −0.263 power for acetone to the −0.378 power for 2-octanone. This is in contrast with the literature where a constant −0.500 power dependence on the molecular weight is assumed.The gas-film coefficients for the ketones showed no dependence on molecular weight, in contrast with the literature where a −0.500 power is assumed.

  11. Bacterial production of methyl ketones

    DOEpatents

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been

    2017-01-31

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for increasing production of methyl ketones in a genetically modified host cell that overproduces .beta.-ketoacyl-CoAs through a re-engineered .beta.-oxidation pathway and overexpresses FadM.

  12. Stereoselective titanium-mediated aldol reactions of a chiral lactate-derived ethyl ketone with ketones.

    PubMed

    Alcoberro, Sandra; Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Solà, Ricard; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Font-Bardia, Mercè

    2014-01-17

    Aldol reactions of titanium enolates of lactate-derived ethyl ketone 1 with other ketones proceed in a very efficient and stereocontrolled manner provided that a further equivalent of TiCl4 is added to the reacting mixture. The scope of these reactions encompasses simple ketones such as acetone or cyclohexanone as well as other ketones that contain potential chelating groups such as pyruvate esters or α- and β-hydroxy ketones.

  13. Ketone production in ultra marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Weibel, J; Glonek, T

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of ketone production in ultra marathon runners and what affect if any this has on performance. Participants in the Cliff Young Australian Six Day Race (n=31) provided a prerace urine sample and, then, random urine samples throughout the duration of the event, ranging from 4-20 samples each. Based on urinalysis results, participants were divided into two groups: those who formed ketones (ketone group), and those who did not form ketones or formed ketones only once during a race at the lowest recordable value (non-ketone group). The average ketone level of the 22 athletes in the ketone group (value+/-standard deviation: 5.67+/-5.59 mg/dL) was statistically different from 9 athletes who were in the non-ketone group (0.18+/-0.14 mg/dL) (P<0.05). The average distances run for the two groups were 498.09+/-153.99 and 535.6+/-181.08 km, respectively (P=0.56). When average ketone value was compared, excluding runners who did not complete the race, the ketone group (5.88+/-1.37) remained statistically different from the non-ketone group (0.2+/-0.45) (P<0.05). The average distances for those athletes who completed the race were 583.9+/-116.09 and 557.8+/-85.82 km, respectively (P=0.52). We conclude that although two runner sub-populations were revealed, runners who produce ketones and runners who do not make ketones, the level of ketones produced did not affect overall distance run, which is the performance criterion of the race. The nature of this extreme event has illuminated a physiologic difference among ultra marathon runners, and although this difference does not appear to affect race performance, the long-term health consequences are unknown and additional rigorous research is warranted.

  14. A practical catalytic asymmetric addition of alkyl groups to ketones.

    PubMed

    García, Celina; LaRochelle, Lynne K; Walsh, Patrick J

    2002-09-18

    Many catalysts will promote the asymmetric addition of alkylzinc reagents to aldehydes. In contrast, there are no reports of additions to ketones that are both general and highly enantioselective. We describe herein a practical catalytic asymmetric addition of ethyl groups to ketones. The catalyst is derived from reaction of camphor sulfonyl chloride and trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. The resulting diketone is reduced with NaBH4 to give the C2-symmetric exo diastereomer. Use of this ligand with titanium tetraisopropoxide and dialkylzinc at room temperature results in enantioselective addition of the alkyl group to the ketone. The resulting tertiary alcohols are isolated with high enantiomeric excess (all cases give greater than 87% ee, except one). The reaction has been run with 37 mmol (5 g) 3-methylacetophenone and 2 mol % catalyst to afford 73% yield of the resulting tertiary alcohol with 99% ee.

  15. Lactobacillus casei as a biocatalyst for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Vinay-Lara, Elena; Wang, Song; Bai, Lina; Phrommao, Ekkarat; Broadbent, Jeff R; Steele, James L

    2016-09-01

    Microbial fermentation of sugars from plant biomass to alcohols represents an alternative to petroleum-based fuels. The optimal biocatalyst for such fermentations needs to overcome hurdles such as high concentrations of alcohols and toxic compounds. Lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli, have high innate alcohol tolerance and are remarkably adaptive to harsh environments. This study assessed the potential of five Lactobacillus casei strains as biocatalysts for alcohol production. L. casei 12A was selected based upon its innate alcohol tolerance, high transformation efficiency and ability to utilize plant-derived carbohydrates. A 12A derivative engineered to produce ethanol (L. casei E1) was compared to two other bacterial biocatalysts. Maximal growth rate, maximal optical density and ethanol production were determined under conditions similar to those present during alcohol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks. L. casei E1 exhibited higher innate alcohol tolerance, better growth in the presence of corn stover hydrolysate stressors, and resulted in higher ethanol yields.

  16. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-03-19

    An apparatus is described for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  17. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Scott, Timothy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  18. Bioreduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes by non-conventional yeast (NCY) whole-cells.

    PubMed

    Goretti, Marta; Ponzoni, Chiara; Caselli, Elisa; Marchegiani, Elisabetta; Cramarossa, Maria Rita; Turchetti, Benedetta; Forti, Luca; Buzzini, Pietro

    2011-03-01

    The bioreduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones (ketoisophorone, 2-methyl- and 3-methyl-cyclopentenone) and aldehydes [(S)-(-)-perillaldehyde and α-methyl-cinnamaldehyde] by 23 "non-conventional" yeasts (NCYs) belonging to 21 species of the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Lindnera, Nakaseomyces, Vanderwaltozyma, and Wickerhamomyces was reported. The results highlight the potential of NCYs as whole-cell biocatalysts for selective biotransformation of electron-poor alkenes. A few NCYs exhibited extremely high (>90%) or even total ketoisophorone and 2-methyl-cyclopentenone bioconversion yields via asymmetric reduction of the conjugated CC bond catalyzed by enoate reductases. Catalytic efficiency declined after switching from ketones to aldehydes. High chemoselectivity due to low competing carbonyl reductases was also sometimes observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of difluoromethyl ketones as agonists of the γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor.

    PubMed

    Han, Changho; Salyer, Amy E; Kim, Eun Hoo; Jiang, Xinyi; Jarrard, Rachel E; Powers, Matthew S; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Salvador, Tolani K; Chester, Julia A; Hockerman, Gregory H; Colby, David A

    2013-03-28

    The design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and in vivo studies of difluoromethyl ketones as GABAB agonists that are not structurally analogous to known GABAB agonists, such as baclofen or 3-aminopropyl phosphinic acid, are presented. The difluoromethyl ketones were assembled in three synthetic steps using a trifluoroacetate-release aldol reaction. Following evaluation at clinically relevant GABA receptors, we have identified a difluoromethyl ketone that is a potent GABAB agonist, obtained its X-ray structure, and presented preliminary in vivo data in alcohol-preferring mice. The behavioral studies in mice demonstrated that this compound tended to reduce the acoustic startle response, which is consistent with an anxiolytic profile. Structure-activity investigations determined that replacing the fluorines of the difluoromethyl ketone with hydrogens resulted in an inactive analogue. Resolution of the individual enantiomers of the difluoromethyl ketone provided a compound with full biological activity at concentrations less than an order of magnitude greater than the pharmaceutical, baclofen.

  20. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

  1. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-01

    A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

  2. Cerebral ketone metabolism during development and injury.

    PubMed

    Prins, Mayumi L

    2012-07-01

    Cerebral metabolism of ketones is a normal part of the process of brain development. While the mature brain relies on glucose as a primary fuel source, metabolism of ketone bodies remains an alternative energy source under conditions of starvation. The neuroprotective properties of brain ketone metabolism make this alternative substrate a viable therapeutic option for various pathologies. Since the ability to revert to utilizing ketones as an alternative substrate is greatest in the younger post-weaned brain, this particular therapeutic approach remains an untapped resource particularly for pediatric pathological conditions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cerebral Ketone Metabolism During Development and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism of ketones is a normal part of the process of brain development. While the mature brain relies on glucose as a primary fuel source, metabolism of ketone bodies remains an alternative energy source under conditions of starvation. The neuroprotective properties of brain ketone metabolism make this alternative substrate a viable therapeutic option for various pathologies. Since the ability to revert to utilizing ketones as an alternative substrate is greatest in the younger post-weaned brain, this particular therapeutic approach remains an untapped resource particularly for pediatric pathological conditions. PMID:22104087

  4. A Convergent Radical Based Route to Trifluoromethyl Ketones and to α,β-Unsaturated Trifluoromethyl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Anthore, Lucile; Zard, Samir Z

    2015-06-19

    A convergent synthesis of trifluoromethyl ketones and α,β-unsaturated trifluoromethyl ketones is described, starting with aliphatic iodides and dithiocarbonates (xanthates) and exploiting both the α- and β-fragmentations of a sulfonyl radical. The transformation initially furnishes the ketones in a masked enol carbonate form, from which they can be easily regenerated.

  5. KETONES INHIBIT MITOCHONDRIAL PRODUCTION OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION FOLLOWING GLUTAMATE EXCITOTOXICITY BY INCREASING NADH OXIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Marwan; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Davis, Laurie; Kim, Do Young; Rho, Jong M.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary protocols that increase serum levels of ketones, such as calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet, offer robust protection against a multitude of acute and chronic neurological diseases. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet may reduce free radical levels in the brain. Thus, one possibility is that ketones may mediate neuroprotection through antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of the ketones β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate on acutely dissociated rat neocortical neurons subjected to glutamate excitotoxicity using cellular electrophysiological and single-cell fluorescence imaging techniques. Further, we explored the effects of ketones on acutely isolated mitochondria exposed to high levels of calcium. A combination of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (1 mM each) decreased neuronal death and prevented changes in neuronal membrane properties induced by 10 μM glutamate. Ketones also significantly decreased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and the associated excitotoxic changes by increasing NADH oxidation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but did not affect levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ketones reduce glutamate-induced free radical formation by increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio and enhancing mitochondrial respiration in neocortical neurons. This mechanism may, in part, contribute to the neuroprotective activity of ketones by restoring normal bioenergetic function in the face of oxidative stress. PMID:17240074

  6. Stabilization by multipoint covalent attachment of a biocatalyst with polygalacturonase activity used for juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Tapias, Yuly A; Rivero, Cintia W; Gallego, Fernando López; Guisán, José M; Trelles, Jorge A

    2016-10-01

    Derivatized-agarose supports are suitable for enzyme immobilization by different methods, taking advantage of different physical, chemical and biological conditions of the protein and the support. In this study, agarose particles were modified with MANAE, PEI and glyoxyl groups and evaluated to stabilize polygalacturonase from Streptomyces halstedii ATCC 10897. A new immobilized biocatalyst was developed using glyoxyl-agarose as support; it exhibited high performance in degrading polygalacturonic acid and releasing oligogalacturonides. Maximal enzyme activity was detected at 5h of reaction using 0.05g/mL of immobilized biocatalyst, which released 3mg/mL of reducing sugars and allowed the highest product yield conversion and increased stability. These results are very favorable for pectin degradation with reusability up to 18 successive reactions (90h) and application in juice clarification. Plum (4.7°Bx) and grape (10.6°Bx) juices were successfully clarified, increasing reducing sugars content and markedly decreasing turbidity and viscosity.

  7. Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines from ketones applied to sitagliptin manufacture.

    PubMed

    Savile, Christopher K; Janey, Jacob M; Mundorff, Emily C; Moore, Jeffrey C; Tam, Sarena; Jarvis, William R; Colbeck, Jeffrey C; Krebber, Anke; Fleitz, Fred J; Brands, Jos; Devine, Paul N; Huisman, Gjalt W; Hughes, Gregory J

    2010-07-16

    Pharmaceutical synthesis can benefit greatly from the selectivity gains associated with enzymatic catalysis. Here, we report an efficient biocatalytic process to replace a recently implemented rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric enamine hydrogenation for the large-scale manufacture of the antidiabetic compound sitagliptin. Starting from an enzyme that had the catalytic machinery to perform the desired chemistry but lacked any activity toward the prositagliptin ketone, we applied a substrate walking, modeling, and mutation approach to create a transaminase with marginal activity for the synthesis of the chiral amine; this variant was then further engineered via directed evolution for practical application in a manufacturing setting. The resultant biocatalysts showed broad applicability toward the synthesis of chiral amines that previously were accessible only via resolution. This work underscores the maturation of biocatalysis to enable efficient, economical, and environmentally benign processes for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals.

  8. Oxidative metabolism: glucose versus ketones.

    PubMed

    Prince, Allison; Zhang, Yifan; Croniger, Colleen; Puchowicz, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of upstream oxidative processes (glycolysis, beta-oxidation, CAC turnover) to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) under the driving conditions of energy demand by the cell results in the liberation of free energy as ATP. Perturbations in glycolytic CAC or OXPHOS can result in pathology or cell death. To better understand whole body energy expenditure during chronic ketosis, we used a diet-induced rat model of ketosis to determine if high-fat-carbohydrate-restricted "ketogenic" diet results in changes in total energy expenditure (TEE). Consistent with previous reports of increased energy expenditure in mice, we hypothesized that rats fed ketogenic diet for 3 weeks would result in increased resting energy expenditure due to alterations in metabolism associated with a "switch" in energy substrate from glucose to ketone bodies. The rationale is ketone bodies are a more efficient fuel than glucose. Indirect calorimetric analysis revealed a moderate increase in VO2 and decreased VCO2 and heat with ketosis. These results suggest ketosis induces a moderate uncoupling state and less oxidative efficiency compared to glucose oxidation.

  9. Ketones suppress brain glucose consumption.

    PubMed

    LaManna, Joseph C; Salem, Nicolas; Puchowicz, Michelle; Erokwu, Bernadette; Koppaka, Smruta; Flask, Chris; Lee, Zhenghong

    2009-01-01

    The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc), as occurs with fasting, prolonged starvation or chronic feeding of a high fat/low carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet). In this study, the local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose consumption (CMRglu; microM/min/100g) was calculated in the cortex and cerebellum of control and ketotic rats using Patlak analysis. Rats were imaged on a rodent PET scanner and MRI was performed on a 7-Tesla Bruker scanner for registration with the PET images. Plasma glucose and beta HB concentrations were measured and 90-minute dynamic PET scans were started simultaneously with bolus injection of 2-Deoxy-2[18F]Fluoro-D-Glucose (FDG). The blood radioactivity concentration was automatically sampled from the tail vein for 3 min following injection and manual periodic blood samples were taken. The calculated local CMRGlu decreased with increasing plasma BHB concentration in the cerebellum (CMRGlu = -4.07*[BHB] + 61.4, r2 = 0.3) and in the frontal cortex (CMRGlu = -3.93*[BHB] + 42.7, r2 = 0.5). These data indicate that, under conditions of ketosis, glucose consumption is decreased in the cortex and cerebellum by about 10% per each mM of plasma ketone bodies.

  10. Mild electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolation of ketones with trifluoromethanesulfanamide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xuxue; Liang, Fang; Cao, Song

    2015-07-07

    A straightforward and convenient approach for trifluoromethylthiolation of various acyclic and cyclic ketones with PhNHSCF3 is described. The reaction proceeds smoothly in the presence of acetyl chloride at room temperature and affords α-trifluoromethylthiolated ketones in fair to good yields.

  11. Clinical review: ketones and brain injury.

    PubMed

    White, Hayden; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian

    2011-04-06

    Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain's energy needs, more efficiently than glucose. Studies suggest that during times of acute brain injury, cerebral uptake of ketones increases significantly. Researchers have thus attempted to attenuate the effects of cerebral injury by administering ketones exogenously. Hypertonic saline is commonly utilized for management of intracranial hypertension following cerebral injury. A solution containing both hypertonic saline and ketones may prove ideal for managing the dual problems of refractory intracranial hypertension and low cerebral energy levels. The purpose of the present review is to explore the physiology of ketone body utilization by the brain in health and in a variety of neurological conditions, and to discuss the potential for ketone supplementation as a therapeutic option in traumatic brain injury.

  12. Clinical review: Ketones and brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain's energy needs, more efficiently than glucose. Studies suggest that during times of acute brain injury, cerebral uptake of ketones increases significantly. Researchers have thus attempted to attenuate the effects of cerebral injury by administering ketones exogenously. Hypertonic saline is commonly utilized for management of intracranial hypertension following cerebral injury. A solution containing both hypertonic saline and ketones may prove ideal for managing the dual problems of refractory intracranial hypertension and low cerebral energy levels. The purpose of the present review is to explore the physiology of ketone body utilization by the brain in health and in a variety of neurological conditions, and to discuss the potential for ketone supplementation as a therapeutic option in traumatic brain injury. PMID:21489321

  13. Storage stability of ketones on carbon adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Alcaraz, M J; Fuentes, A; Garrido, J; Periago, J F

    2006-09-29

    Activated coconut carbon constitutes the more widely used sorbent for preconcentration of volatile organic compounds in sampling workplace air. Water vapour is always present in the air and its adsorption on the activated carbon surface is a serious drawback, mainly when sampling polar organic compounds, such as ketones. In this case, the recovery of the compounds diminishes; moreover, ketones can be decomposed during storage. Synthetic carbons contain less inorganic impurities and have a lower capacity for water adsorption than coconut charcoal. The aim of this work was to evaluate the storage stability of various ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone and cyclohexanone) on different activated carbons and to study the effect of adsorbed water vapour under different storage conditions. The effect of storage temperature on extraction efficiencies was significant for each ketone in all the studied sorbents. Recovery was higher when samples were stored at 4 degrees C. The results obtained for storage stability of the studied ketones showed that the performance of synthetic carbons was better than for the coconut charcoals. The water adsorption and the ash content of the carbons can be a measure of the reactive sites that may chemisorb ketones or catalize their decomposition. Anasorb 747 showed good ketone stability at least for 7 days, except for cyclohexanone. After 30-days storage, the stability of the studied ketones was excellent on Carboxen 564. This sorbent had a nearly negligible ash content and the adsorbed water was much lower than for the other sorbents tested.

  14. High-yield production of meso-2,3-butanediol from cellodextrin by engineered E. coli biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, San-Hwal; Wu, Jianrong; Rutter, Charles; Kim, Seon-Won; Chen, Rachel R

    2012-08-01

    Escherichia coli has been engineered to produce a variety of biofuel and biorefinery products. However, it can only produce these products from simple sugars, requiring large amounts of enzymes to depolymerize cellulose into monomer sugars. Engineering E. coli to directly use cellodextrin, the partial hydrolysis product of cellulose, potentially could reduce the requirement of enzyme thereby the overall cost. Through a combination of gene deletion, introduction of a synthetic operon, and periplasmic expression of a Saccharophagus cellodextrinase, we engineered, for the first time, an E. coli biocatalyst capable of producing BDO from cellodextrin. The success of the engineering strategy is evidenced by the high BDO yield (>80%) from cellodextrin. We additionally demonstrate that the engineered biocatalyst can be advantageously used in a SSF process for BDO production from cellulose as the expression of cellodextrinase from a BDO producer augments the insufficient β-glucosidase activities in a commercial cellulase cocktail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pseudomonas: a promising biocatalyst for the bioconversion of terpenes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Gustavo; Pimentel, Mariana R; Pastore, Gláucia M

    2013-03-01

    The Pseudomonas genus is one of the most diverse and ecologically significant groups of known bacteria, and it includes species that have been isolated worldwide in all types of environments. The bacteria from this genus are characterized by an elevated metabolic versatility, which is due to the presence of a complex enzymatic system. Investigations since the early 1960s have demonstrated their potential as biocatalysts for the production of industrially relevant and value-added flavor compounds from terpenes. Although terpenes are often removed from essential oils as undesirable components, its synthetic oxy-functionalized derivatives have broad applications in flavors/fragrances and pharmaceutical industries. Hence, biotransformation appears to be an effective tool for the structural modification of terpene hydrocarbons and terpenoids to synthesize novel and high-valued compounds. This review highlights the potential of Pseudomonas spp. as biocatalysts for the bioconversion of terpenes and summarizes the presently known bioflavors that are obtained from these processes.

  16. Arthrobacter oxydans as a biocatalyst for purine deamination.

    PubMed

    Médici, Rosario; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2008-12-01

    Deaminases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amino groups of nucleosides or their bases. Because these enzymes play important roles in nucleotide metabolism, they are relevant targets in anticancer and antibacterial therapies. Mammalian deaminases are commercially available but the use of bacterial whole cells, especially as biocatalysts, is continuously growing because of their economical benefits. Moreover, deaminases are useful for the preparative chemoenzymatic transformation of nucleoside and base analogues into a variety of derivatives. The purine deaminase activities of Arthrobacter oxydans, a gram-positive bacterium utilized widely in bioremediation, were studied. The presence of adenosine, adenine and guanine deaminases was demonstrated and some purine bases and nucleosides were analyzed as substrates. Using A. oxydans whole cells as the biocatalyst, different purine compounds such as the anti-HIV, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (73%, 2 h) were obtained.

  17. Cyanobacteria as photosynthetic biocatalysts: a systems biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Steinn; Nogales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing need to replace oil-based products and to address global climate change concerns has triggered considerable interest in photosynthetic microorganisms. Cyanobacteria, in particular, have great potential as biocatalysts for fuels and fine-chemicals. During the last few years the biotechnological applications of cyanobacteria have experienced an unprecedented increase and the use of these photosynthetic organisms for chemical production is becoming a tangible reality. However, the field is still immature and many concerns about the economic feasibility of the biotechnological potential of cyanobacteria remain. In this review we describe recent successes in biofuel and fine-chemical production using cyanobacteria. We discuss the role of the photosynthetic metabolism and highlight the need for systems-level metabolic optimization in order to achieve the true potential of cyanobacterial biocatalysts.

  18. A ketogenic diet increases transport and oxidation of ketone bodies in RG2 and 9L gliomas without affecting tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    De Feyter, Henk M.; Behar, Kevin L.; Rao, Jyotsna U.; Madden-Hennessey, Kirby; Ip, Kevan L.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Drewes, Lester R.; Geschwind, Jean-François; de Graaf, Robin A.; Rothman, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The dependence of tumor cells, particularly those originating in the brain, on glucose is the target of the ketogenic diet, which creates a plasma nutrient profile similar to fasting: increased levels of ketone bodies and reduced plasma glucose concentrations. The use of ketogenic diets has been of particular interest for therapy in brain tumors, which reportedly lack the ability to oxidize ketone bodies and therefore would be starved during ketosis. Because studies assessing the tumors' ability to oxidize ketone bodies are lacking, we investigated in vivo the extent of ketone body oxidation in 2 rodent glioma models. Methods Ketone body oxidation was studied using 13C MR spectroscopy in combination with infusion of a 13C-labeled ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate) in RG2 and 9L glioma models. The level of ketone body oxidation was compared with nontumorous cortical brain tissue. Results The level of 13C–beta-hydroxybutyrate oxidation in 2 rat glioma models was similar to that of contralateral brain. In addition, when glioma-bearing animals were fed a ketogenic diet, the ketone body monocarboxylate transporter was upregulated, facilitating uptake and oxidation of ketone bodies in the gliomas. Conclusions These results demonstrate that rat gliomas can oxidize ketone bodies and indicate upregulation of ketone body transport when fed a ketogenic diet. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that brain tumors are metabolically inflexible and show the need for additional research on the use of ketogenic diets as therapy targeting brain tumor metabolism. PMID:27142056

  19. Comparative inhibition of tetrameric carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart cytosol by alkyl 4-pyridyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Tanigawa, Takahiro; Matayoshi, Kazunori; Katakura, Kazufumi; Babazono, Ken; Takayama, Hiroyuki; Murahashi, Tsuyoshi; Akita, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Toshiyuki; Eto, Masashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2014-06-01

    The present study is to elucidate the comparative inhibition of tetrameric carbonyl reductase (TCBR) activity by alkyl 4-pyridyl ketones, and to characterize its substrate-binding domain. The inhibitory effects of alkyl 4-pyridyl ketones on the stereoselective reduction of 4-benzoylpyridine (4-BP) catalyzed by TCBR were examined in the cytosolic fraction of pig heart. Of alkyl 4-pyridyl ketones, 4-hexanoylpyridine, which has a straight-chain alkyl group of five carbon atoms, inhibited most potently TCBR activity and was a competitive inhibitor. Furthermore, cyclohexyl pentyl ketone, which is substituted by cyclohexyl group instead of phenyl group of hexanophenone, had much lower ability to be reduced than hexanophenone. These results suggest that in addition to a hydrophobic cleft corresponding to a straight-chain alkyl group of five carbon atoms, a hydrophobic pocket with affinity for an aromatic group is located in the substrate-binding domain of TCBR.

  20. Ketones block amyloid entry and improve cognition in an Alzheimer's model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun Xiang; Maalouf, Marwan; Han, Pengcheng; Zhao, Minglei; Gao, Ming; Dharshaun, Turner; Ryan, Christopher; Whitelegge, Julian; Wu, Jie; Eisenberg, David; Reiman, Eric M; Schweizer, Felix E; Shi, Jiong

    2016-03-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is responsible for 60%-80% of dementia cases, and the most opportune time for preventive intervention is in the earliest stage of its preclinical phase. As traditional mitochondrial energy substrates, ketone bodies (ketones, for short), beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate, have been reported to provide symptomatic improvement and disease-modifying activity in epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, ketones are thought as more than just metabolites and also as endogenous factors protecting against AD. In this study, we discovered a novel neuroprotective mechanism of ketones in which they blocked amyloid-β 42, a pathologic hallmark protein of AD, entry into neurons. The suppression of intracellular amyloid-β 42 accumulation rescued mitochondrial complex I activity, reduced oxidative stress, and improved synaptic plasticity. Most importantly, we show that peripheral administration of ketones significantly reduced amyloid burden and greatly improved learning and memory ability in a symptomatic mouse model of AD. These observations provide us insights to understand and to establish a novel therapeutic use of ketones in AD prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extent of charge transfer in the photoreduction of phenyl ketones by alkylbenzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, P.J.; Truman, R.J.; Puchalski, A.E.; Wake, R.

    1986-11-26

    Rate constants for triplet-state reaction of various ring-substituted benzophenones (BPs), acetophenones (APs), and ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..-trifluoroacetophenones (TFAs) with toluene and p-xylene have been determined by a combination of flash kinetics, steady-state quenching, and quantum yield measurements. The relative amounts of primary and tertiary radicals formed by reaction of the same ketones with p-cymene have also been measured. For all three types of ketones, rate constants correlate well with triplet ketone reduction potentials. The magnitude of the kinetic isotope effects observed with toluene-d/sub 8/ and p-xylene-d/sub 10/ diminishes as the ketones become easier to reduce. All of the ketone triplets react with alkylbenzenes primarily by a charge-transfer mechanism, with the rate-determining step changing from complexation to hydrogen transfer as the ketones become harder to reduce. The least reactive AP triplets probably react significantly via simple hydrogen atom abstraction as well. Those ketones with n,..pi..* lowest triplets (all BPs and some APs) react with p-cymene to give primary/tertiary radical ratios that vary no more than a factor of 2 from the 0.40 value displayed by tert-butoxy radicals; those with ..pi..,..pi..* lowest triplets (TFAs and some APs) give ratios that favor primary radicals and that vary by an order of magnitude with the triplet ketone reduction potential. The variation in cymene product ratios reflects different orientations for attack on cymene by n,..pi..* and ..pi..,..pi..* triplets and differing degrees of partial electron transfer within the exciplexes, which are not tight radical ion pairs.

  2. Immobilization of DNAzyme as a thermostable biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshihiro; Hasuda, Hirokazu

    2004-04-05

    Deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) carrying peroxidase activity was immobilized on two types of particles and the enzymatic activity was measured. The DNA recognizing porphyrin were prepared according to Travascio et al. ([1998] Chem Biol 5:505-517) and the interactions with hemin were investigated by ultraviolet absorbance and circular dichroism spectroscopies. The DNA interacted with hemin and significant conformational change was induced by the interaction. Therefore, the end of this DNA was modified with a thiol group and it was immobilized on thiol-containing polysaccharide beads or on gold particles. The DNA immobilized on the gold particle showed activity catalyzing the peroxidation reaction. No significant reduction of activity was observed even after immobilization. The immobilized DNAzyme could be repeatedly utilized without significant loss of activity. In addition, heat treatment did not reduce the activity, although a protein enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, lost its activity after the heat treatment. The repertoire of DNAzyme is still currently limited. However, in the future the utilization of DNAzyme in the field of biotechnology will be important with the increase of discoveries of new functional DNAzymes.

  3. Metabolic reprogramming induced by ketone bodies diminishes pancreatic cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. To fulfill the increased energy requirements, tumor cells secrete cytokines/factors inducing muscle and fat degradation in cancer patients, a condition known as cancer cachexia. It accounts for nearly 20% of all cancer-related deaths. However, the mechanistic basis of cancer cachexia and therapies targeting cancer cachexia thus far remain elusive. A ketogenic diet, a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that elevates circulating levels of ketone bodies (i.e., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone), serves as an alternative energy source. It has also been proposed that a ketogenic diet leads to systemic metabolic changes. Keeping in view the significant role of metabolic alterations in cancer, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet may diminish glycolytic flux in tumor cells to alleviate cachexia syndrome and, hence, may provide an efficient therapeutic strategy. Results We observed reduced glycolytic flux in tumor cells upon treatment with ketone bodies. Ketone bodies also diminished glutamine uptake, overall ATP content, and survival in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines, while inducing apoptosis. A decrease in levels of c-Myc, a metabolic master regulator, and its recruitment on glycolytic gene promoters, was in part responsible for the metabolic phenotype in tumor cells. Ketone body-induced intracellular metabolomic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer cells also leads to a significantly diminished cachexia in cell line models. Our mouse orthotopic xenograft models further confirmed the effect of a ketogenic diet in diminishing tumor growth and cachexia. Conclusions Thus, our studies demonstrate that the cachectic phenotype is in part due to metabolic alterations in tumor cells, which can be reverted by a ketogenic diet, causing reduced tumor growth and inhibition of muscle and body weight loss. PMID:25228990

  4. Homologation Reaction of Ketones with Diazo Compounds.

    PubMed

    Candeias, Nuno R; Paterna, Roberta; Gois, Pedro M P

    2016-03-09

    This review covers the addition of diazo compounds to ketones to afford homologated ketones, either in the presence or in the absence of promoters or catalysts. Reactions with diazoalkanes, aryldiazomethanes, trimethylsilyldiazomethane, α-diazo esters, and disubstituted diazo compounds are covered, commenting on the complex regiochemistry of the reaction and the nature of the catalysts and promoters. The recent reports on the enantioselective version of ketone homologation reactions are gathered in one section, followed by reports on the use of cyclic ketones ring expansion in total synthesis. Although the first reports of this reaction appeared in the literature almost one century ago, the recent achievements, in particular, for the asymmetric version, forecast the development of new breakthroughs in the synthetically valuable field of diazo chemistry.

  5. Characterization of an industrial biocatalyst: immobilized glutaryl-7-ACA acylase.

    PubMed

    Monti, D; Carrea, G; Riva, S; Baldaro, E; Frare, G

    2000-10-20

    A batch of the immobilized industrial biocatalyst glutaryl-7-ACA acylase (GA), one of the two enzymes involved in the biotransformation of cephalosporin C (CefC) into 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), was characterized. K(m) value for glutaryl-7-ACA was 5 mM. Enzyme activity was found to be optimal at pH between 7 and 9.5 and to increase with temperature and in buffered solutions. To avoid product degradation, optimal reaction conditions were obtained working at 25 degrees C using a 50-mM phosphate buffer, pH 8.0. Immobilized GA showed good stability at pH value below 9 and at temperature up to 30 degrees C. The inactivation of immobilized GA in the presence of different amounts of H(2)O(2), a side product that might be present in the plant-scale industrial solutions of glutaryl-7-ACA, was also investigated, but the deactivation rates were negligible at H(2)O(2) concentration that might be reached under operative conditions. Finally, biocatalyst performance in the complete two-step enzymatic conversion process from CefC to 7-ACA was determined on a laboratory scale. Following the complete conversion of a 75 mM solution of CefC into glutaryl-7-ACA catalyzed by an immobilized D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), immobilized GA was used for the transformation of this intermediate into the final product 7-ACA. This reaction was repeated for 42 cycles. An estimation of the residual activity of the biocatalyst showed that 50% inactivation of immobilized GA was reached after approximately 300 cycles, corresponding to an enzyme consumption of 0.4 kU per kg of isolated 7-ACA. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Iodine promoted α-hydroxylation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Siddaraju, Yogesh; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2015-06-28

    A novel method for α-hydroxylation of ketones using substoichiometric amount of iodine under metal-free conditions is described. This method has been successfully employed in synthesizing a variety of heterocyclic compounds, which are useful precursors. α-Hydroxylation of diketones and triketones are illustrated. This strategy provides a novel, efficient, mild and inexpensive method for α-hydroxylation of aryl ketones using a sub-stoichiometric amount of molecular iodine.

  7. Thermostable Enzymes as Biocatalysts in the Biofuel Industry

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, Carl J.; Han, Yejun; Dodd, Dylan; Schroeder, Charles M.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate source in nature and represents an ideal renewable energy source. Thermostable enzymes that hydrolyze lignocellulose to its component sugars have significant advantages for improving the conversion rate of biomass over their mesophilic counterparts. We review here the recent literature on the development and use of thermostable enzymes for the depolymerization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuel production. Furthermore, we discuss the protein structure, mechanisms of thermostability, and specific strategies that can be used to improve the thermal stability of lignocellulosic biocatalysts. PMID:20359453

  8. Thermostable enzymes as biocatalysts in the biofuel industry.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, Carl J; Han, Yejun; Dodd, Dylan; Schroeder, Charles M; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate source in nature and represents an ideal renewable energy source. Thermostable enzymes that hydrolyze lignocellulose to its component sugars have significant advantages for improving the conversion rate of biomass over their mesophilic counterparts. We review here the recent literature on the development and use of thermostable enzymes for the depolymerization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuel production. Furthermore, we discuss the protein structure, mechanisms of thermostability, and specific strategies that can be used to improve the thermal stability of lignocellulosic biocatalysts.

  9. Solvation of Esters and Ketones in Supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Daisuke; Imanishi, Masayoshi; Saitow, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-04

    Vibrational Raman spectra for the C═O stretching modes of three esters with different functional groups (methyl, a single phenyl, and two phenyl groups) were measured in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The results were compared with Raman spectra for three ketones involving the same functional groups, measured at the same thermodynamic states in scCO2. The peak frequencies of the Raman spectra of these six solute molecules were analyzed by decomposition into the attractive and repulsive energy components, based on the perturbed hard-sphere theory. For all solute molecules, the attractive energy is greater than the repulsive energy. In particular, a significant difference in the attractive energies of the ester-CO2 and ketone-CO2 systems was observed when the methyl group is attached to the ester or ketone. This difference was significantly reduced in the solute systems with a single phenyl group and was completely absent in those with two phenyl groups. The optimized structures among the solutes and CO2 molecules based on quantum chemical calculations indicate that greater attractive energy is obtained for a system where the oxygen atom of the ester is solvated by CO2 molecules.

  10. Batch conversion of methane to methanol using Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Yeub; Hur, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Chang-Ho; Chang, In Seop; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-03-01

    Recently, methane has attracted much attention as an alternative carbon feedstock since it is the major component of abundant shale and natural gas. In this work, we produced methanol from methane using whole cells of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as the biocatalyst. M. trichosporium OB3b was cultured on NMS medium with a supply of 7:3 air/methane ratio at 30°C. The optimal concentrations of various methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors such as potassium phosphate and EDTA were determined to be 100 and 0.5 mM, respectively, for an efficient production of methanol. Sodium formate (40 mM) as a reducing power source was added to enhance the conversion efficiency. A productivity of 49.0 mg/l·h, titer of 0.393 g methanol/l, and conversion of 73.8% (mol methanol/mol methane) were obtained under the optimized batch condition.

  11. Engineering Cytochrome P450 Biocatalysts for Biotechnology, Medicine, and Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Importance of the field: Cytochrome P450 enzymes comprise a superfamily of heme monooxygenases that are of considerable interest for the: 1) synthesis of novel drugs and drug metabolites, 2) targeted cancer gene therapy, 3) biosensor design, and 4) bioremediation. However, their applications are limited because cytochrome P450, especially mammalian P450 enzymes, show a low turnover rate and stability, and require a complex source of electrons through cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH. Areas covered in this review: In this review, we discuss the recent progress towards the use of P450 enzymes in a variety of above-mentioned applications. We also present alternate and cost-effective ways to perform P450-mediated reaction, especially using peroxides. Furthermore, we expand upon the current progress in P450 engineering approaches describing several recent examples that are utilized to enhance heterologous expression, stability, catalytic efficiency, and utilization of alternate oxidants. What the reader will gain: The review will provide a comprehensive knowledge in the design of P450 biocatalysts for potentially practical purposes. Finally, we provide a prospective on the future aspects of P450 engineering and its applications in biotechnology, medicine, and bioremediation. Take home message: Because of its wide applications, academic and pharmaceutical researchers, environmental scientists, and health care providers are expected to gain current knowledge and future prospects of the practical use of P450 biocatalysts. PMID:20064075

  12. Recent Developments in Chemical Synthesis with Biocatalysts in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Mahesh K; Kelso, Geoffrey F; Schwarz, Lachlan; Zhang, Chunfang; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-09-15

    Over the past decade, a variety of ionic liquids have emerged as greener solvents for use in the chemical manufacturing industries. Their unique properties have attracted the interest of chemists worldwide to employ them as replacement for conventional solvents in a diverse range of chemical transformations including biotransformations. Biocatalysts are often regarded as green catalysts compared to conventional chemical catalysts in organic synthesis owing to their properties of low toxicity, biodegradability, excellent selectivity and good catalytic performance under mild reaction conditions. Similarly, a selected number of specific ionic liquids can be considered as greener solvents superior to organic solvents owing to their negligible vapor pressure, low flammability, low toxicity and ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and biological substances, including proteins. A combination of biocatalysts and ionic liquids thus appears to be a logical and promising opportunity for industrial use as an alternative to conventional organic chemistry processes employing organic solvents. This article provides an overview of recent developments in this field with special emphasis on the application of more sustainable enzyme-catalyzed reactions and separation processes employing ionic liquids, driven by advances in fundamental knowledge, process optimization and industrial deployment.

  13. Cultivation-based strategies to find efficient marine biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carlos J C; Pereira, Ricardo F S; Fernandes, Pedro; Cabral, Joaquim M S; de Carvalho, Carla C C R

    2017-03-10

    Marine bacteria have evolved to survive in the marine environment by using unique physiological, biochemical and metabolic features and the ability to produce enzymes and compounds which may have commercial value. The Azores archipelago presents several ecosystems with strong volcanic activity where bacteria thrive under e.g. high temperatures. In this study, samples collected in the island of São Miguel were screened for biocatalysts possessing e.g. lipase, esterase, amylase, and inulinase activities. After isolation of several hundred bacterial strains, high throughput screening methods allowed the fast identification of biocatalysts. The first cultivation tests were performed on 24-wells microtiter plates with online oxygen monitoring and bacteria able to grow within 24h were selected for further process development. Bacteria able to produce the desired enzymes were selected for the first round of tests. Four Bacillus strains presented high inulinase activity. The next step in process development was the determination of key parameters for enzyme activity such as temperature, pH, salinity and substrate concentration. The highest inulinase activity, 2.2 gsugars /gprotein .h, was attained when the supernatant of a culture of a Bacillus subtilis strain was used in a magnetically stirred bioreactor. This study demonstrates how bacterial strains from marine environments may be used successfully in biotechnological processes.

  14. Rhodium-catalyzed acyl-transfer reaction between benzyl ketones and thioesters: synthesis of unsymmetric ketones by ketone CO-C bond cleavage and intermolecular rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Mieko; Kuwajima, Manabu; Toriyama, Fumihiko; Li, Guangzhe; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2012-07-20

    In the presence of catalytic amounts of RhH(CO)(PPh3)3 and 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene (dppBz), acyl groups were transferred between benzyl ketones and thioesters/aryl esters. The rhodium complex catalyzed the cleavage of ketone CO-C bonds and intermolecular rearrangement giving unsymmetric ketones. The acyl-transfer reaction also occurred with 1-(p-chlorophenyl)-3-(p-cyanophenyl)propane-2-one giving unsymmetric ketones.

  15. Comparative Performance Assessment of Point-of-Care Testing Devices for Measuring Glucose and Ketones at the Patient Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Kaczmarek, Ewa; Guerra, Elena; Mastrantonio, Fabrizio; Lucarelli, Fausto; Valgimigli, Francesco; Mosca, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background: Point-of-care (POC) testing devices for monitoring glucose and ketones can play a key role in the management of dysglycemia in hospitalized diabetes patients. The accuracy of glucose devices can be influenced by biochemical changes that commonly occur in critically ill hospital patients and by the medication prescribed. Little is known about the influence of these factors on ketone POC measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the analytical performance of POC hospital whole-blood glucose and ketone meters and the extent of glucose interference factors on the design and accuracy of ketone results. Methods: StatStrip glucose/ketone, Optium FreeStyle glucose/ketone, and Accu-Chek Performa glucose were also assessed and results compared to a central laboratory reference method. The analytical evaluation was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols for precision, linearity, method comparison, and interference. Results: The interferences assessed included acetoacetate, acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, galactose, maltose, uric acid, and sodium. The accuracies of both Optium ketone and glucose measurements were significantly influenced by varying levels of hematocrit and ascorbic acid. StatStrip ketone and glucose measurements were unaffected by the interferences tested with exception of ascorbic acid, which reduced the higher level ketone value. The accuracy of Accu-Chek glucose measurements was affected by hematocrit, by ascorbic acid, and significantly by galactose. The method correlation assessment indicated differences between the meters in compliance to ISO 15197 and CLSI 12-A3 performance criteria. Conclusions: Combined POC glucose/ketone methods are now available. The use of these devices in a hospital setting requires careful consideration with regard to the selection of instruments not sensitive to hematocrit variation and presence of interfering substances. PMID:25519295

  16. Comparative performance assessment of point-of-care testing devices for measuring glucose and ketones at the patient bedside.

    PubMed

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Kaczmarek, Ewa; Guerra, Elena; Mastrantonio, Fabrizio; Lucarelli, Fausto; Valgimigli, Francesco; Mosca, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing devices for monitoring glucose and ketones can play a key role in the management of dysglycemia in hospitalized diabetes patients. The accuracy of glucose devices can be influenced by biochemical changes that commonly occur in critically ill hospital patients and by the medication prescribed. Little is known about the influence of these factors on ketone POC measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the analytical performance of POC hospital whole-blood glucose and ketone meters and the extent of glucose interference factors on the design and accuracy of ketone results. StatStrip glucose/ketone, Optium FreeStyle glucose/ketone, and Accu-Chek Performa glucose were also assessed and results compared to a central laboratory reference method. The analytical evaluation was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols for precision, linearity, method comparison, and interference. The interferences assessed included acetoacetate, acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, galactose, maltose, uric acid, and sodium. The accuracies of both Optium ketone and glucose measurements were significantly influenced by varying levels of hematocrit and ascorbic acid. StatStrip ketone and glucose measurements were unaffected by the interferences tested with exception of ascorbic acid, which reduced the higher level ketone value. The accuracy of Accu-Chek glucose measurements was affected by hematocrit, by ascorbic acid, and significantly by galactose. The method correlation assessment indicated differences between the meters in compliance to ISO 15197 and CLSI 12-A3 performance criteria. Combined POC glucose/ketone methods are now available. The use of these devices in a hospital setting requires careful consideration with regard to the selection of instruments not sensitive to hematocrit variation and presence of interfering substances. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, Jules; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Sibbesen, Ole; Broekgaarden, Mans; Qvist, Ingmar; Mikkelsen, Joern D; Hall, Robert D

    2007-10-01

    Raspberry ketone is an important compound for the flavour industry. It is frequently used in products such as soft drinks, sweets, puddings and ice creams. The compound can be produced by organic synthesis. Demand for "natural" raspberry ketone is growing considerably. However, this product is extremely expensive. Consequently, there is a remaining desire to better understand how raspberry ketone is synthesized in vivo, and which genes and enzymes are involved. With this information we will then be in a better position to design alternative production strategies such as microbial fermentation. This article focuses on the identification and application of genes potentially linked to raspberry ketone synthesis. We have isolated candidate genes from both raspberry and other plants, and these have been introduced into bacterial and yeast expression systems. Conditions have been determined that result in significant levels of raspberry ketone, up to 5 mg/L. These results therefore lay a strong foundation for a potentially renewable source of "natural" flavour compounds making use of plant genes.

  18. Altered ketone body metabolism during gram-negative sepsis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lanza-Jacoby, S; Rosato, E; Braccia, G; Tabares, A

    1990-11-01

    To investigate why blood ketone bodies are depressed during sepsis, the production and utilization of ketone bodies was studied in fasted control, fasted, Escherichia coli-treated, fed control, and fed E coli-treated rats. Gram-negative sepsis was induced by intravenous (IV) injection of 8 x 10(7) live colonies of E coli per 100 g body weight. Food was removed from the fasted rats after E coli injection. Fed rats were infused intragastrically with a nutritionally adequate diet for 5 days before inducing sepsis. Twenty-four hours after E coli injection, blood ketone bodies were reduced in fasted septic rats and fed septic rats compared with their respective control rats. Ketogenesis and oxidation of labeled palmitate was not altered in hepatocytes from fasted E coli-treated rats. Yet, ketogenesis declined significantly in hepatocytes from fed E coli-treated rats. Oxidation of labeled palmitate was also significantly reduced in hepatocytes from fed E coli-treated rats. Utilization of ketone bodies as measured by the incorporation of [3-14C]beta-hydroxybutyrate into CO2, increased over threefold in the diaphragm, 12% in the heart, and 19% in the kidneys from the fasted E coli-treated rats. In the fed state, incorporation of [3-14C]beta-hydroxybutyrate into CO2 was elevated fivefold in the heart, fourfold in the diaphragm, and over threefold in the kidneys from the septic rats. These results suggest that in the fasted state, plasma ketone bodies remain low during gram-negative sepsis because peripheral tissues use more ketone bodies and because liver ketogenesis is not increased to compensate for the increased utilization. In the fed state, the reduction in blood ketone bodies appears to be attributed to both impaired ketogenic capacity and increased peripheral utilization.

  19. A model to assess the feasibility of shifting reaction equilibrium by acetone removal in the transamination of ketones using 2-propylamine.

    PubMed

    Tufvesson, Pär; Bach, Christian; Woodley, John M

    2014-02-01

    Acetone removal by evaporation has been proposed as a simple and cheap way to shift the equilibrium in the biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of optically pure chiral amines, when 2-propylamine is used as the amine donor. However, dependent on the system properties, this may or may not be a suitable strategy. To avoid excessive laboratory work a model was used to assess the process feasibility. The results from the current study show that a simple model of the acetone removal dependence on temperature and sparging gas flowrate can be developed and fits the experimental data well. The model for acetone removal was then coupled to a simple model for biocatalyst kinetics and also for loss of substrate ketone by evaporation. The three models were used to simulate the effects of varying the critical process parameters and reaction equilibrium constants (K eq) as well as different substrate ketone volatilities (Henry's constant). The simulations were used to estimate the substrate losses and also the maximum yield that could be expected. The approach was seen to give a clear indication for which target amines the acetone evaporation strategy would be feasible and for which amines it would not. The study also shows the value of a modeling approach in conceptual process design prior to entering a biocatalyst screening or engineering program to assess the feasibility of a particular process strategy for a given target product. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Changes of the storage stability of ketones collected on activated coconut carbon in environmental ketone measurement].

    PubMed

    Sakamroto, Takayuki; Hinoue, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    The storage stability for six ketones was studied on four activated coconut carbons commonly used for air sampling in Japan. As the ratios of the enol form of cyclohexanone and methyl ethyl ketone are high, the ketones showed drastic losses during storage (storage stability), which could be attributed to catalytic oxidation and chemisorption. Moreover, adsorbed water caused a further decrease in recoveries of the ketones from the carbons. Because keto-enol tautomerism and hydration are catalyzed by acid or base, the relationships between the recoveries of the ketones from the carbons and pH in the aqueous solution of the carbons and the ignition residue of the carbons were investigated. As a result, the intensity of acidity or basicity of the carbons correlated with the loss of the ketones during storage, but the ignition residue of the carbons did not. Therefore, these results lead us to the conclusion that a more neutral coconut carbon is more suitable for the collection of aliphatic ketones, and activated coconut carbons are not suitable for cyclohexanone.

  1. Earthworm is a versatile and sustainable biocatalyst for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhi; Chen, Yan-Li; Yuan, Yi; Song, Jian; Yang, Da-Cheng; Xue, Yang; He, Yan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A crude extract of earthworms was used as an eco-friendly, environmentally benign, and easily accessible biocatalyst for various organic synthesis including the asymmetric direct aldol and Mannich reactions, Henry and Biginelli reactions, direct three-component aza-Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of isoquinuclidines, and domino reactions for the synthesis of coumarins. Most of these reactions have never before seen in nature, and moderate to good enantioselectivities in aldol and Mannich reactions were obtained with this earthworm catalyst. The products can be obtained in preparatively useful yields, and the procedure does not require any additional cofactors or special equipment. This work provides an example of a practical way to use sustainable catalysts from nature.

  2. LOVely enzymes – towards engineering light‐controllable biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Ulrich; Lee, Jeeyeon; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Jaeger, Karl‐Erich

    2010-01-01

    Summary Light control over enzyme function represents a novel and exciting field of biocatalysis research. Blue‐light photoreceptors of the Light, Oxygen, Voltage (LOV) family have recently been investigated for their applicability as photoactive switches. We discuss here the primary photochemical events leading to light activation of LOV domains as well as the proposed signal propagation mechanism to the respective effector domain. Furthermore, we describe the construction of LOV fusions to different effector domains, namely a dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli and a lipase from Bacillus subtilis. Both fusion partners retained functionality, and alteration of enzyme activity by light was also demonstrated. Hence, it appears that fusion of LOV photoreceptors to functional enzyme target sites via appropriate linker structures may represent a straightforward strategy to design light controllable biocatalysts. PMID:21255302

  3. Earthworm Is a Versatile and Sustainable Biocatalyst for Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhi; Chen, Yan-Li; Yuan, Yi; Song, Jian; Yang, Da-Cheng; Xue, Yang; He, Yan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A crude extract of earthworms was used as an eco-friendly, environmentally benign, and easily accessible biocatalyst for various organic synthesis including the asymmetric direct aldol and Mannich reactions, Henry and Biginelli reactions, direct three-component aza-Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of isoquinuclidines, and domino reactions for the synthesis of coumarins. Most of these reactions have never before seen in nature, and moderate to good enantioselectivities in aldol and Mannich reactions were obtained with this earthworm catalyst. The products can be obtained in preparatively useful yields, and the procedure does not require any additional cofactors or special equipment. This work provides an example of a practical way to use sustainable catalysts from nature. PMID:25148527

  4. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel I. C.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the obstacles to the commercialization of BDS is the reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with the accumulation of the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), during the process. BDS experiments were performed by incubating Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 resting-cell suspensions with hexadecane at 0.50 (vol/vol) containing 10 mM dibenzothiophene. The resin Dowex Optipore SD-2 was added to the BDS experiments at resin concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 g resin/liter total volume. The HBP concentration within the cytoplasm was estimated to decrease from 1,100 to 260 μM with increasing resin concentration. Despite this finding, productivity did not increase with the resin concentration. This led us to focus on the susceptibility of the desulfurization enzymes toward HBP. Dose-response experiments were performed to identify major inhibitory interactions in the most common BDS pathway, the 4S pathway. HBP was responsible for three of the four major inhibitory interactions identified. The concentrations of HBP that led to a 50% reduction in the enzymes' activities (IC50s) for DszA, DszB, and DszC were measured to be 60 ± 5 μM, 110 ± 10 μM, and 50 ± 5 μM, respectively. The fact that the IC50s for HBP are all significantly lower than the cytoplasmic HBP concentration suggests that the inhibition of the desulfurization enzymes by HBP is responsible for the observed reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with HBP generation. PMID:24096431

  5. Aromatic ketones with terminal vinyl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Uvarova, L.R.; Burykina, L.K.; Zubareva, M.M.; Polyanskii, I.D.

    1988-12-20

    The Friedel-Crafts acylation of a hydrocarbon by an acylating agent containing bromoalkyl substituents gave a series of new ketones. Their subsequent dehydrobromination with potassium tert-butoxide gave high yields of aromatic ketones containing terminal vinyl groups. The reaction was conducted both with /beta/-bromoethylbenzene and with 4-(/beta/-bromoethyl)-benzoyl chloride and also with both compounds simultaneously. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by the PMR, IR, UV, and mass spectra and also by the data from elemental analysis.

  6. Stereoselective Formation of Fully Substituted Ketone Enolates.

    PubMed

    Haimov, Elvira; Nairoukh, Zackaria; Shterenberg, Alexander; Berkovitz, Tiran; Jamison, Timothy F; Marek, Ilan

    2016-04-25

    The application of stereochemically defined acyclic fully substituted enolates of ketones to the enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocenters would be highly valuable. Herein, we describe an approach leading to the formation of several new stereogenic centers through a combined metalation-addition of a carbonyl-carbamoyl transfer to reveal in situ stereodefined α,α-disubstituted enolates of ketone as a single stereoisomer. This approach could produce a series of aldol and Mannich products from enol carbamate with excellent diastereomeric ratios.

  7. Highly Concentrated Catalytic Asymmetric Allylation of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Alfred J.; Kim, Jeung Gon; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    We report the catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones under highly concentrated reaction conditions with a catalyst generated from titanium tetraisopropoxide and BINOL (1:2 ratio) in the presence of isopropanol. This catalyst promotes the addition of tetraallylstannane to a variety of ketones to produce tertiary homoallylic alcohols in excellent yield (80–99%) with high enantioselectivities (79–95%). The resulting homoallylic alcohols can also be epoxidized in situ using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to afford cyclic epoxy alcohols in high yield (84–87%). PMID:17249767

  8. Highly concentrated catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Alfred J; Kim, Jeung Gon; Walsh, Patrick J

    2007-02-01

    [reaction: see text] We report the catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones under highly concentrated reaction conditions with a catalyst generated from titanium tetraisopropoxide and BINOL (1:2 ratio) in the presence of isopropanol. This catalyst promotes the addition of tetraallylstannane to a variety of ketones to produce tertiary homoallylic alcohols in excellent yield (80-99%) with high enantioselectivities (79-95%). The resulting homoallylic alcohols can also be epoxidized in situ using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to afford cyclic epoxy alcohols in high yield (84-87%).

  9. The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones is a useful chemical transformation with a long history. Several chemists have claimed that they discovered the conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones yet in fact the reaction is actually known for centuries.

  10. The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones is a useful chemical transformation with a long history. Several chemists have claimed that they discovered the conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones yet in fact the reaction is actually known for centuries.

  11. In vivo plug-and-play: a modular multi-enzyme single-cell catalyst for the asymmetric amination of ketoacids and ketones.

    PubMed

    Farnberger, Judith E; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Richter, Nina; Wendisch, Volker F; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2017-07-28

    Transaminases have become a key tool in biocatalysis to introduce the amine functionality into a range of molecules like prochiral α-ketoacids and ketones. However, due to the necessity of shifting the equilibrium towards the product side (depending on the amine donor) an efficient amination system may require three enzymes. So far, this well-established transformation has mainly been performed in vitro by assembling all biocatalysts individually, which comes along with elaborate and costly preparation steps. We present the design and characterization of a flexible approach enabling a quick set-up of single-cell biocatalysts producing the desired enzymes. By choosing an appropriate co-expression strategy, a modular system was obtained, allowing for flexible plug-and-play combination of enzymes chosen from the toolbox of available transaminases and/or recycling enzymes tailored for the desired application. By using a two-plasmid strategy for the recycling enzyme and the transaminase together with chromosomal integration of an amino acid dehydrogenase, two enzyme modules could individually be selected and combined with specifically tailored E. coli strains. Various plug-and-play combinations of the enzymes led to the construction of a series of single-cell catalysts suitable for the amination of various types of substrates. On the one hand the fermentative amination of α-ketoacids coupled both with metabolic and non-metabolic cofactor regeneration was studied, giving access to the corresponding α-amino acids in up to 96% conversion. On the other hand, biocatalysts were employed in a non-metabolic, "in vitro-type" asymmetric reductive amination of the prochiral ketone 4-phenyl-2-butanone, yielding the amine in good conversion (77%) and excellent stereoselectivity (ee = 98%). The described modularized concept enables the construction of tailored single-cell catalysts which provide all required enzymes for asymmetric reductive amination in a flexible fashion

  12. 40 CFR 721.4568 - Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone. 721... Substances § 721.4568 Methylpolychloro aliphatic ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ketone (PMN No. P-91-1321) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  13. Vapor pressures and gas-film coefficients for ketones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of handbook vapor pressures for seven ketones with more recent literature data showed large differences for four of the ketones. Gas-film coefficients for the volatilization of these ketones from water determined by two different methods were in reasonable agreement. ?? 1987.

  14. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  19. Thiourea-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cyanosilylation of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, Douglas E.; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2011-01-01

    The new chiral amino thiourea catalyst 3d promotes the highly enantioselective cyanosilylation of a wide variety of ketones. The hindered tertiary amine substituent plays a crucial role both with regard to stereoinduction and reactivity, suggesting a cooperative mechanism involving electrophile activation by thiourea and nucleophile activation by the amine. PMID:15969569

  20. Stereoselective Borylative Ketone-Diene Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P.

    2011-01-01

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)2 and P(t-Bu)3, ketones, dienes, and B2(pin)2 undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. PMID:21905748

  1. Stereoselective borylative ketone-diene coupling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P

    2011-10-07

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)(2) and P(t-Bu)(3), ketones, dienes, and B(2)(pin)(2) undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Safety assessment of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2004-01-01

    MIBK (Methyl Isobutyl Ketone) is an aliphatic ketone that functions as both a denaturant and solvent in cosmetic products. Current use in cosmetic products is very limited, but MIBK is reported to be used in one nail correction pen (volume = 3 ml) at a concentration of 21%. The maximum percutaneous absorption rate in guinea pigs is 1.1 micromol/min/cm2 at 10 to 45 min. Metabolites include 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (oxidation product) and 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4-MPOL) (reduction product). Values for the serum half-life and total clearance time of MIBK in animals were 66 min and 6 h, respectively. In clinical tests, most of the absorbed MIBK had been eliminated from the body 90 min post exposure. MIBK was not toxic via the oral or dermal route of exposure in acute, short-term, or subchronic animal studies, except that nephrotoxicity was observed in rats dosed with 1 g/kg in a short-term study. MIBK was an ocular and skin irritant in animal tests. Ocular irritation was noted in 12 volunteers exposed to 200 ppm MIBK for 15 min in a clinical test. A depression of the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex was seen with intravenous infusion of MIBK (in an emulsion) at 30 microM/kg/min in female rats. The no-observed-effect level in rats exposed orally to MIBK was 50 mg/kg. Both gross and microscopic evidence of lung damage were reported in acute inhalation toxicity studies in animals. Short-term and subchronic inhalation exposures (as low as 100 ppm) produced effects in the kidney and liver that were species and sex dependent. Dermal doses of 300 or 600 mg/kg for 4 months in rats produced reduced mitotic activity in hair follicles, increased thickness of horny and granular cell layers of the epidermis, a decrease in the number of reactive centers in follicles (spleen), an increase in the number of iron-containing pigments in the area of the red pulp (spleen), and a reduction in the lipid content of the cortical layer of the adrenal glands. Neuropathological changes in the most

  3. nBu4NI-catalyzed oxidative imidation of ketones with imides: synthesis of α-amino ketones.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yunhe; Li, Yan; Xiong, Tao; Lu, Yu; Liu, Qun; Zhang, Qian

    2014-03-04

    nBu4NI-Catalyzed oxidative imidation of ketones and imides for the synthesis of α-amino ketones were realized for the first time. The methodology is characterized by its wide substrate scope even for acetone with readily available phthalimide, saccharin and succinimide, which opens a new pathway for direct imidation of ketones.

  4. Thermochemistry and bond dissociation energies of ketones.

    PubMed

    Hudzik, Jason M; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2012-06-14

    Ketones are a major class of organic chemicals and solvents, which contribute to hydrocarbon sources in the atmosphere, and are important intermediates in the oxidation and combustion of hydrocarbons and biofuels. Their stability, thermochemical properties, and chemical kinetics are important to understanding their reaction paths and their role as intermediates in combustion processes and in atmospheric chemistry. In this study, enthalpies (ΔH°(f 298)), entropies (S°(T)), heat capacities (C(p)°(T)), and internal rotor potentials are reported for 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, 2-pentanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and 2-methyl-3-pentanone, and their radicals corresponding to loss of hydrogen atoms. A detailed evaluation of the carbon-hydrogen bond dissociation energies (C-H BDEs) is also performed for the parent ketones for the first time. Standard enthalpies of formation and bond energies are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-311G(2d,2p), CBS-QB3, and G3MP2B3 levels of theory using isodesmic reactions to minimize calculation errors. Structures, moments of inertia, vibrational frequencies, and internal rotor potentials are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) density functional level and are used to determine the entropies and heat capacities. The recommended ideal gas-phase ΔH°(f 298), from the average of the CBS-QB3 and G3MP2B3 levels of theory, as well as the calculated values for entropy and heat capacity are shown to compare well with the available experimental data for the parent ketones. Bond energies for primary, secondary, and tertiary radicals are determined; here, we find the C-H BDEs on carbons in the α position to the ketone group decrease significantly with increasing substitution on these α carbons. Group additivity and hydrogen-bond increment values for these ketone radicals are also determined.

  5. Silica gel promotes reductions of aldehydes and ketones by N-heterocyclic carbene boranes.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Tsuyoshi; Curran, Dennis P

    2012-09-07

    N-Heterocyclic carbene boranes (NHC-boranes) such as 1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidine trihydridoborane (diMe-Imd-BH(3)) serve as practical hydride donors for the reduction of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of silica gel. Primary and secondary alcohols are formed in good yields under ambient conditions. Aldehydes are selectively reduced in the presence of ketones. One, two, or even all three of the boron hydrides can be transferred. The process is attractive because all the components are stable and easy to handle and because both the reaction and isolation procedures are convenient.

  6. Fe/Cu-Mediated One-Pot Ketone Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vemula Praveen; Babu, Vaddela Sudheer; Yahata, Kenzo; Kishi, Yoshito

    2017-05-19

    An Fe/Cu-mediated one-pot ketone synthesis was reported. Unlike Ni- and Pd-mediated one-pot ketone syntheses, the reported Fe/Cu-mediated method allowed selective activation and coupling of alkyl iodides over vinyl iodides. The newly developed one-pot ketone synthesis was applied to a synthesis of vinyl iodide/ketone 13, the left half of halichondrin B, as well as vinyl iodide/ketone 8a, the C20-C26 building block of halichondrins.

  7. Inhibition of carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart by alkyl phenyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yorishige; Narumi, Rika; Shimada, Hideaki

    2007-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of alkyl phenyl ketones on carbonyl reductase activity were examined in pig heart. In this study, carbonyl reductase activity was estimated as the ability to reduce 4-benzoylpyridine to S(-)-alpha-phenyl-4-pyridylmethanol in the cytosolic fraction from pig heart (pig heart cytosol). The order of their inhibitory potencies was hexanophenone > valerophenone > heptanophenone > butyrophenone > propiophenone. The inhibitory potencies of acetophenone and nonanophenone were much lower. A significant relationship was observed between Vmax/Km values for the reduction of alkyl phenyl ketones and their inhibitory potencies for carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart cytosol. Furthermore, hexanophenone was a competitive inhibitor for the enzyme activity. These results indicate that several alkyl phenyl ketones including hexanophenone inhibit carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart cytosol, by acting as substrate inhibitors.

  8. Activation of Acetone and Other Simple Ketones in Anaerobic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Heider, Johann; Schühle, Karola; Frey, Jasmin; Schink, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Acetone and other ketones are activated for subsequent degradation through carboxylation by many nitrate-reducing, phototrophic, and obligately aerobic bacteria. Acetone carboxylation leads to acetoacetate, which is subsequently activated to a thioester and degraded via thiolysis. Two different types of acetone carboxylases have been described, which require either 2 or 4 ATP equivalents as an energy supply for the carboxylation reaction. Both enzymes appear to combine acetone enolphosphate with carbonic phosphate to form acetoacetate. A similar but more complex enzyme is known to carboxylate the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a metabolic intermediate in anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism in denitrifying bacteria, with simultaneous hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP. Obligately anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria activate acetone to a four-carbon compound as well, but via a different process than bicarbonate- or CO2-dependent carboxylation. The present evidence indicates that either carbon monoxide or a formyl residue is used as a cosubstrate, and that the overall ATP expenditure of this pathway is substantially lower than in the known acetone carboxylase reactions.

  9. Biocatalysts for the formation of three- to six-membered carbo- and heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Horst; Pressnitz, Desiree; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, the number of different types of enzymes applicable for organic synthesis as biocatalysts has significantly increased. Consequently, the spectrum of reactions has significantly expanded also for cyclisations. This review highlights heterologously expressable biocatalysts transforming non-natural substrates for the formation of three- to six-membered carbo- and heterocycles, excluding terpene cyclases as well as SAM-dependent enzymes. The review focuses on the non-natural substrate scope and the mechanism of the selected enzymes.

  10. Industrial Acetogenic Biocatalysts: A Comparative Metabolic and Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R.; Poehlein, Anja; Linder, Sonja; Erz, Catarina; Hummel, Tim; Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Daniel, Rolf; Dürre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation by anaerobic acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway is a bioprocess for production of biofuels and biocommodities. The major fermentation products of the most relevant biocatalytic strains (Clostridium ljungdahlii, C. autoethanogenum, C. ragsdalei, and C. coskatii) are acetic acid and ethanol. A comparative metabolic and genomic analysis using the mentioned biocatalysts might offer targets for metabolic engineering and thus improve the production of compounds apart from ethanol. Autotrophic growth and product formation of the four wild type (WT) strains were compared in uncontrolled batch experiments. The genomes of C. ragsdalei and C. coskatii were sequenced and the genome sequences of all four biocatalytic strains analyzed in comparative manner. Growth and product spectra (acetate, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol) of C. autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C. ragsdalei were rather similar. In contrast, C. coskatii produced significantly less ethanol and its genome sequence lacks two genes encoding aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (AOR). Comparative genome sequence analysis of the four WT strains revealed high average nucleotide identity (ANI) of C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum (99.3%) and C. coskatii (98.3%). In contrast, C. ljungdahlii WT and C. ragsdalei WT showed an ANI-based similarity of only 95.8%. Additionally, recombinant C. ljungdahlii strains were constructed that harbor an artificial acetone synthesis operon (ASO) consisting of the following genes: adc, ctfA, ctfB, and thlA (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase, acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase subunits A and B, and thiolase) under the control of thlA promoter (PthlA) from C. acetobutylicum or native pta-ack promoter (Ppta-ack) from C. ljungdahlii. Respective recombinant strains produced 2-propanol rather than acetone, due to the presence of a NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that converts acetone to 2

  11. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  12. [Effect of phenolic ketones on ethanol fermentation and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinlong; Cheng, Yichao; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Junjun; Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Lignin degradation products are toxic to microorganisms, which is one of the bottlenecks for fuel ethanol production. We studied the effects of phenolic ketones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone) derived from lignin degradation on ethanol fermentation of xylose and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis NLP31. Ethanol and the cellular fatty acid of yeast were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results indicate that phenolic ketones negatively affected ethanol fermentation of yeast and the lower molecular weight phenolic ketone compound was more toxic. When the concentration of 4-hydroxyacetophenone was 1.5 g/L, at fermentation of 24 h, the xylose utilization ratio, ethanol yield and ethanol concentration decreased by 42.47%, 5.30% and 9.76 g/L, respectively, compared to the control. When phenolic ketones were in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) of yeast cells was improved. When 1.5 g/L of three aforementioned phenolic ketones was added to the fermentation medium, the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast cells increased to 3.03, 3.06 and 3.61, respectively, compared to 2.58 of the control, which increased cell membrane fluidity and instability. Therefore, phenolic ketones can reduce the yeast growth, increase the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast and lower ethanol productivity. Effectively reduce or remove the content of lignin degradation products is the key to improve lignocellulose biorefinery.

  13. Starch Biocatalyst Based on α-Amylase-Mg/Al-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids.

    PubMed

    Bruna, Felipe; Pereira, Marita G; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M; Valim, João B

    2015-08-26

    The design of new biocatalysts through the immobilization of enzymes, improving their stability and reuse, plays a major role in the development of sustainable methodologies toward the so-called green chemistry. In this work, α-amylase (AAM) biocatalyst based on Mg3Al-layered double-hydroxide (LDH) matrix was successfully developed with the adsorption method. The adsorption process was studied and optimized as a function of time and enzyme concentration. The biocatalyst was characterized, and the mechanism of interaction between AAM and LDH, as well as the immobilization effects on the catalytic activity, was elucidated. The adsorption process was fast and irreversible, thus yielding a stable biohybrid material. The immobilized AAM partially retained its enzymatic activity, and the biocatalyst rapidly hydrolyzed starch in an aqueous solution with enhanced efficiency at intermediate loading values of ca. 50 mg/g of AAM/LDH. Multiple attachments through electrostatic interactions affected the conformation of the immobilized enzyme on the LDH surface. The biocatalyst was successfully stored in its dry form, retaining 100% of its catalytic activity. The results reveal the potential usefulness of a LDH compound as a support of α-amylase for the hydrolysis of starch that may be applied in industrial and pharmaceutical processes as a simple, environmentally friendly, and low-cost biocatalyst.

  14. A ketogenic diet increases transport and oxidation of ketone bodies in RG2 and 9L gliomas without affecting tumor growth.

    PubMed

    De Feyter, Henk M; Behar, Kevin L; Rao, Jyotsna U; Madden-Hennessey, Kirby; Ip, Kevan L; Hyder, Fahmeed; Drewes, Lester R; Geschwind, Jean-François; de Graaf, Robin A; Rothman, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    The dependence of tumor cells, particularly those originating in the brain, on glucose is the target of the ketogenic diet, which creates a plasma nutrient profile similar to fasting: increased levels of ketone bodies and reduced plasma glucose concentrations. The use of ketogenic diets has been of particular interest for therapy in brain tumors, which reportedly lack the ability to oxidize ketone bodies and therefore would be starved during ketosis. Because studies assessing the tumors' ability to oxidize ketone bodies are lacking, we investigated in vivo the extent of ketone body oxidation in 2 rodent glioma models. Ketone body oxidation was studied using (13)C MR spectroscopy in combination with infusion of a (13)C-labeled ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate) in RG2 and 9L glioma models. The level of ketone body oxidation was compared with nontumorous cortical brain tissue. The level of (13)C-beta-hydroxybutyrate oxidation in 2 rat glioma models was similar to that of contralateral brain. In addition, when glioma-bearing animals were fed a ketogenic diet, the ketone body monocarboxylate transporter was upregulated, facilitating uptake and oxidation of ketone bodies in the gliomas. These results demonstrate that rat gliomas can oxidize ketone bodies and indicate upregulation of ketone body transport when fed a ketogenic diet. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that brain tumors are metabolically inflexible and show the need for additional research on the use of ketogenic diets as therapy targeting brain tumor metabolism. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Use of immobilised biocatalysts in the processing of cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R; Panesar, Parmjit S; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kennedy, John F

    2009-12-01

    Food processing industry operations need to comply with increasingly more stringent environmental regulations related to the disposal or utilisation of by-products and wastes. These include growing restrictions on land spraying with agro-industrial wastes, and on disposal within landfill operations, and the requirements to produce end products that are stabilised and hygienic. Much of the material generated as wastes by the dairy processing industries contains components that could be utilised as substrates and nutrients in a variety of microbial/enzymatic processes, to give rise to added-value products. A good example of a waste that has received considerable attention as a source of added-value products is cheese whey. The carbohydrate reservoir of lactose (4-5%) in whey and the presence of other essential nutrients make it a good natural medium for the growth of microorganisms and a potential substrate for bioprocessing through microbial fermentation. Immobilised cell and enzyme technology has also been applied to whey bioconversion processes to improve the economics of such processes. This review focuses upon the elaboration of a range of immobilisation techniques that have been applied to produce valuable whey-based products. A comprehensive literature survey is also provided to illustrate numerous immobilisation procedures with particular emphasis upon lactose hydrolysis, and ethanol and lactic acid production using immobilised biocatalysts.

  16. Efficient biocatalyst by encapsulating lipase into nanoporous gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xueying; Li, Yufei; Wu, Chao; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Lipases are one of the most important biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. Immobilization is an efficient method to increase the stability and reusability of lipases. In this study, nanoporous gold (NPG), a new kind of nanoporous material with tunable porosity and excellent biocompatibility, was employed as an effective support for lipase immobilization. The pore size of NPG and adsorption time played key roles in the construction of lipase-NPG biocomposites. The morphology and composition of NPG before and after lipase loading are verified using a scanning electron microscope, equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The resulting lipase-NPG biocomposites exhibited excellent catalytic activity and remarkable reusability. The catalytic activity of the lipase-NPG biocomposite with a pore size of 35 nm had no decrease after ten recycles. Besides, the lipase-NPG biocomposite exhibited high catalytic activity in a broader pH range and higher temperature than that of free lipase. In addition, the leaching of lipase from NPG could be prevented by matching the protein's diameter and pore size. Thus, the encapsulation of enzymes within NPG is quite useful for establishing new functions and will have wide applications for different chemical processes.

  17. Reversible covalent immobilization of Trametes villosa laccase onto thiolsulfinate-agarose: An insoluble biocatalyst with potential for decoloring recalcitrant dyes.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Larissa; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana; Menéndez, María Del Pilar; Manta, Carmen; Ovsejevi, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The development of a solid-phase biocatalyst based on the reversible covalent immobilization of laccase onto thiol-reactive supports (thiolsulfinate-agarose [TSI-agarose]) was performed. To achieve this goal, laccase-producing strains isolated from Eucalyptus globulus were screened and white rot fungus Trametes villosa was selected as the best strain for enzyme production. Reduction of disulfide bonds and introduction of "de novo" thiol groups in partially purified laccase were assessed to perform its reversible covalent immobilization onto thiol-reactive supports (TSI-agarose). Only the thiolation process dramatically improved the immobilization yield, from 0% for the native and reduced enzyme to 60% for the thiolated enzyme. Mild conditions for the immobilization process (pH 7.5 and 4°C) allowed the achievement of nearly 100% of coupling efficiency when low loads were applied. The kinetic parameters, pH, and thermal stabilities for the immobilized biocatalyst were similar to those for the native enzyme. After the first use and three consecutives reuses, the insoluble derivative kept more than 80% of its initial capacity for decolorizing Remazol Brilliant Blue R, showing its suitability for color removal from textile industrial effluents. The possibility of reusing the support was demonstrated by the reversibility of enzyme-support binding.

  18. Ketone body metabolism and its defects.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Toshiyuki; Mitchell, Grant; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Hori, Tomohiro; Orii, Kenji; Aoyama, Yuka

    2014-07-01

    Acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), the two main ketone bodies of humans, are important vectors of energy transport from the liver to extrahepatic tissues, especially during fasting, when glucose supply is low. Blood total ketone body (TKB) levels should be evaluated in the context of clinical history, such as fasting time and ketogenic stresses. Blood TKB should also be evaluated in parallel with blood glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). The FFA/TKB ratio is especially useful for evaluation of ketone body metabolism. Defects in ketogenesis include mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase (mHS) deficiency and HMG-CoA lyase (HL) deficiency. mHS deficiency should be considered in non-ketotic hypoglycemia if a fatty acid beta-oxidation defect is suspected, but cannot be confirmed. Patients with HL deficiency can develop hypoglycemic crises and neurological symptoms even in adolescents and adults. Succinyl-CoA-3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency and beta-ketothiolase (T2) deficiency are two defects in ketolysis. Permanent ketosis is pathognomonic for SCOT deficiency. However, patients with "mild" SCOT mutations may have nonketotic periods. T2-deficient patients with "mild" mutations may have normal blood acylcarnitine profiles even in ketoacidotic crises. T2 deficient patients cannot be detected in a reliable manner by newborn screening using acylcarnitines. We review recent data on clinical presentation, metabolite profiles and the course of these diseases in adults, including in pregnancy.

  19. Asymmetric reduction of ketones and β-keto esters by (S)-1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase from denitrifying bacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Dudzik, A; Snoch, W; Borowiecki, P; Opalinska-Piskorz, J; Witko, M; Heider, J; Szaleniec, M

    2015-06-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed enantioselective reductions of ketones and keto esters have become popular for the production of homochiral building blocks which are valuable synthons for the preparation of biologically active compounds at industrial scale. Among many kinds of biocatalysts, dehydrogenases/reductases from various microorganisms have been used to prepare optically pure enantiomers from carbonyl compounds. (S)-1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase (PEDH) was found in the denitrifying bacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum (strain EbN1) and belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. It catalyzes the stereospecific oxidation of (S)-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone during anaerobic ethylbenzene mineralization, but also the reverse reaction, i.e., NADH-dependent enantioselective reduction of acetophenone to (S)-1-phenylethanol. In this work, we present the application of PEDH for asymmetric reduction of 42 prochiral ketones and 11 β-keto esters to enantiopure secondary alcohols. The high enantioselectivity of the reaction is explained by docking experiments and analysis of the interaction and binding energies of the theoretical enzyme-substrate complexes leading to the respective (S)- or (R)-alcohols. The conversions were carried out in a batch reactor using Escherichia coli cells with heterologously produced PEDH as whole-cell catalysts and isopropanol as reaction solvent and cosubstrate for NADH recovery. Ketones were converted to the respective secondary alcohols with excellent enantiomeric excesses and high productivities. Moreover, the progress of product formation was studied for nine para-substituted acetophenone derivatives and described by neural network models, which allow to predict reactor behavior and provides insight on enzyme reactivity. Finally, equilibrium constants for conversion of these substrates were derived from the progress curves of the reactions. The obtained values matched very well with theoretical predictions.

  20. Mass and Ion Transport in Ketones and Ketone Electrolytes: Comparison with Acetate Systems.

    PubMed

    Bopege, Dharshani N; Petrowsky, Matt; Johnson, Matthew B; Frech, Roger

    2013-03-01

    Self-diffusion coefficient measurements were performed for pure n-alkyl ketone liquids using the pulsed field gradient NMR spin-echo technique. Ionic conductivities and dielectric constants of 0.0055 mol·L(-1) tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-decanone were also measured. The temperature-dependent conductivities and diffusion coefficients over the range 5-80 °C can be described using the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Compensated Arrhenius equation plots were used to calculate the average activation energy for both sets of data. The average activation energy from conductivity data is approximately equal to that from diffusion data. The data for the pure ketones and ketone-based electrolytes are compared with analogous data for pure n-alkyl acetates and n-alkyl acetate-based electrolytes.

  1. Phospholipid-templated silica nanocapsules as efficient polyenzymatic biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Phuoc, Lai Truong; Laveille, Paco; Chamouleau, Françoise; Renard, Gilbert; Drone, Jullien; Coq, Bernard; Fajula, François; Galarneau, Anne

    2010-09-28

    Solid polyenzymatic biocatalysts have been designed by combining two immobilized enzymes, the first one allowing the in situ generation of H(2)O(2) from air and the second one performing an oxidation reaction. The in situ H(2)O(2) generation system is based on the reaction of glucose with air using a glucose oxidase (GOx). The optimization of the encapsulation of GOx into phospholipids-templated silica capsules (NPS) was performed. A bienzymatic system made of GOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied. Optimal conditions for the activity of the GOx/HRP bienzymatic system have been determined for both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The encapsulation in NPS materials increases the stability of both enzymes. The performance of the encapsulated bienzymatic GOx/HRP system in the model reaction of 4-aminoantipyridine with phenol is similar when the enzymes are immobilized separately in two NPS or coencapsulated in the same NPS. An excess of peroxidase compared to GOx ([HRP]/[GOx] = 5-10) is necessary to obtain the optimal activity. To show the potentiality of bienzymatic systems in real applications, HRP has been replaced by hemoglobin, which is known for its ability to oxidize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollutants through a pseudoperoxidase pathway. A larger excess of Hb compared to GOx ([Hb]/[GOx] = 1000) was necessary to obtain the maximum PAH removal, as Hb is not a real peroxidase as HRP but a hemoprotein with some pseudoperoxidase activity. In opposite to real enzymes, the immobilization of Hb by adsorption in mesoporous silica is preferable as its encapsulation. Therefore, the bienzymatic system made of GOx encapsulated in NPS and Hb adsorbed in mesoporous silica has been used for the removal of 11 PAH from water. This heterogeneous bienzymatic system allows 64% of PAH removal from water using simple air as oxidant.

  2. Advanced Synthesis of Conductive Polyaniline Using Laccase as Biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    de Salas, Felipe; Pardo, Isabel; Salavagione, Horacio J.; Aza, Pablo; Amougi, Eleni; Vind, Jesper; Martínez, Angel T.; Camarero, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Polyaniline is a conductive polymer with distinctive optical and electrical properties. Its enzymatic synthesis is an environmentally friendly alternative to the use of harsh oxidants and extremely acidic conditions. 7D5L, a high-redox potential laccase developed in our lab, is the biocatalyst of choice for the synthesis of green polyaniline (emeraldine salt) due to its superior ability to oxidize aniline and kinetic stability at the required polymerization conditions (pH 3 and presence of anionic surfactants) as compared with other fungal laccases. Doses as low as 7.6 nM of 7D5L catalyze the polymerization of 15 mM aniline (in 24 h, room temperature, 7% yield) in the presence of different anionic surfactants used as doping templates to provide linear and water-soluble polymers. Aniline polymerization was monitored by the increase of the polaron absorption band at 800 nm (typical for emeraldine salt). Best polymerization results were obtained with 5 mM sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as template. At fixed conditions (15 mM aniline and 5mM SDBS), polymerization rates obtained with 7D5L were 2.5-fold the rates obtained with commercial Trametes villosa laccase. Moreover, polyaniline yield was notably boosted to 75% by rising 7D5L amount to 0.15 μM, obtaining 1g of green polyaniline in 1L-reaction volume. The green polymer obtained with the selected system (7D5L/SDBS) holds excellent electrochemical and electro-conductive properties displayed in water-dispersible nanofibers, which is advantageous for the nanomaterial to be readily cast into uniform films for different applications. PMID:27741301

  3. Advanced Synthesis of Conductive Polyaniline Using Laccase as Biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    de Salas, Felipe; Pardo, Isabel; Salavagione, Horacio J; Aza, Pablo; Amougi, Eleni; Vind, Jesper; Martínez, Angel T; Camarero, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Polyaniline is a conductive polymer with distinctive optical and electrical properties. Its enzymatic synthesis is an environmentally friendly alternative to the use of harsh oxidants and extremely acidic conditions. 7D5L, a high-redox potential laccase developed in our lab, is the biocatalyst of choice for the synthesis of green polyaniline (emeraldine salt) due to its superior ability to oxidize aniline and kinetic stability at the required polymerization conditions (pH 3 and presence of anionic surfactants) as compared with other fungal laccases. Doses as low as 7.6 nM of 7D5L catalyze the polymerization of 15 mM aniline (in 24 h, room temperature, 7% yield) in the presence of different anionic surfactants used as doping templates to provide linear and water-soluble polymers. Aniline polymerization was monitored by the increase of the polaron absorption band at 800 nm (typical for emeraldine salt). Best polymerization results were obtained with 5 mM sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as template. At fixed conditions (15 mM aniline and 5mM SDBS), polymerization rates obtained with 7D5L were 2.5-fold the rates obtained with commercial Trametes villosa laccase. Moreover, polyaniline yield was notably boosted to 75% by rising 7D5L amount to 0.15 μM, obtaining 1g of green polyaniline in 1L-reaction volume. The green polymer obtained with the selected system (7D5L/SDBS) holds excellent electrochemical and electro-conductive properties displayed in water-dispersible nanofibers, which is advantageous for the nanomaterial to be readily cast into uniform films for different applications.

  4. Protein engineering and de novo designing of a biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Mahima; Sinha, Prashant; Jaiswal, Pragya; Mahendru, Swati; Roy, Kapil; Kukreti, Shrikant

    2016-10-01

    Proteins as a biomolecule have been recognized as a "molecule with manifold biological functions". The functions not only include the structural, regulatory and transportation processes inside the body but also its capacity as an extremely specific catalyst for various biochemical reactions. Nature has been quite admirably using proteins as biocatalysts which are known as enzymes. Properties like higher reaction rate, good specificity, faster kinetics, production of lesser by-products and their non-hazardous nature make enzymes the most suitable targets for a process chemist to exploit. At the same time, limitations like a narrow range of substrates, requirement of coenzymes, lesser stability, smaller shelf-life, along with difficulties in procuring these enzymes, make this biocatalysis field quite challenging. For exploiting a broad range of applications related to therapeutics, biosensors, biotechnology, nanotechnology etc., de novo designing of proteins is of utmost importance. Enzymes with altered, specific and modified properties might be designed by utilizing the prior knowledge of structure and function of a protein with the help of computational modeling. Various protein engineering techniques like directed evolution, rational designing and immobilization strategies etc. have already been extensively used to address some of the issues. This review aims to update the repertoire of the advancements in the field of protein engineering, which can help in laying some guiding principles about designing, modifying and altering their usage for commercial industrial purposes. This possibility of effective and novel designing of peptides and proteins might further facilitate our understanding about the structure, function and folding patterns along with their inter-relationships. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Iron-, Cobalt-, and Nickel-Catalyzed Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation and Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Ketones.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Yun; Yu, Shen-Luan; Shen, Wei-Yi; Gao, Jing-Xing

    2015-09-15

    exhibited extraordinary enantioselectivities when combined with iron(0) cluster Fe3(CO)12. A broad scope of ketones including aromatic, heteroaromatic, and β-ketoesters can be reduced smoothly with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) approaching or exceeding those achievable with the noble metal catalysts. Notably, the chiral iron-based catalyst proved to be highly efficient for both ATH as well as AH of various ketones. Until now, such "universal" catalyst is very rare. Preliminary studies suggest that the AH reaction most likely involved iron particles as the active catalytic species. These research results point to a new direction in developing viable effective nonprecious metal catalysts for asymmetric reduction and probably for other asymmetric catalytic reactions as well.

  6. A bio-catalytic approach to aliphatic ketones.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Mingyong; Deng, Jin; Woodruff, Adam P; Zhu, Minshan; Zhou, Jun; Park, Sun Wook; Li, Hui; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Kechun

    2012-01-01

    Depleting oil reserves and growing environmental concerns have necessitated the development of sustainable processes to fuels and chemicals. Here we have developed a general metabolic platform in E. coli to biosynthesize carboxylic acids. By engineering selectivity of 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and screening for promiscuous aldehyde dehydrogenases, synthetic pathways were constructed to produce both C5 and C6 acids. In particular, the production of isovaleric acid reached 32 g/L (0.22 g/g glucose yield), which is 58% of the theoretical yield. Furthermore, we have developed solid base catalysts to efficiently ketonize the bio-derived carboxylic acids such as isovaleric acid and isocaproic acid into high volume industrial ketones: methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, yield 84%), diisobutyl ketone (DIBK, yield 66%) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK, yield 81%). This hybrid "Bio-Catalytic conversion" approach provides a general strategy to manufacture aliphatic ketones, and represents an alternate route to expanding the repertoire of renewable chemicals.

  7. A Bio-Catalytic Approach to Aliphatic Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Mingyong; Deng, Jin; Woodruff, Adam P.; Zhu, Minshan; Zhou, Jun; Park, Sun Wook; Li, Hui; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Kechun

    2012-01-01

    Depleting oil reserves and growing environmental concerns have necessitated the development of sustainable processes to fuels and chemicals. Here we have developed a general metabolic platform in E. coli to biosynthesize carboxylic acids. By engineering selectivity of 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and screening for promiscuous aldehyde dehydrogenases, synthetic pathways were constructed to produce both C5 and C6 acids. In particular, the production of isovaleric acid reached 32 g/L (0.22 g/g glucose yield), which is 58% of the theoretical yield. Furthermore, we have developed solid base catalysts to efficiently ketonize the bio-derived carboxylic acids such as isovaleric acid and isocaproic acid into high volume industrial ketones: methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, yield 84%), diisobutyl ketone (DIBK, yield 66%) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK, yield 81%). This hybrid “Bio-Catalytic conversion” approach provides a general strategy to manufacture aliphatic ketones, and represents an alternate route to expanding the repertoire of renewable chemicals. PMID:22416247

  8. Poly (Aryl Ether Ketones) Bearing Alkylated Side Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Patrick E. (Inventor); Fitch, John W., III (Inventor); Gronewald, Scott D. (Inventor); St.Clair, Ann K. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates generally to poly(aryl ether ketones) bearing alkylated side chains. It relates particularly to soluble, thermally stable. low dielectric poly(aryl ether ketones) with alkylated side chains and especially to films and coatings thereof. These poly(aryl ether ketones) have a structural formula wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of CF3 and CH3; and wherein R is C(sub n)H(sub (2n+1)) and n = 11-18.

  9. Application of aryloximes as solid-phase ketone linkers.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Salvatore D; Wiley, Michael R

    2003-01-09

    In both solution and the solid phase, a variety of ketone oxime anions have been treated with 4-substituted-2-fluorobenzonitriles to give the corresponding nucleophilic aromatic substitution aryloxime adducts. Under aqueous acidic conditions, these adducts underwent cyclization to give the corresponding ketones. Suzuki and amide coupling reactions were also successfully performed on two resin-bound oximes followed by subsequent cyclorelease to give ketone product in good yields and purities. [reaction--see text

  10. Selection of a whole-cell biocatalyst for methyl parathion biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jijian; Liu, Ruihua; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Yao; Qiao, Chuanling

    2012-09-01

    Whole-cell biocatalyst has the potential to become a cost-effective alternative to conventional enzyme methods for solving ecological and energy issues. However, cytosolic-expressing biocatalyst systems are critically disadvantaged due to the low permeability of the cell membrane. To overcome substrate transport barrier, periplasmic secretion and surface display biocatalysts were developed by expressing signal peptides or anchor proteins in Escherichia coli. In this work, six carriers were compared in regard to whole-cell activity of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH). Our results indicate that the surface display systems yielded one to three times whole-cell activity than the periplasmic secretion systems. Although periplasmic secretion systems showed generally more stable than surface display systems, surface display appeared more suitable for whole-cell biocatalyst. It should note that the applicability of the DsbA/PhoA/AIDA-I leader to MPH expression is shown here for the first time. In addition, the result provided a useful reference for other whole-cell biocatalyst selection.

  11. White biotechnology: State of the art strategies for the development of biocatalysts for biorefining.

    PubMed

    Heux, S; Meynial-Salles, I; O'Donohue, M J; Dumon, C

    2015-12-01

    White biotechnology is a term that is now often used to describe the implementation of biotechnology in the industrial sphere. Biocatalysts (enzymes and microorganisms) are the key tools of white biotechnology, which is considered to be one of the key technological drivers for the growing bioeconomy. Biocatalysts are already present in sectors such as the chemical and agro-food industries, and are used to manufacture products as diverse as antibiotics, paper pulp, bread or advanced polymers. This review proposes an original and global overview of highly complementary fields of biotechnology at both enzyme and microorganism level. A certain number of state of the art approaches that are now being used to improve the industrial fitness of biocatalysts particularly focused on the biorefinery sector are presented. The first part deals with the technologies that underpin the development of industrial biocatalysts, notably the discovery of new enzymes and enzyme improvement using directed evolution techniques. The second part describes the toolbox available by the cell engineer to shape the metabolism of microorganisms. And finally the last part focuses on the 'omic' technologies that are vital for understanding and guide microbial engineering toward more efficient microbial biocatalysts. Altogether, these techniques and strategies will undoubtedly help to achieve the challenging task of developing consolidated bioprocessing (i.e. CBP) readily available for industrial purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorinated Poly(Phenylene Ether Ketones)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Anne K.; Cassidy, Patrick E.; Tullos, Gordon L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones) are colorless, transparent, low-dielectric-constant, highly thermally stable polymers. Particularly suitable for use as film and coating materials in electronic and thermal-control applications such as; passivant insulating coats and interlevel dielectrics in microelectronic circuits, or as protective transparent coats on solar cells or mirrors. Solubility and transparency of 12F-PEK along with its lower dielectric constant and other properties make it more useful as dielectric film and coating material in many applications.

  13. Xylanase Immobilized on Novel Multifunctional Hyperbranched Polyglycerol-Grafted Magnetic Nanoparticles: An Efficient and Robust Biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Landarani-Isfahani, Amir; Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Amini, Mina; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Soozanipour, Asieh; Razmjou, Amir

    2015-08-25

    Although several strategies are now available for immobilization of enzymes to magnetic nanoparticles for bioapplications, little progresses have been reported on the use of dendritic or hyperbranched polymers for the same purpose. Herein, we demonstrated synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles supported hyperbranched polyglycerol (MNP/HPG) and a derivative conjugated with citric acid (MNP/HPG-CA) as unique and convenient nanoplatforms for immobilization of enzymes. Then, an important industrial enzyme, xylanase, was immobilized on the nanocarriers to produce robust biocatalysts. A variety of analytical tools were used to study the morphological, structural, and chemical properties of the biocatalysts. Additionally, the results of biocatalyst systems exhibited the substantial improvement of reactivity, reusability, and stability of xylanase due to this strategy, which might confer them a wider range of applications.

  14. Shine a light on immobilized enzymes: real-time sensing in solid supported biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Bolivar, Juan M; Consolati, Tanja; Mayr, Torsten; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Enzyme immobilization on solid supports has been key to biotransformation development. Although technologies for immobilization have largely reached maturity, the resulting biocatalysts are not well understood mechanistically. One limitation is that their internal environment is usually inferred from external data. Therefore, biological consequences of the immobilization remain masked by physical effects of mass transfer, obstructing further development. Work reviewed herein shows that opto-chemical sensing performed directly within the solid support enables the biocatalyst's internal environment to be uncovered quantitatively and in real time. Non-invasive methods of intraparticle pH and O2 determination are presented, and their use as process analytical tools for development of heterogeneous biocatalysts is described. Method diversification to other analytes remains a challenging task for the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Synthesis of diisooctyl adipate catalyzed by lipase-displaying Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Jin, Zi; Lin, Ying; Zheng, Suiping; Han, Shuangyan

    2013-07-01

    An enzyme-displaying yeast as a whole-cell biocatalyst is an alternative to immobilized enzyme, due to its low-cost preparation and simple recycle course. Here, lipase-displaying Pichia pastoris whole-cell was used as a biocatalyst to synthesize diisooctyl adipate in the non-aqueous system. The maximum productivity of diisooctyl adipate was obtained as 85.0% in a 10 mL reaction system. The yield could be reached as high as 97.8% when the reaction system was scaled up to 200 mL. The purity obtained is 98.2% after vacuum distillation. Thus, the lipase-displaying P. pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst was promising in commercial application for diisooctyl adipate synthesis in non-aqueous phase.

  16. [Major results of research and development of heterogenous biocatalysts for regenerated water clearing from harmful admixture].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The biological method of clearing atmospheric condensate in pressurized habitats exploits filters with a heterogenic biocatalyst produced by way of immobilizing harmless for human, animal and plant microoganisms on water-insoluble solid carrier--foam polyvinyl-formal (FPVF), and a hydrogen peroxide biofilter containing triacetate cellulose-immobilized catalase. Experience of forming an immobilized bacterial association as a polyenzyme system is particularly promising for development of advanced biotechnologies. Biocatalysts with expanded applicability can be manufactured using a FPVF-immobilized associative bacterial culture composed of Paracoccus denitrificans, Pseudomonas esterophilus and Methilopila capsulata. In aerobic condition at room temperature the heterogenic biocatalyst is capable to transform harmful organics in atmospheric condensate, e.g. methyl amine, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, ethanol and acetone into the end-products, i.e. carbon dioxide and water. Ammonia is consumed by 3 cultures as a source of nitrogen.

  17. Regulation of hypothalamic neuronal sensing and food intake by ketone bodies and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henri M; Levin, Barry E

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) alter their activity when ambient levels of metabolic substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids (FA), change. To assess the relationship between a high-fat diet (HFD; 60%) intake on feeding and serum and VMH FA levels, rats were trained to eat a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5%) or an HFD in 3 h/day and were monitored with VMH FA microdialysis. Despite having higher serum levels, HFD rats had lower VMH FA levels but ate less from 3 to 6 h of refeeding than did LFD rats. However, VMH β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and VMH-to-serum β-OHB ratio levels were higher in HFD rats during the first 1 h of refeeding, suggesting that VMH astrocyte ketone production mediated their reduced intake. In fact, using calcium imaging in dissociated VMH neurons showed that ketone bodies overrode normal FA sensing, primarily by exciting neurons that were activated or inhibited by oleic acid. Importantly, bilateral inhibition of VMH ketone production with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase inhibitor reversed the 3- to 6-h HFD-induced inhibition of intake but had no effect in LFD-fed rats. These data suggest that a restricted HFD intake regimen inhibits caloric intake as a consequence of FA-induced VMH ketone body production by astrocytes.

  18. The central role of ketones in reversible and irreversible hydrothermal organic functional group transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziming; Gould, Ian R.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Shock, Everett L.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of hydrothermal reactions involving organic compounds suggest complex, possibly reversible, reaction pathways that link functional groups from reduced alkanes all the way to oxidized carboxylic acids. Ketones represent a critical functional group because they occupy a central position in the reaction pathway, at the point where Csbnd C bond cleavage is required for the formation of the more oxidized carboxylic acids. The mechanisms for the critical bond cleavage reactions in ketones, and how they compete with other reactions are the focus of this experimental study. We studied a model ketone, dibenzylketone (DBK), in H2O at 300 °C and 70 MPa for up to 528 h. Product analysis was performed as a function of time at low DBK conversions to reveal the primary reaction pathways. Reversible interconversion between ketone, alcohol, alkene and alkane functional groups is observed in addition to formation of radical coupling products derived from irreversible Csbnd C and Csbnd H homolytic bond cleavage. The product distributions are time-dependent but the bond cleavage products dominate. The major products that accumulate at longer reaction times are toluene and larger, dehydrogenated structures that are initially formed by radical coupling. The hydrogen atoms generated by dehydrogenation of the coupling products are predominantly consumed in the formation of toluene. Even though bond cleavage products dominate, no carboxylic acids were observed on the timescale of the reactions under the chosen experimental conditions.

  19. Reactivity and stereoselectivity of 6π and nazarov electrocyclizations of bridged bicyclic trienes and divinyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashay; West, F G; Houk, K N

    2015-03-06

    The 6π electrocyclizations and Nazarov cyclizations of a series of bridged bicyclic substrates were modeled with the M06-2X density functional and the def2-TZVPP basis set, and the factors responsible for the reactivities of these substrates and the stereoselectivities of their ring closures were identified. The ring closures of these bridged bicyclic trienes are up to a million-fold faster (ΔΔG(⧧) = 10 kcal mol(-1)) than that of 1,3,5-hexatriene, despite the absence of any activating functional groups. Three effects, preorganization, predistortion, and a CH π interaction, are responsible for this sizable difference in reactivity. Stereoselectivity is partially controlled by torsional effects, but for highly exo selective electrocyclizations, it is reinforced by a second effect (either a CH π interaction or a steric clash). The absence of this second effect in the ring closures of several divinyl ketones explains the reduced selectivity of these ring closures. In one case, a divinyl ketone (ketone 6) undergoes Nazarov cyclization to yield the endo product preferentially. For this example, through-space interaction of a nonconjugated alkene with the divinyl ketone π system in the endo transition state and a steric effect override the intrinsic exo selectivity.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE NEW BIOCATALYST METHOD FOR BIODIESEL-FUEL BASED ON THE LIPASE PRODUCTION FUNGUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Toshiro; Shimada, Miki; Toida, Jinichi

    This paper describes how to develop and evaluate a new biocatalyst method for biodiesel fuel based on the lipase production fungus. This method can convert waste vegetable oil into biodiesel fuel without alkaline waste fluid and byproducts (gly cerine). The main outcomes of this research were: (1) The biodiesel fuel can be manufactured from lipase production fungus (Rhizupus oryzae NBRC 9364). (2) The lipase activity can be enhanced by adding glucose and oil. (3) Phased addition of the methanol enhances the conversion rate of the biodiesel fuel (Maximum conversion rate is 85%). (4) The proposed method can improve vehicle exhaust emission and reduce byproducts (glycerine). We concluded that our proposed methods are effective for the production of biodiesel fuel from waste vegetable oil.

  1. An Efficient, Recyclable, and Stable Immobilized Biocatalyst Based on Bioinspired Microcapsules-in-Hydrogel Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Zhongyi; Shi, Jiafu; Wang, Xueyan; Han, Pingping; Qian, Weilun

    2016-09-28

    Design and preparation of high-performance immobilized biocatalysts with exquisite structures and elucidation of their profound structure-performance relationship are highly desired for green and sustainable biotransformation processes. Learning from nature has been recognized as a shortcut to achieve such an impressive goal. Loose connective tissue, which is composed of hierarchically organized cells by extracellular matrix (ECM) and is recognized as an efficient catalytic system to ensure the ordered proceeding of metabolism, may offer an ideal prototype for preparing immobilized biocatalysts with high catalytic activity, recyclability, and stability. Inspired by the hierarchical structure of loose connective tissue, we prepared an immobilized biocatalyst enabled by microcapsules-in-hydrogel (MCH) scaffolds via biomimetic mineralization in agarose hydrogel. In brief, the in situ synthesized hybrid microcapsules encapsulated with glucose oxidase (GOD) are hierarchically organized by the fibrous framework of agarose hydrogel, where the fibers are intercalated into the capsule wall. The as-prepared immobilized biocatalyst shows structure-dependent catalytic performance. The porous hydrogel permits free diffusion of glucose molecules (diffusion coefficient: ∼6 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), close to that in water) and retains the enzyme activity as much as possible after immobilization (initial reaction rate: 1.5 × 10(-2) mM min(-1)). The monolithic macroscale of agarose hydrogel facilitates the easy recycling of the immobilized biocatalyst (only by using tweezers), which contributes to the nonactivity decline during the recycling test. The fiber-intercalating structure elevates the mechanical stability of the in situ synthesized hybrid microcapsules, which inhibits the leaching and enhances the stability of the encapsulated GOD, achieving immobilization efficiency of ∼95%. This study will, therefore, provide a generic method for the hierarchical organization of (bio

  2. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-01-27

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  3. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Scott, Timothy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  4. Biocatalysts and methods for conversion of hemicellulose hydrolysates to biobased products

    DOEpatents

    Preston, James F

    2015-03-31

    The invention relates to processes and biocatalysts for producing ethanol and other useful products from biomass and/or other materials. Initial processing of lignocellulosic biomass frequently yields methylglucuronoxylose (MeGAX) and related products which are resistant to further processing by common biocatalysts. Strains of Enterobacter asburiae are shown to be useful in bioprocessing of MeGAX and other materials into useful bioproducts such as ethanol, acetate, lactate, and many others. Genetic engineering may be used to enhance production of desired bioproducts.

  5. Tailor-made biocatalysts based on scarcely studied acidic horseradish peroxidase for biodegradation of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Janović, Barbara S; Mićić Vićovac, Milica Lj; Vujčić, Zoran M; Vujčić, Miroslava T

    2017-02-01

    Peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) have enormous biotechnological applications. Usage of more abundant, basic isoforms of peroxidases in diagnostic kits and/or in immunochemistry has led to under exploitation and disregard of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) acidic isoforms. Therefore, acidic horseradish peroxidase (HRP-A) isoenzyme was used for the preparation of a biocatalyst with improved ability in dye decolorization. Ten biocatalysts were prepared by covalent binding of enzyme to chitosan and alginate, adsorption followed by cross-linking on inorganic support (aluminum oxide), and encapsulation in spherical calcium alginate beads via polyethylene glycol. Model dyes of 50 to 175 mg l(-1) were removed by the biocatalysts. Among the tested biocatalysts, the three with the highest specific activity and biodegradation rate were further studied (Chitosan-HRP, Al-Gel-HRP and Al-HRP-Gel). The impact of hydrogen peroxide concentration on dye decolorization was examined on the Chitosan-HRP biocatalyst, since the HRP is susceptible to inhibition/inactivation by high H2O2. On the other hand, H2O2 is needed as a co-substrate for the HRP, and the H2O2/dye ratio can greatly influence decolorization efficiency. Concentrations of H2O2 ranging from 0.22 to 4.4 mM showed no difference in terms of impact on the biocatalyst decolorization efficiency. The high decolorization efficiency of the biocatalysts was validated by the removal of 25 and 100 mg l(-1) anthraquinone (Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)), triphenylmethane (Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)), acridine (Acridine Orange (AO)), and formazan metal complex dye (Reactive Blue 52 (RB52)). After the seven consecutive decolorization cycles, the decolorization was still 53, 78, and 67% of the initial dye for the Al-HRP-Gel, Al-Gel-HRP, and Chitosan-HRP immobilizate, respectively. The results obtained showed potential of otherwise neglected acidic HRP isoforms as a cost-effective biocatalyst with significant potential in wastewater

  6. Renal conservation of ketone bodies during starvation.

    PubMed

    Sapir, D G; Owen, O E

    1975-01-01

    Renal handling of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate was studied in 12 obese subjects undergoing total starvation. Simultaneously, the acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and inulin clearance rates were measured, and acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate reabsorption rates were calculated. Renal clearance of blood acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate remained constant. In contrast, acetoacetate reabsorption rate increased significantly from 47 plus or minus 10 mumoles/min on day 3 to 106 plus or minus 15, 89 plus or minus 10, and 96 plus or minus 10 mumoles/min on days 10, 17, and 24, respectively. Similarly, beta-hydroxybutyrate reabsorption rate increased significantly from 154 plus or minus 27 mumoles/min on day 3 to 419 plus or minus 53, 399 plus or minus 25, and 436 plus or minus 53 mumoles/min on days 10, 17, and 24, respectively. Both acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate reabsorption rates increased linearly when plotted against their filtered loads. Thus, no tubular maximal transport rate exists for acetoacetate or beta-hydroxybutyrate during physiologic ketonemia. Conservation 450-500 mmoles of ketone bodies/day prevents large urinary losses of cations during prolonged starvation. Since ammonium becomes the major cation excreted during prolonged fasting, the increased renal reabsorption of ketone bodies minimizes body protein loss and aids in maintaining high circulating acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database....

  8. Ketones prevent synaptic dysfunction induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Vallejo, Johana; Rho, Jong M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Ketones have previously shown beneficial effects in models of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly against associated mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. However, evidence of a synaptic protective effect of ketones remains lacking. We tested the effects of ketones on synaptic impairment induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) inhibitors using electrophysiological, reactive oxygen species (ROS) imaging and biochemical techniques. MRC inhibitors dose-dependently suppressed both population spike (PS) and field potential amplitudes in the CA1 hippocampus. Pre-treatment with ketones strongly prevented changes in the PS, whereas partial protection was seen in the field potential. Rotenone (Rot; 100 nmol/L), a MRC I inhibitor, suppressed synaptic function without altering ROS levels and PS depression by Rot was unaffected by antioxidants. In contrast, antioxidant-induced PS recovery against the MRC II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 1 mmol/L) was similar to the synaptic protective effects of ketones. Ketones also suppressed ROS generation induced by 3-NP. Finally, ketones reversed the decreases in ATP levels caused by Rot and 3-NP. In summary, our data demonstrate that ketones can preserve synaptic function in CA1 hippocampus induced by MRC dysfunction, likely through an antioxidant action and enhanced ATP generation. PMID:20374433

  9. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  10. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  11. Tandem Reaction of Enynyl Acetate: Precursor of Allenyl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Noriko; Sueda, Takuya; Yanada, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Deacetylation of enynyl acetates under basic conditions allows convenient access to reactive allenyl ketones, which can then undergo 1,4-addition of nucleophiles to furnish β,γ-unsaturated ketones. Benzofuran and indole derivatives have also been obtained from enynyl acetates with an o-hetero-atom-substituted aryl group via intramolecular 1,4-addition.

  12. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  13. 27 CFR 21.117 - Methyl isobutyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl isobutyl ketone. 21.117 Section 21.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....117 Methyl isobutyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  14. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  15. One-Step Conversion of Methyl Ketones to Acyl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Florencio

    2015-10-16

    Treatment of aromatic and heteroaromatic methyl ketones with sulfur monochloride and catalytic amounts of pyridine in refluxing chlorobenzene leads to the formation of acyl chlorides. Both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl methyl ketones can be used as starting materials. The resulting C1-byproduct depends on the precise reaction conditions chosen.

  16. Deaminative and decarboxylative catalytic alkylation of amino acids with ketones.

    PubMed

    Kalutharage, Nishantha; Yi, Chae S

    2013-12-16

    It cuts two ways: The cationic [Ru-H] complex catalyzes selective coupling of α- and β-amino acids with ketones to form α-alkylated ketone products. The reaction involves CC and CN bond cleavage which result in regio- and stereoselective alkylation using amino acids. A broad substrate scope and high functional-group tolerance is demonstrated.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database....

  18. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; West; Ryan M.

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  19. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketones (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1435 Section 862.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ketones (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1435 Section 862.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ketones (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1435 Section 862.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) test system is a device intended to identify ketones in urine and other body fluids. Identification of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ketones (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1435 Section 862.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  5. Role of glucose and ketone bodies in the metabolic control of experimental brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, T N; Sanderson, T M; El-Abbadi, M M; McGowan, R; Mukherjee, P

    2003-10-06

    Brain tumours lack metabolic versatility and are dependent largely on glucose for energy. This contrasts with normal brain tissue that can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies. We examined for the first time the potential efficacy of dietary therapies that reduce plasma glucose and elevate ketone bodies in the CT-2A syngeneic malignant mouse astrocytoma. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard diet unrestricted (SD-UR), a ketogenic diet unrestricted (KD-UR), the SD restricted to 40% (SD-R), or the KD restricted to 40% of the control standard diet (KD-R). Body weights, tumour weights, plasma glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured 13 days after tumour implantation. CT-2A growth was rapid in both the SD-UR and KD-UR groups, but was significantly reduced in both the SD-R and KD-R groups by about 80%. The results indicate that plasma glucose predicts CT-2A growth and that growth is dependent more on the amount than on the origin of dietary calories. Also, restriction of either diet significantly reduced the plasma levels of IGF-1, a biomarker for angiogenesis and tumour progression. Owing to a dependence on plasma glucose, IGF-1 was also predictive of CT-2A growth. Ketone bodies are proposed to reduce stromal inflammatory activities, while providing normal brain cells with a nonglycolytic high-energy substrate. Our results in a mouse astrocytoma suggest that malignant brain tumours are potentially manageable with dietary therapies that reduce glucose and elevate ketone bodies.

  6. Optimization of a whole-cell biocatalyst by employing genetically encoded product sensors inside nanolitre reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Andreas; Pellaux, René; Potot, Sébastien; Becker, Katja; Hohmann, Hans-Peter; Panke, Sven; Held, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Microcompartmentalization offers a high-throughput method for screening large numbers of biocatalysts generated from genetic libraries. Here we present a microcompartmentalization protocol for benchmarking the performance of whole-cell biocatalysts. Gel capsules served as nanolitre reactors (nLRs) for the cultivation and analysis of a library of Bacillus subtilis biocatalysts. The B. subtilis cells, which were co-confined with E. coli sensor cells inside the nLRs, converted the starting material cellobiose into the industrial product vitamin B2. Product formation triggered a sequence of reactions in the sensor cells: (1) conversion of B2 into flavin mononucleotide (FMN), (2) binding of FMN by a RNA riboswitch and (3) self-cleavage of RNA, which resulted in (4) the synthesis of a green fluorescent protein (GFP). The intensity of GFP fluorescence was then used to isolate B. subtilis variants that convert cellobiose into vitamin B2 with elevated efficiency. The underlying design principles of the assay are general and enable the development of similar protocols, which ultimately will speed up the optimization of whole-cell biocatalysts.

  7. Kefir immobilized on corn grains as biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation and sourdough bread making.

    PubMed

    Plessas, Stavros; Alexopoulos, Athanasios; Bekatorou, Argyro; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia

    2012-12-01

    The natural mixed culture kefir was immobilized on boiled corn grains to produce an efficient biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation with direct applications in food production, such as sourdough bread making. The immobilized biocatalyst was initially evaluated for its efficiency for lactic acid production by fermentation of cheese whey at various temperatures. The immobilized cells increased the fermentation rate and enhanced lactic acid production compared to free kefir cells. Maximum lactic acid yield (68.8 g/100 g) and lactic acid productivity (12.6 g/L per day) were obtained during fermentation by immobilized cells at 37 °C. The immobilized biocatalyst was then assessed as culture for sourdough bread making. The produced sourdough breads had satisfactory specific loaf volumes and good sensory characteristics. Specifically, bread made by addition of 60% w/w sourdough containing kefir immobilized on corn was more resistant regarding mould spoilage (appearance during the 11(th) day), probably due to higher lactic acid produced (2.86 g/Kg of bread) compared to the control samples. The sourdough breads made with the immobilized biocatalyst had aroma profiles similar to that of the control samples as shown by headspace SPME GC-MS analysis. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Hijacking nature—new approaches to unravel enzyme mechanisms and engineer improved biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Campeotto, Ivan; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G

    2013-01-01

    The second EMBO conference on ‘Catalytic Mechanisms by Biological Systems' took place in Groningen, the Netherlands, in October 2012. Structural, molecular and computational biologists, as well as chemists, biophysicists and engineers discussed technologies to improve our mechanistic understanding of enzymes, as well as the design of robust biocatalysts. PMID:23478336

  9. Hijacking nature--new approaches to unravel enzyme mechanisms and engineer improved biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Campeotto, Ivan; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G

    2013-04-01

    The second EMBO conference on 'Catalytic Mechanisms by Biological Systems' took place in Groningen, the Netherlands, in October 2012. Structural, molecular and computational biologists, as well as chemists, biophysicists and engineers discussed technologies to improve our mechanistic understanding of enzymes, as well as the design of robust biocatalysts.

  10. Enzyme-based inverse opals: a facile and promising platform for fabrication of biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Cui, Cuicui; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jing

    2014-05-28

    A facile and promising approach was developed to fabricate enzyme-based 3D-ordered macroporous biocatalysts (enzyme-based inverse opals) by using the colloidal crystal templating method. Horseradish peroxidase- and amylase-based inverse opals were prepared, which verified that this method is suitable for various enzymes.

  11. Simple enzymatic procedure for l‐carnosine synthesis: whole‐cell biocatalysis and efficient biocatalyst recycling

    PubMed Central

    Heyland, Jan; Antweiler, Nicolai; Lutz, Jochen; Heck, Tobias; Geueke, Birgit; Kohler, Hans‐Peter E.; Blank, Lars M.; Schmid, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Summary β‐Peptides and their derivates are usually stable to proteolysis and have an increased half‐life compared with α‐peptides. Recently, β‐aminopeptidases were described as a new enzyme class that enabled the enzymatic degradation and formation of β‐peptides. As an alternative to the existing chemical synthesis routes, the aim of the present work was to develop a whole‐cell biocatalyst for the synthesis and production of β‐peptides using this enzymatic activity. For the optimization of the reaction system we chose the commercially relevant β,α‐dipeptide l‐carnosine (β‐alanine‐l‐histidine) as model product. We were able to show that different recombinant yeast and bacteria strains, which overexpress a β‐peptidase, could be used directly as whole‐cell biocatalysts for the synthesis of l‐carnosine. By optimizing relevant reaction conditions for the best‐performing recombinant Escherichia coli strain, such as pH and substrate concentrations, we obtained high l‐carnosine yields of up to 71%. Long‐time as well as biocatalyst recycling experiments indicated a high stability of the developed biocatalyst for at least five repeated batches. Application of the recombinant E. coli in a fed‐batch process enabled the accumulation of l‐carnosine to a concentration of 3.7 g l−1. PMID:21255308

  12. Redox self-sufficient biocatalyst network for the amination of primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Johann H; Fuchs, Michael; Tauber, Katharina; Mutti, Francesco G; Faber, Kurt; Pfeffer, Jan; Haas, Thomas; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2012-09-03

    Driving the machinery: A biocatalytic redox-neutral cascade for the preparation of terminal primary amines from primary alcohols at the expense of ammonia has been established in a one-pot one-step method. Applying this artificial biocatalyst network, long-chain 1,ω-alkanediols were converted into diamines, which are building blocks for polymers, in up to 99 % conversion.

  13. Biocatalytic anti-Prelog reduction of prochiral ketones with whole cells of Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enantiomerically pure alcohols are important building blocks for production of chiral pharmaceuticals, flavors, agrochemicals and functional materials and appropriate whole-cell biocatalysts offer a highly enantioselective, minimally polluting route to these valuable compounds. At present, most of these biocatalysts follow Prelog’s rule, and thus the (S)-alcohols are usually obtained when the smaller substituent of the ketone has the lower CIP priority. Only a few anti-Prelog (R)-specific whole cell biocatalysts have been reported. In this paper, the biocatalytic anti-Prelog reduction of 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol was successfully conducted with high enantioselectivity using whole cells of Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158. Results Compared with other microorganisms investigated, Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 was shown to be more effective for the reduction reaction, affording much higher yield, product enantiomeric excess (e.e.) and initial reaction rate. The optimal temperature, buffer pH, co-substrate and its concentration, substrate concentration, cell concentration and shaking rate were 35°C, 5.0, 500 mmol/L isopropanol, 40 mmol/L, 25 mg/mL and 120 r/min, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum yield and the product e.e. were 89.5% and >99.9%, respectively, in 70 minutes. Compared with the best available data in aqueous system (yield of 55%), the yield of (R)-2-octanol was greatly increased. Additionally, the efficient whole-cell biocatalytic process was feasible on a 200-mL preparative scale and the chemical yield increased to 95.0% with the product e.e. being >99.9%. Moreover, Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cells were proved to be capable of catalyzing the anti-Prelog bioreduction of other prochiral carbonyl compounds with high efficiency. Conclusions Via an effective increase in the maximum yield and the product e.e. with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cells, these results open the way to use of whole cells of

  14. Conductivity enhancement of sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) blends using electric field structuring techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasa, Jeffrey V.; Shaw, Montgomery T.

    2004-03-01

    Binary blends composed of an ion-containing polymer and a secondary component were cast under an applied elec. field to produce membranes with anisotropic morphologies. The ion-containing polymer was sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) (SPEKK) and the secondary component was either poly(ether imide) (PEI) or styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer. A range of compositions and sulfonation levels were studied using this blend system. Optical and SEM micrographs of the resulting membranes showed columnar structures that were oriented along the direction of the field. It was found that electric field alignment only occurs when SPEKK is the dispersed phase but not when it is the matrix. The results show that the conductivities of the membranes that were cast under an electric field were significantly higher than those of the membranes cast without electric field. The conductivity measurements were interpreted in terms of a composite equation with structure-dependent parameters.

  15. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Liu, Baijun; Hu, Wei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  16. Enantioselective, organocatalytic reduction of ketones using bifunctional thiourea-amine catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, De Run; He, Anyu; Falck, J R

    2010-04-16

    Prochiral ketones are reduced to enantioenriched, secondary alcohols using catecholborane and a family of air-stable, bifunctional thiourea-amine organocatalysts. Asymmetric induction is proposed to arise from the in situ complexation between the borane and chiral thiourea-amine organocatalyst resulting in a stereochemically biased boronate-amine complex. The hydride in the complex is endowed with enhanced nucleophilicity while the thiourea concomitantly embraces and activates the carbonyl.

  17. Enantioselective, Organocatalytic Reduction of Ketones using Bifunctional Thiourea-Amine Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, De Run; He, Anyu; Falck, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Prochiral ketones are reduced to enantioenriched, secondary alcohols using catecholborane and a family of air-stable, bifunctional thiourea-amine organocatalysts. Asymmetric induction is proposed to arise from the in situ complexation between the borane and chiral thiourea-amine organocatalyst resulting in a stereochemically biased boronate-amine complex. The hydride in the complex is endowed with enhanced nucleophilicity while the thiourea concomitantly embraces and activates the carbonyl. PMID:20334398

  18. Novel Flow Sheet for Low Energy CO2 Capture Enabled by Biocatalyst Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, John; Shaffer, Alex; Vaysman, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    This report documents a preliminary Techno-Economic Assessment (TEA) for processes utilizing Akermin’s second generation biocatalyst delivery system to enhance AKM24, a non- volatile salt solution for CO2 capture. Biocatalyst enhanced AKM24 offers the potential to reduce the cost of CO2 capture in flue gas applications due to its improved equilibrium and stoichiometric properties that result in double the absorption capacity relative to previously demonstrated biocatalyst enhanced solvents. The study assumes a new supercritical pulverized coal fired power plant with a net output of 550 MWe after 90% CO2 capture and uses the June 2011 cost basis (August 2012 update of Bituminous Baseline Study, or BBS). Power plant modeling, capital cost review, and economic calculations were provided by WorleyParsons. Rate-based CO2 capture process modeling and equipment sizing was performed by Akermin using AspenPlus® V8.4, customized to accurately predict thermodynamics, kinetics, and physical properties of the AKM-24 solvent based on available laboratory data. Equipment capital costs were estimated using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer™ which compared well with published baseline cost estimates. Quotes of equipment costs and power consumption for vacuum blower and CO2 compression equipment were also provided by Man Diesel & Turbo. Three process scenarios were examined for Akermin biocatalyst enhanced solvent systems including: Case-1A: an absorption-desorption system operated with a reboiler pressure of 0.16 bara (60°C); Case-2A: an absorption-desorption system with moderate vacuum assisted regeneration at 0.40 bara (80°C); and finally, Case-2B: a conventional absorption-desorption system with near atmospheric pressure regeneration at 1.07 bara (105°C). The estimated increases in cost of electricity (ICOE) for these cases were $58.1/MWh, $47.3/MWh and $46.4/MWh, respectively. Case 2B had the best results for this analysis

  19. Intermittent trickling bed filter for the removal of methyl ethyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone.

    PubMed

    Farnazo, Danvir Mark C; Nisola, Grace M; Han, Mideok; Yoo, Namjong; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2012-05-01

    Biodegradations of methyl ethyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone were performed in intermittent biotrickling filter beds (ITBF) operated at two different trickling periods: 12 h/day (ITBF-12) and 30 min/day (ITBF-0.5). Ralstonia sp. MG1 was able to degrade both ketones as evidenced by growth kinetic experiments. Results show that trickling period is an important parameter to achieve high removal performance and to maintain the robustness of Ralstonia sp. MG1. Overall, ITBF-12 outperformed ITBF-0.5 regardless of the target compound. ITBF-12 had high performance recovery at various inlet gas concentrations. The higher carbon dioxide production rates in ITBF-12 suggest higher microbial activity than in ITBF-0.5. Additionally, lower concentrations of absorbed volatile organic compound (VOC) in trickling solutions of ITBF-12 systems also indicate VOC removal through biodegradation. Pressure drop levels in ITBF-12 were relatively higher than in ITBF-0.5 systems, which can be attributed to the decrease in packed bed porosity as Ralstonia sp. MG1 grew well in ITBF-12. Nonetheless, the obtained pressure drop levels did not have any adverse effect on the performance of ITBF-12. Biokinetic constants were also obtained which indicated that ITBF-12 performed better than ITBF-0.5 and other conventional biotrickling filter systems.

  20. Olfactory Psychometric Functions for Homologous 2-Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Cometto-Muñiz, J. Enrique; Abraham, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    We measured concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) odor functions for the homologous ketones propanone (acetone), 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-nonanone. Under a forced-choice procedure, stimuli were presented via an 8-channel air-dilution olfactometer that allowed natural sampling of the odorant and whose output was quantified by gas chromatography. Subjects (17 to 22 per compound) comprised young adults from both genders, all normosmics and nonsmokers. A sigmoid (logistic) equation tightly fitted group and individual functions. The odor detection threshold (ODT) was the concentration detectable at halfway (P=0.5) between chance (P=0.0) and perfect (P=1.0) detection. Odor sensitivity increased (i.e., thresholds decreased) from acetone to heptanone, remaining constant for nonanone. This relative trend was also observed in previous work and in odor thresholds compilations, but the absolute ODTs obtained here were consistently at the lower end of those reported before. Interindividual variability of ODTs was about one order of magnitude. These odor functions measured behaviorally in humans were obtained at vapor concentrations 1,000 times lower than functions measured via activation, with similar 2-ketones, of receptor neurons converging into individual olfactory glomeruli of mice, visualized with calcium sensitive dyes. Odorant concentrations presented as vapors (as in behavioral studies) and those presented as liquids (as in cellular/tissue studies) can be rendered equivalent via liquid-vapor partition coefficients and, then, compared in relative olfactory potency. These comparisons can reveal how sensitivity is progressively shaped across levels of the neural pathway. PMID:19428635

  1. Olfactory psychometric functions for homologous 2-ketones.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique; Abraham, Michael H

    2009-07-19

    We measured concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) odor functions for the homologous ketones propanone (acetone), 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-nonanone. Under a forced-choice procedure, stimuli were presented via an 8-channel air-dilution olfactometer that allowed natural sampling of the odorant and whose output was quantified by gas chromatography. Subjects (17-22 per compound) comprised young adults from both genders, all normosmics and nonsmokers. A sigmoid (logistic) equation tightly fitted group and individual functions. The odor detection threshold (ODT) was the concentration detectable at halfway (P=0.5) between chance (P=0.0) and perfect (P=1.0) detection. Odor sensitivity increased (i.e., thresholds decreased) from acetone to heptanone, remaining constant for nonanone. This relative trend was also observed in previous work and in odor thresholds compilations, but the absolute ODTs obtained here were consistently at the lower end of those reported before. Interindividual variability of ODTs was about 1 order of magnitude. These odor functions measured behaviorally in humans were obtained at vapor concentrations 1000 times lower than functions measured via activation, with similar 2-ketones, of receptor neurons converging into individual olfactory glomeruli of mice, visualized with calcium sensitive dyes. Odorant concentrations presented as vapors (as in behavioral studies) and those presented as liquids (as in cellular/tissue studies) can be rendered equivalent via liquid-vapor partition coefficients and, then, compared in relative olfactory potency. These comparisons can reveal how sensitivity is progressively shaped across levels of the neural pathway.

  2. Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels.

    PubMed

    Goh, Ee-Been; Baidoo, Edward E K; Keasling, Jay D; Beller, Harry R

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered Escherichia coli to overproduce saturated and monounsaturated aliphatic methyl ketones in the C₁₁ to C₁₅ (diesel) range; this group of methyl ketones includes 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, which are of importance to the flavor and fragrance industry and also have favorable cetane numbers (as we report here). We describe specific improvements that resulted in a 700-fold enhancement in methyl ketone titer relative to that of a fatty acid-overproducing E. coli strain, including the following: (i) overproduction of β-ketoacyl coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters achieved by modification of the β-oxidation pathway (specifically, overexpression of a heterologous acyl-CoA oxidase and native FadB and chromosomal deletion of fadA) and (ii) overexpression of a native thioesterase (FadM). FadM was previously associated with oleic acid degradation, not methyl ketone synthesis, but outperformed a recently identified methyl ketone synthase (Solanum habrochaites MKS2 [ShMKS2], a thioesterase from wild tomato) in β-ketoacyl-CoA-overproducing strains tested. Whole-genome transcriptional (microarray) studies led to the discovery that FadM is a valuable catalyst for enhancing methyl ketone production. The use of a two-phase system with decane enhanced methyl ketone production by 4- to 7-fold in addition to increases from genetic modifications.

  3. Engineering of Bacterial Methyl Ketone Synthesis for Biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Ee-Been; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered Escherichia coli to overproduce saturated and monounsaturated aliphatic methyl ketones in the C11 to C15 (diesel) range; this group of methyl ketones includes 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, which are of importance to the flavor and fragrance industry and also have favorable cetane numbers (as we report here). We describe specific improvements that resulted in a 700-fold enhancement in methyl ketone titer relative to that of a fatty acid-overproducing E. coli strain, including the following: (i) overproduction of β-ketoacyl coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters achieved by modification of the β-oxidation pathway (specifically, overexpression of a heterologous acyl-CoA oxidase and native FadB and chromosomal deletion of fadA) and (ii) overexpression of a native thioesterase (FadM). FadM was previously associated with oleic acid degradation, not methyl ketone synthesis, but outperformed a recently identified methyl ketone synthase (Solanum habrochaites MKS2 [ShMKS2], a thioesterase from wild tomato) in β-ketoacyl-CoA-overproducing strains tested. Whole-genome transcriptional (microarray) studies led to the discovery that FadM is a valuable catalyst for enhancing methyl ketone production. The use of a two-phase system with decane enhanced methyl ketone production by 4- to 7-fold in addition to increases from genetic modifications. PMID:22038610

  4. New approach to determination of total ketone bodies in serum.

    PubMed

    Siegel, L; Robin, N I; McDonald, L J

    1977-01-01

    We describe a one-step assay for total ketone bodies in serum. D-BETA-Hydroxybutyrate is enzymatically oxidized by NAD+ to acetoacetate. This thermodynamically unfavorable reaction is driven to completion by coupling it with the enzymatic reduction of pyruvate by NADH. The acetoacetate so formed, as well as the pre-existing acetoacetate, is quantitatively decarboxylated to acetone in a gas chromatograph and measured directly. Thus by a single measurement for acetone, all three ketone bodies are simultaneously determined. In light of the ubiquity of situations associated with augmented ketone body production, the clinical implications of this approach are extensive.

  5. Direct α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols in water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoqiang; Li, Qiong; Feng, Jiange; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Zuojun; Wang, Xicheng; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Mu, Xindong

    2014-01-01

    The direct α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols has emerged as a new green protocol to construct C-C bonds with H2 O as the sole byproduct. In this work, a very simple and convenient Pd/C catalytic system for the direct α-alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols in pure water is developed. Based on this catalytic system, aqueous mixtures of dilute acetone, 1-butanol, and ethanol (mimicking ABE fermentation products) can be directly transformed into C5 -C11 or longer-chain ketones and alcohols, which are precursors to fuels. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Substrate-controlled Michael additions of chiral ketones to enones.

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, Mireia; Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Pellicena, Miquel; Reina, Daniel F; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Font-Bardia, Mercè

    2014-12-05

    Substrate-controlled Michael additions of the titanium(IV) enolate of lactate-derived ketone 1 to acyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones in the presence of a Lewis acid (TiCl4 or SnCl4) provide the corresponding 2,4-anti-4,5-anti dicarbonyl compounds in good yields and excellent diastereomeric ratios. Likely, the nucleophilic species involved in such additions are bimetallic enolates that may add to enones through cyclic transition states. Finally, further studies indicate that a structurally related β-benzyloxy chiral ketone can also participate in such stereocontrolled conjugate additions.

  7. An algorithm for the deconvolution of mass spectroscopic patterns in isotope labeling studies. Evaluation for the hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction in ketones.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Christian C; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Voss, Constance V; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Kappe, C Oliver; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2007-07-20

    An easy to use computerized algorithm for the determination of the amount of each labeled species differing in the number of incorporated isotope labels based on mass spectroscopic data is described and evaluated. Employing this algorithm, the microwave-assisted synthesis of various alpha-labeled deuterium ketones via hydrogen-deuterium exchange with deuterium oxide was optimized with respect to time, temperature, and degree of labeling. For thermally stable ketones the exchange of alpha-protons was achieved at 180 degrees C within 40-200 min. Compared to reflux conditions, the microwave-assisted protocol led to a reduction of the required reaction time from 75-94 h to 40-200 min. The alpha-labeled deuterium ketones were reduced by biocatalytic hydrogen transfer to the corresponding enantiopure chiral alcohols and the deconvolution algorithm validated by regression analysis of a mixture of labeled and unlabeled ketones/alcohols.

  8. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  9. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  10. Indium-mediated regioselective synthesis of ketones from arylstannanes under solvent-free ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lo Fiego, Marcos J; Badajoz, Mercedes A; Domini, Claudia; Chopa, Alicia B; Lockhart, María T

    2013-05-01

    The solvent-free indium-promoted reaction of alkanoyl chlorides with sterically and electronically diverse arylstannanes is a simple and direct method for the regioselective synthesis of primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl aryl ketones in good to excellent isolated yields (42-84%) under mild and neutral conditions. The protocol is also adequate for the synthesis of aryl vinyl ketones. Reaction times are drastically reduced (from 3-32h to 10-70min) under ultrasonic irradiation. Evidences for the involvement of a homolytic aromatic ipso-substitution mechanism, in which indium metal acts as radical initiator, are presented. It is possible the transference of two aryl groups from tin, thus improving effective mass yield, working with diarylstannanes as starting substrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Steric vs. electronic effects in the Lactobacillus brevis ADH-catalyzed bioreduction of ketones.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Borzęcka, Wioleta; Sattler, Johann H; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Lavandera, Iván; Gotor, Vicente

    2014-01-28

    Lactobacillus brevis ADH (LBADH) is an alcohol dehydrogenase that is commonly employed to reduce alkyl or aryl ketones usually bearing a methyl, an ethyl or a chloromethyl as a small ketone substituent to the corresponding (R)-alcohols. Herein we have tested a series of 24 acetophenone derivatives differing in their size and electronic properties for their reduction employing LBADH. After plotting the relative activity against the measured substrate volumes we observed that apart from the substrate size other effects must be responsible for the activity obtained. Compared to acetophenone (100% relative activity), other small substrates such as propiophenone, α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone, α-hydroxyacetophenone, and benzoylacetonitrile had relative activities lower than 30%, while medium-sized ketones such as α-bromo-, α,α-dichloro-, and α,α-dibromoacetophenone presented relative activities between 70% and 550%. Moreover, the comparison between the enzymatic activity and the obtained final conversions using an excess or just 2.5 equiv. of the hydrogen donor 2-propanol, denoted again deviations between them. These data supported that these hydrogen transfer (HT) transformations are mainly thermodynamically controlled. For instance, bulky α-halogenated derivatives could be quantitatively reduced by LBADH even employing 2.5 equiv. of 2-propanol independently of their kinetic values. Finally, we found good correlations between the IR absorption band of the carbonyl groups and the degrees of conversion obtained in these HT processes, making this simple method a convenient tool to predict the success of these transformations.

  12. Direct β-functionalization of cyclic ketones with aryl ketones via the merger of photoredox and organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Petronijević, Filip R; Nappi, Manuel; MacMillan, David W C

    2013-12-11

    The direct β-coupling of cyclic ketones with aryl ketones has been achieved via the synergistic combination of photoredox catalysis and organocatalysis. Diaryl oxymethyl or aryl-alkyl oxymethyl radicals, transiently generated via single-electron reduction of ketone precursors, readily merge with β-enaminyl radical species, generated by photon-induced enamine oxidation, to produce γ-hydroxyketone adducts. Experimental evidence indicates that two discrete reaction pathways can be operable in this process depending upon the nature of the ketyl radical precursor and the photocatalyst.

  13. Direct β-Functionalization of Cyclic Ketones with Aryl Ketones via the Merger of Photoredox and Organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Petronijević, Filip R.; Nappi, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The direct β-coupling of cyclic ketones with aryl ketones has been achieved via the synergistic combination of photoredox catalysis and organocatalysis. Diaryl oxymethyl or aryl–alkyl oxymethyl radicals, transiently generated via single-electron reduction of ketone precursors, readily merge with β-enaminyl radical species – generated by photon-induced enamine oxidation – to produce γ-hydroxyketone adducts. Experimental evidence indicates that two discrete reaction pathways can be operable in this process depending upon the nature of the ketyl radical precursor and the photocatalyst. PMID:24237366

  14. Ketogenic diets and thermal pain: dissociation of hypoalgesia, elevated ketones, and lowered glucose in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruskin, David N.; Suter, Tracey A.C.S.; Ross, Jessica L.; Masino, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are high-fat, low-carbohydrate formulations effective in treating medically-refractory epilepsy, and recently we demonstrated lowered sensitivity to thermal pain in rats fed a ketogenic diet for 3–4 weeks. Regarding anticonvulsant and hypoalgesic mechanisms, theories are divided as to direct effects of increased ketones and/or decreased glucose, metabolic hallmarks of these diets. To address this point, we characterized the time course of ketogenic diet-induced thermal hypoalgesia, ketosis, and lowered glucose in young male rats fed ad libitum on normal chow or ketogenic diets. A strict 6.6:1 (fat:(carbohydrates + protein), by weight), ketogenic diet increased blood ketones and reduced blood glucose by two days of feeding, but thermal hypoalgesia did not appear until 10 days. Thus, ketosis and decreased glucose are not sufficient for hypoalgesia. After feeding a 6.6:1 ketogenic diet for 19 days, decreased thermal pain sensitivity and changes in blood chemistry reversed one day after return to normal chow. Effects on were consistent between two different diet formulations: a more moderate and clinically-relevant ketogenic diet formula (3.0:1) produced hypoalgesia and similar changes in blood chemistry as the 6.6:1 diet, thus increasing translational potential. Furthermore, feeding the 3.0:1 diet throughout an extended protocol (10–11 weeks) revealed that significant hypoalgesia and increased ketones persisted whereas low glucose did not, demonstrating that ketogenic diet-induced hypoalgesia does not depend on reduced glucose. In separate experiments we determined that effects on thermal pain responses were not secondary to motor or cognitive changes. Together, these findings dissociate diet-related changes in nociception from direct actions of elevated ketones or decreased glucose, and suggest mechanisms with a slower onset in this paradigm. Overall, our data indicate that metabolic approaches can relieve pain. PMID:23499319

  15. Asymmetric organocatalytic Michael addition of ketones to vinyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiang; Cheng, Lili; Lu, Yixin

    2008-12-21

    Highly enantioselective organocatalytic Michael addition of ketones to vinyl sulfone catalyzed by a cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amine is reported for the first time; the described synthetic methodology was applied to the synthesis of sodium cyclamate.

  16. Synthesis and Applications of Hajos-Parrish Ketone Isomers.

    PubMed

    Eagan, James M; Hori, Masahiro; Wu, Jianbin; Kanyiva, Kyalo Stephen; Snyder, Scott A

    2015-06-26

    Numerous natural products possess ring systems and functionality for which Hajos-Parrish ketone isomers with a transposed methyl group (termed "iso-Hajos-Parrish ketones") would be of value. However, such building blocks have not been exploited to the same degree as the more typical Hajos-Parrish hydrindane. An efficient three-step synthesis of such materials was fueled by a simple method for the rapid preparation of highly functionalized cyclopentenones, several of which are new chemical entities that would be challenging to access through other approaches. Furthermore, one iso-Hajos-Parrish ketone was converted into two distinct natural product analogues and one natural product. As one indication of the value of these new building blocks, that latter target was obtained in 10 steps, having previously been accessed in 18 steps using the Hajos-Parrish ketone. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enantioselective rhodium(I)-catalyzed hydrogenation of trifluoromethyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Y; Sakamaki, Y; Iseki, K

    2001-02-08

    [figure: see text] The asymmetric hydrogenation of trifluoromethyl ketones to yield chiral alpha-trifluoromethyl alcohols with enantiomeric excesses up to 98% was achieved in the presence of chiral rhodium-(amidephosphine-phosphinite) complexes.

  18. Bleaching of kraft plus using dioxiranes: Structural effect of ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Wearing, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    Recent developments in totally chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching of kraft pulps have led to a new finding showing that dimethyldioxirane (DMD), formed by reaction of peroxymonosulphate with acetone, is a very effective and selective bleaching agent. Because of the high volatility of acetone, careful design and special equipment are needed for the DMD bleaching process in order to meet operational safety, health and emission control requirements. Other ketones are considered as alternatives to acetone for dioxirane bleaching; however, the use of alternative ketones exhibits different responses in bleaching compared to acetone. This paper examines the bleaching performance of a number of selected ketones in light of different chemical structures and properties of the ketones as well as bleaching variables.

  19. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Cole, Mark A.; Cochlin, Lowri E.; Carter, Emma; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Pichulik, Tica; Gulston, Melanie K.; Atherton, Helen J.; Schroeder, Marie A.; Deacon, Robert M. J.; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M. Todd; Pawlosky, Robert; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Tyler, Damian J.; Griffin, Julian L.; Robertson, Jeremy; Veech, Richard L.; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies are the most energy-efficient fuel and yield more ATP per mole of substrate than pyruvate and increase the free energy released from ATP hydrolysis. Elevation of circulating ketones via high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets has been used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. Ketones may also be beneficial for muscle and brain in times of stress, such as endurance exercise. The challenge has been to raise circulating ketone levels by using a palatable diet without altering lipid levels. We found that blood ketone levels can be increased and cholesterol and triglycerides decreased by feeding rats a novel ketone ester diet: chow that is supplemented with (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as 30% of calories. For 5 d, rats on the ketone diet ran 32% further on a treadmill than did control rats that ate an isocaloric diet that was supplemented with either corn starch or palm oil (P < 0.05). Ketone-fed rats completed an 8-arm radial maze test 38% faster than did those on the other diets, making more correct decisions before making a mistake (P < 0.05). Isolated, perfused hearts from rats that were fed the ketone diet had greater free energy available from ATP hydrolysis during increased work than did hearts from rats on the other diets as shown by using [31P]-NMR spectroscopy. The novel ketone diet, therefore, improved physical performance and cognitive function in rats, and its energy-sparing properties suggest that it may help to treat a range of human conditions with metabolic abnormalities.—Murray, A. J., Knight, N. S., Cole, M. A., Cochlin, L. E., Carter, E., Tchabanenko, K., Pichulik, T., Gulston, M. K., Atherton, H. J., Schroeder, M. A., Deacon, R. M. J., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., Pawlosky, R., Rawlins, J. N. P., Tyler, D. J., Griffin, J. L., Robertson, J., Veech, R. L., Clarke, K. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance. PMID:27528626

  20. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew J; Knight, Nicholas S; Cole, Mark A; Cochlin, Lowri E; Carter, Emma; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Pichulik, Tica; Gulston, Melanie K; Atherton, Helen J; Schroeder, Marie A; Deacon, Robert M J; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M Todd; Pawlosky, Robert; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Tyler, Damian J; Griffin, Julian L; Robertson, Jeremy; Veech, Richard L; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-12-01

    Ketone bodies are the most energy-efficient fuel and yield more ATP per mole of substrate than pyruvate and increase the free energy released from ATP hydrolysis. Elevation of circulating ketones via high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets has been used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. Ketones may also be beneficial for muscle and brain in times of stress, such as endurance exercise. The challenge has been to raise circulating ketone levels by using a palatable diet without altering lipid levels. We found that blood ketone levels can be increased and cholesterol and triglycerides decreased by feeding rats a novel ketone ester diet: chow that is supplemented with (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as 30% of calories. For 5 d, rats on the ketone diet ran 32% further on a treadmill than did control rats that ate an isocaloric diet that was supplemented with either corn starch or palm oil (P < 0.05). Ketone-fed rats completed an 8-arm radial maze test 38% faster than did those on the other diets, making more correct decisions before making a mistake (P < 0.05). Isolated, perfused hearts from rats that were fed the ketone diet had greater free energy available from ATP hydrolysis during increased work than did hearts from rats on the other diets as shown by using [(31)P]-NMR spectroscopy. The novel ketone diet, therefore, improved physical performance and cognitive function in rats, and its energy-sparing properties suggest that it may help to treat a range of human conditions with metabolic abnormalities.-Murray, A. J., Knight, N. S., Cole, M. A., Cochlin, L. E., Carter, E., Tchabanenko, K., Pichulik, T., Gulston, M. K., Atherton, H. J., Schroeder, M. A., Deacon, R. M. J., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., Pawlosky, R., Rawlins, J. N. P., Tyler, D. J., Griffin, J. L., Robertson, J., Veech, R. L., Clarke, K. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance.

  1. Inhibition of serine proteases by peptidyl fluoromethyl ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Imperiali, B.; Abeles, R.H.

    1986-07-01

    Peptidyl fluoromethyl ketones that are specific inhibitors of the serine proteases ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin and porcine pancreatic elastase were synthesized. By analogy with the corresponding aldehydes it is assumed that the fluoromethyl ketones react with the ..gamma..-OH group of the active site serine to form a stable hemiacetal. /sup 19/F NMR studies of the chymotrypsin-bound trifluoromethyl ketone inhibitors Ac-Leu-ambo-Phe-CF/sub 3//sup 1/ and Ac-ambo-Phe-CF/sub 3/ clearly indicate that the carbonyl carbon is tetrahedral at the active site of the enzyme. The inhibitor is bound as either the stable hydrat or the hemiacetal, involving the active site serine. The effect of varying the number of amino acid residues in the peptidyl portion of the inhibitor and the number of fluorines in the fluoromethyl ketone moiety is examined. In the series of trifluoromethyl ketone elastase inhibitors, the lowering of K/sub i/ concomitant with the change from a dipeptide analogue to a tetrapeptide analogue correlates well with the variation in V/K for hydrolysis of the corresponding amide substrates. This trend is indicative of the inhibitors acting as transition-state analogues. In addition to chain length, the number of fluorine substituents also affects the K/sub i/. In the case of chymotrypsin, the K/sub i/ for Ac-Leu-ambo-Phe-CF/sub 3/ is 30-fold lower than that for Ac-Leu-ambo-Phe-CF/sub 2/H. With elastase this trend is not as profound. In all cases, however, the difluoro- and trifluoromethyl ketones are better inhibitors than the monofluoromethyl and nonfluorinated analogues. This improvement must be associated with both the degree of hydration of the fluoromethyl ketones and the significant effect that fluorine substitution has on lowering the first pK/sub a/ of the hemiacetal hydroxyl. The monofluoromethyl ketone inhibitor of chymotrypsin, Ac-Leu-ambo-Phe-CFH/sub 2/, is a weak competitive inhibitor.

  2. E. coli cells expressing the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase 'MO14' (ro03437) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 catalyse the gram-scale resolution of a bicyclic ketone in a fermentor.

    PubMed

    Summers, Benjamin D; Omar, Muhiadin; Ronson, Thomas O; Cartwright, Jared; Lloyd, Michael; Grogan, Gideon

    2015-02-14

    The Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) 'MO14' from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, is an enantioselective BVMO that catalyses the resolution of the model ketone substrate bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one to the (1S,5R)-2-oxa lactone and the residual (1S,5R)-substrate enantiomer. This regio-plus enantioselective behaviour is highly unusual for BVMOs, which often perform enantiodivergent biotransformations of this substrate. The scaleability of the transformation was investigated using fermentor-based experiments, in which variables including gene codon optimisation, temperature and substrate concentration were investigated. E. coli cells expressing MO14 catalysed the resolution of bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one to yield (1S,5R)-2-oxa lactone of >99% ee and (1S,5R)-ketone of 96% ee after 14 h at a temperature of 16 °C and a substrate concentration of 0.5 g L(-1) (4.5 mM). MO14 is thus a promising biocatalyst for the production of enantio-enriched ketones and lactones derived from the [3.2.0] platform.

  3. Regulated workplace ketones and their interference in the PFBHA method for aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y W; Hee, S S

    2000-11-01

    Ketones are the major positive interferences for an aldehyde dynamic air sampler that consists of 200-mg 20 percent (w/w) O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) on Tenax TA contained in a Pyrex tube 7-mm OD, 5-mm ID, and 70-mm in length, that utilizes a personal battery-powered pump at 10-50 mL/min. The ketone O-oxime derivatives were synthesized to allow absolute quantitation of O-oximes formed during sampling. Wet spiking allowed ketone recoveries to be found. Ketone vapors of known concentrations were generated statically in Tedlar gas bags. The O-oximes were desorbed with hexane, and an aliquot injected for gas chromatographic analysis on a nonpolar capillary column with mass spectrometric or electron capture detection. Gas phase recoveries up to 200 ppm-hour loadings exceeded 75 percent at 25 degrees C for chloroacetone, cyclohexanone, diacetone alcohol, diethyl ketone, dipropyl ketone, ethyl butyl ketone, methyl amyl ketone, methyl butyl ketone, 2-methylcyclohexanone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl isopropyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone. The recoveries for acetophenone, 2-chloroacetophenone, and ethyl amyl ketone were lower than 75 percent, and were caused by steric hindrance. Sampling for both aldehydes and ketones is recommended at 10 mL/min for TLV concentrations.

  4. Rotational Spectroscopy of Methyl Vinyl Ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, Olena; Motiyenko, R. A.; Aviles Moreno, Juan-Ramon; Huet, T. R.

    2015-06-01

    Methyl vinyl ketone, MVK, along with previously studied by our team methacrolein, is a major oxidation product of isoprene, which is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. In this talk we present the analysis of the rotational spectrum of MVK recorded at room temperature in the 50 -- 650 GHz region using the Lille spectrometer. The spectroscopic characterization of MVK ground state will be useful in the detailed analysis of high resolution infrared spectra. Our study is supported by high level quantum chemical calculations to model the structure of the two stable s-trans and s-cis conformers and to obtain the harmonic force field parameters, internal rotation barrier heights, and vibrational frequencies. In the Doppler-limited spectra the splittings due to the internal rotation of methyl group are resolved, therefore for analysis of this molecule we used the Rho-Axis-Method Hamiltonian and RAM36 code to fit the rotational transitions. At the present time the ground state of two conformers is analyzed. Also we intend to study some low lying excited states. The analysis is in progress and the latest results will be presented. Support from the French Laboratoire d'Excellence CaPPA (Chemical and Physical Properties of the Atmosphere) through contract ANR-10-LABX-0005 of the Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir is acknowledged.

  5. Additional vinyl ketones and their pyranyl ketones in gonyleptid harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) suggest these metabolites are widespread in this family.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Felipe C; Rocha, Daniele F O; Gonçalves, Caroline C S; Machado, Glauco; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2013-09-27

    Four species of gonyleptid harvestmen, Acanthogonyleptes pulcher, Gonyleptes saprophilus (Gonyleptinae), Sodreana barbiellini, and Sodreana leprevosti (Sodreaninae), were examined by GC-MS and ¹³H NMR. All of these species release vinyl ketones, and three of them produce the corresponding pyranyl ketones, which are presumed hetero-Diels-Alder (HDA) dimers. The vinyl ketones 5-methyl-1-hexen-3-one, rac-4-methyl-1-hexen-3-one, and (S)-4-methyl-1-hexen-3-one were synthesized. Natural 4-methyl-1-hexen-3-one is present as a single stereoisomer and has the R-configuration. Vinyl ketone dimers (HDA dimers) were also observed in the scent gland exudate and characterized by HRMS, ¹³C NMR, and ¹H NMR chemical shifts of the pyranyl moiety.

  6. Metagenomics-Guided Mining of Commercially Useful Biocatalysts from Marine Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Uria, A R; Zilda, D S

    Marine microorganisms are a rich reservoir of highly diverse and unique biocatalysts that offer potential applications in food, pharmaceutical, fuel, and cosmetic industries. The fact that only less than 1% of microbes in any marine habitats can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions has hampered access to their extraordinary biocatalytic potential. Metagenomics has recently emerged as a powerful and well-established tool to investigate the vast majority of hidden uncultured microbial diversity for the discovery of novel industrially relevant enzymes from different types of environmental samples, such as seawater, marine sediment, and symbiotic microbial consortia. We discuss here in this review about approaches and methods in metagenomics that have been used and can potentially be used to mine commercially useful biocatalysts from uncultured marine microbes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of a new whole cell biocatalyst for the synthesis of 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Valino, Ana L; Palazzolo, Martín A; Iribarren, Adolfo M; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate (DR5P) is a key intermediate in the biocatalyzed preparation of deoxyribonucleosides. Therefore, DR5P production by means of simpler, cleaner, and economic pathways becomes highly interesting. One strategy involves the use of bacterial whole cells containing DR5P aldolase as biocatalyst for the aldol addition between acetaldehyde and D: -glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glycolytic intermediates that in situ generate the acceptor substrate. In this work, diverse microorganisms capable of synthesizing DR5P were selected by screening several bacteria genera. In particular, Erwinia carotovora ATCC 33260 was identified as a new biocatalyst that afforded 14.1-mM DR5P starting from a cheap raw material like glucose.

  8. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  9. Delignified cellulosic material supported biocatalyst as freeze-dried product in alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Iconomopoulou, M; Kanellaki, M; Psarianos, K; Koutinas, A A

    2000-03-01

    Freeze-dried delignified cellulosic (DC) material supported biocatalyst is proposed as a suitable form of biocatalyst to be preserved. The alcoholic fermentation of glucose using freeze-dried immobilized cells is reported. Freeze-dried immobilized baker's yeast cells on DC material do not need any protective medium during freeze-drying. The effect of initial glucose concentration and temperature on the alcoholic fermentation kinetic parameters is reported in the present study. It was found that the freeze-dried immobilized cells ferment more quickly than free freeze-dried cells and have a lower fermentation rate as compared with wet immobilized cells. However, repeated batch fermentations showed freeze-dried immobilized cells to ferment at about the same fermentation rate as wet immobilized cells. The results indicate that the freeze-dried immobilized cells must be further studied to establish a process for the preservation of immobilized cells.

  10. Copper-binding peptides from human prion protein and newly designed peroxidative biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Kadono, Takashi; Uezu, Kazuya; Kawano, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    A previous work suggested that peptides from the histidine-containing copper-binding motifs in human prion protein (PrP) function as peroxidase-like biocatalysts catalyzing the generation of superoxide anion radicals in the presence of neurotransmitters (aromatic monoamines) and phenolics such as tyrosine and tyrosyl residues on proteins. In this study, using various phenolic substrates, the phenol-dependent superoxide-generating activities of PrP-derived peptide sequences were compared. Among the peptides tested, the GGGTH pentapeptide was shown to be the most active catalyst for phenol-dependent reactions. Based on these results, we designed a series of oligoglycyl-histidines as novel peroxidative biocatalysts, and their catalytic performances including kinetics, heat tolerance, and freezing tolerance were analysed.

  11. On the failure of de novo-designed peptides as biocatalysts.

    PubMed Central

    Corey, M J; Corey, E

    1996-01-01

    While the elegance and efficiency of enzymatic catalysis have long tempted chemists and biochemists with reductionist leanings to try to mimic the functions of natural enzymes in much smaller peptides, such efforts have only rarely produced catalysts with biologically interesting properties. However, the advent of genetic engineering and hybridoma technology and the discovery of catalytic RNA have led to new and very promising alternative means of biocatalyst development. Synthetic chemists have also had some success in creating nonpeptide catalysts with certain enzyme-like characteristics, although their rates and specificities are generally much poorer than those exhibited by the best novel biocatalysts based on natural structures. A comparison of the various approaches from theoretical and practical viewpoints is presented. It is suggested that, given our current level of understanding, the most fruitful methods may incorporate both iterative selection strategies and rationally chosen small perturbations, superimposed on frameworks designed by nature. PMID:8876152

  12. Development of biocatalysts for production of commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Adsul, M G; Singhvi, M S; Gaikaiwari, S A; Gokhale, D V

    2011-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is recognized as potential sustainable source for production of power, biofuels and variety of commodity chemicals which would potentially add economic value to biomass. Recalcitrance nature of biomass is largely responsible for the high cost of its conversion. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce some cost effective pretreatment processes to make the biomass polysaccharides easily amenable to enzymatic attack to release mixed fermentable sugars. Advancement in systemic biology can provide new tools for the development of such biocatalysts for sustainable production of commodity chemicals from biomass. Integration of functional genomics and system biology approaches may generate efficient microbial systems with new metabolic routes for production of commodity chemicals. This paper provides an overview of the challenges that are faced by the processes converting lignocellulosic biomass to commodity chemicals. The critical factors involved in engineering new microbial biocatalysts are also discussed with more emphasis on commodity chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An (R)-Imine Reductase Biocatalyst for the Asymmetric Reduction of Cyclic Imines.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahed; Leipold, Friedemann; Man, Henry; Wells, Elizabeth; France, Scott P; Mulholland, Keith R; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    Although the range of biocatalysts available for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure chiral amines continues to expand, few existing methods provide access to secondary amines. To address this shortcoming, we have over-expressed the gene for an (R)-imine reductase [(R)-IRED] from Streptomyces sp. GF3587 in Escherichia coli to create a recombinant whole-cell biocatalyst for the asymmetric reduction of prochiral imines. The (R)-IRED was screened against a panel of cyclic imines and two iminium ions and was shown to possess high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity. Preparative-scale synthesis of the alkaloid (R)-coniine (90 % yield; 99 % ee) from the imine precursor was performed on a gram-scale. A homology model of the enzyme active site, based on the structure of a closely related (R)-IRED from Streptomyces kanamyceticus, was constructed and used to identify potential amino acids as targets for mutagenesis.

  14. Effects of ketone bodies in Alzheimer's disease in relation to neural hypometabolism, β-amyloid toxicity, and astrocyte function.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Leif; Chen, Ye; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-07-01

    Diet supplementation with ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybuturate) or medium-length fatty acids generating ketone bodies has consistently been found to cause modest improvement of mental function in Alzheimer's patients. It was suggested that the therapeutic effect might be more pronounced if treatment was begun at a pre-clinical stage of the disease instead of well after its manifestation. The pre-clinical stage is characterized by decade-long glucose hypometabolism in brain, but ketone body metabolism is intact even initially after disease manifestation. One reason for the impaired glucose metabolism may be early destruction of the noradrenergic brain stem nucleus, locus coeruleus, which stimulates glucose metabolism, at least in astrocytes. These glial cells are essential in Alzheimer pathogenesis. The β-amyloid peptide Aβ interferes with their cholinergic innervation, which impairs synaptic function because of diminished astrocytic glutamate release. Aβ also reduces glucose metabolism and causes hyperexcitability. Ketone bodies are similarly used against seizures, but the effectively used concentrations are so high that they must interfere with glucose metabolism and de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate, reducing neuronal glutamatergic signaling. The lower ketone body concentrations used in Alzheimer's disease may owe their effect to support of energy metabolism, but might also inhibit release of gliotransmitter glutamate. Alzheimer's disease is a panglial-neuronal disorder with long-standing brain hypometabolism, aberrations in both neuronal and astrocytic glucose metabolism, inflammation, hyperexcitability, and dementia. Relatively low doses of β-hydroxybutyrate can have an ameliorating effect on cognitive function. This could be because of metabolic supplementation or inhibition of Aβ-induced release of glutamate as gliotransmitter, which is likely to reduce hyperexcitability and inflammation. The therapeutic

  15. A whole cell biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production from dilute acid-pretreated corn stover hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seunghyun; Karim, Muhammad Nazmul

    2011-08-01

    In this research, a recombinant whole cell biocatalyst was developed by expressing three cellulases from Clostridium cellulolyticum--endoglucanase (Cel5A), exoglucanase (Cel9E), and β-glucosidase--on the surface of the Escherichia coli LY01. The modified strain is identified as LY01/pRE1H-AEB. The cellulases were displayed on the surface of the cell by fusing with an anchor protein, PgsA. The developed whole cell biocatalyst was used for single-step ethanol fermentation using the phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) and the dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Ethanol production was 3.59 ± 0.15 g/L using 10 g/L of PASC, which corresponds to a theoretical yield of 95.4 ± 0.15%. Ethanol production was 0.30 ± 0.02 g/L when 1 g/L equivalent of glucose in the cellulosic fraction of the dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) was fermented for 84 h. A total of 0.71 ± 0.12 g/L ethanol was produced in 48 h when the PCS was fermented in the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation mode using the hemicellulosic (1 g/L of total soluble sugar) and as well as the cellulosic (1 g/L of glucose equivalent) parts of PCS. In a control experiment, 0.48 g/L ethanol was obtained from 1 g/L of hemicellulosic PCS. It was concluded that the whole cell biocatalyst could convert both cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates into ethanol in a single reactor. The developed C. cellulolyticum-E. coli whole cell biocatalyst also overcame the incompatible temperature problem of the frequently reported fungal-yeast systems.

  16. Engineering of molecular and cellular biocatalysts: selected contributions by James E. Bailey.

    PubMed

    Dordick, Jonathan S; Khosla, Chaitan

    2002-09-05

    James (Jay) E. Bailey was a pioneer in biotechnology and biochemical engineering. During his 30 years in academia he made seminal contributions to many fields of chemical engineering science, including catalysis and reaction engineering, bioprocess engineering, mathematical modeling of cellular processes, recombinant DNA technology, enzyme engineering, and metabolic engineering. This article celebrates some of his contributions to the engineering of molecular and cellular biocatalysts, and identifies the influence he had on current and future research in biotechnology. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Insoluble protein applications: the use of bacterial inclusion bodies as biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Hrabárová, Eva; Achbergerová, Lucia; Nahálka, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Biocatalysis and biotransformations have a broad application in industrial synthetic chemistry. In addition to the whole cell catalysis, purified recombinant enzymes are successfully used for biocatalysis of specific chemical reactions. In this contribution, we report characterization, immobilization, and application of several model target enzymes (D-amino acid oxidase, sialic acid aldolase, maltodextrin phosphorylase, polyphosphate kinase) physiologically aggregated within inclusion bodies (IBs) retaining their biological activity as immobilized biocatalysts.

  18. Composition of secondary alcohols, ketones, alkanediols, and ketols in Arabidopsis thaliana cuticular waxes

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Miao; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis wax components containing secondary functional groups were examined (i) to test the biosynthetic relationship between secondary alcohols and ketols and (ii) to determine the regiospecificity and substrate preference of the enzyme involved in ketol biosynthesis. The stem wax of Arabidopsis wild type contained homologous series of C27 to C31 secondary alcohols (2.4 μg cm−2) and C28 to C30 ketones (6.0 μg cm−2) dominated by C29 homologues. In addition, compound classes containing two secondary functional groups were identified as C29 diols (∼0.05 μg cm−2) and ketols (∼0.16 μg cm−2). All four compound classes showed characteristic isomer distributions, with functional groups located between C-14 and C-16. In the mah1 mutant stem wax, diols and ketols could not be detected, while the amounts of secondary alcohols and ketones were drastically reduced. In two MAH1-overexpressing lines, equal amounts of C29 and C31 secondary alcohols were detected. Based on the comparison of homologue and isomer compositions between the different genotypes, it can be concluded that biosynthetic pathways lead from alkanes to secondary alcohols, and via ketones or diols to ketols. It seems plausible that MAH1 is the hydroxylase enzyme involved in all these conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:19346242

  19. Ketogenic diets and thermal pain: dissociation of hypoalgesia, elevated ketones, and lowered glucose in rats.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, David N; Suter, Tracey A C S; Ross, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2013-05-01

    Ketogenic diets (KDs) are high-fat, low-carbohydrate formulations effective in treating medically refractory epilepsy, and recently we demonstrated lowered sensitivity to thermal pain in rats fed a KD for 3 to 4 weeks. Regarding anticonvulsant and hypoalgesic mechanisms, theories are divided as to direct effects of increased ketones and/or decreased glucose, metabolic hallmarks of these diets. To address this point, we characterized the time course of KD-induced thermal hypoalgesia, ketosis, and lowered glucose in young male rats fed ad libitum on normal chow or KDs. A strict 6.6:1 (fat:[carbohydrates + protein], by weight) KD increased blood ketones and reduced blood glucose by 2 days of feeding, but thermal hypoalgesia did not appear until 10 days. Thus, ketosis and decreased glucose are not sufficient for hypoalgesia. After feeding a 6.6:1 KD for 19 days, decreased thermal pain sensitivity and changes in blood chemistry reversed 1 day after return to normal chow. Effects were consistent between 2 different diet formulations: a more moderate and clinically relevant KD formula (3.0:1) produced hypoalgesia and similar changes in blood chemistry as the 6.6:1 diet, thus increasing translational potential. Furthermore, feeding the 3.0:1 diet throughout an extended protocol (10-11 weeks) revealed that significant hypoalgesia and increased ketones persisted whereas low glucose did not, demonstrating that KD-induced hypoalgesia does not depend on reduced glucose. In separate experiments we determined that effects on thermal pain responses were not secondary to motor or cognitive changes. Together, these findings dissociate diet-related changes in nociception from direct actions of elevated ketones or decreased glucose, and suggest mechanisms with a slower onset in this paradigm. Overall, our data indicate that metabolic approaches can relieve pain. Chronic pain is a common and debilitating condition. We show that a KD, a high-fat, very low carbohydrate diet well known

  20. Integrated (Meta) Genomic and Synthetic Biology Approaches to Develop New Biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Parages, María L.; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A.; Reen, F. Jerry; Dobson, Alan D.W.; O’Gara, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the marine environment has been the subject of increasing attention from biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries as a valuable and promising source of novel bioactive compounds. Marine biodiscovery programmes have begun to reveal the extent of novel compounds encoded within the enormous bacterial richness and diversity of the marine ecosystem. A combination of unique physicochemical properties and spatial niche-specific substrates, in wide-ranging and extreme habitats, underscores the potential of the marine environment to deliver on functionally novel biocatalytic activities. With the growing need for green alternatives to industrial processes, and the unique transformations which nature is capable of performing, marine biocatalysts have the potential to markedly improve current industrial pipelines. Furthermore, biocatalysts are known to possess chiral selectivity and specificity, a key focus of pharmaceutical drug design. In this review, we discuss how the explosion in genomics based sequence analysis, allied with parallel developments in synthetic and molecular biology, have the potential to fast-track the discovery and subsequent improvement of a new generation of marine biocatalysts. PMID:27007381

  1. Integrated (Meta) Genomic and Synthetic Biology Approaches to Develop New Biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Parages, María L; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Reen, F Jerry; Dobson, Alan D W; O'Gara, Fergal

    2016-03-21

    In recent years, the marine environment has been the subject of increasing attention from biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries as a valuable and promising source of novel bioactive compounds. Marine biodiscovery programmes have begun to reveal the extent of novel compounds encoded within the enormous bacterial richness and diversity of the marine ecosystem. A combination of unique physicochemical properties and spatial niche-specific substrates, in wide-ranging and extreme habitats, underscores the potential of the marine environment to deliver on functionally novel biocatalytic activities. With the growing need for green alternatives to industrial processes, and the unique transformations which nature is capable of performing, marine biocatalysts have the potential to markedly improve current industrial pipelines. Furthermore, biocatalysts are known to possess chiral selectivity and specificity, a key focus of pharmaceutical drug design. In this review, we discuss how the explosion in genomics based sequence analysis, allied with parallel developments in synthetic and molecular biology, have the potential to fast-track the discovery and subsequent improvement of a new generation of marine biocatalysts.

  2. Immobilized Biocatalyst for Detection and Destruction of the Insensitive Explosive, 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Smruthi; Kurt, Zohre; Pandey, Gunjan; Spain, Jim C

    2016-10-18

    Accurate and convenient detection of explosive components is vital for a wide spectrum of applications ranging from national security and demilitarization to environmental monitoring and restoration. With the increasing use of DNAN as a replacement for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in insensitive explosive formulations, there has been a growing interest in strategies to minimize its release and to understand and predict its behavior in the environment. Consequently, a convenient tool for its detection and destruction could enable development of more effective decontamination and demilitarization strategies. Biosensors and biocatalysts have limited applicability to the more traditional explosives because of the inherent limitations of the relevant enzymes. Here, we report a highly specific, convenient and robust biocatalyst based on a novel ether hydrolase enzyme, DNAN demethylase (that requires no cofactors), from a Nocardioides strain that can mineralize DNAN. Biogenic silica encapsulation was used to stabilize the enzyme and enable it to be packed into a model microcolumn for application as a biosensor or as a bioreactor for continuous destruction of DNAN. The immobilized enzyme was stable and not inhibited by other insensitive munitions constituents. An alternative method for DNAN detection involved coating the encapsulated enzyme on cellulose filter paper. The hydrolase based biocatalyst could provide the basis for a wide spectrum of applications including detection, identification, destruction or inertion of explosives containing DNAN (demilitarization operations), and for environmental restorations.

  3. Enzymes in Food Processing: A Condensed Overview on Strategies for Better Biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Food and feed is possibly the area where processing anchored in biological agents has the deepest roots. Despite this, process improvement or design and implementation of novel approaches has been consistently performed, and more so in recent years, where significant advances in enzyme engineering and biocatalyst design have fastened the pace of such developments. This paper aims to provide an updated and succinct overview on the applications of enzymes in the food sector, and of progresses made, namely, within the scope of tapping for more efficient biocatalysts, through screening, structural modification, and immobilization of enzymes. Targeted improvements aim at enzymes with enhanced thermal and operational stability, improved specific activity, modification of pH-activity profiles, and increased product specificity, among others. This has been mostly achieved through protein engineering and enzyme immobilization, along with improvements in screening. The latter has been considerably improved due to the implementation of high-throughput techniques, and due to developments in protein expression and microbial cell culture. Expanding screening to relatively unexplored environments (marine, temperature extreme environments) has also contributed to the identification and development of more efficient biocatalysts. Technological aspects are considered, but economic aspects are also briefly addressed. PMID:21048872

  4. ESR, electrochemical and cyclodextrin-inclusion studies of triazolopyridyl pyridyl ketones and dipyridyl ketones derivatives.

    PubMed

    Olea-Azar, C; Abarca, B; Norambuena, E; Opazo, L; Jullian, C; Valencia, S; Ballesteros, R; Chadlaoui, M

    2008-11-15

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of free radicals obtained by electrolytic reduction of triazolopyridyl pyridyl ketones and dipyridyl ketones derivatives were measured in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The hyperfine patterns indicate that the spin density delocalization is dependent of the rings presented in the molecule. The electrochemistry of these compounds was characterized using cyclic voltammetry, in DMSO as solvent. When one carbonyl is present in the molecule one step in the reduction mechanism was observed while two carbonyl are present two steps were detected. The first wave was assigned to the generation of the correspondent free radical species, and the second wave was assigned to the dianion derivatives. The phase-solubility measurements indicated an interaction between molecules selected and cyclodextrins in water. These inclusion complexes are 1:1 with betaCD, and HP-betaCD. The values of Ks showed a different kind of complexes depending on which rings are included. AM1 and DFT calculations were performed to obtain the optimized geometries, theoretical hyperfine constants, and spin distributions, respectively. The theoretical results are in complete agreement with the experimental ones.

  5. A combined bioinformatics and functional metagenomics approach to discovering lipolytic biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Masuch, Thorsten; Kusnezowa, Anna; Nilewski, Sebastian; Bautista, José T.; Kourist, Robert; Leichert, Lars I.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of protein sequence data published today is of metagenomic origin. However, our ability to assign functions to these sequences is often hampered by our general inability to cultivate the larger part of microbial species and the sheer amount of sequence data generated in these projects. Here we present a combination of bioinformatics, synthetic biology, and Escherichia coli genetics to discover biocatalysts in metagenomic datasets. We created a subset of the Global Ocean Sampling dataset, the largest metagenomic project published to date, by removing all proteins that matched Hidden Markov Models of known protein families from PFAM and TIGRFAM with high confidence (E-value > 10-5). This essentially left us with proteins with low or no homology to known protein families, still encompassing ~1.7 million different sequences. In this subset, we then identified protein families de novo with a Markov clustering algorithm. For each protein family, we defined a single representative based on its phylogenetic relationship to all other members in that family. This reduced the dataset to ~17,000 representatives of protein families with more than 10 members. Based on conserved regions typical for lipases and esterases, we selected a representative gene from a family of 27 members for synthesis. This protein, when expressed in E. coli, showed lipolytic activity toward para-nitrophenyl (pNP) esters. The Km-value of the enzyme was 66.68 μM for pNP-butyrate and 68.08 μM for pNP-palmitate with kcat/Km values at 3.4 × 106 and 6.6 × 105 M-1s-1, respectively. Hydrolysis of model substrates showed enantiopreference for the R-form. Reactions yielded 43 and 61% enantiomeric excess of products with ibuprofen methyl ester and 2-phenylpropanoic acid ethyl ester, respectively. The enzyme retains 50% of its maximum activity at temperatures as low as 10°C, its activity is enhanced in artificial seawater and buffers with higher salt concentrations with an optimum osmolarity of

  6. The partitioning of ketones between the gas and aqueous phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betterton, Eric A.

    Most ketones are not significantly hydrated; they therefore retain their chromophore and they could be photolytically degraded in solution yielding a variety of products including carboxylic acids, aldehydes and radicals. It is difficult to accurately model the partitioning of ketones between the gas phase and aqueous phase because of the lack suitable estimates of the Henry's Law constants; consequently the fate and environmental effects of ketones cannot be confidently predicted. Here we report the experimental determination of the Henry's Law constants of a series of ketones that has yielded a simple straight line equation to predict the Henry's Law constants of simple aliphatic ketones: log H ∗ =0.23Σσ ∗ + 1.51; where H ∗ is the effective Henry's Law constant (M atm -1, and Σσ ∗ is the Taft polar substituents constants. The results for 25°C are (M atm -1) CH 3COCH 3, 32; C 6H 5COCH 3, 110; CH 2ClCOCH 3, 59; CH 3COCOCH 3, 74; CF 3COCH 3, 138. Acetophenone appears to have an abnormally high H ∗. Most low molecular weight aliphatic ketones are predicted to characterized by H ∗⩾30 M atm -1 and therefore they are expected to be found in the aqueous phase at concentrations of ⩾5 - 0.5 μM (given a typical gas-phase concentration range of 1-10 ppbv). The expected rate of decomposition of ketones due to photolysis in hydrometers is briefly discussed.

  7. Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Prins, Mayumi L

    2008-01-01

    The developing central nervous system has the capacity to metabolize ketone bodies. It was once accepted that on weaning, the 'post-weaned/adult' brain was limited solely to glucose metabolism. However, increasing evidence from conditions of inadequate glucose availability or increased energy demands has shown that the adult brain is not static in its fuel options. The objective of this review is to summarize the body of literature specifically regarding cerebral ketone metabolism at different ages, under conditions of starvation and after various pathologic conditions. The evidence presented supports the following findings: (1) there is an inverse relationship between age and the brain's capacity for ketone metabolism that continues well after weaning; (2) neuroprotective potentials of ketone administration have been shown for neurodegenerative conditions, epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, and traumatic brain injury; and (3) there is an age-related therapeutic potential for ketone as an alternative substrate. The concept of cerebral metabolic adaptation under various physiologic and pathologic conditions is not new, but it has taken the contribution of numerous studies over many years to break the previously accepted dogma of cerebral metabolism. Our emerging understanding of cerebral metabolism is far more complex than could have been imagined. It is clear that in addition to glucose, other substrates must be considered along with fuel interactions, metabolic challenges, and cerebral maturation.

  8. Cerebral metabolic adaptation and ketone metabolism after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L

    2010-01-01

    The developing central nervous system has the capacity to metabolize ketone bodies. It was once accepted that on weaning, the ‘post-weaned/adult’ brain was limited solely to glucose metabolism. However, increasing evidence from conditions of inadequate glucose availability or increased energy demands has shown that the adult brain is not static in its fuel options. The objective of this review is to summarize the body of literature specifically regarding cerebral ketone metabolism at different ages, under conditions of starvation and after various pathologic conditions. The evidence presented supports the following findings: (1) there is an inverse relationship between age and the brain’s capacity for ketone metabolism that continues well after weaning; (2) neuroprotective potentials of ketone administration have been shown for neurodegenerative conditions, epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, and traumatic brain injury; and (3) there is an age-related therapeutic potential for ketone as an alternative substrate. The concept of cerebral metabolic adaptation under various physiologic and pathologic conditions is not new, but it has taken the contribution of numerous studies over many years to break the previously accepted dogma of cerebral metabolism. Our emerging understanding of cerebral metabolism is far more complex than could have been imagined. It is clear that in addition to glucose, other substrates must be considered along with fuel interactions, metabolic challenges, and cerebral maturation. PMID:17684514

  9. Ketone measurements using dipstick methodology in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zeugswetter, F; Pagitz, M

    2009-01-01

    To compare the results of urine and plasma ketone dip test in a group of diabetic cats with possible ketosis or ketoacidosis, using laboratory plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate measurements as the gold standard. According to clinical examinations, plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate measurements and venous blood gas analysis, 54 cats with diabetes mellitus were classified as non-ketotic (n=3), ketotic (n=40) or ketoacidotic (n=11). Plasma and urine acetoacetate concentrations were determined using urine reagent strips. Although there was a significant positive correlation between blood and urine ketone measurements (r=0.695, P<0.001), the results differed significantly (Z=-3.494, P<0.001). Using the differential positive rates, the best cut-off value to detect cats with ketoacidosis was 1.5 mmol/l for urine and 4 mmol/l for plasma. The sensitivity/specificity was 82/95 per cent for urine and 100/88 per cent for plasma, respectively. The urine and plasma ketone dip tests have a different diagnostic accuracy, and results have to be interpreted differently. Because of its high sensitivity, the plasma ketone dip test performs better than the urine ketone dip test to identify cats with impending or established ketoacidosis.

  10. The Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil Using Rhizopus oryzae Whole Cell Biocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athalye, Sneha Kishor

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels which have become increasingly expensive in recent times. An alternate approach to alkaline biodiesel production is needed as catalyst miscibility with the glycerol by-product, generation of large amounts of waste water, and saponification of the feedstock are major disadvantages associated with the process. Lipases are water soluble enzymes which act as catalysts in many lipid based reactions. Reuse of lipases can significantly reduce cost of enzymatic biodiesel production; however retention of lipolytic activity still remains a challenge. Use of microbial cells immobilized on various surfaces like sponge, foam and plastics as biocatalysts instead of extracted enzyme could help overcome this problem. A novel, rigid biomass support with high surface area made from recyclable polyethylene (Bioblok(TM)) was used in this study. Several fungal and bacterial species have been reported to possess appreciable levels of lipase activity. The biomass production and immobilization as well as lipase activity of three different species; Candida rugosa (ATCC #38772), Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC #58299), and Rhizopus oryzae (ATTC #34612) were tested. C. rugosa did not attach well to the support particles while A.oryzae had lower biomass accumulation of 6.1 g (dry cell wt)/L compared to 11.8 g (dry cell wt)/L for R.oryzae. Hence Rhizopus oryzae, fungal specie with cell surface bound lipase was selected for the current study. The study investigated the influence of media composition and growth time of the R.oryzae whole cell biocatalysts, immobilized on the BSPs, for FAME production from cottonseed oil. R.oryzae BSPs grown in basal media supplemented with 1% (w/v) of glucose or oil or both for 48 h, 72 h or 90 h were used in a 36 h transesterification reaction with cottonseed oil and methanol. BSPs grown in both glucose and oil supplemented medium for 72 h had the highest conversion of 22.4% (wt/wt) and a biomass

  11. Free Volume in Glassy Poly(arylene Ether Ketone)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J. A.; Eftekhari, A.; Crook, R. A.; Jensen, B. J.; Singh, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Amorphous polyarylene ether ketones were examined in the glassy state by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy ( PALS ) and in the melt by standard rheological techniques. Specimens were well-characterized fractions of two isomeric structures. PALS clearly shows that the polymer with meta linkages in its backbone contains larger voids (greater than 0.25 nm radius). Thus despite their similar bulk densities, the two materials must pack very differently on a local scale. On the other hand, the free volumes inferred from the WLF treatment of melt viscosity data are practically identical in both materials ca. 4% at T(sub g). The comparison between techniques sheds some light on the distribution of free volume.

  12. Pd-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular α-arylation of α-substituted cyclic ketones: facile synthesis of functionalized chiral spirobicycles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lulu; Takizawa, Shinobu; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Takenaka, Kazuhiro; Sasai, Hiroaki

    2015-05-07

    Catalytic synthesis of chiral spirocyclic ketones was accomplished via the Pd-catalyzed intramolecular α-arylation of α-substituted cyclic ketones. The obtained spirocyclic ketone could be converted into a bifunctional organocatalyst.

  13. Highly efficient biodiesel production by a whole-cell biocatalyst employing a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Tomohiro; Koda, Risa; Adachi, Daisuke; Nakashima, Kazunori; Wada, Junpei; Bogaki, Takayuki; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, a system with high lipase expression in Aspergillus oryzae was developed using an improved enolase promoter (P-enoA124) and the 5' untranslated region of a heat-shock protein (Hsp-UTR). P-enoA142 enhanced the transcriptional level of a heterologous lipase gene and Hsp-UTR improved its translational efficiency. Fusarium heterosporum lipase (FHL) was inserted into a pSENSU-FHL expression vector harboring P-enoA142 and Hsp-UTR and was transformed into an A. oryzae NS4 strain. Transformants possessing pSENSU-FHL in single (pSENSU-FHL#1) and double copies (pSENSU-FHL#2) were selected to evaluate the lipase activity of the whole-cell biocatalyst. The two strains, pSENSU-FHL#1 and #2, showed excellent lipase activity in hydrolysis compared with the strain transformed with conventional expression vector pNAN8142-FHL. Furthermore, by using pSENSU-FHL#2, methanolysis could proceed much more effectively without deactivation, which allowed a swift addition of methanol to the reaction mixture, thereby reducing reaction time.

  14. Synthesis and Applications of iso-Hajos–Parrish Ketones**

    PubMed Central

    Eagan, James M.; Hori, Masahiro; Wu, Jianbin; Kanyiva, Kyalo Stephen; Snyder, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous natural products possess ring systems and functionality for which “iso-Hajos–Parrish” ketones would be of value, such building blocks have not been exploited to the same degree as the more typical Hajos–Parrish hydrindane. Herein we outline an efficient three-step synthesis of such materials fueled by a simple method for the rapid preparation of highly functionalized cyclopentenones, several of which are new chemical entities that would be challenging to access through other approaches. We then show how one iso-Hajos–Parrish ketone can be converted into two distinct natural product analogs as well as one natural product. As one indication of the value of these new building blocks, that latter target was obtained in 10 steps, having previously been accessed in 18 steps using the Hajos–Parrish ketone. PMID:25974879

  15. Point-of-Care Glucose and Ketone Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chong, Siew Kim; Reineke, Erica L

    2016-03-01

    Early and rapid identification of hypo- and hyperglycemia as well as ketosis is essential for the practicing veterinarian as these conditions can be life threatening and require emergent treatment. Point-of-care testing for both glucose and ketone is available for clinical use and it is important for the veterinarian to understand the limitations and potential sources of error with these tests. This article discusses the devices used to monitor blood glucose including portable blood glucose meters, point-of-care blood gas analyzers and continuous glucose monitoring systems. Ketone monitoring options discussed include the nitroprusside reagent test strips and the 3-β-hydroxybutyrate ketone meter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modified nanocrystal cellulose/fluorene-containing sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) composites for proton exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingcong; Shang, Yabei; Ni, Chuangjiang; Zhang, Hanyu; Li, Xiaobai; Liu, Baijun; Men, Yongfeng; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Highly sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) with sulfonation degrees of 2.34 (SFPEEKK5) and 2.48 (SFPEEKK10) were synthesized through the direct sulfonation of a fluorene-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone) under a relatively mild reaction condition. Using the solution blending method, sulfonated nanocrystal cellulose (sNCC)-enhanced SFPEEKK composites (SFPEEKK/sNCC) were successfully prepared for investigation as proton exchange membranes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that sNCC was uniformly distributed in the composite membranes. The properties of the composite membranes, including thermal stability, mechanical properties, water uptake, swelling ratio, oxidative stability and proton conductivity were thoroughly evaluated. Results indicated that the insertion of sNCC could contribute to water management and improve the mechanical performance of the membranes. Notably, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK5/sNCC-5 was as high as 0.242 S cm-1 at 80 °C. All data proved the potential of SFPEEKK/sNCC composites for proton exchange membranes in medium-temperature fuel cells.

  17. METHYL KETONE METABOLISM IN HYDROCARBON-UTILIZING MYCOBACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Lukins, H. B.; Foster, J. W.

    1963-01-01

    Lukins, H. B. (University of Texas, Austin) and J. W. Foster. Methyl ketone metabolism in hydrocarbon-utilizing mycobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 85: 1074–1087. 1963.—Species of Mycobacterium especially M. smegmatis 422, produced the homologous methyl ketones during the oxidation of propane, n-butane, n-pentane, or n-hexane. A carrier-trapping experiment demonstrated the formation of 2-undecanone, as well as 1,11-undecanedioic acid, during the oxidation of undecane-1-C14. Aliphatic alkane-utilizing mycobacteria were able to grow at the expense of several aliphatic methyl ketones as sole sources of carbon. Other ketones which did not support growth were oxidized by resting bacterial suspensions. M. smegmatis 422 cells grown on propane or acetone were simultaneously adapted to oxidize both substrates, as well as n-propanol. n-Propanol cells were unadapted to propane or acetone. Acetone produced from propane in a medium enriched in D2O contained a negligible quantity of D, presumably eliminating propylene as an intermediate in the oxidation. Cells grown at the expense of alkanes or methyl ketones in the presence of O218 had a higher content of O18 than did cells grown on terminally oxidized compounds, e.g., primary alcohols or fatty acids. An oxygenase reaction is postulated for the attack on methyl ketones. Acetol was isolated and characterized as an oxidation product of acetone by M. smegmatis 422. Acetol-grown cells had a higher O18 content than did n-propanol cells, and its utilization appears to involve at least one oxygenase reaction. Acetol produced from acetone in the presence of O218 was not enriched in the isotope, indicating the occurrence of exchange reactions or of oxygenation reactions at a later stage in the assimilation of acetone and acetol. PMID:14043998

  18. A biocatalyst for the removal of sulfite from alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Chyr; Georgiou, George

    2005-01-05

    The presence of sulfites in alcoholic beverages, particularly in wines, can cause allergic responses with symptoms ranging from mild gastrointestinal problems to life threatening anaphylactic shock in a substantial portion of the population. We have developed a simple and inexpensive biocatalytic method that employs wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) chloroplasts for the efficient oxidation of sulfites in wines to innocuous sulfates. A sufficiently high rate of sulfite oxidation was obtained in the presence of ethanol at concentrations commonly found in most wines. Crude chloroplast preparations at a concentration as low as 5 mg/mL were capable of reducing sulfite in commercial white wines from 150 ppm to under 7.5 ppm within 3 hours. A 93% removal of sulfite in commercial red wines was observed with 1 mg/mL chloroplasts within 45 min. Optimal sulfite removal efficiency was observed at pH 8.5 and was promoted by illumination, indicating the participation of light-induced photosynthetic electron transport processes in sulfite oxidation. Overall, this work indicates that biocatalytic oxidation using wheatgrass chloroplasts can be employed to remove sulfites from beverages prior to consumption. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Copper-catalyzed synthesis of α-trifluoromethylthio-substituted ketones.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yangjie; He, Xing; Lin, Xiaoxi; Rong, Mingguang; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2014-06-20

    The CF3S-substituted moiety serves as an important structural element in many bioactive molecules. A versatile copper catalyst that allowed for trifluoromethylthiolation of primary and secondary α-bromoketones is described. The reaction with readily available elemental sulfur and CF3SiMe3 afforded a broad scope and moderate to good yields of α-trifluoromethylthio-substituted ketones. This procedure represents a very operationally simple yet powerful strategy for the synthesis of α-trifluoromethylthio-substituted ketones, a useful and versatile class of synthetic synthons.

  20. Chromium(II)-catalyzed enantioselective arylation of ketones

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Sun, Shutao; Mao, Ying; Xie, Zhiyu

    2016-01-01

    The chromium-catalyzed enantioselective addition of carbo halides to carbonyl compounds is an important transformation in organic synthesis. However, the corresponding catalytic enantioselective arylation of ketones has not been reported to date. Herein, we report the first Cr-catalyzed enantioselective addition of aryl halides to both arylaliphatic and aliphatic ketones with high enantioselectivity in an intramolecular version, providing facile access to enantiopure tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ols and 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ols containing a tertiary alcohol. PMID:28144349

  1. Enantioselective Organocatalytic α-Fluorination of Cyclic Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Beeson, Teresa D.; Conrad, Jay C.

    2011-01-01

    The first highly enantioselective α-fluorination of ketones using organocatalysis has been accomplished. The long-standing problem of enantioselective ketone α-fluorination via enamine activation has been overcome via high-throughput evaluation of a new library of amine catalysts. The optimal system, a primary amine functionalized Cinchona alkaloid, allows the direct and asymmetric α-fluorination of a variety of carbo- and heterocyclic substrates. Furthermore, this protocol also provides diastereo-, regio- and chemoselective catalyst control in fluorinations involving complex carbonyl systems. PMID:21247133

  2. Catalytic Intramolecular Ketone Alkylation with Olefins by Dual Activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee Nam; Dong, Guangbin

    2015-12-07

    Two complementary methods for catalytic intramolecular ketone alkylation reactions with unactivated olefins, resulting in Conia-ene-type reactions, are reported. The transformations are enabled by dual activation of both the ketone and the olefin and are atom-economical as stoichiometric oxidants or reductants are not required. Assisted by Kool's aniline catalyst, the reaction conditions can be both pH- and redox-neutral. A broad range of functional groups are thus tolerated. Whereas the rhodium catalysts are effective for the formation of five-membered rings, a ruthenium-based system that affords the six-membered ring products was also developed.

  3. Induced axial chirality in biocatalytic asymmetric ketone reduction.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rubén; Roiban, Gheorghe-Doru; Reetz, Manfred T

    2013-02-06

    Catalytic asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones of type 4-alkylidene cyclohexanone with formation of the corresponding axially chiral R-configurated alcohols (up to 99% ee) was achieved using alcohol dehydrogenases, whereas chiral transition-metal catalysts fail. Reversal of enantioselectivity proved to be possible by directed evolution based on saturation mutagenesis (up to 98% ee (S)). Utilization of ketone with a vinyl bromide moiety allows respective R- and S-alcohols to be exploited as key compounds in Pd-catalyzed cascade reactions.

  4. Directed reductive amination of beta-hydroxy-ketones: convergent assembly of the ritonavir/lopinavir core.

    PubMed

    Menche, Dirk; Arikan, Fatih; Li, Jun; Rudolph, Sven

    2007-01-18

    An efficient procedure for the directed reductive amination of beta-hydroxy-ketones (3) for the stereoselective preparation of 1,3-syn-amino alcohols (6) is reported. The operationally simple protocol uses Ti(iOPr)4 for coordination of the intermediate imino alcohol (5) and PMHS as the reducing agent. The method was expanded to an asymmetric aldol reductive amination sequence to allow a highly convergent synthesis of the hydroxy-amine core of the HIV-protease inhibitors ritonavir and lopinavir. [reaction: see text].

  5. Rhodium Catalyzed Intramolecular C-H Insertion of α-Aryl-α-diazo Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Tian, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Direct diazo transfer proceeds smoothly with α-aryl ketones. The derived α-aryl-α-diazo ketones cyclize efficiently with Rh catalysis to give the corresponding α-aryl cyclopentanones. PMID:17385917

  6. Bacterial Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase: a biocatalyst with broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Sarah L; Turner, Nicholas J

    2014-10-15

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyases (PALs) catalyse the regio- and stereoselective hydroamination of cinnamic acid analogues to yield optically enriched α-amino acids. Herein, we demonstrate that a bacterial PAL from Anabaena variabilis (AvPAL) displays significantly higher activity towards a series of non-natural substrates than previously described eukaryotic PALs. Biotransformations performed on a preparative scale led to the synthesis of the 2-chloro- and 4-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine derivatives in excellent ee, highlighting the enormous potential of bacterial PALs as biocatalysts for the synthesis of high value, non-natural amino acids.

  7. Highly selective solar-driven methanol from CO2 by a photocatalyst/biocatalyst integrated system.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajesh K; Oh, Gyu Hwan; Park, No-Joong; Kumar, Abhishek; Kong, Ki-jeong; Baeg, Jin-Ook

    2014-12-03

    The successful development of a photocatalyst/biocatalyst integrated system that carries out selective methanol production from CO2 is reported herein. The fine-tuned system was derived from a judicious combination of graphene-based visible light active photocatalyst (CCG-IP) and sequentially coupled enzymes. The covalent attachment of isatin-porphyrin (IP) chromophore to chemically converted graphene (CCG) afforded newly developed CCG-IP photocatalyst for this research endeavor. The current work represents a new benchmark for carrying out highly selective methanol formation from CO2 in an environmentally benign manner.

  8. Biological lignocellulose solubilization: Comparative evaluation of biocatalysts and enhancement via cotreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Paye, Julie M. D.; Guseva, Anna; Hammer, Sarah K.; ...

    2016-01-12

    Feedstock recalcitrance is the most important barrier impeding cost-effective production of cellulosic biofuels. Pioneer commercial cellulosic ethanol facilities employ thermochemical pretreatment and addition of fungal cellulase, reflecting the main research emphasis in the field. However, it has been suggested that it may be possible to process cellulosic biomass without thermochemical pretreatment using thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria. Thus, to further explore this idea, we examine the ability of various biocatalysts to solubilize autoclaved but otherwise unpretreated cellulosic biomass under controlled but not industrial conditions.

  9. The activity of Rhizomuchor miehei lipase as a biocatalyst in enzymatic acylation of cyclic alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftitah, Elvina Dhiaul; Srihardyastuti, Arie; Ariefin, Mokhamat

    2017-03-01

    We report the activity of Rhizomuchor miehei lipase (RML) as a biocatalyst, in particular the investigations concerning the effort of substrate-structure reactivity on the enzymatic acylation. The acylation was studied using acetic anhydride as an acyl donor and performed in n-hexane as a solvent. The selectivity of the enzymatic acylation was revealed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectra. We observed that, RML has shown different behavior when catalyzing the acylation of isopulegol and mixture of isopulegol and citronellal (ratio 1:1). The chemoselectivity for the O-acylation was improved when the acyl acceptor included mixture of isopulegol and citronellal

  10. Performance of membrane fixed biocatalyst reactors. I: Membrane reactor systems and modelling.

    PubMed

    Prenosil, J E; Hediger, T

    1988-06-05

    Enzymatic membrane reactors are discussed according to the state of biocatalyst and driving force of reaction. Particular attention is given to the Capillary Membrane Fixed Enzyme Reactor (CAMFER) for its favorable characteristics. It is shown that, for a practical range of operation conditions, both kinetic and mass transfer effects must be considered simultaneously. Three modes of operation were investigated in detail using enzymatic lactose hydrolysis as a model reaction: Diffusional reactor, Recycle reactor, and Backflush reactor. In the comparison, superior performance of the CAMFER in diffusional mode was clearly demonstrated.

  11. Chemoselective synthesis of highly substituted 1,2-allenyl ketones, furans, and 2-alkynyl ketones from reaction of lithium selenolates with 1-(1-alkynyl)cyclopropyl ketones and electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Shugao; Wu, Luling; Huang, Xian

    2012-05-14

    A homo-Michael addition reaction of lithium selenolates with 1-(1-alkynyl)cyclopropyl ketones and the subsequent reaction with electrophiles such as PhSeBr, NFSI and NCS is reported. Based on the nature of electrophiles, this reaction may afford highly substituted 1,2-allenyl ketones or furans (E(+) = PhSe(+)) and 2-alkynyl ketones (E(+) = F(+), Cl(+), active halides) as the final products, respectively.

  12. Catalytic Asymmetric Methallylation of Ketones with an (H8-BINOLate)Ti-Based Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeung Gon; Camp, Elizabeth H.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric methallylation of ketones is reported. The catalyst, which is generated from titanium tetraisopropoxide, H8-BINOL, isopropanol, and tetramethallylstannane, reacts with ketones in acetonitrile to afford tertiary homoallylic alcohols in fair to excellent yields (55-99%) and fair to high enantioselectivities (46-90%). Ozonolysis of the resulting products provides access to chiral β-hydroxy ketones, which are not readily prepared from direct asymmetric aldol reaction of acetone with ketones. PMID:16986913

  13. Diene-ligated iridium catalyst for allylation reactions of ketones and imines.

    PubMed

    Barker, Timothy J; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2009-03-05

    [Ir(cod)Cl](2) is a highly reactive catalyst for allylation reactions of ketones using allylboronic ester. Mechanistic experiments are consistent with formation of a nucleophilic allyliridium(I) complex that is activated by the diene ligand toward attack of a ketone. Aryl and alkyl ketones react smoothly at room temperature. Aldimines also undergo allylation under these reaction conditions, requiring increased reaction times relative to the corresponding ketones.

  14. Tandem Aldol Condensation – Platinacycle-Catalyzed Addition Reactions of Aldehydes, Methyl Ketones and Arylboronic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Tandem aldol condensation of aldehydes with methyl ketones followed by anionic four-electron donor-based (Type I) platinacycle-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids to form β-arylated ketones is described. Good to excellent yields of β-arylated ketones were obtained for the tandem reactions of aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes, methyl ketones and arylboronic acids, and moderate yields were observed for the tandem reaction with α, β-unsaturated aldehydes as the aldehyde source. PMID:23335856

  15. Tandem Aldol Condensation - Platinacycle-Catalyzed Addition Reactions of Aldehydes, Methyl Ketones and Arylboronic Acids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Tandem aldol condensation of aldehydes with methyl ketones followed by anionic four-electron donor-based (Type I) platinacycle-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids to form β-arylated ketones is described. Good to excellent yields of β-arylated ketones were obtained for the tandem reactions of aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes, methyl ketones and arylboronic acids, and moderate yields were observed for the tandem reaction with α, β-unsaturated aldehydes as the aldehyde source.

  16. A One-Pot Synthesis of 2-Aminopyrimidines from Ketones, Arylacetylenes, and Guanidine.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Elena Yu; Tatarinova, Inna V; Protsuk, Nadezhda I; Ushakov, Igor' A; Trofimov, Boris A

    2017-01-06

    The three-component reaction of ketones, arylacetylenes, and guanidine catalyzed by the KOBu(t)/DMSO system leads to 2-aminopyrimidines in up to 80% yield. Depending on structure of the starting ketones, the aromatization of intermediate dihydropyrimidines occurs either with loss of hydrogen molecules or methylbenzenes. The latter process takes place in the ketones, in which one of the substituents is not a methyl group. The reaction conditions are tolerable for dialkyl-, aryl(hetaryl) alkyl-, and cycloalkyl ketones.

  17. Catalyst-free dehydrative α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols: green and selective autocatalyzed synthesis of alcohols and ketones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Chen, Jianhui; Tian, Haiwen; Yuan, Xueqin; Li, Shuangyan; Zhou, Chongkuan; Liu, Jianping

    2014-01-03

    Direct dehydrative α-alkylation reactions of ketones with alcohols are now realized under simple, practical, and green conditions without using external catalysts. These catalyst-free autocatalyzed alkylation methods can efficiently afford useful alkylated ketone or alcohol products in a one-pot manner and on a large scale by CC bond formation of the in situ generated intermediates with subsequent controllable and selective Meerwein-Pondorf-Verley-Oppenauer-type redox processes. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10413 - Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10413 Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135). (a) Chemical... as fluorinated dialkyl ketone (PMN P-10-135) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10413 - Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10413 Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135). (a) Chemical... as fluorinated dialkyl ketone (PMN P-10-135) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10413 - Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10413 Fluorinated dialkyl ketone (generic) (P-10-135). (a) Chemical... as fluorinated dialkyl ketone (PMN P-10-135) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. Acyl hydrazides as acyl donors for the synthesis of diaryl and aryl alkyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Akhbar, Ahmed R; Chudasama, Vijay; Fitzmaurice, Richard J; Powell, Lyn; Caddick, Stephen

    2014-01-21

    In this communication we describe a novel strategy for the formation of valuable diaryl and aryl alkyl ketones from acyl hydrazides. A wide variety of ketones are prepared and the mild reaction conditions allow for the use of a range of functionalities, especially in the synthesis of diaryl ketones.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Misra, S; Oliver, N S

    2015-01-01

    Ketone measurement is advocated for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and assessment of its severity. Assessing the evidence base for ketone measurement in clinical practice is challenging because multiple methods are available but there is a lack of consensus about which is preferable. Evaluating the utility of ketone measurement is additionally problematic because of variability in the biochemical definition of ketoacidosis internationally and in the proposed thresholds for ketone measures. This has led to conflicting guidance from expert bodies on how ketone measurement should be used in the management of ketoacidosis. The development of point-of-care devices that can reliably measure the capillary blood ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) has widened the spectrum of applications of ketone measurement, but whether the evidence base supporting these applications is robust enough to warrant their incorporation into routine clinical practice remains unclear. The imprecision of capillary blood ketone measures at higher values, the lack of availability of routine laboratory-based assays for BOHB and the continued cost-effectiveness of urine ketone assessment prompt further discussion on the role of capillary blood ketone assessment in ketoacidosis. In the present article, we review the various existing methods of ketone measurement, the precision of capillary blood ketone as compared with other measures, its diagnostic accuracy in predicting ketoacidosis and other clinical applications including prevention, assessment of severity and resolution of ketoacidosis. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  6. Diversity-oriented synthesis of chromenes via metal-free domino reactions from ketones and phenols.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei-Jian; Li, Qi; Gao, Fang-fang; Zhu, Yan-ping; Wang, Jun-gang; Zhang, Wei; Wu, An-Xin

    2012-08-13

    Functionalized chromenes have been synthesized via highly selective metal-free domino reactions from ketones and phenols. 2H-Chromenes, 4H-chromenes, spiran and benzocyclopentane can be respectively prepared starting from the corresponding cyclic ketones, aryl methyl ketones, acetone, and 3-pentanone.

  7. Crystal morphology and phase identifications in poly(aryl ether ketones)s and their copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, R.M.; Cheng, S.Z.D.; Hsiao, B.S.

    1995-12-01

    A series of poly(aryl ether ketone ketone)s prepared from diphenyl ether (DPE) and terephthalic acid M or isophthalic acid (T) have been investigated. PEKK(T) has been reported to exhibit two polymorphism (form I and form II) based on wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and electron diffraction (ED) experiments.

  8. Individual surface-engineered microorganisms as robust Pickering interfacial biocatalysts for resistance-minimized phase-transfer bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaowei; Ji, Haiwei; Zhao, Chuanqi; Ju, Enguo; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-04-13

    A powerful strategy for long-term and diffusional-resistance-minimized whole-cell biocatalysis in biphasic systems is reported where individually encapsulated bacteria are employed as robust and recyclable Pickering interfacial biocatalysts. By individually immobilizing bacterial cells and optimizing the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance of the encapsulating magnetic mineral shells, the encased bacteria became interfacially active and locate at the Pickering emulsion interfaces, leading to dramatically enhanced bioconversion performances by minimizing internal and external diffusional resistances. Moreover, in situ product separation and biocatalyst recovery was readily achieved using a remote magnetic field. Importantly, the mineral shell effectively protected the entire cell from long-term organic-solvent stress, as shown by the reusability of the biocatalysts for up to 30 cycles, while retaining high stereoselective catalytic activities, cell viabilities, and proliferative abilities.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1435 - Ketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ketones (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1435 Section 862.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  10. Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and cellular energy homeostasis . Analysis of patient data indicated that higher OXCT1 levels are associated with docetaxel chemotherapy resistance...knock down induced metabolic inefficiency upon docetaxel treatment Since OXCT1 is a metabolic enzyme involved in energy homeostasis , next, to...ketone body metabolism and cellular energy homeostasis . Analysis of our previous data from patient needle biopsy samples indicated that higher

  11. Chiral Ketone and Iminium Catalysts for Olefin Epoxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, O. Andrea; Shi, Yian

    Organo-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation has received much attention in the past 30 years and significant progress has been made for various types of olefins. This review will cover the advancement made in the field of chiral ketone and chiral iminium salt-catalyzed epoxidations.

  12. Process for conversion of levulinic acid to ketones

    DOEpatents

    Dagle, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2017-05-30

    A method for generating desired platform chemicals from feedstocks such as cellulosic biomass feedstocks containing levulinic acid by decarboxylating a feed stock comprising levulinic acid to generate ketones. This is done by passing a feed stock comprising levulinic acid in a gas phase over a non-precious metal catalyst on a neutral support.

  13. Ketone body metabolism and sleep homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-04-01

    A link has been established between energy metabolism and sleep homeostasis. The ketone bodies acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, generated from the breakdown of fatty acids, are major metabolic fuels for the brain under conditions of low glucose availability. Ketogenesis is modulated by the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and treatment with a PPAR activator has been shown to induce a marked increase in plasma acetoacetate and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate in mice, accompanied by increased slow-wave activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The present study investigated the role of ketone bodies in sleep regulation. Six-hour sleep deprivation increased plasma ketone bodies and their ratio (acetoacetate/β-hydroxybutyrate) in 10-week-old male mice. Moreover, sleep deprivation increased mRNA expression of ketogenic genes such as PPARα and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate-CoA synthase 2 in the brain and decreased ketolytic enzymes such as succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase. In addition, central injection of acetoacetate, but not β-hydroxybutyrate, markedly increased slow-wave activity during NREM sleep and suppressed glutamate release. Central metabolism of ketone bodies, especially acetoacetate, appears to play a role in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  14. Organocatalytic enantioselective indole alkylations of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Du, Wei; Yue, Lei; Li, Rui; Wu, Yong; Ding, Li-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2007-03-07

    The C3-selective enantioselective Michael-type Friedel-Crafts alkylations of indoles with nonchelating alpha,beta-unsaturated alkyl ketones, catalysed by a chiral primary amine derived from natural cinchonine, were investigated. The reactions, in the presence of 30 mol% catalyst, were smoothly conducted at 0 to -20 degrees C. Moderate to good ee (47-89%) has been achieved.

  15. Multicentric evaluation of eight glucose and four ketone blood meters.

    PubMed

    Guimont, Marie-Christine; Desjobert, Hélène; Fonfrède, Michèle; Vitoux, Dominique; Benoist, Jean-Francois; Launay, Jean-Marie; Peoc'h, Katell; Lefèvre, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    High precision meters for blood glycemia are mandatory for monitoring glucose status in patients, avoiding both hypo- and hyper-glycemia. Health care providers routinely used in both out- and in-patients point-of-care measurements of glucose and ketone. These measurements, frequently used for medical decisions, are known to be less accurate than those performed in laboratories. Our aim was to evaluate, within the frame of an Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) multicentric study, the performances of eight glucose and four ketone meters, either connected or non-connected to a laboratory software. Glucose meter accuracy, precision, correlation with plasma glucose determined in central laboratories and hematocrit interferences were determined according to the ISO 15197:2003 norm. The same norm was applied for the determination of accuracy, precision and recovery of ketone meters for B-hydroxybutyrate measurements. Among those meters, seven were considered as acceptable for glucose measurement and two for ketone measurement. Since all meters do not fit clinically relevant criteria, meters' performances have to be evaluated before use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Photoreactivity of. cap alpha. -fluorinated phenyl alkyl ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, P.J.; Thomas, M.J.; Puchalski, A.E.

    1986-11-26

    The photoreactivities of the mono-, di-, and tri-..cap alpha..-fluorinated acetophenones have been compared to that of acetophenone itself. All four ketones have similar triplet excitation energies; the three fluorinated ketones have reduction potentials 0.5-0.7 eV lower than that of acetophenone. Triplet reactivity toward alkylbenzenes keeps increasing with fluorine substitution, since the rate-determining step becomes charge-transfer complexation as the ketone reduction potential decreases. The primary/tertiary C-H selectivity toward p-cymene increases with the number of fluorines. Triplet reactivity toward cyclopentane also is increased by fluorination but peaks at two fluorines, since the lowest triplet switches from n,..pi..* to ..pi..,..pi..* with two or three fluorines and ..pi..,..pi..* triplets are unreactive in simple hydrogen atom abstraction. In contrast, ..cap alpha..-fluorination of valerophenone does not significantly increase the rate of triplet ..gamma..-hydrogen abstraction. The inductive effect on reactivity apparently is offset by a conformational effect. The ..cap alpha..-fluorinated phenones give predominantly cyclobutanols instead of Norrish type II elimination. ..cap alpha..-Fluoroacetophenone forms predominantly acetophenone and HF when irradiated with 2-propanol, in what appears to be a short chain process involving electron transfer to ketone followed by fluoride ion loss. Finally, the radical coupling products in these reactions are formed in varying yields, depending on solvent and additives.

  17. Enzymatic method for determining ketone body ratio in arterial blood.

    PubMed

    Uno, S; Takehiro, O; Tabata, R; Ozawa, K

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a new, sensitive, and rapid method for measuring the ketone body concentration in arterial blood and determining the arterial blood ketone body ratio. The procedure involves the sequential use of the enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (3-HBDH; EC 1.1.1.30) and NADH oxidase, followed by a color-generating reaction with the hydrogen peroxide produced by the oxidase reaction. The amount of oxidized chromogen produced is proportional to the 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HBA) concentration. The acetoacetate (AcAc) concentration is obtained after complete conversion of the AcAc to 3-HBA, in the presence of 3-HBDH. The total 3-HBA concentration is measured and then subtracted from the total ketone body concentration to give the AcAc concentration. This procedure may be applied to plasma samples and the absorbance change measured with an automated chemistry analyzer. Ketone body concentration may be determined over the range 0 to 400 mumol/L. The analysis takes approximately 12 min and requires only 30 microL of plasma.

  18. Ketonization of Cuphea oil for the production of 2-undecanone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the viability of the cross ketonization reaction with the triacylglycerol from Cuphea sp. and acetic acid in a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor. The seed oil from Cuphea sp. contains up to 71% decanoic acid and the reaction of this fatty acid residue with ac...

  19. Frontispiece: asymmetric reduction of α-amino ketones with a KBH4 solution catalyzed by Chiral Lewis acids.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Zheng, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaohua; Lian, Xiangjin; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming

    2014-10-13

    Asymmetric Alkali Metal Borohydride Reduction Alkali metal borohydrides are mild, inexpensive, highly selective, and environmentally friendly reducing agents in organic chemistry. In their Communication on page 13482 ff., X. Feng et al. demonstrate an efficient enantioselective reduction of both secondary and primary α-amino ketones with potassium borohydride solution catalyzed by chiral N,N'-dioxide-metal complex catalysts. The catalytic system features a convenient operation and tolerance to water, without the need for basic additives.

  20. Dielectric behavior of some small ketones as ideal polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Nao

    2012-05-17

    The dielectric behaviors of some small symmetric ketone molecules, including acetone, 3-pentanone, cyclopentanone, 4-heptanone, and cyclohexanone, were investigated as a function of temperature (T) over a wide frequency range from 50 MHz (3.14 × 10(8) s(-1), in angular frequency) to 3 THz (1.88 × 10(13) s(-1)). The temperature dependencies of the rotational diffusion times (τ(r)) determined using (17)O NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T(1)) measurements and viscosities of the ketones were also examined. The obtained temperature dependencies of the parameters for the ketones were compared with those of ideal polar molecules, which obey the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relationship without the formation of intermolecular dimeric associations and without orientational correlations between dipoles (molecular axes), that is, free rotation. Kirkwood correlation factors (g(K)) of only acetone and 3-pentanone were close to unity over a wide temperature range, whereas those of other ketones were obviously less than unity. These results revealed that no correlations exist between the rotational motions of dipoles in acetone and 3-pentanone, as expected in ideal polar molecules. However, other ketones exhibited orientational correlations in their dipoles because of dipole-dipole interactions via antiparallel configurations. Furthermore, because acetone and 3-pentanone satisfied the SED relationship and because their microscopic dielectric relaxation times (τ(μ)), which were calculated from the determined dielectric relaxation times (τ(D)) via the relationship τ(μ) = τ(D)g(K)(-1), were identical to 3τ(r) and were proportional to Vη(k(B)T)(-1) over the wide temperature range examined, where V, k(B), and η represent the effective molecular volume, Boltzmann's constant, and the viscosity of the liquid molecules, respectively, these two ketone molecules behave as ideal polar molecules. In addition, other ketones not significantly larger than acetone and 3-pentanone in

  1. Studies on elimination pathways of β-halovinyl ketones leading to allenyl and propargyl ketones and furans under the action of mild bases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun Young; Li, Jian-Yuan; Oh, Kyungsoo

    2012-12-21

    The elimination pathway of stereochemically defined β-halovinyl ketones has been investigated using a mild base, NEt(3), leading to the formation of allenyl ketones and propargyl ketones. A preferential α-vinyl enolization of (E)-β-chlorovinyl ketones has been observed where a nonplanar s-cis conformation is proposed as a dominant conformation as opposed to a planar s-cis conformation of (Z)-β-chlorovinyl ketones. Other eliminative pathways, such as concerted syn- and anti-E2 as well as γ-deprotonation, are excluded on the basis of the deuterium isotope studies. The synthetic utility of the elimination reaction of β-chlorovinyl ketones was further demonstrated for a one-pot synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted furans in the presence of 1 mol % CuCl.

  2. Formulation and characterization of an immobilized laccase biocatalyst and its application to eliminate organic micropollutants in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rakesh R; Demarche, Philippe; Agathos, Spiros N

    2013-09-25

    Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng L(-1)) has become one of the key environmental issues for developed countries. To date there is no effective and sustainable remediation strategy available. Laccases from white rot fungi were found particularly attractive for the removal of some micropollutants such as the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA), the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DF) and the steroidal hormone 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Laccase immobilization is a prerequisite for their use in continuous water treatment processes. In this study, laccase from Coriolopsis gallica was immobilized on mesoporous silica spheres in a two-step adsorption-crosslinking process. The initial laccase activity, crosslinker (glutaraldehyde) concentration and extra protein (albumin) concentration were varied following a central composite experimental design and optimized with respect to the immobilization yield, activity and thermal stability of the biocatalysts. After a multi-objective optimization of the biocatalyst formulation, a maximum biocatalyst activity of 383 Ug(-1), determined with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) at pH 4.5, was obtained. Biocatalyst particles were physically characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda pore size analyses revealing few modifications of the surface area and structure during/after the immobilization procedure. The biocatalyst showed a significantly higher thermostability than the free enzyme with a half-life of 31.5 hours and 3.9 hours compared to 6.1 hours and 0.6 hours at 55°C and 75°C respectively. The biocatalyst was able to eliminate in a continuously stirred membrane reactor more than 95% of BPA 10 μM and EE2 10 μM and 70% of DF 10 μM when treated individually and more than 90% when treated as a mixture in aqueous buffered solution (pH 5) for more than 60 reactor volumes. In real wastewater conditions (pH 7

  3. Metagenomics for the development of new biocatalysts to advance lignocellulose saccharification for bioeconomic development.

    PubMed

    Montella, Salvatore; Amore, Antonella; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-12-01

    The world economy is moving toward the use of renewable and nonedible lignocellulosic biomasses as substitutes for fossil sources in order to decrease the environmental impact of manufacturing processes and overcome the conflict with food production. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the feedstock is a key technology for bio-based chemical production, and the identification of novel, less expensive and more efficient biocatalysts is one of the main challenges. As the genomic era has shown that only a few microorganisms can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions, the extraction and analysis of genetic material directly from environmental samples, termed metagenomics, is a promising way to overcome this bottleneck. Two screening methodologies can be used on metagenomic material: the function-driven approach of expression libraries and sequence-driven analysis based on gene homology. Both techniques have been shown to be useful for the discovery of novel biocatalysts for lignocellulose conversion, and they enabled identification of several (hemi)cellulases and accessory enzymes involved in (hemi)cellulose hydrolysis. This review summarizes the latest progress in metagenomics aimed at discovering new enzymes for lignocellulose saccharification.

  4. Marine-Derived Biocatalysts: Importance, Accessing, and Application in Aromatic Pollutant Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaivits, Efstratios; Dimarogona, Maria; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to highlight the potential use of marine biocatalysts (whole cells or enzymes) as an alternative bioprocess for the degradation of aromatic pollutants. Firstly, information about the characteristics of the still underexplored marine environment and the available scientific tools used to access novel marine-derived biocatalysts is provided. Marine-derived enzymes, such as dioxygenases and dehalogenases, and the involved catalytic mechanisms for the degradation of aromatic and halogenated compounds, are presented, with the purpose of underpinning their potential use in bioremediation. Emphasis is given on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that are organic compounds with significant impact on health and environment due to their resistance in degradation. POPs bioaccumulate mainly in the fatty tissue of living organisms, therefore current efforts are mostly focused on the restriction of their use and production, since their removal is still unclear. A brief description of the guidelines and criteria that render a pollutant POP is given, as well as their potential biodegradation by marine microorganisms by surveying recent developments in this rather unexplored field. PMID:28265269

  5. Enantioselective Resolution of (R,S)-Carvedilol to (S)-(-)-Carvedilol by Biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ettireddy, Swetha; Chandupatla, Vijitha; Veeresham, Ciddi

    2017-02-01

    Among the microorganisms employed in the study, Aspergillus niger (GUFCC5443), Escherichia coli (ATCC9637), Streptomyces halstedii (CKM-2), Pseudomonas putida (NCIB9494), Cunninghamella elegans (NCIM689) and Sphingomonas paucimobilis (NCTC11030) were capable for the enantioselective conversion of racemic Carvedilol. Immobilization technique enhanced the enantioselectivity of microorganisms and thus increased the enantiomeric purity of the drug. Excellent enantiomeric ratios (E) were found in reactions catalyzed by immobilized A. niger and E. coli with values 174.44 and 104.26, respectively. Triacylglycerol lipase from Aspergillus niger was also employed in this study as a biocatalyst which resulted in the product with 83.35% enantiomeric excess (ee) and E of 11.34 while the enzyme on immobilization has yielded 99.08% ee and 216.39 E. The conversion yield (C%) of the drug by free-enzyme was 57.42%, which was enhanced by immobilization to 90.51%. Hence, our results suggest that immobilized triacylglycerol lipase from A. niger (Lipase AP6) could be an efficient biocatalyst for the enantioselective resolution of racemic Carvedilol to (S)-(-)-Carvedilol with high enantiomeric purity followed by immobilized cultures of A. niger and E. coli.

  6. Improvement of Biocatalysts for Industrial and Environmental Purposes by Saturation Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evolution techniques are becoming increasingly widespread among protein engineers for the development of novel and designed biocatalysts. The palette of different approaches ranges from complete randomized strategies to rational and structure-guided mutagenesis, with a wide variety of costs, impacts, drawbacks and relevance to biotechnology. A technique that convincingly compromises the extremes of fully randomized vs. rational mutagenesis, with a high benefit/cost ratio, is saturation mutagenesis. Here we will present and discuss this approach in its many facets, also tackling the issue of randomization, statistical evaluation of library completeness and throughput efficiency of screening methods. Successful recent applications covering different classes of enzymes will be presented referring to the literature and to research lines pursued in our group. The focus is put on saturation mutagenesis as a tool for designing novel biocatalysts specifically relevant to production of fine chemicals for improving bulk enzymes for industry and engineering technical enzymes involved in treatment of waste, detoxification and production of clean energy from renewable sources. PMID:24970191

  7. Improvement of biocatalysts for industrial and environmental purposes by saturation mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2013-10-08

    Laboratory evolution techniques are becoming increasingly widespread among protein engineers for the development of novel and designed biocatalysts. The palette of different approaches ranges from complete randomized strategies to rational and structure-guided mutagenesis, with a wide variety of costs, impacts, drawbacks and relevance to biotechnology. A technique that convincingly compromises the extremes of fully randomized vs. rational mutagenesis, with a high benefit/cost ratio, is saturation mutagenesis. Here we will present and discuss this approach in its many facets, also tackling the issue of randomization, statistical evaluation of library completeness and throughput efficiency of screening methods. Successful recent applications covering different classes of enzymes will be presented referring to the literature and to research lines pursued in our group. The focus is put on saturation mutagenesis as a tool for designing novel biocatalysts specifically relevant to production of fine chemicals for improving bulk enzymes for industry and engineering technical enzymes involved in treatment of waste, detoxification and production of clean energy from renewable sources.

  8. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Daiha, Karina de Godoy; Angeli, Renata; de Oliveira, Sabrina Dias; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis. PMID:26111144

  9. Preparation of immobilized whole cell biocatalyst and biodiesel production using a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, Jin Seon; Yeom, Sung Ho

    2014-11-01

    Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 4697 was selected from among promising candidates as a biocatalyst for biodiesel production. This microorganism was immobilized on to polyurethane foam coated with activated carbon for reuse, and, for biodiesel production. Vacuum drying of the immobilized cells was found to be more efficient than natural or freeze-drying processes. Although the immobilized cells were severely inhibited by a molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil in excess of 2.0, stepwise methanol addition (3 aliquots at 24-h feeding intervals) significantly prevented methanol inhibition. A packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) containing the immobilized whole cell biocatalyst was then operated under circulating batch mode. Stepwise methanol feeding was used to mitigate methanol inhibition of the immobilized cells in the PBB. An increase in the feeding rate (circulating rate) of the reaction mixture barely affected biodiesel production, while an increase in the packing volume of the immobilized cells enhanced biodiesel production noticeably. Finally, repeated circulating batch operation of the PBB was carried out for five consecutive rounds without a noticeable decrease in the performance of the PBB for the three rounds.

  10. Inclusion bodies of fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase as stable and reusable biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Sans, Cristina; García-Fruitós, Elena; Ferraz, Rosa M; González-Montalbán, Núria; Rinas, Ursula; López-Santín, Josep; Villaverde, Antonio; Álvaro, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    Fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase (FucA) has been produced in Escherichia coli as active inclusion bodies (IBs) in batch cultures. The activity of insoluble FucA has been modulated by a proper selection of producing strain, culture media, and process conditions. In some cases, when an optimized defined medium was used, FucA IBs were more active (in terms of specific activity) than the soluble protein version obtained in the same process with a conventional defined medium, supporting the concept that solubility and conformational quality are independent protein parameters. FucA IBs have been tested as biocatalysts, either directly or immobilized into Lentikat beads, in an aldolic reaction between DHAP and (S)-Cbz-alaninal, obtaining product yields ranging from 65 to 76%. The production of an active aldolase as IBs, the possibility of tailoring IBs properties by both genetic and process approaches, and the reusability of IBs by further entrapment in appropriate matrices fully support the principle of using self-assembled enzymatic clusters as tunable mechanically stable and functional biocatalysts. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  11. Marine-Derived Biocatalysts: Importance, Accessing, and Application in Aromatic Pollutant Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Nikolaivits, Efstratios; Dimarogona, Maria; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to highlight the potential use of marine biocatalysts (whole cells or enzymes) as an alternative bioprocess for the degradation of aromatic pollutants. Firstly, information about the characteristics of the still underexplored marine environment and the available scientific tools used to access novel marine-derived biocatalysts is provided. Marine-derived enzymes, such as dioxygenases and dehalogenases, and the involved catalytic mechanisms for the degradation of aromatic and halogenated compounds, are presented, with the purpose of underpinning their potential use in bioremediation. Emphasis is given on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that are organic compounds with significant impact on health and environment due to their resistance in degradation. POPs bioaccumulate mainly in the fatty tissue of living organisms, therefore current efforts are mostly focused on the restriction of their use and production, since their removal is still unclear. A brief description of the guidelines and criteria that render a pollutant POP is given, as well as their potential biodegradation by marine microorganisms by surveying recent developments in this rather unexplored field.

  12. Multi-scale features in recent development of enzymic biocatalyst systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping

    2009-02-01

    Functional relation among elements of different size scales in a system is probably a main challenge across the areas of the science of engineering ever since their emergence. Multi-scale time and size correlation for description and prediction of complex systems, however, has been systematically examined only recently with the aid of new computational tools. In the pursuit of efficient and sustainable chemical processing technologies, people have seen a growing emphasis on synthetic biotechnology in recent R&D efforts. In particular, industrial enzyme technologies are attracting enormous attention. Having been traditionally developed for food and detergent applications, industrial enzyme technologies are being re-examined and tested to their limits to keep abreast of the challenges in drug, biochemical, and the emerging biorenewable energy industries. Toward that, enzymes are required to function in non-conventional conditions, such as organic solvents, extreme pH, and temperatures; they also have to compete against alternative chemical technologies in terms of costs and efficiency. Accordingly, enzymic biocatalyst systems are being tackled dynamically at all size levels through efforts ranging from molecular level protein engineering and modification, nanoscale structure fabrication, and microenvironment manipulation to the construction of microchip devices and macroscopic industrial bioreactors and devices. These efforts are probably still on a case-to-case trial basis without much consideration of cross-scale correlations. Discovering, understanding, and controlling of the common features that relate functions of biocatalysts at different size scales may eventually be realized in future.

  13. Environmentally benign synthesis of natural glycosides using apple seed meal as green and robust biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Lei; Xu, Jian-He; Lu, Wen-Ya; Lin, Guo-Qiang

    2008-02-29

    Salidroside is a natural glycoside with pharmacological activities of resisting anoxia, microwave radiation and fatigue, improving oxygen lack, and postponing ageing. In this work, salidroside and other natural glucosides such as cinnamyl O-beta-d-glucopyranoside and 4-methoxybenzyl O-beta-d-glucopyranoside were efficiently synthesized via an environmentally benign and energy economic process. In the synthetic process, apple seed, easily available from discards of fruit processing factories, was employed as a natural and green catalyst. Moreover, all of the catalyst, solvent and excessive substrate was reused or recycled. The biocatalytic reaction was carried out in a clean and less toxic medium of aqueous tert-butanol and the glucoside produced was selectively removed from reaction mixture by alumina column adsorption, making excessive substrate (aglycon) recyclable for a repeated use in the next batch of reaction. For improvement of the biocatalyst stability, apple seed meal was further cross-linked by glutaraldehyde, yielding a net-like porous structure within which the dissociating proteins were immobilized, resulting in improved permeability of the biocatalyst. After the simple cross-linking treatment, the half-life of apple seed catalyst was significantly improved from 29 days to 51 days. The productivity of the bioreactor in the case of salidroside can reach ca. 1.9 gl(-1)d(-1), affording the product in up to 99.3% purity after refinement.

  14. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Daiha, Karina de Godoy; Angeli, Renata; de Oliveira, Sabrina Dias; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis.

  15. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  16. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  17. Ketone body therapy: from the ketogenic diet to the oral administration of ketone ester

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Sami A.; VanItallie, Theodore B.

    2014-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs), acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), were considered harmful metabolic by-products when discovered in the mid-19th century in the urine of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. It took physicians many years to realize that KBs are normal metabolites synthesized by the liver and exported into the systemic circulation to serve as an energy source for most extrahepatic tissues. Studies have shown that the brain (which normally uses glucose for energy) can readily utilize KBs as an alternative fuel. Even when there is diminished glucose utilization in cognition-critical brain areas, as may occur early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there is preliminary evidence that these same areas remain capable of metabolizing KBs. Because the ketogenic diet (KD) is difficult to prepare and follow, and effectiveness of KB treatment in certain patients may be enhanced by raising plasma KB levels to ≥2 mM, KB esters, such as 1,3-butanediol monoester of βHB and glyceryl-tris-3-hydroxybutyrate, have been devised. When administered orally in controlled dosages, these esters can produce plasma KB levels comparable to those achieved by the most rigorous KD, thus providing a safe, convenient, and versatile new approach to the study and potential treatment of a variety of diseases, including epilepsy, AD, and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24598140

  18. Ketone body therapy: from the ketogenic diet to the oral administration of ketone ester.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sami A; VanItallie, Theodore B

    2014-09-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs), acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), were considered harmful metabolic by-products when discovered in the mid-19th century in the urine of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. It took physicians many years to realize that KBs are normal metabolites synthesized by the liver and exported into the systemic circulation to serve as an energy source for most extrahepatic tissues. Studies have shown that the brain (which normally uses glucose for energy) can readily utilize KBs as an alternative fuel. Even when there is diminished glucose utilization in cognition-critical brain areas, as may occur early in Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is preliminary evidence that these same areas remain capable of metabolizing KBs. Because the ketogenic diet (KD) is difficult to prepare and follow, and effectiveness of KB treatment in certain patients may be enhanced by raising plasma KB levels to ≥2 mM, KB esters, such as 1,3-butanediol monoester of βHB and glyceryl-tris-3-hydroxybutyrate, have been devised. When administered orally in controlled dosages, these esters can produce plasma KB levels comparable to those achieved by the most rigorous KD, thus providing a safe, convenient, and versatile new approach to the study and potential treatment of a variety of diseases, including epilepsy, AD, and Parkinson's disease.

  19. Regiodivergent halogenation of (E)-β-chlorovinyl ketones via soft α-vinyl enolization strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun Young; Lee, Seokwoo; Kim, Sanghee; Oh, Kyungsoo

    2015-02-06

    The soft α-vinyl enolization of (E)-β-chlorovinyl ketones was investigated in the presence of various halogen electrophiles. Depending on the nature of halogen electrophiles, the selective formation of three products, namely α,α-dichloropropargyl ketones, α,γ-dihaloallenyl ketones, and 3-halofurans, was observed. The observed regiodivergent nucleophilic pathways of (E)-β-chlorovinyl ketones demonstrate the diversity-oriented synthesis strategy in which the nucleophilic reactivity of (E)-β-chlorovinyl ketones can be selectively modulated by the choice of suitable hard and soft electrophiles.

  20. Effects of lactone, ketone, and phenolic compounds on methane production and metabolic intermediates during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Sari, Noor Kartika; A'yun, Qurrotul; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-02-01

    Fruit waste is a potential feedstock for biogas production. However, the presence of fruit flavors that have antimicrobial activity is a challenge for biogas production. Lactones, ketones, and phenolic compounds are among the several groups of fruit flavors that are present in many fruits. This work aimed to investigate the effects of two lactones, i.e., γ-hexalactone and γ-decalactone; two ketones, i.e., furaneol and mesifurane; and two phenolic compounds, i.e., quercetin and epicatechin on anaerobic digestion with a focus on methane production, biogas composition, and metabolic intermediates. Anaerobic digestion was performed in a batch glass digester incubated at 55 °C for 30 days. The flavor compounds were added at concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 5 g/L. The results show that the addition of γ-decalactone, quercetin, and epicathechin in the range of 0.5-5 g/L reduced the methane production by 50 % (MIC50). Methane content was reduced by 90 % with the addition of 5 g/L of γ-decalactone, quercetin, and epicathechin. Accumulation of acetic acid, together with an increase in carbon dioxide production, was observed. On the contrary, γ-hexalactone, furaneol, and mesifurane increased the methane production by 83-132 % at a concentration of 5 g/L.

  1. Optimization of culture conditions to produce high yields of active Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 cells for anti-Prelog reduction of prochiral ketones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chiral alcohols are widely used in the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals, flavors and functional materials and appropriate whole-cell biocatalysts offer a highly enantioselective, minimally polluting route to these valuable compounds. The recently isolated strain Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 showed exclusive anti-Prelog stereoselectivity for the reduction of prochiral ketones, but the low biomass has limited its commercialization and industrial applications. To tackle this problem, the effects of medium components and culture conditions on the strain's growth and reduction activity were explored. Results By using a one-at-a-time method and a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), the optimal medium and culture conditions were found to be as follows: glucose 8.26 g/L, fructose 2.50 g/L, soy peptone 83.92 g/L, MnSO4·H2O 0.088 g/L, pH 5.70, 30°C and 10% (v/v) inoculum. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the biomass after 30 h cultivation reached 1.10 ± 0.03 g/L, which was 9.5-fold higher than that obtained with basic medium. Also, the reduction activity towards 4'-chloroacetophenone was markedly enhanced to 39.49 ± 0.96 μmol/min/g from 29.34 ± 0.65 μmol/min/g, with the product e.e. being above 99%. Comparable improvements were also seen with the enantioselective bioreduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-one to the key pharmaceutical precursor (R) - 4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-ol. Conclusions The biomass and reduction activity of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 can be greatly enhanced through the optimization strategy. This facilitates use of the strain in the anti-Prelog stereoselective reduction of prochiral ketones to enantiopure chiral alcohols as building blocks for many industries. PMID:22099947

  2. Intracellular Metabolism of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds, Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde and Methyl Vinyl Ketone, Active Toxicants in Cigarette Smoke: Participation of Glutathione Conjugation Ability and Aldehyde-Ketone Sensitive Reductase Activity.

    PubMed

    Horiyama, Shizuyo; Hatai, Mayuko; Takahashi, Yuta; Date, Sachiko; Masujima, Tsutomu; Honda, Chie; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kunitomo, Masaru; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The major toxicants in cigarette smoke, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein (ACR) and crotonaldehyde (CA), and α,β-unsaturated ketone, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), are known to form Michael-type adducts with glutathione (GSH) and consequently cause intracellular GSH depletion, which is involved in cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxicity. We have previously clarified that exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) of a mouse melanoma cell culture medium causes rapid reduction of intracellular GSH levels, and that the GSH-MVK adduct can be detected by LC/MS analysis while the GSH-CA adduct is hardly detected. In the present study, to clarify why the GSH-CA adduct is difficult to detect in the cell medium, we conducted detailed investigation of the structures of the reaction products of ACR, CA, MVK and CSE in the GSH solution or the cell culture medium. The mass spectra indicated that in the presence of the cells, the GSH-CA and GSH-ACR adducts were almost not detected while their corresponding alcohols were detected. On the other hand, both the GSH-MVK adducts and their reduced products were detected. In the absence of the cells, the reaction of GSH with all α,β-unsaturated carbonyls produced only their corresponding adducts. These results show that the GSH adducts of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, CA and ACR, are quickly reduced by certain intracellular carbonyl reductase(s) and excreted from the cells, unlike the GSH adduct of α,β-unsaturated ketone, MVK. Such a difference in reactivity to the carbonyl reductase might be related to differences in the cytotoxicity of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones.

  3. Osmium pyme complexes for fast hydrogenation and asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Walter; Ballico, Maurizio; Del Zotto, Alessandro; Siega, Katia; Magnolia, Santo; Rigo, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The osmium compound trans,cis-[OsCl2(PPh3)2(Pyme)] (1) (Pyme=1-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine), obtained from [OsCl2(PPh3)3] and Pyme, thermally isomerizes to cis,cis-[OsCl2(PPh3)(2)(Pyme)] (2) in mesitylene at 150 degrees C. Reaction of [OsCl2(PPh3)3] with Ph2P(CH2)(4)PPh2 (dppb) and Pyme in mesitylene (150 degrees C, 4 h) leads to a mixture of trans-[OsCl2(dppb)(Pyme)] (3) and cis-[OsCl2(dppb)(Pyme)] (4) in about an 1:3 molar ratio. The complex trans-[OsCl2(dppb)(Pyet)] (5) (Pyet=2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanamine) is formed by reaction of [OsCl2(PPh3)3] with dppb and Pyet in toluene at reflux. Compounds 1, 2, 5 and the mixture of isomers 3/4 efficiently catalyze the transfer hydrogenation (TH) of different ketones in refluxing 2-propanol and in the presence of NaOiPr (2.0 mol %). Interestingly, 3/4 has been proven to reduce different ketones (even bulky) by means of TH with a remarkably high turnover frequency (TOF up to 5.7 x 10(5) h(-1)) and at very low loading (0.05-0.001 mol %). The system 3/4 also efficiently catalyzes the hydrogenation of many ketones (H2, 5.0 atm) in ethanol with KOtBu (2.0 mol %) at 70 degrees C (TOF up to 1.5 x 10(4) h(-1)). The in-situ-generated catalysts prepared by the reaction of [OsCl2(PPh3)3] with Josiphos diphosphanes and (+/-)-1-alkyl-substituted Pyme ligands, promote the enantioselective TH of different ketones with 91-96 % ee (ee=enantiomeric excess) and with a TOF of up to 1.9 x 10(4) h(-1) at 60 degrees C.

  4. Asymmetric reduction and oxidation of aromatic ketones and alcohols using W110A secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus.

    PubMed

    Musa, Musa M; Ziegelmann-Fjeld, Karla I; Vieille, Claire; Zeikus, J Gregory; Phillips, Robert S

    2007-01-05

    An enantioselective asymmetric reduction of phenyl ring-containing prochiral ketones to yield the corresponding optically active secondary alcohols was achieved with W110A secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (W110A TESADH) in Tris buffer using 2-propanol (30%, v/v) as cosolvent and cosubstrate. This concentration of 2-propanol was crucial not only to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic phenyl ring-containing substrates in the aqueous reaction medium, but also to shift the equilibrium in the reduction direction. The resulting alcohols have S-configuration, in agreement with Prelog's rule, in which the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) cofactor transfers its pro-R hydride to the re face of the ketone. A series of phenyl ring-containing ketones, such as 4-phenyl-2-butanone (1a) and 1-phenyl-1,3-butadione (2a), were reduced with good to excellent yields and high enantioselectivities. On the other hand, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (7a) was reduced with lower ee than 2-butanone derivatives. (R)-Alcohols, the anti-Prelog products, were obtained by enantiospecific oxidation of (S)-alcohols through oxidative kinetic resolution of the rac-alcohols using W110A TESADH in Tris buffer/acetone (90:10, v/v).

  5. Bioconversion of l-glutamic acid to α-ketoglutaric acid by an immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst expressing l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop an immobilized whole-cell biocatalytic process for the environment-friendly synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) from l-glutamic acid. We compared the suitability of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains overexpressing Proteus mirabilisl-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) as potential biocatalysts. Although both recombinant strains were biocatalytically active, the performance of B. subtilis was superior to that of E. coli. With l-glutamic acid as the substrate, α-KG production levels by membranes isolated from B. subtilis and E. coli were 55.3±1.73 and 21.7±0.39μg/mg protein/min, respectively. The maximal conversion ratio of l-glutamic acid to α-KG was 31% (w/w) under the following optimal conditions: 15g/L l-glutamic acid, 20g/L whole-cell biocatalyst, 5mM MgCl2, 40°C, pH 8.0, and 24-h incubation. Immobilization of whole cells with alginate increased the recyclability by an average of 23.33% per cycle. This work established an efficient one-step biotransformation process for the production of α-KG using immobilized whole B. subtilis overexpressing P. mirabilisl-AAD. Compared with traditional multistep chemical synthesis, the biocatalytic process described here has the advantage of reducing environmental pollution and thus has great potential for the large-scale production of α-KG.

  6. Electro-biocatalytic production of formate from carbon dioxide using an oxygen-stable whole cell biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyojin; Yeon, Young Joo; Lee, Sumi; Choe, Hyunjun; Jang, Min Gee; Cho, Dae Haeng; Park, Sehkyu; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2015-06-01

    The use of biocatalysts to convert CO2 into useful chemicals is a promising alternative to chemical conversion. In this study, the electro-biocatalytic conversion of CO2 to formate was attempted with a whole cell biocatalyst. Eight species of Methylobacteria were tested for CO2 reduction, and one of them, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, exhibited an exceptionally higher capability to synthesize formate from CO2 by supplying electrons with electrodes, which produced formate concentrations of up to 60mM. The oxygen stability of the biocatalyst was investigated, and the results indicated that the whole cell catalyst still exhibited CO2 reduction activity even after being exposed to oxygen gas. From the results, we could demonstrate the electro-biocatalytic conversion of CO2 to formate using an obligate aerobe, M. extorquens AM1, as a whole cell biocatalyst without providing extra cofactors or hydrogen gas. This electro-biocatalytic process suggests a promising approach toward feasible way of CO2 conversion to formate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Generating Phenotypic Diversity in a Fungal Biocatalyst to Investigate Alcohol Stress Tolerance Encountered during Microbial Cellulosic Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Rosanna C.; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

    2013-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic biomass offers an alternative route to renewable energy. The crop pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a promising fungal biocatalyst because of its broad host range and innate ability to co-saccharify and ferment lignocellulose to bioethanol. A major challenge for cellulolytic CBP-enabling microbes is alcohol inhibition. This research tested the hypothesis that Agrobacterium tumefaciens - mediated transformation (ATMT) could be exploited as a tool to generate phenotypic diversity in F. oxysporum to investigate alcohol stress tolerance encountered during CBP. A random mutagenesis library of gene disruption transformants (n=1,563) was constructed and screened for alcohol tolerance in order to isolate alcohol sensitive or tolerant phenotypes. Following three rounds of screening, exposure of select transformants to 6% ethanol and 0.75% n-butanol resulted respectively in increased (≥11.74%) and decreased (≤43.01%) growth compared to the wild –type (WT). Principal component analysis (PCA) quantified the level of phenotypic diversity across the population of genetically transformed individuals and isolated candidate strains for analysis. Characterisation of one strain, Tr. 259, ascertained a reduced growth phenotype under alcohol stress relative to WT and indicated the disruption of a coding region homologous to a putative sugar transporter (FOXG_09625). Quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) showed FOXG_09625 was differentially expressed in Tr. 259 compared to WT during alcohol-induced stress (P<0.05). Phylogenetic analysis of putative sugar transporters suggests diverse functional roles in F. oxysporum and other filamentous fungi compared to yeast for which sugar transporters form part of a relatively conserved family. This study has confirmed the potential of ATMT coupled with a phenotypic screening program to select for genetic variation induced in response to alcohol stress. This research represents a first step in the

  8. Generating phenotypic diversity in a fungal biocatalyst to investigate alcohol stress tolerance encountered during microbial cellulosic biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Rosanna C; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

    2013-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic biomass offers an alternative route to renewable energy. The crop pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a promising fungal biocatalyst because of its broad host range and innate ability to co-saccharify and ferment lignocellulose to bioethanol. A major challenge for cellulolytic CBP-enabling microbes is alcohol inhibition. This research tested the hypothesis that Agrobacterium tumefaciens--mediated transformation (ATMT) could be exploited as a tool to generate phenotypic diversity in F. oxysporum to investigate alcohol stress tolerance encountered during CBP. A random mutagenesis library of gene disruption transformants (n=1,563) was constructed and screened for alcohol tolerance in order to isolate alcohol sensitive or tolerant phenotypes. Following three rounds of screening, exposure of select transformants to 6% ethanol and 0.75% n-butanol resulted respectively in increased (≥ 11.74%) and decreased (≤ 43.01%) growth compared to the wild -type (WT). Principal component analysis (PCA) quantified the level of phenotypic diversity across the population of genetically transformed individuals and isolated candidate strains for analysis. Characterisation of one strain, Tr. 259, ascertained a reduced growth phenotype under alcohol stress relative to WT and indicated the disruption of a coding region homologous to a putative sugar transporter (FOXG_09625). Quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) showed FOXG_09625 was differentially expressed in Tr. 259 compared to WT during alcohol-induced stress (P<0.05). Phylogenetic analysis of putative sugar transporters suggests diverse functional roles in F. oxysporum and other filamentous fungi compared to yeast for which sugar transporters form part of a relatively conserved family. This study has confirmed the potential of ATMT coupled with a phenotypic screening program to select for genetic variation induced in response to alcohol stress. This research represents a first step in the

  9. Photoreduction and ketone-sensitized reduction of alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Görner, Helmut; Miskolczy, Zsombor; Megyesi, Mónika; Biczók, László

    2011-01-01

    The photoprocesses of berberine, palmatine, coralyne, sanguinarine, flavopereirine and ellipticine were studied in several solvents. The quantum yields Φ(Δ) of singlet molecular oxygen formation of berberine, palmatine and sanguinarine are moderate in dichloromethane (0.2-0.6) and much smaller in acetonitrile or trifluoroethanol. For the other alkaloids examined, Φ(Δ) is rather independent of solvent polarity. The direct and ketone-sensitized photolysis, using steady-state irradiation at 313 nm or 248/308 nm laser pulses, was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Thereby, radicals were observed yielding eventually dihydro derivatives as major products, which are thermally back-converted on admission of oxygen. The quantum yield of conversion of alkaloids to dihydroalkaloids is enhanced in the presence of triethylamine. The reaction in the presence of ketones and electron or H-atom donors has a quantum yield of close to unity.

  10. Cyclohexyl Ketone Inhibitors of Pin1 Dock in a Trans-Diaxial Cyclohexane Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Slebodnick, Carla; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclohexyl ketone substrate analogue inhibitors (Ac–pSer-Ψ[C = OCH]-Pip–tryptamine) of Pin1, the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase), were designed and synthesized as potential electrophilic acceptors for the Pin1 active site Cys113 nucleophile to test a proposed nucleophilic addition-isomerization mechanism. Because they were weak inhibitors, models of all three stereoisomers were docked into the active site of Pin1. Each isomer consistently minimized to a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation. From this, we hypothesize that Pin1 stretches substrates into a trans-pyrrolidine conformation to lower the barrier to isomerization. Our reduced amide inhibitor of Pin1 adopted a similar trans-pyrrolidine conformation in the crystal structure. The molecular model of 1, which mimics the l-Ser-l-Pro stereochemistry, in the Pin1 active site showed a distance of 4.4 Å, and an angle of 31° between Cys113-S and the ketone carbon. The computational models suggest that the mechanism of Pin1 PPIase is not likely to proceed through nucleophilic addition. PMID:23028504

  11. Ketonization of levulinic acid and γ-valerolactone to hydrocarbon fuel precursors

    DOE PAGES

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Auberry, Deanna L.; ...

    2017-06-21

    We studied a new process for direct conversion of either levulinic acid (LA) or γ-valerolactone (GVL) to hydrocarbon fuel precursors. The process involves passing an aqueous solution of LA or GVL containing a reducing agent, such as ethylene glycol or formic acid, over a ketonization catalyst at 380–400 °C and atmospheric pressure to form a biphasic liquid product. The organic phase is significantly oligomerized and deoxygenated and comprises a complex mixture of open-chain alkanes and olefins, aromatics, and low concentrations of ketones, alcohols, ethers, and carboxylates or lactones. Carbon content in the aqueous phase decreases with decreasing feed rate; themore » aqueous phase can be reprocessed through the same catalyst to form additional organic oils to improve carbon yield. Catalysts are readily regenerated to restore initial activity. Furthermore, the process might be valuable in converting cellulosics to biorenewable gasoline, jet, and diesel fuels as a means to decrease petroleum use and decrease greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  12. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. PMID:25896951

  13. Application of biocatalysts to Space Station ECLSS and PMMS water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Bagdigian, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Immobilized enzyme reactors have been developed and tested for potential water reclamation applications in the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Process Materials Management System (PMMS). The reactors convert low molecular weight organic contaminants found in ECLSS and PMMS wastewaters to compounds that are more efficiently removed by existing technologies. Demonstration of the technology was successfully achieved with two model reactors. A packed bed reactor containing immobilized urease was found to catalyze the complete decomposition of urea to by-products that were subsequently removed using conventional ion exchange results. A second reactor containing immobilized alcohol oxidase showed promising results relative to its ability to convert methanol and ethanol to the corresponding aldehydes for subsequent removal. Preliminary assessments of the application of biocatalysts to ECLSS and PMMS water reclamation sytems are presented.

  14. Engineering the glycolytic pathway: A potential approach for improvement of biocatalyst performance

    PubMed Central

    Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The glycolytic pathway is a main driving force in the fermentation process as it produces energy, cell component precursors, and fermentation products. Given its importance, the glycolytic pathway can be considered as an attractive target for the metabolic engineering of industrial microorganisms. However, many attempts to enhance glycolytic flux, by overexpressing homologous or heterologous genes encoding glycolytic enzymes, have been unsuccessful. In contrast, significant enhancement in glycolytic flux has been observed in studies with bacteria, specifically, Corynebacterium glutamicum. Although there has been a recent increase in the number of successful applications of this technology, little is known about the mechanisms leading to the enhancement of glycolytic flux. To explore the rational applications of glycolytic pathway engineering in biocatalyst development, this review summarizes recent successful studies as well as past attempts. PMID:26513591

  15. Chemical Modification in the Design of Immobilized Enzyme Biocatalysts: Drawbacks and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Nazzoly; Dos Santos, Jose C S; Ortiz, Claudia; Torres, Rodrigo; Barbosa, Oveimar; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Berenguer-Murcia, Ángel; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Chemical modification of enzymes and immobilization used to be considered as separate ways to improve enzyme properties. This review shows how the coupled use of both tools may greatly improve the final biocatalyst performance. Chemical modification of a previously immobilized enzyme is far simpler and easier to control than the modification of the free enzyme. Moreover, if protein modification is performed to improve its immobilization (enriching the enzyme in reactive groups), the final features of the immobilized enzyme may be greatly improved. Chemical modification may be directed to improve enzyme stability, but also to improve selectivity, specificity, activity, and even cell penetrability. Coupling of immobilization and chemical modification with site-directed mutagenesis is a powerful instrument to obtain fully controlled modification. Some new ideas such as photoreceptive enzyme modifiers that change their physical properties under UV exposition are discussed. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Preparation of (S)-1-Halo-2-octanols Using Ionic Liquids and Biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Eras, Jordi; Sala, Núria; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2009-10-23

    Preparation of (S)-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S)-1-bromo-2-octanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of halohydrin palmitates using biocatalysts. Halohydrin palmitates were prepared by various methods from palmitic acid and 1,2-octanediol. A tandem hydrolysis was carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM), and "resting cells" from a Rhizopus oryzae strain that was not mycotoxigenic. The influence of the enzyme and the reaction medium on the selective hydrolysis of isomeric mixtures of halohydrin esters is described. Novozym 435 allowed preparation of (S)-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S)-1-bromo-2-octanol after 1-3 h of reaction at 40 degrees C in [BMIM][PF(6)].

  17. Application of biocatalysts to Space Station ECLSS and PMMS water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Bagdigian, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Immobilized enzyme reactors have been developed and tested for potential water reclamation applications in the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Process Materials Management System (PMMS). The reactors convert low molecular weight organic contaminants found in ECLSS and PMMS wastewaters to compounds that are more efficiently removed by existing technologies. Demonstration of the technology was successfully achieved with two model reactors. A packed bed reactor containing immobilized urease was found to catalyze the complete decomposition of urea to by-products that were subsequently removed using conventional ion exchange results. A second reactor containing immobilized alcohol oxidase showed promising results relative to its ability to convert methanol and ethanol to the corresponding aldehydes for subsequent removal. Preliminary assessments of the application of biocatalysts to ECLSS and PMMS water reclamation sytems are presented.

  18. Formate production through carbon dioxide hydrogenation with recombinant whole cell biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Alissandratos, Apostolos; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Easton, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    The biological conversion of CO2 and H2 into formate offers a sustainable route to a valuable commodity chemical through CO2 fixation, and a chemical form of hydrogen fuel storage. Here we report the first example of CO2 hydrogenation utilising engineered whole-cell biocatalysts. Escherichia coli JM109(DE3) cells transformed for overexpression of either native formate dehydrogenase (FDH), the FDH from Clostridium carboxidivorans, or genes from Pyrococcus furiosus and Methanobacterium thermoformicicum predicted to express FDH based on their similarity to known FDH genes were all able to produce levels of formate well above the background, when presented with H2 and CO2, the latter in the form of bicarbonate. In the case of the FDH from P. furiosus the yield was highest, reaching more than 1 g L(-1)h(-1) when a hydrogen-sparging reactor design was used.

  19. A constitutive model of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK).

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Ou, Hengan; Lu, Bin; Long, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A modified Johnson-Cook (JC) model was proposed to describe the flow behaviour of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) with the consideration of coupled effects of strain, strain rate and temperature. As compared to traditional JC model, the modified one has better ability to predict the flow behaviour at elevated temperature conditions. In particular, the yield stress was found to be inversely proportional to temperature from the predictions of the proposed model.

  20. Thiomethylation of ketones by sulphide-alkaline solutions and formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Ulendeyeva, A.D.; Samigullin, I.I.; Nasteka, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    An investigation has been made of the thiomethylation of ketones by formaldehyde with mercaptides, sodium sulphide and their mixture. It is possible to regenerate 78-100 rel.% of the sulphide-alkaline solutions under mild conditions (20-50{degrees}C, atmospheric pressure) without feeding a catalyst, with the simultaneous production of ketosulphide concentrate - a less toxic product with properties of practical benefit. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Catalytic Leuckart-Wallach-type reductive amination of ketones.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Masato; Lee, Donghyun; Hayashi, Shinnosuke; Tanaka, Shinji; Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2002-11-29

    A CpRh(III) complex catalyzes reductive amination of ketones using HCOONH(4) at 50-70 degrees C to give the corresponding primary amines in high yields. The reaction is clean and operationally simple and proceeds at a lower temperature and with higher chemoselectivity than the original Leuckart-Wallach reaction. The new method has been applied to the synthesis of alpha-amino acids directly from alpha-keto acids.

  2. Chiral N-phosphonyl imine chemistry: asymmetric synthesis of alpha-alkyl beta-amino ketones by reacting phosphonyl imines with ketone-derived enolates.

    PubMed

    Ai, Teng; Han, Jianlin; Chen, Zhong-Xiu; Li, Guigen

    2009-02-01

    A series of new chiral syn-alpha-branched beta-amino ketones has been synthesized by reacting chiral phosphonyl imines with ketone-derived enolates. The N-protection group on imine auxiliary was found to be crucial to the asymmetric induction. The absolute stereochemistry has been unambiguously determined by converting a product to a known sample.

  3. Olive Recombinant Hydroperoxide Lyase, an Efficient Biocatalyst for Synthesis of Green Leaf Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Jacopini, Sabrina; Mariani, Magali; de Caraffa, Virginie Brunini-Bronzini; Gambotti, Claude; Vincenti, Sophie; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Muselli, Alain; Costa, Jean; Berti, Liliane; Maury, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Volatile C6-aldehydes are the main contributors to the characteristic odor of plants known as "green note" and are widely used by the flavor industry. Biotechnological processes were developed to fulfill the high demand in C6-aldehydes in natural flavorants and odorants. Recombinant hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs) constitute an interesting alternative to overcome drawbacks arising from the use of HPL from plant extracts. Thus, olive recombinant 13-HPL was assayed as biocatalysts to produce C6-aldehydes. Firstly, a cDNA encoding for olive HPL of Leccino variety was isolated and cloned in pQE-30 expression vector. In order to improve the enzyme solubility, its chloroplast transit peptide was deleted. Both enzymes (HPL wild type and HPL deleted) were expressed into Escherichia coli strain M15, purified, characterized, and then used for bioconversion of 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and linolenic acids. Aldehydes produced were extracted, then identified and quantified using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Recombinant HPL wild type (HPLwt) allowed producing 5.61 mM of hexanal and 4.39 mM of 3Z-hexenal, corresponding to high conversion yields of 93.5 and 73 %, respectively. Using HPL deleted (HPLdel) instead of HPLwt failed to obtain greater quantities of hexanal or 3Z-hexenal. No undesirable products were formed, and no isomerization of 3Z-hexenal in 2E-hexenal occurred. The olive recombinant HPLwt appears to be a promising efficient biocatalyst for the production of C6-aldehydes.

  4. Nickel-Catalyzed Cycloadditions of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes, and Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Tekavec, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    The nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition of unsaturated hydrocarbons and carbonyls is reported. Diynes and enynes were used as coupling partners. Carbonyl substrates include both aldehdyes and ketones. Reactions of diynes and aldehydes afforded the [3, 3] electrocyclic ring-opened tautomers, rather than pyrans, in high yields. The cycloaddition reaction of enynes and aldehydes afforded two distinct products. A new carbon–carbon bond is formed, prior to a competitive β-hydrogen elimination of a nickel alkoxide, between the carbonyl carbon and either one of the carbons of the olefin or the alkyne. The steric hindrance of the enyne greatly affected the chemoselectivity of the cycloaddition of enynes and aldehydes. In some cases, dihydropyran was also formed. The scope of the cycloaddition reaction was expanded to include the coupling of enynes and ketones. No β-hydrogen elimination was observed in cycloaddition reaction of enynes and ketones. Instead, C–O bond-forming reductive elimination occurred exclusively to afford dihydropyrans in excellent yields. In all cases, complete chemoselectivity was observed; only dihydropyrans where the carbonyl carbon forms a carbon–carbon bond with a carbon of the olefin, rather than of the alkyne, were observed. All cycloaddition reactions occur at room temperature and employ nickel catalysts bearing the hindered 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) or its saturated analogue, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolin-2-ylidene (SIPr). PMID:18318544

  5. Aqueous oxidation of phenylurea herbicides by triplet aromatic ketones.

    PubMed

    Canonica, Silvio; Hellrung, Bruno; Müller, Pavel; Wirz, Jakob

    2006-11-01

    Excited triplet states of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) are important players for the transformation of organic chemical contaminants in sunlit natural waters. The present study focuses on kinetics and mechanistic aspects of the transformation of phenylurea herbicides induced by well-defined excited triplet states, which have been chosen to model DOM triplet states having oxidative character. The aromatic ketones benzophenone, 3'-methoxyacetophenone, and 2-acetonaphthone were used to photogenerate their triplet states and oxidize a series of eleven substituted phenylureas. Quenching of the excited triplet states by the phenylureas was measured using laser flash photolysis in the microsecond time domain, while the oxidation kinetics of the phenylureas was followed under steady-state irradiation. Second-order rate constants for quenching and oxidation were largely identical for a given pair of ketone and phenylurea. They reached the diffusion-controlled limit (approximately 4 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)) and decreased with increasing free energy of electron transfer from the phenylurea to the ketone triplet. These results confirm those already obtained using phenols as the substrates to be oxidized and suggest that oxidation rates are mainly determined by the bimolecular rate constant for electron transfer, a rule that can possibly be extended to various organic contaminants. A refined estimate of the effective reduction potential of DOM excited triplet states was also obtained.

  6. Cofactor regeneration in phototrophic cyanobacteria applied for asymmetric reduction of ketones.

    PubMed

    Havel, Jan; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2007-07-01

    The obligate photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 and the photoheterotrophic heterocystous cyanobacterium Noctoc muscorum are able to reduce prochiral ketones asymmetrically to optical pure chiral alcohols without light. An example is the synthesis of S-pentafluoro(phenyl-)ethanol with an enantiomeric excess >99% if 2'-3'-4'-5'-6'-pentafluoroacetophenone is used as substrate. If no light is available for regeneration of the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form) (NADPH), glucose is used as cosubstrate. Membrane disintegration during asymmetric reduction promotes cytosolic energy generating metabolic pathways. Observed regulatory effects depicted by an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (oxidized form) (NADP(+)) ratio of 3:1 for efficient cofactor recycling indicate a metabolization via glycolisis. The stoichiometric formation of the by-product acetate (1 mol acetate/1 mol chiral alcohol) indicates homoacetic acid fermentation for cofactor regeneration including the obligate photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942.

  7. Aminosilica materials as adsorbents for the selective removal of aldehydes and ketones from simulated bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Drese, Jeffrey H; Talley, Anne D; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-21

    The fast pyrolysis of biomass is a potential route to the production of liquid biorenewable fuel sources. However, degradation of the bio-oil mixtures due to reaction of oxygenates, such as aldehydes and ketones, reduces the stability of the liquids and can impact long-term storage and shipping. Herein, solid aminosilica adsorbents are described for the selective adsorptive removal of reactive aldehyde and ketone species. Three aminosilica adsorbents are prepared through the reaction of amine-containing silanes with pore-expanded mesoporous silica. A fourth aminosilica adsorbent is prepared through the ring-opening polymerization of aziridine from pore-expanded mesoporous silica. Adsorption experiments with a representative mixture of bio-oil model compounds are presented using each adsorbent at room temperature and 45 °C. The adsorbent comprising only primary amines adsorbs the largest amount of aldehydes and ketones. The overall reactivity of this adsorbent increases with increasing temperature. Additional aldehyde screening experiments show that the reactivity of aldehydes with aminosilicas varies depending on their chemical functionality. Initial attempts to regenerate an aminosilica adsorbent by acid hydrolysis show that they can be at least partially regenerated for further use.

  8. Interference of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate with measurements of ketone body concentration and isotopic enrichment by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Des Rosiers, C; Montgomery, J A; Desrochers, S; Garneau, M; David, F; Mamer, O A; Brunengraber, H

    1988-08-15

    Concentrations and 13C2 molar percentage enrichments of blood R-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are measured by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples are treated with NaB2H4 to reduce unlabeled and labeled acetoacetate to corresponding deuterium-labeled RS-3-hydroxybutyrate species. Only the gas chromatographic peak for the tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivative of 3-hydroxybutyrate needs to be monitored. The various compounds are quantitated using an internal standard of RS-3-hydroxy-[2,2,3,4,4,4-2H6]-butyrate. Concentrations of ketone bodies are obtained by monitoring the m/z 159 to 163 fragments of tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives of labeled and unlabeled 3-hydroxybutyrate species. High correlations were obtained between ketone body concentrations assayed (i) enzymatically with R-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and (ii) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The limit of detection is about 10 nmol of substrate in blood samples. The current practice of monitoring the m/z 275 to 281 fragments overestimates the concentration of endogenous R-3-hydroxybutyrate, due to co-elution of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, a valine metabolite. The method presented is used to measure ketone body turnover in vivo in 24-h-fasted dogs.

  9. Non-Conventional Yeasts Whole Cells as Efficient Biocatalysts for the Production of Flavors and Fragrances.

    PubMed

    Forti, Luca; Di Mauro, Simone; Cramarossa, Maria Rita; Filippucci, Sara; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro

    2015-06-04

    The rising consumer requests for natural flavors and fragrances have generated great interest in the aroma industry to seek new methods to obtain fragrance and flavor compounds naturally. An alternative and attractive route for these compounds is based on bio-transformations. In this review, the application of biocatalysis by Non Conventional Yeasts (NCYs) whole cells for the production of flavor and fragrances is illustrated by a discussion of the production of different class of compounds, namely Aldehydes, Ketones and related compounds, Alcohols, Lactones, Terpenes and Terpenoids, Alkenes, and Phenols.

  10. Asymmetric Preparation of prim-, sec-, and tert-Amines Employing Selected Biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kroutil, Wolfgang; Fischereder, Eva-Maria; Fuchs, Christine S; Lechner, Horst; Mutti, Francesco G; Pressnitz, Desiree; Rajagopalan, Aashrita; Sattler, Johann H; Simon, Robert C; Siirola, Elina

    2013-05-17

    This account focuses on the application of ω-transaminases, lyases, and oxidases for the preparation of amines considering mainly work from our own lab. Examples are given to access α-chiral primary amines from the corresponding ketones as well as terminal amines from primary alcohols via a two-step biocascade. 2,6-Disubstituted piperidines, as examples for secondary amines, are prepared by biocatalytical regioselective asymmetric monoamination of designated diketones followed by spontaneous ring closure and a subsequent diastereoselective reduction step. Optically pure tert-amines such as berbines and N-methyl benzylisoquinolines are obtained by kinetic resolution via an enantioselective aerobic oxidative C-C bond formation.

  11. Advanced selective non-invasive ketone body detection sensors based on new ionophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyapalan, A.; Sarswat, P. K.; Zhu, Y.; Free, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    New molecules and methods were examined that can be used to detect trace level ketone bodies. Diseases such as type 1 diabetes, childhood hypo-glycaemia-growth hormone deficiency, toxic inhalation, and body metabolism changes are linked with ketone bodies concentration. Here we introduce, selective ketone body detection sensors based on small, environmentally friendly organic molecules with Lewis acid additives. Density functional theory (DFT) simulation of the sensor molecules (Bromo-acetonaphthone tungstate (BANT) and acetonaphthophenyl ether propiono hydroxyl tungstate (APPHT)), indicated a fully relaxed geometry without symmetry attributes and specific coordination which enhances ketone bodies sensitivity. A portable sensing unit was made in which detection media containing ketone bodies at low concentration and new molecules show color change in visible light as well as unique irradiance during UV illumination. RGB analysis, electrochemical tests, SEM characterization, FTIR, absorbance and emission spectroscopy were also performed in order to validate the ketone sensitivity of these new molecules.

  12. Aerobic dehydrogenative α-diarylation of benzyl ketones with aromatics through carbon-carbon bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    More, Nagnath Yadav; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2014-02-07

    Substituted benzyl ketones reacted with aromatics in the presence of K2S2O8 in CF3COOH at room temperature, yielding α-diaryl benzyl ketones through a carbon-carbon bond cleavage. In the reaction, two new carbon-carbon bonds were formed and one carbon-carbon bond was cleaved. It is very interesting that two different nucleophiles such as benzyl ketones and aromatics were coupled together without metal, which is unusual in organic synthesis.

  13. Enantioselective Pd-catalyzed allylation of acyclic α-fluorinated ketones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wengui; Shen, Haiming; Wan, Xiao-Long; Chen, Qing-Yun; Guo, Yong

    2014-07-03

    Significant synthetic challenges remain for the asymmetric synthesis of tertiary α-fluoro ketones, which are potentially useful molecules for the development of drugs, agrochemicals, and functional materials. Herein, we describe the development of a method for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of tertiary α-fluoro ketones via the Tsuji-Trost reaction of racemic acyclic α-fluorinated ketones. Enantioenriched acyclic α-cabonyl tertiary fluorides can be produced with the aid of a palladium/phosphinooxazoline catalyst.

  14. Exploring the clinical utility of blood ketone levels in the emergency department assessment of paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    O'Donohoe, P B; Kessler, R; Beattie, T F

    2006-01-01

    Background Ketonuria (on standard urine testing) is a frequent finding in children presenting to emergency departments. With the advent of hand‐held ketone meters, blood ketone levels can now be rapidly quantified. Hypothesis Point of care testing (POCT) of blood ketone levels could provide clinically useful information on severity of illness in children and risk of hospital admission. Methods A prospective study using POCT of blood ketone levels in a convenience sample of children <13 years old, with a typical case mix of medical problems. Findings 186 children were studied. The range of ketone levels varied widely among this study population depending on the presenting complaint. Higher levels were noted in those presenting with anorexia or vomiting and fever. The median ketone level of the total study population was 0.2 (range 0–6.0, interquartile range 0.1–0.9) mmol/l. Ketone levels correlated poorly with discharge destination and duration of admission. However, receiver–operator characteristics for ketones as a predictor of admission were comparable to Pediatric Risk of Admission scores (area under the curve 0.64 and 0.72, respectively) and may represent an independent risk factor for admission. A ketone level >1.2 mmol/l has a positive predictive value of 66.7% for admission. Ketone levels correlated well with decreased oral intake (R2 = 0.25; p<0.001). Conclusions A strong association was found between ketone levels, decreased oral intake and fever. Although ketone levels do not correlate well with more traditional markers of illness severity, they can help to predict the requirement for admission to hospital when interpreted in the context of the presenting illness. They may have applications in both the emergency department and primary care settings. Further prospective testing is required to validate these findings. PMID:16988307

  15. Rhodium-Catalyzed Ketone Methylation Using Methanol Under Mild Conditions: Formation of α-Branched Products**

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Louis K M; Poole, Darren L; Shen, Di; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    The rhodium-catalyzed methylation of ketones has been accomplished using methanol as the methylating agent and the hydrogen-borrowing method. The sequence is notable for the relatively low temperatures that are required and for the ability of the reaction system to form α-branched products with ease. Doubly alkylated ketones can be prepared from methyl ketones and two different alcohols by using a sequential one-pot iridium- and rhodium-catalyzed process. PMID:24288297

  16. Ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate blocks the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Nguyen, Kim Y.; Grant, Ryan W.; Goldberg, Emily L.; Bodogai, Monica; Kim, Dongin; D'Agostino, Dominic; Planavsky, Noah; Lupfer, Christopher; Kanneganti, Thirumala D.; Kang, Seokwon; Horvath, Tamas L.; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Crawford, Peter A.; Biragyn, Arya; Alnemri, Emad; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2015-01-01

    Ketone bodies , β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate support mammalian survival during states of energy deficit by serving as alternative source of ATP1. BHB levels are elevated during starvation, high-intensity exercise or by the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet2. Prolonged caloric restriction or fasting reduces inflammation as immune system adapts to low glucose supply and energy metabolism switches towards mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and ketolysis2-6. However, role of ketones bodies in regulation of innate immune response is unknown. We report that BHB, but neither acetoacetate nor structurally-related short chain fatty acids, butyrate and acetate, suppresses activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to several structurally unrelated NLRP3 activators, without impacting NLRC4, AIM2 or non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, BHB inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome by preventing K+ efflux and reducing ASC oligomerization and speck formation. The inhibitory effects of BHB on NLRP3 were not dependent on chirality or classical starvation regulated mechanisms like AMPK, reactive oxygen species (ROS), autophagy or glycolytic inhibition. BHB blocked NLRP3 inflammasome without undergoing oxidation in TCA cycle, independently of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), Sirt2, receptor Gpr109a and inhibition of NLRP3 did not correlate with magnitude of histone acetylation in macrophages. BHB reduced the NLRP3 inflammasome mediated IL-1β and IL-18 production in human monocytes. In vivo, BHB attenuates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in mouse models of NLRP3-mediated diseases like Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS), Familial Cold Autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) and urate crystal induce body cavity inflammation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of caloric restriction or ketogenic diets may be mechanistically linked to BHB-mediated inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and point to the potential

  17. Investigation of attractive and repulsive interactions associated with ketones in supercritical CO2, based on Raman spectroscopy and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Daisuke; Saitow, Ken-ichi

    2013-08-07

    Carbonyl compounds are solutes that are highly soluble in supercritical CO2 (scCO2). Their solubility governs the efficiency of chemical reactions, and is significantly increased by changing a chromophore. To effectively use scCO2 as solvent, it is crucial to understand the high solubility of carbonyl compounds, the solvation structure, and the solute-solvent intermolecular interactions. We report Raman spectroscopic data, for three prototypical ketones dissolved in scCO2, and four theoretical analyses. The vibrational Raman spectra of the C=O stretching modes of ketones (acetone, acetophenone, and benzophenone) were measured in scCO2 along the reduced temperature Tr = T∕Tc = 1.02 isotherm as a function of the reduced density ρr = ρ∕ρc in the range 0.05-1.5. The peak frequencies of the C=O stretching modes shifted toward lower energies as the fluid density increased. The density dependence was analyzed by using perturbed hard-sphere theory, and the shift was decomposed into attractive and repulsive energy components. The attractive energy between the ketones and CO2 was up to nine times higher than the repulsive energy, and its magnitude increased in the following order: acetone < acetophenone < benzophenone. The Mulliken charges of the three solutes and CO2 molecules obtained by using quantum chemistry calculations described the order of the magnitude of the attractive energy and optimized the relative configuration between each solute and CO2. According to theoretical calculations for the dispersion energy, the dipole-induced-dipole interaction energy, and the frequency shift due to their interactions, the experimentally determined attractive energy differences in the three solutes were attributed to the dispersion energies that depended on a chromophore attached to the carbonyl groups. It was found that the major intermolecular interaction with the attractive shift varied from dipole-induced dipole to dispersion depending on the chromophore in the ketones

  18. Rules for biocatalyst and reaction engineering to implement effective, NAD(P)H-dependent, whole cell bioreductions

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Regina; Woodley, John M.; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Access to chiral alcohols of high optical purity is today frequently provided by the enzymatic reduction of precursor ketones. However, bioreductions are complicated by the need for reducing equivalents in the form of NAD(P)H. The high price and molecular weight of NAD(P)H necessitate in situ recycling of catalytic quantities, which is mostly accomplished by enzymatic oxidation of a cheap co-substrate. The coupled oxidoreduction can be either performed by free enzymes in solution or by whole cells. Reductase selection, the decision between cell-free and whole cell reduction system, coenzyme recycling mode and reaction conditions represent design options that strongly affect bioreduction efficiency. In this paper, each option was critically scrutinized and decision rules formulated based on well-described literature examples. The development chain was visualized as a decision-tree that can be used to identify the most promising route towards the production of a specific chiral alcohol. General methods, applications and bottlenecks in the set-up are presented and key experiments required to “test” for decision-making attributes are defined. The reduction of o-chloroacetophenone to (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol was used as one example to demonstrate all the development steps. Detailed analysis of reported large scale bioreductions identified product isolation as a major bottleneck in process design. PMID:26343336

  19. Direct and enantioselective α-allylation of ketones via singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Mastracchio, Anthony; Warkentin, Alexander A.; Walji, Abbas M.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2010-01-01

    The first enantioselective organocatalytic α-allylation of cyclic ketones has been accomplished via singly occupied molecular orbital catalysis. Geometrically constrained radical cations, forged from the one-electron oxidation of transiently generated enamines, readily undergo allylic alkylation with a variety of commercially available allyl silanes. A reasonable latitude in both the ketone and allyl silane components is readily accommodated in this new transformation. Moreover, three new oxidatively stable imidazolidinone catalysts have been developed that allow cyclic ketones to successfully participate in this transformation. The new catalyst platform has also been exploited in the first catalytic enantioselective α-enolation and α-carbooxidation of ketones. PMID:20921367

  20. Stereoselective synthesis of cyclohexanones via phase transfer catalyzed double addition of nucleophiles to divinyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Silvanus, Andrew C; Groombridge, Benjamin J; Andrews, Benjamin I; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Carbery, David R

    2010-11-05

    Functionalized cyclohexanones are formed in excellent yield and diastereoselectivity from a phase transfer catalyzed double addition of active methylene pronucleophiles to nonsymmetrical divinyl ketones.

  1. Gallium (III) triflate catalyzed efficient Strecker reaction of ketones and their fluorinated analogs

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Mathew, Thomas; Panja, Chiradeep; Alconcel, Steevens; Vaghoo, Habiba; Do, Clement; Olah, George A.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of α-aminonitriles and their fluorinated analogs has been carried out in high yield and purity by the Strecker reaction from the corresponding ketones and amines with trimethylsilyl cyanide using gallium triflate in dichloromethane. Monofluoro-, difluro-, or trifluoromethyl groups can be incorporated into the α-aminonitrile product by varying the nature of the fluorinated ketones. Study with various fluorinated and nonfluorinated ketones reveals that the choice of proper catalyst and the solvent system (suitable metal triflates as a catalyst and dichloromethane as a solvent) plays the key role in the direct Strecker reactions of ketones. PMID:17360416

  2. Palladium-catalysed mono-α-alkenylation of ketones with alkenyl tosylates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Fu, Wai Chung; Chiang, Chien-Wei; Choy, Pui Ying; Kwong, Fuk Yee; Lei, Aiwen

    2017-01-16

    The first example of palladium-catalysed selective mono-α-alkenylation of ketones with alkenyl tosylates is described. In the presence of a Pd/XPhos catalyst system (0.1-1.0 mol%), the reaction provides mono-α-alkenylated ketones in good yields and exhibits excellent substrate tolerance. Highly congested, tri- and tetra-substituted alkenyl tosylates react smoothly and even problematic heteroaryl and aliphatic ketones are applicable substrates. Notably, small β,γ-unsaturated ketones are successfully prepared using acetone as a simple three-carbon feedstock.

  3. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited.

  4. A focused review of the role of ketone bodies in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-11-01

    Ketone bodies are produced in the liver and are utilized in other tissues in the body as an energy source when hypoglycemia occurs in the body. There are three ketone bodies: acetoacetate, beta hydroxy butyrate, and acetone. Ketone bodies are usually present in the blood, and their level increases during fasting and starvation. They are also found in the blood of neonates and pregnant women. In diabetic ketoacidosis, high levels of ketone bodies are produced in response to low insulin levels and high levels of counter-regulatory hormones.

  5. Beyond ketonization: selective conversion of carboxylic acids to olefins over balanced Lewis acid–base pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Baylon, Rebecca A. L.; Sun, Junming; Martin, Kevin J.; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dwindling petroleum reserves combined with increased energy demand and political factors encouraging an increase in energy independence have led to a large amount of research on sustainable alternatives. To this end, biomass conversion has been recognized as themost readily viable technology to produce biofuel concerning our reliance on liquid fuels for transportation and has the advantage of being easily integrated into our heavy use of combustion engines. The interest in biomass conversion has also resulted in reduced costs and a greater abundance of bio-oil, a mixture of hundreds of oxygenates including alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and ketones. However, the presence of carboxylic acids in bio-oil derived from lignocellulose pyrolysis leads to low pH, instability, and corrosiveness. In addition, carboxylic acids (i.e. acetic acid) can also be produced via fermentation of sugars. This can be accomplished by a variety of homoacetogenic microorganisms that can produce acetic acid with 100% carbon yield.

  6. Production of Primary Amines by Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Aldehydes/Ketones.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guanfeng; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Lin; Xu, Gang; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-06

    Transformation of biomass into valuable nitrogen-containing compounds is highly desired, yet limited success has been achieved. Here we report an efficient catalyst system, partially reduced Ru/ZrO2 , which could catalyze the reductive amination of a variety of biomass-derived aldehydes/ketones in aqueous ammonia. With this approach, a spectrum of renewable primary amines was produced in good to excellent yields. Moreover, we have demonstrated a two-step approach for production of ethanolamine, a large-market nitrogen-containing chemical, from lignocellulose in an overall yield of 10 %. Extensive characterizations showed that Ru/ZrO2 -containing multivalence Ru association species worked as a bifunctional catalyst, with RuO2 as acidic promoter to facilitate the activation of carbonyl groups and Ru as active sites for the subsequent imine hydrogenation.

  7. Tetrafluorophenoxymethyl ketone cruzain inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetic properties as therapeutic leads for Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Neitz, R Jeffrey; Bryant, Clifford; Chen, Steven; Gut, Jiri; Caselli, Estefania Hugo; Ponce, Servando; Chowdhury, Somenath; Xu, Haichao; Arkin, Michelle R; Ellman, Jonathan A; Renslo, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Inhibition of the cysteine protease cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi has been studied pre-clinically as a new chemotherapeutic approach to treat Chagas' disease. Efficacious effects of vinylsulfone-based cruzain inhibitors in animal models support this therapeutic hypothesis. More recently, substrate-activity screening was used to identify nonpeptidic tetrafluorophenoxymethyl ketone inhibitors of cruzain that showed promising efficacy in animal models. Herein we report efforts to further optimize the in vitro potency and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of this new class of cruzain inhibitors. Through modifications of the P1, P2 and/or P3 positions, new analogs have been identified with reduced lipophilicity, enhanced potency, and improved oral exposure and bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Start-up of autotrophic nitrogen removal reactors via sequential biocatalyst addition.

    PubMed

    Pynaert, Kris; Smets, Barth F; Beheydt, Daan; Verstraete, Willy

    2004-02-15

    A procedure for start-up of oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification (OLAND) in a lab-scale rotating biological contactor (RBC) is presented. In this one-step process, NH4+ is directly converted to N2 without the need for an organic carbon source. The approach is based on a sequential addition of two types of easily available biocatalyst to the reactor during start-up: aerobic nitrifying and anaerobic, granular methanogenic sludge. The first is added as a source of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB), the second as a possible source of planctomycetes including anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). The initial nitrifying biofilm serves as a matrix for anaerobic cell incorporation. By subsequently imposing oxygen limitation, one can create an optimal environment for autotrophic N removal. In this way, N removal of about 250 mg of N L(-1) d(-1) was achieved after 100 d treating a synthetic NH4+-rich wastewater. By gradually imposing higher loads on the reactor, the N elimination could be increased to about 1.8 g of N L(-1) d(-1) at 250 d. The resulting microbial community was compared with that of the inocula using general bacterial and AAOB- and planctomycete-specific PCR primers. Subsequently, the RBC reactor was shown to treat a sludge digestor effluent under suboptimal and strongly varying conditions. The RBC biocatalyst was also submitted to complete absence of oxygen in a fixed-film bioreactor (FFBR) and proved able to remove NH4+ with NO2- as electron acceptor (maximal 434 mg of NH4+-N (g of VSS)(-1) d(-1) on day 136). DGGE and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the RBC biofilm was dominated by members of the genus Nitrosomonas and close relatives of Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, a known AnAOB. The latter was enriched during FFBR operation, but AAOB were still present and the ratio planctomycetes/AAOB rRNA gene copies was about 4.3 after 136 d of reactor operation. Whether this relates to an active role of AAOB in the anoxic N

  9. Multilayer enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles as efficient, reusable biocatalysts and biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Josep; Zhang, Yue; Taylor, Hannah; Cespedes, Oscar; Webb, Michael E.; Zhou, Dejian

    2011-09-01

    Herein we report the development of a highly active, magnetically retrievable and reusable biocatalyst using multilayer enzyme coupled-magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) prepared by layer-by-layer assembly using two well-studied enzymes, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX), as a model enzyme system. We show that by combining the use of a biocompatible linker as well as biospecific immobilisation, the first layer enzyme in our HRP1-MNP system retains the native activity of the enzyme in solution, and the overall catalytic activity of the multilayer enzyme system, HRPx-MNP, increases linearly with the increasing number of enzyme layers. Furthermore, the HRPx-MNP system can be conveniently retrieved by using an external magnetic field and reused for 10 consecutive cycles without apparent reduction of catalytic activity. We also report the development of a novel coupled bienzyme, GOX/HRPx-MNP, system that can perform bi-enzymatic reactions to couple the colourless GOX-catalyzed reaction to the chromophoric HRP-catalyzed reaction via H2O2 production. This model bienzyme-MNP system can be used for simple, rapid colorimetric quantification of micromolar glucose.Herein we report the development of a highly active, magnetically retrievable and reusable biocatalyst using multilayer enzyme coupled-magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) prepared by layer-by-layer assembly using two well-studied enzymes, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX), as a model enzyme system. We show that by combining the use of a biocompatible linker as well as biospecific immobilisation, the first layer enzyme in our HRP1-MNP system retains the native activity of the enzyme in solution, and the overall catalytic activity of the multilayer enzyme system, HRPx-MNP, increases linearly with the increasing number of enzyme layers. Furthermore, the HRPx-MNP system can be conveniently retrieved by using an external magnetic field and reused for 10 consecutive cycles without apparent

  10. An innovative biocatalyst for production of ethanol from xylose in a continuous bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Zangirolami, T C; Rodrigues, J P; Matugi, K; Giordano, R C; Giordano, R L C

    2012-01-05

    The use of the hemicellulose fraction of biomass may be important for the feasibility of the production of second generation bioethanol. Wild strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are widely used in industry for production of 1st generation ethanol, and the robustness of this yeast is an important advantage in large scale applications. Isomerization of xylose to xylulose is an essential step in this process. This reaction is catalyzed by glucose isomerase (GI). A new biocatalyst is presented here for the simultaneous isomerization and fermentation (SIF) of xylose. GI from Streptomyces rubiginosus was immobilized in chitosan, through crosslinking with glutaraldehyde, and the support containing the immobilized GI (IGI-Ch) was co-immobilized with S. cerevisiae, in calcium alginate gel. The immobilization experiments led to high immobilized protein loads (30-68 mg × g(support)(-1)), high yields (circa of 100%) and high recovered enzyme activity (>90%). The IGI-Ch derivative with maximum activity presented 1700 IU × g(catalyst)(-1), almost twice the activity of a commercial immobilized GI, GENSWEET(®) IGI-HF. At typical operational conditions for xylose SIF operation (pH 5, 30-35 °C, presence of nutrients and ethanol concentrations in the medium up to 70 L(-1)), both derivatives, IGI-Ch and GENSWEET(®) IGI-HF retained app. 90% of the initial activity after 120 h, while soluble GI was almost completely inactive at pH 5, 30 °C. The isomerization xylose/xylulose, catalyzed by IGI-Ch, reached the equilibrium in batch experiments after 4h, with 12,000 IU × L(-1) (7 g(der) × L(-1)), at pH 5 and 30 °C, in the presence of fermentation nutrients. After co-immobilization of IGI-Ch with yeast in alginate gel, this biocatalyst succeeded in producing 12 g × L(-1) of ethanol, 9.5 g × L(-1) of xylitol, 2.5 g × L(-1) of glycerol and 1.9 g × L(-1) of acetate after consumption of 50 g × L(-1) of xylose, in 48 h, using 32.5 × 10(3) IU × L(-1) and 20 g(yeast) × L(-1), at 35

  11. Enantioselective Photocatalytic [3 + 2] Cycloadditions of Aryl Cyclopropyl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Amador, Adrian G; Sherbrook, Evan M; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2016-04-13

    Control of stereochemistry in photocycloaddition reactions remains a substantial challenge; almost all successful catalytic examples to date have involved [2 + 2] photocycloadditions of enones. We report a method for the asymmetric [3 + 2] photocycloaddition of aryl cyclopropyl ketones that enables the enantiocontrolled construction of densely substituted cyclopentane structures not synthetically accessible using other catalytic methods. These results show that the dual-catalyst strategy developed in our laboratory broadens synthetic chemists' access to classes of photochemical cycloadditions that have not previously been feasible in enantioselective form.

  12. Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling

    SciTech Connect

    Larikov, V.I.; Pereverzev, A.N.; Roshchin, Y.N.; Sokolova, S.P.

    1983-09-01

    The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone/toluene or MEK/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity of wax remaining in the filtrate is examined. The critical solution temperatures are investigated and it is shown that MIBK surpasses MEK. The results obtained indicate that MIBK is extremely promising for use in processes of deoiling and cold fractionation of waxes.

  13. Effects of trifluoromethyl ketones on the motility of Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wolfart, Krisztina; Molnar, Annamaria; Kawase, Masami; Motohashi, Noboru; Molnar, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    In the present study, we showed the inhibition of motility by trifluoromethyl ketone (TF) derivatives (1-8) in Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) cultures. Among them, 1-(2-benzoxazoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-propanone (1) showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on the motility of P. vulgaris than other TF compounds at 10% MIC. Our results suggest the possibility of an inhibitory action of TF compounds on the proton motive forces by affecting the action of biological motor and proton efflux in the membranes, resulting in a reduction of the ratio of running and the increased number of tumbling and non-motile cells.

  14. Torquoselectivity in the Nazarov reactions of allenyl vinyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Timothy D R; LeBlanc, Luc M; Ardagh, Giselle H; Boyd, Russell J; Burnell, D Jean

    2015-01-16

    Nazarov reactions mediated by BF3-etherate of a series of carbon-substituted allenyl vinyl ketones provided intermediates in which substituents on the termini of the allenes had rotated away from the vinyl moieties, and these intermediates were trapped by (4 + 3)-cyclizations. A computational examination of the torquoselectivity of these Nazarov reactions confirmed a kinetic preference for the observed isomers and pointed to steric interactions and the degree of allene deformation as significant factors in determining the torquoselectivity. The study also suggested that the high proportion of one geometrical isomer in the Nazarov products might also be due to some preferential trapping of the major Nazarov intermediate.

  15. Engineered Escherichia coli with Periplasmic Carbonic Anhydrase as a Biocatalyst for CO2 Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Kim, Im Gyu; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Dong Gyun

    2013-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been suggested recently that this remarkably fast enzyme can be used for sequestration of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, making this a promising alternative for chemical CO2 mitigation. To promote the economical use of enzymes, we engineered the carbonic anhydrase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngCA) in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, thereby creating a bacterial whole-cell catalyst. We then investigated the application of this system to CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, a process with the potential to store large quantities of CO2. ngCA was highly expressed in the periplasm of E. coli in a soluble form, and the recombinant bacterial cell displayed the distinct ability to hydrate CO2 compared with its cytoplasmic ngCA counterpart and previously reported whole-cell CA systems. The expression of ngCA in the periplasm of E. coli greatly accelerated the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation and exerted a striking impact on the maximal amount of CaCO3 produced under conditions of relatively low pH. It was also shown that the thermal stability of the periplasmic enzyme was significantly improved. These results demonstrate that the engineered bacterial cell with periplasmic ngCA can successfully serve as an efficient biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration. PMID:23974145

  16. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Grazia M; Trono, Daniela

    2015-09-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes.

  17. Efficient aspartic acid production by a psychrophile-based simple biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Takahisa; Hamada, Mai; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Kato, Junichi

    2015-10-01

    We previously constructed a Psychrophile-based Simple bioCatalyst (PSCat) reaction system, in which psychrophilic metabolic enzymes are inactivated by heat treatment, and used it here to study the conversion of aspartic acid from fumaric acid mediated by the activity of aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspartase). In Escherichia coli, the biosynthesis of aspartic acid competes with that of L-malic acid produced from fumaric acid by fumarase. In this study, E. coli aspartase was expressed in psychrophilic Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10 heat treated at 50 °C for 15 min. The resultant PSCat could convert fumaric acid to aspartic acid without the formation of L-malic acid because of heat inactivation of psychrophilic fumarase activity. Furthermore, alginate-immobilized PSCat produced high yields of aspartic acid and could be re-used nine times. The results of our study suggest that PSCat can be applied in biotechnological production as a new approach to increase the yield of target compounds.

  18. Mevalonate production by engineered acetogen biocatalyst during continuous fermentation of syngas or CO₂/H₂ blend.

    PubMed

    Kiriukhin, Michael; Tyurin, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Naturally mevalonate-resistant acetogen Clostridium sp. MT1243 produced only 425 mM acetate during syngas fermentation. Using Clostridium sp. MT1243 we engineered biocatalyst selectively producing mevalonate from synthesis gas or CO₂/H₂ blend. Acetate production and spore formation were eliminated from Clostridium sp. MT1243 using Cre-lox66/lox71-system. Cell energy released via elimination of phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase and early stage sporulation genes powered mevalonate accumulation in fermentation broth due to expression of synthetic thiolase, HMG-synthase, and HMG-reductase, three copies of each, integrated using Tn7-approach. Recombinants produced 145 mM mevalonate in five independent single-step fermentation runs 25 days each in five repeats using syngas blend 60% CO and 40% H₂ (v/v) (p < 0.005). Mevalonate production was 97 mM if only CO₂/H₂ blend was fed instead of syngas (p < 0.005). Mevalonate from CO₂/H₂ blend might serve as a commercial route to mitigate global warming in proportion to CO₂ fermentation scale worldwide.

  19. Biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol: Assessment of plant and microbial biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Miri, Ramin; Attarroshan, Mahshid; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms. The produced 2,3-BD stereoisomers were characterized and their total conversion yields were determined. The results showed that the examined plants can be used as a green factory for the production of all 2,3-BD stereoisomers, except B. rapa. In microorganisms, P. fermentans and S. carlbergensis produced (-)-2R,3R and mesobutanediol, while P. citrinum produced (+)-2S,3S and mesobutanediol. R. glutinis and A. foetidus produced all three isomers. In conclusion, efficient whole-cell biocatalysts from plants and microorganisms were determined in the bioconversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD. The profile of produced stereoisomers demonstrated that microorganisms produce more specific stereoisomers.

  20. Biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol: Assessment of plant and microbial biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Faghih-Mirzaei, Ehsan; Miri, Ramin; Attarroshan, Mahshid; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a valuable bulk chemical owing to its extensive application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry with diverse applications in drug, cosmetics and food products. In the present study, the biotransformation of acetoin to 2,3-BD by five plant species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Daucuscarota, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnussativus) and five microorganisms (Aspergillusfoetidus, Penicillumcitrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichiafermentans, and Rhodotrulaglutinis) was investigated as a method for the production of 2,3-BD, which can serve as an alternative to the common pentoses and hexoses fermentation by microorganisms. The produced 2,3-BD stereoisomers were characterized and their total conversion yields were determined. The results showed that the examined plants can be used as a green factory for the production of all 2,3-BD stereoisomers, except B. rapa. In microorganisms, P. fermentans and S. carlbergensis produced (–)-2R,3R and mesobutanediol, while P. citrinum produced (+)-2S,3S and mesobutanediol. R. glutinis and A. foetidus produced all three isomers. In conclusion, efficient whole-cell biocatalysts from plants and microorganisms were determined in the bioconversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD. The profile of produced stereoisomers demonstrated that microorganisms produce more specific stereoisomers. PMID:27651816

  1. Structural and Functional Features of Peroxidases with a Potential as Industrial Biocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, Angel T.

    This chapter begins with a description of the main structural features of heme peroxidases representative of the two large superfamilies of plant-fungal-bacterial and animal peroxidases, and the four additional (super)families described to date. Then, we focus on several fungal peroxidases of high biotechnological potential as industrial biocatalysts. These include (1) ligninolytic peroxidases from white-rot basidiomycetes being able to oxidize high redox-potential substrates at an exposed protein radical; (2) heme-thiolate peroxidases that are structural hybrids of typical peroxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes and, after their discovery in sooty molds, are being described in basidiomycetes with even more interesting catalytic properties, such as selective aromatic oxygenation; and (3) the so-called dye-decolorizing peroxidases that are still to be thoroughly investigated but have been identified in different basidiomycete genomes. The structural-functional description of these peroxidases includes an analysis of the heme environment and a description of their substrate oxidation sites, with the purpose of understanding their interesting catalytic properties and biotechnological potential.

  2. Enzyme encapsulation in microparticles composed of polymerized ionic liquids for highly active and reusable biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Kamiya, Noriho; Koda, Daisuke; Maruyama, Tatsuo; Goto, Masahiro

    2009-06-07

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is encapsulated in polymerized ionic liquid microparticles (pIL-MP), which are prepared by polymerization of 1-vinyl-3-ethylimidazolium bromide in the presence of the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) in a concentrated water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. pIL-MP encapsulating HRP chemically-modified with comb-shaped polyethylene glycol (PM(13)-HRP) exhibit excellent activity for guaiacol oxidation in an aqueous solution. The PM(13)-HRP in pIL-MP shows more than 2-fold higher activity than that of the enzyme encapsulated in a polyacrylamide microparticle. The catalytic activity declines with an increase in the crosslinker concentration of the pIL-MP, probably due to suppression of substrate diffusion. The activity of PM(13)-HRP in pIL-MP depends on the external environment of the gel (i.e. pH and temperature). The pIL-MP are easily recovered from the reaction mixture by centrifugation, which makes it possible to recycle the biocatalyst for repeated oxidation reactions.

  3. Production and optimization of biodiesel using mixed immobilized biocatalysts in packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Bakkiyaraj, S; Syed, Mahin Basha; Devanesan, M G; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable oils are used as raw materials for biodiesel production using transesterification reaction. Several methods for the production of biodiesel were developed using chemical (alkali and acidic compounds) and biological catalysts (lipases). Biodiesel production catalyzed by lipases is energy and cost-saving processes and is carried out at normal temperature and pressure. The need for an efficient method for screening larger number of variables has led to the adoption of statistical experimental design. In the present study, packed bed reactor was designed to study with mixed immobilized biocatalysts to have higher productivity under optimum conditions. Contrary to the single-step acyl migration mechanism, a two-step stepwise reaction mechanism involving immobilized Candida rugosa lipase and immobilized Rhizopus oryzae cells was employed for the present work. This method was chosen because enzymatic hydrolysis followed by esterification can tolerate high free fatty acid containing oils. The effects of flow rate and bed height on biodiesel yield were studied using two factors five-level central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum biodiesel yield of 85 and 81 % was obtained for jatropha oil and karanja oil with the optimum bed height and optimum flow rate of 32.6 cm and 1.35 L/h, and 32.6 cm and 1.36 L/h, respectively.

  4. Incorporating unnatural amino acids to engineer biocatalysts for industrial bioprocess applications.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Yuvaraj; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Hyeon Yoo, Tae; Lee, Chong-Soon; Yun, Hyungdon

    2015-12-01

    The bioprocess engineering with biocatalysts broadly spans its development and actual application of enzymes in an industrial context. Recently, both the use of bioprocess engineering and the development and employment of enzyme engineering techniques have been increasing rapidly. Importantly, engineering techniques that incorporate unnatural amino acids (UAAs) in vivo has begun to produce enzymes with greater stability and altered catalytic properties. Despite the growth of this technique, its potential value in bioprocess applications remains to be fully exploited. In this review, we explore the methodologies involved in UAA incorporation as well as ways to synthesize these UAAs. In addition, we summarize recent efforts to increase the yield of UAA engineered proteins in Escherichia coli and also the application of this tool in enzyme engineering. Furthermore, this protein engineering tool based on the incorporation of UAA can be used to develop immobilized enzymes that are ideal for bioprocess applications. Considering the potential of this tool and by exploiting these engineered enzymes, we expect the field of bioprocess engineering to open up new opportunities for biocatalysis in the near future.

  5. Solvent resistance pumps of Pseudomonas putida S12: Applications in 1-naphthol production and biocatalyst engineering.

    PubMed

    Janardhan Garikipati, S V B; Peeples, Tonya L

    2015-09-20

    The solvent resistance capacity of Pseudomonas putida S12 was applied by using the organism as a host for biocatalysis and through cloning and expressing solvent resistant pump genes into Escherichia coli. P. putida S12 expressing toluene ortho mononooxygenase (TOM-Green) was used for 1-naphthol production in a water-organic solvent biphasic system. Application of P. putida S12 improved 1-naphthol production per gram cell dry weight by approximately 42% compared to E. coli. Moreover, P. putida S12 enabled the use of a less expensive solvent, decanol, for 1-naphthol production. The solvent resistant pump (srpABC) genes of P. putida S12 were cloned into a solvent sensitive E. coli strain to transfer solvent tolerance. Recombinant strains bearing srpABC genes in either a low-copy number or a high-copy number plasmid grew in the presence of saturated concentration of toluene. Both of the recombinant strains were more tolerant to 1% v/v of toxic solvents, decanol and hexane, reaching similar cell density as the no-solvent control. Reverse-transcriptase analysis revealed that the srpABC genes were transcribed in engineered strains. The results demonstrate successful transfer of the proton-dependent solvent resistance mechanism and suggest that the engineered strain could serve as more robust biocatalysts in media with organic solvents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Grazia M.; Trono, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes. PMID:26340621

  7. Enzymes from solvent-tolerant microbes: useful biocatalysts for non-aqueous enzymology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anshu; Khare, S K

    2009-01-01

    Solvent-tolerant microbes are a newly emerging class that possesses the unique ability to thrive in the presence of organic solvents. Their enzymes adapted to mediate cellular and metabolic processes in a solvent-rich environment and are logically stable in the presence of organic solvents. Enzyme catalysis in non-aqueous/low-water media is finding increasing applications for the synthesis of industrially important products, namely peptides, esters, and other trans-esterification products. Solvent stability, however, remains a prerequisite for employing enzymes in non-aqueous systems. Enzymes, in general, get inactivated or give very low rates of reaction in non-aqueous media. Thus, early efforts, and even some recent ones, have aimed at stabilization of enzymes in organic media by immobilization, surface modifications, mutagenesis, and protein engineering. Enzymes from solvent-tolerant microbes appear to be the choicest source for studying solvent-stable enzymes because of their unique ability to survive in the presence of a range of organic solvents. These bacteria circumvent the solvent's toxic effects by virtue of various adaptations, e.g. at the level of the cytoplasmic membrane, by degradation and transformation of solvents, and by active excretion of solvents. The recent screening of these exotic microbes has generated some naturally solvent-stable proteases, lipases, cholesterol oxidase, cholesterol esterase, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, and other important enzymes. The unique properties of these novel biocatalysts have great potential for applications in non-aqueous enzymology for a range of industrial processes.

  8. Bacterial whole-cell biocatalysts by surface display of enzymes: toward industrial application.

    PubMed

    Schüürmann, Jan; Quehl, Paul; Festel, Gunter; Jose, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Despite the first report on the bacterial display of a recombinant peptide appeared almost 30 years ago, industrial application of cells with surface-displayed enzymes is still limited. To display an enzyme on the surface of a living cell bears several advantages. First of all, neither the substrate nor the product of the enzymatic reaction needs to cross a membrane barrier. Second, the enzyme being linked to the cell can be separated from the reaction mixture and hence the product by simple centrifugation. Transfer to a new substrate preparation results in multiple cycles of enzymatic conversion. Finally, the anchoring in a matrix, in this case, the cell envelope stabilizes the enzyme and makes it less accessible to proteolytic degradation and material adsorption resulting in continuous higher activities. These advantages in common need to balance some disadvantages before this application can be taken into account for industrial processes, e.g., the exclusion of the enzyme from the cellular metabolome and hence from redox factors or other co-factors that need to be supplied. Therefore, this digest describes the different systems in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that have been used for the surface display of enzymes so far and focuses on examples among these which are suitable for industrial purposes or for the production of valuable resources, not least in order to encourage a broader application of whole-cell biocatalysts with surface-displayed enzymes.

  9. Acidophilic bacteria and archaea: acid stable biocatalysts and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Archana; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Satyanarayana, T

    2012-01-01

    Acidophiles are ecologically and economically important group of microorganisms, which thrive in acidic natural (solfataric fields, sulfuric pools) as well as artificial man-made (areas associated with human activities such as mining of coal and metal ores) environments. They possess networked cellular adaptations to regulate pH inside the cell. Several extracellular enzymes from acidophiles are known to be functional at much lower pH than the cytoplasmic pH. Enzymes like amylases, proteases, ligases, cellulases, xylanases, α-glucosidases, endoglucanases, and esterases stable at low pH are known from various acidophilic microbes. The possibility of improving them by genetic engineering and directed evolution will further boost their industrial applications. Besides biocatalysts, other biomolecules such as plasmids, rusticynin, and maltose-binding protein have also been reported from acidophiles. Some strategies for circumventing the problems encountered in expressing genes encoding proteins from extreme acidophiles have been suggested. The investigations on the analysis of crystal structures of some acidophilic proteins have thrown light on their acid stability. Attempts are being made to use thermoacidophilic microbes for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. The enzymes from acidophiles are mainly used in polymer degradation.

  10. Cofactor self-sufficient whole-cell biocatalysts for the production of 2-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengchao; Yang, Xinwei; Lin, Baixue; Huang, Jianzhong; Tao, Yong

    2017-09-22

    The efficiency of biocatalysis is often affected by an insufficient supply and regeneration of cofactors and redox equivalents. To alleviate this shortcoming, a cofactor self-sufficient system was developed for enhanced production of 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) in E. coli. A "bridge" between the amino acid and its corresponding alcohol was designed in the system using glutamate dehydrogenase. By coupling glutamate dehydrogenase with transaminase and alcohol dehydrogenase, the cosubstrate (2-oxoglutarate) and redox equivalents (NAD(P)H) were regenerated simultaneously, so that no external cofactor or redox source was required. Thus, a cofactor self-sufficient system was developed, which improved the biocatalyst efficiency 3.8-fold. The ammonium generated in this process was removed using zeolite, which further improved the biosynthetic efficiency and resulted in a cleaner system. To the best of our knowledge, this system yielded the highest titer of 2-PE ever obtained in E. coli. Additionally, the wider applicability of this self-sufficient strategy was demonstrated in the production of D-phenyllactic acid. This study thus offers a new method to resolve the cofactor/redox imbalance problem and demonstrates the feasibility of the cofactor self-sufficient strategy for enhanced production of diverse chemicals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Nickel-impregnated silica nanoparticle synthesis and their evaluation for biocatalyst immobilization.

    PubMed

    Prakasham, Reddy Shetty; Devi, G Sarala; Rao, Chaganti Subba; Sivakumar, V S S; Sathish, T; Sarma, P N

    2010-04-01

    In the present investigation, impact of nickel-impregnated silica paramagnetic particles (NSP) as biocatalyst immobilization matrices was investigated. These nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel route using a nonionic surfactant block co polymer [poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly-(propylene glycol)-block-poly (ethylene glycol)]. Diastase enzyme was immobilized on these particles (enzyme-impregnated NSP) as model enzyme and characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Analysis of enzyme-binding nature with these nanoparticles at different physiological conditions revealed that binding pattern and activity profile varied with the pH of the reaction mixture. The immobilized enzyme was further characterized for its biocatalytic activity with respect to kinetic properties such as Km and Vmax and compared with free enzyme. Paramagnetic nanoparticle-immobilized enzyme showed more affinity for substrate compared to free one. The nature of silica and nickel varied from amorphous to crystalline nature and vice versa upon immobilization of enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind for change of nature from one form to other under normal temperatures upon diastase interaction with NSP.

  12. Engineered Escherichia coli with periplasmic carbonic anhydrase as a biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Kim, Im Gyu; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Dong Gyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2013-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2). It has been suggested recently that this remarkably fast enzyme can be used for sequestration of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, making this a promising alternative for chemical CO2 mitigation. To promote the economical use of enzymes, we engineered the carbonic anhydrase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ngCA) in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, thereby creating a bacterial whole-cell catalyst. We then investigated the application of this system to CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, a process with the potential to store large quantities of CO2. ngCA was highly expressed in the periplasm of E. coli in a soluble form, and the recombinant bacterial cell displayed the distinct ability to hydrate CO2 compared with its cytoplasmic ngCA counterpart and previously reported whole-cell CA systems. The expression of ngCA in the periplasm of E. coli greatly accelerated the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation and exerted a striking impact on the maximal amount of CaCO3 produced under conditions of relatively low pH. It was also shown that the thermal stability of the periplasmic enzyme was significantly improved. These results demonstrate that the engineered bacterial cell with periplasmic ngCA can successfully serve as an efficient biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration.

  13. Biomolecular characterization of the levansucrase of Erwinia amylovora, a promising biocatalyst for the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Nepogodiev, Sergey A; Malnoy, Mickael; Rejzek, Martin; Field, Robert A; Benini, Stefano

    2013-12-18

    Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogen that affects Rosaceae, such as apple and pear. In E. amylovora the fructans, produced by the action of a levansucrase (EaLsc), play a role in virulence and biofilm formation. Fructans are bioactive compounds, displaying health-promoting properties in their own right. Their use as food and feed supplements is increasing. In this study, we investigated the biomolecular properties of EaLsc using HPAEC-PAD, MALDI-TOF MS, and spectrophotometric assays. The enzyme, which was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in high yield, was shown to produce mainly fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) with a degree of polymerization between 3 and 6. The kinetic properties of EaLsc were similar to those of other phylogenetically related Gram-negative bacteria, but the good yield of FOSs, the product spectrum, and the straightforward production of the enzyme suggest that EaLsc is an interesting biocatalyst for future studies aimed at producing tailor-made fructans.

  14. Synthetic biology approaches to improve biocatalyst identification in metagenomic library screening.

    PubMed

    Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Ward, Richard John

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for enzymes with improved catalytic performance or tolerance to process-specific parameters, and biotechnology plays a crucial role in the development of biocatalysts for use in industry, agriculture, medicine and energy generation. Metagenomics takes advantage of the wealth of genetic and biochemical diversity present in the genomes of microorganisms found in environmental samples, and provides a set of new technologies directed towards screening for new catalytic activities from environmental samples with potential biotechnology applications. However, biased and low level of expression of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli together with the use of non-optimal cloning vectors for the construction of metagenomic libraries generally results in an extremely low success rate for enzyme identification. The bottleneck arising from inefficient screening of enzymatic activities has been addressed from several perspectives; however, the limitations related to biased expression in heterologous hosts cannot be overcome by using a single approach, but rather requires the synergetic implementation of multiple methodologies. Here, we review some of the principal constraints regarding the discovery of new enzymes in metagenomic libraries and discuss how these might be resolved by using synthetic biology methods.

  15. Synthesis, conformational parameters and packing considerations of methyl bispyridyl ketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, Christian; Katzsch, Felix; Gruber, Tobias

    2015-10-01

    The crystal structures of two bispyridyl ketones featuring either two methyl residues or one methyl and one bromomethyl residue, respectively, are presented. In order to elucidate the influence of the substituents, a comprehensive comparison with the non-methylated mother compound has been performed. A special focus lies thereby on the relative position of the heteroatoms and their free electron pairs. The two methyl groups at the bispyridyl ketone result in two molecules in the asymmetric unit adopting rather different conformations. Due to the fast crystallization conditions and a melting point differing from the literature, a polymorph close to a local minimum in the energy hypersurface seems possible. After introducing a bromine atom to one of the two methyl groups, the molecular conformation is very similar to the unsubstituted molecule. The packing of both title compounds is dominated by weak contacts of the C-H⋯π and C-H⋯Y type (Y = O, N) and C-H⋯Br- and Br⋯π-contacts for the brominated molecule.

  16. Fenofibrate Induces Ketone Body Production in Melanoma and Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja M.; Wilk, Anna; Antonczyk, Anna; Banks, Paula; Walczyk-Tytko, Emilia; Dean, Matthew; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies [beta-hydroxybutyrate (bHB) and acetoacetate] are mainly produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. bHB is a very efficient energy substrate for sustaining ATP production in peripheral tissues; importantly, its consumption is preferred over glucose. However, the majority of malignant cells, particularly cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin such as glioblastoma, are not able to use ketone bodies as a source of energy. Here, we report a novel observation that fenofibrate, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) agonist, induces bHB production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells, as well as in neurospheres composed of non-transformed cells. Unexpectedly, this effect is not dependent on PPARa activity or its expression level. The fenofibrate-induced ketogenesis is accompanied by growth arrest and downregulation of transketolase, but the NADP/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios remain unaffected. Our results reveal a new, intriguing aspect of cancer cell biology and highlight the benefits of fenofibrate as a supplement to both canonical and dietary (ketogenic) therapeutic approaches against glioblastoma. PMID:26869992

  17. Characterization of synthetic routes to 'Bromo-DragonFLY' and benzodifuranyl isopropylamine homologues utilizing ketone intermediates. Part 1: synthesis of ketone precursors.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard E; Keating, John J

    2014-01-01

    Bromo-DragonFLY (BDF) and many of its analogues are misused as recreational drugs due to their potency as psychoactive substances. To date, none of the published routes to these designer amphetamines have exploited a ketone intermediate. It is well known that benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) can be employed as a precursor in the synthesis of amphetamine. Similarly, it is reasonable to assume that ketone precursors may potentially be utilized in the clandestine synthesis of BDF and its homologues. This paper describes the multifaceted synthesis of novel precursor ketones structurally related to BDF, namely benzodifuranyl propanone 16, its tetrahydrobenzodifuranyl homologue 8, and their brominated analogues 12 and 20. Their characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13) C-NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is also described. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ketones prevent oxidative impairment of hippocampal synaptic integrity through KATP channels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Abdelwahab, Mohammed G; Lee, Soo Han; O'Neill, Derek; Thompson, Roger J; Duff, Henry J; Sullivan, Patrick G; Rho, Jong M

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and metabolic therapies are increasingly being considered for a variety of neurological disorders, based in part on growing evidence for the neuroprotective properties of the ketogenic diet (KD) and ketones. Earlier, we demonstrated that ketones afford hippocampal synaptic protection against exogenous oxidative stress, but the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that ketones may modulate neuronal firing through interactions with ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Here, we used a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and biochemical assays to determine whether hippocampal synaptic protection by ketones is a consequence of KATP channel activation. Ketones dose-dependently reversed oxidative impairment of hippocampal synaptic integrity, neuronal viability, and bioenergetic capacity, and this action was mirrored by the KATP channel activator diazoxide. Inhibition of KATP channels reversed ketone-evoked hippocampal protection, and genetic ablation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel subunit Kir6.2, a critical component of KATP channels, partially negated the synaptic protection afforded by ketones. This partial protection was completely reversed by co-application of the KATP blocker, 5-hydoxydecanoate (5HD). We conclude that, under conditions of oxidative injury, ketones induce synaptic protection in part through activation of KATP channels.

  19. Ketones Prevent Oxidative Impairment of Hippocampal Synaptic Integrity through KATP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Abdelwahab, Mohammed G.; Lee, Soo Han; O’Neill, Derek; Thompson, Roger J.; Duff, Henry J.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Rho, Jong M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and metabolic therapies are increasingly being considered for a variety of neurological disorders, based in part on growing evidence for the neuroprotective properties of the ketogenic diet (KD) and ketones. Earlier, we demonstrated that ketones afford hippocampal synaptic protection against exogenous oxidative stress, but the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that ketones may modulate neuronal firing through interactions with ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Here, we used a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and biochemical assays to determine whether hippocampal synaptic protection by ketones is a consequence of KATP channel activation. Ketones dose-dependently reversed oxidative impairment of hippocampal synaptic integrity, neuronal viability, and bioenergetic capacity, and this action was mirrored by the KATP channel activator diazoxide. Inhibition of KATP channels reversed ketone-evoked hippocampal protection, and genetic ablation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel subunit Kir6.2, a critical component of KATP channels, partially negated the synaptic protection afforded by ketones. This partial protection was completely reversed by co-application of the KATP blocker, 5-hydoxydecanoate (5HD). We conclude that, under conditions of oxidative injury, ketones induce synaptic protection in part through activation of KATP channels. PMID:25848768

  20. [Research on utilization of phage display technology to screen chloramine ketone simulated surface point].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yonghua; Chen, Xuelan; Liu, Xiaoxing

    2010-09-01

    Utilize phage display technology to screen chloramine ketone simulated surface point, providing the basis for establishing drug-free ELISA test system. Use the anti chloramine ketone monoclonal antibody as the ligand, and screen the Ph.D. -7(TM) phage display peptide library to select the chloramine ketone simulated surface point. After 4 rounds of screening, select the phase, which can combine the chloramines ketone monoclonal antibody with different degrees, and further, determine the positive clone with competitive inhibition of the hydrochloric chloramine ketone by the indirect competitive ELISA method. It is discovered that all the 10 phages can combine the chloramine ketone monoclonal antibody with different degrees. Use the indirect competitive ELISA method to determine, the phenomenon that 5 positive clones, among them, have competitive inhibition with the hydrochloric chloramine ketone exists. The sequencing results of those 5 positive clones show that 4 different amino acid sequenced are obtained. Tentatively judge these 4 phages display the chloramine ketone simulated antigen surface points.

  1. Enantioselective Reduction of Ketones and Imines Catalyzed by (CN-Box)Re(V)-Oxo Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nolin, Kristine A.; Ahn, Richard W.; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kennedy-Smith, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of chiral, non-racemic Re(V)-oxo complexes to the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones is described. In addition to the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones, we report the application of these complexes to (1) a tandem Meyer-Schuster rearrangement/reduction to access enantioenriched allylic alcohols and (2) the enantioselective reduction of imines. PMID:20623567

  2. Switchable asymmetric bio-epoxidation of α,β-unsaturated ketones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Chang; Wu, Zhong-Liu

    2016-01-21

    Efficient asymmetric bio-epoxidation of electron-deficient α,β-unsaturated ketones was realized via a tandem reduction-epoxidation-dehydrogenation cascade, which proceeds in a switchable manner to afford either chiral epoxy ketones or allylic epoxy alcohols with up to >99% yield and >99%ee.

  3. Asymmetric Direct 1,2-Addition of Aryl Grignard Reagents to Aryl Alkyl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Osakama, Kazuki; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-01-15

    The enantioselective addition of Grignard reagents to ketones was promoted by a BINOL derivative bearing alkyl chains at the 3,3'-positions. This is the first asymmetric direct aryl Grignard addition to ketones reported to date. A variety of tertiary diaryl alcohols could be obtained in high yields and enantioselectivities without using any other metal source.

  4. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  5. Organocatalytic C3-selective Friedel-Crafts alkylations of indoles with alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Ping; Guo, Ying-Cen; Ding, Yu; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2006-02-21

    The use of an equimolar amount of pyrrolidine and HClO4 (30 mol%) was found to be effective in promoting the conjugate addition of indoles to (E)-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, affording the corresponding beta-indolyl ketones in excellent yields.

  6. Further research on the biological activities and the safety of raspberry ketone are needed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Raspberry ketone supplements have grabbed consumer attention with the possibility they might help burn fat and aid weight loss. While raspberry ketone occurs naturally, and is found in raspberry fruit, most is synthetically produced for use in commercial products as flavorings, fragrances, or dietar...

  7. Beyond ketonization: selective conversion of carboxylic acids to olefins over balanced Lewis acid-base pairs.

    PubMed

    Baylon, Rebecca A L; Sun, Junming; Martin, Kevin J; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-11

    We report the direct conversion of mixed carboxylic acids to C-C olefins with up to 60 mol% carbon yield through cascade (cross) ketonization, (cross) aldolization and self-deoxygenation reactions. Co-feeding hydrogen provides an additional ketone hydrogenation/dehydration pathway to a wider range of olefins.

  8. Asymmetric Preparation of prim-, sec-, and tert-Amines Employing Selected Biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This account focuses on the application of ω-transaminases, lyases, and oxidases for the preparation of amines considering mainly work from our own lab. Examples are given to access α-chiral primary amines from the corresponding ketones as well as terminal amines from primary alcohols via a two-step biocascade. 2,6-Disubstituted piperidines, as examples for secondary amines, are prepared by biocatalytical regioselective asymmetric monoamination of designated diketones followed by spontaneous ring closure and a subsequent diastereoselective reduction step. Optically pure tert-amines such as berbines and N-methyl benzylisoquinolines are obtained by kinetic resolution via an enantioselective aerobic oxidative C–C bond formation. PMID:23794796

  9. Multi-dimensional Roles of Ketone Bodies in Fuel Metabolism, Signaling, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Puchalska, Patrycja; Crawford, Peter A

    2017-02-07

    Ketone body metabolism is a central node in physiological homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how ketones serve discrete fine-tuning metabolic roles that optimize organ and organism performance in varying nutrient states and protect from inflammation and injury in multiple organ systems. Traditionally viewed as metabolic substrates enlisted only in carbohydrate restriction, observations underscore the importance of ketone bodies as vital metabolic and signaling mediators when carbohydrates are abundant. Complementing a repertoire of known therapeutic options for diseases of the nervous system, prospective roles for ketone bodies in cancer have arisen, as have intriguing protective roles in heart and liver, opening therapeutic options in obesity-related and cardiovascular disease. Controversies in ketone metabolism and signaling are discussed to reconcile classical dogma with contemporary observations.

  10. [Studies on metabolism of total terpene ketones from Swertia mussotii with human intestinal bacteria].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Tian, Cheng-Wang; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Tie-Jun

    2012-12-01

    To study the metabolism of total terpene ketones from Swertia mussotii with human intestinal bacteria. Total terpene ketones were incubated with human intestinal bacteria under an anaerobic environment and at 37 degrees C. The metabolites were extracted by ethyl acetate processing, detected by HPLC-DAD method. A qualitative analysis was made for its metabolites by HPLC-MS. Eight metabolites were detected from total terpene ketones from S. mussotii with human intestinal bacteria, and two of them were preliminarily identified as gentianine and mangiferin aglycon. Total terpene ketones can be metabolized with human intestinal bacteria, which provides basis for experiments on the metabolism process total terpene ketones from S. mussotii with human intestinal bacteria.

  11. Regulation of myocardial ketone body metabolism by the gut microbiota during nutrient deprivation.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Peter A; Crowley, Jan R; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Muegge, Brian D; Costello, Elizabeth K; Hamady, Micah; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2009-07-07

    Studies in mice indicate that the gut microbiota promotes energy harvest and storage from components of the diet when these components are plentiful. Here we examine how the microbiota shapes host metabolic and physiologic adaptations to periods of nutrient deprivation. Germ-free (GF) mice and mice who had received a gut microbiota transplant from conventionally raised donors were compared in the fed and fasted states by using functional genomic, biochemical, and physiologic assays. A 24-h fast produces a marked change in gut microbial ecology. Short-chain fatty acids generated from microbial fermentation of available glycans are maintained at higher levels compared with GF controls. During fasting, a microbiota-dependent, Ppar alpha-regulated increase in hepatic ketogenesis occurs, and myocardial metabolism is directed to ketone body utilization. Analyses of heart rate, hydraulic work, and output, mitochondrial morphology, number, and respiration, plus ketone body, fatty acid, and glucose oxidation in isolated perfused working hearts from GF and colonized animals (combined with in vivo assessments of myocardial physiology) revealed that the fasted GF heart is able to sustain its performance by increasing glucose utilization, but heart weight, measured echocardiographically or as wet mass and normalized to tibial length or lean body weight, is significantly reduced in both fasted and fed mice. This myocardial-mass phenotype is completely reversed in GF mice by consumption of a ketogenic diet. Together, these results illustrate benefits provided by the gut microbiota during periods of nutrient deprivation, and emphasize the importance of further exploring the relationship between gut microbes and cardiovascular health.

  12. Unusual transannular cyclization products of sarcophytoxide, a 14-membered marine cembranoid: anomalous stereochemistry of epoxide-ketone rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Nii, Keiji; Tagami, Keiko; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Munakata, Tatsuo; Ooi, Takashi; Kusumi, Takenori

    2006-07-06

    [reaction: see text] Treatment of sarcophytoxide with trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate afforded an aromatic ketone as an unusual cyclization product. The modified Mosher's method and X-ray analysis performed on the aromatic ketone revealed that it is a 4:1 mixture of 8(R)- and 8(S)-enantiomers. It also suggested that the precursor ketone has 8(R)-configuration, which is contradictory to that expected from the ordinary epoxide-ketone rearrangement.

  13. Degradation characteristics of methyl ethyl ketone by Pseudomonas sp. KT-3 in liquid culture and biofilter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Jaisoo; Kim, Min-Joo; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2006-04-01

    With ketone pollution forming an ever-growing problem, it is important to identify a ketone-degrading microorganism and establish its effect. Here, a methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. KT-3, was isolated and its MEK degradation characteristics were examined in liquid cultures and a polyurethane-packed biofilter. In liquid cultures, strain KT-3 could degrade other ketone solvents, including diethyl ketone (DK), methyl propyl ketone (MPK), methyl isopropyl ketone (MIPK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), methyl butyl ketone (MBK) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK). The maximum specific growth rate (mumax) of the isolate was 0.136 h(-1) in MEK medium supplemented with MEK as a sole carbon source, and kinetically, the maximum removal rate (Vm) and saturation constant (Km) for MEK were 12.28 mM g(-1)DCW h(-1) (DCW: dry cell weight) and 1.64 mM, respectively. MEK biodegradation by KT-3 was suppressed by the addition of MIBK or acetone, but not by toluene. In the tested biofilter, KT-3 exhibited a>90% removal efficiency for MEK inlet concentrations of around 500 ppmv at a space velocity (SV) of 150 h(-1). The elimination capacity of MEK was more influenced by SV than by the inlet concentration. Kinetic analysis showed that the maximum MEK removal rate (Vm) was 690 g m(-3) h(-1) and the saturation constant (Km) was 490 ppmv. Collectively, these results indicate the polyurethane sequencing batch biofilter with Pseudomonas sp. KT-3 will provide an excellent performance in the removal of gaseous MEK.

  14. Value of point-of-care ketones in assessing dehydration and acidosis in children with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jason A; Waltzman, Mark; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    Children with gastroenteritis often develop dehydration with metabolic acidosis. Serum ketones are frequently elevated in this population. The goal was to determine the relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and both the degree of dehydration and the magnitude of acidosis. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective trial of crystalloid administration for rapid rehydration. Children 6 months to 6 years of age with gastroenteritis and dehydration were enrolled. A point-of-care serum ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) concentration was obtained at the time of study enrollment. The relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and a prospectively assigned and previously validated clinical dehydration score, and serum bicarbonate concentration, was analyzed. A total of 188 patients were enrolled. The median serum ketone concentration was elevated at 3.1 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.2 to 4.6 mmol/L), and the median dehydration score was consistent with moderate dehydration. A significant positive relationship was found between serum ketone concentration and the clinical dehydration score (Spearman's rho = 0.22, p = 0.003). Patients with moderate dehydration had a higher median serum ketone concentration than those with mild dehydration (3.6 mmol/L vs. 1.4 mmol/L, p = 0.007). Additionally, the serum ketone concentration was inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate concentration (ρ = -0.26, p < 0.001). Children with gastroenteritis and dehydration have elevated serum ketone concentrations that correlate with both degree of dehydration and magnitude of metabolic acidosis. Point-of-care serum ketone measurement may be a useful tool to inform management decisions at the point of triage or in the initial evaluation of children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  15. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the list...

  16. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the list...

  17. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the list...

  18. DMF Dimethyl Acetal as Carbon Source for α-Methylation of Ketones: A Hydrogenation-Hydrogenolysis Strategy of Enaminones.

    PubMed

    Borah, Ashwini; Goswami, Limi; Neog, Kashmiri; Gogoi, Pranjal

    2015-05-01

    A novel heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation-hydrogenolysis strategy has been developed for the α-methylation of ketones via enaminones using DMF dimethyl acetal as carbon source. This strategy provides a very convenient route to α-methylated ketones using a variety of ketones without any base or oxidant.

  19. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the list...

  20. Aryl ketone synthesis via tandem orthoplatinated triarylphosphite-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids with aldehydes followed by oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2010-10-15

    Tandem orthoplatinated triaryl phosphite-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids with aldehydes followed by oxidation to yield aryl ketones is described. 3-Pentanone was identified as a suitable oxidant for the tandem aryl ketone formation reaction. By using microwave energy, aryl ketones were obtained in high yields with the catalyst loading as low as 0.01%.

  1. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2-Butanone) (CAS Number 78-93-3) is deleted from the list...

  2. Aryl Ketone Synthesis via Tandem Orthoplatinated Triarylphosphite-Catalyzed Addition Reactions of Arylboronic Acids with Aldehydes Followed by Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Tandem orthoplatinated triarylphosphite-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids with aldehydes followed by oxidation to yield aryl ketones is described. 3-Pentanone was identified as a suitable oxidant for the tandem aryl ketone formation reaction. By using microwave energy, aryl ketones were obtained in high yields with the catalyst loading as low as 0.01%. PMID:20849092

  3. Resonance stabilization effects on ketone autoxidation: Isomer-specific cyclic ether and ketohydroperoxide formation in the low-temperature (400–625 K) oxidation of diethyl ketone

    DOE PAGES

    Scheer, Adam M.; Eskola, Arkke J.; Osborn, David L.; ...

    2016-10-11

    Here, the pulsed photolytic chlorine-initiated oxidation of diethyl ketone [DEK; (CH3CH2)2C=O], 2,2,4,4-d4-DEK [d4-DEK; (CH3CD2)2C=O], and 1,1,1,5,5,5-d6-DEK [d6-DEK; (CD3CH2)2C=O] is studied at 8 torr and 1–2 atm and from 400–625 K. Cl atoms produced by laser photolysis react with diethyl ketone to form either primary (3-pentan-on-1-yl, RP) or secondary (3-pentan-on-2-yl, RS) radicals, which in turn react with O2. Multiplexed time-of-flight mass spectrometry, coupled to either a hydrogen discharge lamp or tunable synchrotron photoionizing radiation, is used to detect products as a function of mass, time, and photon energy. At 8 torr, the nature of the chain propagating cyclic ether + OHmore » channel changes as a function of temperature. At 450 K, the production of OH is mainly in conjunction with formation of 2,4-dimethyloxetan-3-one, resulting from reaction of the resonance-stabilized secondary RS with O2. In contrast, at 550 K and 8 torr, 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-one, originating from oxidation of the primary radical (RP), is observed as the dominant cyclic ether product. Formation of both of these cyclic ether production channels proceeds via a resonance-stabilized hydroperoxy alkyl (QOOH) intermediate. Little or no ketohydroperoxide (KHP) is observed under the low-pressure conditions. At higher O2 concentrations and higher pressures (1–2 atm), a strong KHP signal appears as the temperature is increased above 450 K. Definitive isomeric identification from measurements on the deuterated DEK isotopologues indicates the favored pathway produces a γ-KHP via resonance-stabilized alkyl, QOOH, and HOOPOOH radicals. Time-resolved measurements reveal the KHP formation becomes faster and signal more intense upon increasing temperature from 450 to 575 K before intensity drops significantly at 625 K. The KHP time profile also shows a peak followed by a gradual depletion for the extent of experiment. Several tertiary products exhibit a slow accumulation in

  4. Phosphoketolase overexpression increases biomass and lipid yield from methane in an obligate methanotrophic biocatalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly K.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2017-04-02

    Microbial conversion of methane to high-value bio-based chemicals and materials offers a path to mitigate GHG emissions and valorize this abundant-yet -underutilized carbon source. In addition to fermentation optimization strategies, rational methanotrophic bacterial strain engineering offers a means to reach industrially relevant titers, carbon yields, and productivities of target products. The phosphoketolase pathway functions in heterofermentative bacteria where carbon flux through two sugar catabolic pathways to mixed acids (lactic acid and acetic acid) increases cellular ATP production. Importantly, this pathway also serves as an alternative route to produce acetyl-CoA that bypasses the CO2 lost through pyruvate decarboxylation in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnasmore » pathway. Thus, the phosphoketolase pathway can be leveraged for carbon efficient biocatalysis to acetyl-CoA-derived intermediates and products. Here, we show that the industrially promising methane biocatalyst, Methylomicrobium buryatense, encodes two phosphoketolase isoforms that are expressed in methanol- and methane-grown cells. Overexpression of the PktB isoform led to a 2-fold increase in intracellular acetyl-CoA concentration, and a 2.6-fold yield enhancement from methane to microbial biomass and lipids compared to wild-type, increasing the potential for methanotroph lipid-based fuel production. Off-gas analysis and metabolite profiling indicated that global metabolic rearrangements, including significant increases in post-translational protein acetylation and gene expression of the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked pathway, along with decreases in several excreted products, coincided with the superior biomass and lipid yield observed in the engineered strain. Further, these data suggest that phosphoketolase may play a key regulatory role in methanotrophic bacterial metabolism. As a result, given that acetyl-CoA is a key intermediate in several biosynthetic pathways, phosphoketolase

  5. Phosphoketolase overexpression increases biomass and lipid yield from methane in an obligate methanotrophic biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Henard, Calvin A; Smith, Holly K; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2017-04-01

    Microbial conversion of methane to high-value bio-based chemicals and materials offers a path to mitigate GHG emissions and valorize this abundant-yet -underutilized carbon source. In addition to fermentation optimization strategies, rational methanotrophic bacterial strain engineering offers a means to reach industrially relevant titers, carbon yields, and productivities of target products. The phosphoketolase pathway functions in heterofermentative bacteria where carbon flux through two sugar catabolic pathways to mixed acids (lactic acid and acetic acid) increases cellular ATP production. Importantly, this pathway also serves as an alternative route to produce acetyl-CoA that bypasses the CO2 lost through pyruvate decarboxylation in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. Thus, the phosphoketolase pathway can be leveraged for carbon efficient biocatalysis to acetyl-CoA-derived intermediates and products. Here, we show that the industrially promising methane biocatalyst, Methylomicrobium buryatense, encodes two phosphoketolase isoforms that are expressed in methanol- and methane-grown cells. Overexpression of the PktB isoform led to a 2-fold increase in intracellular acetyl-CoA concentration, and a 2.6-fold yield enhancement from methane to microbial biomass and lipids compared to wild-type, increasing the potential for methanotroph lipid-based fuel production. Off-gas analysis and metabolite profiling indicated that global metabolic rearrangements, including significant increases in post-translational protein acetylation and gene expression of the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked pathway, along with decreases in several excreted products, coincided with the superior biomass and lipid yield observed in the engineered strain. Further, these data suggest that phosphoketolase may play a key regulatory role in methanotrophic bacterial metabolism. Given that acetyl-CoA is a key intermediate in several biosynthetic pathways, phosphoketolase overexpression offers a viable

  6. [Synthesis and immunosuppressive effects of novel phthalazine ketone derivatives].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Li; Wang, Qing-He; Yang, Hong-Guang; Hao, Bo-Jun; Liang, Guo-Dong; Jiang, Chong-Guo; Cheng, Mao-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    A series of phthalazine ketone compounds were synthesized and the structures were confirmed by H NMR and HR-MS spectrum. All target compounds were obtained through 7 steps, including selective reduction, nitration, bromination, ring enlargement, reduction, Knoevenagel and acylated reaction. The compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive effects of T-cell proliferation and inhibitory activity of IMPDH type II in vitro, as well as their structure-activity relationship were assessed. Several compounds exhibited strong immunosuppressive properties, especially compounds 7f and 7h, with IC50 values of 0.093 micromol x L(-1) and 0.14 micromol x L(-1) respectively, which were superior to mycophenolic acid. The information obtained from the studies may be useful for further research on the immunosuppressive agents.

  7. Regulation of Ketone Body Metabolism and the Role of PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Dean, Matthew; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenesis and ketolysis are central metabolic processes activated during the response to fasting. Ketogenesis is regulated in multiple stages, and a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is one of the key transcription factors taking part in this regulation. PPARα is an important element in the metabolic network, where it participates in signaling driven by the main nutrient sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) and induces hormonal mediators, such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). This work describes the regulation of ketogenesis and ketolysis in normal and malignant cells and briefly summarizes the positive effects of ketone bodies in various neuropathologic conditions. PMID:27983603

  8. The rotational spectrum of Roesky’s ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blockhuys, Frank; Tersago, Karla; Shlykov, Sergey A.; Konrad, Alexander; Christen, Dines

    2010-08-01

    The experimental rotational spectrum of 5-oxo-1,3,2,4-dithiadiazole (Roesky's ketone) has been recorded and the experimental rotational constants have been determined. The latter have been used to evaluate the performance of a large number of quantum chemical methods combined with different basis sets, by comparing the calculated with the experimental values. The results of this comparison indicate that, in general, the wave-function-based methods perform better than those from Density Functional Theory. Four of the 42 investigated method/basis set combinations prove to be the most valuable, i.e., MP4(SDQ)/(aug-)cc-pVTZ, B3PW91/cc-pV(T+d)Z and MPW1PW91/aug-cc-pVTZ, as they produce rotational constants with a root-mean-square deviation from the experimental values of only about 5 MHz.

  9. Chain-extended poly(aryl ether ketones)

    SciTech Connect

    Robeson, L.M.; Winslow, P.A.; Matzner, M.; Harris, J.E.; Maresca, L.M.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a process for preparing a poly(aryl ether ketone) polymer. It comprises reacting (n) moles of HAr H with (n + 1) moles of YCOAr{sub 1}COY under Friedel-Crafts polymerization conditions; reacting the product obtained with 2XAR{sub 2}H under Friedel-Crafts polymerization conditions; reacting the product obtained with HOAr{sub 3}OH in the presence of a base and an aprotic solvent; wherein Ar and Ar{sub 1} are divalent aromatic groups, Ar{sub 2} is a divalent aromatic group wherein the substituents X and CO are in para or ortho position relative to each other, Ar{sub 3} is a residue of a dihydric phenol, X and Y are halogen, n is an integer of 1 to 50 and X is one or greater.

  10. Regulation of Ketone Body Metabolism and the Role of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Dean, Matthew; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-12-13

    Ketogenesis and ketolysis are central metabolic processes activated during the response to fasting. Ketogenesis is regulated in multiple stages, and a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is one of the key transcription factors taking part in this regulation. PPARα is an important element in the metabolic network, where it participates in signaling driven by the main nutrient sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) and induces hormonal mediators, such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). This work describes the regulation of ketogenesis and ketolysis in normal and malignant cells and briefly summarizes the positive effects of ketone bodies in various neuropathologic conditions.

  11. Synthesis of ketones from biomass-derived feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Hou, Minqiang; Liu, Huizhen; Song, Jinliang; Han, Buxing

    2017-01-01

    Cyclohexanone and its derivatives are very important chemicals, which are currently produced mainly by oxidation of cyclohexane or alkylcyclohexane, hydrogenation of phenols, and alkylation of cyclohexanone. Here we report that bromide salt-modified Pd/C in H2O/CH2Cl2 can efficiently catalyse the transformation of aromatic ethers, which can be derived from biomass, to cyclohexanone and its derivatives via hydrogenation and hydrolysis processes. The yield of cyclohexanone from anisole can reach 96%, and the yields of cyclohexanone derivatives produced from the aromatic ethers, which can be extracted from plants or derived from lignin, are also satisfactory. Detailed study shows that the Pd, bromide salt and H2O/CH2Cl2 work cooperatively to promote the desired reaction and inhibit the side reaction. Thus high yields of desired products can be obtained. This work opens the way for production of ketones from aromatic ethers that can be derived from biomass.

  12. Thionation of some alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal ketones.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Natalija M; Bjelaković, Mira S; Dabović, Milan M; Pavlović, Vladimir D

    2010-05-12

    The reactions of selected alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal ketones with Lawesson's reagent (LR) in CH(2)Cl(2) and toluene under the standard reaction conditions and with a combination of phosphorus pentasulfide with hexamethyldisiloxane (P(4)S(10)/HMDO) in 1,2-dichlorobenzene (ODCB) under microwave irradiation were investigated and for this purpose several cholestane, androstane and pregnane carbonyl derivatives were chosen. Depending on the reagent and the solvent, 19 new sulfur containing compounds, including dithiones 4c and 4d, alpha,beta-unsaturated 3-thiones 3a-e, dimer-sulfides 2a-e, 1,2,4-trithiolanes 5a-e and phosphonotrithioates 6b-e were synthesized. All newly prepared compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

  13. Electron impact ionization of cycloalkanes, aldehydes, and ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby

    2014-08-07

    The theoretical calculations of electron impact total ionization cross section for cycloalkane, aldehyde, and ketone group molecules are undertaken from ionization threshold to 2 keV. The present calculations are based on the spherical complex optical potential formalism and complex scattering potential ionization contribution method. The results of most of the targets studied compare fairly well with the recent measurements, wherever available and the cross sections for many targets are predicted for the first time. The correlation between the peak of ionization cross sections with number of target electrons and target parameters is also reported. It was found that the cross sections at their maximum depend linearly with the number of target electrons and with other target parameters, confirming the consistency of the values reported here.

  14. Synthesis of ketones from biomass-derived feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qinglei; Hou, Minqiang; Liu, Huizhen; Song, Jinliang; Han, Buxing

    2017-01-01

    Cyclohexanone and its derivatives are very important chemicals, which are currently produced mainly by oxidation of cyclohexane or alkylcyclohexane, hydrogenation of phenols, and alkylation of cyclohexanone. Here we report that bromide salt-modified Pd/C in H2O/CH2Cl2 can efficiently catalyse the transformation of aromatic ethers, which can be derived from biomass, to cyclohexanone and its derivatives via hydrogenation and hydrolysis processes. The yield of cyclohexanone from anisole can reach 96%, and the yields of cyclohexanone derivatives produced from the aromatic ethers, which can be extracted from plants or derived from lignin, are also satisfactory. Detailed study shows that the Pd, bromide salt and H2O/CH2Cl2 work cooperatively to promote the desired reaction and inhibit the side reaction. Thus high yields of desired products can be obtained. This work opens the way for production of ketones from aromatic ethers that can be derived from biomass. PMID:28139709

  15. Biofiltration of ketone compounds by a composite bead biofilter.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wu-Chung; Peng, Kang-Hong

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the biochemical kinetic behaviors of ketone compounds in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. Both microbial growth rate kg and biochemical reaction rate kd would be inhibited at higher average inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the inhibitive effect was the least pronounced for acetone and the order of kg value was MEK>MIPK>acetone in the average inlet concentration range of 100-150 ppm. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for three ketone compounds and the order of kg value was acetone>MEK>MIPK in the average inlet concentration range of 200-300 ppm. The values of half-saturation constant Ks for acetone, MEK and MIPK were 26.80, 21.56 and 22.96 ppm, respectively. The values of maximum reaction rate Vm for acetone, MEK and MIPK were 8.55, 9.06 and 7.55 g-C/h-kg packed material, respectively. The zero-order kinetic with the diffusion rate limitation could be regarded as the most adequate biochemical reaction model. For the biochemical reaction process, the inhibitive effect was the most pronounced for MEK and the order of kd value was MEK>acetone>MIPK in the average inlet concentration range of 100-150 ppm. The degree of inhibitive effect was MIPK>MEK>acetone and the order of kd value was acetone>MEK>MIPK in the average inlet concentration range of 200-300 ppm. The maximum elimination capacity of acetone, MEK and MIPK were 0.157, 0.127 and 0.101 g-C/h-kg packed material.

  16. Biomarkers, ketone bodies, and the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, Theodore B

    2015-03-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (spAD) has three successive phases: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Individuals in the preclinical phase are cognitively normal. Diagnosis of preclinical spAD requires evidence of pathologic brain changes provided by established biomarkers. Histopathologic features of spAD include (i) extra-cellular cerebral amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles that embody hyperphosphorylated tau; and (ii) neuronal and synaptic loss. Amyloid-PET brain scans conducted during spAD's preclinical phase have disclosed abnormal accumulations of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in cognitively normal, high-risk individuals. However, this measure correlates poorly with changes in cognitive status. In contrast, MRI measures of brain atrophy consistently parallel cognitive deterioration. By the time dementia appears, amyloid deposition has already slowed or ceased. When a new treatment offers promise of arresting or delaying progression of preclinical spAD, its effectiveness must be inferred from intervention-correlated changes in biomarkers. Herein, differing tenets of the amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH) and the mitochondrial cascade hypothesis (MCH) are compared. Adoption of the ACH suggests therapeutic research continue to focus on aspects of the amyloid pathways. Adoption of the MCH suggests research emphasis be placed on restoration and stabilization of mitochondrial function. Ketone ester (KE)-induced elevation of plasma ketone body (KB) levels improves mitochondrial metabolism and prevents or delays progression of AD-like pathologic changes in several AD animal models. Thus, as a first step, it is imperative to determine whether KE-caused hyperketonemia can bring about favorable changes in biomarkers of AD pathology in individuals who are in an early stage of AD's preclinical phase.

  17. Homogenization and lipase treatment of milk and resulting methyl ketone generation in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingkai; Fonseca, Leorges M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Rankin, Scott A

    2014-06-25

    A specific range of methyl ketones contribute to the distinctive flavor of traditional blue cheeses. These ketones are metabolites of lipid metabolism by Penicillium mold added to cheese for this purpose. Two processes, namely, the homogenization of milk fat and the addition of exogenous lipase enzymes, are traditionally applied measures to control the formation of methyl ketones in blue cheese. There exists little scientific validation of the actual effects of these treatments on methyl ketone development. The present study evaluated the effects of milk fat homogenization and lipase treatments on methyl ketone and free fatty acid development using sensory methods and the comparison of selected volatile quantities using gas chromatography. Initial work was conducted using a blue cheese system model; subsequent work was conducted with manufactured blue cheese. In general, there were modest effects of homogenization and lipase treatments on free fatty acid (FFA) and methyl ketone concentrations in blue cheese. Blue cheese treatments involving Penicillium roqueforti lipase with homogenized milk yielded higher FFA and methyl ketone levels, for example, a ∼20-fold increase for hexanoic acid and a 3-fold increase in 2-pentanone.

  18. Hypothalamic sensing of ketone bodies after prolonged cerebral exposure leads to metabolic control dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Lionel; Geller, Sarah; Hébert, Audrey; Repond, Cendrine; Fioramonti, Xavier; Leloup, Corinne; Pellerin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies have been shown to transiently stimulate food intake and modify energy homeostasis regulatory systems following cerebral infusion for a moderate period of time (<6 hours). As ketone bodies are usually enhanced during episodes of fasting, this effect might correspond to a physiological regulation. In contrast, ketone bodies levels remain elevated for prolonged periods during obesity, and thus could play an important role in the development of this pathology. In order to understand this transition, ketone bodies were infused through a catheter inserted in the carotid to directly stimulate the brain for a period of 24 hours. Food ingested and blood circulating parameters involved in metabolic control as well as glucose homeostasis were determined. Results show that ketone bodies infusion for 24 hours increased food intake associated with a stimulation of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides. Moreover, insulinemia was increased and caused a decrease in glucose production despite an increased resistance to insulin. The present study confirms that ketone bodies reaching the brain stimulates food intake. Moreover, we provide evidence that a prolonged hyperketonemia leads to a dysregulation of energy homeostasis control mechanisms. Finally, this study shows that brain exposure to ketone bodies alters insulin signaling and consequently glucose homeostasis. PMID:27708432

  19. Breath ketone testing: a new biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yue; Gao, Zhaohua; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Yan; Yu, Mengxiao; Zhao, Lingling; Duan, Yixiang; Liu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Acetone, β -hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β -hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (-), 2 (±), 3 (+), 4 (++), or 5 (+++) according to urinary ketone concentrations. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  20. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yue; Gao, Zhaohua; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Yan; Yu, Mengxiao; Zhao, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−), 2 (±), 3 (+), 4 (++), or 5 (+++) according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis. PMID:24900994

  1. Continuous flow synthesis of α-halo ketones: essential building blocks of antiretroviral agents.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Vagner D; Gutmann, Bernhard; Miranda, Leandro S M; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Kappe, C Oliver

    2014-02-21

    The development of a continuous flow process for the multistep synthesis of α-halo ketones starting from N-protected amino acids is described. The obtained α-halo ketones are chiral building blocks for the synthesis of HIV protease inhibitors, such as atazanavir and darunavir. The synthesis starts with the formation of a mixed anhydride in a first tubular reactor. The anhydride is subsequently combined with anhydrous diazomethane in a tube-in-tube reactor. The tube-in-tube reactor consists of an inner tube, made from a gas-permeable, hydrophobic material, enclosed in a thick-walled, impermeable outer tube. Diazomethane is generated in the inner tube in an aqueous medium, and anhydrous diazomethane subsequently diffuses through the permeable membrane into the outer chamber. The α-diazo ketone is produced from the mixed anhydride and diazomethane in the outer chamber, and the resulting diazo ketone is finally converted to the halo ketone with anhydrous ethereal hydrogen halide. This method eliminates the need to store, transport, or handle diazomethane and produces α-halo ketone building blocks in a multistep system without racemization in excellent yields. A fully continuous process allowed the synthesis of 1.84 g of α-chloro ketone from the respective N-protected amino acid within ~4.5 h (87% yield).

  2. Synthesis of trifluoromethyl ketones via tandem Claisen condensation and retro-Claisen C-C bond-cleavage reaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongmei; Zhou, Yuhan; Xue, Na; Qu, Jingping

    2013-04-19

    A highly efficient, operationally simple approach to trifluoromethyl ketones has been developed that builds on the use of a tandem process involving Claisen condensation and retro-Claisen C-C bond cleavage reaction. Enolizable alkyl phenyl ketones were found to react readily with ethyl trifuoroacetate under the promotion of NaH to afford trifluoroacetic ester/ketone exchange products, trifluoromethyl ketones, which were quite different from the general Claisen condensation products, β-diketones. This procedure uses readily available starting materials and can be extended to the preparation of perfluoroalkyl ketones in excellent yield.

  3. Ru (III) catalyzed oxidation of aliphatic ketones by N-bromosuccinimide in aqueous acetic acid: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Giridhar Reddy, P; Ramesh, K; Shylaja, S; Rajanna, K C; Kandlikar, S

    2012-01-01

    Kinetics of Ru (III) catalyzed oxidation of aliphatic ketones such as acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, diethyl ketone, iso-butylmethyl ketone by N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of Hg(II) acetate have been studied in aqueous acid medium. The order of [N-bromosuccinimide] was found to be zero both in catalyzed as well as uncatalyzed reactions. However, the order of [ketone] changed from unity to a fractional one in the presence of Ru (III). On the basis of kinetic features, the probable mechanisms are discussed and individual rate parameters evaluated.

  4. Optimum bifunctionality in a 2-(2-pyridyl-2-ol)-1,10-phenanthroline based ruthenium complex for transfer hydrogenation of ketones and nitriles: impact of the number of 2-hydroxypyridine fragments.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bhaskar; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Kundu, Sabuj

    2016-07-05

    Considerable differences in reactivity and selectivity for 2-hydroxypyridine (2-HP) derived ruthenium complexes in transfer hydrogenation are described. Bifunctional Ru(ii)-(phenpy-OH) [phenpy-OH: 2-(2-pyridyl-2-ol)-1,10-phenanthroline] complex () exhibited excellent catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenation (TH) of ketones and nitriles. Notably, in comparison with all the reported 2-hydroxypyridine (2-HP) derived ruthenium complexes in transfer hydrogenation, complex displayed significantly higher activity. Additionally, exploiting the metal-ligand cooperativity in complex , chemoselective TH of ketones was achieved and sterically demanding ketones were readily reduced. An outer-sphere mechanism is proposed for this system as exogenous PPh3 has no significant effect on the rate of this reaction. This is a rare example of a highly active bifunctional Ru(ii) catalyst bearing only one 2-HP unit.

  5. Evidence for Intramyocardial Disruption of Lipid Metabolism and Increased Myocardial Ketone Utilization in Advanced Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Kenneth C.; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Aziz, Moez; Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J.; Wang, Linda L.; Javaheri, Ali; Blair, Ian A.; Margulies, Kenneth; Rame, J. Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The failing human heart is characterized by metabolic abnormalities, but these defects remains incompletely understood. In animal models of HF there is a switch from a predominance of fatty acid utilization to the more oxygen-sparing carbohydrate metabolism. Recent studies have reported decreases in myocardial lipid content, but inclusion of diabetics and nondiabetics obscures the distinction of adapations to metabolic derangements from adaptations to heart failure per se. Methods and Results We performed both unbiased and targeted myocardial lipid surveys using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy in non-diabetic, lean, predominantly non-ischemic advanced HF patients at the time of heart transplantation or LVAD implantation. We identified significantly decreased concentrations of the majority of myocardial lipid intermediates, including long-chain acylcarnitines, the primary subset of energetic lipid substrate for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We report for the first time significantly reduced levels of intermediate and anaplerotic acyl-CoA species incorporated into Krebs cycle, while the myocardial concentration of acetyl-CoA was significantly increased in end-stage heart failure. In contrast, we observed an increased abundance of ketogenic β-hydroxybutyryl CoA, in association with increased myocardial utilization of β-hydroxybutyrate. We observed a significant increase in the expression of the gene encoding succinyl-CoA: 3oxoacid-CoA transferase (SCOT), the rate limiting enzyme for myocardial oxidation of βOHB and acetoacetate. Conclusions These findings indicate increased ketone utilization in the severely failing human heart independent of diabetes, support the role of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel and myocardial ketone oxidation as a key metabolic adaptation in the failing human heart. PMID:26819374

  6. Evidence for Intramyocardial Disruption of Lipid Metabolism and Increased Myocardial Ketone Utilization in Advanced Human Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Kenneth C; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Aziz, Moez; Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Wang, Linda L; Javaheri, Ali; Blair, Ian A; Margulies, Kenneth B; Rame, J Eduardo

    2016-02-23

    The failing human heart is characterized by metabolic abnormalities, but these defects remains incompletely understood. In animal models of heart failure there is a switch from a predominance of fatty acid utilization to the more oxygen-sparing carbohydrate metabolism. Recent studies have reported decreases in myocardial lipid content, but the inclusion of diabetic and nondiabetic patients obscures the distinction of adaptations to metabolic derangements from adaptations to heart failure per se. We performed both unbiased and targeted myocardial lipid surveys using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy in nondiabetic, lean, predominantly nonischemic, advanced heart failure patients at the time of heart transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation. We identified significantly decreased concentrations of the majority of myocardial lipid intermediates, including long-chain acylcarnitines, the primary subset of energetic lipid substrate for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We report for the first time significantly reduced levels of intermediate and anaplerotic acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) species incorporated into the Krebs cycle, whereas the myocardial concentration of acetyl-CoA was significantly increased in end-stage heart failure. In contrast, we observed an increased abundance of ketogenic β-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, in association with increased myocardial utilization of β-hydroxybutyrate. We observed a significant increase in the expression of the gene encoding succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for myocardial oxidation of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. These findings indicate increased ketone utilization in the severely failing human heart independent of diabetes mellitus, and they support the role of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel and myocardial ketone oxidation as a key metabolic adaptation in the failing human heart. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Mutation of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase at Trp-110 affects stereoselectivity of aromatic ketone reduction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jay M; Musa, Musa M; Rodriguez, Luis; Sutton, Dewey A; Popik, Vladimir V; Phillips, Robert S

    2014-08-21

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols. We have been studying a thermostable, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+))-dependent, secondary ADH from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (TeSADH). In the current work, we expanded our library of TeSADH and adopted the site-saturation mutagenesis approach in creating a comprehensive mutant library at W110. We used phenylacetone as a model substrate to study the effectiveness of our library because this substrate showed low enantioselectivity in our previous work when reduced using W110A TeSADH. Five of the newly designed W110 mutants reduced phenylacetone at >99.9% ee, and two of these mutants exhibit an enantiomeric ratio (E-value) of over 100. These five mutants also reduced 1-phenyl-2-butanone and 4-phenyl-2-butanone to their corresponding (S)-configured alcohols in >99.9% ee. These new mutants of TeSADH will likely have synthetic utility for reduction of aromatic ketones in the future.

  8. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective.

  9. Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Poff, A M; Ari, C; Arnold, P; Seyfried, T N; D'Agostino, D P

    2014-10-01

    Cancer cells express an abnormal metabolism characterized by increased glucose consumption owing to genetic mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction. Previous studies indicate that unlike healthy tissues, cancer cells are unable to effectively use ketone bodies for energy. Furthermore, ketones inhibit the proliferation and viability of cultured tumor cells. As the Warburg effect is especially prominent in metastatic cells, we hypothesized that dietary ketone supplementation would inhibit metastatic cancer progression in vivo. Proliferation and viability were measured in the highly metastatic VM-M3 cells cultured in the presence and absence of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB). Adult male inbred VM mice were implanted subcutaneously with firefly luciferase-tagged syngeneic VM-M3 cells. Mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with either 1,3-butanediol (BD) or a ketone ester (KE), which are metabolized to the ketone bodies βHB and acetoacetate. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Survival time, tumor growth rate, blood glucose, blood βHB and body weight were measured throughout the survival study. Ketone supplementation decreased proliferation and viability of the VM-M3 cells grown in vitro, even in the presence of high glucose. Dietary ketone supplementation with BD and KE prolonged survival in VM-M3 mice with systemic metastatic cancer by 51 and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05). Ketone administration elicited anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo independent of glucose levels or calorie restriction. The use of supplemental ketone precursors as a cancer treatment should be further investigated in animal models to determine potential for future clinical use.

  10. Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poff, AM; Ari, C; Arnold, P; Seyfried, TN; D’Agostino, DP

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells express an abnormal metabolism characterized by increased glucose consumption owing to genetic mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction. Previous studies indicate that unlike healthy tissues, cancer cells are unable to effectively use ketone bodies for energy. Furthermore, ketones inhibit the proliferation and viability of cultured tumor cells. As the Warburg effect is especially prominent in metastatic cells, we hypothesized that dietary ketone supplementation would inhibit metastatic cancer progression in vivo. Proliferation and viability were measured in the highly metastatic VM-M3 cells cultured in the presence and absence of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB). Adult male inbred VM mice were implanted subcutaneously with firefly luciferase-tagged syngeneic VM-M3 cells. Mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with either 1,3-butanediol (BD) or a ketone ester (KE), which are metabolized to the ketone bodies βHB and acetoacetate. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Survival time, tumor growth rate, blood glucose, blood βHB and body weight were measured throughout the survival study. Ketone supplementation decreased proliferation and viability of the VM-M3 cells grown in vitro, even in the presence of high glucose. Dietary ketone supplementation with BD and KE prolonged survival in VM-M3 mice with systemic metastatic cancer by 51 and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05). Ketone administration elicited anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo independent of glucose levels or calorie restriction. The use of supplemental ketone precursors as a cancer treatment should be further investigated in animal models to determine potential for future clinical use. PMID:24615175

  11. Genome tailoring powered production of isobutanol in continuous CO2/H2 blend fermentation using engineered acetogen biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Gak, Eugene; Tyurin, Michael; Kiriukhin, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The cell energy fraction that powered maintenance and expression of genes encoding pro-phage elements, pta-ack cluster, early sporulation, sugar ABC transporter periplasmic proteins, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and fructose-1,6-disphosphatase in acetogen Clostridium sp. MT871 was re-directed to power synthetic operon encoding isobutanol biosynthesis at the expense of these genes achieved via their elimination. Genome tailoring decreased cell duplication time by 7.0 ± 0.1 min (p < 0.05) compared to the parental strain, with intact genome and cell duplication time of 68 ± 1 min (p < 0.05). Clostridium sp. MT871 with tailored genome was UVC-mutated to withstand 6.1 % isobutanol in fermentation broth to prevent product inhibition in an engineered commercial biocatalyst producing 5 % (674.5 mM) isobutanol during two-step continuous fermentation of CO2/H2 gas blend. Biocatalyst Clostridium sp. MT871RG- 11IBR6 was engineered to express six copies of synthetic operon comprising optimized synthetic format dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, acetolactate synthase, acetohydroxyacid reductoisomerase, 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate dehydratase, branched-chain alpha-ketoacid decarboxylase gene, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase, regaining cell duplication time of 68 ± 1 min (p < 0.05) for the parental strain. This is the first report on isobutanol production by an engineered acetogen biocatalyst suitable for commercial manufacturing of this chemical/fuel using continuous fermentation of CO2/H2 blend thus contributing to the reversal of global warming.

  12. Iridium-Catalyzed Diastereoselective and Enantioselective Allylic Substitutions with Acyclic α-Alkoxy Ketones

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2016-04-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of acyclic ketones is a longstanding challenge in organic synthesis. Here, are the diastereoselective and enantioselective allylic substitutions with acyclic α-alkoxy ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex to form products with contiguous stereogenic centers derived from the nucleophile and electrophile. These reactions occur between allyl methyl carbonates and unstabilized copper(I) enolates generated in situ from acyclic α-alkoxy ketones. The resulting products can be readily converted into enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and tetrahydrofuran derivatives without erosion of enantiomeric purity.

  13. Synthesis of α-Halo-α,α-Difluoromethyl Ketones by a Trifluoroacetate Release/Halogenation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    John, Jinu P.; Colby, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Three series of α-halo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketones are prepared from highly α-fluorinated gem-diols by exploiting the facile release of trifluoroacetate, followed by immediate trapping of the liberated α,α-difluoroenolate with an electrophilic chlorine, bromine, or iodine source. The products are typically isolated in good yields, even in the case of sensitive, α-iodo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketones. Also, we demonstrate that an α-iodo-α,α-difluoromethyl ketone will participate in a copper-promoted reaction to forge a new carbon–carbon bond. PMID:21995668

  14. Novel and Efficient Chromium(II)-Mediated Desulfonylation of α-Sulfonyl Ketone.

    PubMed

    Inanaga, Kazato; Fukuyama, Takashi; Kubota, Manabu; Komatsu, Yuki; Chiba, Hiroyuki; Kayano, Akio; Tagami, Katsuya

    2015-06-19

    A novel and efficient method for the Cr(II)-mediated desulfonylation of α-sulfonyl ketone by a Cr-ligand-Mn system has been developed during the course of process research on Halaven (eribulin mesylate). This reaction is dramatically accelerated in the presence of an appropriate bipyridyl-type ligand. This system is applicable to reduction of α-sulfur-substituted ketones. In addition, a Cr-Cp2ZrCl2-Mn catalytic system is also applicable to desulfonylation of α-sulfonyl ketone.

  15. Direct asymmetric amination of α-branched cyclic ketones catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Toste, F Dean

    2015-03-11

    Here we report the direct asymmetric amination of α-substituted cyclic ketones catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid, yielding products with a N-containing quaternary stereocenter in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. Kinetic resolution of the starting ketone was also found to occur on some of the substrates under milder conditions, providing enantioenriched α-branched ketones, another important building block in organic synthesis. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the short synthesis of (S)-ketamine, the more active enantiomer of this versatile pharmaceutical.

  16. Direct Asymmetric Amination of α-Branched Cyclic Ketones Catalyzed by a Chiral Phosphoric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Toste, F. Dean

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the direct asymmetric amination of α-substituted cyclic ketones catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid, yielding products with a N-containing quaternary stereocenter in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. Kinetic resolution of the starting ketone was also found to occur on some of the substrates under milder conditions, providing enantio-enriched α-branched ketones, another important building block in organic synthesis. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the short synthesis of (S)-ketamine, the more active enantiomer of this versatile pharmaceutical. PMID:25719604

  17. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  18. Confluence of structural and chemical biology: plant polyketide synthases as biocatalysts for a bio-based future.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Charles; Vickery, Christopher R; Burkart, Michael D; Noel, Joseph P

    2013-06-01

    Type III plant polyketide synthases (PKSs) biosynthesize a dazzling array of polyphenolic products that serve important roles in both plant and human health. Recent advances in structural characterization of these enzymes and new tools from the field of chemical biology have facilitated exquisite probing of plant PKS iterative catalysis. These tools have also been used to exploit type III PKSs as biocatalysts to generate new chemicals. Going forward, chemical, structural and biochemical analyses will provide an atomic resolution understanding of plant PKSs and will serve as a springboard for bioengineering and scalable production of valuable molecules in vitro, by fermentation and in planta.

  19. Enzyme kinetics approach to assess biocatalyst inhibition and deactivation caused by [bmim][Cl] ionic liquid during cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Nemestóthy, Nándor; Megyeri, Gábor; Bakonyi, Péter; Lakatos, Patrik; Koók, László; Polakovic, Milan; Gubicza, László; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the inhibition and deactivation of commercial enzyme cocktail (Cellic® Htec2) in the presence of [bmim][Cl] ionic liquid employing model cellulosic substrate, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). It turned out from the experiments - relying on enzyme kinetics approach - that [bmim][Cl] could act as a competitive inhibitor. Furthermore, depending on the process conditions i.e. contact of enzyme solution with high concentration [bmim][Cl], severe biocatalyst inactivation should be also taken into account as a potential risk during the enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis even in as short process times as few minutes.

  20. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of methyl ethyl ketone with modified activated carbon and inhibition of 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Nien, Kai Chun; Chang, Feng Tang; Chang, Moo Been

    2015-11-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is seldom applied for recovering ketone-based volatile organic compounds because of safety concerns. Adsorption of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) with AC is a highly exothermic reaction that potentially causes fires in AC beds. Moreover, 2,3-butanediol (BDO) is produced in the desorbed solvent, causing yellowing and odor of the recovered solvent. This study applied a continuous adsorption-desorption apparatus for evaluating the operating capacities and BDO concentration in recovered MEK containing modified and original ACs. AC-1 (TAKETA- G2X) was used as the target for modification. The experimental results indicate that using MgO as the modifier increases the ignition point by 12°C and that applying KNO3 as the modifier reduces the AC ignition point by 28°C (compared with AC-1). The BDO concentration of the desorbed MEK solvent can be reduced by increasing the loading of the modifying agent (Ethanolamine) (Im-1: 3.1 wt%; Im-5: 6.2 wt%). Moreover, applying the AC pretreated with nitrogen (Im-6) as adsorbent significantly reduces the BDO concentration (from 0.123 wt% to 0.073 wt%). Because desorption and purging procedures were performed in N2 atmospheres, the BDO concentrations of the desorbed MEK solvents were relatively low and ranged from 0.032 wt% to 0.043 wt%. When the MEK concentration was reduced to 2000 ppm, lower BDO concentrations (0.012-0.022 wt%) were measured in the recovered MEK solvent. The way to modify activated carbon and a better desorbing sequence to effectively inhibit the oxidation of MEK to BDO are developed. The results obtained indicate that the BDO concentration in the desorbed solvent was lower than the original MEK solvent (0.023 wt%). Different approaches can be applied simultaneously to achieve high inhibition effects; however, carbon adsorption performance may be negatively affected. The study is motivated to improve the quality of recovered solvent and reduce fire hazards, particularly when AC is applied for

  1. Synthetic biology for the directed evolution of protein biocatalysts: navigating sequence space intelligently

    PubMed Central

    Currin, Andrew; Swainston, Neil; Day, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    , simultaneously, this offers opportunities for protein improvement not readily available to natural evolution on rapid timescales. Intelligent landscape navigation, informed by sequence-activity relationships and coupled to the emerging methods of synthetic biology, offers scope for the development of novel biocatalysts that are both highly active and robust. PMID:25503938

  2. Short-chain flavor ester synthesis in organic media by an E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst expressing a newly characterized heterologous lipase.

    PubMed

    Brault, Guillaume; Shareck, François; Hurtubise, Yves; Lépine, François; Doucet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Short-chain aliphatic esters are small volatile molecules that produce fruity and pleasant aromas and flavors. Most of these esters are artificially produced or extracted from natural sources at high cost. It is, however, possible to 'naturally' produce these molecules using biocatalysts such as lipases and esterases. A gene coding for a newly uncovered lipase was isolated from a previous metagenomic study and cloned into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for overexpression using the pET16b plasmid. Using this recombinant strain as a whole-cell biocatalyst, short chain esters were efficiently synthesized by transesterification and esterification reactions in organic media. The recombinant lipase (LipIAF5-2) showed good affinity toward glyceryl trioctanoate and the highest conversion yields were obtained for the transesterification of glyceryl triacetate with methanol. Using a simple cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide pretreatment increased the synthetic activity by a six-fold factor and the whole-cell biocatalyst showed the highest activity at 40°C with a relatively high water content of 10% (w/w). The whole-cell biocatalyst showed excellent tolerance to alcohol and short-chain fatty acid denaturation. Substrate affinity was equally effective with all primary alcohols tested as acyl acceptors, with a slight preference for methanol. The best transesterification conversion of 50 mmol glyceryl triacetate into isoamyl acetate (banana fragrance) provided near 100% yield after 24 hours using 10% biocatalyst loading (w/w) in a fluidized bed reactor, allowing recycling of the biocatalyst up to five times. These results show promising potential for an industrial approach aimed at the biosynthesis of short-chain esters, namely for natural flavor and fragrance production in micro-aqueous media.

  3. Short-Chain Flavor Ester Synthesis in Organic Media by an E. coli Whole-Cell Biocatalyst Expressing a Newly Characterized Heterologous Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Guillaume; Shareck, François; Hurtubise, Yves; Lépine, François; Doucet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Short-chain aliphatic esters are small volatile molecules that produce fruity and pleasant aromas and flavors. Most of these esters are artificially produced or extracted from natural sources at high cost. It is, however, possible to ‘naturally’ produce these molecules using biocatalysts such as lipases and esterases. A gene coding for a newly uncovered lipase was isolated from a previous metagenomic study and cloned into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for overexpression using the pET16b plasmid. Using this recombinant strain as a whole-cell biocatalyst, short chain esters were efficiently synthesized by transesterification and esterification reactions in organic media. The recombinant lipase (LipIAF5-2) showed good affinity toward glyceryl trioctanoate and the highest conversion yields were obtained for the transesterification of glyceryl triacetate with methanol. Using a simple cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide pretreatment increased the synthetic activity by a six-fold factor and the whole-cell biocatalyst showed the highest activity at 40°C with a relatively high water content of 10% (w/w). The whole-cell biocatalyst showed excellent tolerance to alcohol and short-chain fatty acid denaturation. Substrate affinity was equally effective with all primary alcohols tested as acyl acceptors, with a slight preference for methanol. The best transesterification conversion of 50 mmol glyceryl triacetate into isoamyl acetate (banana fragrance) provided near 100% yield after 24 hours using 10% biocatalyst loading (w/w) in a fluidized bed reactor, allowing recycling of the biocatalyst up to five times. These results show promising potential for an industrial approach aimed at the biosynthesis of short-chain esters, namely for natural flavor and fragrance production in micro-aqueous media. PMID:24670408

  4. Methodology for in situ protection of aldehydes and ketones using trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and phosphines: selective alkylation and reduction of ketones, esters, amides, and nitriles.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Kenzo; Minami, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Watanabe, Kei; Fujioka, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for selective transformations of ketones, esters, Weinreb amides, and nitriles in the presence of aldehydes has been developed. The use of a combination of PPh(3)-trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) promotes selective transformation of aldehydes to their corresponding, temporarily protected, O,P-acetal type phosphonium salts. Because, hydrolytic work-up following ensuing reactions of other carbonyl moieties in the substrates liberates the aldehyde moiety, a sequence involving aldehyde protection, transformation of other carbonyl groups, and deprotection can be accomplished in a one-pot manner. Furthermore, the use of PEt(3) instead of PPh(3) enables ketones to be converted in situ to their corresponding O,P-ketal type phosphonium salts and, consequently, selective transformations of esters, Weinreb amides, and nitriles in the presence of ketones can be performed. This methodology is applicable to various dicarbonyl compounds, including substrates that possess heteroaromatic skeletons and hydroxyl protecting groups.

  5. Exploiting the natural metabolic diversity of Streptomyces venezuelae to generate unusual reduced macrolides.

    PubMed

    Park, Je Won; Oh, Hong-Se; Jung, Won Seok; Park, Sung Ryeol; Han, Ah Reum; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Kang, Han-Young; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2008-11-30

    An unusual set of reduced macrolide antibiotics was discovered by combination of organic synthesis and a biosynthetic approach using the unique metabolic diversity of Streptomyces venezuelae; two unnatural 16-membered ring macrolides are also created by employing this bio-catalyst.

  6. A mechanistic analysis of the quantitation of α-hydroxy ketones by the bicinchoninic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Jennifer R; Ricapito, Nicole G; Yueh, Alice; Weiser, Ellen L; Putnam, David

    2012-11-15

    A new class of compounds amenable to quantification by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay was identified, allowing an expansion of compounds quantifiable within the assay's capacity. In this article, we demonstrate that compounds containing the α-hydroxy ketone structure are easily measured under standard BCA assay conditions. A nonchromophore analyte containing the α-hydroxy ketone structure, 1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-one (commonly known as dihydroxyacetone), and various structural derivatives were explored on an equimolar basis in the BCA assay. Combined with earlier studies exploring α-hydroxy ketones within copper oxidation systems, the data support the mechanism of this class of compound's ability to enolize through an enediol intermediate to generate a strong signal in the BCA assay. This new quantification technique also highlights the potential for α-hydroxy ketones to interfere with other analytes quantified by the BCA assay.

  7. Lewis base catalyzed, enantioselective aldol addition of methyl trichlorosilyl ketene acetal to ketones.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Fan, Yu; Eastgate, Martin D

    2005-06-24

    The catalytic enantioselective addition of an acetate enolate equivalent to ketones is described. Methyl trichlorosilyl ketene acetal reacts with a wide range of ketones in the presence of pyridine N-oxide to afford the aldol addition products in excellent yields. Chiral 2,2'-pyridyl bis-N-oxides bearing various substituents at the 3,3'- and 6,6'-positions also provide excellent yields of the aldol products with variable enantioselectivities ranging from 94/6 er for aromatic ketones to nearly racemic for aliphatic ketones. An X-ray crystal structure of the complex between a catalyst and silicon tetrachloride (((P)-(R,R)-19.SiCl(4))) has been obtained. Extensive computational analysis provides a stereochemical rationale for the observed trends in enantioselectivities.

  8. Radical photocyclization route for macrocyclic lactone ring expansion and conversion to macrocyclic lactams and ketones.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Keisuke; Yoshimi, Yasuharu; Maeda, Kousuke; Morita, Toshio; Takahashi, Ichiro; Itou, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Sho; Hatanaka, Minoru

    2013-01-18

    A new method for the synthesis of macrocyclic lactones, lactams, and ketones, which utilizes photoinduced intramolecular radical cyclization reactions of substrates containing tethered carboxylic acids and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moieties, has been uncovered. Photocyclization of the carboxylic acids tethered acrylate ester, which were prepared starting from the macrocyclic lactones, gave the two-carbon elongated macrocyclic lactones via decarboxylation. Similar photoreactions of carboxylic acid tethered acryl amide or α,β-unsaturated ketone moieties, which were also prepared starting from the macrocyclic lactones, produced macrocyclic lactams or ketones, respectively. The simple approach can be readily applied to the preparation of a variety of macrocyclic lactones, lactams, and ketones with tunable ring sizes.

  9. Addition of optically pure H-phosphinate to ketones: selectivity, stereochemistry and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Ming; Xin, Nana; Xu, Zhong-Yuan; Liu, Li-Juan; Meng, Fan-Jie; Zhang, He; Fu, Bao-Ci; Liang, Qiu-Ju; Zheng, Hong-Xing; Sun, Li-Jun; Zhao, Chang-Qiu; Han, Li-Biao

    2014-12-14

    Aromatic methyl ketones and cyclic asymmetric ketones underwent hydrophosphorylation with P-stereogenic H-P species in the presence of potassium carbonate to produce P,C-stereogenic tertiary α-hydroxyl phosphinates in excellent yields with up to 99 : 1 dr. The diastereoselectivity was induced by a reversible conversion of less stable stereomer of product to that of a more stable one via an equilibrium, which was confirmed by aldehyde/ketone exchanging reaction. Toward the exchange, aliphatic or aldehyde carbonyl were more active than aromatic or ketone carbonyls, respectively. The stability difference between the two diastereomers was controlled by the sizes of substituents linking to phosphorus or α-carbon.

  10. Direct reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones using phenylsilane: catalysis by dibutyltin dichloride.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, R; Xiao, W

    2001-05-31

    A procedure for direct reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones was developed which uses phenylsilane as a stoichiometric reductant and dibutyltin dichloride as a catalyst. Suitable amines included anilines and dialkylamines but not monoalkylamines.

  11. Acetylleucine chloromethyl ketone, an inhibitor of acylpeptide hydrolase, induces apoptosis of U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Kambayashi, D; Toda, J; Sano, T; Toyoshima, S; Hojo, H

    1999-09-16

    Acetylleucine chloromethyl ketone (ALCK), an inhibitor of acylpeptide hydrolase (ACPH), inhibited the growth of human monoblastic U937 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Morphology of the ALCK-exposed cells showed typical apoptosis, judging from the nuclear condensation and segmentation. Chromosomal DNA of U937 cells treated with ALCK showed an internucleosomal ladder-like pattern on electrophoresis, being characteristic of apoptosis. Of the other leucine chloromethyl ketone analogues, butyloylleucine chloromethyl ketone (BLCK) induced a weak ladder-like formation but caploylleucine chloromethyl ketone (CLCK)barely did. On the other hand, intracellular ACPH activity of U937 cells was strongly inhibited by culturing with ALCK, moderately with BLCK, and not with CLCK. These findings indicate that the inhibition of ACPH activity leads to apoptosis and suggest that ACPH may play a vital role in eukaryotic cells. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Selective production of acetone during continuous synthesis gas fermentation by engineered biocatalyst Clostridium sp. MAceT113.

    PubMed

    Berzin, V; Kiriukhin, M; Tyurin, M

    2012-08-01

    To engineer acetogen biocatalyst capable of fermenting synthesis gas blend to acetone as the only liquid carbonaceous product. The metabolic engineering comprised inactivation of phosphotransacetylase via integration of a cassette comprising synthetic genes erm(B), thiolase and HMG-CoA synthase. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was inactivated via integration of a cassette consisting of synthetic genes cat, HMG-CoA lyase and acetoacetate decarboxylase. The engineered biocatalyst Clostridum sp. MAceT113 lost production of 253 mmol l(-1) ethanol and 296 mmol l(-1) acetate and started producing 1.8 mol l(-1) acetone in single-stage continuous syngas fermentation. The acetone concentration in culture broth is economical for bulk manufacture because it is about twenty times of that achieved with known acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of sugars. The process shows the opportunity to produce acetone from synthesis gas at concentrations comparable with production of acetone from products of petroleum cracking. This is the first report on elimination of acetate and acetaldehyde production and directing carbon flux from Acetyl-CoA to acetone via a non-naturally occurring in acetogen acetone biosynthesis pathway identified in eukaryotic organisms. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. New insights on nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases: a versatile biocatalyst for one-pot one-step synthesis of nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Fresco-Taboada, A; de la Mata, I; Arroyo, M; Fernández-Lucas, J

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, glycosiltransferases have arisen as standard biocatalysts for the enzymatic synthesis of a wide variety of natural and non-natural nucleosides. Such enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside analogs catalyzed by nucleoside phosphorylases and 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases (NDTs) has demonstrated to be an efficient alternative to the traditional multistep chemical methods, since chemical glycosylation reactions include several protection-deprotection steps. This minireview exhaustively covers literature reports on this topic with the final aim of presenting NDTs as an efficient option to nucleoside phosphorylases for the synthesis of natural and non-natural nucleosides. Detailed comments about structure and catalytic mechanism of described NDTs, as well as their possible biological role, substrate specificity, and advances in detection of new enzyme specificities towards different non-natural nucleoside synthesis are included. In addition, optimization of enzymatic transglycosylation reactions and their application in the synthesis of natural and non-natural nucleosides have been described. Finally, immobilization of NDTs is shown as a practical procedure which leads to the preparation of very interesting biocatalysts applicable to industrial nucleoside synthesis.

  14. An Approach for Lactulose Production Using the CotX-Mediated Spore-Displayed β-Galactosidase as a Biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Yang, Ruijin; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhao, Wei

    2016-07-28

    Currently, enzymatic synthesis of lactulose, a synthetic prebiotic disaccharide, is commonly performed with glycosyl hydrolases. In this work, a new type of lactulose-producing biocatalyst was developed by displaying β-galactosidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM11001 (Bs-β-Gal) on the surface of Bacillus subtilis 168 spores. Localization of β-Gal on the spore surface as a fusion to CotX was verified by western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. The optimum pH and temperature for the resulting spore-displayed β-Gal was 6.0 and 75°C, respectively. Under optimal conditions, it showed maximum activity of 0.42 U/mg spores (dry weight). Moreover, the spore-displayed CotX-β-Gal was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst to produce lactulose, yielding 8.8 g/l from 200 g/l lactose and 100 g/l fructose. Reusability tests showed that the spore-displayed CotX-β-Gal retained around 30.3% of its initial activity after eight successive conversion cycles. These results suggest that the CotX-mediated spore-displayed β-Gal may provide a promising strategy for lactulose production.

  15. A new biocatalyst: Penicillin G acylase immobilized in sol-gel micro-particles with magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Susana M S A; Fernandes, Pedro; Fonseca, Luís P

    2009-05-01

    The present work focuses on the development and basic characterization of a new magnetic biocatalyst, namely penicillin G acylase (PGA), immobilized in sol-gel matrices with magnetic properties, ultimately aimed for application in cephalexin (CEX) synthesis. A mechanically stable carrier, based on porous xerogels silica matrixes starting from tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), was prepared leading to micro-carriers with medium sized particles of 30 microm, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. An immobilization yield of 95-100% and a recovered activity of 50-65% at 37 degrees C, as determined by penicillin G (PG) hydrolysis (pH STAT method), were observed. These results clearly exceed those reported in a previous work on PGA immobilization in sol-gel, where only 10% of activity was recovered. The values of activity were kept constant for 6 months. Immobilized PGA (682 U/g(dry weight)) retained high specific activity throughout ten consecutive runs for PG hydrolysis, suggesting adequate biocatalyst stability. The CEX synthesis was performed at 14 degrees C, using the free and immobilized PGA in aqueous medium. Phenylglycine methyl ester was used as acyl donor at 90 mM and 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid was the limiting substrate at 30 mM. The CEX stoichiometric yield after 1-h reaction was close to 68% (23 mM CEX/h) and 65% (19 mM CEX/h), respectively.

  16. Efficient whole-cell biocatalyst for Neu5Ac production by manipulating synthetic, degradation and transmembrane pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deqiang; Zhan, Xiaobei; Wu, Jianrong; Gao, Minjie; Zhao, Zhongsheng

    2017-01-01

    To develop a strategy for producing N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which is often synthesized from exogenous N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and pyruvate, but without using pyruvate. An efficient three-module whole-cell biocatalyst strategy for Neu5Ac production by utilizing intracellular phosphoenolpyruvate was established. In module I, the synthetic pathway was constructed by coexpressing GlcNAc 2-epimerase from Anabaena sp. CH1 and Neu5Ac synthase from Campylobacter jejuni in Escherichia coli. In module II, the Neu5Ac degradation pathway of E. coli was knocked out, resulting in 2.6 ± 0.06 g Neu5Ac l(-1) after 72 h in Erlenmeyer flasks. In module III, the transmembrane mode of GlcNAc was modified by disruption of GlcNAc-specific phosphotransferase system and Neu5Ac now reached 3.7 ± 0.04 g l(-1). In scale-up catalysis with a 1 l fermenter, the final Neu5Ac yield was 7.2 ± 0.08 g l(-1). A three-module whole-cell biocatalyst strategy by manipulating synthetic, degradation and transmembrane pathways in E. coli was an economical method for Neu5Ac production.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Fused Mannich Ketones Triggers an Oxidative Stress Response and Is Cap1-Dependent in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Tristan; Kocsis, Béla; Bouquet, Orsolya; Kustos, Ildikó; Kilár, Ferenc; Nyul, Adrien; Jakus, Péter B.; Rajbhandari, Kshitij; Prókai, László; d’Enfert, Christophe; Lóránd, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal activity of fused Mannich ketone (FMK) congeners and two of their aminoalcohol derivatives. In particular, FMKs with five-membered saturated rings were shown to have minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90s) ranging from 0.8 to 6 µg/mL toward C. albicans and the closely related C. parapsilosis and C. krusei while having reduced efficacy toward C. glabrata and almost no efficacy against Aspergillus sp. Transcript profiling of C. albicans cells exposed for 30 or 60 min to 2-(morpholinomethyl)-1-indanone, a representative FMK with a five-membered saturated ring, revealed a transcriptional response typical of oxidative stress and similar to that of a C. albicans Cap1 transcriptional activator. Consistently, C. albicans lacking the CAP1 gene was hypersensitive to this FMK, while C. albicans strains overexpressing CAP1 had decreased sensitivity to 2-(morpholinomethyl)-1-indanone. Quantitative structure–activity relationship studies revealed a correlation of antifungal potency and the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of FMKs and unsaturated Mannich ketones thereby implicating redox cycling-mediated oxidative stress as a mechanism of action. This conclusion was further supported by the loss of antifungal activity upon conversion of representative FMKs to aminoalcohols that were unable to participate in redox cycles. PMID:23646117

  18. Ultrasound mediation for efficient synthesis of monoarylidene derivatives of homo- and heterocyclic ketones.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedi, Mohammad M; Abaee, M Saeed; Samianifard, Mehdieh; Shamloo, Akram; Padyab, Masoomeh; Mesbah, A Wahid; Harms, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation was efficiently used for high yield synthesis of monoarylidene derivatives of cyclic systems directly from the reaction of ketone with various aldehydes under solvent-free conditions. Reactions took place rapidly in the presence of catalytic amounts of pyrrolidine, while no significant formation of the undesired bis by-products was observed. Moreover, the procedure was applicable to both homo- and heterocyclic ketones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of unsymmetrical ketones from tosylhydrazones and aromatic aldehydes via formyl C-H bond insertion.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Daniel M; Blakemore, David C; Ley, Steven V

    2014-06-06

    Preparation of ketones by insertion of diazo compounds into the formyl C-H bond of an aldehyde is an attractive procedure, but use of structurally diverse diazo compounds is hampered by preparation and safety issues. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of unsymmetrical ketones from bench-stable tosylhydrazones and aryl aldehydes is reported. The procedure can be performed in one pot from the parent carbonyl compound and needs only a base, with no additional promoters being required.

  20. Direct conversion of alcohols to α-chloro aldehydes and α-chloro ketones.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yuanyuan; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Studer, Armido

    2014-09-19

    Direct conversion of primary and secondary alcohols into the corresponding α-chloro aldehydes and α-chloro ketones using trichloroisocyanuric acid, serving both as stoichiometric oxidant and α-halogenating reagent, is reported. For primary alcohols, TEMPO has to be added as an oxidation catalyst, and for the transformation of secondary alcohols (TEMPO-free protocol), MeOH as an additive is essential to promote chlorination of the intermediary ketones.