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Sample records for ketotifen

  1. Ketotifen Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... you should know that ketotifen solution contains benzalkonium chloride, which can be absorbed by soft contact lenses. ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

  2. In vitro inhibition of human conjunctival mast-cell degranulation by ketotifen.

    PubMed

    Schoch, C

    2003-02-01

    Ketotifen relieves the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis through multiple mechanisms of action. One such mechanism may involve stabilization of conjunctival mast cells. Because of inter- and intra-species variation, however, this hypothesis cannot be adequately tested using mast cells from animals or other human tissues. We therefore employed human conjunctival mast cells. The mast cells were prepared using human conjunctival tissues obtained from US eye banks. Cell suspensions were sensitized with human IgE and incubated with ketotifen fumarate or control. After antigenic challenge of sensitized cells with anti-IgE, levels of histamine and tryptase, two mast-cell granule markers, were measured in the supernatant fluid. Cell viability was assessed with a Trypan Blue assay. Ketotifen at concentrations of approximately 10(-11) to 10(-4) M inhibited mast-cell histamine release by 90% or more. Similarly, ketotifen at approximately 10(-10) to 10(-4) M inhibited tryptase release by 90% or more (apart from a single anomalous reading). At all ketotifen concentrations that stabilized mast cells, cell viability was preserved. Moreover, ketotifen did not impair cell viability unless concentrations were increased above the clinically relevant range, i.e., above the order of magnitude of 10(-4) M. These data demonstrate that ketotifen can stabilize human conjunctival mast cells, without impairing cell viability.

  3. Formulation of ketotifen fumarate fast-melt granulation sublingual tablet.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Saadia A; Soliman, Iman I; Louis, Dina

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare sublingual tablets, containing the antiasthmatic drug ketotifen fumarate which suffers an extensive first-pass effect, using the fast-melt granulation technique. The powder mixtures containing the drug were agglomerated using a blend of polyethylene glycol 400 and 6000 as meltable hydrophilic binders. Granular mannitol or granular mannitol/sucrose mixture were used as fillers. A mechanical mixer was used to prepare the granules at 40 degrees C. The method involved no water or organic solvents, which are used in conventional granulation, and hence no drying step was included, which saved time. Twelve formulations were prepared and characterized using official and non official tests. Three formulations showed the best results and were subjected to an ex vivo permeation study using excised chicken cheek pouches. The formulation F4I possessed the highest permeation coefficient due to the presence of the permeation enhancer (polyethylene glycol) in an amount which allowed maximum drug permeation, and was subjected to a pharmacokinetic study using rabbits as an animal model. The bioavailability of F4I was significantly higher than that of a commercially available dosage form (Zaditen solution-Novartis Pharma-Egypt) (p > 0.05). Thus, fast-melt granulation allowed for rapid tablet disintegration and an enhanced permeation of the drug through the sublingual mucosa, resulting in increased bioavailabililty. PMID:20407934

  4. Mast Cell Stabilizer (Ketotifen) in Fibromyalgia: Phase 1 Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Dennis C.; Hilligoss, Janna; Stump, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Compared to healthy controls, patients with fibromyalgia (FM) have more mast cells in the skin. Whether mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis of FM is unclear. We sought to determine the effects of a mast cell stabilizer (ketotifen) on FM symptoms. Methods Fifty-one FM subjects were randomized to daily oral ketotifen 2 mg BID (n=24) for 8 weeks or placebo (N=27). Mean age of subjects was 51.2 years (standard deviation/SD 8.4); 88% were female and 88% were white; 22% were taking concomitant opiates; and mean pressure pain sensitivity (range 0-20) was 10.0 (0.4). At study entry, the weekly average pain intensity was 6.4 (1.1) and the mean score on the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) was 66.8 (14.0). Results We found no statistically significant treatment group differences from baseline in either group for the two primary measures: weekly average pain intensity [ketotifen −1.3 (1.9) vs. placebo −1.5 (1.9), p=0.7]; and FIQR score [−12.1 (19.5) vs. −12.2 (18.1), p=0.9]. No secondary outcome measures (BPI pain intensity, and pressure pain sensitivity) reached statistical significance; results did not differ in the intent-to-treat and completer analyses. Other than transient sedation [6 (28.6%) vs. 1 (4.0%)], ketotifen was well tolerated. Discussion The study results question whether skin mast cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of FM. However, given the role of mast cells in peripheral and central nociception, and the minimal side effects of ketotifen, a randomized clinical trial using increasing doses of ketotifen may be warranted. PMID:25370135

  5. Evaluating the Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ketotifen and Fexofenadine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Anoush, Mahdieh; Mohammad Khani, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: As H1 and H3 receptors’ roles has been defined in peripheral pains in some papers and because histamine is known for its role in inflammatory responses; this study investigated the possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ketotifen and fexofenadine as relatively safe long acting anti histamines in both chronic chemical pain and acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 225-250 grams were used. In order to evaluate the chemical chronic pain, sub-plantar injection of formalin applied and the pain scores were recorded every 15 seconds during 60 minutes. Carrageenan injection to the right hind paw was used for induction of acute inflammation and the paw edema was measured every 60 minutes for 4 hours. Results: Based on the results, both ketotifen and fexofenadine were able to significantly diminish chemical acute and chronic pain as well as inflammation in comparison with the control group and the effects were acceptable according to the standard treatment. Both effects for fexofenadine started later than those of ketotifen. Conclusion: According to the outcomes of the study, ketotifen and fexofenadine demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory characteristics in both models of chemical pain and acute inflammation in laboratory animals. PMID:26236660

  6. [Drug induced cystitis due to ketotifen fumarate--a case report].

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Kurita, M; Morioka, H; Kuwabara, T; Kuroda, K; Matsuhashi, M; Ishii, N; Miura, K; Shirai, M

    1992-11-01

    Tranilast, an antiallergic drug, is well known as a causal drug of cystitis, and a report is made here of our experience of 1 case of drug-induced cystitis ascribable to ketotifen fumarate. A 13-year-old female had been taking anti-asthmatic drugs orally since the onset of athmatoid attacks, from age of 5. The attacks intensified from the age of 12, because of this she began to take various anti-asthmatic drugs orally. She visited another hospital, due to pollakisuria, in November, 1990, and received treatment for cystitis. However, the symptoms were not alleviated, and she visited our department on January 9, 1991. By urinalysis, large counts of leukocytes and erythrocytes were observed in a visual field of the sediment. Remarkable reddening was observed over the urinary bladder in the patient's cystoscopic findings. Treatment was given at our department, on an outpatient basis, with various antibacterial drugs for approximately one month, but her symptoms were not alleviated, pollakisuria and aseptic pyuria persisted. The patient had never taken tranilast; oral intake of ketotifen fumarate and saibokutou was discontinued on February 13, due to a suspicion of drug-induced cystitis, and her symptoms subsequently disappeared. On February 22, she took ketotifen fumarate orally again, on her own, due to asthmatoid attack, and her symptoms returned. The oral intake of ketotifen fumarate was again discontinued, and alleviation of the symptoms and normalization of the urinary findings were again observed. As a result, lymphocyte stimulation tests on all the drugs the patient had ever taken, only ketotifen fumarate turned out to be positive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1479763

  7. Enhanced affinity of ketotifen toward tamarind seed polysaccharide in comparison with hydroxyethylcellulose and hyaluronic acid: a nuclear magnetic resonance investigation.

    PubMed

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Balzano, Federica; Di Colo, Giacomo; Zambito, Ylenia; Zaino, Chiara; Sansò, Marco; Salvadori, Eleonora; Benvenuti, Marco

    2008-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy demonstrated that, in aqueous solution, ketotifen fumarate bound more strongly to tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) than to hydroxyethylcellulose or hyaluronic acid. Results were confirmed by dynamic dialysis technique.

  8. Identification and determination of ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method.

    PubMed

    Wyszomirska, Elzbieta; Czerwińska, Krystyna; Kublin, Elzbieta; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for determination of: ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, azelastine hydrochloride, dimetindene maleate and promethazine hydrochloride by densitometric method in substances and pharmaceuticals were provided. Maximum wavelenghts were: 228 nm for ketotifen hydrogen fumarate, 295 nm for azelastine hydrochloride, 265 nm for dimetindene maleate and 255 nm for promethazine hydrochloride. The limits of quantification were in the ranges of 0.2-5 microg/spot. The statistical data showed adequate accuracy and precision of developed methods. PMID:24383318

  9. Novel Suppressive Effects of Ketotifen on Migration and Invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Ji; Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Soo Youl; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rates associated with cancer reflect the metastatic spread of tumor cells from the site of their origin. Metastasis, in fact, is the cause of 90% of cancer deaths. Therefore, considerable effort is being made to inhibit metastasis. In the present study, we screened ketotifen for anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cancer cells. Cancer cell migration and invasion were measured using multi-well chambers. Additionally, western blots were used to examine the effects of ketotifen on the expressions of CDC42, Rho, Rac, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). The results showed that ketotifen dose-dependently suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cells. Ketotifen also suppressed the expressions of CDC42, Rac, and Rho, which, significantly, are involved in MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cancer cell migration. Moreover, ketotifen suppressed the expression and activity of MMP-9, which is involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix leading to invasion. The overall data suggested that ketotifen suppresses the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cancer cells via inhibition of CDC42, Rac, Rho, and MMP-9 expression. PMID:25489422

  10. Extended release of ketotifen from silica shell nanoparticle-laden hydrogel contact lenses: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Mangukiya, Mayurkumar A; Patel, Prachi A; Vaidya, Rutvi J; Koli, Akshay R; Ranch, Ketan M; Shah, Dinesh O

    2016-06-01

    Ketotifen an anti-allergic drug delivered via eye drops has major limitations, including poor ocular bioavailability and poor patient compliance. The objective of the research work was to fabricate ketotifen loaded microemulsion laden hydrogels and silica shell nanoparticle-laden (prepared from microemulsion using octyltrimethoxysilane) hydrogels to achieve extended ocular drug delivery. The porous silica shell membrane was synthesized at the liquid interface of microemulsion, which facilitates the prolongation of drug release duration from hydrogels. Drug encapsulated microemulsion and silica shell nanoparticles were dispersed separately in pre-monomer mixture, and fabricated to hydrogel. For comparison, hydrogel with direct drug entrapment was also fabricated. Significant loss in transmittance and physical properties was observed in hydrogels with direct drug entrapment. While, microemulsion and silica shell nanoparticle-laden hydrogels did not show significant effect on transmittance and physical properties. The in vitro drug release data showed extended release of ketotifen from hydrogels in following order: direct loadingketotifen release for more than 10 days. The results demonstrated the translational potential of silica shell nanoparticles for extended drug delivery without compromising the critical lens properties. PMID:27178036

  11. The inhibitory effect of cromolyn sodium and ketotifen on Toxoplasma gondii entrance into host cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sarvi, Shahabeddin

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with worldwide distribution and in spite of increasing information about its biology, treatment of toxoplasmosis is restricted to a few drugs and unfortunately using of each of drugs is associated with significant side effects in patients. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of cromolyn sodium and ketotifen as alternative drugs for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. In vitro; in case group, concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/ml of ketotifen and cromolyn sodium were added to RPMI medium containing peritoneal macrophages. After 1 h incubation and adding tachyzoites to medium, efficacy rate of these drugs in entrance inhibition of Toxoplasma tachyzoites into macrophages were evaluated after 30 and 60 min. In vivo; case groups received ketotifen and cromolyn sodium with different concentrations at various times. Control groups received none of drugs. We found that in vitro; after 60 min the best efficacy of these drugs in inhibition of cell entrance of Toxoplasma was observed at 15 µg/ml (78.9 ± 1.70 and 91.97 ± 0.37 %, respectively) (P < 0.05). In vivo; after 60 min ketotifen at 2 mg/kg in 3 h before tachyzoite injection (69.83 ± 2.25 %), and cromolyn sodium, at 10 mg/kg in 6 h before tachyzoite injection (80.47 ± 2/49 %) had the best effect on inhibition of Toxoplasma entry into the cells (P < 0.05). Our findings show that ketotifen and cromolyn sodium are suitable drugs for entrance inhibition of tachyzoites into nucleated cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27605827

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ketotifen fumarate-loaded silicone hydrogel contact lenses for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinku; Li, Xinsong; Sun, Fuqian

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the usefulness of silicone hydrogel contact lenses loaded with ketotifen fumarate for ocular drug delivery. First, silicone contact lenses were prepared by photopolymerization of bitelechelic methacrylated polydimethylsiloxanes macromonomer, 3-methacryloxypropyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane, and N,N-dimethylacrylamide using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and Darocur 1173 as an initiator followed by surface plasma treatment. Then, the silicone hydrogel matrices of the contact lenses were characterized by equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR), tensile tests, ion permeability, and surface contact angle. Finally, the contact lenses were loaded with ketotifen fumarate by pre-soaking in drug solution to evaluate drug loading capacity, in vitro and in vivo release behavior of the silicone contact lenses. The results showed that ESR and ion permeability increase, and the surface contact angle and tensile strength decreased with the increase of DMA component in the silicone hydrogel. The drug loading and in vitro releases were dependent on the hydrogel composition of hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase of the contact lenses. In rabbit eyes, the pre-soaked contact lenses sustained ketotifen fumarate release for more than 24 h, which leads to a more stable drug concentration and a longer mean retention time in tear fluid than that of eye drops of 0.05%.

  13. Ketotifen Fumarate and Salbutamol Sulphate Combined Transdermal Patch Formulations: In vitro release and Ex vivo Permeation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, M.; Ahmad, M.; Usman, M.; Ali, I.

    2013-01-01

    The present work was performed to develop and evaluate transdermal patches of combined antiasthmatic drugs (salbutamol sulphate and ketotifen fumarate). Polyvinyl alcohol membrane was used as backing membrane and eudragit RL-100 was used as matrix material to suspend the drugs in the continuous thickness of the patch. Methanol was solvent and propylene glycol was used as plasticizer. Tween 20, isopropyl myristate, eucalyptus oil, castor oil and span-20 were used as permeability enhancers. Thickness, weight variation and drug uniformity were investigated. The patch formulations were also subjected to drug release in dissolution media and permeation through rabbit skin. Effects of different enhancers were evaluated on release and permeation of drugs. F3 formulations having isopropyl myristate as permeation enhancer, showed maximum amounts of drugs release (88.11% of salbutamol sulphate and 88.33% of ketotifen fumarate) at the end of 24 h dissolution study. F3 also showed maximum permeation of both drugs (4.235 mg salbutamol sulphate and 1.057 mg ketotifen fumarate) after 24 h permeation study through rabbit skin mounted in Franz cell. The patches having no enhancer in the formulation also showed some drug release and permeation due to the presence of plasticizer. The results of the study suggested that new controlled release transdermal formulations of combined antiasthmatic drugs can be suitably developed as an alternate to conventional dosage forms. PMID:24403658

  14. Deformable liposomes and ethosomes as carriers for skin delivery of ketotifen.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, M M A; Abdallah, O Y; Naggar, V F; Khalafallah, N M

    2007-02-01

    Deformable liposomes and ethosomes were investigated as carriers for skin delivery of ketotifen (KT) in terms of vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, stability, in vitro permeation and skin deposition properties. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) from soybean lecithin was used in the preparation of all vesicles. Sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate and Tween 80 were investigated as edge activators in preparation of KT deformable liposomes. KT ethosomes were prepared in two PC concentrations, 2% and 4.25% w/v, in 30% v/v ethanol. KT deformable liposomes showed improved entrapment efficiency over KT ethosomes. KT deformable liposomes with Tween 80 as an edge activator were more stable upon storage at 5 +/- 1 degree C than those prepared using sodium cholate or sodium deoxycholate and were more stable than KT ethosomes. In vitro permeation and skin deposition studies employed only deformable liposomes with Tween 80 as an edge activator and ethosomes with 4.25% w/v PC concentration. Both of them improved skin delivery of KT over controls and over traditional liposomes, with greater improvement of KT skin deposition than KT skin permeation, hence are more useful for dermal than for transdermal delivery of KT.

  15. Comparison of Different Nanosuspensions as Potential Ophthalmic Delivery Systems for Ketotifen Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Saieede; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Jelvehgari, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop, characterize, and comparatively investigate the ketotifen fumarate (KF) nanosuspensions (NSS) to enhance the permeability of KF. Methods: In the present work, the NSP and NSE were prepared by double-emulsion solvent evaporation/nanoprecipitation methods with poly (D,Llactide-co-glycolide) and Eudragit RL100 polymers, respectively. The loading efficiency, particle size, and polydispersity index of prepared different NSs were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and in vitro release and transcorneal permeation . NSs were also compared on the basis of particle size and polydispersity index. Results: Particle size, polydispersity index, and loading efficiency of NSP1 and NSE3 showed the best value (158 nm, 117 nm, 0.21, 0.43 and 43%, 95.23%, respectively). SEM showed spherical globules and DSC results showed the reduction in crystallinity. The NSE3 formulations demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher drug release rates than the NSP1 due to increases in the surface area. Comparative studies showed that NSE release and permeability are higher than NSP. Conclusion: It is concluded that both NSP and NSE provide a useful dosage form for the ocular drug delivery which can enhance the permeability of KF. PMID:27766218

  16. Characterizations of sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced scratching responses in ICR mice using naltrexon, capsaicin, ketotifen and Y-27632.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung June; Kim, Hyuk; Han, Eun-Sil; Park, Sun-Mi; Koh, Jae-Young; Kim, Kwang-Mi; Noh, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2008-03-31

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is upregulated in the stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis patients by sphingomyelin deacylase. We conducted an investigation, both to confirm that intradermal injection of SPC elicits scratching in mice, and to elucidate the detailed mechanism of the SPC-induced itch-scratch response. Intradermal administration of SPC increased the incidence of scratching behavior in a dose-dependent manner. SPC-induced scratching could be suppressed, significantly, by the mu-opoid receptor antagonist, naltrexon, the vaniloid receptor agonist, capsaicin, and the histamine H1 receptor antagonist ketotifen. d-erythro SPC, one of the SPC stereotypes, could elicit the scratch response, but not l-threo SPC. Y-27632 (1 mg/kg, an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK)), was found to suppress SPC-induced scratching. Both the stereospecificity of SPC and the involvement of the Rho/ROCK pathway suggested that SPC-induced scratching is related to the receptor.

  17. A novel in situ gel base of deacetylase gellan gum for sustained ophthalmic drug delivery of ketotifen: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lina; Ao, Junping; Li, Peiling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ion-activated ketotifen ophthalmic delivery system was developed by using a natural polysaccharide, deacetylase gellan gum. Its rheological characteristics, stability, in vitro gelation, release in vitro, and pharmacodynamic activity in vivo were investigated. The formulation had an optimum viscosity that will allow easy drop as a liquid, which then underwent a rapid sol–gel transition due to ionic interaction. There were negligible alterations in the initial values of viscosity of the formulations over a storage period of 180 days. The in vitro release profiles indicated that the release of ketotifen from in situ gels exhibited a sustained feature. Scintigraphic studies indicated that deacetylase gellan gum could increase the residence time of the formulation. At the same dose, in situ gels demonstrated a typical sustained and prolonged drug-effects behavior compared with the common drops. PMID:26251573

  18. Design of eudragit RL nanoparticles by nanoemulsion method as carriers for ophthalmic drug delivery of ketotifen fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Saieede; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Jelvehgari, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Ketotifen fumarate (KF) is a selective and noncompetitive histamine antagonist (H1-receptor) that is used topically in the treatment of allergic conditions of rhinitis and conjunctivitis. The aim of this study was to formulate and improve an ophthalmic delivery system of KF. Ocular nanoparticles were prepared with the objective of reducing the frequency of administration and obtaining controlled release to improve the anti-inflammatory drug delivery. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ocular KF loaded Eudragit RL 100 nanoparticles were prepared using O/W solvent diffusion method. The nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release and permeation studies were also carried out on nanoparticles. Results: An average size range of 182 to 314.30 nm in diameter was obtained and encapsulation efficiency up to 95.0% was observed for all the formulations. Drug release for all formulations after 24 hr was between 65.51% and 88.82% indicating effective controlled release property of KF. The mechanism of drug release for best formulation was found to be fickian diffusion mechanism. KF nanoparticles containing high polymer concentration (1:15) presented a faster drug release and a higher drug penetration; on the contrary, nanoparticles containing low polymer concentration (1:7.5) were able to give a more sustained release of the drug and thus a slower KF permeation through the cornea. Conclusion: The study revealed that KF NPs were capable of releasing the drug for a prolonged period of time and increasing the ocular bioavailability. PMID:27403262

  19. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-qing, Hei; Xiao-liang, Gan; Pin-jie, Huang; Jing, Wei; Ning, Shen; Wan-ling, Gao

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS), and Compound 48/80(CP) on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S), model group (group M), group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT), the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), globulin(GLB), the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G), phosphocreatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CRE) at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ketotifen and CS increased the survival rate compared with group M (P < 0.05), attenuated the down-regulation or up-regulation of the above index (P < 0.05). Treatment with CP decreased the survival rate on the 3rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P < 0.05). Group K and C had better

  20. Deformable liposomes and ethosomes: mechanism of enhanced skin delivery.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Mustafa M A; Abdallah, Ossama Y; Naggar, Viviane F; Khalafallah, Nawal M

    2006-09-28

    Despite intensive research, the mechanisms by which vesicular systems deliver drugs into intact skin are not yet fully understood. In the current study, possible mechanisms by which deformable liposomes and ethosomes improve skin delivery of ketotifen under non-occlusive conditions were investigated. In vitro permeation and skin deposition behavior of deformable liposomes and ethosomes, having ketotifen both inside and outside the vesicles (no separation of free ketotifen), having ketotifen only inside the vesicles (free ketotifen separated) and having ketotifen only outside the vesicles (ketotifen solution added to empty vesicles), was studied using rabbit pinna skin. Results suggested that both the penetration enhancing effect and the intact vesicle permeation into the stratum corneum might play a role in improving skin delivery of drugs by deformable liposomes, under non-occlusive conditions, and that the penetration enhancing effect was of greater importance in case of ketotifen. Regarding ethosomes, results indicated that ketotifen should be incorporated in ethosomal vesicles for optimum skin delivery. Ethosomes were not able to improve skin delivery of non-entrapped ketotifen.

  1. A nuclear magnetic resonance approach to the comparison of mucoadhesive properties of polysaccharides for ophthalmic uses.

    PubMed

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Balzano, Federica; Sansò, Marco

    2011-03-15

    Mucoadhesive properties of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and larch arabinogalactan (AG), which are developed for ophthalmic applications, were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Polysaccharide to mucin affinities were compared by using ketotifen fumarate as low molecular weight interaction probe. Proton selective relaxation rate measurements revealed enhanced affinity of TSP to mucin with respect to AG.

  2. A Class of Tricyclic Compounds Blocking Malaria Parasite Oocyst Development and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Richard T.; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Raj, Dipak K.; Dixit, Saurabh; Deng, Bingbing; Miura, Kazutoyo; Yuan, Jing; Tanaka, Takeshi Q.; Johnson, Ronald L.; Jiang, Hongying; Huang, Ruili; Williamson, Kim C.; Lambert, Lynn E.; Long, Carole; Austin, Christopher P.; Wu, Yimin

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a deadly infectious disease in many tropical and subtropical countries. Previous efforts to eradicate malaria have failed, largely due to the emergence of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and, in particular, the lack of drugs or vaccines to block parasite transmission. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are known to play a role in drug transport, metabolism, and resistance in many organisms, including malaria parasites. To investigate whether a Plasmodium falciparum ABC transporter (Pf14_0244 or PfABCG2) modulates parasite susceptibility to chemical compounds or plays a role in drug resistance, we disrupted the gene encoding PfABCG2, screened the recombinant and the wild-type 3D7 parasites against a library containing 2,816 drugs approved for human or animal use, and identified an antihistamine (ketotifen) that became less active against the PfABCG2-disrupted parasite in culture. In addition to some activity against asexual stages and gametocytes, ketotifen was highly potent in blocking oocyst development of P. falciparum and the rodent parasite Plasmodium yoelii in mosquitoes. Tests of structurally related tricyclic compounds identified additional compounds with similar activities in inhibiting transmission. Additionally, ketotifen appeared to have some activity against relapse of Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in rhesus monkeys. Further clinical evaluation of ketotifen and related compounds, including synthetic new derivatives, in blocking malaria transmission may provide new weapons for the current effort of malaria eradication. PMID:23129054

  3. A nuclear magnetic resonance approach to the comparison of mucoadhesive properties of polysaccharides for ophthalmic uses.

    PubMed

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Balzano, Federica; Sansò, Marco

    2011-03-15

    Mucoadhesive properties of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and larch arabinogalactan (AG), which are developed for ophthalmic applications, were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Polysaccharide to mucin affinities were compared by using ketotifen fumarate as low molecular weight interaction probe. Proton selective relaxation rate measurements revealed enhanced affinity of TSP to mucin with respect to AG. PMID:21219993

  4. In vitro uptake and release studies of ocular pharmaceutical agents by silicon-containing and p-HEMA hydrogel contact lens materials.

    PubMed

    Karlgard, C C S; Wong, N S; Jones, L W; Moresoli, C

    2003-05-12

    The in vitro uptake and release behaviour of cromolyn sodium, ketotifen fumarate, ketorolac tromethamine and dexamethasone sodium phosphate with silicon-containing (lotrafilcon and balafilcon) and p-HEMA-containing (etafilcon, alphafilcon, polymacon, vifilcon and omafilcon) hydrogel contact lenses indicated that both drug and material affected the uptake and release behaviour. Rapid uptake and release (within 50 min) was observed for all drugs except ketotifen fumarate which was more gradual taking approximately 5h. Furthermore, the maximum uptake differed significantly between drugs and materials. The highest average uptake (7879+/-684 microg/lens) was cromolyn sodium and the lowest average uptake (67+/-13 microg/lens) was dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Partial release of the drug taken up was observed for all drugs except dexamethasone sodium phosphate where no release was detected. Sustained release was demonstrated only by ketotifen fumarate. Drug uptake/release appeared to be a function of lens material ionicity, water and silicon content. The silicon-containing materials released less drug than the p-HEMA-containing materials. The lotrafilcon material demonstrated less interactions with the drugs than the balafilcon material which can be explained by their different bulk composition and surface treatment. PMID:12711169

  5. The role of the Annexin-A1/FPR2 system in the regulation of mast cell degranulation provoked by compound 48/80 and in the inhibitory action of nedocromil.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, Ajantha; Yazid, Samia; Perretti, M; Solito, Egle; Flower, R J

    2016-03-01

    1.We investigated the role of Annexin (ANX)-A1 and its receptor, ALX/FPR2, in the regulation of mast cell degranulation produced by compound 48/80. 2.Both human cord-blood derived mast cells (CBDMCs) and murine bone marrow derived mast cells (BMDMCs) release phosphorylated ANX-A1 during treatment with glucocorticoids or the mast cell 'stabilising' drugs ketotifen and nedocromil. 3.Compound 48/80 also stimulated ANX-A1 phosphorylation and release and this was also potentiated by nedocromil. Anti-ANX-A1 neutralising monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to compound 48/80. 4.Nedocromil and ketotifen potently inhibited the release of histamine, PGD2, tryptase and β-hexosaminidase from mast cells challenged with compound 48/80. Anti-ANX-A1 neutralising Mabs prevented the inhibitory effect of these drugs. 5.BMDMCs derived from Anx-A1−/− mice were insensitive to the inhibitory effects of nedocromil or ketotifen but cells retained their sensitivity to the inhibitory action of hu-r-ANX-A1. 6.The fpr2/3 antagonist WRW4 blocked the action of nedocromil on PGD2, but not histamine, release. BMDMCs derived from fpr2/3−/− mice were insensitive to the inhibitory effects of nedocromil on PGD2, but not histamine release. 7.Compound 48/80 stimulated both p38 and JNK phosphorylation in CBDMCs and this was inhibited by nedocromil. Inhibition of p38 phosphorylation was ANX-A1 dependent. 8.We conclude that ANX-A1 is an important regulator of mast cell reactivity to compound 48/80 exerting a negative feedback effect through a mechanism that depends at least partly on the FPR receptor.

  6. The role of the Annexin-A1/FPR2 system in the regulation of mast cell degranulation provoked by compound 48/80 and in the inhibitory action of nedocromil

    PubMed Central

    Sinniah, Ajantha; Yazid, Samia; Perretti, M.; Solito, Egle; Flower, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    1. We investigated the role of Annexin (ANX)-A1 and its receptor, ALX/FPR2, in the regulation of mast cell degranulation produced by compound 48/80. 2. Both human cord-blood derived mast cells (CBDMCs) and murine bone marrow derived mast cells (BMDMCs) release phosphorylated ANX-A1 during treatment with glucocorticoids or the mast cell ‘stabilising’ drugs ketotifen and nedocromil. 3. Compound 48/80 also stimulated ANX-A1 phosphorylation and release and this was also potentiated by nedocromil. Anti-ANX-A1 neutralising monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to compound 48/80. 4. Nedocromil and ketotifen potently inhibited the release of histamine, PGD2, tryptase and β-hexosaminidase from mast cells challenged with compound 48/80. Anti-ANX-A1 neutralising Mabs prevented the inhibitory effect of these drugs. 5. BMDMCs derived from Anx-A1−/− mice were insensitive to the inhibitory effects of nedocromil or ketotifen but cells retained their sensitivity to the inhibitory action of hu-r-ANX-A1. 6. The fpr2/3 antagonist WRW4 blocked the action of nedocromil on PGD2, but not histamine, release. BMDMCs derived from fpr2/3−/− mice were insensitive to the inhibitory effects of nedocromil on PGD2, but not histamine release. 7. Compound 48/80 stimulated both p38 and JNK phosphorylation in CBDMCs and this was inhibited by nedocromil. Inhibition of p38 phosphorylation was ANX-A1 dependent. 8. We conclude that ANX-A1 is an important regulator of mast cell reactivity to compound 48/80 exerting a negative feedback effect through a mechanism that depends at least partly on the FPR receptor. PMID:26803520

  7. Nedocromil sodium and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Buscaglia, S; Albano, M; Bertolini, C; Truffelli, T; Catrullo, A; Scordamaglia, A; Canonica, G W

    1993-01-01

    Chromones are frequently employed in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Following our recent investigations concerning the influence of some antiallergic drugs, such as cromoglycate sodium, steroids, oxatomide and ketotifen (H1 antihistamines), and theophylline, on the immune response, in the present study we analyzed the in vitro effects of a new chromone derivative, nedocromil, on the immune response. To this end, the proliferation of peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNCs) induced by mitogen (PHA) and by CD3, CD2 or CD28 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been studied. Since the effects of nedocromil on immunological parameters are achieved at 10(-7) mol/l, in the experiments herein reported the drug was tested in the cultures at concentrations of 10(-8), 10(-7) and 10(-6) mol/l. Furthermore, the effect of nedocromil was evaluated on the surface expression of the following markers expressed by PMNCs upon activation: ICAM-1 (CD54), LFA-1 and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AGP). The results of the present investigation showed no effect of nedocromil on these immunological parameters. These data acquire clinical relevance when related to previous reports showing a depression of the immunological response exerted by other compounds, such as ketotifen, theophylline and steroids.

  8. [Eosinophilic colitis. A report of two cases with non conventional treatment].

    PubMed

    Rosas Vargas, Miguel A; Moncayo Coello, Vivian; García Cárdenas, Eustorgio; Valencia Mayoral, Pedro; Sienra Monge, Juan José Luis; del Río Navarro, Blanca E

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a rare entity of unknown etiology characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis includes histopathological infiltration of more than 20 eosinophils in colon. It is frequently associated with milk hypersensitivity and, less usual, with other foods and increased IgE. Histopthological appearance of eosinophil mediators has been observed in the gut. It is sometimes related to the degree of infiltration of eosinophils in the gut as well as to the disease severity. There is not an established treatment for this entity, although systemic steroids have been used with certain efficacy. However, there is a recurrence of the symptoms when the therapy stops, besides the well known side effects of the long-term use of steroids. Cromolyn inhibits mast cell degranulation and prevents liberation of mediators. It is successful in certain cases, specially the severe ones. However, it is not available for its use in our country. Ketotifen, as last resource in our patients with bad response to habitual treatment and restriction diet, was used. Although its use is controversial, we consider that stabilizing mast cell membrane with subsequent inhibition of degranulation and recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation, would also restrain histamine liberation and blockage of H1 receptors, which would diminish local damage induced by eosinophils. Nonetheless ketotifen mechanism of action is unknown, our patients improved after treatment with this drug.

  9. Erratum.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    In the article by Kim et al., entitled "The sound of a Buk (Korean traditional drum) attenuates anaphylactic reactions by the activation of estrogen receptor-β" [Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2015;167:242–49, DOI: 10.1159/000439567], there is an error in Materials and Methods. The sample size of animals was larger than 15, therefore the third paragraph should read: Compound 48/80-Induced Systemic Anaphylaxis. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (6.5 mg/kg). The period used to observe mortality was based on the results of a pretest during which mice died within 30 min of administration. Ketotifen was used as a positive control (1 μg/kg, p.o.). Mortality was monitored for 40 min after injection. Mice were allocated to each group and divided into 5 groups: (1) no treatment, (2) compound 48/80 injection, (3) compound 48/80 injection and treatment with ketotifen, (4) compound 48/80 injection and exposure to Buk music, and (5) compound 48/80 injection and exposure to white noise. Three independent experiments were performed. PMID:26670304

  10. Influences of histamine H1 receptor antagonists on maximal electroshock seizure in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Takechi, Kenshi; Rahman, Ashequr; Ago, Jun; Matsumoto, Naotaka; Murakami, Aya; Kamei, Chiaki

    2007-03-01

    The influences of histamine H1 receptor antagonists on maximal electroshock seizure were studied using infant rats. In this study, electroconvulsion was induced by stimulating rats using ear-clip electrodes, and the durations of electroencephalogram (EEG) seizure, tonic extensor (TE) seizure and clonic (CL) seizure induced by maximal electroshock were measured. Diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, cyproheptadine and ketotifen caused a dose-dependent and significant prolongation of both EEG seizure and TE seizure induced by maximal electroshock. On the other hand, epinastine and fexofenadine caused no such effects, even at a dose of 50 mg/kg. All drugs used in this study showed no significant effect on CL seizure induced by maximal electroshock. From these findings, it is suggested that epinastine and fexofenadine may cause no harmful influence on epilepsy, even when used in a little child.

  11. Bepotastine-induced urticaria, cross-reactive with other antihistamines

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju Wan

    2016-01-01

    Second-generation antihistamines are widely prescribed for the control of symptoms of allergic inflammation such as itchy hives, coryza, and itchy eyes. In rare circumstances, these drugs might provoke allergic inflammation. Hypersensitivity to bepotastine besilate, a second-generation antihistamine has never been reported. A 17-year-old schoolgirl, whose paroxysmal itchy hives had been controlled with bepotastine, experienced aggravation of the hives. An oral provocation test confirmed her hypersensitivity to bepotastine and cross-reactivity to levocetirizine. She showed no reaction to chlorpheniramine, ketotifen, or olopatadine among the 13 antihistamines tested. While searching for an antihistamine to control her itchy hives, we found that she also exhibited cross-reactivity to various antihistamines with different chemical structures from that of bepotastine, which is not predicted according to the chemical classification of antihistamines. We report a case of hypersensitivity to bepotastine besilate in a patient with chronic spontaneous urticaria. PMID:27803886

  12. High-frequency oscillation in the hippocampus of the behaving rat and its modulation by the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Knoche, A; Yokoyama, H; Ponomarenko, A; Frisch, C; Huston, J; Haas, H L

    2003-01-01

    The histaminergic neurons located in the posterior hypothalamus modulate whole brain activity in a manner dependent on behavioral state. We have investigated their influence on high-frequency oscillation (200-Hz ripples) in the hippocampal CA1 region of freely moving rats. The occurrence of these ripples, assumed to be involved in memory trace formation, was markedly enhanced after injection of the H1-antagonists pyrilamine and ketotifen in a lateral ventricle, indicating a tonic activity of the histaminergic system. The H2- and H3-antagonists cimetidine and thioperamide were ineffective. We suggest a mediation of these effects through blocking the known histaminergic excitation of septal neurons. Histamine administered by the intracerebroventricular route had an inhibitory action on ripples. H1-receptor activation, which has been shown to inhibit learning and memory, thus shifts hippocampal activity away from high-frequency oscillation toward theta activity. PMID:12699334

  13. High-frequency oscillation in the hippocampus of the behaving rat and its modulation by the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Knoche, A; Yokoyama, H; Ponomarenko, A; Frisch, C; Huston, J; Haas, H L

    2003-01-01

    The histaminergic neurons located in the posterior hypothalamus modulate whole brain activity in a manner dependent on behavioral state. We have investigated their influence on high-frequency oscillation (200-Hz ripples) in the hippocampal CA1 region of freely moving rats. The occurrence of these ripples, assumed to be involved in memory trace formation, was markedly enhanced after injection of the H1-antagonists pyrilamine and ketotifen in a lateral ventricle, indicating a tonic activity of the histaminergic system. The H2- and H3-antagonists cimetidine and thioperamide were ineffective. We suggest a mediation of these effects through blocking the known histaminergic excitation of septal neurons. Histamine administered by the intracerebroventricular route had an inhibitory action on ripples. H1-receptor activation, which has been shown to inhibit learning and memory, thus shifts hippocampal activity away from high-frequency oscillation toward theta activity.

  14. Involvement of chymase in allergic conjunctivitis of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nabe, Takeshi; Kijitani, Yurie; Kitagawa, Yuriko; Sakano, Emi; Ueno, Tomoko; Fujii, Masanori; Nakao, Shintaro; Sakai, Masaru; Takai, Shinji

    2013-08-01

    It has been reported that chymase activity was increased in allergic conjunctivitis patients and this activity was correlated with the severity of the disease. However, the precise roles of chymase in allergic conjunctivitis are unclear, and whether chymase inhibitors are effective for allergic conjunctivitis has not been reported even in experimental animal models. In this study, the roles of chymase in the pathogenesis were evaluated using a selective chymase inhibitor, ONO-WH-236, in a guinea pig model of allergic conjunctivitis induced by cedar pollen. Sensitized guinea pigs were challenged by the pollen, followed by assessing redness and edema in the conjuntiva, and counting the frequency of eye scratching as an itch-associated response. Treatment with the ONO-WH-236 (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the induction of redness, edema and scratching behavior. An anti-histaminic drug, ketotifen (3 mg/kg, p.o.), also significantly inhibited conjunctivitis symptoms. Chymase activity was increased in ophthalmic lavage fluid immediately after the pollen challenge. The increase in chymase activity was inhibited by in vivo treatment with ONO-WH-236. Interestingly, increased histamine in the ophthalmic lavage fluid immediately after the challenge was also inhibited by the chymase inhibitor. Administration of human recombinant chymase by eye dropping (0.09 and 0.9 μg/eye) dose-dependently induced scratching behavior, which was inhibited by not only ONO-WH-236 but also ketotifen; however, chymase administration induced only weak redness in the conjunctiva, which was resistant to treatment with anti-histaminic drugs. In conclusion, it was suggested that chymase was released from mast cells after antigen challenge, followed by the induction of conjunctivitis symptoms through histamine release from mast cells. Thus, chymase could be a potential target for pharmacotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.

  15. Duration of action of topical antiallergy drugs in a Guinea pig model of histamine-induced conjunctival vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Clay; Stephens, Donna; Roberts, Leighann; Gamache, Daniel; Yanni, John

    2007-08-01

    The topical application of 0.1% olopatadine has been shown to provide significant attenuation of histamine-induced conjunctival vascular permeability (CVP) within 5 min and for as long as 24 h following a topical administration. The duration of the action of olopatadine was compared to that of epinastine, azelastine, and ketotifen. Male Hartley outbred guinea pigs (weighing 250-300 g) were administered a drug or vehicle as single O.D. topical drops, at times ranging from 4 to 24 h prior to histamine challenge. One (1) h prior to histamine challenge, the animals were administered 1 mL of Evans blue dye (1 mg/mL) through the marginal ear vein. Histamine (300 ng) was administered by a subconjunctival injection, and the guinea pigs were sacrificed 30 min later. CVP was assessed as the area and color intensity stained with Evans blue dye. The potencies of each drug were determined by calculating a 50% effective dose (ED(50)) for the inhibition of vascular leakage, compared to vehicle treatment, at each time point. Olopatadine was the only compound tested that was significantly effective 16 h following a single topical application. The ED(50) for olopatadine at 16 h was 0.031%. Epinastine, azelastine, and ketotifen were only significantly effective for up to 4 h. Olopatadine exhibited the longest duration of action for inhibition of histamine-induced vascular permeability in guinea pigs of any topical antiallergic drug tested. Concentrations of olopatadine, which provided a greater than 50% inhibition of the histamine-induced vascular response, were consistently less than 0.1% over a 16-h pretreatment interval.

  16. Differential effects of topically applied formalin and aromatic compounds on neurogenic-mediated microvascular leakage in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Futamura, Masaki; Goto, Shiho; Kimura, Ryoko; Kimoto, Izumi; Miyake, Mio; Ito, Komei; Sakamoto, Tatsuo

    2009-01-01

    Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act as a causative agent of skin inflammation. We investigated the effect of topical application of several VOCs and formalin on microvascular leakage in rat skin. We tested capsaicin, which is a reagent that specifically causes the skin response via endogenously released tachykinins. Evans blue dye extravasation served as an index of the increase in skin vascular permeability. After shaving the abdomen, we applied formalin, m-xylene, toluene, styrene, benzene, ethylbenzene, acetone, diethyl ether, hexane, heptane, cyclohexane and capsaicin to the skin. At 40min after application, skin samples were collected. Among all of the VOCs tested, all of the aromatic compounds significantly produced skin microvascular leakage that was similar to formalin and capsaicin. We also investigated the skin responses seen after the intravenous administration of CP-99,994 (1.5 or 5mg/kg), which is a tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, ketotifen (1 or 3mg/kg), which is a histamine H1 receptor antagonist that stabilizes the mast cells, and the topical application of capsazepine (22.5 or 50mM), which is the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist. The response induced by formalin and capsaicin was completely inhibited by CP-99,994. On the other hand, the antagonist partially reduced the response induced by m-xylene, toluene and styrene by 39%, 50% and 46%, respectively. Capsazepine and ketotifen did not alter the response induced by formalin or any of the aromatic compounds. Like capsaicin, formalin and the aromatic compounds at least partially caused skin microvascular leakage, which was due to tachykinin NK1 receptor activation related to the release of tachykinins from the sensory nerve endings. However, it is unlikely that mast cells and TRPV1 play an important role in the skin response.

  17. Tachykinin inhibition of acid-induced gastric hyperaemia in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, A.; Jocic, M.; Herzeg, G.; Holzer, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. Primary afferent neurones releasing the vasodilator, calcitonin gene-related peptide, mediate the gastric hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion. The tachykinins neurokinin A (NKA) and substance P (SP) are located in the same neurones and are co-released with calcitonin gene-related peptide. In this study we investigated the effect and possible role of tachykinins in the acid-evoked gastric vasodilatation in urethane-anaesthetized rats. 2. Gastric acid back-diffusion, induced by perfusing the stomach with 15% ethanol in the presence of 0.05 M HCl, increased gastric mucosal blood flow by 60-90%, as determined by the hydrogen clearance technique. NKA and SP (0.14-3.78 nmol min-1 kg-1, infused intra-aortically) inhibited the gastric mucosal hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion in a dose-dependent manner, an effect that was accompanied by aggravation of ethanol/acid-induced macroscopic haemorrhagic lesions. 3. The inhibitory effect of NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) on the acid-induced gastric mucosal vasodilatation was prevented by the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists, MEN 10,627 (200 nmol kg-1) but left unaltered by the NK1 receptor antagonist, SR 140,333 (300 nmol kg-1) and the mast-cell stabilizer, ketotifen (4.6 mumol kg-1). 4. Under basal conditions, with 0.05 M HCl being perfused through the stomach, NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) reduced gastric mucosal blood flow by about 25%, an effect that was abolished by SR 140,333 but not MEN 10,627 or ketotifen. 5. SR 140,333, MEN 10,627 or ketotifen had no significant effect on basal gastric mucosal blood flow nor did they modify the gastric mucosal hyperaemic reaction to acid back-diffusion. 6. The effect of NKA (1.26 nmol min-1 kg-1) in causing vasoconstriction and inhibiting the vasodilator response to acid back-diffusion was also seen when blood flow in the left gastric artery was measured with the ultrasonic transit time shift technique. 7. Arginine vasopressin (AVP, 0.1 nmol min-1 kg-1) induced gastric

  18. Use of the whole-embryo culture system in drug safety assessment?

    PubMed

    Bechter, R; Schön, H

    1988-01-01

    The embryotoxicity and, in particular, the teratogenic potential of three new drug combinations were investigated. The interactions of the single components (all already on the market) in the different drug mixtures were determined by testing the single components in addition to the drug combinations. In order to evaluate the usefulness of these results for safety assessment, the no-effect concentrations (NEC) of the single compounds or the mixed drug preparations, with respect to embryonic growth and differentiation and the presence of anomalies, were compared with human plasma/serum levels during therapeutic use. In addition, in vivo animal data of the single components were used to put into perspective the NEC values after direct in vitro exposure of embryos. Embryotoxicity, measured as a retardation of growth and of differentiation, as well as an increased percentage of cultured embryos with morphological abnormalities, was present at concentrations of 100 mug/ml for the preparation KT 1/300 (ketotifen/theophylline). These effects could be attributed to the component theophylline, as ketotifen was free of an embryotoxic/teratogenic potential in vitro. In the case of the compound mix VKB/BQ, a combination of pindolol, clopamide and endralazine, the in vitro effects of the mixture on embryonic development could also be attributed to one of the compounds (pindolol) in the mixture. In the case of HYCT 4520, the effects of the components hydergine (co-dergocrine mesylate), clopamide and triamterene on embryonic growth, differentiation and anomalies were additive in the drug mixture. None of the compounds was reported to be associated with human teratogenicity. The NEC of the components in the whole-embryo culture system, tested either as a mixture or as individual compounds, were higher than the human peak plasma levels measured during therapeutic use of the compounds. In addition, the single components were reported to be non-teratogenic in in vivo teratogenicity

  19. Histamine and Seizures : Implications for the Treatment of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, H; Iinuma, K

    1996-05-01

    Experimental studies have indicated that the central histaminergic neuron system plays an important role in the inhibition of seizures through stimulation of histamine H1 receptors, especially in the developmental period. This has therapeutic implications for currently available drugs that act at histamine receptors. H1 receptor antagonists, including classical antihistamines and anti-allergy drugs, occasionally induce convulsions in healthy children and patients with epilepsy. In particular, promethazine, carbinoxamine, mepyramine (pyrilamine) and ketotifen should be used with caution in these patients. These drugs are widely used as components of over-the-counter medications. The use of the d-chlorphenamine (d-chlorpheniramine) activation study with EEG monitoring is useful for assessing the seizure susceptibility of patients who have had convulsions secondary to administration of H1 receptor antagonists.H2 receptor antagonists have also occasionally been reported to induce convulsions in critically ill and polymedicated patients, and patients with chronic renal or hepatic failure. However, experimental findings have not been consistent with these clinical reports, such that the role of these receptors and their ligands in inducing seizures cannot be confirmed.Recently, H3 receptor antagonists, which enhance endogenous histamine release in the brain, have been demonstrated to have a potent anticonvulsant action. Therefore, these compounds may represent a new avenue for the development of antiepileptic drugs. Considering that H3 receptor antagonists also induce arousal patterns on the EEG, it is possible that they will not be associated with the sedative effects of many conventional antiepileptic drugs.

  20. Effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill on mast cell degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay P.; Sheth, N. R.; Suhagia, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make prickly pear a perfect candidate for the production of phytopharmaceutical products. Among the numerous Opuntia species, bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized primarily from Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia polycantha, Opuntia stricta, Opuntia dilleni for various medicinal properties. Objective: Based on the traditional use of prickly pear for enhancement of immune function, the objective of the present study to evaluate the effect of prickly pear on mast cell degranulation function. Materials and Methods: The Opuntia fruit juice (OFJ) (10-200 μl/ml) were studied for the effect on sensitized rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation induced by immunological (egg albumin), and nonimmunological (compound 48/80) stimuli and compared with that of the reference standard, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen (10 μg/ml). Results and Conclusion: The OFJ exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) concentration dependent inhibition of mast cell degranulation. The IC50 value of OFJ was found 12.24 and 18 μl/ml for immunological and nonimmunological induced mast cell degranulation, respectively. The betacyanin is an active principle compound in prickly pear that may responsible for mast cell stabilizing action. PMID:25883521

  1. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Stamler, J S; Bachwich, D; Karmeli, F; Ackerman, Z; Podolsky, D K

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects. Colonic NOx generation is significantly decreased by methylprednisolone and ketotifen. The decrease in NOx generation by cultured colonic mucosa induced by methylprednisolone suggests that NO synthase activity is induced during the culture and the steroid effect may contribute to its therapeutic effect. Enhanced colonic NOx generation by stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:7541008

  2. A Gel Formulation Containing a New Recombinant Form of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: A Clinical Experience Based on Compassionate Use-Safety of a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Prete, Antonio Del; Ortosecco, Giovanni; Borrelli, Antonella; Prete, Salvatore Del; Mancini, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background. We report a case of bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) in a 24-year-old man with an allergic conjunctivitis history caused by a long-term therapy with glucocorticoids. Case Presentation. The patient showed a visual acuity of 9/10 for both eyes. He followed a therapy with ketotifen and bilastine for four years. During the last six months before our evaluation, he was treated with chloramphenicol and betamethasone, interrupted for onset of cataracts and increased intraocular pressure. We treated him with ophthalmic gel preparation containing a new recombinant form of manganese superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, only for the right eye, while left eye was treated with standard protocol of Bendazac-lysine g 0.5. Conclusion. This case report shows the protective effects of rMnSOD versus PSC disease, probably due to the capacity of rMnSOD of countering free radical species. PMID:27610257

  3. Anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory activities of a bioactive alkaloid from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, A; Ravichandiran, V; Velraj, Malarkodi; Hemalatha, S; Sudharani, G; Jayakumari, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-anaphylactic, anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing properties of plumerianine (compound 1) isolated from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir. Methods The anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was studied by using models such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive paw anaphylaxis and its anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in albino rats was also investigated using ketotifen and indomethacin as reference drugs. Results A dose-dependent beneficial effect was observed on leakage of evans blue dye in skin challenged with antigen and on paw anaphylaxis induced by antiserum. The compound 1 also exhibited significant (P<0.01) inhibition of rat paw edema and granuloma tissue formation, including significant protection of RBC against the haemolytic effect of hypotonic solution, an indication of membrane-stabilizing activity. Conclusions Anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 may be possibly due to inhibition of the release of various inflammatory mediators. Anti-inflammatory activity of compound may be related to the inhibition of the early phase and late phase of inflammatory events. PMID:23569801

  4. Δ-lactam derivative from thermophilic soil fungus exhibits in vitro anti-allergic activity.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, W J; Santos, M S; Silva, V B; Oliveira, R B; Chagas-Paula, D A; Jorge, J A; Furtado, N A J C; Pupo, M T; Silva, C H T P; Naal, R M Z G; Bastos, J K

    2012-01-01

    From cultures of thermophilic soil fungus Humicola grisea var thermoidea, a δ-lactam derivative (3-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxoethyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one) that displayed anti-allergic activity was isolated, which was predicted by in silico computational chemistry approaches. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was investigated by β-hexosaminidase release assay in rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-2H3 cells. The δ-lactam derivative exhibited similar anti-allergic activity (IC(50) = 18.7 ± 6.7 µM) in comparison with ketotifen fumarate (IC(50) = 15.0 ± 1.3 µM) and stronger anti-allergic activity than azelastine (IC(50) = 32.0 µM). Also, the MTT cytotoxicity assay with RBL-2H3 cells showed that δ-lactam does not display cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 50 µM. This study suggests that the δ-lactam derivative has the potential to be used as a lead compound in the development of anti-allergic drugs for clinical use in humans. PMID:22239222

  5. Inhibitory effects of costunolide isolated from Laurus nobilis on IgE-induced degranulation of mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells and the growth of Y16 pro-B cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Joon; Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Bora; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Ki-Bong; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Mar, Woongchon; Shin, Jongheon

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of costunolide isolated from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) on basophil-mediated allergic reactions and interleukin (IL)-5-mediated B cell growth. The effects of costunolide on β-hexosaminidase (a key parameter of degranulation) release and IL-4 expression in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells were determined by measuring β-hexosaminidase activity and by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. The effects of costunolide on Y16 pro-B cell viability and growth were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Costunolide was found significantly to inhibit β-hexosaminidase activity (p < 0.01) and IL-4 transcription in RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) was 34 µM, while that of the positive control, ketotifen, was 24 µM (IL-4 mRNA transcription). Moreover, costunolide dose-dependently suppressed pro-B cell growth in IL-5-stimulated Y16 cells. These results provide evidence that costunolide stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting IgE-mediated degranulation and inhibits IL-5-stimulated B cell growth. PMID:21674633

  6. Interaction between chloroquine and diverse pharmacological agents in chloroquine resistant Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Puri, S K

    2000-11-01

    The effect of a number of pharmacological agents on the enhancement of antimalarial activity of chloroquine was evaluated against chloroquine resistant line of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (N-67). The response after combination therapy was monitored on the basis of alteration in the course of parasitaemia, the extension of mean survival time and the percent cure rate in different groups. The study was designed to compare the in vivo efficacy of a number of resistance modulating agents found effective in several in vitro studies against chloroquine resistant P. falciparum isolates. Based on their efficacy in this rodent model, the response of combination of chloroquine with agents representing diverse chemical moieties has been categorised as curative, moderately active and inactive. Out of the 22 agents evaluated, only cyproheptadine-chloroquine combination produced curative response. Ketotifen, azatadine, pheniramine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, verapamil, penfluridol and trifluoperazine demonstrated moderate activity while loratadine, terfenadine, promethazine, ranitidine, nifedipine, diltiazem, chlorpromazine, amiodarone, tamoxifen, dipyridamol, propranolol, acyclovir and amantidine were inactive. The study advocates the suitability of proposed rodent model to shortlist potential resistance reversal agents. PMID:11080509

  7. Prokinetic activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers extract and its possible mechanism of action in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  8. Mast Cells and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: From the Bench to the Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Song, Jun; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally defined as a functional disorder since it lacks demonstrable pathological abnormalities. However, in recent years, low grade inflammatory infiltration, often rich in mast cells, in both the small and large bowel, has been observed in some patients with IBS. The close association of mast cells with major intestinal functions, such as epithelial secretion and permeability, neuroimmune interactions, visceral sensation, and peristalsis, makes researchers and gastroenterologists to focus attention on the key roles of mast cells in the pathogenesis of IBS. Numerous studies have been carried out to identify the mechanisms in the development, infiltration, activation, and degranulation of intestinal mast cells, as well as the actions of mast cells in the processes of mucosal barrier disruption, mucosal immune dysregulation, visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, and local and central stress in IBS. Moreover, therapies targeting mast cells, such as mast cell stabilizers (cromoglycate and ketotifen) and antagonists of histamine and serotonin receptors, have been tried in IBS patients, and have partially exhibited considerable efficacy. This review focuses on recent advances in the role of mast cells in IBS, with particular emphasis on bridging experimental data with clinical therapeutics for IBS patients. PMID:26755686

  9. A Gel Formulation Containing a New Recombinant Form of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: A Clinical Experience Based on Compassionate Use-Safety of a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Grumetto, Lucia; Prete, Antonio Del; Ortosecco, Giovanni; Borrelli, Antonella; Prete, Salvatore Del; Mancini, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background. We report a case of bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) in a 24-year-old man with an allergic conjunctivitis history caused by a long-term therapy with glucocorticoids. Case Presentation. The patient showed a visual acuity of 9/10 for both eyes. He followed a therapy with ketotifen and bilastine for four years. During the last six months before our evaluation, he was treated with chloramphenicol and betamethasone, interrupted for onset of cataracts and increased intraocular pressure. We treated him with ophthalmic gel preparation containing a new recombinant form of manganese superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, only for the right eye, while left eye was treated with standard protocol of Bendazac-lysine g 0.5. Conclusion. This case report shows the protective effects of rMnSOD versus PSC disease, probably due to the capacity of rMnSOD of countering free radical species. PMID:27610257

  10. A Gel Formulation Containing a New Recombinant Form of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: A Clinical Experience Based on Compassionate Use-Safety of a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Prete, Antonio Del; Ortosecco, Giovanni; Borrelli, Antonella; Prete, Salvatore Del; Mancini, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background. We report a case of bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) in a 24-year-old man with an allergic conjunctivitis history caused by a long-term therapy with glucocorticoids. Case Presentation. The patient showed a visual acuity of 9/10 for both eyes. He followed a therapy with ketotifen and bilastine for four years. During the last six months before our evaluation, he was treated with chloramphenicol and betamethasone, interrupted for onset of cataracts and increased intraocular pressure. We treated him with ophthalmic gel preparation containing a new recombinant form of manganese superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, only for the right eye, while left eye was treated with standard protocol of Bendazac-lysine g 0.5. Conclusion. This case report shows the protective effects of rMnSOD versus PSC disease, probably due to the capacity of rMnSOD of countering free radical species.

  11. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2002-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Aciclovir, alemtuzumab, alendronic acid sodium salt, alicaforsen sodium, alteplase, amifostine hydrate, antithymocyte globulin (equine), aspirin, atorvastatin calcium, azathioprine; Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, basiliximab, bicalutamide, bimatoprost, BMS-214662, brimonidine tartrate, buprenorphine hydrochloride; Cabergoline, carbamazepine, carboplatin, ciclosporine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide; Daclizumab, desmopressin acetate, dihydroergotamine mesylate, dorzolamide hydrochloride, doxorubicin, dutasteride; Everolimus; Fluocinolone acetonide, frovatriptan, FTY-720, fulvestrant; Gabapentin, galantamine hydrobromide, ganciclovir, gemcitabine, glatiramer acetate; Hydrocodone bitartrate; Interferon beta, interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, ipratropium bromide; Ketotifen; Lamivudine, latanoprost, levodopa, lidocaine hydrochloride, lonafarnib; Metformin hydrochloride, methylprednisolone, metoclopramide hydrochloride, mirtazapine, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, modafinil, muromonab-CD3, mycophenolate mofetil; NS-2330; Olopatadine hydrochloride, omalizumab, oxcarbazepine, oxycodone hydrochloride; Paclitaxel, paracetamol, piribedil, pramipexole hydrochloride, pravastatin sodium, prednisone; Quetiapine fumarate; Raloxifene hydrochloride, rituximab, rizatriptan sulfate, Ro-63-8695, ropinirole hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate; Simvastatin, siplizumab, sirolimus; Tacrolimus, tegaserod maleate, timolol maleate, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tizanidine hydrochloride, tolterodine tartrate, topiramate, travoprost; Unoprostone isopropyl ester; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, visilizumab; Zidovudine. PMID:12224444

  12. Thin layer chromatography-densitometric determination of some non-sedating antihistamines in combination with pseudoephedrine or acetaminophen in synthetic mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    El-Kommos, Michael E; El-Gizawy, Samia M; Atia, Noha N; Hosny, Noha M

    2014-03-01

    The combination of certain non-sedating antihistamines (NSA) such as fexofenadine (FXD), ketotifen (KET) and loratadine (LOR) with pseudoephedrine (PSE) or acetaminophen (ACE) is widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. A rapid, simple, selective and precise densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of six synthetic binary mixtures and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method employed thin layer chromatography aluminum plates precoated with silica gel G 60 F254 as the stationary phase. The mobile phases chosen for development gave compact bands for the mixtures FXD-PSE (I), KET-PSE (II), LOR-PSE (III), FXD-ACE (IV), KET-ACE (V) and LOR-ACE (VI) [Retardation factor (Rf ) values were (0.20, 0.32), (0.69, 0.34), (0.79, 0.13), (0.36, 0.70), (0.51, 0.30) and (0.76, 0.26), respectively]. Spectrodensitometric scanning integration was performed at 217, 218, 218, 233, 272 and 251 nm for the mixtures I-VI, respectively. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed an excellent linear relationship. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, robustness and recovery. Limits of detection and quantitation were calculated. Statistical analysis proved that the method is reproducible and selective for the simultaneous estimation of these binary mixtures.

  13. Lessons Learnt from Post-Infectious IBS

    PubMed Central

    Sarna, Sushil K.

    2011-01-01

    The development of IBS symptoms – altered bowel function and abdominal cramping in a subset of adult subjects exposed to severe enteric infections opened up an unprecedented opportunity to understand the etiology of this poorly understood disorder. Perhaps, for the reasons that these symptoms follow a severe enteric infection, and mucosal biopsy tissues are readily available, the focus of most studies thus far has been to show that mild/low-grade mucosal inflammation persisting after the initial infection has subsided causes the IBS symptoms. Parallel studies in non-infectious IBS patients, who did not have prior enteritis, showed similar mild mucosal inflammation. Together, these studies examined the mucosal infiltration of specific immune cells, increase of select inflammatory mediators, mast cell and enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia, and epithelial permeability. In spite of the fact that the data on these topics were not consistent among different studies and clinical trials with prednisone, fluoxetine, and ketotifen failed to provide relief of IBS symptoms, the predominant conclusions were that mild mucosal inflammation is the cause of IBS symptoms. However, the circular smooth muscle cells, and myenteric neurons are the primary regulators of gut motility function, while primary afferent neurons and CNS play essential roles in induction of visceral hypersensitivity – no explanation was provided as to how mild mucosal inflammation causes dysfunction in cells far removed. Accumulating evidence shows that mild mucosal inflammation in IBS patients is in physiological range. It has little deleterious effects on cells within its own environment and therefore it is unlikely to affect cells in the muscularis externa. This review discusses the disconnect between the focus on mild/low-grade mucosal inflammation and the potential mechanisms and molecular dysfunctions in smooth muscle cells, myenteric neurons, and primary afferent neurons that may underlie IBS

  14. The pharmacological profile of ovalbumin-induced paw oedema in rats.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, R F G; Melcíades, G B; Assreuy, A M S; Rocha, M F G; Ribeiro, R A; Lima, A A M

    2002-06-01

    Rats are commonly used in anaphylaxis models, mainly in intestinal anaphylaxis. Hypersensitivity mechanisms are complex and they are not clearly defined. Ovalbumin (OVA) is commonly used for studies on the hypersensitivity mechanism. However, the potential pro-inflammatory mediators induced by this antigen in the model of paw oedema in immunized rats are still not completely understood. This work examines the pharmacological modulation of several mediators involved in rat hind paw immune oedema induced by OVA. Wistar rats were previously immunized (14-18 days) with OVA (30 microg, intraperitoneally) or sham-sensitized with aluminum hydroxide (control). The paw volumes were measured before the antigenic stimuli and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after the intraplantar injection of OVA (10 microg/paw). Subcutaneous injection of dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, cyproheptadine, chlorpromazine or methysergide significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the allergic paw oedema. The dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (NDGA), the cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), the lipoxygenase inhibitor (MK-886), the PAF antagonist (WEB 2086), the mast cell stabilizer (ketotifen), and the anti-histamine (meclizine) did not inhibit the immune oedema. In addition, thalidomide and pentoxifylline (anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs) were ineffective against OVA-induced oedema. The fact that indomethacin, MK-886, NDGA and WEB 2086 are unable to inhibit this allergic oedema indicates that the dexamethasone action seems not to be via phospholipase A2, but possibly due to the synthesis and/or the inhibitory activity of cytokines. The paw oedema inhibition by diphenhydramine, but not by meclizine, may suggest a different mechanism, which is independent of the effect of histamine. These data indicate that allergic oedema is more sensitive to anti-serotonin drugs, mainly anti-5-HT2, suggesting that the principal mediator of this inflammatory response is serotonin. PMID:12137244

  15. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis with a high level of plasma noradrenaline.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yukihiko; Nagai, Ayako; Saito, Masuyoshi; Ito, Tomonobu; Koga, Michiyuki; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2007-02-01

    Ingesting certain foods sometimes triggers anaphylaxis when followed by exercise (food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, FDEIA). Specific food-induced mucocutaneous urticaria may also progress to anaphylaxis (oral allergy syndrome, OAS). A positive skin test and/or radioallergosorbent test (RAST) to the foods suggest involvement of immunoglobulin (Ig)E-anaphylaxis in both disorders. The triggering foods and initial target organs are usually different in each case. In the present study, a 32-year-old male reported dyspnea accompanied by wheals, and symptoms of low blood pressure while walking after eating Chinese noodles and donuts. He also reported uncomfortable sensations in his mouth and throat after ingesting melon. Exercise challenge tests were administered. Serum histamine, plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine were measured pre- and post-test. No symptoms were induced by exercise or by the ingestion of any single food item before exercise. However, numerous wheals appeared when exercise followed the combined ingestion of foods. Likewise, the sequence of eating pancakes and then exercising resulted in numerous wheals and anaphylaxis. Olopatadine hydrochloride and ketotifen fumarate completely inhibited this anaphylaxis. The skin prick tests resulted in fruit-induced erythema and wheals. The results of these tests with wheat, butter and sugar were negative, and no symptoms were induced by the exercise test after ingestion of watermelon, melon or apple. The anaphylactoid symptoms were accompanied by a significant increase of plasma noradrenaline. In this case, not only wheat, but sugar and butter may induce the onset of FDEIA. There was no significant correlation between the intensity of the symptoms and the serum histamine levels in the present case. Noradrenaline may be involved in the onset of FDEIA, since noradrenaline may selectively inhibit T-helper (Th)1 functions while favoring Th2 responses. The tests showed no cross-reactivity between the

  16. Monitoring the Prevalence of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi in Southern China and Testing Tricyclic Compounds against Gametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenting; Pang, Qin; Xu, Ruixue; Liu, Jianwen; Liu, Shengfa; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss on the poultry industry. Two major species of Leucocytozoon parasites have been reported in China, L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi, although L. sabrazesi appears to be more widespread than L. caulleryi in southern China. The traditional method for detecting Leucocytozoon infection is microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of mature gametocytes in circulation, which may miss infections with low parasitemia (gametocytemia) or immature gametocytes. Here we developed a PCR-based method to monitor L. sabrazesi infections at seven sites in four provinces of China after testing two PCR primer pairs based on parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase III (coxIII) genes. We compared the results of PCR detection with those of microscopic observation. As expected, the PCR assays were more sensitive than microscope examination in detecting L. sabrazesi infection and were able to detect parasite DNA after gametocytes disappeared in the blood stream. Using these methods, we investigated monthly dynamics of L. sabrazesi in chickens from a free-range farm in Xiamen, Fujian province of China, over one year. Our results showed that chickens were infected with L. sabrazesi year-round in southern China. Finally, we tested several compounds for potential treatment of Leucocytozoon infections, including primaquine, ketotifen, clomipramine hydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, sulfaquinoxaline, and pyrimethamine. Only primaquine had activity against L. sabrazesi gametocytes. Our results provide important information for controlling parasite transmission in southern China and disease management. PMID:27571513

  17. Treatment of allergic rhinitis in infants and children: efficacy and safety of second-generation antihistamines and the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hanna; Moeller, Matthew L; Nahata, Milap C

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects a large percentage of paediatric patients. With the wide array of available agents, it has become a challenge to choose the most appropriate treatment for patients. Second-generation antihistamines have become increasingly popular because of their comparable efficacy and lower incidence of adverse effects relative to their first-generation counterparts, and the safety and efficacy of this drug class are established in the adult population. Data on the use of the second-generation antihistamines oral cetirizine, levocetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine and fexofenadine, and the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast as well as azelastine nasal spray in infants and children are evaluated in this review. These agents have been found to be relatively safe and effective in reducing symptoms associated with AR in children. Alternative dosage forms such as liquids or oral disintegrating tablets are available for most agents, allowing ease of administration to most young children and infants; however, limited data are available regarding use in infants for most agents, except desloratadine, cetirizine and montelukast. Unlike their predecessors, such as astemizole and terfenadine, the newer second-generation antihistamines and montelukast appear to be well tolerated, with absence of cardiotoxicities. Comparative studies are limited to cetirizine versus ketotifen, oxatomide and/or montelukast. Although second-generation antihistamines and montelukast are deemed relatively safe for use in paediatric patients, there are some noteworthy drug interactions to consider when selecting an agent. Given the wide variety of available agents for treatment of AR in paediatric patients, the safety and efficacy data available for specific age groups, type of AR, dosage form availability and cost should be considered when selecting treatment for AR in infants and children. PMID:19943707

  18. Monitoring the Prevalence of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi in Southern China and Testing Tricyclic Compounds against Gametocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenting; Pang, Qin; Xu, Ruixue; Liu, Jianwen; Liu, Shengfa; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss on the poultry industry. Two major species of Leucocytozoon parasites have been reported in China, L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi, although L. sabrazesi appears to be more widespread than L. caulleryi in southern China. The traditional method for detecting Leucocytozoon infection is microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of mature gametocytes in circulation, which may miss infections with low parasitemia (gametocytemia) or immature gametocytes. Here we developed a PCR-based method to monitor L. sabrazesi infections at seven sites in four provinces of China after testing two PCR primer pairs based on parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase III (coxIII) genes. We compared the results of PCR detection with those of microscopic observation. As expected, the PCR assays were more sensitive than microscope examination in detecting L. sabrazesi infection and were able to detect parasite DNA after gametocytes disappeared in the blood stream. Using these methods, we investigated monthly dynamics of L. sabrazesi in chickens from a free-range farm in Xiamen, Fujian province of China, over one year. Our results showed that chickens were infected with L. sabrazesi year-round in southern China. Finally, we tested several compounds for potential treatment of Leucocytozoon infections, including primaquine, ketotifen, clomipramine hydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, sulfaquinoxaline, and pyrimethamine. Only primaquine had activity against L. sabrazesi gametocytes. Our results provide important information for controlling parasite transmission in southern China and disease management. PMID:27571513

  19. Analysis of release kinetics of ocular therapeutics from drug releasing contact lenses: Best methods and practices to advance the field.

    PubMed

    Tieppo, Arianna; Boggs, Aarika C; Pourjavad, Payam; Byrne, Mark E

    2014-08-01

    Several methods have been proposed to achieve an extended and controlled release of ocular therapeutics via contact lenses; however, the experimental conditions used to study the drug release vary greatly and significantly influence the release kinetics. In this paper, we examine variations in the release conditions and their effect on the release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs (ketotifen fumarate, diclofenac sodium, timolol maleate and dexamethasone) from conventional hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses. Drug release was studied under different conditions, varying volume, mixing rates, and temperature. Volume had the biggest effect on the release profile, which ironically is the least consistent variable throughout the literature. When a small volume (2-30 mL) was used with no forced mixing and solvent exchange every 24 h, equilibrium was reached promptly much earlier than solvent exchange, significantly damping the drug release rate and artificially extending the release duration, leading to false conclusions. Using a large volume (200-400 mL) with a 30 rpm mixing rate and no solvent exchange, the release rate and total mass released was significantly increased. In general, the release performed in small volumes with no force mixing exhibited cumulative mass release amounts of 3-12 times less than the cumulative release amounts in large volumes with mixing. Increases in mixing rate and temperature resulted in relatively small increases of 1.4 and 1.2 times, respectively in fractional mass released. These results strongly demonstrate the necessity of proper and thorough analysis of release data to assure that equilibrium is not affecting release kinetics. This is paramount for comparison of various controlled drug release methods of therapeutic contact lenses, validation of the potential of lenses as an efficient and effective means of drug delivery, as well as increasing the likelihood of only the most promising methods reaching in vivo studies. PMID

  20. Punishing and cardiovascular effects of intravenous histamine in rats: pharmacological selectivity.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2013-11-01

    Although drugs may serve as reinforcers or punishers of operant behavior, the punishing function has received much less experimental attention than the reinforcing function. A sensitive method for studying drug-induced punishment is to assess choice for a punished response over an unpunished response. In these experiments, rats chose between pressing one lever and receiving a sucrose pellet or pressing another lever and receiving a sucrose pellet plus an intravenous injection of histamine. When sucrose was delivered equally frequently for either the punished or the unpunished response, rats selected the unpunished lever consistently, but decreases in the punished response did not differ as a function of intravenous histamine dose (0.1-1 mg/kg/inj). Changing the procedure so that sucrose was delivered on the unpunished lever with p = .5 increased the rats' responding on the punished lever with saline injections. In addition, the same range of histamine doses produced a much larger range of responses on the punished lever that was dose dependent. Using these procedures to assess the receptors mediating histamine's effects, the histamine H1 -receptor antagonists, pyrilamine and ketotifen, antagonized the punishing effect of histamine, but the histamine H2 -receptor antagonist ranitidine did not. However, ranitidine pretreatments reduced histamine-induced heart-rate increases to a greater extent than did the histamine H1 -receptor antagonists when administered at the same doses examined under conditions of histamine punishment. Overall, the present findings extend the general hypothesis that activation of histamine H1 -receptors mediates the punishing effects of histamine. They also introduce methods for rapidly assessing pharmacological mechanisms underlying drug-induced punishment.

  1. The role of endoscopy and biopsy in the management of severe gastrointestinal disease in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neil; Tan, Hui-leng; Sebire, Neil; Suri, Ranjan; Leuven, Ku

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest the presence of chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Some CF patients continue to have very severe gastrointestinal symptoms despite conventional CF treatment. In our center, these patients are managed in a CF gastroenterology clinic, jointly with a pediatric gastroenterologist. A number have required GI endoscopy and biopsy. The aim of our study was to characterize these patients and determine whether endoscopy and biopsy changed their management. We reviewed all the patients seen in the CF gastroenterology clinic from 2004 to 2009, who had GI endoscopies performed. The GI symptoms these patients were experiencing included abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, rectal bleeding, failure to thrive, loose stools, and constipation. Twelve patients had GI endoscopies with mucosal biopsies performed. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] age at referral to the CF gastroenterology clinic was 4 years [0.9-8]. Their body mass index (BMI) was 15.2 [13.7-15.5]. Twenty-five percent were homozygous delta F508. Two patients had previously had meconium ileus as neonates requiring surgical intervention. One other patient had needed abdominal surgery for intussusception. Ninty-two percent were pancreatic insufficient, 25% were chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 17% were on regularly 3 monthly intravenous antibiotics. Of the 10 patients who were able to perform spirometry, FEV1 was 101% [67-125] predicted. Nine of the 12 patients had evidence of mucosal inflammation in their biopsies, including duodenitis with eosinophilic infiltrate, chronic non-specific inactive gastritis, enteropathy with partial villous atrophy, and non-specific colitis. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory therapies were commenced in these nine patients, including prednisolone, azathioprine, methotrexate, ketotifen, mesalazine, and sulfasalazine as well as the use of parenteral nutrition and

  2. Damage from dissection is associated with reduced neuro-musclar transmission and gap junction coupling between circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Simona E; Wattchow, David A; Spencer, Nick J; Hibberd, Timothy J; Brookes, Simon J H

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials of circular smooth muscle cells in guinea pig ileum and colon are suppressed 30-90 min after setting up in vitro preparations. We have previously shown this "unresponsive" period is associated with a transient loss of dye coupling between smooth muscle cells, which subsequently recovers over the ensuing 30-90 min; junction potentials recover in parallel with dye coupling (Carbone et al., 2012). Here, we investigated which components of dissection trigger the initial loss of coupling. Intracellular recordings were made from circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum with micropipettes containing 5% carboxyfluorescein. After allowing 90-120 min for junction potentials to reach full amplitude, we re-cut all 4 edges of the preparation more than 1 mm from the recording sites. This caused a reduction in the amplitude of IJPs from 17.2 ± 0.7 mV to 9.5 ± 1.5 mV (P < 0.001, n = 12) and a significant reduction in dye coupling. Both recovered within 60 min. We repeated this experiment (n = 4), recording both 1 and 4 mm from the cut edge: both sites were equally affected by re-cutting the sides of the preparation. Equilibrated preparations were stretched to 150% of their original length, this had no significant effect on junction potentials or dye coupling. Setting up preparations in low calcium solution did not prevent the initial suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. Application of 3 μM indomethacin (n = 3), 10 μM ketotifen (n = 4) or 10 μM forskolin during dissection did not prevent the suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. If dissection damage was reduced, by leaving the mucosa and submucosa attached to the circular muscle, IJPs showed less initial suppression than in preparations where the layers were dissected off. We conclude that physical damage to the gut wall triggers loss of gap junction coupling and neuromuscular transmission, this is not due to stretch, influx of calcium ions, release of prostaglandins or mast cell