Sample records for key pharmacokinetic parameters

  1. [Diagnostic value of quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters and relative quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters in breast lesions with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI].

    PubMed

    Sun, T T; Liu, W H; Zhang, Y Q; Li, L H; Wang, R; Ye, Y Y

    2017-08-01

    Objective: To explore the differential between the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters and relative pharmacokinetic quantitative parameters in breast lesions. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 255 patients(262 breast lesions) who was obtained by clinical palpation , ultrasound or full-field digital mammography , and then all lessions were pathologically confirmed in Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University from May 2012 to May 2016. A 3.0 T MRI scanner was used to obtain the quantitative MR pharmacokinetic parameters: volume transfer constant (K(trans)), exchange rate constant (k(ep))and extravascular extracellular volume fraction (V(e)). And measured the quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters of normal glands tissues which on the same side of the same level of the lesions; and then calculated the value of relative pharmacokinetic parameters: rK(rans)、rk(ep) and rV(e).To explore the diagnostic value of two pharmacokinetic parameters in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions using receiver operating curves and model of logistic regression. Results: (1)There were significant differences between benign lesions and malignant lesions in K(trans) and k(ep) ( t =15.489, 15.022, respectively, P <0.05), there were no significant differences between benign lesions and malignant lesions in V(e)( t =-2.346, P >0.05). The areas under the ROC curve(AUC)of K(trans), k(ep) and V(e) between malignant and benign lesions were 0.933, 0.948 and 0.387, the sensitivity of K(trans), k(ep) and V(e) were 77.1%, 85.0%, 51.0% , and the specificity of K(trans), k(ep) and V(e) were 96.3%, 93.6%, 60.8% for the differential diagnosis of breast lesions if taken the maximum Youden's index as cut-off. (2)There were significant differences between benign lesions and malignant lesions in rK(trans), rk(ep) and rV(e) ( t =14.177, 11.726, 2.477, respectively, P <0.05). The AUC of rK(trans), rk(ep) and rV(e) between malignant and benign

  2. Estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters from non-compartmental variables using Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Dansirikul, Chantaratsamon; Choi, Malcolm; Duffull, Stephen B

    2005-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method, termed 'back analysis (BA)', for converting non-compartmental variables to compartment model dependent pharmacokinetic parameters for both one- and two-compartment models. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet was implemented with the use of Solver and visual basic functions. The performance of the BA method in estimating pharmacokinetic parameter values was evaluated by comparing the parameter values obtained to a standard modelling software program, NONMEM, using simulated data. The results show that the BA method was reasonably precise and provided low bias in estimating fixed and random effect parameters for both one- and two-compartment models. The pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from the BA method were similar to those of NONMEM estimation.

  3. A Bayesian approach to tracking patients having changing pharmacokinetic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Jelliffe, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the updating of Bayesian posterior densities for pharmacokinetic models associated with patients having changing parameter values. For estimation purposes it is proposed to use the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) estimation algorithm, which is currently a popular algorithm in the aerospace community for tracking maneuvering targets. The IMM algorithm is described, and compared to the multiple model (MM) and Maximum A-Posteriori (MAP) Bayesian estimation methods, which are presently used for posterior updating when pharmacokinetic parameters do not change. Both the MM and MAP Bayesian estimation methods are used in their sequential forms, to facilitate tracking of changing parameters. Results indicate that the IMM algorithm is well suited for tracking time-varying pharmacokinetic parameters in acutely ill and unstable patients, incurring only about half of the integrated error compared to the sequential MM and MAP methods on the same example.

  4. Experimental design and efficient parameter estimation in preclinical pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Ette, E I; Howie, C A; Kelman, A W; Whiting, B

    1995-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulation technique used to evaluate the effect of the arrangement of concentrations on the efficiency of estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters in the preclinical setting is described. Although the simulations were restricted to the one compartment model with intravenous bolus input, they provide the basis of discussing some structural aspects involved in designing a destructive ("quantic") preclinical population pharmacokinetic study with a fixed sample size as is usually the case in such studies. The efficiency of parameter estimation obtained with sampling strategies based on the three and four time point designs were evaluated in terms of the percent prediction error, design number, individual and joint confidence intervals coverage for parameter estimates approaches, and correlation analysis. The data sets contained random terms for both inter- and residual intra-animal variability. The results showed that the typical population parameter estimates for clearance and volume were efficiently (accurately and precisely) estimated for both designs, while interanimal variability (the only random effect parameter that could be estimated) was inefficiently (inaccurately and imprecisely) estimated with most sampling schedules of the two designs. The exact location of the third and fourth time point for the three and four time point designs, respectively, was not critical to the efficiency of overall estimation of all population parameters of the model. However, some individual population pharmacokinetic parameters were sensitive to the location of these times.

  5. Pharmacokinetic parameters explain the therapeutic activity of antimicrobial agents in a silkworm infection model.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Atmika; Panthee, Suresh; Urai, Makoto; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2018-01-25

    Poor pharmacokinetic parameters are a major reason for the lack of therapeutic activity of some drug candidates. Determining the pharmacokinetic parameters of drug candidates at an early stage of development requires an inexpensive animal model with few associated ethical issues. In this study, we used the silkworm infection model to perform structure-activity relationship studies of an antimicrobial agent, GPI0039, a novel nitrofuran dichloro-benzyl ester, and successfully identified compound 5, a nitrothiophene dichloro-benzyl ester, as a potent antimicrobial agent with superior therapeutic activity in the silkworm infection model. Further, we compared the pharmacokinetic parameters of compound 5 with a nitrothiophene benzyl ester lacking chlorine, compound 7, that exerted similar antimicrobial activity but had less therapeutic activity in silkworms, and examined the metabolism of these antimicrobial agents in human liver fractions in vitro. Compound 5 had appropriate pharmacokinetic parameters, such as an adequate half-life, slow clearance, large area under the curve, low volume of distribution, and long mean residence time, compared with compound 7, and was slowly metabolized by human liver fractions. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent in the silkworms reflects appropriate pharmacokinetic properties.

  6. TC > 0.05 as a Pharmacokinetic Parameter of Paclitaxel for Therapeutic Efficacy and Toxicity in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Xin, D S; Zhou, L; Li, C Z; Zhang, S Q; Huang, H Q; Qiu, G D; Lin, L F; She, Y Q; Zheng, J T; Chen, C; Fang, L; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Zhang, S Y

    2018-03-05

    Paclitaxel (PTX) has remarkable anti-tumor activity, but it causes severe toxicities. There is an urgent need to seek an appropriate pharmacokinetic parameter of PTX to improve treatment efficacy and reduce adverse effects. To evaluate the association of pharmacokinetic parameter TC>0.05 of paclitaxel (PTX) and its therapeutic efficacy and toxicity in patients with solid tumors. A total of 295 patients with ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were admitted to the Tumor Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, China, were recruited for this study. Patients received 3 weeks of PTX chemotherapy. The plasma concentrations of PTX were examined using the MyPaclitaxelTM kit. The patients' PTX TC>0.05 (the time during which PTX plasma concentration exceed 0.05 μmol/L) were calculated based on pharmacokinetic analysis. The results showed that: (1) the concentrations of PTX in these 295 patients ranged from 0.0358-0.127 μmol/L; (2) the PTX TC> 0.05 ranged from 14 to 38 h with a median time of 27 h; (3) among all treatment cycles, there was a statistically significant difference in the PTX TC>0.05 between CR+PR and SD+PD; (4) with the increasing value of TC>0.05, level of leukopenia and leukopenic fever increased; (5) high PTX TC>0.05 led to the occurrence of neutropenia, neutropenic fever, severe anemia, and severe peripheral neurotoxicity. Taken together, our results indicated that the pharmacokinetic parameter PTX TC>0.05 was an effective measure of treatment efficacy and toxicity in patients with solid tumors. Maintaining PTX TC>0.05 at 26 to 30 h could improve its efficacy and reduce the incidence of leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and peripheral neurotoxicity in these patients. PTX TC>0.05 is a key pharmacokinetic parameter of PTX which should be monitored to optimize individual treatment in patients with solid tumors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Reproducibility of Histogram Analysis on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-yi; Su, Zi-hua; Xu, Xiao; Sun, Zhi-peng; Duan, Fei-xue; Song, Yuan-yuan; Li, Lu; Wang, Ying-wei; Ma, Xin; Guo, Ai-tao; Ma, Lin; Ye, Hui-yi

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) have been increasingly used to evaluate the permeability of tumor vessel. Histogram metrics are a recognized promising method of quantitative MR imaging that has been recently introduced in analysis of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters in oncology due to tumor heterogeneity. In this study, 21 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) underwent paired DCE-MRI studies on a 3.0 T MR system. Extended Tofts model and population-based arterial input function were used to calculate kinetic parameters of RCC tumors. Mean value and histogram metrics (Mode, Skewness and Kurtosis) of each pharmacokinetic parameter were generated automatically using ImageJ software. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and scan–rescan reproducibility were evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficient of variation (CoV). Our results demonstrated that the histogram method (Mode, Skewness and Kurtosis) was not superior to the conventional Mean value method in reproducibility evaluation on DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters (K trans & Ve) in renal cell carcinoma, especially for Skewness and Kurtosis which showed lower intra-, inter-observer and scan-rescan reproducibility than Mean value. Our findings suggest that additional studies are necessary before wide incorporation of histogram metrics in quantitative analysis of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:27380733

  8. Effect of co-medication on the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital in asphyxiated newborns.

    PubMed

    Šíma, M; Pokorná, P; Hronová, K; Slanař, O

    2015-01-01

    Phenobarbital is an anticonvulsive drug widely used in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The objective of our study was to describe possible effect of frequently co-administered medications (dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, furosemide, phenytoin, and analgesics) on the phenobarbital pharmacokinetics in full term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Phenobarbital pharmacokinetic parameters (standardized intravenous loading dose was 10-20 mg/kg, maintenance dose 2-6 mg/kg/day) were computed using non-compartmental analysis. Co-medication was evaluated throughout the whole treatment period up to 5 days. Volume of distribution, clearance, and half-life median values (95 % CI) for phenobarbital in the whole study population (n=37) were 0.48 (0.41-0.56) l/kg, 0.0034 (0.0028-0.0040) l/h/kg, and 93.7 (88.1-99.2) h, respectively. Phenobarbital pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly affected by vasoactive drugs (dopamine, dobutamine, and norepinephrine), furosemide, phenytoin, or analgesics. Furthermore, no dose-dependent alteration of phenobarbital pharmacokinetic parameters was noted for vasoactive medication at doses equivalent to cumulative vasoactive-inotropic score (area under the curve in a plot of vasoactive-inotropic score against time) 143.2-8473.6, furosemide at cumulative doses of 0.2-42.9 mg/kg, or phenytoin at cumulative doses of 10.3-46.2 mg/kg. Phenobarbital pharmacokinetics was not affected by investigated co-administered drugs used in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in real clinical settings.

  9. SUITABILITY OF USING IN VITRO AND COMPUTATIONALLY ESTIMATED PARAMETERS IN SIMPLIFIED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge in PBPK model development is estimating the parameters for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the parent compound and metabolites of interest. One approach to reduce the number of parameters has been to simplify pharmacokinetic models by lumping p...

  10. Gestation-Specific Changes in the Anatomy and Physiology of Healthy Pregnant Women: An Extended Repository of Model Parameters for Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, André; Ince, Ibrahim; Meyer, Michaela; Willmann, Stefan; Eissing, Thomas; Hempel, Georg

    2017-11-01

    In the past years, several repositories for anatomical and physiological parameters required for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in pregnant women have been published. While providing a good basis, some important aspects can be further detailed. For example, they did not account for the variability associated with parameters or were lacking key parameters necessary for developing more detailed mechanistic pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, such as the composition of pregnancy-specific tissues. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an updated and extended database of anatomical and physiological parameters in healthy pregnant women that also accounts for changes in the variability of a parameter throughout gestation and for the composition of pregnancy-specific tissues. A systematic literature search was carried out to collect study data on pregnancy-related changes of anatomical and physiological parameters. For each parameter, a set of mathematical functions was fitted to the data and to the standard deviation observed among the data. The best performing functions were selected based on numerical and visual diagnostics as well as based on physiological plausibility. The literature search yielded 473 studies, 302 of which met the criteria to be further analyzed and compiled in a database. In total, the database encompassed 7729 data. Although the availability of quantitative data for some parameters remained limited, mathematical functions could be generated for many important parameters. Gaps were filled based on qualitative knowledge and based on physiologically plausible assumptions. The presented results facilitate the integration of pregnancy-dependent changes in anatomy and physiology into mechanistic population physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Such models can ultimately provide a valuable tool to investigate the pharmacokinetics during pregnancy in silico and support informed decision making regarding

  11. Pharmacokinetic design optimization in children and estimation of maturation parameters: example of cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Bouillon-Pichault, Marion; Jullien, Vincent; Bazzoli, Caroline; Pons, Gérard; Tod, Michel

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether optimizing the study design in terms of ages and sampling times for a drug eliminated solely via cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) would allow us to accurately estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters throughout the entire childhood timespan, while taking into account age- and weight-related changes. A linear monocompartmental model with first-order absorption was used successively with three different residual error models and previously published pharmacokinetic parameters ("true values"). The optimal ages were established by D-optimization using the CYP3A4 maturation function to create "optimized demographic databases." The post-dose times for each previously selected age were determined by D-optimization using the pharmacokinetic model to create "optimized sparse sampling databases." We simulated concentrations by applying the population pharmacokinetic model to the optimized sparse sampling databases to create optimized concentration databases. The latter were modeled to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters. We then compared true and estimated parameter values. The established optimal design comprised four age ranges: 0.008 years old (i.e., around 3 days), 0.192 years old (i.e., around 2 months), 1.325 years old, and adults, with the same number of subjects per group and three or four samples per subject, in accordance with the error model. The population pharmacokinetic parameters that we estimated with this design were precise and unbiased (root mean square error [RMSE] and mean prediction error [MPE] less than 11% for clearance and distribution volume and less than 18% for k(a)), whereas the maturation parameters were unbiased but less precise (MPE < 6% and RMSE < 37%). Based on our results, taking growth and maturation into account a priori in a pediatric pharmacokinetic study is theoretically feasible. However, it requires that very early ages be included in studies, which may present an obstacle to the

  12. High Throughput pharmacokinetic modeling using computationally predicted parameter values: dissociation constants (TDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimates of the ionization association and dissociation constant (pKa) are vital to modeling the pharmacokinetic behavior of chemicals in vivo. Methodologies for the prediction of compound sequestration in specific tissues using partition coefficients require a parameter that ch...

  13. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kanani, Kunal; Gatoulis, Sergio C; Voelker, Michael

    2015-08-03

    Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer's clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA). Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  14. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kanani, Kunal; Gatoulis, Sergio C.; Voelker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer’s clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA). Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:26247959

  15. Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies. This report summarizes some of the recent progress in characterizing uncertainty and variability in physi...

  16. Relative sensitivities of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters to arterial input function (AIF) scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Cai, Yu; Moloney, Brendan; Chen, Yiyi; Huang, Wei; Woods, Mark; Coakley, Fergus V.; Rooney, William D.; Garzotto, Mark G.; Springer, Charles S.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used widely for clinical applications. Pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data that extracts quantitative contrast reagent/tissue-specific model parameters is the most investigated method. One of the primary challenges in pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data is accurate and reliable measurement of the arterial input function (AIF), which is the driving force behind all pharmacokinetics. Because of effects such as inflow and partial volume averaging, AIF measured from individual arteries sometimes require amplitude scaling for better representation of the blood contrast reagent (CR) concentration time-courses. Empirical approaches like blinded AIF estimation or reference tissue AIF derivation can be useful and practical, especially when there is no clearly visible blood vessel within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Similarly, these approaches generally also require magnitude scaling of the derived AIF time-courses. Since the AIF varies among individuals even with the same CR injection protocol and the perfect scaling factor for reconstructing the ground truth AIF often remains unknown, variations in estimated pharmacokinetic parameters due to varying AIF scaling factors are of special interest. In this work, using simulated and real prostate cancer DCE-MRI data, we examined parameter variations associated with AIF scaling. Our results show that, for both the fast-exchange-limit (FXL) Tofts model and the water exchange sensitized fast-exchange-regime (FXR) model, the commonly fitted CR transfer constant (Ktrans) and the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve) scale nearly proportionally with the AIF, whereas the FXR-specific unidirectional cellular water efflux rate constant, kio, and the CR intravasation rate constant, kep, are both AIF scaling insensitive. This indicates that, for DCE-MRI of prostate cancer and possibly other cancers, kio and kep may be more suitable imaging

  17. Relative sensitivities of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters to arterial input function (AIF) scaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Cai, Yu; Moloney, Brendan; Chen, Yiyi; Huang, Wei; Woods, Mark; Coakley, Fergus V; Rooney, William D; Garzotto, Mark G; Springer, Charles S

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used widely for clinical applications. Pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data that extracts quantitative contrast reagent/tissue-specific model parameters is the most investigated method. One of the primary challenges in pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data is accurate and reliable measurement of the arterial input function (AIF), which is the driving force behind all pharmacokinetics. Because of effects such as inflow and partial volume averaging, AIF measured from individual arteries sometimes require amplitude scaling for better representation of the blood contrast reagent (CR) concentration time-courses. Empirical approaches like blinded AIF estimation or reference tissue AIF derivation can be useful and practical, especially when there is no clearly visible blood vessel within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Similarly, these approaches generally also require magnitude scaling of the derived AIF time-courses. Since the AIF varies among individuals even with the same CR injection protocol and the perfect scaling factor for reconstructing the ground truth AIF often remains unknown, variations in estimated pharmacokinetic parameters due to varying AIF scaling factors are of special interest. In this work, using simulated and real prostate cancer DCE-MRI data, we examined parameter variations associated with AIF scaling. Our results show that, for both the fast-exchange-limit (FXL) Tofts model and the water exchange sensitized fast-exchange-regime (FXR) model, the commonly fitted CR transfer constant (K(trans)) and the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve) scale nearly proportionally with the AIF, whereas the FXR-specific unidirectional cellular water efflux rate constant, kio, and the CR intravasation rate constant, kep, are both AIF scaling insensitive. This indicates that, for DCE-MRI of prostate cancer and possibly other cancers, kio and kep may be more suitable imaging

  18. Association of pharmacokinetic and metabolic parameters derived using simultaneous PET/MRI: Initial findings and impact on response evaluation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jena, Amarnath; Taneja, Sangeeta; Singh, Aru; Negi, Pradeep; Mehta, Shashi Bhushan; Ahuja, Aashim; Singhal, Manish; Sarin, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    To study relationships among pharmacokinetic and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET parameters obtained through simultaneous PET/MRI in breast cancer patients and evaluate their combined potential for response evaluation. The study included 41 breast cancer patients for correlation study and 9 patients (pre and post therapy) for response evaluation. All patients underwent simultaneous PET/MRI with dedicated breast imaging. Pharmacokinetic parameters and PET parameters for tumor were derived using an in- house developed and vendor provided softwares respectively. Relationships between SUV and pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical as well as histopathologic parameters were evaluated using Spearman correlation analysis. Response to chemotherapy was derived as percentage reduction in size and in parameters post therapy. Significant correlations were observed between SUVmean, max, peak, TLG with K trans (ρ=0.446, 0.417, 0.491, 0.430; p≤0.01); with Kep(ρ=0.303, ρ=0.315, ρ=0.319; p≤0.05); and with iAUC(ρ=0.401, ρ=0.410, ρ=0.379; p≤0.05, p≤0.01). The ratio of ve/iAUC showed significant negative correlation to SUVmean, max, peak and TLG (ρ=0.420, 0.446, 0.443, 0.426; p≤0.01). Ability of SUV as well as pharmacokinetic parameters to predict response to therapy matched the RECIST criteria in 9 out of 11 lesions in 9 patients. Maximum post therapy quantitative reduction was observed in SUVpeak, TLG and K trans . Simultaneous PET/MRI enables illustration of close interactions between glucose metabolism and pharmacokinetic parameters in breast cancer patients and potential of their simultaneity in response assessment to therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient-Specific Pharmacokinetic Parameter Estimation on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Prostate: Preliminary Evaluation of a Novel AIF-Free Estimation Method

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B.; Taimen, Pekka; Merisaari, Harri; Vainio, Paula; Boström, Peter J.; Aronen, Hannu J.; Jambor, Ivan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a prostate-based method (PBM) for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by leveraging inherent differences in pharmacokinetic characteristics between the peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ). Materials and Methods This retrospective study, approved by the Institutional Review Board, included 40 patients who underwent a multiparametric 3T MRI examination and subsequent radical prostatectomy. A two-step PBM for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters exploited the inherent differences in pharmacokinetic characteristics associated with the TZ and PZ. First, the reference region model was implemented to estimate ratios of Ktrans between normal TZ and PZ. Subsequently, the reference region model was leveraged again to estimate values for Ktrans and ve for every prostate voxel. The parameters of PBM were compared with those estimated using an arterial input function (AIF) derived from the femoral arteries. The ability of the parameters to differentiate prostate cancer (PCa) from benign tissue was evaluated on a voxel and lesion level. Additionally, the effect of temporal downsampling of the DCE MRI data was assessed. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) in PBM Ktrans between PCa lesions and benign tissue were found in 26/27 patients with TZ lesions and in 33/38 patients with PZ lesions; significant differences in AIF-based Ktrans occurred in 26/27 and 30/38 patients, respectively. The 75th and 100th percentiles of Ktrans and ve estimated using PBM positively correlated with lesion size (P < 0.05). Conclusion Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated via PBM outperformed AIF-based parameters in PCa detection. PMID:27285161

  20. Patient-specific pharmacokinetic parameter estimation on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of prostate: Preliminary evaluation of a novel AIF-free estimation method.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B; Taimen, Pekka; Merisaari, Harri; Vainio, Paula; Boström, Peter J; Aronen, Hannu J; Jambor, Ivan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-12-01

    To develop and evaluate a prostate-based method (PBM) for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by leveraging inherent differences in pharmacokinetic characteristics between the peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ). This retrospective study, approved by the Institutional Review Board, included 40 patients who underwent a multiparametric 3T MRI examination and subsequent radical prostatectomy. A two-step PBM for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters exploited the inherent differences in pharmacokinetic characteristics associated with the TZ and PZ. First, the reference region model was implemented to estimate ratios of K trans between normal TZ and PZ. Subsequently, the reference region model was leveraged again to estimate values for K trans and v e for every prostate voxel. The parameters of PBM were compared with those estimated using an arterial input function (AIF) derived from the femoral arteries. The ability of the parameters to differentiate prostate cancer (PCa) from benign tissue was evaluated on a voxel and lesion level. Additionally, the effect of temporal downsampling of the DCE MRI data was assessed. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in PBM K trans between PCa lesions and benign tissue were found in 26/27 patients with TZ lesions and in 33/38 patients with PZ lesions; significant differences in AIF-based K trans occurred in 26/27 and 30/38 patients, respectively. The 75 th and 100 th percentiles of K trans and v e estimated using PBM positively correlated with lesion size (P < 0.05). Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated via PBM outperformed AIF-based parameters in PCa detection. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1405-1414. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Direct reconstruction of pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography by the augmented Lagrangian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dianwen; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yue; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) has the potential to quantify physiological or biochemical information, known as pharmacokinetic parameters, which are important for cancer detection, drug development and delivery etc. To image those parameters, there are indirect methods, which are easier to implement but tend to provide images with low signal-to-noise ratio, and direct methods, which model all the measurement noises together and are statistically more efficient. The direct reconstruction methods in dynamic FMT have attracted a lot of attention recently. However, the coupling of tomographic image reconstruction and nonlinearity of kinetic parameter estimation due to the compartment modeling has imposed a huge computational burden to the direct reconstruction of the kinetic parameters. In this paper, we propose to take advantage of both the direct and indirect reconstruction ideas through a variable splitting strategy under the augmented Lagrangian framework. Each iteration of the direct reconstruction is split into two steps: the dynamic FMT image reconstruction and the node-wise nonlinear least squares fitting of the pharmacokinetic parameter images. Through numerical simulation studies, we have found that the proposed algorithm can achieve good reconstruction results within a small amount of time. This will be the first step for a combined dynamic PET and FMT imaging in the future.

  2. Diagnosis of Spinal Lesions Using Heuristic and Pharmacokinetic Parameters Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ning; Yuan, Huishu; Yu, Hon J; Su, Min-Ying

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in differentiation of four spinal lesions by using heuristic and pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed from DCE signal intensity time course. DCE-MRI of 62 subjects with confirmed myeloma (n = 9), metastatic cancer (n = 22), lymphoma (n = 7), and inflammatory tuberculosis (TB) (n = 24) in the spine were analyzed retrospectively. The region of interest was placed on strongly enhanced tissues. The DCE time course was categorized as the "wash-out," "plateau," or "persistent enhancement" pattern. The maximum enhancement, steepest wash-in enhancement, and wash-out slope using the signal intensity at 67 seconds after contrast injection as reference were measured. The Tofts 2-compartmental pharmacokinetic model was applied to obtain K trans and k ep . Pearson correlation between heuristic and pharmacokinetic parameters was evaluated, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for pairwise group differentiation. The mean wash-out slope was -22% ± 10% for myeloma, 1% ± 0.4% for metastatic cancer, 3% ± 3% for lymphoma, and 7% ± 10% for TB, and it could significantly distinguish myeloma from metastasis (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.884), lymphoma (AUC = 1.0), and TB (AUC = 1.0) with P = .001, and distinguish metastasis from TB (AUC = 0.741) with P = .005. The k ep and wash-out slope were highly correlated (r = 0.92), and they showed a similar diagnostic performance. The K trans was significantly correlated with the maximum enhancement (r = 0.71) and the steepest wash-in enhancement (r = 0.85), but they had inferior diagnostic performance compared to the wash-out slope. DCE-MRI may provide additional diagnostic information, and a simple wash-out slope had the best diagnostic performance. The heuristic and pharmacokinetic parameters were highly correlated

  3. Advantage of population pharmacokinetic method for evaluating the bioequivalence and accuracy of parameter estimation of pidotimod.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jihan; Li, Mengying; Lv, Yinghua; Yang, Juan; Xu, Ling; Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Junchao; Wang, Kun; He, Yingchun; Zheng, Qingshan

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the accuracy of population pharmacokinetic method in evaluating the bioequivalence of pidotimod with sparse data profiles and whether this method is suitable for bioequivalence evaluation in special populations such as children with fewer samplings. Methods In this single-dose, two-period crossover study, 20 healthy male Chinese volunteers were randomized 1 : 1 to receive either the test or reference formulation, with a 1-week washout before receiving the alternative formulation. Noncompartmental and population compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted. Simulated data were analyzed to graphically evaluate the model and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the two pidotimod formulations. Various sparse sampling scenarios were generated from the real bioequivalence clinical trial data and evaluated by population pharmacokinetic method. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for AUC0-12h, AUC0-∞, and Cmax were 97.3 - 118.7%, 96.9 - 118.7%, and 95.1 - 109.8%, respectively, within the 80 - 125% range for bioequivalence using noncompartmental analysis. The population compartmental pharmacokinetics of pidotimod were described using a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag time. In the comparison of estimations in different dataset, the estimation of random three- and< fixed four-point sampling strategies can provide results similar to those obtained through rich sampling. The nonlinear mixed-effects model requires fewer data points. Moreover, compared with the noncompartmental analysis method, the pharmacokinetic parameters can be more accurately estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects model. The population pharmacokinetic modeling method was used to assess the bioequivalence of two pidotimod formulations with relatively few sampling points and further validated the bioequivalence of the two formulations. This method may provide useful information for regulating bioequivalence evaluation in special

  4. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of monoclonal antibodies in children.

    PubMed

    Edlund, Helena; Melin, Johanna; Parra-Guillen, Zinnia P; Kloft, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) constitute a therapeutically and economically important drug class with increasing use in both adult and paediatric patients. The rather complex pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of mAbs have been extensively reviewed in adults. In children, however, limited information is currently available. This paper aims to comprehensively review published pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies of mAbs in children. The current status of mAbs in the USA and in Europe is outlined, including a critical discussion of the dosing strategies of approved mAbs. The pharmacokinetic properties of mAbs in children are exhaustively summarised along with comparisons to reports in adults: for each pharmacokinetic process, we discuss the general principles and mechanisms of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of mAbs, as well as key growth and maturational processes in children that might impact these characteristics. Throughout this review, considerable knowledge gaps are identified, especially regarding children-specific properties that influence pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity. Furthermore, the large heterogeneity in the presentation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data limited clinical inferences in many aspects of paediatric mAb therapy. Overall, further studies are needed to fully understand the impact of body size and maturational changes on drug exposure and response. To maximise future knowledge gain, we propose a 'Guideline for Best Practice' on how to report pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic results from mAb studies in children which also facilitates comparisons. Finally, we advocate the use of more sophisticated modelling strategies (population analysis, physiology-based approaches) to appropriately characterise pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of mAbs and, thus, allow for a more rational use of mAb in the paediatric population.

  5. [Study on differences between pharmacokinetics and chromatopharmacodynamics for Chinese materia medica formulae].

    PubMed

    He, Fuyuan; Deng, Kaiwen; Zou, Huan; Qiu, Yun; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Honghao

    2011-01-01

    To study on the differences between chromatopharmacokinetics (pharmacokinetics with fingerprint chromatography) and chromatopharmacodynamics (pharmacodynamics with fingerprint chromatography) of Chinese materia medica formulae to answer the question whether the pharmacokinetic parameters of multiple composites can be utilized to guide the medication of multiple composites. On the base of established four chromatopharmacology (pharmacology with chromatographic fingerprint), the pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were analyzed comparably on their mathematical model and parameter definition. On the basis of quantitative pharmacology, the function expressions and total statistical parameters, such as total zero moment, total first moment, total second moment of the pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were analyzed to the common expressions and elucidated results for single and multiple components in Chinese materia medica formulae. Total quantitative pharmacokinetic, i.e., chromatopharmacokinetic parameter were decided by each component pharmacokinetic parameters, whereas the total quantitative pharmacodynamic, i.e., chromatopharmacodynamic parameter were decided by both of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of each components. The pharmacokinetic parameters were corresponded to pharmacodynamic parameters with an existing stable effective coefficient when the constitutive ratio of each composite was a constant. The effects of Chinese materia medica were all controlled by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic coefficient. It is a special case that the pharmacokinetic parameter could independently guide the clinical medication for single component whereas the chromatopharmacokinetic parameters are not applied to the multiple drug combination system, and not be used to solve problems of chromatopharmacokinetic of Chinese materia medica formulae.

  6. A COMPREHENSIVE INSIGHT ON OCULAR PHARMACOKINETICS

    PubMed Central

    Agrahari, Vibhuti; Mandal, Abhirup; Agrahari, Vivek; Trinh, Hoang My; Joseph, Mary; Ray, Animikh; Hadji, Hicheme; Mitra, Ranjana; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2017-01-01

    Eye is a distinctive organ with protective anatomy and physiology. Several pharmacokinetics compartment model of ocular drug delivery has been developed for describing the absorption, distribution and elimination of ocular drugs in the eye. Determining pharmacokinetics parameters in ocular tissues is a major challenge because of the complex anatomy and dynamic physiological barrier of the eye. In this review, pharmacokinetics of these compartments exploring different drugs, delivery systems and routes of administration are discussed including factors affecting intraocular bioavailability. Factors such as pre-corneal fluid drainage, drug binding to tear proteins, systemic drug absorption, corneal factors, melanin binding, drug metabolism renders ocular delivery challenging and elaborated in this manuscript. Several compartment models are discussed those are developed in ocular drug delivery to study the pharmacokinetics parameters. There are several transporters present in both anterior and posterior segments of the eye which play a significant role in ocular pharmacokinetics and summarized briefly. Moreover, several ocular pharmacokinetics animal models and relevant studies are reviewed and discussed in addition to the pharmacokinetics of various ocular formulations. PMID:27798766

  7. Gaussian process inference for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Liu, Peter; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new pharmacokinetic model for parameter estimation of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI by using Gaussian process inference. Our model is based on the Tofts dual-compartment model for the description of tracer kinetics and the observed time series from DCE-MRI is treated as a Gaussian stochastic process. The parameter estimation is done through a maximum likelihood approach and we propose a variant of the coordinate descent method to solve this likelihood maximization problem. The new model was shown to outperform a baseline method on simulated data. Parametric maps generated on prostate DCE data with the new model also provided better enhancement of tumors, lower intensity on false positives, and better boundary delineation when compared with the baseline method. New statistical parameter maps from the process model were also found to be informative, particularly when paired with the PK parameter maps.

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Methotrexate in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Utilization of Routine Clinical Monitoring Parameters.

    PubMed

    Nader, Ahmed; Zahran, Noran; Alshammaa, Aya; Altaweel, Heba; Kassem, Nancy; Wilby, Kyle John

    2017-04-01

    Clinical response to methotrexate in cancer is variable and depends on several factors including serum drug exposure. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model describing methotrexate disposition in cancer patients using retrospective chart review data available from routine clinical practice. A retrospective review of medical records was conducted for cancer patients in Qatar. Relevant data (methotrexate dosing/concentrations from multiple occasions, patient history, and laboratory values) were extracted and analyzed using NONMEM VII ® . A population pharmacokinetic model was developed and used to estimate inter-individual and inter-occasion variability terms on methotrexate pharmacokinetic parameters, as well as patient factors affecting methotrexate pharmacokinetics. Methotrexate disposition was described by a two-compartment model with clearance (CL) of 15.7 L/h and central volume of distribution (V c ) of 79.2 L. Patient weight and hematocrit levels were significant covariates on methotrexate V c and CL, respectively. Methotrexate CL changed by 50 % with changes in hematocrit levels from 23 to 50 %. Inter-occasion variability in methotrexate CL was estimated for patients administered the drug on multiple occasions (48 and 31 % for 2nd and 3rd visits, respectively). Therapeutic drug monitoring data collected during routine clinical practice can provide a useful tool for understanding factors affecting methotrexate pharmacokinetics. Patient weight and hematocrit levels may play a clinically important role in determining methotrexate serum exposure and dosing requirements. Future prospective studies are needed to validate results of the developed model and evaluate its usefulness to predict methotrexate exposure and optimize dosing regimens.

  9. Association of the clinical efficacy of vancomycin with the novel pharmacokinetic parameter area under the trough level (AUTL) in elderly patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fukumori, S; Tsuji, Y; Mizoguchi, A; Kasai, H; Ishibashi, T; Iwamura, N; To, H

    2016-08-01

    The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameter that best predicts the efficacy of vancomycin is the ratio of the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A 24-h AUC (AUC24 )/MIC ratio ≥ 400 was recommended in an American consensus review, but vancomycin treatment occasionally fails despite maintenance of AUC24 /MIC ≥ 400. We evaluated the association between clinical efficacy of vancomycin and two novel pharmacokinetic parameters, the 'area under the trough level' (AUTL) and the 'area above the trough level' (AATL), in hospitalized elderly patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. The subjects were hospitalized elderly patients who were administered vancomycin for treatment of MRSA pneumonia between 2006 and 2012 at Sasebo Chuo Hospital (Nagasaki, Japan). Pharmacokinetic parameters of vancomycin were estimated for each patient by Bayesian analysis using population pharmacokinetic parameters for Japanese patients. Based on the patient-specific parameters thus obtained, AUC24 values were calculated as the vancomycin dosage divided by vancomycin clearance. AUTL was calculated as the trough serum concentration multiplied by 24 h, whereas AATL was calculated by subtracting AUTL from AUC24 . Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that efficacy of vancomycin was more strongly associated with AUTL than AUC24 . The optimal cut-off value of AUTL was 331 μg∙h/mL, which means that the optimal cut-off value of the trough serum concentration was 13·8 μg/mL. Efficacy of vancomycin was associated with AUTL, a novel pharmacokinetic parameter. Determining the target AUTL or trough concentration may enhance the efficacy of vancomycin therapy in elderly patients with MRSA pneumonia. Given that nephrotoxicity may increase with a Ctrough in excess of 15 μg/mL, this level should ideally not be exceeded. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of sampling schedule on pharmacokinetic parameter estimates of promethazine in astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Wang, Zuwei; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2005-08-01

    Six astronauts on the Shuttle Transport System (STS) participated in an investigation on the pharmacokinetics of promethazine (PMZ), a medication used for the treatment of space motion sickness (SMS) during flight. Each crewmember completed the protocol once during flight and repeated thirty days after returned to Earth. Saliva samples were collected at scheduled times for 72 h after PMZ administration; more frequent samples were collected on the ground than during flight owing to schedule constraints in flight. PMZ concentrations in saliva were determined by a liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (LC-MS) assay and pharmacokinetic parameters (PKPs) were calculated using actual flight and ground-based data sets and using time-matched sampling schedule on ground to that during flight. Volume of distribution (Vc) and clearance (Cls) decreased during flight compared to that from time-matched ground data set; however, ClS and Vc estimates were higher for all subjects when partial ground data sets were used for analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) normalized with administered dose was similar in flight and partial ground data; however AUC was significantly lower using time-matched sampling compared with the full data set on ground. Half life (t1/2) was longest during flight, shorter with matched-sampling schedule on ground and shortest when complete data set from ground was used. Maximum concentration (Cmax), time for Cmax (tmax), parameters of drug absorption, depicted a similar trend with lowest and longest respectively, during flight, lower with time- matched ground data and highest and shortest with full ground data.

  11. Population Pharmacokinetics of Bevacizumab in Children with Osteosarcoma: Implications for Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Turner, David C.; Navid, Fariba; Daw, Najat C.; Mao, Shenghua; Wu, Jianrong; Santana, Victor M.; Neel, Michael; Rao, Bhaskar; Willert, Jennifer Reikes; Loeb, David M.; Harstead, K. Elaine; Throm, Stacy L.; Freeman, Burgess B.; Stewart, Clinton F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe sources of interindividual variability in bevacizumab disposition in pediatric patients and explore associations among bevacizumab pharmacokinetics and clinical wound healing outcomes. Experimental Design Prior to tumor resection, three doses of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) were administered to patients (median age 12.2 years) enrolled on a multi-institutional osteosarcoma trial. Serial sampling for bevacizumab pharmacokinetics was obtained from 27 patients. A population pharmacokinetic model was fit to the data, and patient demographics and clinical chemistry values were systematically tested as predictive covariates on model parameters. Associations between bevacizumab exposure and wound healing status were evaluated by logistic regression. Results Bevacizumab concentration-time data were adequately described by a two-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were similar to those previously reported in adults with a long median (range) terminal half-life of 12.2 days (8.6 to 32.4 days) and a volume of distribution indicating confinement primarily to the vascular space,49.1 mL/kg (27.1 to 68.3 mL/kg). Body composition was a key determinant of bevacizumab exposure as body mass index percentile was significantly (p<0.05) correlated to body-weight normalized clearance and volume of distribution. Furthermore, bevacizumab exposure prior to primary tumor resection was associated with increased risk of major wound healing complications after surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion A population pharmacokinetic model for bevacizumab was developed which demonstrated that variability in bevacizumab exposure using weight-based dosing is related to body composition. Bevacizumab dosage scaling using ideal body weight would provide an improved dosing approach in children by minimizing pharmacokinetic variability and reducing likelihood of major wound healing complications. PMID:24637635

  12. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters following single dose of sitagliptin in healthy Indian males.

    PubMed

    Sangle, Ganesh V; Patil, Mohan; Deshmukh, Nitin J; Shengule, Sushant A; Kamble, Shantibhushan; Vuppalavanchu, Kiran Kumar; Kale, Sushil; Baig, Mirza Layeeq Ahmed; Singh, Geetchandra; Shaikh, Javed; Tripathi, Jitendra; Aravindababu, P

    2018-05-01

    Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is reported to be more efficacious in Indian patients than non-Indian patient population. The objective of the study was to evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters of single-dose sitagliptin 100 mg (Januvia) in healthy Indian male participants. In a randomised, single-dose, open-label, three-treatment, three-period, three-sequence, crossover bioavailability study, 18 healthy male participants received single-dose of sitagliptin under fasted and fed conditions. PK parameters (C max , T max , AUC 0-∞ and t 1/2 ) were determined using Phoenix WinNonlin software. PD parameters [DPP-IV inhibition, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and insulin] were determined using established methods. PK parameters expressed in mean (SD) were C max 491.7 (135.9) ng/mL; AUC 0-∞ 4256.1 (509.9) ng· hr/mL, T max 2.9 (1.0) hr and t 1/2 10.4 (3.0) hr. The weighted average (WA) plasma DPP-4 inhibition over 24 h was 89.6% and WA of plasma active GLP-1 over 2 h after standardised meal (geometric mean ratio) was 11.1 (9.9) pM/L which is two- to- four fold higher compared to that reported in other populations. The mean average (SD) AUC of plasma insulin over 2 h of standardised meal was 47.9 (24.9) μIU/mL. Although, there are differences in pharmacokinetic parameters, no clinically meaningful differences were observed with respect to DPP-IV inhibition between Indian and non-Indian population.

  13. [Effects of sanguisorba tannins and saponins compatibility on pharmacokinetic parameters of catechin, epicatechin and ziyuglycoside Ⅰ in rats].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yong-Ai; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    To study the effects of sanguisorba tannins and saponins compatibility at different proportions [tannins-saponins (1∶1) and tannins-saponins(8∶1)] after intragastric administration (50 mg•kg⁻¹) on pharmacokinetic parameters of catechin, epicatechin and ziyuglycoside Ⅰ in rats by using pharmacokinetic techniques and methods. Kinetica 5.0 software was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The results showed that the specificity, linearity, recovery rate, precision and stability of the established detection method were in line with the test requirements. When the sanguisorba tannins and eaponins were combined at the rate of 1∶1, Vd and CL of catechin and epicatechin were increased significantly(P<0.05); MRT was significantly shortened(P<0.05); Cmax and AUC were significantly reduced(P<0.05). When the sanguisorba tannins and saponins were combined at the rate of 8∶1, Vd and CL of catechin and epicatechin were significantly reduced(P<0.05); MRT was significantly prolonged(P<0.05); Cmax and AUC were increased significantly(P<0.05). In addition, with the increase in proportion of sanguisorba tannins in the compatibility, Cmax and AUC of ziyuglycoside Ⅰ were increased significantly(P<0.05); Vd and CL were significantly reduced(P<0.05), Tmax was obviously lagging behind, and MRT was also significantly prolonged(P<0.05). In our present study, catechin, epicatechin and ziyuglycoside Ⅰ showed good pharmacokinetic behavior in rats when sanguisorba tannins and saponins were combined at the rate of 8∶1 in compatibility, which could be used as a reference for the proportion in sanguisorba tannins and saponins compatibility. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Effect of Sampling Schedule on Pharmacokinetic Parameter Estimates of Promethazine in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Wang, Zuwei; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2005-01-01

    Six astronauts on the Shuttle Transport System (STS) participated in an investigation on the pharmacokinetics of promethazine (PMZ), a medication used for the treatment of space motion sickness (SMS) during flight. Each crewmember completed the protocol once during flight and repeated thirty days after returned to Earth. Saliva samples were collected at scheduled times for 72 h after PMZ administration; more frequent samples were collected on the ground than during flight owing to schedule constraints in flight. PMZ concentrations in saliva were determined by a liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (LC-MS) assay and pharmacokinetic parameters (PKPs) were calculated using actual flight and ground-based data sets and using time-matched sampling schedule on ground to that during flight. Volume of distribution (V(sub c)) and clearance (Cl(sub s),) decreased during flight compared to that from time-matched ground data set; however, Cl(sub s) and V(sub c) estimates were higher for all subjects when partial ground data sets were used for analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) normalized with administered dose was similar in flight and partial ground data; however AUC was significantly lower using time-matched sampling compared with the full data set on ground. Half life (t(sub 1/2)) was longest during flight, shorter with matched-sampling schedule on ground and shortest when complete data set from ground was used. Maximum concentration (C(sub max)), time for C(sub max), (t(sub max)), parameters of drug absorption, depicted a similar trend with lowest and longest respectively, during flight, lower with time-matched ground data and highest and shortest with full ground data.

  15. Investigating pulmonary and systemic pharmacokinetics of inhaled olodaterol in healthy volunteers using a population pharmacokinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Borghardt, Jens Markus; Weber, Benjamin; Staab, Alexander; Kunz, Christina; Formella, Stephan; Kloft, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    Olodaterol, a novel β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is a long-acting, once-daily inhaled bronchodilator approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of the present study was to describe the plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of olodaterol after intravenous administration and oral inhalation in healthy volunteers by population pharmacokinetic modelling and thereby to infer its pulmonary fate. Plasma and urine data after intravenous administration (0.5-25 μg) and oral inhalation (2.5-70 μg via the Respimat® inhaler) were available from a total of 148 healthy volunteers (single and multiple dosing). A stepwise model building approach was applied, using population pharmacokinetic modelling. Systemic disposition parameters were fixed to estimates obtained from intravenous data when modelling data after inhalation. A pharmacokinetic model, including three depot compartments with associated parallel first-order absorption processes (pulmonary model) on top of a four-compartment body model (systemic disposition model), was found to describe the data the best. The dose reaching the lung (pulmonary bioavailable fraction) was estimated to be 49.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 46.1, 52.7%] of the dose released from the device. A large proportion of the pulmonary bioavailable fraction [70.1% (95% CI 66.8, 73.3%)] was absorbed with a half-life of 21.8 h (95% CI 19.7, 24.4 h). The plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of olodaterol after intravenous administration and oral inhalation in healthy volunteers were adequately described. The key finding was that a high proportion of the pulmonary bioavailable fraction had an extended pulmonary residence time. This finding was not expected based on the physicochemical properties of olodaterol. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Organophosphorus Insecticide Pharmacokinetics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Timchalk, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This chapter highlights a number of current and future applications of pharmacokinetics to assess organophosphate (OP) insecticide dosimetry, biological response and risk in humans exposed to these agents. Organophosphates represent a large family of pesticides where insecticidal as well as toxicological mode of action is associated with their ability to target and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Pharmacokinetics entails the quantitative integration of physiological and metabolic processes associated with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs and xenobiotics. Pharmacokinetic studies provide important data on the amount of toxicant delivered to a target site as well as species-, age-, gender-specific andmore » dose-dependent differences in biological response. These studies have been conducted with organophosphorus insecticides in multiple species, at various dose levels, and across different routes of exposure to understand their in vivo pharmacokinetics and how they contribute to the observed toxicological response. To access human exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, human pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted and used to develop biological monitoring strategies based on the quantitation of key metabolites in biological fluids. Pharmacokinetic studies with these insecticides are also useful to facilitate extrapolation of dosimetry and biological response from animals to humans and for the assessment of human health risk. In this regard, physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models are being utilized to assess risk and understand the toxicological implications of known or suspected exposures to various insecticides. In this chapter a number of examples are presented that illustrate the utility and limitation of pharmacokinetic studies to address human health concerns associated with organophosphorus insecticides.« less

  17. Pharmacokinetics of escin Ia in rats after intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Jun; Cui, Xiang-Yong; Tian, Lian-tian; Gao, Feng; Guan, Xin; Gu, Jing-Kai

    2014-10-28

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpene saponins, is commonly utilized for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, inflammation and edema. Escin Ia is the chief active ingredient in escin and plays key role in mediating its pharmacological effects. Adequate pharmacokinetic data are essential for proper application of escin agent in clinical practice. However, pharmacokinetic properties of escin Ia are still poorly understood and this conflicts with the growing use of escin agent over the years. The goal of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic behavior of escin Ia in rats after low, medium and high-dose intravenous administration. Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group) and escin Ia was administered via the caudal vein at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively. Subsequently, the concentrations of escin Ia and its metabolite isoescin Ia, a positional isomer of escin Ia, in rats׳ plasma were measured by an established liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method at various time points following the administration of the drug. Main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis using the TopFit 2.0 software package (Thomae GmbH, Germany). After intravenous administration, the Cmax and AUC of escin Ia increased in a dose-proportional manner at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg, while increased in a more than dose-proportional manner at the doses of 1.0 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg. The t₁/₂ was significantly longer with increased intravenous doses, while other parameters such as CL and Vd also exhibit disagreement among three doses. Taken together, our data showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetic profile of escin Ia in rats after intravenous administration at the doses of 0.5-2.0 mg/kg. After intravenous administration, escin Ia was rapidly and extensively converted to isoescin Ia. The results suggested dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of escin Ia at the doses of 0.5-2.0 mg

  18. [Value influence of different compatibilities of main active parts in yangyintongnao granule on pharmacokinetics parameters in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by total amount statistic moment method].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Yang, Jiehong; Znang, Hengyi; Fu, Xuchun; Zhnag, Yuyan; Wan, Haitong

    2010-02-01

    To study the influence of the different combinations of the main active parts in Yangyintongnao granule on the pharmacokinetics parameters of the two active components--ligustrazine and puerarin using the method of total amount statistic moment for pharmacokinetics. Combinations were formed according to the dosages of the four active parts (alkaloid, flavone, saponin, naphtha) by orthogonal experiment L9 (3(4)). Blood concentrations of ligustrazine and puerarin were determinated by HPLC at different time. Zero rank moment (AUC) and one rank moment (MRT, mean residence time) of ligustrazine and puerarin have been worked out to calculate the total amount statistic moment parameters was analyzed of Yangyintongnao granule by the method of the total amount statistic moment. The influence of different compatibilities on the pharmacokinetics parameters was analyzed by orthogonal test. Flavone has the strongest effect than saponin on the total AUC. Ligustrazine has the strongest effect on the total MRT. Saponin has little effect on the two parameters, but naphtha has more effect on both of them. It indicates that naphtha may promote metabolism of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat. Total amount statistic moment parameters can be used to guide for compatibilities of TCM.

  19. Prediction of chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer using k-means clustering of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huyen T.; Jia, Guang; Shah, Zarine K.; Pohar, Kamal; Mortazavi, Amir; Zynger, Debra L.; Wei, Lai; Yang, Xiangyu; Clark, Daniel; Knopp, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To apply k-means clustering of two pharmacokinetic parameters derived from 3T DCE-MRI to predict chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer at the mid-cycle time-point. Materials and Methods With the pre-determined number of 3 clusters, k-means clustering was performed on non-dimensionalized Amp and kep estimates of each bladder tumor. Three cluster volume fractions (VFs) were calculated for each tumor at baseline and mid-cycle. The changes of three cluster VFs from baseline to mid-cycle were correlated with the tumor’s chemotherapeutic response. Receiver-operating-characteristics curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of each cluster VF change as a biomarker of chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer. Results k-means clustering partitioned each bladder tumor into cluster 1 (low kep and low Amp), cluster 2 (low kep and high Amp), cluster 3 (high kep and low Amp). The changes of all three cluster VFs were found to be associated with bladder tumor response to chemotherapy. The VF change of cluster 2 presented with the highest area-under-the-curve value (0.96) and the highest sensitivity/specificity/accuracy (96%/100%/97%) with a selected cutoff value. Conclusion k-means clustering of the two DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters can characterize the complex microcirculatory changes within a bladder tumor to enable early prediction of the tumor’s chemotherapeutic response. PMID:24943272

  20. Correction for photobleaching in dynamic fluorescence microscopy: application in the assessment of pharmacokinetic parameters in ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derieppe, M.; Bos, C.; de Greef, M.; Moonen, C.; de Senneville, B. Denis

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring ultrasound-mediated uptake of a hydrophilic model drug in real time with dynamic confocal fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we evaluate and correct the impact of photobleaching to improve the accuracy of pharmacokinetic parameter estimates. To model photobleaching of the fluorescent model drug SYTOX Green, a photobleaching process was added to the current two-compartment model describing cell uptake. After collection of the uptake profile, a second acquisition was performed when SYTOX Green was equilibrated, to evaluate the photobleaching rate experimentally. Photobleaching rates up to 5.0 10-3 s-1 were measured when applying power densities up to 0.2 W.cm-2. By applying the three-compartment model, the model drug uptake rate of 6.0 10-3 s-1 was measured independent of the applied laser power. The impact of photobleaching on uptake rate estimates measured by dynamic fluorescence microscopy was evaluated. Subsequent compensation improved the accuracy of pharmacokinetic parameter estimates in the cell population subjected to sonopermeabilization.

  1. Model selection for clustering of pharmacokinetic responses.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Rui P; Carvalho, Alexandra M; Mateus, Paulo

    2018-08-01

    Pharmacokinetics comprises the study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion over time. Clinical pharmacokinetics, focusing on therapeutic management, offers important insights towards personalised medicine through the study of efficacy and toxicity of drug therapies. This study is hampered by subject's high variability in drug blood concentration, when starting a therapy with the same drug dosage. Clustering of pharmacokinetics responses has been addressed recently as a way to stratify subjects and provide different drug doses for each stratum. This clustering method, however, is not able to automatically determine the correct number of clusters, using an user-defined parameter for collapsing clusters that are closer than a given heuristic threshold. We aim to use information-theoretical approaches to address parameter-free model selection. We propose two model selection criteria for clustering pharmacokinetics responses, founded on the Minimum Description Length and on the Normalised Maximum Likelihood. Experimental results show the ability of model selection schemes to unveil the correct number of clusters underlying the mixture of pharmacokinetics responses. In this work we were able to devise two model selection criteria to determine the number of clusters in a mixture of pharmacokinetics curves, advancing over previous works. A cost-efficient parallel implementation in Java of the proposed method is publicly available for the community. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary experiments on pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography of CT-scanning mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqi; Wang, Xin; Yin, Guoyan; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Limin

    2016-10-01

    In vivo tomographic imaging of the fluorescence pharmacokinetic parameters in tissues can provide additional specific and quantitative physiological and pathological information to that of fluorescence concentration. This modality normally requires a highly-sensitive diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) working in dynamic way to finally extract the pharmacokinetic parameters from the measured pharmacokinetics-associated temporally-varying boundary intensity. This paper is devoted to preliminary experimental validation of our proposed direct reconstruction scheme of instantaneous sampling based pharmacokinetic-DFT: A highly-sensitive DFT system of CT-scanning mode working with parallel four photomultiplier-tube photon-counting channels is developed to generate an instantaneous sampling dataset; A direct reconstruction scheme then extracts images of the pharmacokinetic parameters using the adaptive-EKF strategy. We design a dynamic phantom that can simulate the agent metabolism in living tissue. The results of the dynamic phantom experiments verify the validity of the experiment system and reconstruction algorithms, and demonstrate that system provides good resolution, high sensitivity and quantitativeness at different pump speed.

  3. Dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics of apigenin trimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Elhennawy, Mai Gamal; Lin, Hai-Shu

    2018-06-15

    Apigenin trimethyl ether (5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone, ATE), one of the key polymethoxyflavones present in black ginger (rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora) possesses various health-promoting activities. To optimize its medicinal application, the pharmacokinetics of ATE was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats with emphases to identify the impacts from dose and repeated dosing on its major pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma ATE levels were monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Upon single intravenous administration (2 mg/kg), plasma levels of ATE declined through an apparent first-order process while dose-escalation to 4 and 8 mg/kg led to its non-linear disposition, which could be described by the Michaelis-Menten model. Similarly, dose-dependent oral pharmacokinetics was confirmed and when the dose was escalated from 5 to 15 and 45 mg/kg, much longer mean residence time (MRT 0→last ), higher dose-normalized maximal plasma concentration (C max /Dose) and exposure (AUC/Dose) were observed at 15 and/or 45 mg/kg. One-week daily oral administration of ATE at 15 mg/kg caused its accelerated elimination and the plasma exposure (AUC) after intravenous (2 mg/kg) and oral administration (15 mg/kg) dropped ~40 and 60%, respectively. As ATE displayed both dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics, caution is needed in the medicinal applications of ATE and/or black ginger. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SaMpling Antibiotics in Renal Replacement Therapy (SMARRT): an observational pharmacokinetic study in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Choi, Gordon Y S; Joynt, Gavin M; Paul, Sanjoy K; Deans, Renae; Peake, Sandra; Cole, Louise; Stephens, Dianne; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Turnidge, John; Wallis, Steven C; Roberts, Michael S; Roberts, Darren M; Lassig-Smith, Melissa; Starr, Therese; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Optimal antibiotic dosing is key to maximising patient survival, and minimising the emergence of bacterial resistance. Evidence-based antibiotic dosing guidelines for critically ill patients receiving RRT are currently not available, as RRT techniques and settings vary greatly between ICUs and even individual patients. We aim to develop a robust, evidence-based antibiotic dosing guideline for critically ill patients receiving various forms of RRT. We further aim to observe whether therapeutic antibiotic concentrations are associated with reduced 28-day mortality. We designed a multi-national, observational pharmacokinetic study in critically ill patients requiring RRT. The study antibiotics will be vancomycin, linezolid, piperacillin/tazobactam and meropenem. Pharmacokinetic sampling of each patient's blood, RRT effluent and urine will take place during two separate dosing intervals. In addition, a comprehensive data set, which includes the patients' demographic and clinical parameters, as well as modality, technique and settings of RRT, will be collected. Pharmacokinetic data will be analysed using a population pharmacokinetic approach to identify covariates associated with changes in pharmacokinetic parameters in critically ill patients with AKI who are undergoing RRT for the five commonly prescribed antibiotics. Using the comprehensive data set collected, the pharmacokinetic profile of the five antibiotics will be constructed, including identification of RRT and other factors indicative of the need for altered antibiotic dosing requirements. This will enable us to develop a dosing guideline for each individual antibiotic that is likely to be relevant to any critically ill patient with acute kidney injury receiving any of the included forms of RRT. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ( ACTRN12613000241730 ) registered 28 February 2013.

  5. Pharmacokinetic considerations for use of artemisinin-based combination therapies against falciparum malaria in different ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Sugiarto, Sri Riyati; Davis, Timothy M E; Salman, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is used extensively as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. There has been no rigorous assessment of the potential for racial/ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of ACTs that might influence their efficacy. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search was performed that identified 72 publications in which the geographical origin of the patients could be ascertained and the key pharmacokinetic parameters maximum drug concentration (C max ), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and elimination half-life (t ½β ) were available for one or more of the five WHO-recommended ACTs (artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, artesunate-mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine). Comparisons of each of the three pharmacokinetic parameters of interest were made by drug (artemisinin derivative and long half-life partner), race/ethnicity (African, Asian, Caucasian, Melanesian, South American) and patient categories based on age and pregnancy status. Expert opinion: The review identified no evidence of a clinically significant influence of race/ethnicity on the pharmacokinetic properties of the nine component drugs in the five ACTs currently recommended by WHO for first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. This provides reassurance for health workers in malaria-endemic regions that ACTs can be given in recommended doses with the expectation of adequate blood concentrations regardless of race/ethnicity.

  6. Obesity and drug pharmacology: a review of the influence of obesity on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters.

    PubMed

    Smit, Cornelis; De Hoogd, Sjoerd; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2018-03-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity confronts clinicians with dosing problems in the (extreme) overweight population. Obesity has a great impact on key organs that play a role in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, however the ultimate impact of these changes on how to adapt the dose may not always be known. Areas covered: In this review, physiological changes associated with obesity are discussed. An overview is provided on the alterations in absorption, distribution, drug metabolism and clearance in (morbid) obesity focusing on general principles that can be extracted from pharmacokinetic studies. Also, relevant pharmacodynamic considerations in obesity are discussed. Expert opinion: Over the last two decades, increased knowledge is generated on PK and PD in obesity. Future research should focus on filling in the knowledge gaps that remain, especially in connecting obesity-related physiological changes with changes in PK and/or PD and vice versa. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to develop physiologically based PK and PD models on the basis of quantitative systems pharmacology principles. Moreover, efforts should focus on thorough prospective evaluation of developed model-based doses with subsequent implementation of these dosing recommendations in clinical practice.

  7. [Pharmacokinetics of domestic actoprotector drug Metaprot in healthy volunteers].

    PubMed

    Kibal'chich, D A; Belolipetskaia, V G; Blagodatskikh, S V; Martsevich, S Iu; Rudenko, L I; Iatsuk, V R

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of the actoprotector Metaprot, an original Russian drug, has been studied in a group of healthy adult volunteers. Metaprot in capsules was administrated orally as a single dose of 250 mg. The concentration of the active substance (ethylthiobenzimidazole) in the blood serum was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the model-independent method. The peak concentration of ethylthiobenzimidazole in plasma was Cmax = 0.91 +/- 1.05 microg/ml and the average time to peak concentration was t(max) = 1.06 +/- 0.16 h. A polymodal character of the distribution of pharmacokinetic parameters in the test group was revealed.

  8. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Oxathio-Heterocycle Fused Chalcones.

    PubMed

    Okoniewska, Krystyna; Konieczny, Marek T; Lemke, Krzysztof; Grabowski, Tomasz

    2017-02-01

    Chalcone constitutes one of the most used molecular frameworks in medicinal chemistry and its derivatives exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities. Low absolute bioavailability, poor distribution, intensive metabolism and elimination of chalcones are the main problems in designing new drugs based on their structure. One of the fundamental steps in evaluation of drug candidates is a comparative analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters. The aim of the studies was the pharmacokinetic characterization of the selected oxathio-heterocycle fused chalcones. The pharmacokinetic parameters of 19 compounds were reported. The analyzed chalcones were examined after a single intravenous administration to forty 7-week-old mature male rats of Wistar stock. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed independently using SHAM (slopes, highest, amounts, and moments) and the two-compartment model. Basic physiochemical parameters were calculated. The bioanalytical methods were validated in terms of repeatability, linearity, accuracy, precision, and selectivity. The pharmacokinetics of the examined group of chalcones are compatible with the two-compartment model. The physicochemical characteristics of this group are quite homogeneous. The kinetics of the examined chalcones are indicative of a distribution to the tissue compartment with the predominance of a rate constant from central to peripheral compartments (k 12 ) over the rate constant from peripheral to central compartments (k 21 ). The elimination from the central compartment (k 10 ) is higher than the transfer from the central compartment to the tissues (k 10  > k 12 ) in almost all examined cases. The presented group of compounds may form a starting point for studies into drugs treating autoimmune diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract.

  9. An Algorithm and R Program for Fitting and Simulation of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Jijie; Yan, Kewei; Hou, Lisha; Du, Xudong; Zhu, Ping; Zheng, Li; Zhu, Cairong

    2017-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic link models are widely used in dose-finding studies. By applying such models, the results of initial pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies can be used to predict the potential therapeutic dose range. This knowledge can improve the design of later comparative large-scale clinical trials by reducing the number of participants and saving time and resources. However, the modeling process can be challenging, time consuming, and costly, even when using cutting-edge, powerful pharmacological software. Here, we provide a freely available R program for expediently analyzing pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data, including data importation, parameter estimation, simulation, and model diagnostics. First, we explain the theory related to the establishment of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic link model. Subsequently, we present the algorithms used for parameter estimation and potential therapeutic dose computation. The implementation of the R program is illustrated by a clinical example. The software package is then validated by comparing the model parameters and the goodness-of-fit statistics generated by our R package with those generated by the widely used pharmacological software WinNonlin. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters as well as the potential recommended therapeutic dose can be acquired with the R package. The validation process shows that the parameters estimated using our package are satisfactory. The R program developed and presented here provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a simple and easy-to-access tool for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis on personal computers.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole in healthy Korean subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ji-Young; Chae, Soo-Wan; Kim, Min-Gul

    2016-04-01

    Aripiprazole is widely used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aimed to develop a combined population pharmacokinetic model for aripiprazole in healthy Korean subjects and to identify the significant covariates in the pharmacokinetic variability of aripiprazole. Aripiprazole plasma concentrations and demographic data were collected retrospectively from previous bioequivalence studies that were conducted in Chonbuk National University Hospital. Informed consent was obtained from subjects for cytochrome P450 (CYP) genotyping. The population pharmacokinetic parameters of aripiprazole were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling with first-order conditional estimation with interaction method. The effects of age, sex, weight, height, and CYP genotype were assessed as covariates. A total of 1,508 samples from 88 subjects in three bioequivalence studies were collected. The two-compartment model was adopted, and the final population model showed that the CYP2D6 genotype polymorphism, height and weight significantly affect aripiprazole disposition. The bootstrap and visual predictive check results were evaluated, showing that the accuracy of the pharmacokinetic model was acceptable. A population pharmacokinetic model of aripiprazole was developed for Korean subjects. CYP2D6 genotype polymorphism, weight, and height were included as significant factors affecting aripiprazole disposition. The population pharmacokinetic parameters of aripiprazole estimated in the present study may be useful for individualizing clinical dosages and for studying the concentration-effect relationship of the drug.

  11. [Features of bemithyl pharmacokinetics upon inhalation administration].

    PubMed

    Kurpiakova, A F; Geĭbo, D S; Bykov, V N; Nikiforov, A S

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of bemithyl pharmacokinetics was carried out upon its inhalation, intragastric and intravenous administration. The main drug metabolites were identified and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The obtained results suggest that the inhalation administration of bemithyl is a promising replacement for oral administration, which is related to high bioavailability of the drug and the absence of the effect of "first pass" through the liver.

  12. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Guanglei, E-mail: guangleizhang@bjtu.edu.cn; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044; Pu, Huangsheng

    2015-02-23

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but alsomore » make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.« less

  13. Pharmacokinetic interaction between scutellarin and valsartan in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming-Yu; Tian, Chong-Chong; Ju, Ai-Xia; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Li, Qiu-Hong

    2013-04-01

    Scutellarin is the main effective constituent of breviscapine, a flavonoid mixture isolated from the dried whole plant of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, and valsartan is used as an antihypertensive drug. These two drugs have already been clinically used together to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN) in China, and the combined medications showed some enhanced protection against DN. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between scutellarin and valsartan in rats. Breviscapine injection (20 mg x kg(-1), i.v.) and valsartan (15 mg x kg-, i.g.), either alone or together were given to 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Concentrations of scutellarin and valsartan were quantified by HPLC, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental methods. We found that the pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin altered significantly after co-administration of oral valsartan. The plasma clearance (CL(p)) and the bile clearance (CL(b)) of scutellarin were reduced significantly in the presence of valsartan. After oral administration of valsartan with or without intravenous scutellarin, however, the pharmacokinetic parameters of valsartan were comparable. In conclusion, our data suggests that the concurrent use of valsartan reduces the biliary excretion of scutellarin, and this may be due to the inhibitory effect of valsartan on the biliary excretion of scutellarin mediated by Mrp2 (Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2).

  14. [Impact of ECMO on drugs pharmacokinetics].

    PubMed

    Hasni, Nesrine; Lemaitre, Florian; Fernandez, Christine; Combes, Alain; Farinotti, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support system used in the treatment of patients of all ages with severe respiratory or cardiorespiratory failure. Despite the intensive use of drugs in the treatment of patients on ECMO, few studies have been conducted to determine the impact of this device on the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Publications in this field have shown pharmacokinetics changes resulting in an increase in volume of distribution of drugs and/or decreased clearance with consequent increase of their half-life. Reduced plasma concentrations of some drugs due to their adsorption on the different components of the circuit further complicates the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters of patients treated by ECMO. The literature published up to now on the pharmacokinetic changes associated with ECMO provide preliminary support for dosage adjustment. However, more research is needed to identify dosage strategies for this patient population. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered DL-α-lipoic acid in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zicker, Steven C; Avila, Albert; Joshi, Dinesh K; Gross, Kathy L

    2010-11-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of DL-α-lipoic acid in dogs when administered at 3 dosages via 3 methods of delivery. 27 clinically normal Beagles. In a 3 × 3 factorial Latin square design, 3 dosages (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) of DL-α-lipoic acid were administered orally in a capsule form and provided without a meal, in a capsule form and provided with a meal, and as an ingredient included in an extruded dog food. Food was withheld for 12 hours prior to DL-α-lipoic acid administration. Blood samples were collected before (0 minutes) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes after administration. Plasma concentrations of DL-α-lipoic acid were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. A generalized linear models procedure was used to evaluate the effects of method of delivery and dosage. Noncompartmental analysis was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of DL-α-lipoic acid. Nonparametric tests were used to detect significant differences between pharmacokinetic parameters among treatment groups. A significant effect of dosage was observed regardless of delivery method. Method of delivery also significantly affected plasma concentrations of DL-α-lipoic acid, with extruded foods resulting in lowest concentration for each dosage administered. Maximum plasma concentration was significantly affected by method of delivery at each dosage administered. Other significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were variable and dependent on dosage and method of delivery. Values for pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered DL-α-lipoic acid may differ significantly when there are changes in dosage, method of administration, and fed status.

  16. Cost-constrained optimal sampling for system identification in pharmacokinetics applications with population priors and nuisance parameters.

    PubMed

    Sorzano, Carlos Oscars S; Pérez-De-La-Cruz Moreno, Maria Angeles; Burguet-Castell, Jordi; Montejo, Consuelo; Ros, Antonio Aguilar

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) applications can be seen as a special case of nonlinear, causal systems with memory. There are cases in which prior knowledge exists about the distribution of the system parameters in a population. However, for a specific patient in a clinical setting, we need to determine her system parameters so that the therapy can be personalized. This system identification is performed many times by measuring drug concentrations in plasma. The objective of this work is to provide an irregular sampling strategy that minimizes the uncertainty about the system parameters with a fixed amount of samples (cost constrained). We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the average Fisher's information matrix associated to the PK problem, and then estimate the sampling points that minimize the maximum uncertainty associated to system parameters (a minimax criterion). The minimization is performed employing a genetic algorithm. We show that such a sampling scheme can be designed in a way that is adapted to a particular patient and that it can accommodate any dosing regimen as well as it allows flexible therapeutic strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Predictive performance of the 'Minto' remifentanil pharmacokinetic parameter set in morbidly obese patients ensuing from a new method for calculating lean body mass.

    PubMed

    La Colla, Luca; Albertin, Andrea; La Colla, Giorgio; Porta, Andrea; Aldegheri, Giorgio; Di Candia, Domenico; Gigli, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    In a previous article, we showed that the pharmacokinetic set of remifentanil used for target-controlled infusion (TCI) might be biased in obese patients because it incorporates flawed equations for the calculation of lean body mass (LBM), which is a covariate of several pharmacokinetic parameters in this set. The objectives of this study were to determine the predictive performance of the original pharmacokinetic set, which incorporates the James equation for LBM calculation, and to determine the predictive performance of the pharmacokinetic set when a new method to calculate LBM was used (the Janmahasatian equations). This was an observational study with intraoperative observations and no follow-up. Fifteen morbidly obese inpatients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included in the study. The intervention included manually controlled continuous infusion of remifentanil during the surgery and analysis of arterial blood samples to determine the arterial remifentanil concentration, to be compared with concentrations predicted by either the unadjusted or the adjusted pharmacokinetic set. The statistical analysis included parametric and non-parametric tests on continuous variables and determination of the median performance error (MDPE), median absolute performance error (MDAPE), divergence and wobble. The median values (interquartile ranges) of the MDPE, MDAPE, divergence and wobble for the James equations during maintenance were -53.4% (-58.7% to -49.2%), 53.4% (49.0-58.7%), 3.3% (2.9-4.7%) and 1.4% h(-1) (1.1-2.5% h(-1)), respectively. The respective values for the Janmahasatian equations were -18.9% (-24.2% to -10.4%), 20.5% (13.3-24.8%), 2.6% (-0.7% to 4.5%) and 1.9% h(-1) (1.4-3.0% h(-1)). The performance (in terms of the MDPE and MDAPE) of the corrected pharmacokinetic set was better than that of the uncorrected one. The predictive performance of the original pharmacokinetic set is not clinically acceptable. Use of a corrected LBM value in morbidly obese

  18. Pharmacokinetics of metronomic chemotherapy: a neglected but crucial aspect.

    PubMed

    Bocci, Guido; Kerbel, Robert S

    2016-11-01

    Metronomic chemotherapy describes the close, regular administration of chemotherapy drugs at less-toxic doses over prolonged periods of time. In 2015, the results of randomized phase III clinical trials demonstrated encouraging, albeit limited, efficacy benefits of metronomic chemotherapy regimens administered as adjuvant maintenance therapy for the treatment of breast cancer, or as maintenance therapy in combination with an antiangiogenic agent for metastatic colorectal cancer. Owing to the investigational nature of this approach, metronomic chemotherapy regimens are highly empirical in terms of the optimal dose and schedule for the drugs administered; therefore, greater knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of metronomic chemotherapy is critical to the future success of this treatment strategy. Unfortunately, such preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic studies are rare. Herein, we present situations in which active drug concentrations have been achieved with metronomic schedules, and discuss their associated pharmacokinetic parameters. We summarize examples from the limited number of clinical studies in order to illustrate the importance of assessing such pharmacokinetic parameters, and discuss the influence this information can have on improving efficacy and reducing toxicity.

  19. [Pharmacokinetics of controlled-release oxycodone in patients with cancer pain].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuyo; Kokubun, Hideya; Komatsu, Toshiaki; Matoba, Motohiro; Hoka, Sumio; Yago, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Oxycodone is a useful analgesic for cancer patients in pain. However, its pharmacokinetics have not been sufficiently examined and there is a lack of information, with very few reports on pharmacokinetics concerning the absorption process in particular. With this in mind, we studied the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release oxycodone (Oxy contin). We measured its serum concentration in patients with cancer pain, and calculated parameters derived using the nonlinear least-squared method program (MULTI). In the result, pharmacokinetic parameters calculated at CL/F were: 45.6+/-22.0 L/hr (Mean+/-SD), Vd/F: 473.0+/-19 6.7 L, t(1/2): 7.2+/- 6.2 hr, kel: 0.103+/-0.034, kal: 1.082+/-0.604, Lag time: 0.9 9+/-0.40 hr. In addition, the serum oxycodone concentration hardly rose until 1 hour after and just before medication, whereupon a rapid increase was evident after 1 hour. The pharmacokinetics of controlled-release oxycodone in patients with cancer pain were clarified in this study. Especially during the absorption process, the lag time was calculated specifically at about 1 hour, making it approximately equal to MS contin.

  20. Clarification of contraceptive drug pharmacokinetics in obesity☆

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Related to concerns about the role of obesity in the efficacy of contraceptive drugs, a review of the literature was carried out in regard to the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and various progestins given by various routes of administration. Most studies show that obese women exhibit modestly lower plasma concentrations of these drugs (circa 30%) when given the same doses as normal-weight women. While the mechanism is uncertain, precedence in the literature suggests that this is due to body weight-related differences in metabolism rates. Confusing in some of the literature is that a few studies have reported erroneously calculated pharmacokinetic parameters after multiple dosing of oral contraceptives. A demonstration of appropriate pharmacokinetic methodology is provided. PMID:27542520

  1. Parameter Estimation with Almost No Public Communication for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Ottaviani, Carlo; Papanastasiou, Panagiotis; Pirandola, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    One crucial step in any quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme is parameter estimation. In a typical QKD protocol the users have to sacrifice part of their raw data to estimate the parameters of the communication channel as, for example, the error rate. This introduces a trade-off between the secret key rate and the accuracy of parameter estimation in the finite-size regime. Here we show that continuous-variable QKD is not subject to this constraint as the whole raw keys can be used for both parameter estimation and secret key generation, without compromising the security. First, we show that this property holds for measurement-device-independent (MDI) protocols, as a consequence of the fact that in a MDI protocol the correlations between Alice and Bob are postselected by the measurement performed by an untrusted relay. This result is then extended beyond the MDI framework by exploiting the fact that MDI protocols can simulate device-dependent one-way QKD with arbitrarily high precision.

  2. A Review on Pharmacokinetic Modeling and the Effects of Environmental Stressors on Pharmacokinetics for Operational Medicine: Operational Pharmacokinetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    hypercholesterolemia Two-compartment model Ezzet, Krishna et al. 2001 Antilipemics Statins: simvastatin, rosuvastatin, atorvastatin Treatment of...Pharmacokinetic model* & rosuvastatin Scopus 14 3 PubMed 9 3 Pharmacokinetic model* & atorvastatin Scopus 49 4 Pharmacokinetic model* & zaleplon...Fentanyl & pharmacokinetic & heat 9 2 Fentanyl & pharmacokinetic & cold 4 0 Fentanyl & pharmacokinetic & blood loss 19 5 Atorvastatin

  3. [Analysis of parameters of serum concentration and pharmacokinetic of liposome and aqueous solution of toatal ginsenoside of ginseng stems and leaves in rats].

    PubMed

    Zha, Lin; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Yan; Cai, En-Bo; Liu, Shuang-Li; Yang, He; Zhao, Ying; Gao, Yu-Gang; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2017-05-01

    The experiment was aimed to investigate the difference of plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters between liposome and aqueous solution of toatal ginsenoside of ginseng stems and leaves in rats, such as ginsenosides Rg₁, Re, Rf, Rb₁, Rg₂, Rc, Rb₂, Rb₃, Rd. After intravenous injection of liposome and aqueous solution in rats, the blood was taken from the femoral vein to detect the plasma concentration of the above 9 ginsenoside monomers in different time points by using HPLC. The concentration-time curve was obtained and 3p97 pharmacokinetic software was used to get the pharmacokinetic parameters. After the intravenous injection of ginsenosides to rats, nine ginsenosides were detected in plasma. In general, among these ginsenosides, the peak time of the aqueous solution was between 0.05 to 0.083 3 h, and the serum concentration peak of liposome usually appeared after 0.5 h. After software fitting, the aqueous solution of ginsenoside monomers Rg₁, Re, Rf, Rg₂, Rc, Rd, Rb₃ was two-compartment model, and the liposomes were one-compartment model; aqueous solution and liposome of ginsenoside monomers Rb₁ were three-compartment model; aqueous solution of ginsenoside monomers Rb₂ was three-compartment model, and its liposome was one-compartment model. Area under the drug time curve (AUC) of these 9 kinds of saponin liposomes was larger than that of aqueous solution, and the retention time of the liposomes was longer than that of the aqueous solution; the removal rate was slower than that of the aqueous solution, and the half-life was longer than that of the water solution. The results from the experiment showed that by intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters of two formulations were significantly different from each other; the liposomes could not only remain the drug for a longer time in vivo, but also reduce the elimination rate and increase the treatment efficacy. As compared with the traditional dosage forms, the total

  4. Prediction of chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer using K-means clustering of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huyen T; Jia, Guang; Shah, Zarine K; Pohar, Kamal; Mortazavi, Amir; Zynger, Debra L; Wei, Lai; Yang, Xiangyu; Clark, Daniel; Knopp, Michael V

    2015-05-01

    To apply k-means clustering of two pharmacokinetic parameters derived from 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to predict the chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer at the mid-cycle timepoint. With the predetermined number of three clusters, k-means clustering was performed on nondimensionalized Amp and kep estimates of each bladder tumor. Three cluster volume fractions (VFs) were calculated for each tumor at baseline and mid-cycle. The changes of three cluster VFs from baseline to mid-cycle were correlated with the tumor's chemotherapeutic response. Receiver-operating-characteristics curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of each cluster VF change as a biomarker of chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer. The k-means clustering partitioned each bladder tumor into cluster 1 (low kep and low Amp), cluster 2 (low kep and high Amp), cluster 3 (high kep and low Amp). The changes of all three cluster VFs were found to be associated with bladder tumor response to chemotherapy. The VF change of cluster 2 presented with the highest area-under-the-curve value (0.96) and the highest sensitivity/specificity/accuracy (96%/100%/97%) with a selected cutoff value. The k-means clustering of the two DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters can characterize the complex microcirculatory changes within a bladder tumor to enable early prediction of the tumor's chemotherapeutic response. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An interactive program for pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Lu, D R; Mao, F

    1993-05-01

    A computer program, PharmK, was developed for pharmacokinetic modeling of experimental data. The program was written in C computer language based on the high-level user-interface Macintosh operating system. The intention was to provide a user-friendly tool for users of Macintosh computers. An interactive algorithm based on the exponential stripping method is used for the initial parameter estimation. Nonlinear pharmacokinetic model fitting is based on the maximum likelihood estimation method and is performed by the Levenberg-Marquardt method based on chi 2 criterion. Several methods are available to aid the evaluation of the fitting results. Pharmacokinetic data sets have been examined with the PharmK program, and the results are comparable with those obtained with other programs that are currently available for IBM PC-compatible and other types of computers.

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging pharmacokinetic parameters as predictors of treatment response of brain metastases in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuchcinski, Grégory; Le Rhun, Emilie; Cortot, Alexis B; Drumez, Elodie; Duhal, Romain; Lalisse, Maxime; Dumont, Julien; Lopes, Renaud; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier; Delmaire, Christine

    2017-09-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of pharmacokinetic parameters measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the response of brain metastases to antineoplastic therapy in patients with lung cancer. Forty-four consecutive patients with lung cancer, harbouring 123 newly diagnosed brain metastases prospectively underwent conventional 3-T MRI at baseline (within 1 month before treatment), during the early (7-10 weeks) and midterm (5-7 months) post-treatment period. An additional DCE MRI sequence was performed during baseline and early post-treatment MRI to evaluate baseline pharmacokinetic parameters (K trans , k ep , v e , v p ) and their early variation (∆K trans , ∆k ep , ∆v e , ∆v p ). The objective response was judged by the volume variation of each metastasis from baseline to midterm MRI. ROC curve analysis determined the best DCE MRI parameter to predict the objective response. Baseline DCE MRI parameters were not associated with the objective response. Early ∆K trans , ∆v e and ∆v p were significantly associated with the objective response (p = 0.02, p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The best predictor of objective response was ∆v e with an area under the curve of 0.93 [95% CI = 0.87, 0.99]. DCE MRI and early ∆v e may be a useful tool to predict the objective response of brain metastases in patients with lung cancer. • DCE MRI could predict the response of brain metastases from lung cancer • ∆v e was the best predictor of response • DCE MRI could be used to individualize patients' follow-up.

  7. [Population pharmacokinetics applied to optimising cisplatin doses in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Ramón-López, A; Escudero-Ortiz, V; Carbonell, V; Pérez-Ruixo, J J; Valenzuela, B

    2012-01-01

    To develop and internally validate a population pharmacokinetics model for cisplatin and assess its prediction capacity for personalising doses in cancer patients. Cisplatin plasma concentrations in forty-six cancer patients were used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model implemented in NONMEN VI software. Pharmacokinetic parameter identification capacity was assessed using the parametric bootstrap method and the model was validated using the nonparametric bootstrap method and standardised visual and numerical predictive checks. The final model's prediction capacity was evaluated in terms of accuracy and precision during the first (a priori) and second (a posteriori) chemotherapy cycles. Mean population cisplatin clearance is 1.03 L/h with an interpatient variability of 78.0%. Estimated distribution volume at steady state was 48.3 L, with inter- and intrapatient variabilities of 31,3% and 11,7%, respectively. Internal validation confirmed that the population pharmacokinetics model is appropriate to describe changes over time in cisplatin plasma concentrations, as well as its variability in the study population. The accuracy and precision of a posteriori prediction of cisplatin concentrations improved by 21% and 54% compared to a priori prediction. The population pharmacokinetic model developed adequately described the changes in cisplatin plasma concentrations in cancer patients and can be used to optimise cisplatin dosing regimes accurately and precisely. Copyright © 2011 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Diltiazem in Chinese Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Feng; Li, Dai-Yang; Yin, Wen-Jun; Ding, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Wang, Jiang-Lin; Ma, Rong-Rong; Zuo, Xiao-Cong

    2018-02-01

    Diltiazem is a benzothiazepine calcium blocker and widely used in renal transplant patients since it improves the level of tacrolimus or cyclosporine A concentration. Several population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models had been established for cyclosporine A and tacrolimus but no specific PopPK model was established for diltiazem. The aim of the study is to develop a PopPK model for diltiazem in renal transplant recipients and provide relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of diltiazem for further pharmacokinetic interaction study. Patients received tacrolimus as primary immunosuppressant agent after renal transplant and started administration of diltiazem 90 mg twice daily on 5th day. The concentration of diltiazem at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 8, and 12 h was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Genotyping for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, and MDR1 3435 was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). 25 covariates were considered in the stepwise covariate model (SCM) building procedure. One-compartment structural pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of diltiazem. Total bilirubin (TBIL) influenced apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of diltiazem in the forward selection. The absorption rate constant (K a ), V/F, and apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of the final population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of diltiazem were 1.96/h, 3550 L, and 92.4 L/h, respectively. A PopPK model of diltiazem is established in Chinese renal transplant recipients and it will provide relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of diltiazem for further pharmacokinetic interaction study.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Studies in Neonates: The Utility of an Opportunistic Sampling Design.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Stéphanie; Turner, Mark A; Guellec, Chantal Barin-Le; Hill, Helen; van den Anker, Johannes N; Kearns, Gregory L; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Zhao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The use of an opportunistic (also called scavenged) sampling strategy in a prospective pharmacokinetic study combined with population pharmacokinetic modelling has been proposed as an alternative strategy to conventional methods for accomplishing pharmacokinetic studies in neonates. However, the reliability of this approach in this particular paediatric population has not been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of an opportunistic sampling strategy for a population pharmacokinetic estimation, as well as dose prediction, and compare this strategy with a predetermined pharmacokinetic sampling approach. Three population pharmacokinetic models were derived for ciprofloxacin from opportunistic blood samples (SC model), predetermined (i.e. scheduled) samples (TR model) and all samples (full model used to previously characterize ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics), using NONMEM software. The predictive performance of developed models was evaluated in an independent group of patients. Pharmacokinetic data from 60 newborns were obtained with a total of 430 samples available for analysis; 265 collected at predetermined times and 165 that were scavenged from those obtained as part of clinical care. All datasets were fit using a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. The SC model could identify the most significant covariates and provided reasonable estimates of population pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance and steady-state volume of distribution) compared with the TR and full models. Their predictive performances were further confirmed in an external validation by Bayesian estimation, and showed similar results. Monte Carlo simulation based on area under the concentration-time curve from zero to 24 h (AUC24)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using either the SC or the TR model gave similar dose prediction for ciprofloxacin. Blood samples scavenged in the course of caring for neonates can be used to estimate

  10. Does Critical Illness Change Levofloxacin Pharmacokinetics?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Cotta, Menino Osbert; Cojutti, Piergiorgio; Lugano, Manuela; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Pea, Federico

    2015-12-14

    Levofloxacin is commonly used in critically ill patients for which existing data suggest nonstandard dosing regimens should be used. The objective of this study was to compare the population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in critically ill and in non-critically ill patients. Adult patients with a clinical indication for levofloxacin were eligible for participation in this prospective pharmacokinetic study. Patients were given 500 mg or 750 mg daily by intravenous administration with up to 11 blood samples taken on day 1 or 2 of therapy. Plasma samples were analyzed and population pharmacokinetic analysis was undertaken using Pmetrics. Thirty-five patients (18 critically ill) were included. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age, weight, and Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance for the critically ill and for the non-critically ill patients were 60.3 (16.4) and 72.0 (11.6) years, 78.5 (14.8) and 70.9 (15.8) kg, and 71.9 (65.8) and 68.2 (30.1) ml/min, respectively. A two-compartment linear model best described the data. Increasing creatinine clearance was the only covariate associated with increasing drug clearance. The presence of critical illness did not significantly affect any pharmacokinetic parameter. The mean (SD) parameter estimates were as follows: clearance, 8.66 (3.85) liters/h; volume of the central compartment (Vc), 41.5 (24.5) liters; intercompartmental clearance constants from central to peripheral, 2.58 (3.51) liters/h; and peripheral to central compartments, 0.90 (0.58) liters/h. Monte Carlo dosing simulations demonstrated that achievement of therapeutic exposures was dependent on renal function, pathogen, and MIC. Critical illness appears to have no independent effect on levofloxacin pharmacokinetics that cannot be explained by altered renal function. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Does Critical Illness Change Levofloxacin Pharmacokinetics?

    PubMed Central

    Cotta, Menino Osbert; Cojutti, Piergiorgio; Lugano, Manuela; Rocca, Giorgio Della; Pea, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Levofloxacin is commonly used in critically ill patients for which existing data suggest nonstandard dosing regimens should be used. The objective of this study was to compare the population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in critically ill and in non-critically ill patients. Adult patients with a clinical indication for levofloxacin were eligible for participation in this prospective pharmacokinetic study. Patients were given 500 mg or 750 mg daily by intravenous administration with up to 11 blood samples taken on day 1 or 2 of therapy. Plasma samples were analyzed and population pharmacokinetic analysis was undertaken using Pmetrics. Thirty-five patients (18 critically ill) were included. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age, weight, and Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance for the critically ill and for the non-critically ill patients were 60.3 (16.4) and 72.0 (11.6) years, 78.5 (14.8) and 70.9 (15.8) kg, and 71.9 (65.8) and 68.2 (30.1) ml/min, respectively. A two-compartment linear model best described the data. Increasing creatinine clearance was the only covariate associated with increasing drug clearance. The presence of critical illness did not significantly affect any pharmacokinetic parameter. The mean (SD) parameter estimates were as follows: clearance, 8.66 (3.85) liters/h; volume of the central compartment (Vc), 41.5 (24.5) liters; intercompartmental clearance constants from central to peripheral, 2.58 (3.51) liters/h; and peripheral to central compartments, 0.90 (0.58) liters/h. Monte Carlo dosing simulations demonstrated that achievement of therapeutic exposures was dependent on renal function, pathogen, and MIC. Critical illness appears to have no independent effect on levofloxacin pharmacokinetics that cannot be explained by altered renal function. PMID:26666946

  12. Integrated pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics parameters-based dosing guidelines of enrofloxacin in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to minimize selection of drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global problem and is steadily increasing worldwide in almost every bacterial species treated with antibiotics. In aquaculture, the therapeutic options for the treatment of A. hydrophila infection were only limited to several antibiotics, which contributed for the fast-speed emergence of drug tolerance. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to establish a medication regimen to prevent drug resistant bacteria. To determine a rational therapeutic guideline, integrated pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics parameters were based to predict dose and dosage interval of enrofloxacin in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella infected by a field-isolated A. hydrophila strain. Results The pathogenic A. hydrophila strain (AH10) in grass carp was identified and found to be sensitive to enrofloxacin. The mutant selection window (MSW) of enrofloxacin on isolate AH10 was determined to be 0.5 - 3 μg/mL based on the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. By using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, the Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in grass carp were monitored after a single oral gavage of 10, 20, 30 μg enrofloxacin per g body weight. Dosing of 30 μg/g resulted in serum maximum concentration (Cmax) of 7.151 μg/mL, and concentration in serum was above MPC till 24 h post the single dose. Once-daily dosing of 30 μg/g was determined to be the rational choice for controlling AH10 infection and preventing mutant selection in grass carp. Data of mean residue time (MRT) and body clearance (CLz) indicated that both enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin present similar eliminating rate and pattern in serum, muscle and liver. A withdraw time of more than 32 d was suggested based on the drug eliminating rate and pharmacokinetic model described by a polyexponential equation. Conclusions Based on integrated PK

  13. Integrated pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics parameters-based dosing guidelines of enrofloxacin in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to minimize selection of drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijuan; Wang, Hao; Yang, Xianle; Lu, Liqun

    2013-06-25

    Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global problem and is steadily increasing worldwide in almost every bacterial species treated with antibiotics. In aquaculture, the therapeutic options for the treatment of A. hydrophila infection were only limited to several antibiotics, which contributed for the fast-speed emergence of drug tolerance. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to establish a medication regimen to prevent drug resistant bacteria. To determine a rational therapeutic guideline, integrated pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics parameters were based to predict dose and dosage interval of enrofloxacin in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella infected by a field-isolated A. hydrophila strain. The pathogenic A. hydrophila strain (AH10) in grass carp was identified and found to be sensitive to enrofloxacin. The mutant selection window (MSW) of enrofloxacin on isolate AH10 was determined to be 0.5-3 μg/mL based on the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. By using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, the Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in grass carp were monitored after a single oral gavage of 10, 20, 30 μg enrofloxacin per g body weight. Dosing of 30 μg/g resulted in serum maximum concentration (Cmax) of 7.151 μg/mL, and concentration in serum was above MPC till 24 h post the single dose. Once-daily dosing of 30 μg/g was determined to be the rational choice for controlling AH10 infection and preventing mutant selection in grass carp. Data of mean residue time (MRT) and body clearance (CLz) indicated that both enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin present similar eliminating rate and pattern in serum, muscle and liver. A withdraw time of more than 32 d was suggested based on the drug eliminating rate and pharmacokinetic model described by a polyexponential equation. Based on integrated PK/PD parameters (AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, and T

  14. Propofol pharmacokinetics in a dwarfism patient.

    PubMed

    Tsubokawa, T; Yamamoto, K; Komuro, A; Ishizuka, S; Kobayashi, T

    2003-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic information is important to control anesthetic depth. However, there are few available pharmacokinetic data of propofol in dwarfism patients. We anesthetized a dwarfism patient who underwent spinal decompression, and investigated the pharmacokinetics of propofol. The patient was a 40-year-old man suffering from muscle weakness and numbness in the arms. The operation consisted of two stages; anterior approach in the supine position and posterior approach in the prone position. We also obtained arterial blood for pharmacokinetic analysis. Distribution volume at steady-state and clearance in the supine position was 180 and 0.92 l min- 1, respectively, and in the prone position 127 and 0.74 l min- 1, respectively, in spite of a continuous infusion of dopamine. The data in the supine position were well predicted by Gepts' parameters (used in Diprifusor Zeneca Ltd, Cheshire, UK), which means the target-controlled infusion (TCI) technique can be available in the supine position, while attention is necessary to avoid overdosing when a patient is placed in the prone position.

  15. Predicting Age-Appropriate Pharmacokinetics of Six Volatile Organic Compounds in the Rat Utilizing Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models to incorporate age-appropriate physiological and chemical-specific parameters was utilized to predict changes in internal dosimetry for six volatile organic compounds (VOCs) across different ages of rats.

  16. Prediction of pharmacokinetic and toxicological parameters of a 4-phenylcoumarin isolated from geopropolis: In silico and in vitro approaches.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Franco, Gilson César Nobre; Franchin, Marcelo; Beutler, John A; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2016-11-30

    In silico and in vitro methodologies have been used as important tools in the drug discovery process, including from natural sources. The aim of this study was to predict pharmacokinetic and toxicity (ADME/Tox) properties of a coumarin isolated from geopropolis using in silico and in vitro approaches. Cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (CNM) isolated from Brazilian M. scutellaris geopropolis was evaluated for its pharmacokinetic parameters by in silico models (ACD/Percepta™ and MetaDrug™ software). Genotoxicity was assessed by in vitro DNA damage signaling PCR array. CNM did not pass all parameters of Lipinski's rule of five, with a predicted low oral bioavailability and high plasma protein binding, but with good predicted blood brain barrier penetration. CNM was predicted to show low affinity to cytochrome P450 family members. Furthermore, the predicted Ames test indicated potential mutagenicity of CNM. Also, the probability of toxicity for organs and tissues was classified as moderate and high for liver and kidney, and moderate and low for skin and eye irritation, respectively. The PCR array analysis showed that CNM significantly upregulated about 7% of all DNA damage-related genes. By exploring the biological function of these genes, it was found that the predicted CNM genotoxicity is likely to be mediated by apoptosis. The predicted ADME/Tox profile suggests that external use of CNM may be preferable to systemic exposure, while its genotoxicity was characterized by the upregulation of apoptosis-related genes after treatment. The combined use of in silico and in vitro approaches to evaluate these parameters generated useful hypotheses to guide further preclinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of intravenous temazepam. II. A study of the long-term reproducibility of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and concentration-effect parameters.

    PubMed

    van Steveninck, A L; Schoemaker, H C; den Hartigh, J; Pieters, M S; Breimer, D D; Cohen, A F

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term reproducibility of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and concentration-effect parameters after intravenous administration of temazepam. Nine healthy volunteers were studied. Temazepam, 0.4 mg/kg, was infused intravenously for 30 minutes on two occasions 6 months apart. Venous plasma concentrations of temazepam were measured by HPLC in samples obtained between 0 and 24 hours. Pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated up to 8 hours for saccadic peak velocity and electroencephalogram (EEG) beta amplitudes. Subjects' state and trait anxiety were assessed by use of the Spielberger anxiety inventory. Significant correlations between occasions were found for area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values (r = 0.91; p < 0.01) but not for maximum concentration and half-life. Significant correlations were also found for area under the effect-time curve (AUEC) values of peak velocity (r = 0.88; p < 0.01) but not for peak velocity (r = 0.48; p > 0.05). Significant differences between the slopes of concentration effect plots on different occasions were observed in two subjects for EEG beta and in three subjects for peak velocity, with one subject showing a similar change for both parameters. Trait anxiety scores were higher on the first occasion (33 +/- 7) than on the second occasion (29 +/- 7; p < 0.01). A negative correlation was found between trait anxiety scores and the slopes of concentration-effect plots for peak velocity (r = -0.63; p < 0.01). For AUC and AUEC values the results indicate a reasonable long-term reproducibility of differences between subjects in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of temazepam. However, there were limitations to the predictive value of derived concentration-effect parameters.

  18. Rabbit as an animal model for intravitreal pharmacokinetics: Clinical predictability and quality of the published data.

    PubMed

    Del Amo, Eva M; Urtti, Arto

    2015-08-01

    Intravitreal administration is the method of choice in drug delivery to the retina and/or choroid. Rabbit is the most commonly used animal species in intravitreal pharmacokinetics, but it has been criticized as being a poor model of human eye. The critique is based on some anatomical differences, properties of the vitreous humor, and observed differences in drug concentrations in the anterior chamber after intravitreal injections. We have systematically analyzed all published information on intravitreal pharmacokinetics in the rabbit and human eye. The analysis revealed major problems in the design of the pharmacokinetic studies. In this review we provide advice for study design. Overall, the pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, volume of distribution, half-life) in the human and rabbit eye have good correlation and comparable absolute values. Therefore, reliable rabbit-to-man translation of intravitreal pharmacokinetics should be feasible. The relevant anatomical and physiological parameters in rabbit and man show only small differences. Furthermore, the claimed discrepancy between drug concentrations in the human and rabbit aqueous humor is not supported by the data analysis. Based on the available and properly conducted pharmacokinetic studies, the differences in the vitreous structure in rabbits and human patients do not lead to significant pharmacokinetic differences. This review is the first step towards inter-species translation of intravitreal pharmacokinetics. More information is still needed to dissect the roles of drug delivery systems, disease states, age and ocular manipulation on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics in rabbit and man. Anyway, the published data and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that the rabbit is a useful animal model in intravitreal pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of dexmedetomidine in elderly patients during spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yun; Zhang, Ran-Ran; Pei, Qi; Tan, Hong-Yi; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Huang, Jie; Xiang, Yu-Xia; Ouyang, Wen; Duan, Kai-Ming; Wang, Sai-Ying; Yang, Guo-Ping

    2015-12-01

    administration); while SBP was significantly different between the groups, this differential declined in a time-dependent manner, and there were no significant attendant differences in the D-value. The observed values and D-values of DBP and HR were similar in the groups, but the observed value and D-value of SpO₂did differ. There were 14 drug-related adverse events in the young group, and 26 drug-related adverse events in the elderly group, a 46% differential. The percentage of patients who requiring intervention during surgery was 68.75% (11/16) in the elderly group and 36.84% (7/19) in the young group, with no significant difference between the two groups once age was factored in (p = 0.06). None of the pharmacodynamic indices, however, correlated with the key pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC(0→t), AUC(0→∞)) of dexmedetomidine. The clearance of dexmedetomidine in elderly patients showed a declining trend compared to young patients. Interventions in the elderly group were more frequent than in the young group, and the elderly group showed significant adverse effects. It is suggested that elderly patients who use dexmedetomidine may benefit from a different dose. However, further research with a larger population size is required to confirm these findings.

  20. [The role of bemitil pharmacokinetics in realizing its therapeutic efficacy].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, S S; Zherdev, V P; Neznamov, G G

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a new psychotropic drug bemithil was studied after single and long-term administrations under monotherapy and in combination with phenazepam in patients with asthenoneurotic disturbances. A high degree of correlation for some pharmacokinetic parameters of bemithil following the administration of the drug test dose and its global therapeutic effect was established.

  1. The use of wireless laptop computers for computer-assisted learning in pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Munar, Myrna Y; Singh, Harleen; Belle, Donna; Brackett, Carolyn C; Earle, Sandra B

    2006-02-15

    To implement computer-assisted learning workshops into pharmacokinetics courses in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Workshops were designed for students to utilize computer software programs on laptop computers to build pharmacokinetic models to predict drug concentrations resulting from various dosage regimens. In addition, students were able to visualize through graphing programs how altering different parameters changed drug concentration-time curves. Surveys were conducted to measure students' attitudes toward computer technology before and after implementation. Finally, traditional examinations were used to evaluate student learning. Doctor of pharmacy students responded favorably to the use of wireless laptop computers in problem-based pharmacokinetic workshops. Eighty-eight percent (n = 61/69) and 82% (n = 55/67) of PharmD students completed surveys before and after computer implementation, respectively. Prior to implementation, 95% of students agreed that computers would enhance learning in pharmacokinetics. After implementation, 98% of students strongly agreed (p < 0.05) that computers enhanced learning. Examination results were significantly higher after computer implementation (89% with computers vs. 84% without computers; p = 0.01). Implementation of wireless laptop computers in a pharmacokinetic course enabled students to construct their own pharmacokinetic models that could respond to changing parameters. Students had greater comprehension and were better able to interpret results and provide appropriate recommendations. Computer-assisted pharmacokinetic techniques can be powerful tools when making decisions about drug therapy.

  2. The Use of Wireless Laptop Computers for Computer-Assisted Learning in Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Munar, Myrna Y.; Singh, Harleen; Belle, Donna; Brackett, Carolyn C.; Earle, Sandra B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To implement computer-assisted learning workshops into pharmacokinetics courses in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Design Workshops were designed for students to utilize computer software programs on laptop computers to build pharmacokinetic models to predict drug concentrations resulting from various dosage regimens. In addition, students were able to visualize through graphing programs how altering different parameters changed drug concentration-time curves. Surveys were conducted to measure students’ attitudes toward computer technology before and after implementation. Finally, traditional examinations were used to evaluate student learning. Assessment Doctor of pharmacy students responded favorably to the use of wireless laptop computers in problem-based pharmacokinetic workshops. Eighty-eight percent (n = 61/69) and 82% (n = 55/67) of PharmD students completed surveys before and after computer implementation, respectively. Prior to implementation, 95% of students agreed that computers would enhance learning in pharmacokinetics. After implementation, 98% of students strongly agreed (p < 0.05) that computers enhanced learning. Examination results were significantly higher after computer implementation (89% with computers vs. 84% without computers; p = 0.01). Conclusion Implementation of wireless laptop computers in a pharmacokinetic course enabled students to construct their own pharmacokinetic models that could respond to changing parameters. Students had greater comprehension and were better able to interpret results and provide appropriate recommendations. Computer-assisted pharmacokinetic techniques can be powerful tools when making decisions about drug therapy. PMID:17136147

  3. Pharmacokinetics of cefpirome during the posttraumatic systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacolot, A; Incagnoli, P; Edouard, A R; Tod, M; Petitjean, O; Samii, K; Mimoz, O

    1999-05-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefpirome, a new so-called fourth-generation cephalosporin, in previously healthy trauma patients with posttraumatic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to compare them to parameters obtained in matched, healthy volunteers. A prospective study. 12-bed surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital. 9 severe [Injury Severity Score, median (range) 29 (16-50)] trauma patients on mechanical ventilation with proven or suspected cefpirome-susceptible nosocomial infection, with no renal or hepatic failure, and healthy volunteers matched for age (+/- 5 years), sex, and body surface area (+/- 10%) were enrolled. All were men. Cefpirome (2 g twice daily) was continuously infused over a 0.5 h period alone or concomitantly with ciprofloxacin (400 mg over 1 h, twice daily). Antibiotic concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography; their pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated at 12 time points after the first drug administration using a noncompartmental model. Cefpirome pharmacokinetic parameters for the two groups were similar despite a wider variation for trauma patients. Specifically, the median (range) time during which the cefpirome concentration in plasma remained over 4 mg/l (corresponding to the French lower cutoff determining cefpirome susceptibility) was 9.5 (7- > 12) and 9 (8-12) h for trauma patients and healthy volunteers, respectively. In the group of five patients receiving combined antibiotic therapy, the interindividual variability of pharmacokinetics was wider for ciprofloxacin than for cefpirome. No major pharmacokinetic modification was noted when cefpirome was given to trauma patients with posttraumatic SIRS without significant organ failure, indicating that no dosage adjustment seems required in this population. However, larger studies including determination of antibiotic levels in tissues are warranted to confirm these results.

  4. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Febuxostat.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Bishoy; Graham, Garry G; Williams, Kenneth M; Pile, Kevin D; Day, Richard O

    2017-05-01

    Febuxostat is a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor that has been developed to treat chronic gout. In healthy subjects, the pharmacokinetic parameters of febuxostat after multiple oral dose administration include an oral availability of about 85 %, an apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of 10.5 ± 3.4 L/h and an apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss /F) of 48 ± 23 L. The time course of plasma concentrations follows a two-compartment model. The initial half-life (t ½ ) is approximately 2 h and the terminal t ½ determined at daily doses of 40 mg or more is 9.4 ± 4.9 h. Febuxostat is administered once daily. The maximum (peak) plasma concentrations are approximately 100-fold greater than the trough concentrations. Consequently, there is no significant accumulation of the drug during multiple dose administration. There are few data on the pharmacokinetics of febuxostat in patients with gout. While the pharmacokinetic parameters are not affected by mild to moderate hepatic impairment, there is no consensus on whether renal impairment has any effect on the pharmacokinetics of febuxostat. Febuxostat is extensively metabolised by oxidation (approximately 35 %) and acyl glucuronidation (up to 40 %); febuxostat acyl glucuronides are cleared by the kidney. In healthy subjects treated with multiple doses of febuxostat 10-240 mg, the concentrations of serum urate are reduced by a maximum of about 80 %. The percentage reduction in the concentrations of serum urate is slightly less in gouty patients than in healthy subjects.

  5. Oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: efficacy and pharmacokinetics parameters.

    PubMed

    Burz, C; Berindan-Neagoe, I; Balacescu, O; Todor, N; Pelau, D; Floares, C; Kacso, G; Tanaselia, C; Ursu, M; Vlase, L; Leucuta, S E; Cristea, V; Irimie, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the FOLFOX-4 regimen and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin in untreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. 43 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients received oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2) as 2-h i.v. infusion, on day 1, and bolus 5-fluorouracil (5FU) 400 mg/m(2) plus leucovorin (LV) 200 mg/m(2) followed by 5FU 600 mg/m(2) as 22-h infusion on day 1 and 2, every 2 weeks. The pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin evaluated in 4 patients was performed in blood, plasma and ultrafiltered plasma (UFT) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The overall response rate and the median time to progression (TTP) were 53.49% and 7.1 months, respectively. Grade 3-4 toxic effects were observed in 11 (25.5%) patients. Grade 3 neuropathy was observed in 13.95% of the cases. In univariate analysis only Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) was correlated with response. No correlation was found between grade 3-4 adverse events and the patient characteristics. The area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) in UFT was 4.8 + or - 0.72 standard deviation (SD) microg h/ml and the total clearance 30.17 + or - 7.75 l/min. The values for volume of distribution and the maximum concentration were 567 + or - 20 liters and 0.38 + or - 0.17 ug/ml, respectively. FOLFOX-4 was an effective regimen with good tolerability in previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer patients. The pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin was triphasic with a short initial distribution phase and a long terminal elimination phase.

  6. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-v...

  7. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of tea catechin mixture in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Law, Francis C P; Yao, Meicun; Bi, Hui-Chang; Lam, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Although green tea ( Camellia sinensis) (GT) contains a large number of polyphenolic compounds with anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activities, little is known of the pharmacokinetics and tissue dose of tea catechins (TCs) as a chemical mixture in humans. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of tea catechin mixture (TCM) in rats and humans, and to predict an integrated or total concentration of TCM in the plasma of humans after consuming GT or Polyphenon E (PE). To this end, a PBPK model of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) consisting of 13 first-order, blood flow-limited tissue compartments was first developed in rats. The rat model was scaled up to humans by replacing its physiological parameters, pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue/blood partition coefficients (PCs) with human-specific values. Both rat and human EGCg models were then extrapolated to other TCs by substituting its physicochemical parameters, pharmacokinetic parameters, and PCs with catechin-specific values. Finally, a PBPK model of TCM was constructed by linking three rat (or human) tea catechin models together without including a description for pharmacokinetic interaction between the TCs. The mixture PBPK model accurately predicted the pharmacokinetic behaviors of three individual TCs in the plasma of rats and humans after GT or PE consumption. Model-predicted total TCM concentration in the plasma was linearly related to the dose consumed by humans. The mixture PBPK model is able to translate an external dose of TCM into internal target tissue doses for future safety assessment and dose-response analysis studies in humans. The modeling framework as described in this paper is also applicable to the bioactive chemical in other plant-based health products.

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS).The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) was evaluated using data collected in Phase II IND protocols. We reported earlier statistically significant gender differences in PK parameters of INSCOP at a dose level of 0.4 mg. To identify covariates that influence PK parameters of INSCOP, we examined population covariates of INSCOP PK model for 0.4 mg dose. Methods: Plasma scopolamine concentrations versus time data were collected from 20 normal healthy human subjects (11 male/9 female) after a 0.4 mg dose. Phoenix NLME was employed for PK analysis of these data using gender, body weight and age as covariates for model selection. Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL). Statistical significance for base model building and individual covariate analysis was set at P less than 0.05{delta(-2LL)=3.84}. Results: A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order elimination best described INSCOP concentration ]time profiles. Inclusion of gender, body weight and age as covariates individually significantly reduced -2LL by the cut-off value of 3.84(P less than 0.05) when tested against the base model. After the forward stepwise selection and backward elimination steps, gender was selected to add to the final model which had significant influence on absorption rate constant (ka) and the volume of distribution (V) of INSCOP. Conclusion: A population pharmacokinetic model for INSCOP has been identified and gender was a significant contributing covariate for the final model. The volume of distribution and Ka were significantly higher in males than in females which confirm gender-dependent pharmacokinetics of scopolamine after administration of a 0.4 mg dose.

  9. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the developmentmore » and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.« less

  10. Effect of feeding on the pharmacokinetics of oral minocycline in healthy research dogs.

    PubMed

    Hnot, Melanie L; Cole, Lynette K; Lorch, Gwendolen; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J; Papich, Mark G

    2015-12-01

    The effect of food on minocycline oral absorption in dogs is unknown. The objective was to determine the pharmacokinetics of minocycline after administration of a single oral dose in fed and fasted dogs. Ten research hounds were administered oral minocycline (approximately 5 mg/kg) with and without food, in a crossover study, with a one-week wash-out between treatments. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to minocycline administration and over 24 h. Minocycline plasma drug concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection and were analysed with compartmental modelling to determine primary pharmacokinetic parameters. Each dog was analysed independently, followed by calculation of means and variation of the dogs. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test [analysing secondary pharmacokinetic parameters - peak concentration (CMAX ), area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC)] was used to compare the two groups. A population pharmacokinetic modelling approach was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling of primary parameters for the population as fixed effects and the difference between subjects as a random effect. Covariate analysis was used to identify the source of variability in the population. No significant difference was found between treatments for AUC (P = 0.0645), although AUC was higher in fasted dogs. A significant difference was found for CMAX (P = 0.0059), with fasted dogs attaining a higher CMAX . The covariate of fed versus fasted accounted for a significant variation in the pharmacokinetics. Because feeding was a significant source of variation for the population's primary pharmacokinetic parameters and fasted dogs had higher minocycline concentrations, we recommend administering minocycline without food. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  12. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  13. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  14. Predicting Age-appropriate Pharmacokinetics of Six Volatile Organic Compounds in the Rat Utilizing Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Modeling (T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to incorporate ageappropriate physiological and chemical-specific parameters was utilized in this study to predict changes in internal dosimetry for six volatile organic compounds (VOCs) across different ages o...

  15. Raltegravir Pharmacokinetics in Patients on Asunaprevir-Daclatasvir

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Corine; Furlan, Valérie; Rosa, Isabelle; Rosenthal, Eric; Cheret, Antoine; Molina, Jean-Michel; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Piroth, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Raltegravir pharmacokinetics was studied in 20 patients included in the ANRS HC30 QUADRIH Study before and after addition of anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) quadritherapy, including pegylated-interferon–ribavirin and asunaprevir plus daclatasvir. Raltegravir pharmacokinetic parameters remained unchanged whether administered on or off anti-HCV therapy. In addition, concentrations of raltegravir, asunaprevir, and daclatasvir were not affected by liver cirrhosis. These data suggest that in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV-coinfected patients, whether cirrhotic or not, asunaprevir and daclatasvir could be administered safely with raltegravir. PMID:26438504

  16. Microcomputer-Based Programs for Pharmacokinetic Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ronald C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Microcomputer software that simulates drug-concentration time profiles based on user-assigned pharmacokinetic parameters such as central volume of distribution, elimination rate constant, absorption rate constant, dosing regimens, and compartmental transfer rate constants is described. The software is recommended for use in undergraduate…

  17. One should avoid retro-orbital pharmacokinetic sample collections for intranasal dosing in rats: Illustration of spurious pharmacokinetics generated for anti-migraine drugs zolmitriptan and eletriptan.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Shah, Shaival; Ghoghari, Ashok; Variya, Bhavesh; Laddha, Ritu; Baradia, Dipesh; Dobaria, Nitin; Mehta, Pavak; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-08-30

    Because of the avoidance of first pass metabolic effects due to direct and rapid absorption with improved permeability, intranasal route represents a good alternative for extravascular drug administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the intranasal pharmacokinetics of two anti-migraine drugs (zolmitriptan and eletriptan), using retro-orbital sinus and jugular vein sites sampling. In a parallel study design, healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged between 8 and 12weeks were divided into groups (n=4 or 5/group). The animals of individual groups were dosed intranasal (~1.0mg/kg) and oral doses of 2.1mg/kg of either zolmitriptan or eletriptan. Serial blood sampling was performed from jugular vein or retro-orbital site and plasma samples were analyzed for drug concentrations using LC-MS/MS assay. Standard pharmacokinetics parameters such as T max , C max , AUC last , AUC 0-inf and T 1/2 were calculated and statistics of derived parameters was performed using unpaired t-test. After intranasal dosing, the mean pharmacokinetic parameters C max and AUC inf of zolmitriptan/eletriptan showed about 17-fold and 3-5-fold higher values for retro-orbital sampling as compared to the jugular vein sampling site. Whereas after oral administration such parameters derived for both drugs were largely comparable between the two sampling sites and statistically non-significant. In conclusion, the assessment of plasma levels after intranasal administration with retro-orbital sampling would result in spurious and misleading pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Piperacillin-Tazobactam in 42 Patients Treated with Concomitant CRRT

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Seth R.; Salem, Charbel; Connor, Michael J.; Groszek, Joseph; Taylor, Maria E.; Wei, Peilin; Tolwani, Ashita J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Current recommendations for piperacillin-tazobactam dosing in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy originate from studies with relatively few patients and lower continuous renal replacement therapy doses than commonly used today. This study measured the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of piperacillin-tazobactam in patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy using contemporary equipment and prescriptions. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A multicenter prospective observational study in the intensive care units of two academic medical centers was performed, enrolling patients with AKI or ESRD receiving piperacillin-tazobactam while being treated with continuous renal replacement therapy. Pregnant women, children, and patients with end stage liver disease were excluded from enrollment. Plasma and continuous renal replacement therapy effluent samples were analyzed for piperacillin and tazobactam levels using HPLC. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were calculated using standard equations. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of patient and continuous renal replacement therapy characteristics with piperacillin pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Forty-two of fifty-five subjects enrolled had complete sampling. Volume of distribution (median=0.38 L/kg, intraquartile range=0.20 L/kg) and elimination rate constants (median=0.104 h−1, intraquartile range=0.052 h−1) were highly variable, and clinical parameters could explain only a small fraction of the large variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. Probability of target attainment for piperacillin was 83% for total drug but only 77% when the unbound fraction was considered. Conclusions There is significant patient to patient variability in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Many patients did not achieve pharmacodynamic

  19. Albendazole nanocrystals with improved pharmacokinetic performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Alejandro J; Bruni, Sergio Sánchez; Allemandi, Daniel; Lanusse, Carlos; Palma, Santiago D

    2018-02-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent with poor aqueous solubility, which leads to poor/erratic bioavailability and therapeutic failures. Here, we aimed to produce a novel formulation of ABZ nanocrystals (ABZNC) and assess its pharmacokinetic performance in mice. Results/methodology: ABZNC were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and spray-drying processes. Redispersion capacity and solid yield were measured in order to obtain an optimized product. The final particle size was 415.69±7.40 nm and the solid yield was 72.32%. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in a mice model for ABZNC were enhanced (p < 0.05) with respect to the control formulation. ABZNC with improved pharmacokinetic behavior were produced by a simple, inexpensive and potentially scalable methodology.

  20. Excitation-resolved multispectral method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescent molecular tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maomao; Zhou, Yuan; Su, Han; Zhang, Dong; Luo, Jianwen

    2017-04-01

    Imaging of the pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (DFMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, owing to the ill-posed nature of the FMT inverse problem, the relatively low quality of the parametric images makes it difficult to investigate the different metabolic processes of the fluorescent targets with small distances. An excitation-resolved multispectral DFMT method is proposed; it is based on the fact that the fluorescent targets with different concentrations show different variations in the excitation spectral domain and can be considered independent signal sources. With an independent component analysis method, the spatial locations of different fluorescent targets can be decomposed, and the fluorescent yields of the targets at different time points can be recovered. Therefore, the metabolic process of each component can be independently investigated. Simulations and phantom experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the proposed excitation-resolved multispectral method can effectively improve the reconstruction accuracy of the parametric images in DFMT.

  1. Checking distributional assumptions for pharmacokinetic summary statistics based on simulations with compartmental models.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meiyu; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Slud, Eric V

    2016-08-12

    Bioequivalence (BE) studies are an essential part of the evaluation of generic drugs. The most common in vivo BE study design is the two-period two-treatment crossover design. AUC (area under the concentration-time curve) and Cmax (maximum concentration) are obtained from the observed concentration-time profiles for each subject from each treatment under each sequence. In the BE evaluation of pharmacokinetic crossover studies, the normality of the univariate response variable, e.g. log(AUC) 1 or log(Cmax), is often assumed in the literature without much evidence. Therefore, we investigate the distributional assumption of the normality of response variables, log(AUC) and log(Cmax), by simulating concentration-time profiles from two-stage pharmacokinetic models (commonly used in pharmacokinetic research) for a wide range of pharmacokinetic parameters and measurement error structures. Our simulations show that, under reasonable distributional assumptions on the pharmacokinetic parameters, log(AUC) has heavy tails and log(Cmax) is skewed. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to investigate how the distribution of the standardized log(AUC) (or the standardized log(Cmax)) for a large number of simulated subjects deviates from normality if distributions of errors in the pharmacokinetic model for plasma concentrations deviate from normality and if the plasma concentration can be described by different compartmental models.

  2. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Esplandiu, Maria J.; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David, E-mail: dreguera@ub.edu

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential andmore » the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.« less

  3. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors.

    PubMed

    Esplandiu, Maria J; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  4. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models requires a lot data, such as the chemical-specific parameters and in vivo pharmacokinetic data. Previously-developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be great resource for supporting the constr...

  5. Development and optimization of carvedilol orodispersible tablets: enhancement of pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Aljimaee, Yazeed HM; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama AA; El-Say, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Background Carvedilol (CVD) is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, heart failure, and systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Due to its lower aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of CVD does not exceed 30%. To overcome these drawbacks, the objective of this work was to improve the solubility and onset of action of CVD through complexation with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and formulation of the prepared complex as orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Methods Compatibility among CVD and all tablet excipients using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, complexation of CVD with different polymers, and determination of the solubility of CVD in the prepared complexes were first determined. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effect of tablet formulation variables on the characteristics of the prepared tablets and to optimize preparation conditions. According to BBD design, 15 formulations of CVD-ODTs were prepared by direct compression and then evaluated for their quality attributes. The relative pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized CVD-ODTs were compared with those of the marketed CVD tablet. A single dose, equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg CVD, was administered orally to New Zealand white rabbits using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Results The solubility of CVD was improved from 7.32 to 22.92 mg/mL after complexation with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (CVD to cyclodextrin). The formulated CVD-ODTs showed satisfactory results concerning tablet hardness (5.35 kg/cm2), disintegration time (18 seconds), and maximum amount of CVD released (99.72%). The pharmacokinetic data for the optimized CVD-ODT showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in maximum plasma concentration from 363.667 to 496.4 ng/mL, and a shortening of the time taken to reach maximum plasma concentration to 2 hours in comparison with the marketed tablet

  6. Atomoxetine pharmacogenetics: associations with pharmacokinetics, treatment response and tolerability.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jacob T; Bishop, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and is predominantly metabolized by the CYP2D6 enzyme. Differences in pharmacokinetic parameters as well as clinical treatment outcomes across CYP2D6 genotype groups have resulted in dosing recommendations within the product label, but clinical studies supporting the use of genotype guided dosing are currently lacking. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies have primarily focused on extensive as compared with poor metabolizers, with little information known about other metabolizer categories as well as genes involved in the pharmacodynamics of atomoxetine. This review describes the pharmacogenetic associations with atomoxetine pharmacokinetics, treatment response and tolerability with considerations for the clinical utility of this information.

  7. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiang; Heinzmann, Dominik; Grippo, Joseph F

    2017-09-01

    Vemurafenib is an orally administered small-molecule inhibitor of the oncogenic BRAF kinase that is indicated for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma harbouring BRAF V600 mutations. Vemurafenib is absorbed rapidly after a single oral dose of 960 mg, reaching maximum drug concentration approximately 4 h after administration. Extensive accumulation occurs after multiple dosing at 960 mg twice daily. Steady state is achieved after approximately 15-21 days and exposure at steady state is relatively constant. Population pharmacokinetic analysis identified a vemurafenib half-life of ≈57 h and elimination appears to be predominantly via the hepatic route. Pharmacokinetic parameters are generally consistent regardless of age, sex or race. No dose adjustments are necessary for patients with mild or moderate hepatic or renal impairment, but the effects of severe hepatic or renal impairment on vemurafenib pharmacokinetics are uncertain. Vemurafenib appears to be a substrate and inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, a moderate inhibitor of CYP1A2 and both a substrate and inhibitor of the drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein. The relationship between plasma vemurafenib concentrations and response remains to be clarified.

  8. The pharmacokinetics of intraosseous atropine in hypovolemic swine.

    PubMed

    Yost, Jonathan; Baldwin, Phillip; Bellenger, Sarah; Bradshaw, Freida; Causapin, Edna; Demotica, Richelle; Livingston, Michael; Lee, Cynthia; Gegel, Brian; Burgert, James; Claessens, Adam; Johnson, Don; Loughren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Compare the pharmacokinetics of atropine administered via the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and intraosseous (IO) routes in a normovolemic and hypovolemic swine model. Prospective, between subjects, experimental study. Vivarium. Yorkshire-cross swine (N = 36). Atropine was administered via IV, IM, or IO routes to normovolemic and hypovolemic swine. Blood samples were drawn at regular intervals after atropine administration and analyzed for plasma atropine concentration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained from modeling the plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum concentration (Cmax) and time to maximum concentration (Tmax). The IV and IO groups in both the normovolemic and hypovolemic models reached peak plasma concentration immediately and had a very rapid distribution phase with no apparent absorption phase for the IO groups. Peak plasma concentration and time to reach peak concentration were both significantly lower for the IM groups. There was a significant increase in absorption time with IM administration in the hypovolemic model compared to the normovolemic model. The IO route is an effective method of administering atropine and is comparable to the IV route even under conditions of significant hemorrhage. Therapeutic levels of atropine may be delayed and possibly difficult to obtain via IM injection in the presence of hypovolemic shock.

  9. Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Cancer Chemoprevention With Sulindac in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Alexander K.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Ziegler, Katie L. Allen; Carlson, Elsa C.; Szabo, Eva; Ames, Mathew M.; Boring, Daniel; Limburg, Paul J.; Reid, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    Sulindac is a prescription-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that continues to be actively investigated as a candidate cancer chemoprevention agent. To further current understanding of sulindac bioavailability, metabolism, and disposition, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model for the parent compound and its active metabolites, sulindac sulfide, and exisulind. This analysis was based on data from 24 healthy subjects who participated in a bioequivalence study comparing two formulations of sulindac. The complex disposition of sulindac and its metabolites was described by a seven-compartment model featuring enterohepatic recirculation and is the first reported population pharmacokinetic model for sulindac. The derived model was used to explore effects of clinical variables on sulindac pharmacokinetics and revealed that body weight, creatinine clearance, and gender were significantly correlated with pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, the model quantifies the relative bioavailability of the sulindac formulations and illustrates the utility of population pharmacokinetics in bioequivalence assessment. This novel population pharmacokinetic model provides new insights regarding the factors that may affect the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and the exisulind and sulindac sulfide metabolites in generally healthy subjects, which have implications for future chemoprevention trial design for this widely available agent. PMID:23436338

  10. Pharmacokinetic disposition and arthropathic potential of oral ofloxacin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Yabe, K; Nishida, S; Yamamoto, N; Ohshima, C; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, K; Furuhama, K

    1998-04-01

    We examined the relation between the pharmacokinetic disposition and arthropathic potential of ofloxacin, a new quinolone antibacterial agent, using both male immature (3-month-old) and mature (18-month-old) beagles. Ofloxacin was orally administered to these dogs at 20 mg/kg once daily for 8 consecutive days, and the animals were killed 2 h after the last treatment. Serum ofloxacin concentrations were repeatedly measured on days 1 and 7 by use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. In addition, on day 8, the drug concentrations in the joint synovial fluid and humeral and femoral condyles were measured. Clinico-pathological tests of blood and serum or histopathological examination of bone specimens were also performed. Arthropathy was macroscopically observed in the cartilage surface of all immature dogs, but not in mature dogs. There were, however, no noticeable differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the two age groups of dogs or between single and 7-day treatments. In contrast to the occurrence of arthropathic lesions, the synovial fluid and condylar drug concentrations in immature dogs was equal to or lower than those in mature dogs, suggesting that the pharmacokinetic disposition of ofloxacin may not be essential for cartilage lesions.

  11. Application of whole-lesion histogram analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of breast lesions with the CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST-VIBE technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwei; Ai, Tao; Hu, Yiqi; Yan, Xu; Nickel, Marcel Dominik; Xu, Xiao; Xia, Liming

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the application of whole-lesion histogram analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters for differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). In all, 92 women with 97 breast lesions (26 benign and 71 malignant lesions) were enrolled in this study. Patients underwent dynamic breast MRI at 3T using a prototypical CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST-VIBE (CDT-VIBE) sequence and a subsequent surgery or biopsy. Inflow rate of the agent between plasma and interstitium (K trans ), outflow rate of agent between interstitium and plasma (K ep ), extravascular space volume per unit volume of tissue (v e ) including mean value, 25th/50th/75th/90th percentiles, skewness, and kurtosis were then calculated based on the whole lesion. A single-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t-test, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were used for statistical analysis. Malignant breast lesions had significantly higher K trans , K ep , and lower v e in mean values, 25th/50th/75th/90th percentiles, and significantly higher skewness of v e than benign breast lesions (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in kurtosis values between malignant and benign breast lesions (all P > 0.05). The 90th percentile of K trans , the 90th percentile of K ep , and the 50th percentile of v e showed the greatest areas under the ROC curve (AUC) for each pharmacokinetic parameter derived from DCE-MRI. The 90th percentile of K ep achieved the highest AUC value (0.927) among all histogram-derived values. The whole-lesion histogram analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters can improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast DCE-MRI with the CDT-VIBE technique. The 90th percentile of K ep may be the best indicator in differentiation between malignant and benign breast lesions. 4 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:91-96. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Impact of imipenem and amikacin pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters on microbiological outcome of Gram-negative bacilli ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Pajot, O; Burdet, C; Couffignal, C; Massias, L; Armand-Lefevre, L; Foucrier, A; Da Silva, D; Lasocki, S; Laouénan, C; Mentec, H; Mentré, F; Wolff, M

    2015-05-01

    Despite recent advances, antibiotic therapy of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in ICU patients is still challenging. We assessed the impact of imipenem and amikacin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters on microbiological outcome in these patients. Patients with Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) VAP were prospectively included. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected after empirical administration of a combination of imipenem three times daily and one single dose of amikacin. MICs were estimated for each GNB obtained from respiratory samples. Microbiological success was defined as a ≥10(3) cfu/mL decrease in bacterial count in quantitative cultures between baseline and the third day of treatment. Thirty-nine patients [median (min-max) age = 60 years (28-84) and median SAPS2 at inclusion = 40 (19-73)] were included. Median MICs of imipenem and amikacin were 0.25 mg/L (0.094-16) and 2 mg/L (1-32), respectively. Median times over MIC and over 5× MIC for imipenem were 100% (8-100) and 74% (3-100), respectively. The median C1/MIC ratio for amikacin was 23 (1-76); 34 patients (87%) achieved a C1/MIC ≥10. Microbiological success occurred in 29 patients (74%). No imipenem pharmacodynamic parameter was significantly associated with the microbiological success. For amikacin, C1/MIC was significantly higher in the microbiological success group: 26 (1-76) versus 11 (3-26) (P = 0.004). In ICU patients with VAP, classic imipenem pharmacodynamic targets are easily reached with usual dosing regimens. In this context, for amikacin, a higher C1/MIC ratio than previously described might be necessary. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of ginkgolide B injection in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Song, H; Bu, F; Wei, C; Yuan, G; Liu, X; Wang, B; Guo, R

    2012-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed, validated, and applied to the pharmacokinetic study with doses of 0.68, 2.73 and 10.92 mg/kg of ginkgolide B in beagle dogs after intravenous infusion.An aliquot of blood samples were -collected, separated and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method with mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.02% ammonia solution (33:67, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min on the UltimateTM XB-C18 column (5 μm, 4.6×150 mm).The method was sensitive, accurate and convenient, and can be used for the determination of ginkgolide B in beagle dogs. The Cmax and AUC0-∞ of GB increased with dose escalation, but ANOVA analyses showed that no significant difference was observed in other pharmacokinetic parameters between different doses.An LC/MS method was developed with good sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity. In the pharmacokinetic study of GB in beagle dogs, linear pharmacokinetics was found at doses from 0.62 to 10.92 mg/kg after a single-dose intravenous infusion. Gender differences were not observed in the pharmacokinetics of GB. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of phenobarbital in neonates and young infants, a population pharmacokinetic modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Amélie; Brevaut-Malaty, Véronique; Vialet, Renaud; Boulamery, Audrey; Bruguerolle, Bernard; Simon, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Phenobarbital is widely used for treatment of neonatal seizures. Its optimal use in neonates and young infants requires information regarding pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study is to characterize the absolute bioavailability of phenobarbital in neonates and young infants, a pharmacokinetic parameter which has not yet been investigated. Routine clinical pharmacokinetic data were retrospectively collected from 48 neonates and infants (weight: 0.7-10 kg; patient's postnatal age: 0-206 days; GA: 27-42 weeks) treated with phenobarbital, who were administered as intravenous or suspension by oral routes and hospitalized in a paediatric intensive care unit. Total mean dose of 4.6 mg/kg (3.1-10.6 mg/kg) per day was administered by 30-min infusion or by oral route. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed-effect population model software). Data were modelled with an allometric pharmacokinetic model, using three-fourths scaling exponent for clearance (CL). The population typical mean [per cent relative standard error (%RSE)] values for CL, apparent volume of distribution (Vd ) and bioavailability (F) were 0.0054 L/H/kg (7%), 0.64 L/kg (15%) and 48.9% (22%), respectively. The interindividual variability of CL, Vd , F (%RSE) and residual variability (%RSE) was 17% (31%), 50% (27%), 39% (27%) and 7.2 mg/L (29%), respectively. The absolute bioavailability of phenobarbital in neonates and infants was estimated. The dose should be increased when switching from intravenous to oral administration. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Simultaneous pharmacogenetics-based population pharmacokinetic analysis of darunavir and ritonavir in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Moltó, José; Xinarianos, George; Miranda, Cristina; Pushpakom, Sudeep; Cedeño, Samandhy; Clotet, Bonaventura; Owen, Andrew; Valle, Marta

    2013-07-01

    Darunavir is a potent protease inhibitor of HIV. To enhance its pharmacokinetic profile, darunavir must be co-administered with ritonavir. There is wide inter-patient variability in darunavir pharmacokinetics among HIV-infected individuals, however. Darunavir is a known substrate for influx transporters, such as the 1A2 and the 1B1 members of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family (SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1), as well as for efflux transporters such as the multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP1). The aim of this study was to develop a semi-mechanistic population pharmacokinetic model for darunavir and ritonavir administered in HIV-infected adults. The desired model would incorporate patient characteristics and pharmacogenetic data contributing to variability in drug concentrations and also take into account the interaction between the two compounds. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with 705 plasma samples from 75 Caucasian individuals receiving darunavir/ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily) for at least 4 weeks. At least one full pharmacokinetic profile was obtained for each participant, and darunavir and ritonavir concentrations in plasma were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Genotyping for 148 polymorphisms in genes coding for transporters or metabolizing enzymes was conducted by two methods: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction-based allelic discrimination. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed for darunavir and for ritonavir. The effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms on the post hoc individual pharmacokinetic parameters was first explored using graphic methods and regression analysis. Those covariates related to changes in darunavir or ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters were then further evaluated using non-linear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM version VII). Darunavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetics were best described by a two- and one-compartment model, respectively, both

  16. Interactions of pharmacokinetic profile of different parts from Ginkgo biloba extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, HanLiang; Qian, Dawei; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Hui; Shang, Erxing; Duan, Jinao

    2014-08-08

    Extracts from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves confer their therapeutic effects through the synergistic actions of flavonoid and terpenoid components, but some non-flavonoid and non-terpenoid components also exist in this extract. In the study of this paper, an investigation was carried out to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of fourteen compounds to clarify the influences of non-flavonoid and non-terpenoid fraction (WEF) on the pharmacokinetics profile of the flavonoid fraction (FF) and the terpene lactone fraction (TLF) from Ginkgo biloba extracts. A selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was established to determine the plasma concentrations of the fourteen compounds to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters after orally administration of FF, TLF, FF-WEF, FF-TLF, TLF-WEF and FF-TLF-WEF with approximately the same dose. At different time points, the concentration of rutin (1), isoquercitrin (2), quercetin 3-O-[4-O-(-β-D-glucosyl)-α-L-rhamnoside] (3), ginkgolide C (4), bilobalide (5), quercitrin (6), ginkgolide B (7), ginkgolide A (8), luteolin (9), quercetin (10), apigenin (11), kaempferol (12), isorhamnetin (13), genkwanin (14) in rat plasma were determined and main pharmacokinetic parameters including T1/2, Tmax, Cmax and AUC were calculated using the DAS 3.2 software package. The statistical analysis was performed using the Student׳s t-test with P<0.05 as the level of significance. FF and WEF had no effect on the pharmacokinetic behaviors and parameters of the four terpene lactones, but the pharmacokinetic profiles and parameters of flavonoids changed while co-administered with non-flavonoid components. It was found that Cmax and AUC of six flavonoid aglycones in group FF-WEF, FF-TLF and FF-TLF-WEF had varying degrees of reduction in comparison with group FF, especially in group FF-TLF-WEF. On the contrary, the values of Cmax, Tmax and AUC of four flavonoid glycosides in group FF-TLF-WEF were significantly increased compared with those in group FF. These

  17. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  18. A pharmacokinetic model of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim application in normal mice and those with cyclophosphamide-induced granulocytopaenia.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Ackermann, M; Engel, C; Emmrich, F; Loeffler, M; Kamprad, M

    2009-12-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is widely used as treatment for granulocytopaenia during cytotoxic chemotherapy; however, optimal scheduling of this pharmaceutical is unknown. Biomathematical models can help to pre-select optimal application schedules but precise pharmacokinetic properties of the pharmaceuticals are required at first. In this study, we have aimed to construct a pharmacokinetic model of G-CSF derivatives filgrastim and pegfilgrastim in mice. Healthy CD-1 mice and those with cyclophosphamide-induced granulocytopaenia were studied after administration of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim in different dosing and timing schedules. Close meshed time series of granulocytes and G-CSF plasma concentrations were determined. An ordinary differential equations model of pharmacokinetics was constructed on the basis of known mechanisms of drug distribution and degradation. Predictions of the model fit well with all experimental data for both filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. We obtained a unique parameter setting for all experimental scenarios. Differences in pharmacokinetics between filgrastim and pegfilgrastim can be explained by different estimates of model parameters rather than by different model mechanisms. Parameter estimates with respect to distribution and clearance of the drug derivatives are in agreement with qualitative experimental results. Dynamics of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim plasma levels can be explained by the same pharmacokinetic model but different model parameters. Beause of a strong clearance mechanism mediated by granulocytes, granulocytotic and granulocytopaenic conditions must be studied simultaneously to construct a reliable model. The pharmacokinetic model will be extended to a murine model of granulopoiesis under chemotherapy and G-CSF application.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of pyropheophorbide-a-hexyl ether in the dog.

    PubMed

    Payne, J T; McCaw, D L; Casteel, S W; Frazier, D; Rogers, K; Tompson, R V

    1996-01-01

    Pyropheophorbide-a-hexyl ether (HPPH) is a new compound being investigated for use as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy; however, the pharmacokinetics are not known for any of the target species likely to be treated with this drug. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of this drug prior to institution of a clinical trial in canine patients with various cancers. HPPH (0.3mg/kg i.v.) was administered to 12 dogs and blood samples were drawn at intervals for 24 hours and plasma HPPH concentrations were determined. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated for each dog. No evidence of toxicity was noted in any dog. The mean half-life was calculated to be 26.98 +/- 2.35 hrs. The mean clearance was 5.061 +/- 0.214 ml/hr/kg. The mean volume of distribution of the central compartment was 0.069 +/- 0.003 L/kg, and the mean steady state volume of distribution was 4.47 +/- 0.25 L/kg. The conclusion is that 0.3 mg/kg HPPH injected intravenously resulted in measurable plasma levels for 24 hrs, and resulted in no detectable adverse reactions.

  20. State-of-the-Art Review on Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Pediatric Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Yellepeddi, Venkata; Rower, Joseph; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kumar, Shaun; Rashid, Jahidur; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2018-05-18

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation is an important tool for predicting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of drugs in pediatrics. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is applied in pediatric drug development for first-time-in-pediatric dose selection, simulation-based trial design, correlation with target organ toxicities, risk assessment by investigating possible drug-drug interactions, real-time assessment of pharmacokinetic-safety relationships, and assessment of non-systemic biodistribution targets. This review summarizes the details of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approach in pediatric drug research, emphasizing reports on pediatric physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of individual drugs. We also compare and contrast the strategies employed by various researchers in pediatric physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and provide a comprehensive overview of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling strategies and approaches in pediatrics. We discuss the impact of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models on regulatory reviews and product labels in the field of pediatric pharmacotherapy. Additionally, we examine in detail the current limitations and future directions of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in pediatrics with regard to the ability to predict plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters. Despite the skepticism and concern in the pediatric community about the reliability of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, there is substantial evidence that pediatric physiologically based pharmacokinetic models have been used successfully to predict differences in pharmacokinetics between adults and children for several drugs. It is obvious that the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to support various stages of pediatric drug development is highly attractive and will rapidly increase, provided the robustness and

  1. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of avicularin using a model-based development approach.

    PubMed

    Buqui, Gabriela Amaral; Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Sy, Sherwin K B; Voelkner, Alexander; Singh, Ravi S P; da Silva, Denise Brentan; Kimura, Elza; Derendorf, Hartmut; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Diniz, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the pharmacokinetic information of avicularin in rats to project a dose for humans using allometric scaling. A highly sensitive and specific bioanalytical assay to determine avicularin concentrations in the plasma was developed and validated for UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma protein binding of avicularin in rat plasma determined by the ultrafiltration method was 64%. The pharmacokinetics of avicularin in nine rats was studied following an intravenous bolus administration of 1 mg/kg and was found to be best described by a two-compartment model using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach. The pharmacokinetic parameters were allometrically scaled by body weight and centered to the median rat weight of 0.23 kg, with the power coefficient fixed at 0.75 for clearance and 1 for volume parameters. Avicularin was rapidly eliminated from the systemic circulation within 1 h post-dose, and the avicularin pharmacokinetic was linear up to 5 mg/kg based on exposure comparison to literature data for a 5-mg/kg single dose in rats. Using allometric scaling and Monte Carlo simulation approaches, the rat doses of 1 and 5 mg/kg correspond to the human equivalent doses of 30 and 150 mg, respectively, to achieve comparable plasma avicularin concentrations in humans. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. USE OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL TO ESTIMATE ABSORBED CARBARYL DOSE IN CHILDREN AFTER TURF APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to investigate exposure scenarios of children to carbaryl following turf application. Physiological, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters describing the fate and effects of carbaryl in rats were scaled ...

  3. Calculations of key magnetospheric parameters using the isotropic and anisotropic SPSU global MHD code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Andrey; Gordeev, Evgeny; Sergeev, Victor

    2017-04-01

    As it was recently suggested (e.g., Gordeev et al., 2015), the global magnetospheric configuration can be characterized by a set of key parameters, such as the magnetopause distance at the subsolar point and on the terminator plane, the magnetic field in the magnetotail lobe and the plasma sheet thermal pressure, the cross polar cap electric potential drop and the total field-aligned current. For given solar wind conditions, the values of these parameters can be obtained from both empirical models and global MHD simulations. We validate the recently developed global MHD code SPSU-16 using the key magnetospheric parameters mentioned above. The code SPSU-16 can calculate both the isotropic and anisotropic MHD equations. In the anisotropic version, we use the modified double-adiabatic equations in which the T⊥/T∥ (the ratio of perpendicular to parallel thermal pressures) has been bounded from above by the mirror and ion-cyclotron thresholds and from below by the firehose threshold. The results of validation for the SPSU-16 code well agree with the previously published results of other global codes. Some key parameters coincide in the isotropic and anisotropic MHD simulations, but some are different.

  4. Partially Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose electric drive specific power, electric drive efficiency, and electrical propulsion fraction as the key performance parameters for a partially turboelectric aircraft power system and to investigate their impact on the overall aircraft performance. Breguet range equations for a base conventional turbofan aircraft and a partially turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the partially turboelectric system are enumerated. A break even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency, for a given electrical propulsion fraction, that can preserve the range, fuel weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the conventional aircraft. Current and future power system performance is compared to the required performance to determine the potential benefit.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and RC Circuit Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cock, Mieke De; Janssen, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Most introductory physics courses include a chapter on RC circuits in which the differential equations for the charging and discharging of a capacitor are derived. A number of papers in this journal describe lab experiments dealing with the measurement of different parameters in such RC circuits. In this contribution, we report on a lab experiment we developed for students majoring in pharmacy, using RC circuits to simulate a pharmacokinetic process.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, Dose Proportionality, and Bioavailability of Bazedoxifene in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    McKeand, William

    2017-09-01

    Bazedoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has estrogen agonist effects on bone and lipid metabolism while having neutral or estrogen antagonist effects on the breast and endometrium. The present report describes findings from 3 Phase I clinical studies that evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics (study 1; n = 84), multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (study 2; n = 23), and absolute bioavailability (study 3; n = 18) of bazedoxifene. All 3 studies enrolled healthy postmenopausal women who were either naturally postmenopausal or had undergone bilateral oophorectomy at least 6 months before the start of the study. Study 1 showed that unconjugated and total (unconjugated and conjugated) bazedoxifene levels increased proportionally with ascending oral doses of bazedoxifene (through the dose range of 5-120 mg). Evaluation with or without food intake was conducted at the 10-mg dose, with no clinically relevant effect on pharmacokinetic parameters. Study 2 showed that bazedoxifene achieved steady state in 1 week and exhibited linear pharmacokinetics in doses of 5 to 40 mg with no unexpected accumulation over the dose range. In accordance with a linear pharmacokinetic profile, mean maximum plasma concentration values increased with increasing dose, with values of 1.6, 6.2, and 12.5 ng/mL for the 5-, 20-, and 40-mg doses, respectively. In study 3, tablet and capsule formulations of bazedoxifene formulations had an estimated oral bioavailability of ~6%. The clearance of bazedoxifene was 0.4 (0.1) L/h/kg based on intravenous administration. The oral formulations had comparable exposure profiles with respect to AUC and AUC0-t, and the 90% CIs for these values were within the bioequivalence limits of 80% to 125%. Bazedoxifene was safe and well tolerated in all 3 studies. These pharmacokinetic evaluations in healthy postmenopausal women found that bazedoxifene displayed linear pharmacokinetics with doses ranging from 5 to 40 mg, with no unexpected accumulation

  7. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of benzene in Zymbal gland and other key target tissues after oral administration in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Low, L K; Meeks, J R; Norris, K J; Mehlman, M A; Mackerer, C R

    1989-01-01

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic oral administration of benzene. The cause for the specificity of such lesions remains unclear, but it is possible that tissue-specific metabolism or pharmacokinetics of benzene is responsible. Metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in our laboratory with 14C-benzene at oral doses of 0.15 to 500 mg/kg to ascertain tissue retention, metabolite profile, and elimination kinetics in target and nontarget organs and in blood. Findings from those studies indicate the following: a) the Zymbal gland is not a sink or a site of accumulation for benzene or its metabolites even after a single high dose (500 mg/kg) or after repeated oral administration; b) the metabolite profile is quantitatively different in target tissues (e.g., Zymbal gland, nasal cavity), nontarget tissues and blood; and (c) pharmacokinetic studies show that the elimination of radioactivity from the Zymbal gland is biphasic. PMID:2792043

  8. Measuring the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Drugs with a Novel Surgical Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Ioannis; Scott, Rebecca; Minnion, James; Cuenco, Joyceline; Tan, Tricia; Palazzo, Fausto; Bloom, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: The pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in animal models can help optimize novel candidate drugs prior to human trials. However, due to the complexity of pharmacokinetic experiments, their use is limited in academia. We present a novel surgical rat model for investigation of pharmacokinetic parameters and its use in an anti-obesity drug development program. The model uses anesthetized male Wistar rats, a jugular, a femoral catheter, and an insulin pump for peptide infusion. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were measured: metabolic clearance rate (MCR), half-life, and volume of distribution (Vd). Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucagon (GCG), and exendin-4 (Ex-4) were used to validate the model. The pharmacokinetic parameters of anti-obesity drug candidates X1, X2, and X3 were measured. GLP-1 had a significantly higher MCR (83.9 ± 14.1 mL/min/kg) compared to GCG (40.7 ± 14.3 mL/min/kg) and Ex-4 (10.1 ± 2.5 mL/min/kg) (p < .01 and p < .001 respectively). Ex-4 had a statistically significant longer half-life (35.1 ± 7.4 min) compared to both GCG (3.2 ± 1.7 min) and GLP-1 (1.2 ± 0.4 min) (p < .01 for both GCG and GLP-1). Ex-4 had a statistically significant higher volume of distribution (429.7 ± 164.9 mL/kg) compared to both GCG (146.8 ± 49.6 mL/kg) and GLP-1 (149.7 ± 53.5 mL/kg) (p < .01 for both GCG and GLP-1). Peptide X3 had a statistically significant longer half-life (21.3 ± 3.5 min) compared to both X1 (3.9 ± 0.4 min) and X2 (16.1 ± 2.8 min) (p < .001 for both X1 and X2). We present an affordable and easily accessible platform for the measurement of PK parameters of peptides. This novel surgical rat model produces consistent and reproducible results while minimizing animal use.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of the main components of cortex fraxini after oral administration in normal and hyperuricemic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Zhao, Min; Ye, Hao; Shao, Yizhen; Yu, Yongbo; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Chunjie

    2017-08-01

    Cortex Fraxini is an important traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. An efficient and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of six coumarins (aesculin, fraxin, aesculetin, fraxetin, sopoletin and 7-hydroxycoumarin) in normal and hyperuricemic rats plasma after oral administration of Cortex Fraxini. The method could successfully be applied for pharmacokinetics studies. The pharmacokinetic behavior of six coumarins in normal and hyperuricemia rats plasma was determined. Results showed that, for some of analytes, the pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC 0-t , AUC 0-∞ , C max , T max and CL) were significantly different between normal and hyperuricemic rats. The different pharmacokinetic parameters might result from renal impairment or a change of metabolic enzymes in the pathological state. The pharmacokinetic study in pathological state could provide more useful information to guide the clinical use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Ethanol Pharmacokinetics in Neonates and Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Elizabeth; Kraft, Walter K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol has been used for years in neonatal and infant liquid medications, yet the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of ethanol in this vulnerable population have not been well characterized. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of ethanol use as an excipient in neonatal and infant medications and to provide insight, based on the available evidence, into clearance rates of ethanol in babies. We also discuss ethanol pharmacokinetics in adults, theoretical pharmacokinetic changes in neonates and infants as it may apply to ethanol disposition, and case reports involving ethanol exposure in neonates and infants. Materials and methods This study was a narrative review in which relevant papers were selected using databases and scientific search engines such as PubMed with the key words ethanol, infant, and newborninfant. Results It remains unclear what ethanol exposure is safe for neonates and infants. The Food and Drug Administration and American Academy of Pediatrics have both taken action, by either setting limits of ethanol content in over-the-counter medications or by recommending restricted exposure to ethanol-containing pediatric formulations. Conclusions Until the short- and long-term health effects of chronic ethanol administration can be further characterized, ethanol-containing medications should be used with caution. PMID:25379066

  11. Development of a simple chromatographic method for the determination of piracetam in human plasma and its pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barkat, K; Ahmad, M; Minhas, M U; Malik, M Z; Sohail, M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of study was to develop an accurate and reproducible HPLC method for determination of piracetam in human plasma and to evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters of 800 mg piracetam. A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and sensitive high pressure liquid chromatography method has been developed and subsequently validated for determination of piracetam. This study represents the results of a randomized, single-dose and single-period in 18 healthy male volunteers to assess pharmacokinetic parameters of 800 mg piracetam tablets. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma for piracetam and found to be in good agreement with previous reported values. The data was analyzed by using Kinetica® version 4.4 according to non-compartment model of pharmacokinetic analysis and after comparison with previous studies, no significant differences were found in present study of tested product. The major pharmacokinetic parameters for piracetam were as follows: t1/2 was (4.40 ± 0.179) h; Tmax value was (2.33 ± 0.105) h; Cmax was (14.53 ± 0.282) µg/mL; the AUC(0-∞) was (59.19 ± 4.402) µg · h/mL. AUMC(0-∞) was (367.23 ± 38.96) µg. (h)(2)/mL; Ke was (0.16 ± 0.006) h; MRT was (5.80 ± 0.227) h; Vd was (96.36 ± 8.917 L). A rapid, accurate and precise high pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and validated before the study. It is concluded that this method is very useful for the analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters, in human plasma and assured the safety and efficacy of piracetam, can be effectively used in medical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. A new amoxicillin/clavulanate therapeutic system: preparation, in vitro and pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kerc, Janez; Opara, Jerneja

    2007-04-20

    A new peroral amoxicillin/clavulanate therapeutic system composed of immediate release tablet and controlled release floating capsule was developed and evaluated by in vivo bioavailability study. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid of the new therapeutic systems: AUCt, AUCi, (AUCt/AUCi), Cmax, Tmax, kel, T(1/2) and additionally for amoxicillin T(4) and T(2) were calculated from the plasma levels. The study confirmed enhanced pharmacokinetic parameters of a newly developed therapeutic system containing 1500 mg of amoxicillin and 125 mg of clavulanic acid. Prolonged time over MIC of amoxicillin in relation to a regular immediate release amoxicillin/clavulanate formulation was confirmed.

  13. Effects of hypothermia on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Marcel P H; Groenendaal, Floris; Egberts, Antoine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2010-05-01

    Examples of clinical applications of therapeutic hypothermia in modern clinical medicine include traumatic cardiac arrest, ischaemic stroke and, more recently, acute perinatal asphyxia in neonates. The exact mechanism of (neuro)protection by hypothermia is unknown. Since most enzymatic processes exhibit temperature dependency, it can be expected that therapeutic hypothermia may cause alterations in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, which could result in an increased risk of drug toxicity or therapy failure. Generalizable knowledge about the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics could lead to more appropriate dosing and thereby prediction of clinical effects. This article reviews the evidence on the influence of therapeutic hypothermia on individual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. A literature search was conducted within the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases from January 1965 to September 2008, comparing pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic parameters in hypothermia and normothermia regarding preclinical (animal) and clinical (human) studies. During hypothermia, pharmacokinetic parameters alter, resulting in drug and metabolite accumulation in the plasma for the majority of drugs. Impaired clearance is the most striking effect. Based on impaired clearance, dosages should be decreased considerably, especially for drugs with a low therapeutic index. Hypothetically, high-clearance compounds are affected more than low-clearance compounds because of the additional effect of impaired hepatic blood flow. The volume of distribution also changes, which may lead to therapy failure when it increases and could lead to toxicity when it decreases. The pH-partitioning hypothesis could contribute to the changes in the volumes of distribution for weak bases and acids, depending on their acid dissociation constants and acid-base status. Pharmacodynamic parameters may also alter, depending on the hypothermic

  14. Population Pharmacokinetics of Elagolix in Healthy Women and Women with Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Winzenborg, Insa; Nader, Ahmed; Polepally, Akshanth R; Liu, Mohan; Degner, Jacob; Klein, Cheri E; Mostafa, Nael M; Noertersheuser, Peter; Ng, Juki

    2018-02-23

    Elagolix is a novel, orally active, non-peptide, competitive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist in development for the management of endometriosis with associated pain and heavy menstrual bleeding due to uterine fibroids. The pharmacokinetics of elagolix have been well-characterized in phase I studies; however, elagolix population pharmacokinetics have not been previously reported. Therefore, a robust model was developed to describe elagolix population pharmacokinetics and to evaluate factors affecting elagolix pharmacokinetic parameters. The data from nine clinical studies (a total of 1624 women) were included in the analysis: five phase I studies in healthy, premenopausal women and four phase III studies in premenopausal women with endometriosis. Elagolix population pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model with a lag time in absorption. Of the 15 covariates tested for effect on elagolix apparent clearance (CL/F) and/or volume of distribution only one covariate, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 genotype status, had a statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful, effect on elagolix CL/F. Elagolix pharmacokinetics were not affected by patient demographics and were similar between healthy women and women with endometriosis. Clinical Trial Registration Numbers NCT01403038, NCT01620528, NCT01760954, NCT01931670, NCT02143713.

  15. GLP-1 agonists for type 2 diabetes: pharmacokinetic and toxicological considerations.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Maria J; Knop, Filip K; Christensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1-RA) have emerged as a new treatment option for type 2 diabetes. The GLP-1-RA are administered subcutaneously and differ substantially in pharmacokinetic profiles. This review describes the pharmacokinetics and safety aspects of the currently available GLP-1 receptor agonists, liraglutide (based on the structure of native GLP-1), exenatide twice daily and exenatide once weekly (based on exendin-4) in relation to the kinetics and toxicology of native GLP-1. The review is based on electronic literature searches and legal documents in the form of assessment reports from the European Medicines Agency and the United States Food and Drug Administration. GLP-1-based therapy combines several unique mechanisms of action and have the potential to gain widespread use in the fight against diabetes and obesity. The difference in chemical structure have strong implications for key pharmacokinetic parameters such as absorption and clearance, and eventually the safety and efficacy of the individual GLP-1-RA. The main safety concerns are pancreatitis and neoplasms, for which there are no identifiable differences in risk between the available agents. Antibody formation and injection site reactions are more frequent with the exendin-4-based compounds. The efficacy with regard to Hb(A1c) reduction is superior with the longer-acting agonists, whereas the shorter-acting GLP-1-RA seems to provide greater postprandial glucose control and lower tolerability as a possible consequence of less induction of tachyphylaxis. The future place of these agents will depend on the added safety and efficacy data in the several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials.

  16. Pharmacokinetic study of gallocatechin-7-gallate from Pithecellobium clypearia Benth. in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Song, Xiaowei; Song, Junke; Pang, Xiaocong; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Ying; Lian, Wenwen; Liu, Ailin; Du, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of gallocatechin-7-gallate (J10688) was studied in rats after intravenous administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg (i.v.) of J10688 and plasma drug concentrations were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. The pharmacokinetic software Data Analysis System (Version 3.0) was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. For different i.v. doses of J10688, the mean peak plasma concentration (C 0) values ranged from 11.26 to 50.82 mg/L, and mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t ) values ranged from 1.75 to 11.80 (mg·h/L). J10688 lacked dose-dependent pharmacokinetic properties within doses between 1 and 10 mg/kg, based on the power model. The method developed in this study was sensitive, precise, and stable. The pharmacokinetic properties of J10688 in SD rats were shown to have rapid distribution and clearance values. These pharmacokinetic results may contribute to an improved understanding of the pharmacological actions of J10688.

  17. A population pharmacokinetic model of valproic acid in pediatric patients with epilepsy: a non-linear pharmacokinetic model based on protein-binding saturation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Junjie; Wang, Yi; Lin, Weiwei; Wang, Changlian; Zhao, Limei; Li, Xingang; Zhao, Zhigang; Miao, Liyan; Jiao, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) follows a non-linear pharmacokinetic profile in terms of protein-binding saturation. The total daily dose regarding VPA clearance is a simple power function, which may partially explain the non-linearity of the pharmacokinetic profile; however, it may be confounded by the therapeutic drug monitoring effect. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for VPA based on protein-binding saturation in pediatric patients with epilepsy. A total of 1,107 VPA serum trough concentrations at steady state were collected from 902 epileptic pediatric patients aged from 3 weeks to 14 years at three hospitals. The population pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM(®) software. The ability of three candidate models (the simple power exponent model, the dose-dependent maximum effect [DDE] model, and the protein-binding model) to describe the non-linear pharmacokinetic profile of VPA was investigated, and potential covariates were screened using a stepwise approach. Bootstrap, normalized prediction distribution errors and external evaluations from two independent studies were performed to determine the stability and predictive performance of the candidate models. The age-dependent exponent model described the effects of body weight and age on the clearance well. Co-medication with carbamazepine was identified as a significant covariate. The DDE model best fitted the aim of this study, although there were no obvious differences in the predictive performances. The condition number was less than 500, and the precision of the parameter estimates was less than 30 %, indicating stability and validity of the final model. The DDE model successfully described the non-linear pharmacokinetics of VPA. Furthermore, the proposed population pharmacokinetic model of VPA can be used to design rational dosage regimens to achieve desirable serum concentrations.

  18. [Effect of phenformin hydrochloride on pharmacokinetics of puerarin in rats].

    PubMed

    Deng, Ying; Li, Ning; Cui, Mei; Xiong, Zhi-li; Li, Fa-mei

    2012-10-01

    To study the effect of phenformin hydrochloride that may be illegally added in traditional Chinese medicine preparations on the pharmacokinetics of puerarin in rats. Rats were randomly divided into the single pueraria group and the phenformin hydrochloride combined with pueraria group. After oral administration in the two groups, their bloods were sampled at different time points to determine the drug concentration of puerarin in rat blood and calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. After oral administration with pueraria extracts and phenformin hydrochloride combined with pueraria extracts, the two groups showed main pharmacokinetic parameters as follows: Cmax were (2.39 +/- 1.01), (1.03 +/- 0.35) mg x L(-1), respectively; Tmax were (0.50 +/- 0.09), (1.5 +/- 0.5) h, respectively; Ke were (0.153 +/- 0.028), (0.172 +/- 0.042) h(-1), respectively; t(1/2) were (4.65 +/- 0.86), (4.20 +/- 0.81) h, respectively; AUC(0-t), were (5.73 +/- 2.60), (5.45 +/- 1.81) mg x h x L(-1), respectively; AUC(0-infinity) were (6.72 +/- 2.89), (6.26 +/- 1.88) mg x h x L(-1), respectively. Compared with the single puerarin group, the Cmax was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and the Tmax was markedly longer (P < 0.01) than the hydrochloride combined with pueraria group. Phenformin hydrochloride can slow down the absorption process of puerarin and change the pharmacokinetic process of puerarin to some extent.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Peptide Mediated Delivery of Anticancer Drug Ellipticine

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Pei; Sadatmousavi, Parisa; Yuan, Yongfang; Chen, P.

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid pairing peptide EAK16-II (EAK) has shown the ability to stabilize the hydrophobic anticancer agent ellipticine (EPT) in aqueous solution. In this study, we investigate pharmacokinetics of the formulation of EAK-EPT complexes in vivo. The developed formulation can achieve a sufficiently high drug concentration required in vivo animal models. The nanostructure and surface properties of EAK-EPT complexes or nanoparticle were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential measurements, respectively. 12 healthy male SD rats were divided into EPT group and EAK-EPT group randomly. Rats in EPT group were tail intravenously injected with the EPT (20 mg/kg); rats in EAK-EPT group were injected with EAK-EPT complexes (EPT's concentration is 20 mg/kg). EPT was extracted from rat plasma with dexamethasone sodium phosphate as internal standards (IS). The pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Significant differences in main pharmacokinetic parameters between EPT and EAK-EPT complexes were observed, demonstrating that the complexation with EAK prolongs the residence time of the drug and enlarges the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). This means that EAK can serve as a suitable carrier to increase the bioavailability of EPT. PMID:22952737

  20. Channel-parameter estimation for satellite-to-submarine continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Xie, Cailang; Huang, Peng; Li, Jiawei; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Duan; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with a channel-parameter estimation for continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) over a satellite-to-submarine link. In particular, we focus on the channel transmittances and the excess noise which are affected by atmospheric turbulence, surface roughness, zenith angle of the satellite, wind speed, submarine depth, etc. The estimation method is based on proposed algorithms and is applied to low-Earth orbits using the Monte Carlo approach. For light at 550 nm with a repetition frequency of 1 MHz, the effects of the estimated parameters on the performance of the CV-QKD system are assessed by a simulation by comparing the secret key bit rate in the daytime and at night. Our results show the feasibility of satellite-to-submarine CV-QKD, providing an unconditionally secure approach to achieve global networks for underwater communications.

  1. Key parameters design of an aerial target detection system on a space-based platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hanlu; Li, Yejin; Hu, Tingliang; Rao, Peng

    2018-02-01

    To ensure flight safety of an aerial aircraft and avoid recurrence of aircraft collisions, a method of multi-information fusion is proposed to design the key parameter to realize aircraft target detection on a space-based platform. The key parameters of a detection wave band and spatial resolution using the target-background absolute contrast, target-background relative contrast, and signal-to-clutter ratio were determined. This study also presented the signal-to-interference ratio for analyzing system performance. Key parameters are obtained through the simulation of a specific aircraft. And the simulation results show that the boundary ground sampling distance is 30 and 35 m in the mid- wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) bands for most aircraft detection, and the most reasonable detection wavebands is 3.4 to 4.2 μm and 4.35 to 4.5 μm in the MWIR bands, and 9.2 to 9.8 μm in the LWIR bands. We also found that the direction of detection has a great impact on the detection efficiency, especially in MWIR bands.

  2. Feasibility of Metabolic Parameter Estimation in Pharmacokinetic Models of Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a toxic chemical that was once used in degreasers and detergents, and some remnants of the chemical may be present in the water supply. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can assist in understanding resulting internal d...

  3. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Olmesartan, the Active Metabolite of Olmesartan Medoxomil, in Patients with Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kodati, Devender; Kotakonda, Harish Kaushik; Yellu, Narsimhareddy

    2017-08-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil is an orally given angiotensin II receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic model for olmesartan, the active metabolite of olmesartan medoxomil, in Indian hypertensive patients, and to evaluate effects of covariates on the volume of distribution (V/F) and oral clearance (CL/F) of olmesartan. The population pharmacokinetic model for olmesartan was developed using Phoenix NLME 1.3 with a non-linear mixed-effect model. Bootstrap and visual predictive check were used simultaneously to validate the final population pharmacokinetic models. The covariates included age, sex, body surface area (BSA), bodyweight, height, creatinine clearance (CL CR ) as an index of renal function and liver parameters as indices of hepatic function. A total of 205 olmesartan plasma sample concentrations from 69 patients with hypertension were collected in this study. The pharmacokinetic data of olmesartan was well described by a two-compartment linear pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and an absorption lag-time. The mean values of CL/F and V/F of olmesartan in the patients were 0.31565 L/h and 44.5162 L, respectively. Analysis of covariates showed that age and CL CR were factors influencing the clearance of olmesartan and the volume of distribution of olmesartan was dependent on age and BSA. The final population pharmacokinetic model was demonstrated to be appropriate and effective and it can be used to assess the pharmacokinetic parameters of olmesartan in Indian patients with hypertension.

  4. The influence of paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its main metabolite.

    PubMed

    Todor, Ioana; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Bocsan, Corina; Buzoianu, Anca; Vlase, Laurian; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Chira, Ruxandra; Briciu, Corina

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its main metabolite, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide, after coadministration of atomoxetine and paroxetine in healthy volunteers. 22 healthy volunteers, extensive metabolizers, took part in this open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial. The study consisted of two periods: Reference, when a single oral dose of 25 mg atomoxetine was administrated to each subject and Test, when 25 mg atomoxetine and 20 mg paroxetine were coadministered. Between the two periods, the volunteers received an oral daily dose of 20-40 mg paroxetine, for 6 days. Atomoxetine and 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide plasma concentrations were determined within the first 48 hours following drug administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters of both compounds were assessed using a non-compartmental method and the analysis of variance aimed at identifying any statistical significant differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters of atomoxetine and its main metabolite, corresponding to each study period. Paroxetine modified the pharmacokinetic parameters of atomoxetine. Cmax increased from 221.26±94.93 to 372.53±128.28 ng/mL, while AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ also increased from 1151.19±686.52 to 6452.37±3388.76 ng*h/mL, and from 1229.15±751.04 to 7111.74±4195.17 ng*h/mL respectively. The main metabolite pharmacokinetics was also influenced by paroxetine intake, namely Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ decreased from 688.76±270.27 to 131.01±100.43 ng*h/mL, and from 4810.93±845.06 to 2606.04±923.88 and from 4928.55±853.25 to 3029.82 ±941.84 respectively. Multiple-dose paroxetine intake significantly influenced atomoxetine and its active metabolite pharmacokinetics, causing a 5.8-fold increased exposure to atomoxetine and 1.6-fold reduced exposure to 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide.

  5. [Effects of ranitidine on pharmacokinetics of rhein from Dachengqi Decoction in rats after oral administration].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yan-yi; Gong, Han-lin; Tang, Wen-fu; Wan, Mei-fua; Huang, Xi

    2009-09-01

    To explore the effects of ranitidine on pharmacokinetics of rhein in rats after oral administration of Dachengqi Decoction (DCQD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into DCQD group and DCQD plus ranitidine group, and were orally administered with DCQD at a dose of 10 g/kg or DCQD (10 g/kg) combined with ranitidine (150 mg/kg), respectively. Blood samples were gathered after a series of time intervals. Metabolism of rhein was determined with a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with internal standard of 1, 8-dihydroxyanthraquinone and the data were analyzed with DAS 2.1 program. The pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the two groups. The pharmacokinetic parameters of rhein in the DCQD group, including peak concentration (C(max)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), distribution phase half-life (t(1/2alpha)), elimination rate constant (K(10)) and central to peripheral transfer rate constant (K(12)), were significantly different to those in the DCQD plus ranitidine group (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were no significant differences in the other parameters between the two groups. Ranitidine can influence the pharmacokinetics of rhein in rats after oral administration of DCQD.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the injectable formulation of methadone hydrochloride and methadone in lipid nanocarriers administered orally to horses.

    PubMed

    Crosignani, N; Luna, S P; Dalla Costa, T; Pimenta, E L; Detoni, C B; Guterres, S S; Puoli Filho, J N; Pantoja, J C; Pigatto, M C

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the thermal, electrical and mechanical antinociceptive and physiological effects (heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, head height and abdominal auscultation score), and pharmacokinetics, of 0.5 mg/kg of the injectable formulation (ORAL) or nanoparticulated methadone (NANO) given orally, in six adult mares, using a crossover, blind and prospective design. Repeated-measure models were used to compare parametric data between and within treatments, followed by Tukey's test. Nonparametric data were analysed with Wilcoxon signed-rank, adjusted by Bonferroni tests. Blood samples were also collected up to 6 h after dosing for plasma drug quantification by LC-MS/MS. Methadone pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental and compartmental approaches. There were no differences in pharmacodynamic parameters. No statistical differences were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters from noncompartmental analysis for both groups, except a significant decrease in peak plasma concentration, increase in apparent volume of distribution per fraction absorbed (Vd ss /F) and increased mean residence time (MRT) for NANO. One-compartment open model with first order elimination best described the pharmacokinetic profiles for both groups. Neither ORAL nor NANO administered orally to horses produced antinociception. The nanoencapsulated formulation of methadone given orally to horses did not improve methadone pharmacokinetic parameters or increased systemic body exposure to methadone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Stefanie; Norris, Ross; Tu, Quyen; van Breda, Karin; Riney, Kate; Foster, Kelly; Lister, Bruce; Charles, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study the population pharmacokinetics of bound and unbound phenytoin in critically ill children, including influences on the protein binding profile. A population pharmacokinetic approach was used to analyze paired protein-unbound and total phenytoin plasma concentrations (n = 146 each) from 32 critically ill children (0.08-17 years of age) who were admitted to a pediatric hospital, primarily intensive care unit. The pharmacokinetics of unbound and bound phenytoin and the influence of possible influential covariates were modeled and evaluated using visual predictive checks and bootstrapping. The pharmacokinetics of protein-unbound phenytoin was described satisfactorily by a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption in conjunction with a linear partition coefficient parameter to describe the binding of phenytoin to albumin. The partitioning coefficient describing protein binding and distribution to bound phenytoin was estimated to be 8.22. Nonlinear elimination of unbound phenytoin was not supported in this patient group. Weight, allometrically scaled for clearance and volume of distribution for the unbound and bound compartments, and albumin concentration significantly influenced the partition coefficient for protein binding of phenytoin. The population model can be applied to estimate the fraction of unbound phenytoin in critically ill children given an individual's albumin concentration. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine administered to patients with end-stage renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, W; Zhang, Y; Zhang, M-Z; Huang, X-H; Li, Y; Li, R; Liu, Q-W

    2018-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in patients with end-stage renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism with those in normal individuals. Fifteen patients with end-stage renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism (Renal-failure Group) and 8 patients with normal renal and parathyroid gland function (Control Group) received intravenous 0.6 μg/kg dexmedetomidine for 10 minutes before anaesthesia induction. Arterial blood samples for plasma dexmedetomidine concentration analysis were drawn at regular intervals after the infusion was stopped. The pharmacokinetics were analysed using a nonlinear mixed-effect model with NONMEM software. The statistical significance of covariates was examined using the objective function (-2 log likelihood). In the forward inclusion and backward deletion, covariates (age, weight, sex, height, lean body mass [LBM], body surface area [BSA], body mass index [BMI], plasma albumin and grouping factor [renal failure or not]) were tested for significant effects on pharmacokinetic parameters. The validity of our population model was also evaluated using bootstrap simulations. The dexmedetomidine concentration-time curves fitted best with the principles of a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model. No covariate of systemic clearance further improved the model. The final pharmacokinetic parameter values were as follows: V 1  = 60.6 L, V 2  = 222 L, Cl 1  = 0.825 L/min and Cl 2  = 4.48 L/min. There was no influence of age, weight, sex, height, LBM, BSA, BMI, plasma albumin and grouping factor (renal failure or not) on pharmacokinetic parameters. Although the plasma albumin concentrations (35.46 ± 4.13 vs 44.10 ± 1.12 mmol/L, respectively, P < .05) and dosage of propofol were significantly lower in the Renal-failure Group than in the Control Group (81.68 ± 18.08 vs 63.07 ± 13.45 μg/kg/min, respectively, P < .05), there were no differences in the

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Doxorubicin in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Rachel J.; Eyal, Sara; Kaplan, Henry G.; Akbarzadeh, Arezoo; Hays, Karen; Puhl, Kristin; Easterling, Thomas R.; Berg, Stacey L.; Scorsone, Kathleen A.; Feldman, Eric M.; Umans, Jason G.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Hebert, Mary F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of doxorubicin during pregnancy compared to previously published data from non-pregnant subjects. Methods During mid- to late-pregnancy, serial blood and urine samples were collected over 72 hours from 7 women treated with doxorubicin for malignancies. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental techniques. Pregnancy parameters were compared to those previously reported non-pregnant subjects. Results During pregnancy, mean (± SD) doxorubicin PK parameters utilizing 72 hour sampling were: clearance (CL), 412 ± 80 mL/min/m2; steady-state volume of distribution (Vss), 1132 ± 476 L/m2; and terminal half-life (T1/2), 40.3 ± 8.9 hr. The BSA-adjusted CL was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) and T1/2 was not different compared to non-pregnant women. Truncating our data to 48 hours, PK parameters were: CL, 499 ± 116 ml/min/m2; Vss, 843 ± 391 L/m2; and T1/2, 24.8 ± 5.9 hr. The BSA-adjusted CL in pregnancy compared to non-pregnant data was significantly decreased in 2 of 3 non-pregnant studies (p < 0.05, < 0.05, NS). Vss and T1/2 were not significantly different. Conclusions In pregnant subjects, we observed significantly lower doxorubicin CL in our 72 hour and most of our 48 hour sampling comparisons with previously reported non-pregnant subjects. However, the parameters were within the range previously reported in smaller studies. At this time, we cannot recommend alternate dosage strategies for pregnant women. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy and optimize care for pregnant women. PMID:24531558

  10. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Isoniazid, Acetylisoniazid, and Isonicotinic Acid in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Hee, Kim-Hor; Soon, Gaik-Hong; Chew, Nicholas; Khoo, Saye H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotype on isoniazid (INH) metabolism in vivo and identify other sources of pharmacokinetic variability following single-dose administration in healthy Asian adults. The concentrations of INH and its metabolites acetylisoniazid (AcINH) and isonicotinic acid (INA) in plasma were evaluated in 33 healthy Asians who were also given efavirenz and rifampin. The pharmacokinetics of INH, AcINH, and INA were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate the relationships between the parameters and the elimination status (fast, intermediate, and slow acetylators), demographic status, and measures of renal and hepatic function. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the INH pharmacokinetics. AcINH and INA data were best described by a two- and a one-compartment model, respectively, linked to the INH model. In the final model for INH, the derived metabolic phenotypes for NAT2 were identified as a significant covariate in the INH clearance, reducing its interindividual variability from 86% to 14%. The INH clearance in fast eliminators was 1.9- and 7.7-fold higher than in intermediate and slow eliminators, respectively (65 versus 35 and 8 liters/h). Creatinine clearance was confirmed as a significant covariate for AcINH clearance. Simulations suggested that the current dosing guidelines (200 mg for 30 to 45 kg and 300 mg for >45 kg) may be suboptimal (3 mg/liter ≤ Cmax ≤ 6 mg/liter) irrespective of the acetylator class. The analysis established a model that adequately characterizes INH, AcINH, and INA pharmacokinetics in healthy Asians. Our results refine the NAT2 phenotype-based predictions of the pharmacokinetics for INH. PMID:26282412

  11. Pharmacokinetics of a slow-release formulation of soybean isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Kenneth D R; Brzezinski, Amnon; Brown, Nadine M; Desai, Pankaj B; Melhem, Murad; Meredith, Trevor; Zimmer-Nechimias, Linda; Wolfe, Brian; Cohen, Yoram; Blatt, Yoav

    2005-03-23

    Pharmacokinetic studies of soybean isoflavones have shown that following oral ingestion, the two major isoflavones, daidzin and genistin, are hydrolyzed in the intestine, rapidly absorbed into the peripheral circulation, and eliminated from the body with a terminal half-life of 7-8 h. These characteristics make maintenance of steady-state plasma isoflavone concentrations difficult to attain unless there is repeated daily ingestion of foods or supplements containing isoflavones. In an attempt to sustain more constant plasma isoflavone concentrations, a new slow-release formulation of a soybean isoflavone extract was prepared by microencapsulation with a mixture of hydroxypropylcellulose and ethylcellulose to alter its dissolution characteristics. In vitro experiments confirmed slow aqueous dissolution of isoflavones from this formulation when compared with the conventional isoflavone extract. The pharmacokinetics of this slow-release isoflavone extract was studied in 10 healthy postmenopausal women after oral administration of a single capsule containing the equivalent of 22.3 mg of genistein and 7.47 mg of daidzein expressed as aglycons. A comparison of the key pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in this study with those established in extensive studies performed previously in this laboratory indicated that the mean residence time of genistein and daidzein increased 2-fold with microencapsulation. These findings are indicative of a decreased rate of absorption, consistent with the observed slow in vitro dissolution rate. These findings show that it is feasible to employ polymer matrices that slow the aqueous dissolution for preparing sustained-release formulations of soy isoflavones. Further studies to optimize such formulations are warranted.

  12. Dual-input two-compartment pharmacokinetic model of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Li; Yang, Li-Ming; Zhang, Min-Ming; Wang, Bo-Yin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Bao-Chun

    2016-04-07

    To investigate the feasibility of a dual-input two-compartment tracer kinetic model for evaluating tumorous microvascular properties in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). From January 2014 to April 2015, we prospectively measured and analyzed pharmacokinetic parameters [transfer constant (Ktrans), plasma flow (Fp), permeability surface area product (PS), efflux rate constant (kep), extravascular extracellular space volume ratio (ve), blood plasma volume ratio (vp), and hepatic perfusion index (HPI)] using dual-input two-compartment tracer kinetic models [a dual-input extended Tofts model and a dual-input 2-compartment exchange model (2CXM)] in 28 consecutive HCC patients. A well-known consensus that HCC is a hypervascular tumor supplied by the hepatic artery and the portal vein was used as a reference standard. A paired Student's t-test and a nonparametric paired Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the equivalent pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the two models, and Pearson correlation analysis was also applied to observe the correlations among all equivalent parameters. The tumor size and pharmacokinetic parameters were tested by Pearson correlation analysis, while correlations among stage, tumor size and all pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. The Fp value was greater than the PS value (FP = 1.07 mL/mL per minute, PS = 0.19 mL/mL per minute) in the dual-input 2CXM; HPI was 0.66 and 0.63 in the dual-input extended Tofts model and the dual-input 2CXM, respectively. There were no significant differences in the kep, vp, or HPI between the dual-input extended Tofts model and the dual-input 2CXM (P = 0.524, 0.569, and 0.622, respectively). All equivalent pharmacokinetic parameters, except for ve, were correlated in the two dual-input two-compartment pharmacokinetic models; both Fp and PS in the dual-input 2CXM were correlated with Ktrans derived from the dual-input extended Tofts model (P = 0.002, r = 0.566; P

  13. [Pharmacokinetics study of amoxicillin sodium clavulanate potassium (10:1) injection in healthy volunteers].

    PubMed

    Miao, Jia; Nan, Feng; Shen, Qi; Qin, Yong-Ping; Wang, Ying; Yu, Qin; Zheng, Li; Liang, Mao-Zhi

    2013-03-01

    To study the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin sodium clavulanate potassium (10:1) injection with different single doses intravenous infusion and one dose repeated intravenous injection in healthy volunteers for guiding the rational clinical regimen. Using infusion pump constantly intravenous dripping in 30 min, 4 mL blood samples were collected before and after the administration at 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 45 min, and 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 h. The plasma concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate were detected by high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS2.0.1 software. The dispositions of amoxicillin and clavulanate matched three or two compartment model with the weight coefficient 1/cc. To avoid the biases caused by compartment model fitting, the pharmacokinetic parameters were statistical moment parameters of non-compartment model. The peak concentrations, the areas under curve, the half-lifes and the clearances after single injections of 0. 55 g, 1.1 g and 2.2 g indicated that both amoxillin and clavulanate had linear dynamics characteristics. After 1.1 g single dose and multiple doses infusion, the pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin and clavulanate were close respectively, and the trough concentrations before the 7th to 13th administration were lower than the detection limitation, which implied that the previous administration had cleared out before the next administration, and no accumulation happened after multiple doses. The amoxicillin sodium clavulanate potassium (10:1) injection possesses the linear kinetics. The dosage regimen of 1.1 g Q8h intravenous infusion could meet the needs of clinical therapy.

  14. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of epoetin delta in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Knebel, William; Palmen, Mary; Dowell, James A; Gastonguay, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This analysis quantifies the population pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous and intravenous epoetin delta, an epoetin produced in a human cell line, in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and estimates the effects of covariate factors on epoetin delta and epoetin alfa pharmacokinetic parameters. Erythropoietin serum concentration data, taken from a phase III study conducted in 60 patients aged 1 to 17 years, were best described by a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The typical point estimates were clearance (0.268 L/h), central volume of distribution (1.03 L), absorption rate constant (0.0554 h(-1)), and bioavailability (0.708) for a 35-kg male < or = 10 years who was predialysis and on subcutaneous epoetin delta treatment. Erythropoietin pharmacokinetic parameters were similar in pediatric patients as compared with adults when scaled by weight. The subcutaneous administration of epoetin alfa exhibited lower systemic bioavailability than subcutaneous administration of epoetin delta.

  15. Influence of domperidone on pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of the dopamine agonist rotigotine

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Marina; Cawello, Willi; Boekens, Hilmar; Horstmann, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To evaluate the influence of the antiemetic agent domperidone on steady-state pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of multiple-dose treatment of the transdermally applied non-ergolinic dopamine agonist rotigotine. METHODS Sixteen healthy male subjects (mean age 30.3 years) participated in a randomized, two-way crossover clinical trial. Treatment A consisted of transdermal rotigotine patch (2 mg (24 h)−1, 10 cm2, total drug content 4.5 mg) applied daily for 4 days, and concomitant oral domperidone (10 mg t.i.d.) for 5 days. For treatment B, subjects received only transdermal rotigotine treatment (daily for 4 days). Pharmacokinetic variables describing systemic exposure and renal elimination of rotigotine and metabolites, and safety and tolerability of the treatment were assessed. RESULTS The primary steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax,ss and AUC(0–24),ss) were similar with or without co-administration of domperidone. Geometric mean ratios were close to 1 and respective 90% confidence intervals were within the acceptance range of bioequivalence (0.8, 1.25): Cmax,ss 0.96 (0.86, 1.08) and AUC(0–24),ss 0.97 (0.87, 1.08). tmax,ss, t1/2, secondary parameters calculated on days 4/5 after repeated patch application (Cmin,ss, Cave,ss, AUC(0–tz)) and renal elimination for unconjugated rotigotine and its metabolites were also similar with and without comedication of domperidone. A reduction in the dopaminergic side-effect nausea was seen with domperidone comedication. CONCLUSIONS No changes of pharmacokinetic parameters describing systemic exposure and renal elimination of rotigotine were observed when domperidone was administered concomitantly with rotigotine. The lack of pharmacokinetic interactions indicates that a dose adjustment of rotigotine transdermal patch is not necessary with concomitant use of domperidone. PMID:19094160

  16. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of two brands of loxoprofen tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jhee, Ok Hwa; Lee, Min Ho; Shaw, Leslie M; Lee, Seo Eun; Park, Jin Hee; Kang, Ju Seop

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two brands of loxoprofen (CAS 80832-23-6) 60 mg tablets in healthy male volunteers. The several pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated after an oral administration after an overnight fast according to a single dose, two-sequence, and cross-over randomized design with a 1-week washout interval. Serial blood samples were collected throughout 10 h after administration of the reference and test drug. Plasma was analyzed by validated HPLC with UV detection. Several pharmacokinetic parameters, including AUC(infnity), AUC(t), C(max), T(max), T1/2, and Ke were determined from blood concentrations of both formulations. AUC(t), AUC(infinity) and C(max) were evaluated for bioequivalence after log-transformation of data using ANOVA with 90% confidence interval level. The parametric 90% confidence intervals of AUC(t), AUC(infinity), and C(max) were 90.13-106.34%, 91.43-106.94%, and 91.17-108.53%, respectively. All of the tested parameters were within the acceptable range of 80-125%. Based on these statistical considerations, it was concluded that the test drug was bioequivalent to the reference drug.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and food interaction of a novel prodrug of tenofovir, tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Jia, Y; Chen, L; Ding, Y; Yang, J; Chen, M; Song, Y; Sun, X; Wen, A

    2013-04-01

    Tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate is a novel ester prodrug of tenofovir, a specific anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug candidate. The pharmacokinetic properties and the effects of food intake on tenofovir dipivoxil have not yet been reported in healthy adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and food interaction of tenofovir dipivoxil in healthy Chinese volunteers. Pharmacokinetic studies included an ascending single dose of 150, 300, 600 mg and multiple doses of 300 mg. Food interaction was evaluated following a single oral dose of tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate 300 mg administered with a high-fat and high-energy standard breakfast or after a 12-h fast. Pharmacokinetic parameters of tenofovir given in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. After a single dose of 150, 300 and 600 mg, the main pharmacokinetic parameters for tenofovir were as follows: Cmax 209·6, 456·7, 989·8 ng/mL; AUClast 1744·9, 2663·5, 6010·2 ng h/mL, respectively. After multiple doses of 300 mg, the main pharmacokinetic parameters for tenofovir were Cmax 523·4 ng/mL, AUClast 4152·4 ng h/mL. After a single dose of 300 mg with a high-fat and high-energy standard breakfast, the main pharmacokinetic parameters for tenofovir were Cmax 448·5 ng/mL, AUClast 3286·8 ng h/mL. The plasma Cmax and AUC of tenofovir showed significance difference between a single dose of 300 mg and the accordingly multiple doses (P < 0·05). A standard high-fat meal enhanced mean AUClast values of tenofovir (relative AUClast  = 125·8%; 90% CI 114·5, 136·2); however, food did not show any significant on Cmax (relative Cmax  = 103·4%; 90% CI 94·6, 112·6). Oral tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate produced predictable and dose-proportional plasma tenofovir pharmacokinetics. The accumulation ratio was 1·51, suggesting tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate displayed accumulation after repeated administration. The bioavailability of tenofovir

  18. Abelmoschi Corolla non-flavonoid components altered the pharmacokinetic profile of its flavonoids in rat.

    PubMed

    Lu, Linling; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Yefei; Xu, Boyi; Sha, Mei; Duan, Jinao

    2013-07-30

    Abelmoschi Corolla is a well-known herbal medicine used for the treatment of chronic renal disease. Flavonoids are the major bioactive ingredients of Abelmoschi Corolla, but some non-flavonoid components also exist in this herb. In order to clarify the influences of non-flavonoid components on the pharmacokinetics profile of the flavonoid fraction from Abelmoschi Corolla (FFA), an investigation was carried out to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of seven flavonoid components after administration of FFA and after administration of FFA combined with different non-flavonoid fractions. A selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was established to determine the plasma concentrations of the seven compounds. Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to four groups which orally administered FFA, FFA combined with macromolecular fraction (FFA-MF), FFA combined with small molecule fraction (FFA-SF) and FFA combined with MF-SF (FFA-MF-SF) with approximately the same dose of FFA. At different time points, the concentration of rutin (1), hyperoside (2), isoquercitrin (3), hibifolin (4), myricetin (5), quercetin-3'-O-glucose (6), quercetin (7) in rat plasma were determined and main pharmacokinetic parameters including T(1/2), T(max), AUC and C(max) were calculated using the DAS 2.0 software package. The statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test with P<0.05 as the level of significance. Flavonoids almost had similar pharmacokinetics profile that were rapidly absorbed, reached the peak concentration at 30-60 min in group A, but the pharmacokinetic profiles and parameters of these flavonoids changed when co-administered with non-flavonoid components. It was found that AUC of five flavonoids but not hibifolin and quercetin in group FFA-SF and group FFA-MF-SF increased (P<0.05) in comparison with group FFA while the tendency was not observed in group FFA-MF. Moreover, seven flavonoids had varying degrees of differences in the pharmacokinetics parameters such as C

  19. Pharmacokinetic Study of Piracetam in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Pankaj; Dash, Debabrata; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2018-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion. After 24 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion or 22 h of reperfusion, piracetam was administered for pharmacokinetic, brain penetration, and pharmacological experiments. In pharmacokinetic study, blood samples were collected at different time points after 200-mg/kg (oral) and 75-mg/kg (intravenous) administration of piracetam through right external jugular vein cannulation. In brain penetration study, the cerebrospinal fluid, systemic blood, portal blood, and brain samples were collected at pre-designated time points after 200-mg/kg oral administration of piracetam. In a separate experiment, the pharmacological effect of the single oral dose of piracetam in middle cerebral artery occlusion was assessed at a dose of 200 mg/kg. All the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam including area under curve (AUC 0-24 ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ), time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t max ), elimination half-life (t 1/2 ), volume of distribution (V z ), total body clearance, mean residence time, and bioavailability were found to be similar in ischemic stroke condition except for brain penetration. Piracetam exposure (AUC 0-2 ) in brain and CSF were found to be 2.4- and 3.1-fold higher, respectively, in ischemic stroke compared to control rats. Piracetam significantly reduced infarct volume by 35.77% caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no change in the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam in the ischemic stroke model except for

  20. Accelerated Brain DCE-MRI Using Iterative Reconstruction With Total Generalized Variation Penalty for Quantitative Pharmacokinetic Analysis: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhao; Yin, Fang-Fang; Kirkpatrick, John P; Chang, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using undersampled k-space data and an iterative image reconstruction method with total generalized variation penalty in the quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis for clinical brain dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Eight brain dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans were retrospectively studied. Two k-space sparse sampling strategies were designed to achieve a simulated image acquisition acceleration factor of 4. They are (1) a golden ratio-optimized 32-ray radial sampling profile and (2) a Cartesian-based random sampling profile with spatiotemporal-regularized sampling density constraints. The undersampled data were reconstructed to yield images using the investigated reconstruction technique. In quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis, the rate constant K trans in the extended Tofts model and blood flow F B and blood volume V B from the 2-compartment exchange model were analyzed. Finally, the quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from the undersampled data were compared with the corresponding calculated values from the fully sampled data. To quantify each parameter's accuracy calculated using the undersampled data, error in volume mean, total relative error, and cross-correlation were calculated. The pharmacokinetic parameter maps generated from the undersampled data appeared comparable to the ones generated from the original full sampling data. Within the region of interest, most derived error in volume mean values in the region of interest was about 5% or lower, and the average error in volume mean of all parameter maps generated through either sampling strategy was about 3.54%. The average total relative error value of all parameter maps in region of interest was about 0.115, and the average cross-correlation of all parameter maps in region of interest was about 0.962. All investigated pharmacokinetic parameters had no significant differences between

  1. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone substitution therapy.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Manuela; Nisticò, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Gender-related differences in the pharmacological effects of drug are an emerging topic. This review examines gender differences in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of methadone, a long-acting opioid agonist that is prescribed as a treatment for opioid dependence and the management of chronic pain. We performed a search in the Medline database from 1990 to 2014 in order to find published literature related to gender differences in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of methadone. None of the studies were carried out with the primary or secondary aim to identify any gender differences in the pharmacokinetic profile of methadone. Importantly; high inter-subjects variability in PK parameters was found also intra female population. The reported differences in volume of distribution could be ascribed to the physiological differences between men and women in body weight and composition, taking into account that the dose of methadone was established irrespective of body weight of patients (Peles and Adelson, 2006). On the other hand, the few studies present in literature found no gender difference in some direct pharmacodynamic parameters. Some reports have suggested that female gender is associated with an increased risk for long-QT-related cardiac arrhythmias in methadone maintenance subjects. Even though it may be too simplistic to expect variability only in one parameter to explain inter-individual variation in methadone response, we believe that a better knowledge of gender-related differences might have significant implications for better outcomes in opioid dependence substitution therapy in women.

  2. Investigation of an alternative generic model for predicting pharmacokinetic changes during physiological stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Henry T; Edginton, Andrea N; Cheung, Bob

    2013-10-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed using MATLAB Simulink® and PK-Sim®. We compared the capability and usefulness of these two models by simulating pharmacokinetic changes of midazolam under exercise and heat stress to verify the usefulness of MATLAB Simulink® as a generic PBPK modeling software. Although both models show good agreement with experimental data obtained under resting condition, their predictions of pharmacokinetics changes are less accurate in the stressful conditions. However, MATLAB Simulink® may be more flexible to include physiologically based processes such as oral absorption and simulate various stress parameters such as stress intensity, duration and timing of drug administration to improve model performance. Further work will be conducted to modify algorithms in our generic model developed using MATLAB Simulink® and to investigate pharmacokinetics under other physiological stress such as trauma. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Colistin Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients during Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Matthew P.; Niece, Krista L.; Stewart, Ian J.; Mende, Katrin; Cota, Jason M.; Murray, Clinton K.; Chung, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    While colistin is considered a last resort for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, there has been an increase in its use due to the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant infections worldwide. The pharmacology of colistin is complex, and pharmacokinetic data are limited, especially in patients requiring renal replacement therapy. As a result, dosing for patients who require renal replacement remains a challenge. Here, we present pharmacokinetic data for colistin from two burn patients (37 and 68 years old) infected with colistin-susceptible isoclonal Acinetobacter baumannii and receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). To our knowledge, we are the first to examine data from before and during CVVH (for one patient), allowing analysis of the effect of CVVH on colistin pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis indicated that a dose increase from 1.5 to 2.2 mg/kg of body weight colistin base activity on CVVH was insufficient to satisfy the target parameter of an AUC24/MIC (area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC) of ≥60 at an MIC of ≥1 μg/ml in one patient with residual endogenous renal function. Plasma concentrations of colistin ranged from 0 to 15 μg/ml, with free colistin levels ranging from 0.4 to 2.2 μg/ml. While both patients resolved their clinical infections and survived to discharge, colistin-resistant colonizing isolates resulted from therapy in one patient. The variabilities observed in colistin concentrations and pharmacokinetic characteristics highlight the importance of pharmacokinetic monitoring of antibiotics in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. PMID:25313211

  4. Tubocurarine and pancuronium: a pharmacokinetic view.

    PubMed

    Shanks, C A; Somogyi, A A; Ramzan, M I; Triggs, E J

    1980-02-01

    This review is an attempt to bring together the pharmacokinetic data on d-tubocurarine and pancuronium with clinical observations on relaxant dosage and effect. The modelling techniques used here represent an oversimplification of the relationships between relaxant plasma concentration and response as they do not predict either the time of onset of paralysis or its peak intensity. However, they do enable calculation of a bolus dose of relaxant required to achieve a particular intensity of paralysis for the average patient once pseudo-distribution equilibrium has been achieved. This has been further extended to predict the cumulation of the relaxants with subsequent dosage in average patients. Suggested regimens incorporating bolus and infusion doses of the relaxants to achieve continuous neuromuscular blockade have been calculated also. Averaged pharmacokinetic parameters derived from patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction have been used to predict the likely duration and intensities of paralysis for the relaxants.

  5. A Combined Pharmacokinetic and Radiologic Assessment of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Response to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Semple, Scott; Harry, Vanessa N. MRCOG.; Parkin, David E.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the combination of pharmacokinetic and radiologic assessment of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an early response indicator in women receiving chemoradiation for advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty women with locally advanced cervical cancer were included in a prospective cohort study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was carried out before chemoradiation, after 2 weeks of therapy, and at the conclusion of therapy using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Radiologic assessment of uptake parameters was obtained from resultant intensity curves. Pharmacokinetic analysis using a multicompartment model was also performed. General linear modeling was used to combine radiologic andmore » pharmacokinetic parameters and correlated with eventual response as determined by change in MRI tumor size and conventional clinical response. A subgroup of 11 women underwent repeat pretherapy MRI to test pharmacokinetic reproducibility. Results: Pretherapy radiologic parameters and pharmacokinetic K{sup trans} correlated with response (p < 0.01). General linear modeling demonstrated that a combination of radiologic and pharmacokinetic assessments before therapy was able to predict more than 88% of variance of response. Reproducibility of pharmacokinetic modeling was confirmed. Conclusions: A combination of radiologic assessment with pharmacokinetic modeling applied to dynamic MRI before the start of chemoradiation improves the predictive power of either by more than 20%. The potential improvements in therapy response prediction using this type of combined analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may aid in the development of more individualized, effective therapy regimens for this patient group.« less

  6. Population Pharmacokinetics and Therapeutic Efficacy of Febuxostat in Patients with Severe Renal Impairment.

    PubMed

    Hira, Daiki; Chisaki, Yugo; Noda, Satoshi; Araki, Hisazumi; Uzu, Takashi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yoshitaka; Morita, Shin-Ya; Terada, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), including hemodialysis) on the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects of febuxostat using a population pharmacokinetic analysis. This study recruited patients with hyperuricemia who were initially treated with allopurinol, but were switched to febuxostat, and it consists of 2 sub-studies: a pharmacokinetic study (26 patients) and retrospective efficacy evaluation study (51 patients). The demographic and clinical data of patients were collected from electronic medical records. Plasma febuxostat concentrations were obtained at each hospital visit. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed with NONMEM version 7.2. A total of 128 plasma febuxostat concentrations from 26 patients were used in the population pharmacokinetic analysis. The data were best described by a 1-compartment model with first order absorption. Covariate analysis revealed that renal function did not influence the pharmacokinetics of febuxostat, whereas actual body weight significantly influenced apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution. The retrospective efficacy analysis showed the favorable therapeutic response of febuxostat switched from allopurinol in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. No serious adverse event associated with febuxostat was observed irrespective of renal function. The population pharmacokinetic analysis and therapeutic analysis of febuxostat revealed that severe renal dysfunction had no influence on the pharmacokinetic parameters of febuxostat. These results suggest that febuxostat is tolerated well by patients with severe renal impairment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A physiologically based model for tramadol pharmacokinetics in horses.

    PubMed

    Abbiati, Roberto Andrea; Cagnardi, Petra; Ravasio, Giuliano; Villa, Roberto; Manca, Davide

    2017-09-21

    This work proposes an application of a minimal complexity physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to predict tramadol concentration vs time profiles in horses. Tramadol is an opioid analgesic also used for veterinary treatments. Researchers and medical doctors can profit from the application of mathematical models as supporting tools to optimize the pharmacological treatment of animal species. The proposed model is based on physiology but adopts the minimal compartmental architecture necessary to describe the experimental data. The model features a system of ordinary differential equations, where most of the model parameters are either assigned or individualized for a given horse, using literature data and correlations. Conversely, residual parameters, whose value is unknown, are regressed exploiting experimental data. The model proved capable of simulating pharmacokinetic profiles with accuracy. In addition, it provides further insights on un-observable tramadol data, as for instance tramadol concentration in the liver or hepatic metabolism and renal excretion extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Mechanistic Pharmacokinetic Model for Liver Transporter Substrates Under Liver Cirrhosis Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, R; Barton, HA; Maurer, TS

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a disease characterized by the loss of functional liver mass. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to interpret and predict how the interplay among physiological changes in cirrhosis affects pharmacokinetics. However, previous PBPK models under cirrhotic conditions were developed for permeable cytochrome P450 substrates and do not directly apply to substrates of liver transporters. This study characterizes a PBPK model for liver transporter substrates in relation to the severity of liver cirrhosis. A published PBPK model structure for liver transporter substrates under healthy conditions and the physiological changes for cirrhosis are combined to simulate pharmacokinetics of liver transporter substrates in patients with mild and moderate cirrhosis. The simulated pharmacokinetics under liver cirrhosis reasonably approximate observations. This analysis includes meta-analysis to obtain system-dependent parameters in cirrhosis patients and a top-down approach to improve understanding of the effect of cirrhosis on transporter-mediated drug disposition under cirrhotic conditions. PMID:26225262

  9. Pharmacokinetics of liposomal-encapsulated and un-encapsulated vincristine after injection of liposomal vincristine sulfate in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jie; Mao, Wenxue; Shi, Rong; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Rong; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2014-03-01

    Vincristine sulfate (VCR) is a potent and widely used anti-tumor drug. Encapsulating VCR with liposomes improves its therapeutic index. However, there is little known about the pharmacokinetic features of un-encapsulated VCR (UE-VCR) and encapsulated VCR (E-VCR). Two groups of beagle dogs were intravenously administered a single 0.07 mg/kg dose of VCR liposomal injection (L-VCR) and VCR ordinary injection (I-VCR), respectively. The concentrations of UE-VCR, E-VCR and total VCR (T-VCR) were determined by separating UE-VCR and E-VCR, using solid-phase extraction and validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, using the compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters of L-VCR and I-VCR were compared using a Student's t test. After intravenous injection of L-VCR, the pharmacokinetic parameters of E-VCR were similar to those of T-VCR. The concentrations of UE-VCR were very low, and its AUC (0-72h) was only 2.5 % that of T-VCR. Compared with I-VCR, plasma AUC of E-VCR increased, with significantly extended distribution t 1/2 and reduced distribution volume of the peripheral department. C2 min and AUC 0-1h of plasma UE-VCR decreased, with a similar elimination t 1/2. The increased therapeutic index of L-VCR is demonstrated by the pharmacokinetic features, higher exposure to E-VCR and lower peak concentration of UE-VCR, following intravenous injection.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone in patients with cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Toshiaki; Kokubun, Hideya; Suzuki, Ai; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko; Matoba, Motohiro; Yago, Kazuo

    2012-09-01

    Oxycodone is an opioid widely prescribed to cancer patients for pain relief. However, the pharmacokinetics of oxycodone has not been sufficiently examined. Therefore the aim of this work was to study population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone in patients with cancer pain. The authors analyzed 108 serum oxycodone samples of 33 individuals with nonlinear mixed-effects model (NONMEM). Population pharmacokinetics was calculated using the one-compartment model of clearance, volume of distribution, bioavailability, absorption constant rate, and lag time. An exponential error model was used to determine interindividual variability and a relative error model was applied to assess residual variability. Population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone at the end point were as follows: CL(L/h) = 10.7 × [1 + (2 - Child-Pugh Classification)] (Class: A = 0, B = 1, C = 2); V(d) (L) = 193; k(a) (h(-1)) = 0.336; T(lag) (h) = 0.859; F (%) = 63.9. Interindividual variability was CL: 30.5%, V(d): 44.6%, and F: 37.0%, and residual variability was 16.2%. As the total clearance in patients with liver dysfunction (Child-Pugh class B) was reduced to 33.3%, serum concentration of oxycodone increased by 1.5. Therefore, it became clear that dose adjustments are essential when treating patients with liver dysfunction. These findings suggest that population parameters are useful for evaluating pharmacokinetics of oxycodone in patients with cancer pain.

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of ϵ-aminocaproic acid in adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, P. A.; Gastonguay, M. R.; Singh, D.; Fiadjoe, J. E.; Sussman, E. M.; Pruitt, E. Y.; Goebel, T. K.; Zuppa, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite demonstrated efficacy of ϵ-aminocaproic acid (EACA) in reducing blood loss in adolescents undergoing spinal fusion, there are no population-specific pharmacokinetic data to guide dosing. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of EACA in adolescents undergoing spinal fusion surgery and make dosing recommendations. Methods Twenty children ages 12–17 years were enrolled, with 10 children in each of two groups based on diagnosis (idiopathic scoliosis or non-idiopathic scoliosis). Previously reported data from infants undergoing craniofacial surgery were included in the model to enable dosing recommendations over a wide range of weights, ages, and diagnoses. A population non-linear mixed effects modelling approach was used to characterize EACA pharmacokinetics. Results Population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a two-compartment disposition model with allometrically scaled weight and an age effect on clearance. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the typical patient were a plasma clearance of 153 ml min−1 70 kg−1 (6.32 ml min−1 kg−0.75), intercompartmental clearance of 200 ml min−1 70 kg−1 (8.26 ml min−1 kg−0.75), central volume of distribution of 8.78 litre 70 kg−1 (0.13 litre kg−1), and peripheral volume of distribution of 15.8 litre 70 kg−1 (0.23 litre kg−1). Scoliosis aetiology did not have a clinically significant effect on drug pharmacokinetics. Conclusions The following dosing schemes are recommended according to patient weight: weight <25 kg, 100 mg kg−1 loading dose and 40 mg kg−1 h−1 infusion; weight ≤25 kg–<50 kg, 100 mg kg−1 loading dose and 35 mg kg−1 h−1 infusion; and weight ≥50 kg, 100 mg kg−1 loading dose and 30 mg kg−1 h−1 infusion. An efficacy trial employing this dosing strategy is warranted. Clinical trial registration NCT01408823. PMID:25586726

  12. Lack of sex-related differences in saquinavir pharmacokinetics in an HIV-seronegative cohort

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Sarah M; Formentini, Elizabeth; Alfaro, Raul M; Natarajan, Ven; Falloon, Judith; Penzak, Scott R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To examine the influence of sex on steady-state saquinavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-seronegative volunteers administered saquinavir without a concomitant protease inhibitor. Methods Thirty-eight healthy volunteers (14 female) received saquinavir soft-gel capsules 1200 mg three times daily for 3 days to achieve steady-state conditions. Following administration of the 10th dose, blood was collected serially over 8 h for measurement of saquinavir plasma concentrations. Saquinavir pharmacokinetic parameter values were determined using noncompartmental methods and compared between males and females. CYP3A phenotype (using oral midazolam) and MDR-1 genotypes at positions 3435 and 2677 were determined for all subjects in order to characterize possible mechanisms for any observed sex-related differences. Results There was no significant difference in saquinavir AUC0−8 or any other pharmacokinetic parameter value between the sexes. These findings persisted after mathematically correcting for total body weight. The mean weight-normalized AUC0−8 was 29.9 (95% confidence interval 15.5, 44.3) and 29.8 (18.6, 40.9) ng h−1 ml−1 kg−1 for males and females, respectively. No significant difference in CYP3A phenotype was observed between the groups; likewise, the distribution of MDR-1 genotypes was similar for males and females. Conclusion In contrast to previous study findings, results from this investigation showed no difference in saquinavir pharmacokinetics between males and females. The discrepancy between our findings and those previously reported may be explained by the fact that we evaluated HIV-seronegative volunteers and administered saquinavir in the absence of concomitant protease inhibitors such as ritonavir. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating pharmacokinetic data from healthy volunteer studies (including sex-based pharmacokinetic differences) to HIV-infected populations or to patients receiving additional concurrent medications. PMID

  13. Lack of Effect of Vortioxetine on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ethanol, Diazepam, and Lithium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace; Nomikos, George G; Affinito, John; Zhao, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    Because the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine is likely to be coadministered with other central nervous system (CNS)-active drugs, potential drug-drug interactions warrant examination. These studies evaluated whether there are pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions between vortioxetine and ethanol, diazepam, or lithium. This series of phase I studies included healthy men and women (only men in the lithium study) aged 18-45 years. The ethanol study was a randomized, double-blind, two-parallel group, four-period crossover study in which subjects received a single dose of vortioxetine (20 or 40 mg) or placebo with or without ethanol, and the diazepam study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-sequence, two-period crossover study in which subjects received a single dose of diazepam following multiple doses of vortioxetine 10 mg/day or placebo. These two studies evaluated the effect of coadministration on standardized psychomotor parameters and on selected pharmacokinetic parameters of each drug. The lithium study was a single-blind, single-sequence study evaluating the effect of multiple doses of vortioxetine 10 mg/day on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of lithium. Concomitant administration of vortioxetine and single doses of either ethanol or diazepam had no significant effect on the psychomotor performance of subjects compared with administration of ethanol or diazepam alone. Vortioxetine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol, diazepam, or lithium, and ethanol had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine. Concomitant administration of these agents with vortioxetine was generally well tolerated, with no clinically relevant drug-drug pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions identified.

  14. The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir in combination with trimethoprim in HIV- and CMV-seropositive patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Donald; AbdelHameed, Magdy H; Hunter, John; Teitelbaum, Philip; Dorr, Albert; Griffy, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Aims We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir coadministered with trimethoprim in HIV-and CMV-seropositive patients. Methods In an open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover study, 12 adult males received oral ganciclovir 1000 mg every 8h, oral trimethoprim 200 mg once daily, or both drugs concomitantly in a sequence of three 7-day treatment periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and adverse events recorded for each treatment. Results The presence of trimethoprim significantly decreased CLr (12.9%, P = 0.0068) and increased t1/2 (18.1%, P = 0.0378) of ganciclovir. However, these changes are unlikely to be clinically meaningful. There were no statistically significant changes in trimethoprim pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of ganciclovir, with the exception of a 12.7% increase in Cmin. Ganciclovir was well tolerated when administered alone or in combination with trimethoprim. Conclusions There was no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between oral ganciclovir and trimethoprim when coadministered. PMID:10215748

  15. Tranexamic Acid Mechanisms and Pharmacokinetics in Traumatic Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    study. Finally, we have established a DSMB and DSMB charter. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Trauma, hemorrhage, transfusion , fibrinolysis, immune suppression...injury parameters. 2. KEYWORDS: Trauma, hemorrhage, transfusion , fibrinolysis, immune suppression, pharmacokinetics, outcomes, adverse events. 3...impact on expenditures Nothing to Report Significant changes in use or care of human subjects, vertebrate animals , biohazards, and/or select agents

  16. [Simultaneous determination of daphnetin, daphnoretin, daphneticin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application in pharmacokinetic study].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Yi-Li-Ge-Qi; Cao, Sa-Li; Lin, Long-Fei; Fu, Jing; Dong, Xiao-Xu; Yang, Chun-Jing; Zhang, Miao; Ni, Jian

    2017-05-01

    To establish HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of daphnetin, daphnoretin, and daphneticin in rat plasma after oral and intravenous administration of Daphne giraldii extract, and then use them in the calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters. Six sprague-dawley rats received intragastric administration of D. giraldii extract (daphnetin, daphnoretin and daphneticin were 88.40, 3.24 and 4.28 mg•kg⁻¹, respectively). Their drug plasma concentration was determined by LC-MS/MS with schisandrin as an internal standard to draw plasma concentration-time curve. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by Kinetica 4.4. The results showed that the linear range was 5-1 000 μg•L⁻¹ for daphnetin, daphnoretin and daphneticin, and the method ological test showed conformance to the requirements.The intraday and inter-day variable coefficients (RSD) were both less than 15.0%, indicating that both of legitimate precise and accuracy were consistent with the analysis requirements of biological samples. For daphnetin, the pharmacokinetic parameters Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t, T1/2 and MRT were 4 h, 858.96 μg•L⁻¹, 10 566.4 μg•L⁻¹•h, 5.19 h and 9.43 h, respectively. For daphnoretin, the pharmacokinetic parameters Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t, T1/2 and MRT were 2.92 h, 178.00 μg•L⁻¹, 905.89 μg•L⁻¹•h, 3.50 h and 6.95 h, respectively. For daphneticin, the pharmacokinetic parameters Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t, T1/2 and MRT were 2 h, 36.67 μg•L⁻¹, 355.11 μg•L⁻¹•h, 4.95 h and 8.27 h, respectively. The LC-MS/MS analysis method established in this study was proved to be so accurate and sensitive that it can be applied to the pharmacokinetic study of daphnetin, daphnoretin and daphneticin. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Lisdexamfetamine: A pharmacokinetic review.

    PubMed

    Comiran, Eloisa; Kessler, Félix Henrique; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2016-06-30

    Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is a d-amphetamine (d-AMPH) pro-drug used to treat Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) symptoms. The in vivo pharmacodynamics of LDX is the same as that of its active product d-AMPH, although there are a few qualitative and quantitative differences due to pharmacokinetics. Due to the specific pharmacokinetics of the long-acting stimulants, this article revises the pharmacokinetic studies on LDX, the newest amphetamine pro-drug. The Medline/Pubmed, Science Direct and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Lilacs and Ibecs) (2007-2016) databases were searched for articles and their list of references. As for basic pharmacokinetics studies, since LDX is a newly developed medication, there are few results concerning biotransformation, distribution and the use of different biological matrices for analysis. This is the first robust review on this topic, gathering data from all clinical pharmacokinetics studies available in the literature. The particular pharmacokinetics of LDX plays a major role in studying this pro-drug, since this knowledge was essential to understand some reports on clinical effects in literature, e.g. the small likelihood of reducing the effect by interactions, the effect of long duration use and the still questionable reduction of the potential for abuse. In general the already well-known pharmacokinetic properties of amphetamine make LDX relatively predictable, simplifying the use of LDX in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Semi-mechanistic autoinduction model of midazolam in critically ill patients: population pharmacokinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, T; Hirata, K; Yamamoto, Y; Yokota, H; Hayashi, H; Aoyama, Y; Matsumoto, Y

    2016-08-01

    Midazolam (MDZ) is commonly used for sedating critically ill patients. The daily dose required for adequate sedation increases in increments over 100 h after administration. The objectives of this study were to characterize the MDZ pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients and to describe the phenomenon of increasing daily dose by means of population pharmacokinetic analysis. Data were obtained from 30 patients treated in an intensive care unit. The patients received MDZ intravenously as a combination of bolus and continuous infusion. Serum MDZ concentration was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the NONMEM software package. The alteration of clearance unexplained by demographic factors and clinical laboratory data was described as an autoinduction of MDZ clearance using a semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-enzyme turnover model. The final population pharmacokinetic model was a one-compartment model estimated by incorporating a semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-enzyme turnover model for clearance, taking autoinduction into account. A significant covariate for MDZ clearance was total bilirubin. An increase in total bilirubin indicated a reduction in MDZ clearance. From simulation using the population pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in this study, MDZ clearance increased 2·3 times compared with pre-induced clearance 100 h after the start of 12·5 mg/h continuous infusion. Autoinduction and total bilirubin were significant predictors of the clearance of MDZ in this population. Step-by-step dosage adjustment using this population pharmacokinetic model may be useful for establishing a MDZ dosage regimen in critically ill patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Pharmacokinetic interaction of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium in Beagle dogs].

    PubMed

    Chen, He-Li; Zhang, Wen-Ping; Yang, Fu-Ying; Wang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Wen-Cheng; Dang, Hong-Wan

    2013-05-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium in healthy adult Beagle dogs following single and multiple oral dose administration. A randomized, cross-over study was conducted with nine healthy adult Beagle dogs assigned to three groups. Each group was arranged to take atorvastatin calcium (A), pioglitazone hydrochloride (B), atorvastatin calcium and pioglitazone hydrochloride (C) orally in the first period, to take B, C, A in the second period, and to take C, A, B in the third period for 6 days respectively. The blood samples were collected at the first and the sixth day after the administration, plasma drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS, a one-week wash-out period was needed between each period. The pharmacokinetic parameters of drug combination group and the drug alone group were calculated by statistical moment method, calculation of C(max) and AUC(0-t) was done by using 90% confidence interval method of the bioequivalence and bioavailability degree module DAS 3.2.1 software statistics. Compared with the separate administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max) and AUC(0-t)) of joint use of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium within 90% confidence intervals for bioequivalence statistics were unqualified, the mean t(max) with standard deviation used paired Wilcoxon test resulted P > 0.05. There was no significant difference within t1/2, CL(int), MRT, V/F. Pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium had pharmacokinetic interaction in healthy adult Beagle dogs.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Empagliflozin in Healthy Egyptian Volunteers Using LC-MS/MS and Comparison with Other Ethnic Populations.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Bassam M; Mowaka, Shereen; Elzanfaly, Eman S; Ashoush, Nermeen; Elmazar, Mohamed M; Mousa, Shaker A

    2017-05-31

    The present study considered the pharmacokinetic evaluation of empagliflozin after administration to Egyptian volunteers, and the results were compared with other ethnic populations. The FDA recognizes that standard methods of defining racial subgroups are necessary to compare results across pharmacokinetic studies and to assess potential subgroup differences. The design of the study was as an open labeled, randomized, one treatment, one period, single dose pharmacokinetic study. The main pharmacokinetic parameters estimated were C max , T max , t 1/2 , elimination rate constant, AUC 0-t and AUC 0-inf . The insignificant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between Egyptians and white German subjects suggests that no dose adjustment should be considered with administration of 25 mg empagliflozin to Egyptian population. A new LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated, allowing sensitive estimation of empagliflozin (25-600 ng mL -1 ) in human plasma using dapagliflozin as an internal standard (IS). The method was applied successfully on the underlying pharmacokinetic study with enhanced sample preparation that involved liquid-liquid extraction. Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) of the transition pairs of m/z 449.01 to 371.21 for empagliflozin and m/z 407.00 to 328.81 for dapagliflozin (IS) was employed utilizing negative mode Electro Spray Ionization (ESI). The validated LC-MS/MS method is suitable for further toxicodynamic and bioequivalence studies.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of Rilpivirine in HIV-1-infected patients treated with the single-tablet regimen rilpivirine/tenofovir/emtricitabine.

    PubMed

    Néant, Nadège; Gattacceca, Florence; Lê, Minh Patrick; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Dhiver, Catherine; Bregigeon, Sylvie; Mokhtari, Saadia; Peytavin, Gilles; Tamalet, Catherine; Descamps, Diane; Lacarelle, Bruno; Solas, Caroline

    2018-04-01

    Rilpivirine, prescribed for the treatment of HIV infection, presents an important inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. We aimed to determine population pharmacokinetic parameters of rilpivirine in adult HIV-infected patients and quantify their inter-individual variability. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, and observational study in patients treated with the once-daily rilpivirine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine regimen. As part of routine therapeutic drug monitoring, rilpivirine concentrations were measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. Once the compartmental and random effects models were selected, covariates were tested to explain the inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The final model qualification was performed by both statistical and graphical methods. We included 379 patients, resulting in the analysis of 779 rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Of the observed trough individual plasma concentrations, 24.4% were below the 50 ng/ml minimal effective concentration. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption best described the data. The estimated fixed effect for plasma apparent clearance and distribution volume were 9 L/h and 321 L, respectively, resulting in a half-life of 25.2 h. The common inter-individual variability for both parameters was 34.1% at both the first and the second occasions. The inter-individual variability of clearance was 30.3%. Our results showed a terminal half-life lower than reported and a high proportion of patients with suboptimal rilpivirine concentrations, which highlights the interest of using therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical practice. The population analysis performed with data from "real-life" conditions resulted in reliable post hoc estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters, suitable for individualization of dosing regimen.

  2. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for a Solid Oral Tablet Formulation of Posaconazole.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Marlou L P S; Rossenu, Stefaan; de Greef, Rik; Waskin, Hetty

    2018-04-30

    A delayed-release solid tablet formulation that releases posaconazole in the small intestine was developed to maximize systemic absorption. This study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the posaconazole solid tablet formulation in adult subjects and to investigate the potential impact of demographic and clinical factors on posaconazole exposure through a population pharmacokinetic approach. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed using data from several studies conducted in healthy volunteers and patients. The influence of demographic and clinical factors on pharmacokinetic parameters was evaluated using a stepwise forward inclusion/backward exclusion procedure. The final pharmacokinetic model was used to simulate posaconazole exposure in patients at high risk for invasive fungal diseases treated with the proposed posaconazole dose of 300 mg twice daily on day 1, followed by 300 mg daily for 27 days. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model with sequential zero-order and first-order absorption and a first-order disposition from the central compartment adequately described the pharmacokinetic profile of the posaconazole solid tablet formulation. Significant covariates included disease state (acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplasia vs allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation), body weight, and formulation on bioavailability; food status on first-order absorption rate; and dosing regimen (single dose vs multiple doses) on clearance. Except for body weight, the impact of these covariates on posaconazole exposure was considered clinically irrelevant. This population pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed that the proposed dose of the posaconazole solid tablet formulation provides adequate target therapeutic exposure (>0.5 mg/l) to a broad range of patients at high risk for invasive fungal disease. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. On the accuracy of estimation of basic pharmacokinetic parameters by the traditional noncompartmental equations and the prediction of the steady-state volume of distribution in obese patients based upon data derived from normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2011-06-01

    The steady-state and terminal volumes of distribution, as well as the mean residence time of drug in the body (V(ss), V(β), and MRT) are the common pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the drug plasma concentration-time profile C(p) (t) following intravenous (i.v. bolus or constant rate infusion) drug administration. These calculations are valid for the linear pharmacokinetic system with central elimination (i.e., elimination rate being proportional to drug concentration in plasma). Formally, the assumption of central elimination is not normally met because the rate of drug elimination is proportional to the unbound drug concentration at elimination site, although equilibration between systemic circulation and the site of clearance for majority of small molecule drugs is fast. Thus, the assumption of central elimination is practically quite adequate. It appears reasonable to estimate the extent of possible errors in determination of these pharmacokinetic parameters due to the absence of central elimination. The comparison of V(ss), V(β), and MRT calculated by exact equations and the commonly used ones was made considering a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. It was found that if the drug plasma concentration profile is detected accurately, determination of drug distribution volumes and MRT using the traditional noncompartmental calculations of these parameters from C(p) (t) yields the values very close to that obtained from exact equations. Though in practice, the accurate measurement of C(p) (t), especially its terminal phase, may not always be possible. This is particularly applicable for obtaining the distribution volumes of lipophilic compounds in obese subjects, when the possibility of late terminal phase at low drug concentration is quite likely, specifically for compounds with high clearance. An accurate determination of V(ss) is much needed in clinical practice because it is critical for the proper selection of drug treatment

  4. Lymphatic route of transport and pharmacokinetics of Micrurus fulvius (coral snake) venom in sheep.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, D; Jiménez, L; Romero, C; Vergara, I; Calderón, A; Benard, M; Bernas, M J; Rilo, H; de Roodt, A; D' Suze, G; Witte, M H; Boyer, L; Alagón, A

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of the lymphatic system to the absorption and systemic bioavailability of Micrurus fulvius venom after subcutaneous (SC) administration was assessed using a central lymph-cannulated sheep model. Micrurus fulvius venom was administered either by intravenous bolus (IV) or subcutaneous injection (SC) in 12 sheep with and without thoracic duct cannulation and drainage. Venom concentration in serum and lymph was determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in samples collected over a 6-hour period and in tissues harvested at the end of the experiment. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by a non-compartmental analysis. In the lymphatic cannulated group, over the 6 hours after the venom was administered, 69% of administered dose was accounted for in blood (45%) and lymph (25%). Negligible levels of venom were detected in organs and urine implying that the steady state observed after SC administration is maintained by a slow absorption process. Comparison of kinetics of the thoracic duct cannulated and non-cannulated groups showed that lymphatic absorption contributed in an important way to maintenance of this steady state. These results show that the limiting process in the pharmacokinetics of Micrurus fulvius venom following SC administration is absorption, and that the lymphatic system plays a key role in this process.

  5. Dapoxetine has no pharmacokinetic or cognitive interactions with ethanol in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Modi, Nishit B; Dresser, Mark; Desai, Dhaval; Edgar, Christopher; Wesnes, Keith

    2007-03-01

    Dapoxetine is being investigated for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This study evaluated the potential pharmacokinetic and cognitive interactions of dapoxetine 60 mg with ethanol 0.5 g/kg in a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in healthy adult male participants (n = 24). Dapoxetine was rapidly absorbed and eliminated; peak concentrations were noted 1.47 hours after administration and decreased with an alpha half-life of 1.33 hours and a terminal half-life of 15.6 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), AUC(infinity), t((1/2)), and t(max)) of dapoxetine were not altered with concurrent ethanol consumption. Furthermore, coadministration of dapoxetine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of ethanol or potentiate the cognitive and subjective effects of ethanol.

  6. Phase I and pharmacokinetic evaluation of floxuridine/leucovorin given on the Roswell Park weekly regimen.

    PubMed

    Creaven, P J; Rustum, Y M; Petrelli, N J; Meropol, N J; Raghavan, D; Rodriguez-Bigas, M; Levine, E G; Frank, C; Udvary-Nagy, S; Proefrock, A

    1994-01-01

    A phase I and pharmacokinetics study was carried out of floxuridine (FdUrd) modulated by leucovorin (LV) given on the Roswell Park regimen (LV given at 500 mg/m2 by 2-h infusion and FdUrd given by i.v. push at 1 h after the start of LV infusion, treatment being given weekly x 6). The dose-limiting toxicity was diarrhea; the MTD and recommended dose for phase II studies was 1,650 mg/m2 per week of FdUrd. The dose-response curve was steep, with 3/3 patients treated at a dose of 1,750 mg/m2 developing grade IV diarrhea. With this schedule there was no significant mucositis. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed very wide interpatient variability. Plasma decay was biphasic with a t1/2 beta of approximately 2 h. Plasma clearance was high (> 200 1 h-1). No correlation between pharmacokinetic parameters and toxicity could be identified.

  7. Automated Processing of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: Correlation of Advanced Pharmacokinetic Metrics with Tumor Grade in Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Vajapeyam, S; Stamoulis, C; Ricci, K; Kieran, M; Poussaint, T Young

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging have proved useful for differentiating brain tumor grades in adults. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion data from children with newly diagnosed brain tumors and analyzed the pharmacokinetic parameters correlating with tumor grade. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging data from 38 patients were analyzed by using commercially available software. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups based on pathologic analyses consisting of low-grade (World Health Organization I and II) and high-grade (World Health Organization III and IV) tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the 2 groups by using linear regression models. For parameters that were statistically distinct between the 2 groups, sensitivity and specificity were also estimated. Eighteen tumors were classified as low-grade, and 20, as high-grade. Transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K trans ), rate constant from extracellular extravascular space back into blood plasma (K ep ), and extracellular extravascular volume fraction (V e ) were all significantly correlated with tumor grade; high-grade tumors showed higher K trans , higher K ep , and lower V e . Although all 3 parameters had high specificity (range, 82%-100%), K ep had the highest specificity for both grades. Optimal sensitivity was achieved for V e , with a combined sensitivity of 76% (compared with 71% for K trans and K ep ). Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can effectively discriminate low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Compartmental analysis and its manifold applications to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Rescigno, Aldo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, I show how the concept of compartment evolved from the simple dilution of a substance in a physiological volume to its distribution in a network of interconnected spaces. The differential equations describing the fate of a substance in a living being can be solved, qualitatively and quantitatively, with the help of a number of mathematical techniques. A number of parameters of pharmacokinetic interest can be computed from the experimental data; often, the data available are not sufficient to determine some parameters, but it is possible to determine their range.

  9. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Pregnant Women to Predict the Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Metabolized Via Several Enzymatic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, André; Ince, Ibrahim; Coboeken, Katrin; Eissing, Thomas; Hempel, Georg

    2017-09-18

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is considered a valuable tool for predicting pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy to subsequently guide in-vivo pharmacokinetic trials in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to extend and verify a previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for pregnant women for the prediction of pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized via several cytochrome P450 enzymes. Quantitative information on gestation-specific changes in enzyme activity available in the literature was incorporated in a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the pharmacokinetics of eight drugs metabolized via one or multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes was predicted. The tested drugs were caffeine, midazolam, nifedipine, metoprolol, ondansetron, granisetron, diazepam, and metronidazole. Pharmacokinetic predictions were evaluated by comparison with in-vivo pharmacokinetic data obtained from the literature. The pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model successfully predicted the pharmacokinetics of all tested drugs. The observed pregnancy-induced pharmacokinetic changes were qualitatively and quantitatively reasonably well predicted for all drugs. Ninety-seven percent of the mean plasma concentrations predicted in pregnant women fell within a twofold error range and 63% within a 1.25-fold error range. For all drugs, the predicted area under the concentration-time curve was within a 1.25-fold error range. The presented pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model can quantitatively predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are metabolized via one or multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes by integrating prior knowledge of the pregnancy-related effect on these enzymes. This pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model may thus be used to identify potential exposure changes in pregnant women a priori and to eventually support informed decision making when clinical trials are designed in this

  10. Effects of mesocaval shunt on the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in young rats.

    PubMed

    Guillé, Beatriz E Perez; Alvarez, Fernando Villegas; Toledo López, Alejandra R; Bravo-Luna, Miguel A Jiménez; Soriano-Rosales, Rosa E; Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Arrellin, Gerardo; Guillé, Maria G Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic management of portosystemic encephalopathies is based on protein restriction in the diet, and the use of lactulose and antibiotics such as metronidazole. These actions intend to reduce the main source of intestinal ammonia production and release into the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term effects of mesocaval shunt on the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in rats with healthy livers. Male Lewis rats were divided into two groups. The first group was subjected to mesocaval shunt (MCS) and the other employed as a control. The following tests were carried out in both groups: metronidazole pharmacokinetics, determination of ALT, AST, albumin, urea and ammonium, liver weight and histomorphology. A loss in body and liver weight was registered in rats subjected to MCS. AST levels also increased compared to controls. Significant differences in almost all pharmacokinetic parameters were detected between MCS and control rats, especially in Kel, AUC and Cmax. Modifications in metronidazole pharmacokinetics and liver weight changes without microstructural modification secondary to MCS were found. We suggest that individual drug-monitoring and pharmacokinetic analysis must be carried out in metronidazole medicated patients with modifications in portal circulation with or with out macro or micro liver structural alterations.

  11. Issues in the Pharmacokinetics of Trichloroethylene and Its Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Okino, Miles S.; Lipscomb, John C.; Evans, Marina V.

    2006-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the complex pharmacokinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE). Qualitatively, it is clear that TCE is metabolized to multiple metabolites either locally or into systemic circulation. Many of these metabolites are thought to have toxicologic importance. In addition, efforts to develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have led to a better quantitative assessment of the dosimetry of TCE and several of its metabolites. As part of a mini-monograph on key issues in the health risk assessment of TCE, this article is a review of a number of the current scientific issues in TCE pharmacokinetics and recent PBPK modeling efforts with a focus on literature published since 2000. Particular attention is paid to factors affecting PBPK modeling for application to risk assessment. Recent TCE PBPK modeling efforts, coupled with methodologic advances in characterizing uncertainty and variability, suggest that rigorous application of PBPK modeling to TCE risk assessment appears feasible at least for TCE and its major oxidative metabolites trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol. However, a number of basic structural hypotheses such as enterohepatic recirculation, plasma binding, and flow- or diffusion-limited treatment of tissue distribution require additional evaluation and analysis. Moreover, there are a number of metabolites of potential toxicologic interest, such as chloral, dichloroacetic acid, and those derived from glutathione conjugation, for which reliable pharmacokinetic data is sparse because of analytical difficulties or low concentrations in systemic circulation. It will be a challenge to develop reliable dosimetry for such cases. PMID:16966104

  12. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models: approaches for enabling personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Hartmanshenn, Clara; Scherholz, Megerle; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2016-10-01

    Personalized medicine strives to deliver the 'right drug at the right dose' by considering inter-person variability, one of the causes for therapeutic failure in specialized populations of patients. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is a key tool in the advancement of personalized medicine to evaluate complex clinical scenarios, making use of physiological information as well as physicochemical data to simulate various physiological states to predict the distribution of pharmacokinetic responses. The increased dependency on PBPK models to address regulatory questions is aligned with the ability of PBPK models to minimize ethical and technical difficulties associated with pharmacokinetic and toxicology experiments for special patient populations. Subpopulation modeling can be achieved through an iterative and integrative approach using an adopt, adapt, develop, assess, amend, and deliver methodology. PBPK modeling has two valuable applications in personalized medicine: (1) determining the importance of certain subpopulations within a distribution of pharmacokinetic responses for a given drug formulation and (2) establishing the formulation design space needed to attain a targeted drug plasma concentration profile. This review article focuses on model development for physiological differences associated with sex (male vs. female), age (pediatric vs. young adults vs. elderly), disease state (healthy vs. unhealthy), and temporal variation (influence of biological rhythms), connecting them to drug product formulation development within the quality by design framework. Although PBPK modeling has come a long way, there is still a lengthy road before it can be fully accepted by pharmacologists, clinicians, and the broader industry.

  13. Effect of ticagrelor on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl oestradiol and levonorgestrel in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kathleen; Teng, Renli

    2011-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 3 A is involved in ticagrelor and ethinyl oestradiol/levonorgestrel metabolism; so a potential drug-drug interaction may occur. To assess: ticagrelor effects on ethinyl oestradiol/levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics, endogenous sex hormone levels; ethinyl oestradiol/levonorgestrel effects on ticagrelor pharmacokinetics; tolerability of ticagrelor + ethinyl oestradiol/levonorgestrel. This trial was a randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover, single-center study. Twenty-two healthy female volunteers (on stable ethinyl oestradiol/levonorgestrel) received 90 mg ticagrelor or placebo twice daily with ethinyl oestradiol/levonorgestrel (0.03 mg/0.15 mg; Nordette) on cycle days 1-21. Volunteers crossed over treatment on day 1/cycle 2. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated on cycle day 21, and endogenous hormones assayed on cycle days 1, 7, 14 and 21. NCT006895906. Ethinyl oestradiol absorption was rapid (median t(max) approximately 1 hour), and was not affected by ticagrelor. Ticagrelor co-administration (90% confidence interval [CI]) increased AUC(0-τ), C(min), and C(max) of ethinyl oestradiol by 20% (1.03-1.40), 20% (0.96-1.50) and 31% (1.18-1.44), respectively. Ticagrelor had no effect on levonorgestrel pharmacokinetic parameters versus placebo (90% CI: AUC(0-τ) 0.97-1.10; C(min) 0.94-1.10; C(max) 1.02-1.16). Steady-state ticagrelor, and AR-C124910XX (major and equally pharmacologically active metabolite), AUC(0-τ), C(max), and t(max) were comparable with published findings. Pre-dose ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX plasma concentrations were higher on cycle day 21 versus days 7 and 14. Endogenous sex hormone plasma levels were unaffected by ticagrelor. Co-administration of ticagrelor with ethinyl oestradiol/levonorgestrel was well tolerated. Study limitations included: no ticagrelor-only arm; only one type of oral contraceptive; short study duration; using oestradiol/levonorgestrel pharmacokinetic parameters as surrogate marker for

  14. Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hudson, R J; Thomson, I R; Cannon, J E; Friesen, R M; Meatherall, R C

    1986-03-01

    The authors determined the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl 100 micrograms X kg-1 iv in patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery. The mean (+/- SD) age of the ten patients was 67.2 +/- 8.7 yr; their mean weight was 78.5 +/- 13.7 kg. Seven patients had aortic aneurysm repair, and the other three patients had aortobifemoral grafts. Serum fentanyl concentrations were determined from samples drawn at increasing intervals over a 24-h period. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model was fit to the concentration versus time data. Total drug clearance was 9.8 +/- 1.8 ml X min-1 X kg-1. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) was 5.4 +/- 1.9 X 1 kg-1. Elimination half-time was 8.7 +/- 2.5 h. There were no significant correlations between these pharmacokinetic parameters and patient's age, duration of aortic cross-clamping, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, or volume of iv fluids given intraoperatively. In healthy volunteers or patients undergoing general surgery, other investigators report mean elimination half-times for fentanyl ranging from 1.7 to 4.4 h. The prolonged elimination half-time in patients having abdominal aortic surgery has important clinical implications. In particular, recovery from large doses will take much longer than would have been anticipated from previously published fentanyl pharmacokinetic data.

  15. Evaluation of the pre-posterior distribution of optimized sampling times for the design of pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Duffull, Stephen B; Graham, Gordon; Mengersen, Kerrie; Eccleston, John

    2012-01-01

    Information theoretic methods are often used to design studies that aim to learn about pharmacokinetic and linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic systems. These design techniques, such as D-optimality, provide the optimum experimental conditions. The performance of the optimum design will depend on the ability of the investigator to comply with the proposed study conditions. However, in clinical settings it is not possible to comply exactly with the optimum design and hence some degree of unplanned suboptimality occurs due to error in the execution of the study. In addition, due to the nonlinear relationship of the parameters of these models to the data, the designs are also locally dependent on an arbitrary choice of a nominal set of parameter values. A design that is robust to both study conditions and uncertainty in the nominal set of parameter values is likely to be of use clinically. We propose an adaptive design strategy to account for both execution error and uncertainty in the parameter values. In this study we investigate designs for a one-compartment first-order pharmacokinetic model. We do this in a Bayesian framework using Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. We consider log-normal prior distributions on the parameters and investigate several prior distributions on the sampling times. An adaptive design was used to find the sampling window for the current sampling time conditional on the actual times of all previous samples.

  16. Relationships of Changes in Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Substrate Drugs in Drug-Drug Interactions on Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shinji

    2018-05-03

    A general objective of drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies is to determine whether potential interactions of new molecular entities with concomitantly administered other drugs exist and, if DDIs occur, whether dosage adjustments are required. A typical end point for DDI evaluations is the ratio of area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of substrate drugs (AUCR), whereas the ratios of maximal plasma concentration (C max ) and terminal half-life (t 1/2 ) are also important to understand DDI mechanisms (C max R and t 1/2 R, respectively). Because changes in substrate AUC by precipitant drugs ultimately result from alterations of C max and t 1/2 , AUCR can be considered a hybrid parameter of C max R and t 1/2 R, for example, AUCR ≈ C max R  ×  t 1/2 R. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between AUCR, C max R, and t 1/2 R in physiologically based pharmacokinetic model-predicted and clinically observed DDI results. First, the model-predicted results showed the excellent proportional relationship between AUCR and (C max R × t 1/2 R) in DDI results of virtual substrates having a wide range of oral bioavailability with coadministration of ketoconazole, ritonavir, and rifampin. Second, the reasonable proportional relationships were also observed in the clinically observed DDI results of midazolam and statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin) with various inhibitors and inducers. Finally, these results suggest that utilization of the proportional relationship between AUCR and (C max R × t 1/2 R) can provide an additional framework to further interpret DDI results reasonably and clearly. Furthermore, the proportional relationship can be purposely used to assess study design and pharmacokinetic analyses in DDI studies. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Filgotinib (GLPG0634), a Selective JAK1 Inhibitor, in Support of Phase IIB Dose Selection.

    PubMed

    Namour, Florence; Diderichsen, Paul Matthias; Cox, Eugène; Vayssière, Béatrice; Van der Aa, Annegret; Tasset, Chantal; Van't Klooster, Gerben

    2015-08-01

    Filgotinib (GLPG0634) is a selective inhibitor of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) currently in development for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. While less selective JAK inhibitors have shown long-term efficacy in treating inflammatory conditions, this was accompanied by dose-limiting side effects. Here, we describe the pharmacokinetics of filgotinib and its active metabolite in healthy volunteers and the use of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation to support dose selection for phase IIB in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Two trials were conducted in healthy male volunteers. In the first trial, filgotinib was administered as single doses from 10 mg up to multiple daily doses of 200 mg. In the second trial, daily doses of 300 and 450 mg for 10 days were evaluated. Non-compartmental analysis was used to determine individual pharmacokinetic parameters for filgotinib and its metabolite. The overall pharmacodynamic activity for the two moieties was assessed in whole blood using interleukin-6-induced phosphorylation of signal-transducer and activator of transcription 1 as a biomarker for JAK1 activity. These data were used to conduct non-linear mixed-effects modeling to investigate a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. Modeling and simulation on the basis of early clinical data suggest that the pharmacokinetics of filgotinib are dose proportional up to 200 mg, in agreement with observed data, and support that both filgotinib and its metabolite contribute to its pharmacodynamic effects. Simulation of biomarker response supports that the maximum pharmacodynamic effect is reached at a daily dose of 200 mg filgotinib. Based on these results, a daily dose range up to 200 mg has been selected for phase IIB dose-finding studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of butafosfan after intravenous and intramuscular administration in piglets.

    PubMed

    Sun, F; Wang, J; Yang, S; Zhang, S; Shen, J; Xingyuan, C

    2017-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of butafosfan in piglets were investigated following intravenous and intramuscular administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Plasma concentration-time data and relevant parameters were best described by noncompartmental analysis after intravenous and intramuscular injection. The data were analyzed through WinNolin 6.3 software. After intravenous administration, the mean pharmacokinetic parameters were determined as T 1/2λz of 3.30 h, Cl of 0.16 L kg/h, AUC of 64.49 ± 15.07 μg h/mL, V ss of 0.81 ± 0.44/kg, and MRT of 1.51 ± 0.27 h. Following intramuscular administration, the C max (28.11 μg/mL) was achieved at T max (0.31 h) with an absolute availability of 74.69%. Other major parameters including AUC and MRT were 48.29 ± 21.67 μg h/mL and 1.74 ± 0.29 h, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of furosemide in patients with hypertension and fluid overload conditions.

    PubMed

    Kodati, Devender; Yellu, Narsimhareddy

    2017-06-01

    Furosemide is a loop diuretic drug frequently indicated in hypertension and fluid overload conditions such as congestive heart failure and hepatic cirrhosis. The purpose of the study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic model for furosemide in Indian hypertensive and fluid overload patients, and to evaluate effects of covariates on the volume of distribution (V/F) and oral clearance (CL/F) of furosemide. A total of 188 furosemide plasma sample concentrations from 63 patients with hypertension or fluid overload conditions were collected in this study. The population pharmacokinetic model for furosemide was built using Phoenix NLME 1.3 software. The covariates included age, sex, body surface area, bodyweight, height and creatinine clearance (CRCL). The pharmacokinetic data of furosemide was adequately explained by a two-compartment linear pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and an absorption lag-time. The mean values of CL/F and Vd/F of furosemide in the patients were 15.054Lh -1 and 4.419L, respectively. Analysis of covariates showed that CRCL was significantly influencing the clearance of furosemide. The final population pharmacokinetic model was demonstrated to be appropriate and effective and it can be used to assess the pharmacokinetic parameters of furosemide in Indian patients with hypertension and fluid overload conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  20. uSIMPK. An Excel for Windows-based simulation program for instruction of basic pharmacokinetics principles to pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Brocks, Dion R

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation of huperzine A in elderly Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Lei; Qu, Yi; Yan, Jing; Liu, Gang-yi; Wang, Wei-liang; Wang, Yi-jun; Wang, Hong-yi; Zhang, Meng-qi; Lu, Chuan; Liu, Yun; Jia, Jing-yin; Hu, Chao-ying; Li, Xue-ning; Yu, Chen; Xu, Hong-rong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our preliminary results show that huperzine A, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in China, exhibits different pharmacokinetic features in elderly and young healthy subjects. However, its pharmacokinetic data in elderly subjects remains unavailable to date. Thus, we developed a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of huperzine A in elderly Chinese people, and identified the covariate affecting its pharmacokinetics for optimal individual administration. Methods: A total of 341 serum huperzine A concentration records was obtained from 2 completed clinical trials (14 elderly healthy subjects in a phase I pharmacokinetic study; 35 elderly AD patients in a phase II study). Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the non-linear mixed-effect modeling software Phoenix NLME1.1.1. The effects of age, gender, body weight, height, creatinine, endogenous creatinine clearance rate as well as drugs administered concomitantly were analyzed. Bootstrap and visual predictive checks were used simultaneously to validate the final population pharmacokinetics models. Results: The plasma concentration-time profile of huperzine A was best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Age was identified as the covariate having significant influence on huperzine A clearance. The final PPK model of huperzine A was: CL (L/h)=2.4649*(age/86)(−3.3856), Ka=0.6750 h−1, V (L)=104.216. The final PPK model was demonstrated to be suitable and effective by the bootstrap and visual predictive checks. Conclusion: A PPK model of huperzine A in elderly Chinese subjects is established, which can be used to predict PPK parameters of huperzine A in the treatment of elderly AD patients. PMID:27180987

  2. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-Latitude Ionosphere-Basic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere is an important task of the Space Weather program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two main elements are a suitable geomagnetic activity index and coupling function -- the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity. The appropriate choice of these two elements is imperative for any reliable prediction model. The purpose of this work was to elaborate on these two elements -- the appropriate geomagnetic activity index and the coupling function -- and investigate the opportunity to improve the reliability of the prediction of geomagnetic activity and other events in the Earth's magnetosphere. The new polar magnetic index of geomagnetic activity and the new version of the coupling function lead to a significant increase in the reliability of predicting the geomagnetic activity and some key parameters, such as cross-polar cap voltage and total Joule heating in high-latitude ionosphere, which play a very important role in the development of geomagnetic and other activity in the Earth s magnetosphere, and are widely used as key input parameters in modeling magnetospheric, ionospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of ϵ-aminocaproic acid in adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Stricker, P A; Gastonguay, M R; Singh, D; Fiadjoe, J E; Sussman, E M; Pruitt, E Y; Goebel, T K; Zuppa, A F

    2015-04-01

    Despite demonstrated efficacy of ϵ-aminocaproic acid (EACA) in reducing blood loss in adolescents undergoing spinal fusion, there are no population-specific pharmacokinetic data to guide dosing. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of EACA in adolescents undergoing spinal fusion surgery and make dosing recommendations. Twenty children ages 12-17 years were enrolled, with 10 children in each of two groups based on diagnosis (idiopathic scoliosis or non-idiopathic scoliosis). Previously reported data from infants undergoing craniofacial surgery were included in the model to enable dosing recommendations over a wide range of weights, ages, and diagnoses. A population non-linear mixed effects modelling approach was used to characterize EACA pharmacokinetics. Population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a two-compartment disposition model with allometrically scaled weight and an age effect on clearance. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the typical patient were a plasma clearance of 153 ml min(-1) 70 kg(-1) (6.32 ml min(-1) kg(-0.75)), intercompartmental clearance of 200 ml min(-1) 70 kg(-1) (8.26 ml min(-1) kg(-0.75)), central volume of distribution of 8.78 litre 70 kg(-1) (0.13 litre kg(-1)), and peripheral volume of distribution of 15.8 litre 70 kg(-1) (0.23 litre kg(-1)). Scoliosis aetiology did not have a clinically significant effect on drug pharmacokinetics. The following dosing schemes are recommended according to patient weight: weight <25 kg, 100 mg kg(-1) loading dose and 40 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion; weight ≤25 kg-<50 kg, 100 mg kg(-1) loading dose and 35 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion; and weight ≥50 kg, 100 mg kg(-1) loading dose and 30 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion. An efficacy trial employing this dosing strategy is warranted. NCT01408823. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Pharmacokinetic study of anidulafungin in ICU patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Dupont, H; Massias, L; Jung, B; Ammenouche, N; Montravers, P

    2017-05-01

    Only limited pharmacokinetic data are available for anidulafungin in ICU patients, especially in patients treated for severe intra-abdominal infection (IAI). This was a prospective multicentre observational study in ICU patients with suspected yeast IAI. All patients received an intravenous loading dose of 200 mg of anidulafungin, followed by 100 mg/day. Thirteen blood samples were drawn between day 1 and day 5 for pharmacokinetic analysis. Samples were analysed by an HPLC-tandem MS method. Demographics and SAPS2 and SOFA scores were recorded. Fourteen patients with a median age (IQR) of 62 years (48-70) and with a mean BMI of 30.5 kg/m 2 were included from three centres; 57.1% were women. Their median (IQR) SAPS2 score was 54 (45-67) and their median (IQR) SOFA score was 8 (7-12). Six patients with community-acquired IAI and eight patients with nosocomial-acquired IAI were included. Twelve yeasts were isolated: six Candida albicans , two Candida glabrata , two Candida tropicalis , one Candida parapsilosis and one Candida krusei . Pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows [mean (% coefficient of variation)]: C max (mg/L) = 6.0 (29%); T max (h) = 1.6 (25.8%); C min (mg/L) = 3.2 (36.8%); AUC 0-24 (mg·h/L) = 88.9 (38.6%); t 1/2 (h) = 42.1 (68.2%); CL (L/h) = 1.2 (42.3%); and V (L) = 72.8 (87.8%). A two-compartment model best described the anidulafungin concentrations in the population pharmacokinetic study. The pharmacokinetic parameters of anidulafungin in critically ill ICU patients with complicated IAI are similar to those observed in the literature. However, an increased V and a longer t 1/2 were observed in this study. (EudraCT No. 2010-018695-25). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Population Pharmacokinetics of Atazanavir in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Sara ; Buclin, Thierry; Cavassini, Matthias; Décosterd, Laurent A.; Telenti, Amalio; Biollaz, Jérôme; Csajka, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    Atazanavir (ATV) is a new azapeptide protease inhibitor recently approved and currently used at a fixed dose of either 300 mg once per day (q.d.) in combination with 100 mg ritonavir (RTV) or 400 mg q.d. without boosting. ATV is highly bound to plasma proteins and extensively metabolized by CYP3A4. Since ATV plasma levels are highly variable and seem to be correlated with both viral response and toxicity, dosage individualization based on plasma concentration monitoring might be indicated. This study aimed to assess the ATV pharmacokinetic profile in a target population of HIV patients, to characterize interpatient and intrapatient variability, and to identify covariates that might influence ATV disposition. A population analysis was performed with NONMEM with 574 plasma samples from a cohort of 214 randomly selected patients receiving ATV. A total of 346 randomly collected ATV plasma levels and 19 full concentration-time profiles at steady state were available. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were an oral clearance (CL) of 12.9 liters/h (coefficient of variation [CV], 26%), a volume of distribution of 88.3 liters (CV, 29%), an absorption rate constant of 0.405 h−1 (CV, 122%), and a lag time of 0.88 h. A relative bioavailability value was introduced to account for undercompliance due to infrequent follow-ups (0.81; CV, 45%). Among the covariates tested, only RTV significantly reduced CL by 46%, thereby increasing the ATV elimination half-life from 4.6 h to 8.8 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ATV were adequately described by a one-compartment population model. The concomitant use of RTV improved the pharmacokinetic profile. However, the remaining high interpatient variability suggests the possibility of an impact of unmeasured covariates, such as genetic traits or environmental influences. This population pharmacokinetic model, together with therapeutic drug monitoring and Bayesian dosage adaptation, can be helpful in the selection and adaptation of

  6. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in laying hens after intravenous and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Si, H B; Wang, Y Q; Zhao, Z S; Zhou, B H; Hao, X Q

    2016-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in laying hens was investigated after a single intravenous (IV) or an oral (PO) dose at 20 mg/kg body weight. The concentrations of doxycycline in plasma samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a compartmental model method. The disposition of doxycycline after one single IV injection was best described by a two-compartment open model and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: volume of distribution (Vd) was 865.15 ± 127.64 ml/kg, distribution rate constant (α) was (2.28 ± 0.38) 1/h, elimination rate constant (β) was 0.08 ± 0.02 1/h and total body clearance (Cl) was104.11 ± 18.32 ml/h/kg, while after PO administration, the concentration versus time curve was best described by a one-compartment open model and absorption rate constant (Ka), peak concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (tmax) and absolute bioavailability (F) were 2.55 ± 1.40 1/h, 5.88 ± 0.70 μg/ml, 1.73 ± 0.75 h and 52.33%, respectively. The profile of doxycycline exhibited favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics in laying hens, such as quick absorption and slow distribution and elimination, though oral bioavailability was relatively low. A multiple-dosing regimen (a dose of 20 mg/kg/d for 3 consecutive days) of doxycycline was recommended to treat infections in laying hens. But a further study should be conducted to determine the withdrawal time of doxycycline in eggs.

  7. A Bayesian Approach for Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Pegylated Interferon α-2a in Hepatitis C Patients.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammad I

    2017-11-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) is an antiviral drug used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study describes the population pharmacokinetics of PEG-IFN-α-2a in hepatitis C patients using a Bayesian approach. A possible association between patient characteristics and pharmacokinetic parameters is also explored. A Bayesian population pharmacokinetic modeling approach, using WinBUGS version 1.4.3, was applied to a cohort of patients (n = 292) with chronic HCV infection. Data were obtained from two phase III studies sponsored by Hoffmann-La Roche. Demographic and clinical information were evaluated as possible predictors of pharmacokinetic parameters during model development. A one-compartment model with an additive error best fitted the data, and a total of 2271 PEG-IFN-α-2a measurements from 292 subjects were analyzed using the proposed population pharmacokinetic model. Sex was identified as a predictor of PEG-IFN-α-2a clearance, and hemoglobin baseline level was identified as a predictor of PEG-IFN-α-2a volume of distribution. A population pharmacokinetic model of PEG-IFN-α-2a in patients with chronic HCV infection was presented in this study. The proposed model can be used to optimize PEG-IFN-α-2a dosing in patients with chronic HCV infection. Optimal PEG-IFN-α-2a selection is important to maximize response and/or to avoid potential side effects such as thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. NV15942 and NV15801.

  8. Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Rat Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Badhan, Raj K. Singh; Chenel, Marylore; Penny, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) drug disposition is dictated by a drug’s physicochemical properties and its ability to permeate physiological barriers. The blood–brain barrier (BBB), blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and centrally located drug transporter proteins influence drug disposition within the central nervous system. Attainment of adequate brain-to-plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-to-plasma partitioning is important in determining the efficacy of centrally acting therapeutics. We have developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of the rat CNS which incorporates brain interstitial fluid (ISF), choroidal epithelial and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments and accurately predicts CNS pharmacokinetics. The model yielded reasonable predictions of unbound brain-to-plasma partition ratio (Kpuu,brain) and CSF:plasma ratio (CSF:Plasmau) using a series of in vitro permeability and unbound fraction parameters. When using in vitro permeability data obtained from L-mdr1a cells to estimate rat in vivo permeability, the model successfully predicted, to within 4-fold, Kpuu,brain and CSF:Plasmau for 81.5% of compounds simulated. The model presented allows for simultaneous simulation and analysis of both brain biophase and CSF to accurately predict CNS pharmacokinetics from preclinical drug parameters routinely available during discovery and development pathways. PMID:24647103

  9. Flip-flop pharmacokinetics – delivering a reversal of disposition: challenges and opportunities during drug development

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, Jaime A; Remsberg, Connie M; Sayre, Casey L; Forrest, M Laird; Davies, Neal M

    2011-01-01

    Flip-flop pharmacokinetics is a phenomenon often encountered with extravascularly administered drugs. Occurrence of flip-flop spans preclinical to human studies. The purpose of this article is to analyze both the pharmacokinetic interpretation errors and opportunities underlying the presence of flip-flop pharmacokinetics during drug development. Flip-flop occurs when the rate of absorption is slower than the rate of elimination. If it is not recognized, it can create difficulties in the acquisition and interpretation of pharmacokinetic parameters. When flip-flop is expected or discovered, a longer duration of sampling may be necessary in order to avoid overestimation of fraction of dose absorbed. Common culprits of flip-flop disposition are modified dosage formulations; however, formulation characteristics such as the drug chemical entities themselves or the incorporated excipients can also cause the phenomenon. Yet another contributing factor is the physiological makeup of the extravascular site of administration. In this article, these causes of flip-flop pharmacokinetics are discussed with incorporation of relevant examples and the implications for drug development outlined. PMID:21837267

  10. Psychomotor effect differences between l-methamphetamine and d-methamphetamine are independent of murine plasma and brain pharmacokinetics profiles.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tetsuya; Takahata, Kazue; Kosugi, Yuri; Tanabe, Takaaki; Muraoka, Shizuko

    2017-05-01

    l-Methamphetamine has been occasionally referred to as a stimulant similar to d-methamphetamine, probably owing to insufficient comparative studies. Here, we directly compared psychomotor efficacies and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine enantiomers in mice. Only d-methamphetamine, but not l-methamphetamine, induced stereotypy and sensitization at 1-10 mg/kg. However, plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of 10 mg/kg l-methamphetamine were ≥tenfold those of 1 mg/kg d-methamphetamine. These results clearly indicate that differential psychomotor efficacies of methamphetamine enantiomers are independent of their pharmacokinetic profiles.

  11. Assessing pharmacokinetics of indocyanine green-loaded nanoparticle in tumor with a dynamic diffuse fluorescence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqi; Yin, Guoyan; Zhao, Huijuan; Ma, Wenjuan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Limin

    2018-02-01

    Real-time and continuous monitoring of drug release in vivo is an important task in pharmaceutical development. Here, we devoted to explore a real-time continuous study of the pharmacokinetics of free indocyanine green (ICG) and ICG loaded in the shell-sheddable nanoparticles in tumor based on a dynamic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) system: A highly-sensitive dynamic DFT system of CT-scanning mode generates informative and instantaneous sampling datasets; An analysis procedure extracts the pharmacokinetic parameters from the reconstructed time curves of the mean ICG concentration in tumor, using the Gauss-Newton scheme based on two-compartment model. Compared with the pharmacokinetic parameters of free ICG in tumor, the ICG loaded in the shell-sheddable nanoparticles shows efficient accumulation in tumor. The results demonstrate our proposed dynamic-DFT can provide an integrated and continuous view of the drug delivery of the injected agents in different formulations, which is helpful for the development of diagnosis and therapy for tumors.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters C max and AUC0–∞ (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

  13. Population Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of 5-Fluorouracil for Toxicities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Ito, Yukako; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2017-08-01

    Myelosuppression is a dose-limiting toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Predicting the inter- and intra-patient variability in pharmacokinetics and toxicities of 5-FU may contribute to the individualized medicine. This study aimed to establish a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model that could evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability in the plasma 5-FU concentration, 5-FU-induced body weight loss and myelosuppression in rats. Plasma 5-FU concentrations, body weight loss, and blood cell counts in rats following the intravenous administration of various doses of 5-FU for 4 days were used to develop the population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. The population pharmacokinetic model consisting of a two-compartment model with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics successfully characterized the individual and population predictions of the plasma concentration of 5-FU and provided credible parameter estimates. The estimates of inter-individual variability in maximal rate of saturable metabolism and residual variability were 8.1 and 22.0%, respectively. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model adequately described the individual complete time-course of alterations in body weight loss, erythrocyte, leukocyte, and lymphocyte counts in rats treated with various doses of 5-FU. The inter-individual variability of the drug effects in the pharmacodynamic model for body weight loss was 82.6%, which was relatively high. The results of the present study suggest that not only individual fluctuations in the 5-FU concentration but also the cell sensitivity would affect the onset and degree of 5-FU-induced toxicity. This population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model could evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability in drug-induced toxicity and guide the assessments of novel anticancer agents in drug development.

  14. Flucytosine Pharmacokinetics in a Critically Ill Patient Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kunka, Megan E; Cady, Elizabeth A; Woo, Heejung C; Thompson Bastin, Melissa L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A case report evaluating flucytosine dosing in a critically ill patient receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Summary. This case report outlines an 81-year-old male who was receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for acute renal failure and was being treated with flucytosine for the treatment of disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Due to patient specific factors, flucytosine was empirically dose adjusted approximately 50% lower than intermittent hemodialysis (iHD) recommendations and approximately 33% lower than CRRT recommendations. Peak and trough levels were obtained, which were supratherapeutic, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The patient experienced thrombocytopenia, likely due to elevated flucytosine levels, and flucytosine was ultimately discontinued. Conclusion. Despite conservative flucytosine dosing for a patient receiving CVVH, peak and trough serum flucytosine levels were supratherapeutic (120 μg/mL at 2 hours and 81 μg/mL at 11.5 hours), which increased drug-related adverse effects. The results indicate that this conservative dosing regimen utilizing the patient's actual body weight was too aggressive. This case report provides insight into flucytosine dosing in CVVH, a topic that has not been investigated previously. Further pharmacokinetic studies of flucytosine dosing in critically ill patients receiving CVVH are needed in order to optimize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters while avoiding toxic flucytosine exposure.

  15. Accelerated pharmacokinetic map determination for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI using frequency-domain based Tofts model.

    PubMed

    Vajuvalli, Nithin N; Nayak, Krupa N; Geethanath, Sairam

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) is widely used in the diagnosis of cancer and is also a promising tool for monitoring tumor response to treatment. The Tofts model has become a standard for the analysis of DCE-MRI. The process of curve fitting employed in the Tofts equation to obtain the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters is time-consuming for high resolution scans. Current work demonstrates a frequency-domain approach applied to the standard Tofts equation to speed-up the process of curve-fitting in order to obtain the pharmacokinetic parameters. The results obtained show that using the frequency domain approach, the process of curve fitting is computationally more efficient compared to the time-domain approach.

  16. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Yun; Huh, Wooseong; Jung, Jin Ah; Yoo, Hye Min; Ko, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jung-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; Cmax, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L). There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI]) of AUClast and Cmax (95.7 [85.9–106.5] and 98.3 [91.6–105.6], respectively). Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary. PMID:26309401

  17. Histogram analysis of T2*-based pharmacokinetic imaging in cerebral glioma grading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Shan; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Hsu, Fei-Ting; Cho, Nai-Yu; Wang, Chao-Ying; Chou, Ming-Chung; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of histogram analysis of the T2*-based permeability parameter volume transfer constant (K trans ) for glioma grading and to explore the diagnostic performance of the histogram analysis of K trans and blood plasma volume (v p ). We recruited 31 and 11 patients with high- and low-grade gliomas, respectively. The histogram parameters of K trans and v p , derived from the first-pass pharmacokinetic modeling based on the T2* dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2* DSC-PW-MRI) from the entire tumor volume, were evaluated for differentiating glioma grades. Histogram parameters of K trans and v p showed significant differences between high- and low-grade gliomas and exhibited significant correlations with tumor grades. The mean K trans derived from the T2* DSC-PW-MRI had the highest sensitivity and specificity for differentiating high-grade gliomas from low-grade gliomas compared with other histogram parameters of K trans and v p . Histogram analysis of T2*-based pharmacokinetic imaging is useful for cerebral glioma grading. The histogram parameters of the entire tumor K trans measurement can provide increased accuracy with additional information regarding microvascular permeability changes for identifying high-grade brain tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of nonrigid motion correction technique on pixel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis of free-breathing pulmonary dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Junichi; Mamata, Hatsuho; Gill, Ritu R; Hata, Nobuhiko; Kikinis, Ron; Padera, Robert F; Lenkinski, Robert E; Sugarbaker, David J; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2011-04-01

    To investigates the impact of nonrigid motion correction on pixel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis of free-breathing DCE-MRI in patients with solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Misalignment of focal lesions due to respiratory motion in free-breathing dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) precludes obtaining reliable time-intensity curves, which are crucial for pharmacokinetic analysis for tissue characterization. Single-slice 2D DCE-MRI was obtained in 15 patients. Misalignments of SPNs were corrected using nonrigid B-spline image registration. Pixel-wise pharmacokinetic parameters K(trans) , v(e) , and k(ep) were estimated from both original and motion-corrected DCE-MRI by fitting the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to the time-intensity curve obtained in each pixel. The "goodness-of-fit" was tested with χ(2) -test in pixel-by-pixel basis to evaluate the reliability of the parameters. The percentages of reliable pixels within the SPNs were compared between the original and motion-corrected DCE-MRI. In addition, the parameters obtained from benign and malignant SPNs were compared. The percentage of reliable pixels in the motion-corrected DCE-MRI was significantly larger than the original DCE-MRI (P = 4 × 10(-7) ). Both K(trans) and k(ep) derived from the motion-corrected DCE-MRI showed significant differences between benign and malignant SPNs (P = 0.024, 0.015). The study demonstrated the impact of nonrigid motion correction technique on pixel-wise pharmacokinetic analysis of free-breathing DCE-MRI in SPNs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. [Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of antibiotic therapy in dentistry and stomatology].

    PubMed

    Isla, Arantxazu; Canut, Andrés; Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia; Labora, Alicia; Ardanza-Trevijano, Bruno; Solinís, María Angeles; Pedraz, José Luis

    2005-03-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of various antimicrobial treatments for orofacial infections on the basis of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) criteria. A complete a literature search was undertaken to establish the MIC90 values of the five microorganisms most frequently isolated in odontogenic infections and the pharmacokinetic parameters of 13 antibiotics used in these infections. Pharmacokinetic simulations were then carried out with mean population parameters and efficacy indexes were calculated for the 47 treatment regimens analyzed. For drugs showing time-dependent antibacterial killing, the time above MIC (t > MIC) was calculated. For drugs with concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, the AUC/MIC was calculated. Amoxicillin-clavulanic (500 mg/8 h or 1000 mg/12 h) and clindamycin (300 mg/6 h) in the time-dependent killing group and moxifloxacin (400 mg/24 h) in the concentration-dependent group showed adequate efficacy indexes against the five pathogens considered to be the most commonly implicated in odontogenic infections. The spiramycin plus metronidazole combination, present in the commercial formulation Rhodogyl, did not reach satisfactory PK/PD indexes. PK/PD indexes, which are useful predictors of the potential efficacy of antibacterial therapy, were used with ontogenic infections in the present study. The PK/PD simulations showed that amoxicillin-clavulanic, clindamycin and moxifloxacin were the most suitable antibiotics for this kind of infection. Clinical trials are required to confirm that this methodology is useful in these pathologic processes.

  20. Pharmacokinetics in pregnancy; clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon

    2011-01-01

    In pharmacokinetics drug absorption, distribution, clearance, and bioequivalence are usually considered, but during pregnancy the most important variable is adherence or compliance. Pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy that may lead to changes in maternal drug use are described through presentation of cases highlighting the relevance of these changes. Non-invasive methods of pharmacokinetic analysis, such as determining concentrations of drug in hair, are now being tested and used.Pharmacokinetics are important, but one needs to consider the entire pregnant state and its circumstances when treating women. One treats people, not a "volume of distribution" or a drug level. Therapy should be individualized as much as possible, addressing kinetic changes in the context of dynamic alterations and the effects of underlying medical conditions. To ensure that women are not orphaned from advances in drug therapy, much more research is needed into the determinants of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in pregnancy.

  1. Measuring Two Key Parameters of H3 Color Centers in Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A method of measuring two key parameters of H3 color centers in diamond has been created as part of a continuing effort to develop tunable, continuous-wave, visible lasers that would utilize diamond as the lasing medium. (An H3 color center in a diamond crystal lattice comprises two nitrogen atoms substituted for two carbon atoms bonded to a third carbon atom. H3 color centers can be induced artificially; they also occur naturally. If present in sufficient density, they impart a yellow hue.) The method may also be applicable to the corresponding parameters of other candidate lasing media. One of the parameters is the number density of color centers, which is needed for designing an efficient laser. The other parameter is an optical-absorption cross section, which, as explained below, is needed for determining the number density. The present method represents an improvement over prior methods in which optical-absorption measurements have been used to determine absorption cross sections or number densities. Heretofore, in order to determine a number density from such measurements, it has been necessary to know the applicable absorption cross section; alternatively, to determine the absorption cross section from such measurements, it has been necessary to know the number density. If, as in this case, both the number density and the absorption cross section are initially unknown, then it is impossible to determine either parameter in the absence of additional information.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Interpretation of Cephradine Levels in Serum After Intravenous and Extravascular Administration in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rattie, Elisabeth S.; Bernardo, Peter D.; Ravin, Louis J.

    1976-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from intravenous data based upon a two-compartment open model. These parameters were subsequently used to determine the absorption rates and bioavailability of cephradine administered intramuscularly and orally. The results indicate that cephradine obeys dose-independent kinetics and that biological availability is complete from all dosage forms. PMID:984770

  3. Pharmacokinetics of lysine clonixinate in children in postoperative care.

    PubMed

    González-Martin, G; Cattan, C; Zuñiga, S

    1996-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 2 doses of intravenous lysine clonixinate (4 and 6 mg x kg-1) were studied in 10 children (age 4-10 years) under postoperative care. A single dose of the drug was injected in a forearm vein. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 3 hours. Serum clonixin concentrations (expressed as clonixin) were analyzed using a high pressure liquid chromatography method. Pharmacokinetic values were estimated by a nonlinear computer program. The distribution volume was similar in both groups of children (1.288 +/- 0.829 1 and 1. 139 +/- 0.667 1, respectively). There were no differences between the values of total plasma clearance and the administered doses (0.026 +/- 0.017 ml x min-1 and 0.017 +/- 0.008 ml x min-1, t = 1.07, p = 0.76). The elimination half-life was longer in children who received 6 mg x kg-1 (44.26 +/- 6.34 min vs 38.63 +/- 10.93 min) but this difference was not statistically significant (t = 0.99, p < 0.34). The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated in these children were different from those found by other authors in adults and experimental animals.

  4. Nitrate pharmacokinetics: Taking note of the difference.

    PubMed

    James, Philip E; Willis, Gareth R; Allen, Jason D; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-08-01

    It is now recognised that administration of oral nitrate (NO3(-)), in its various forms, increases the level of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in the circulation of humans. Its application to modulate physiology and alleviate cardiovascular dysfunction in some patients is now recorded and shows particular promise in hypertension, in modifying platelet activation/aggregation, and in conditions where tissue ischaemia prevails. The potential of oral NO3(-) to modify exercise/performance via elevation of plasma nitrite concentration ([NO2(-)]) has been applied across a range of human test systems. Herein we discuss how the choice of NO3(-) source, route of administration and resulting pharmacokinetics might influence the outcome of physiological measures and potentially contribute to discrepancies in performance trials. There are but a few examples of detailed pharmacokinetic data on which the majority of researchers base their test protocols in different cohorts/settings. We compare and contrast the results of key publications with the aim of highlighting a consensus of our current understanding and critical considerations for those entering the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Definition of variables required for comprehensive description of drug dosage and clinical pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Medem, Anna V; Seidling, Hanna M; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Metzner, Michael; Hubert, Carina M; Czock, David; Haefeli, Walter E

    2017-05-01

    Electronic clinical decision support systems (CDSS) require drug information that can be processed by computers. The goal of this project was to determine and evaluate a compilation of variables that comprehensively capture the information contained in the summary of product characteristic (SmPC) and unequivocally describe the drug, its dosage options, and clinical pharmacokinetics. An expert panel defined and structured a set of variables and drafted a guideline to extract and enter information on dosage and clinical pharmacokinetics from textual SmPCs as published by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The set of variables was iteratively revised and evaluated by data extraction and variable allocation of roughly 7% of all centrally approved drugs. The information contained in the SmPC was allocated to three information clusters consisting of 260 variables. The cluster "drug characterization" specifies the nature of the drug. The cluster "dosage" provides information on approved drug dosages and defines corresponding specific conditions. The cluster "clinical pharmacokinetics" includes pharmacokinetic parameters of relevance for dosing in clinical practice. A first evaluation demonstrated that, despite the complexity of the current free text SmPCs, dosage and pharmacokinetic information can be reliably extracted from the SmPCs and comprehensively described by a limited set of variables. By proposing a compilation of variables well describing drug dosage and clinical pharmacokinetics, the project represents a step forward towards the development of a comprehensive database system serving as information source for sophisticated CDSS.

  6. Improved parameter extraction and classification for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Nandinee Fariah; Kozlowski, Piotr; Jones, Edward C.; Chang, Silvia D.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Moradi, Mehdi

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging, has shown great potential in prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The time course of the DCE images provides measures of the contrast agent uptake kinetics. Also, using pharmacokinetic modelling, one can extract parameters from the DCE-MR images that characterize the tumor vascularization and can be used to detect cancer. A requirement for calculating the pharmacokinetic DCE parameters is estimating the Arterial Input Function (AIF). One needs an accurate segmentation of the cross section of the external femoral artery to obtain the AIF. In this work we report a semi-automatic method for segmentation of the cross section of the femoral artery, using circular Hough transform, in the sequence of DCE images. We also report a machine-learning framework to combine pharmacokinetic parameters with the model-free contrast agent uptake kinetic parameters extracted from the DCE time course into a nine-dimensional feature vector. This combination of features is used with random forest and with support vector machine classi cation for cancer detection. The MR data is obtained from patients prior to radical prostatectomy. After the surgery, wholemount histopathology analysis is performed and registered to the DCE-MR images as the diagnostic reference. We show that the use of a combination of pharmacokinetic parameters and the model-free empirical parameters extracted from the time course of DCE results in improved cancer detection compared to the use of each group of features separately. We also validate the proposed method for calculation of AIF based on comparison with the manual method.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol in Caucasian and Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Blode, Hartmut; Kowal, Kristin; Roth, Katrin; Reif, Stefanie

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics of drospirenone (DRSP) and ethinylestradiol (EE) in Caucasian and Japanese women. Three open-label, non-randomised studies were performed to assess the pharmacokinetics following single doses of EE 0.02 mg/DRSP 3 mg or DRSP monotherapy (1, 3 or 6 mg) in Caucasian (Study 1) and Japanese (Study 2) women, and daily doses with EE 0.02 mg/DRSP 3 mg over 21 consecutive days in Caucasian and Japanese women (Study 3). In Studies 1 and 2, there was a linear dose-dependent increase in DRSP C(max) and systemic exposure across the range of doses used in both ethnic groups. The co- administration of EE had no relevant effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 mg DRSP. In Study 3, steady-state DRSP concentrations were achieved after about eight days of treatment in both ethnic groups with approximately a threefold accumulation. There was about a twofold EE accumulation over 21 days in both ethnic groups. There were no differences in DRSP or EE exposure at day 21 between ethnic groups; the ratio of the geometric means (Japanese/Caucasian) of the AUC(0-24h) were 1.05 (90% CI: 0.95-1.17) and 1.02 (90% CI: 0.76-1.38), respectively. Ethnic origin had no clinically relevant influence on the pharmacokinetics of DRSP and EE.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol in Caucasian and Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Blode, Hartmut; Kowal, Kristin; Roth, Katrin; Reif, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pharmacokinetics of drospirenone (DRSP) and ethinylestradiol (EE) in Caucasian and Japanese women. Method Three open-label, non-randomised studies were performed to assess the pharmacokinetics following single doses of EE 0.02 mg/DRSP 3 mg or DRSP monotherapy (1, 3 or 6 mg) in Caucasian (Study 1) and Japanese (Study 2) women, and daily doses with EE 0.02 mg/DRSP 3 mg over 21 consecutive days in Caucasian and Japanese women (Study 3). Results In Studies 1 and 2, there was a linear dose-dependent increase in DRSP Cmax and systemic exposure across the range of doses used in both ethnic groups. The coadministration of EE had no relevant effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 mg DRSP. In Study 3, steady-state DRSP concentrations were achieved after about eight days of treatment in both ethnic groups with approximately a threefold accumulation.There was about a twofold EE accumulation over 21 days in both ethnic groups. There were no differences in DRSP or EE exposure at day 21 between ethnic groups; the ratio of the geometric means (Japanese/Caucasian) of the AUC0−24h were 1.05 (90% CI: 0.95–1.17) and 1.02 (90% CI: 0.76–1.38), respectively. Conclusion Ethnic origin had no clinically relevant influence on the pharmacokinetics of DRSP and EE. PMID:22680989

  9. Patient acceptability and practical implications of pharmacokinetic studies in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, N A; Twelves, C J; Ramirez, A J; Towlson, K E; Gregory, W M; Richards, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the practical implications and acceptability to patients of pharmacokinetic studies in 34 women receiving anthracyclines for advanced breast cancer. The following parameters were recorded: age, ECOG performance status, psychological state (Rotterdam Symptom Checklist), cytotoxic drug and dose, number of venepunctures for treatment and sampling, and time when the sampling cannula was removed. Immediately after finishing pharmacokinetic sampling, patients completed a questionnaire which revealed that (i) all patients understood sampling was for research, (ii) 35% of patients experienced problems with sampling, (iii) benefits from participation were perceived by 56% of patients. Of 20 patients later questioned after completion of their treatment course, 40% recalled difficulties with blood sampling. Factors identifying in advance those patients who tolerate pharmacokinetic studies poorly were not identified but the number of venepunctures should be minimised. Patients may also perceive benefits from 'non-therapeutic' research.

  10. The Research and Implementation of Vehicle Bluetooth Hands-free Devices Key Parameters Downloading Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhi-xue; Li, Jian-xin; Ma, Jian-hui; Li, Yang; Li, Yan-qiang

    In order to facilitate Bluetooth function realization and information can be effectively tracked in the process of production, the vehicle Bluetooth hands-free devices need to download such key parameters as Bluetooth address, CVC license and base plate numbers, etc. Therefore, it is the aim to search simple and effective methods to download parameters for each vehicle Bluetooth hands-free device, and to control and record the use of parameters. In this paper, by means of Bluetooth Serial Peripheral Interface programmer device, the parallel port is switched to SPI. The first step is to download parameters is simulating SPI with the parallel port. To perform SPI function, operating the parallel port in accordance with the SPI timing. The next step is to achieve SPI data transceiver functions according to the programming parameters of options. Utilizing the new method, downloading parameters is fast and accurate. It fully meets vehicle Bluetooth hands-free devices production requirements. In the production line, it has played a large role.

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetics of chlorogenic acid after oral administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wei; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Wen-Wen; Wang, Guang-Hou; Yu, Hua; Zhao, Hai-Xiao; Yang, Chen; Sun, Li-Xin

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at the comparison of the pharmacokinetics of pure chlorogenic acid and extract of Solanum lyratum Thunb. The animals were allocated to two groups, and were administered chlorogenic acid or extract of S. lyratum Thunb. at a dose of 50.0 mg/kg orally. Blood samples were collected up to 8 h post-dosing. Plasma chlorogenic acid analyses were performed using an HPLC method with UV detector. The pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using non-compartmental assessment. Significant differences existed in the two groups for AUC0−t, AUC0−∞ and CLz/F. The reliable HPLC method was successfully applied to the determination of chlorogenic acid in rat plasma at dosage of 50.0 mg/kg. PMID:29403709

  12. General Pharmacokinetic Model for Topically Administered Ocular Drug Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Feng; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Kidron, Heidi; Urtti, Arto

    2016-11-01

    In ocular drug development, an early estimate of drug behavior before any in vivo experiments is important. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and bioavailability depend not only on active compound and excipients but also on physicochemical properties of the ocular drug formulation. We propose to utilize PK modelling to predict how drug and formulational properties affect drug bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. A physiologically relevant PK model based on the rabbit eye was built to simulate the effect of formulation and physicochemical properties on PK of pilocarpine solutions and fluorometholone suspensions. The model consists of four compartments: solid and dissolved drug in tear fluid, drug in corneal epithelium and aqueous humor. Parameter values and in vivo PK data in rabbits were taken from published literature. The model predicted the pilocarpine and fluorometholone concentrations in the corneal epithelium and aqueous humor with a reasonable accuracy for many different formulations. The model includes a graphical user interface that enables the user to modify parameters easily and thus simulate various formulations. The model is suitable for the development of ophthalmic formulations and the planning of bioequivalence studies.

  13. Pharmacokinetic interactions between rebamipide and selected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Dustin L; Wood, Robert C; Wyatt, Jarrett E; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2014-03-12

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal and renal side effects. Rebamipide is a mucoprotective agent that reduces gastrointenstinal side effects when administered concomitantly with NSAIDs. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic drug interactions of rebamipide with two selected NSAIDs, celecoxib or diclofenac. Rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two groups received placebo and three groups were administered rebamipide (30 mg/kg) orally twice daily for two days. On day 3, the animals treated with placebo received celecoxib (40 mg/kg) or diclofenac (10mg/kg) and rats receiving rebamipide were administerd rebamipide followed by a single dose of placebo, celecoxib, or diclofenac. To investigate drug protein interactions, blank rat plasma was spiked with known concentrations of rebamipide, diclofenac plus rebamipide, or celecoxib plus rebamipide then dialyzed through a Rapid Equilibrium Dialysis device. AUC (139.70±24.97 μg h/mL), Cmax (42.99±2.98 μg/mL), and CLoral (0.08±0.02 L/h/kg) values of diclofenac in diclofenac plus rebamipide group altered when compared to those of diclofenac treated groups. Treatment with rebamipide showed no significant change in pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib treated rats. Cmax (7.80±1.22 μg/mL), AUC (56.46±7.30 μg h/mL), Vd/F (7.55±1.37 L/kg), and CLoral (0.58±0.09 L/h/kg) of rebamipide were significantly altered when diclofenac was co-administered with rebamipide. Pharmacokinetic parameters of rebamipide plus celecoxib group were not significantly different from those of rebamipide group. Plasma protein binding was not affected by concomitant administration of another drug. These results indicate alteration of pharmacokinetic parameters of both rebamipide and diclofenac when co-administered and cannot be explained by a variation in plasma protein binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A microdose study of ¹⁴C-AR-709 in healthy men: pharmacokinetics, absolute bioavailability and concentrations in key compartments of the lung.

    PubMed

    Lappin, G; Boyce, M J; Matzow, T; Lociuro, S; Seymour, M; Warrington, S J

    2013-09-01

    To explore, in a microdose (phase-0) study, the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and concentrations in key compartments of the lung, of AR-709, a novel diaminopyrimidine antibiotic for the treatment of respiratory infection. Four healthy men each received two single, 100 μg microdoses of ¹⁴C-AR-709, 7 days apart: the first was administered intravenously (IV), the second orally. Plasma pharmacokinetics of ¹⁴C and unchanged AR-709 were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Next, 15 healthy men received a single, 100 μg microdose of ¹⁴C-AR-709 IV. Plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, alveolar macrophages and bronchial mucosal biopsy samples were analysed by AMS. After IV administration, clearance of AR-709 was 496 mL/min, volume of distribution was 1,700 L and the absolute oral bioavailability was 2.5 %. Excretion in urine was negligible. At 8-12 h after IV dosing, ¹⁴C concentrations in lung samples were 15- (bronchial mucosa) to 200- (alveolar macrophages) fold higher than in plasma. In alveolar macrophages, ¹⁴C was still mostly associated with AR-709 at 12 h after dosing. The results of this microdose study indicate that AR-709 attains concentrations appreciably higher within the lung than in plasma. Its low oral bioavailability however, precludes oral administration. Although IV administration would appear to be an effective route of administration, this would limit the use of AR-709 to a clinical setting and would therefore be economically unsustainable. If further clinical development were to be undertaken, therefore, an alternative route of administration would be necessary.

  15. Effects of FMO3 Polymorphisms on Pharmacokinetics of Sulindac in Chinese Healthy Male Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yong-Jun; Hu, Kai; Liu, Zhi; Chen, Yao; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which is clinically used for the ailments of various inflammations. This study investigated the allele frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G and evaluated the influences of these two genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and its metabolites in Chinese healthy male volunteers. Eight FMO3 wild-type (FMO3 HHDD) subjects and seven FMO3 homozygotes E158K and E308G mutant (FMO3 hhdd) subjects were recruited from 247 healthy male volunteers genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. The plasma concentrations of sulindac, sulindac sulfide, and sulindac sulfone were determined by UPLC, while the pharmacokinetic parameters of the two different FMO3 genotypes were compared with each other. The frequencies of FMO3 E158K and E308G were 20.3% and 20.1%, respectively, which were in line with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (D′ = 0.977, r2 = 0.944). The mean values of Cmax, AUC0–24, and AUC0–∞ of sulindac were significantly higher in FMO3 hhdd group than those of FMO3 HHDD group (P < 0.05), while the pharmacokinetic parameters except Tmax of sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone showed no statistical difference between the two groups. The two FMO3 mutants were in close linkage disequilibrium and might play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of sulindac in Chinese healthy male volunteers. PMID:28331852

  16. Thromboelastographic and Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Micro- and Macro-emulsions of Propofol in the Swine

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Timothy E.; Modell, Jerome H.; Garcia, Jorge E.; Bewernitz, Michael; Derendorf, Hartmut; Varshney, Manoj; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Shah, Dinesh O.; Dennis, Donn M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Compared to traditional macroemulsion propofol formulations currently in clinical use, microemulsion formulations of this common intravenous anesthetic may offer advantages. We characterized the pharmacokinetics and coagulation effects as assessed by thromboelastography of these formulations in swine. Methods Yorkshire swine (20-30 kg, either sex, n=15) were sedated, anesthetized with isoflurane, and instrumented to obtain a tracheostomy, internal jugular access, and carotid artery catheterization. Propofol (2 mg/kg, 30 s) was administered as macroemulsion (10 mg/mL; Diprivan®; n=7) or a custom (2 mg/kg, 30 s) microemulsion (10 mg/mL; n=8). Arterial blood specimens acquired pre- and post-injection (1 and 45 min) were used for thromboelastography. Arterial blood specimens (n=12 samples / subject, 60 min) were serially collected, centrifuged, and analyzed with solid-phase extraction with UPLC to determine propofol plasma concentrations. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to plasma concentrations. Results No changes were noted in thromboelastographic R time (P=0.74), K time (P=0.41), α angle (P=0.97), or maximal amplitude (P=0.71) for either propofol preparation. Pharmacokinetic parameters k (P=0.45), t1/2 (P=0.26), Co (P=0.89), AUC0-∞ (P=0.23), Cl (P=0.14), MRT (P=0.47), Vss (P=0.11) of the two formulations were not significantly different. Conclusion The microemulsion and macroemulsion propofol formulations had similar pharmacokinetics and did not modify thromboelastographic parameters in swine. PMID:20578214

  17. Effect of the Key Mixture Parameters on Shrinkage of Reactive Powder Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixtures are reported to have excellent mechanical and durability characteristics. However, such concrete mixtures having high amount of cementitious materials may have high early shrinkage causing cracking of concrete. In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the simultaneous effects of three key mixture parameters on shrinkage of the RPC mixtures. Considering three different levels of the three key mixture factors, a total of 27 mixtures of RPC were prepared according to 33 factorial experiment design. The specimens belonging to all 27 mixtures were monitored for shrinkage at different ages over a total period of 90 days. The test results were plotted to observe the variation of shrinkage with time and to see the effects of the key mixture factors. The experimental data pertaining to 90-day shrinkage were used to conduct analysis of variance to identify significance of each factor and to obtain an empirical equation correlating the shrinkage of RPC with the three key mixture factors. The rate of development of shrinkage at early ages was higher. The water to binder ratio was found to be the most prominent factor followed by cement content with the least effect of silica fume content. PMID:25050395

  18. Effect of the key mixture parameters on shrinkage of reactive powder concrete.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Zubair, Ahmed; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixtures are reported to have excellent mechanical and durability characteristics. However, such concrete mixtures having high amount of cementitious materials may have high early shrinkage causing cracking of concrete. In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the simultaneous effects of three key mixture parameters on shrinkage of the RPC mixtures. Considering three different levels of the three key mixture factors, a total of 27 mixtures of RPC were prepared according to 3(3) factorial experiment design. The specimens belonging to all 27 mixtures were monitored for shrinkage at different ages over a total period of 90 days. The test results were plotted to observe the variation of shrinkage with time and to see the effects of the key mixture factors. The experimental data pertaining to 90-day shrinkage were used to conduct analysis of variance to identify significance of each factor and to obtain an empirical equation correlating the shrinkage of RPC with the three key mixture factors. The rate of development of shrinkage at early ages was higher. The water to binder ratio was found to be the most prominent factor followed by cement content with the least effect of silica fume content.

  19. Compartmental Pharmacokinetics of the Antifungal Echinocandin Caspofungin (MK-0991) in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Groll, Andreas H.; Gullick, Bryan M.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Candelario, Myrna; Piscitelli, Stephen C.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the antifungal echinocandin-lipopeptide caspofungin (MK-0991) in plasma were studied in groups of three healthy rabbits after single and multiple daily intravenous administration of doses of 1, 3, and 6 mg/kg of body weight. Concentrations were measured by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method and fitted into a three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. Across the investigated dosage range, caspofungin displayed dose-independent pharmacokinetics. Following administration over 7 days, the mean peak concentration in plasma (Cmax) ± standard error of the mean increased from 16.01 ± 0.61 μg/ml at the 1-mg/kg dose to 105.52 ± 8.92 μg/ml at the 6-mg/kg dose; the mean area under the curve from 0 h to infinity rose from 13.15 ± 2.37 to 158.43 ± 15.58 μg · h/ml, respectively. The mean apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) was 0.299 ± 0.011 liter/kg at the 1-mg/kg dose and 0.351 ± 0.016 liter/kg at the 6-mg/kg dose (not significant [NS]). Clearance (CL) ranged from 0.086 ± 0.017 liter/kg/h at the 1-mg/kg dose to 0.043 ± 0.004 liter/kg/h at the 6-mg/kg dose (NS), and the mean terminal half-life was between 30 and 34 h (NS). Except for a trend towards an increased Vdss, there were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters in comparison to those after single-dose administration. Caspofungin was well tolerated, displayed linear pharmacokinetics that fit into a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model, and achieved sustained concentrations in plasma that were multiple times in excess of reported MICs for susceptible opportunistic fungi. PMID:11158761

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics and Exploratory Pharmacodynamics of Lorazepam in Pediatric Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Chamberlain, James M; Guptill, Jeffrey T; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Harper, Barrie; Zhao, Jian; Capparelli, Edmund V

    2017-08-01

    Lorazepam is one of the preferred agents used for intravenous treatment of status epilepticus (SE). We combined data from two pediatric clinical trials to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of intravenous lorazepam in infants and children aged 3 months to 17 years with active SE or a history of SE. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model for lorazepam using the NONMEM software. We then assessed exploratory exposure-response relationships using the overall efficacy and safety study endpoints, and performed dosing simulations. A total of 145 patients contributed 439 pharmacokinetic samples. The median (range) age and dose were 5.4 years (0.3-17.8) and 0.10 mg/kg (0.02-0.18), respectively. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with allometric scaling described the data well. In addition to total body weight (WT), younger age was associated with slightly higher weight-normalized clearance (CL). The following relationships characterized the typical values for the central compartment volume (V1), CL, peripheral compartment volume (V2), and intercompartmental CL (Q), using individual subject WT (kg) and age (years): V1 (L) = 0.879*WT; CL (L/h) = 0.115*(Age/4.7) 0.133 *WT 0.75 ; V2 (L) = 0.542*V1; Q (L/h) = 1.45*WT 0.75 . No pharmacokinetic parameters were associated with clinical outcomes. Simulations suggest uniform pediatric dosing (0.1 mg/kg, to a maximum of 4 mg) can be used to achieve concentrations of 50-100 ng/mL in children with SE, which have been previously associated with effective seizure control. The population pharmacokinetics of lorazepam were successfully described using a sparse sampling approach and a two-compartment model in pediatric patients with active SE.

  1. Lack of a Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Saxagliptin and Dapagliflozin in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Vakkalagadda, Blisse; Lubin, Susan; Reynolds, Laurie; Liang, Dan; Marion, Alan S; LaCreta, Frank; Boulton, David W

    2016-08-01

    This single-dose, open-label, randomized, 3-period, 3-treatment crossover drug-drug interaction study was conducted to evaluate differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of saxagliptin and dapagliflozin when coadministered. Healthy subjects (N = 42) were randomized to receive saxagliptin 5 mg alone, dapagliflozin 10 mg alone, or saxagliptin 5 mg plus dapagliflozin 10 mg coadministered; there was a washout period of ≥6 days between treatments. Serial blood samples for determining saxagliptin, 5-hydroxy saxagliptin (5-OH saxagliptin; major active metabolite) and dapagliflozin plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters were collected before and up to 60 hours after the dose. No interaction was to be concluded if the 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of the combination compared with each drug given alone for Cmax and AUCinf were within 0.80 to 1.25. The results indicated that dapagliflozin had no effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of saxagliptin, 5-OH saxagliptin, or saxagliptin total active moiety and vice versa. The 90% CIs for Cmax and AUCinf for all comparisons were contained entirely within the 0.80 to 1.25 equivalence intervals. Other pharmacokinetic parameters (apparent oral clearance or half-life) of saxagliptin or dapagliflozin were similar when each medicine was administered alone or when coadministered. No safety profile or tolerability findings of concern were observed during the study. All adverse events were mild, and no serious adverse events were reported. These data indicate that coadministration of saxagliptin and dapagliflozin exhibits no pharmacokinetic interaction and is well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01662999. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Belimumab Administered Subcutaneously in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Struemper, Herbert; Thapar, Mita; Roth, David

    2017-09-08

    Intravenous belimumab 10 mg/kg every 4 weeks is indicated in patients with active, autoantibody-positive systemic lupus erythematosus receiving standard systemic lupus erythematosus care. Subcutaneous 200-mg weekly administration, which may prove more convenient for patients and improve adherence, is currently under investigation. The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics and exposure-efficacy response of subcutaneous belimumab in a pooled analysis of pharmacokinetic data [phase I: BEL114448 (NCT01583530) and BEL116119 (NCT01516450) in healthy subjects (n = 134); phase III: BEL112341 (NCT01484496) in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 554)] and pharmacodynamic data [BEL112341 in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 833)]. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM®) was used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and perform a covariate analysis. Subsequently, exploratory exposure-response analysis and logistic regression modeling was performed based on the individual parameter estimates of the population pharmacokinetic model. Population-pharmacokinetic parameters for subcutaneous belimumab were consistent with those for intravenous belimumab and other immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies. Pharmacokinetic parameters and subcutaneous belimumab exposure were consistent between healthy subjects and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and no evidence for target-mediated disposition of belimumab was found. Subcutaneous belimumab steady-state exposure was achieved after ~11 weeks; subcutaneous belimumab steady-state minimum concentration exceeded that of intravenous belimumab after <4 weeks, and average steady-state concentration was similar to that achieved following intravenous administration. In patients with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus, subcutaneous belimumab 200 mg once weekly plus standard of care significantly improved the systemic lupus erythematosus

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas; Rentsch, Katharina M; Hammann, Felix; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-10-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationship of oral LSD. We analyzed pharmacokinetic data from two published placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of the 100-µg dose is shown for the first time and data for the 200-µg dose were reanalyzed and included. Plasma concentrations of LSD, subjective effects, and vital signs were repeatedly assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental modeling. Concentration-effect relationships were described using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) maximum plasma concentration values of 1.3 (1.2-1.9) and 3.1 (2.6-4.0) ng/mL were reached 1.4 and 1.5 h after administration of 100 and 200 µg LSD, respectively. The plasma half-life was 2.6 h (2.2-3.4 h). The subjective effects lasted (mean ± standard deviation) 8.2 ± 2.1 and 11.6 ± 1.7 h for the 100- and 200-µg LSD doses, respectively. Subjective peak effects were reached 2.8 and 2.5 h after administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg, respectively. A close relationship was observed between the LSD concentration and subjective response within subjects, with moderate counterclockwise hysteresis. Half-maximal effective concentration values were in the range of 1 ng/mL. No correlations were found between plasma LSD concentrations and the effects of LSD across subjects at or near maximum plasma concentration and within dose groups. The present pharmacokinetic data are important for the evaluation of clinical study findings (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging studies) and the interpretation of LSD intoxication. Oral LSD presented dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and first-order elimination up to 12 h. The effects of LSD were related

  4. Pharmacokinetic analysis and comparison of caffeine administered rapidly or slowly in coffee chilled or hot versus chilled energy drink in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    White, John R; Padowski, Jeannie M; Zhong, Yili; Chen, Gang; Luo, Shaman; Lazarus, Philip; Layton, Matthew E; McPherson, Sterling

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data describing the impact of type of beverage (coffee versus energy drink), different rates of consumption and different temperature of beverages on the pharmacokinetic disposition of caffeine. Additionally, there is concern that inordinately high levels of caffeine may result from the rapid consumption of cold energy drinks. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of caffeine under various drink temperature, rate of consumption and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) conditions. Five caffeine (dose = 160 mg) conditions were evaluated in an open-label, group-randomized, crossover fashion. After the administration of each caffeine dose, 10 serial plasma samples were harvested. Caffeine concentration was measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and those concentrations were assessed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The calculated mean pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed statistically by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA). If differences were found, each group was compared to the other by all pair-wise multiple comparison. Twenty-four healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 30 completed the study. The mean caffeine concentration time profiles were similar with overlapping SDs at all measured time points. The ANOVA revealed significant differences in mean Cmax and Vd ss/F, but no pair-wise comparisons reached statistical significance. No other differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were found. The results of this study are consistent with previous caffeine pharmacokinetic studies and suggest that while rate of consumption, temperature of beverage and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) may be associated with slightly different pharmacokinetic parameters, the overall impact of these variables is small. This study suggests that caffeine absorption and exposure from coffee and energy drink is similar irrespective of beverage temperature or rate of

  5. Pharmacokinetic analysis and comparison of caffeine administered rapidly or slowly in coffee chilled or hot versus chilled energy drink in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    White, John R.; Padowski, Jeannie M.; Zhong, Yili; Chen, Gang; Luo, Shaman; Lazarus, Philip; Layton, Matthew E.; McPherson, Sterling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Context: There is a paucity of data describing the impact of type of beverage (coffee versus energy drink), different rates of consumption and different temperature of beverages on the pharmacokinetic disposition of caffeine. Additionally, there is concern that inordinately high levels of caffeine may result from the rapid consumption of cold energy drinks. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of caffeine under various drink temperature, rate of consumption and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) conditions. Materials: Five caffeine (dose = 160 mg) conditions were evaluated in an open-label, group-randomized, crossover fashion. After the administration of each caffeine dose, 10 serial plasma samples were harvested. Caffeine concentration was measured via liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), and those concentrations were assessed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The calculated mean pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed statistically by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA). If differences were found, each group was compared to the other by all pair-wise multiple comparison. Results: Twenty-four healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 30 completed the study. The mean caffeine concentration time profiles were similar with overlapping SDs at all measured time points. The ANOVA revealed significant differences in mean C max and V d ss/F, but no pair-wise comparisons reached statistical significance. No other differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were found. Discussion: The results of this study are consistent with previous caffeine pharmacokinetic studies and suggest that while rate of consumption, temperature of beverage and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) may be associated with slightly different pharmacokinetic parameters, the overall impact of these variables is small. Conclusion: This study suggests that caffeine absorption and exposure from

  6. Sequential weighted Wiener estimation for extraction of key tissue parameters in color imaging: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuo; Lin, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Caigang; Liu, Quan

    2014-12-01

    Key tissue parameters, e.g., total hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation, are important biomarkers in clinical diagnosis for various diseases. Although point measurement techniques based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can accurately recover these tissue parameters, they are not suitable for the examination of a large tissue region due to slow data acquisition. The previous imaging studies have shown that hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation can be estimated from color measurements with the assumption of known scattering properties, which is impractical in clinical applications. To overcome this limitation and speed-up image processing, we propose a method of sequential weighted Wiener estimation (WE) to quickly extract key tissue parameters, including total hemoglobin concentration (CtHb), hemoglobin oxygenation (StO2), scatterer density (α), and scattering power (β), from wide-band color measurements. This method takes advantage of the fact that each parameter is sensitive to the color measurements in a different way and attempts to maximize the contribution of those color measurements likely to generate correct results in WE. The method was evaluated on skin phantoms with varying CtHb, StO2, and scattering properties. The results demonstrate excellent agreement between the estimated tissue parameters and the corresponding reference values. Compared with traditional WE, the sequential weighted WE shows significant improvement in the estimation accuracy. This method could be used to monitor tissue parameters in an imaging setup in real time.

  7. Controversies with self-emulsifying drug delivery system from pharmacokinetic point of view.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Bappaditya; Hamed Almurisi, Samah; Ahmed Mahdi Dukhan, Ather; Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2016-11-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) is an isotropic mixture of lipid, surfactant and co-surfactant, which forms a fine emulsion when comes in contact of an aqueous medium with mild agitation. SEDDS is considered as a potential platform for oral delivery of hydrophobic drug in order to overcome their poor and irregular bioavailability challenges. In spite of fewer advantages like improved solubility of drug, bypassing lymphatic transport etc., SEDDS faces different controversial issues such as the use of appropriate terminology (self-microemulsifying drug delivery system; SMEDDS or self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system; SNEDDS), presence of high amount of surfactant, correlation of in vitro model to in vivo studies, lack of human volunteer study and effect of conversion of SEDDS to final administrable dosage form on pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug. In this review, potential issues or questions on SEDDS are identified and summarized from the pharmacokinetic point of view. Primarily this review includes the conflict between the influences of droplet size, variation in correlation between in vitro lipolysis or ex-vivo intestinal permeation and pharmacokinetic parameters, variation in in vivo results of solid and liquid SEDDS, and potential challenges or limitation of pharmacokinetic studies on human volunteers with orally administered SEDDS. In the past decades, hundreds of in vivo studies on SEDDS have been published. In the present study, only the relevant article on in vivo pharmacokinetic studies with orally administered SEDDS published in past 5-6 years are analyzed for an up to date compilation.

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Phenobarbital in Infants with Neonatal Encephalopathy treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Shellhaas, Renée A.; Ng, Chee M; Dillon, Christina H.; Barks, John D.E.; Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Objective Phenobarbital is the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. Many neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and about 40% have clinical seizures. Little is known about pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with HIE who undergo TH. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TH on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics, taking into account maturational changes. Setting Level 3 neonatal intensive care unit. Patients Infants with HIE and suspected seizures, all treated with phenobarbital. Some of these infant also received treatment with TH. Interventions None. Design A retrospective cohort study of 39 infants with HIE treated with phenobarbital (20 were treated with TH and 19 were not). Measurements and main results Data were collected on phenobarbital plasma concentrations on 39 subjects with HIE with or without TH. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital were developed with a total of 164 plasma concentrations. A one-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics. The clearance (CL) of phenobarbital was linearly related to body weight and matured with increasing age with a maturation half-life of 22.1 days. TH did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital. Conclusions TH does not influence the CL of phenobarbital after accounting for weight and age. Standard phenobarbital dosing is appropriate for initial treatment of seizures in neonates with HIE treated with TH. PMID:23254984

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with neonatal encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Ng, Chee M; Dillon, Christina H; Barks, John D E; Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha

    2013-02-01

    Phenobarbital is the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. Many neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are treated with therapeutic hypothermia, and about 40% have clinical seizures. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who undergo therapeutic hypothermia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics, taking into account maturational changes. Level 3 neonatal ICU. Infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and suspected seizures, all treated with phenobarbital. Some of these infants also received treatment with therapeutic hypothermia. None. A retrospective cohort study of 39 infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with phenobarbital (20 were treated with therapeutic hypothermia and 19 were not). Data on phenobarbital plasma concentrations were collected in 39 subjects with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with or without therapeutic hypothermia. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital were developed with a total of 164 plasma concentrations. A one-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics. The clearance of phenobarbital was linearly related to body weight and matured with increasing age with a maturation half-life of 22.1 days. Therapeutic hypothermia did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital. Therapeutic hypothermia does not influence the clearance of phenobarbital after accounting for weight and age. Standard phenobarbital dosing is appropriate for the initial treatment of seizures in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  10. Citrate Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiuyu; Liu, Junfeng; Qian, Jing; You, Huaizhou; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuanming; Jiao, Zheng; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is gaining popularity in continous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for critically ill patients. The risk of citrate toxicity is a primary concern during the prolonged process. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of citrate in critically ill patients with AKI, and used the kinetic parameters to predict the risk of citrate accumulation in this population group undergoing continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with RCA. Methods Critically ill patients with AKI (n = 12) and healthy volunteers (n = 12) were investigated during infusing comparative dosage of citrate. Serial blood samples were taken before, during 120 min and up to 120 min after infusion. Citrate pharmacokinetics were calculated and compared between groups. Then the estimated kinetic parameters were applied to the citrate kinetic equation for validation in other ten patients’ CVVH sessions with citrate anticoagulation. Results Total body clearance of citrate was similar in critically ill patients with AKI and healthy volunteers (648.04±347.00 L/min versus 686.64±353.60 L/min; P = 0.624). Basal and peak citrate concentrations were similar in both groups (p = 0.423 and 0.247, respectively). The predicted citrate curve showed excellent fit to the measurements. Conclusions Citrate clearance is not impaired in critically ill patients with AKI in the absence of severe liver dysfunction. Citrate pharmacokinetic data can provide a basis for the clinical use of predicting the risk of citrate accumulation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00948558 PMID:23824037

  11. Elucidation of arctigenin pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral administrations in rats: integration of in vitro and in vivo findings via semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Yufeng; Wo, Siukwan; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Although arctigenin (AR) has attracted substantial research interests due to its promising and diverse therapeutic effects, studies regarding its biotransformation were limited. The current study aims to provide information regarding the pharmacokinetic properties of AR via various in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic modeling. Our in vitro rat microsome incubation studies revealed that glucuronidation was the main intestinal and liver metabolic pathway of AR, which occurred with V max, K m, and Clint of 47.5 ± 3.4 nmol/min/mg, 204 ± 22 μM, and 233 ± 9 μl/min/mg with intestinal microsomes and 2.92 ± 0.07 nmol/min/mg, 22.7 ± 1.2 μM, and 129 ± 4 μl/min/mg with liver microsomes, respectively. In addition, demethylation and hydrolysis of AR occurred with liver microsomes but not with intestinal microsomes. In vitro incubation of AR and its metabolites in intestinal content demonstrated that glucuronides of AR excreted in bile could be further hydrolyzed back to the parent compound, suggesting its potential enterohepatic circulation. Furthermore, rapid formation followed by fast elimination of arctigenic acid (AA) and arctigenin-4'-O-glucuronide (AG) was observed after both intravenous (IV) and oral administrations of AR in rats. Linear pharmacokinetics was observed at three different doses for AR, AA, and AG after IV administration of AR (0.48-2.4 mg/kg, r (2) > 0.99). Finally, an integrated semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic model using in vitro enzyme kinetic and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters was successfully developed to describe plasma concentrations of AR, AA, and AG after both IV and oral administration of AR at all tested doses.

  12. Vascular input function correction of inflow enhancement for improved pharmacokinetic modeling of liver DCE-MRI.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jia; Schubert, Tilman; Johnson, Kevin M; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Chen, Huijun; Yuan, Chun; Reeder, Scott B

    2018-06-01

    To propose a simple method to correct vascular input function (VIF) due to inflow effects and to test whether the proposed method can provide more accurate VIFs for improved pharmacokinetic modeling. A spoiled gradient echo sequence-based inflow quantification and contrast agent concentration correction method was proposed. Simulations were conducted to illustrate improvement in the accuracy of VIF estimation and pharmacokinetic fitting. Animal studies with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR scans were conducted before, 1 week after, and 2 weeks after portal vein embolization (PVE) was performed in the left portal circulation of pigs. The proposed method was applied to correct the VIFs for model fitting. Pharmacokinetic parameters fitted using corrected and uncorrected VIFs were compared between different lobes and visits. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed method can improve accuracy of VIF estimation and pharmacokinetic fitting. In animal study results, pharmacokinetic fitting using corrected VIFs demonstrated changes in perfusion consistent with changes expected after PVE, whereas the perfusion estimates derived by uncorrected VIFs showed no significant changes. The proposed correction method improves accuracy of VIFs and therefore provides more precise pharmacokinetic fitting. This method may be promising in improving the reliability of perfusion quantification. Magn Reson Med 79:3093-3102, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Using a Functional Simulation of Crisis Management to Test the C2 Agility Model Parameters on Key Performance Variables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    1 18th ICCRTS Using a Functional Simulation of Crisis Management to Test the C2 Agility Model Parameters on Key Performance Variables...AND SUBTITLE Using a Functional Simulation of Crisis Management to Test the C2 Agility Model Parameters on Key Performance Variables 5a. CONTRACT...command in crisis management. C2 Agility Model Agility can be conceptualized at a number of different levels; for instance at the team

  14. Innovations and Improvements in Pharmacokinetic Models Based on Physiology.

    PubMed

    Abbiati, Roberto Andrea; Manca, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Accompanied by significant improvements of modeling techniques and computational methods in medical sciences, the last thirty years saw the flourishing of pharmacokinetic models for applications in the pharmacometric field. In particular, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, grounded on a mechanistic foundation, have been applied to explore a multiplicity of aspects with possible applications in patient care and new drugs development, as in the case of siRNA therapies. This article summarizes the features we recently introduced in PBPK modeling within a threeyear research project funded by Italian Research Ministry. Four major points are detailed: (i) the mathematical formulation of the model, which allows modulating its complexity as a function of the administration route and active principle; (ii) a dedicated parameter of the PBPK model quantifies the drugprotein binding, which affects the active principle distribution; (iii) the gall bladder compartment and the bile enterohepatic circulation process; (iv) the coupling of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models to produce an overall understanding of the drug effects on mammalian body. The proposed model is applied to two separate endovenous (remifentanil) and oral (sorafenib) drug administrations. The resulting PBPK simulations are consistent with the literature experimental data. Blood concentration predictability is confirmed in multiple reference subjects. Furthermore, in case of sorafenib administration in mice, it is possible to evaluate the drug concentration in the liver and reproduce the effects of the enterohepatic circulation. Finally, a preliminary application of the coupling of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models is presented and discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. A comprehensive physiologically based pharmacokinetic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models from peer-reviewed articles are often well-parameterized, thoroughly-vetted, and can be utilized as excellent resources for the construction of models pertaining to related chemicals. Specifically, chemical-specific parameters and in vivo pharmacokinetic data used to calibrate these published models can act as valuable starting points for model development of new chemicals with similar molecular structures. A knowledgebase for published PBPK-related articles was compiled to support PBPK model construction for new chemicals based on their close analogues within the knowledgebase, and a web-based interface was developed to allow users to query those close analogues. A list of 689 unique chemicals and their corresponding 1751 articles was created after analysis of 2,245 PBPK-related articles. For each model, the PMID, chemical name, major metabolites, species, gender, life stages and tissue compartments were extracted from the published articles. PaDEL-Descriptor, a Chemistry Development Kit based software, was used to calculate molecular fingerprints. Tanimoto index was implemented in the user interface as measurement of structural similarity. The utility of the PBPK knowledgebase and web-based user interface was demonstrated using two case studies with ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Our PBPK knowledgebase is a novel tool for ranking chemicals based on similarities to other chemicals associated with existi

  16. The Pharmacokinetics of Enrofloxacin in Adult African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis)

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Antwain M; Papich, Mark G; Felt, Stephen A; Long, Charles T; McKeon, Gabriel P; Bond, Emmitt S; Torreilles, Stéphanie L; Luong, Richard H; Green, Sherril L

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was determined in adult female Xenopus laevis after single-dose administration (10 mg/kg) by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. Frogs were evaluated at various time points until 8 h after injection. Plasma was analyzed for antibiotic concentration levels by HPLC. We computed pharmacokinetic parameters by using noncompartmental analysis of the pooled concentrations (naive pooled samples). After intramuscular administration of enrofloxacin, the half-life was 5.32 h, concentration maximum was 10.85 µg/mL, distribution volume was 841.96 mL/kg, and area under the time–concentration curve was 57.59 µg×h/mL; after subcutaneous administration these parameters were 4.08 h, 9.76 µg/mL, 915.85 mL/kg, and 47.42 µg×h/mL, respectively. According to plasma pharmacokinetics, Xenopus seem to metabolize enrofloxacin in a manner similar to mammals: low levels of the enrofloxacin metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were detected in the frogs’ habitat water and plasma. At necropsy, there were no gross or histologic signs of toxicity after single-dose administration; toxicity was not evaluated for repeated dosing. The plasma concentrations reached levels considered effective against common aquatic pathogens and suggest that a single, once-daily dose would be a reasonable regimen to consider when treating sick frogs. The treatment of sick frogs should be based on specific microbiologic identification of the pathogen and on antibiotic susceptibility testing. PMID:21205443

  17. Systematic considerations for a multicomponent pharmacokinetic study of Epimedii wushanensis herba: From method establishment to pharmacokinetic marker selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caihong; Wu, Caisheng; Zhang, Jinlan; Jin, Ying

    2015-04-15

    Prenylflavonoids are major active components of Epimedii wushanensis herba (EWH). The global pharmacokinetics of prenylflavonoids are unclear, as these compounds yield multiple, often unidentified metabolites. This study successfully elucidated the pharmacokinetic profiles of EWH extract and five EWH-derived prenylflavonoid monomers in rats. The study was a comprehensive analysis of metabolic pathways and pharmacokinetic markers. Major plasma compounds identified after oral administration of EWH-derived prototypes or extract included: (1) prenylflavonoid prototypes, (2) deglycosylated products, and (3) glucuronide conjugates. To select appropriate EWH-derived pharmacokinetic markers, a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established to simultaneously monitor 14 major compounds in unhydrolyzed plasma and 10 potential pharmacokinetic markers in hydrolyzed plasma. The pharmacokinetic profiles indicated that the glucuronide conjugates of icaritin were the principle circulating metabolites and that total icaritin accounted for ∼99% of prenylflavonoid exposure after administration of EWH-derived materials to rats. To further investigate icaritin as a prospective pharmacokinetic marker, correlation analysis was performed between total icaritin and its glucuronide conjugates, and a strong correlation (r > 0.5) was found, indicating that total icaritin content accurately reflected changes in the exposure levels of the glucuronide conjugates over time. Therefore, icaritin is a sufficient pharmacokinetic marker for evaluating dynamic prenylflavonoid exposure levels. Next, a mathematical model was developed based on the prenylflavonoid content of EWH and the exposure levels in rats, using icaritin as the pharmacokinetic marker. This model accurately predicted exposure levels in vivo, with similar predicted vs. experimental area under the curve (AUC)(0-96 h) values for total icaritin (24.1 vs. 32.0 mg/L h). Icaritin in

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1990-01-01

    The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Panel met on 29-30 Aug. 1988 at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas to discuss pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications of space flight and make recommendations for operational and research strategies. Based on the knowledge available on the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the dependence of pharmacokinetics on physiological factors, and the therapeutic requirements for future space missions, the panel made several recommendations for research. It was suggested that using medications available with a large (wide) therapeutic window will avoid unforeseen therapeutic consequences during flight. The sequence for conducting research was outlined as follows: (1) identify ground-based simulation models (e.g., antiorthostatic bed rest) for conducting pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic research; (2) estimate parametric changes in these models using pharmacologic agents that have different pharmacokinetic characteristics and a narrow therapeutic index; (3) verify these findings during flight; and (4) develop and identify appropriate and effective drug delivery systems, dosage forms, and regimens. The panel recommended gaining a thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic deviations of medications that have a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. cardiovascular drugs and sedative hypnotics) in order to ensure safe and effective treatment during flight with these agents. It was also suggested that basic information on physiological factors such as organ blood flow, protein composition and binding, tissue distribution, and metabolism by hepatic enzymes must be accumulated by conducting ground-based animal and human studies using models of weightlessness. This information will be useful to construct and identify physiologically based pharmacokinetic models that can provide valuable information on the pharmacodynamic consequences of space flight and aid in identifying appropriate therapeutic

  19. The Pharmacokinetics of Second-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics: Limitations of Monograph Values.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lik Hang N; Choi, Charles; Collier, Abby C; Barr, Alasdair M; Honer, William G; Procyshyn, Ric M

    2015-12-01

    Product monographs (also known by terms such as Summary of Product Characteristics and Highlights of Prescribing Information, depending on the jurisdiction) provide essential information to ensure the safe and effective use of a drug. Medical practitioners often rely on these monographs for guidance on matters related to pharmacokinetics as well as indications, contraindications, clinical pharmacology, and adverse reactions. The clinical and scientific information found within these documents, forming the basis for decision making, are presumed to be derived from well-designed studies. The objective of this review is to examine the source and validity of the pharmacokinetic data used in establishing the half-lives and times to steady-state reported in the product monographs of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Thus, we have critically evaluated the clinical trials from which the pharmacokinetic parameters listed in the product monographs were determined. In many cases, the pharmacokinetic information presented in product monographs is of limited use to clinicians wishing to optimize the effectiveness and tolerability of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Under such circumstances, off-label prescribing practices may actually produce better clinical outcomes than if decisions were made based on the product monographs alone.

  20. Effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of moclobemide according to the genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Yu, K S; Yim, D S; Cho, J Y; Park, S S; Park, J Y; Lee, K H; Jang, I J; Yi, S Y; Bae, K S; Shin, S G

    2001-04-01

    Moclobemide, an antidepressant with selective monoamine oxidase-A inhibitory action, is known to be metabolized by CYP2C19 and is also reported to be an inhibitor of CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2. To confirm the involvement of CYP2C19, we performed a pharmacokinetic interaction study. The effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of moclobemide was studied in 16 healthy volunteers. The volunteer group comprised 8 extensive metabolizers and 8 poor metabolizers of CYP2C19, which was confirmed by genotyping. Subjects were randomly allocated into two sequence groups, and a single-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study was performed. In study I, a placebo was orally administered for 7 days. On the eighth morning, 300 mg of moclobemide and 40 mg of placebo were coadministered with 200 mL of water, and a pharmacokinetic study was performed. During study II, 40 mg of omeprazole was given each morning instead of placebo, and pharmacokinetic studies were performed on the first and eighth day with 300 mg of moclobemide coadministration. The inhibition of moclobemide metabolism was significant in extensive metabolizers even after a single dose of omeprazole. After daily administration of omeprazole for 1 week, the pharmacokinetic parameters of moclobemide and its metabolites in extensive metabolizers changed to values similar to those in poor metabolizers. In poor metabolizers, no remarkable changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters were observed. Our results show that CYP2C19 is an important enzyme in the elimination of moclobemide and that it is extensively inhibited by omeprazole in extensive metabolizers, but not in poor metabolizers.

  1. Effect of silibinin on the pharmacokinetics of nitrendipine in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, Swathi; Yamsani, Shravan Kumar; Yamsani, Madhusudan Rao

    2014-12-01

    Silibinin, a major constituent of silymarin, is widely used for its hepatoprotective effects. This study investigated the effect of silibinin on the pharmacokinetics of oral nitrendipine in rabbits. In first set of experiment, male New Zealand rabbits were pretreated with silibinin (50 mg/kg, PO) for 7 days and on last day nitrendipine (10 mg/kg, PO) was administered. In second set, both silibinin and nitrendipine were coadministered to examine acute effect of silibinin on nitrendipine pharmacokinetics. The plasma concentration of nitrendipine was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography and different pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using WinNonlin(®) software. Coadministration of silibinin had no significant effect on pharmacokinetics of nitrendipine when compared to control group. However, a 1.89-1.57-fold increase in area under the concentration-time curve and peak plasma concentration (C max), respectively, of nitrendipine was observed in silibinin pretreated group. The mean C max was 0.034 ± 0.005 μg/mL (nitrendipine alone) and 0.054 ± 0.006 μg/mL (nitrendipine after pretreatment with silibinin). The time to reach C max, elimination rate constant and elimination half-life of nitrendipine were not significantly different among control and silibinin treated groups. This study demonstrates that silibinin increase plasma concentration of nitrendipine. Henceforth, the pharmacodynamic influence of this interaction should be taken into consideration while prescribing nitrendipine to the patients already taking silymarin.

  2. Correcting oral contraceptive pharmacokinetic alterations due to obesity. A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Alison B; Cherala, Ganesh; Munar, Myrna Y.; McInnis, Martha; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if increasing the hormone dose or eliminating the hormone-free interval improves key pharmacokinetic (PK) alterations caused by obesity during oral contraceptive (OC) use. Study design Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), ovulatory, otherwise healthy, women received an OC containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/100 mcg levonorgestrel (LNG) dosed cyclically (21 days active pills with 7-day placebo week) for two cycles and then were randomized for two additional cycles to: Continuous Cycling [CC, a dose neutral arm using the same OC with no hormone-free interval] or Increased Dose [ID, a dose escalation arm using an OC containing 30 mcg EE/150 mcg LNG cyclically]. During Cycle 2, 3, and 4, outpatient visits were performed to assess maximum serum concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC0-∞), and time to steady state as well as pharmacodynamics. These key PK parameters were calculated and compared within groups between baseline and treatment cycles. Results A total of 31 women enrolled and completed the study (CC group n = 16; ID group n = 15). Demographics were similar between groups [mean BMI: CC 38kg/m2 (SD 5.1), ID 41kg/m2 (SD 7.6)]. At baseline, the key LNG PK parameters were no different between groups; average time to reach steady-state was 12 days in both groups; Cmax were CC: 3.82 ± 1.28 ng/mL and ID: 3.13 ± 0.87 ng/mL; and AUC0-∞ were CC: 267 ± 115 hr*ng/mL and ID: 199±75 hr*ng/mL. Following randomization, the CC group maintained steady-state serum levels whereas the ID group had a significantly higher Cmax (p< 0.001) but again required 12 days to achieve steady-state. However, AUC was not significantly different between CC (412 ± 255 hr*ng/mL) and ID (283 ± 130 hr*ng/mL). Forty-five percent (14/31) of the study population had evidence of an active follicle-like structure prior to randomization and afterwards this decreased to 9% (3/31). Conclusion Both increasing the OC dose and continuous dosing appear to counteract the impact

  3. Ketorolac pharmacokinetics in experimental cirrhosis by bile duct ligation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Muriel, Pablo; Ordaz Gallo, Mónica; Pérez-Urizar, José; Palma-Aguirre, Antonio; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the pharmacokinetics of ketorolac, a poorly metabolized drug, in experimental cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) for four weeks in male Wistar rats. Ketorolac was given intravenously (1 mg/kg ) or orally (3.2 mg/kg) to control (sham-operated) and BDL-rats. Determination of ketorolac in plasma was carried out by HPLC and estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters was performed by non-compartmental analysis. Indicators of liver damage and liver fibrosis were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in BDL compared to control rats. Experimental cirrhosis did not induce any significant alteration in intravenous ketorolac pharmacokinetics. Volume of distribution, clearance, AUC and t1/2 were similar in BDL and control animals. Notwithstanding, oral ketorolac bioavailability was significantly altered in BDL rats. AUC and Cmax were reduced, while tmax was prolonged, suggesting that both, the extent and the rate of ketorolac absorption were decreased. Results show that liver cirrhosis may result in significant pharmacokinetic alterations, even for poorly bio-transformed drugs, but that alterations may vary with the route of administration. In conclusion, uncritical generalizations on the effect of liver damage on drug kinetics should be avoided and systematic studies for every drug and every route of administration are thus recommended.

  4. Clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of carprofen in the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, V J; AliAbadi, F S; Lees, P; Pead, M J; Muir, P

    2002-06-01

    Six medium to large breed dogs with osteoarthritis were treated with 2 mg/kg of racemic carprofen, mixed with their morning feed, daily for 28 days. The treatment significantly (P < 0.01) reduced their mean lameness score, measured on a visual analogue scale, and there was a trend (P = 0.11) for the peak vertical forces exerted on a forceplate to be increased in the most severely affected limb. The plasma concentration-time relationships of the S(+) and R(-) enantiomers were studied for 24 hours after the first dose and after seven days and 28 days. There were no significant differences between the mean pharmacokinetic parameters measured on the three occasions, suggesting that carprofen was not accumulated and that tolerance to the drug did not develop. Although the pharmacokinetic parameters of the S(+) and R(-) enantiomers were generally very similar, there were wide variations both between and within dogs.

  5. Determination of key parameters of vector multifractal vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    For too long time, multifractal analyses and simulations have been restricted to scalar-valued fields (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2017a,b). For instance, the wind velocity multifractality has been mostly analysed in terms of scalar structure functions and with the scalar energy flux. This restriction has had the unfortunate consequences that multifractals were applicable to their full extent in geophysics, whereas it has inspired them. Indeed a key question in geophysics is the complexity of the interactions between various fields or they components. Nevertheless, sophisticated methods have been developed to determine the key parameters of scalar valued fields. In this communication, we first present the vector extensions of the universal multifractal analysis techniques to multifractals whose generator belong to a Levy-Clifford algebra (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2015). We point out further extensions noting the increased complexity. For instance, the (scalar) index of multifractality becomes a matrice. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2015) `Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra', Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 25(12), p. 123127. doi: 10.1063/1.4937364. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017) `An Introduction to Multifractals and Scale Symmetry Groups', in Ghanbarian, B. and Hunt, A. (eds) Fractals: Concepts and Applications in Geosciences. CRC Press, p. (in press). Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017b) `Pandora Box of Multifractals: Barely Open ?', in Tsonis, A. A. (ed.) 30 Years of Nonlinear Dynamics in Geophysics. Berlin: Springer, p. (in press).

  6. Pharmacokinetics of oral gabapentin in Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    KuKanich, Butch; Cohen, Rachael L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy Greyhound dogs after single oral doses targeted at 10 and 20 mg/kg PO. Six healthy Greyhounds were enrolled (3 males, 3 females). Blood was obtained at predetermined times for the measurement of gabapentin plasma concentrations by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with computer software. The actual mean (and range) doses administered were 10.2 (9.1–12.0) mg/kg and 20.5 (18.2 – 24) mg/kg for the 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg targeted dose groups. The mean CMAX for the 10 and 20 mg/kg groups were 8.54 and 13.22 μg/mL at 1.3 and 1.5 h, and the terminal half-lives were 3.3 and 3.4 h, respectively. The relative bioavailability of the 10 mg/kg group was 1.13 compared to the 20 mg/kg group. Gabapentin was rapidly absorbed and eliminated in dogs indicating frequent dosing is needed to maintain minimum targeted plasma concentrations. PMID:19854080

  7. Parameter optimization in biased decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-Rong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin

    2017-10-01

    The decoy-state method has been widely used in commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. In view of the practical decoy-state QKD with both source errors and statistical fluctuations, we propose a universal model of full parameter optimization in biased decoy-state QKD with phase-randomized sources. Besides, we adopt this model to carry out simulations of two widely used sources: weak coherent source (WCS) and heralded single-photon source (HSPS). Results show that full parameter optimization can significantly improve not only the secure transmission distance but also the final key generation rate. And when taking source errors and statistical fluctuations into account, the performance of decoy-state QKD using HSPS suffered less than that of decoy-state QKD using WCS.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of temozolomide given three times a day in pediatric and adult patients.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Anna; Mazzarella, Giorgio; Cefalo, Graziella; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Massimino, Maura; Barone, Carlo; Sandri, Alessandro; Ridola, Vita; Ruggiero, Antonio; Mastrangelo, Stefano; Lazzareschi, Ilaria; Caldarelli, Massimo; Maira, Giulio; Madon, Enrico; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2003-12-01

    To characterize and compare pharmacokinetic parameters in children and adults treated with temozolomide (TMZ) administered for 5 days in three doses daily, and to evaluate the possible relationship between AUC values and hematologic toxicity. TMZ pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized in pediatric and adult patients with primary central nervous system tumors treated with doses ranging from 120 to 200 mg/m2 per day, divided into three doses daily for 5 days. Plasma levels were measured over 8 h following oral administration in a fasting state. A total of 40 courses were studied in 22 children (mean age 10 years, range 3-16 years) and in 8 adults (mean age 30 years, range 19-54 years). In all patients, a linear relationship was found between systemic exposure (AUC) and increasing doses of TMZ. Time to peak concentration, elimination half-life, apparent clearance and volume of distribution were not related to TMZ dose. No differences were seen among TMZ C(max), t(1/2), V(d) or CL/F in children compared with adults. Intra- and interpatient variability of systemic exposure were limited in both children and adults. No statistically significant differences were found between the AUCs of children who experienced grade 4 hematologic toxicity and children who did not. No difference appears to exist between pharmacokinetic parameters in adults and children when TMZ is administered in three doses daily. Hematologic toxicity was not related to TMZ AUC. AUC measurement does not appear to be of any use in optimizing TMZ treatment.

  9. UNCERTAINTIES IN TRICHLOROETHYLENE PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the pharmacokinetics of a chemical¯its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans and laboratory animals ¯ is critical to the assessment of its human health risks. For trichloroethylene (TCE), numerous physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)...

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine during malaria prophylaxis in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Charles, Bruce G; Miller, Ann K; Nasveld, Peter E; Reid, Mark G; Harris, Ivor E; Edstein, Michael D

    2007-08-01

    The population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine were studied in Australian soldiers taking tafenoquine for malarial prophylaxis. The subjects (476 males and 14 females) received a loading dose of 200 mg tafenoquine base daily for 3 days, followed by a weekly dose of 200 mg tafenoquine for 6 months. Blood samples were collected from each subject after the last loading dose and then at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Plasma tafenoquine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Population modeling was performed with NONMEM, using a one-compartment model. Typical values of the first-order absorption rate constant (K(a)), clearance (CL/F), and volume of distribution (V/F) were 0.243 h(-1), 0.056 liters/h/kg, and 23.7 liters/kg, respectively. The intersubject variability (coefficient of variation) in CL/F and V/F was 18% and 22%, respectively. The interoccasion variability in CL/F was 18%, and the mean elimination half-life was 12.7 days. A positive linear association between weight and both CL/F and V/F was found, but this had insufficient impact to warrant dosage adjustments. Model robustness was assessed by a nonparametric bootstrap (200 samples). A degenerate visual predictive check indicated that the raw data mirrored the postdose concentration-time profiles simulated (n = 1,000) from the final model. Individual pharmacokinetic estimates for tafenoquine did not predict the prophylactic outcome with the drug for four subjects who relapsed with Plasmodium vivax malaria, as they had similar pharmacokinetics to those who were free of malaria infection. No obvious pattern existed between the plasma tafenoquine concentration and the pharmacokinetic parameter values for subjects with and without drug-associated moderate or severe adverse events. This validated population pharmacokinetic model satisfactorily describes the disposition and variability of tafenoquine used for long-term malaria prophylaxis in a large cohort of soldiers on military

  11. Population Pharmacokinetics of Tafenoquine during Malaria Prophylaxis in Healthy Subjects▿

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Bruce G.; Miller, Ann K.; Nasveld, Peter E.; Reid, Mark G.; Harris, Ivor E.; Edstein, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine were studied in Australian soldiers taking tafenoquine for malarial prophylaxis. The subjects (476 males and 14 females) received a loading dose of 200 mg tafenoquine base daily for 3 days, followed by a weekly dose of 200 mg tafenoquine for 6 months. Blood samples were collected from each subject after the last loading dose and then at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Plasma tafenoquine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Population modeling was performed with NONMEM, using a one-compartment model. Typical values of the first-order absorption rate constant (Ka), clearance (CL/F), and volume of distribution (V/F) were 0.243 h−1, 0.056 liters/h/kg, and 23.7 liters/kg, respectively. The intersubject variability (coefficient of variation) in CL/F and V/F was 18% and 22%, respectively. The interoccasion variability in CL/F was 18%, and the mean elimination half-life was 12.7 days. A positive linear association between weight and both CL/F and V/F was found, but this had insufficient impact to warrant dosage adjustments. Model robustness was assessed by a nonparametric bootstrap (200 samples). A degenerate visual predictive check indicated that the raw data mirrored the postdose concentration-time profiles simulated (n = 1,000) from the final model. Individual pharmacokinetic estimates for tafenoquine did not predict the prophylactic outcome with the drug for four subjects who relapsed with Plasmodium vivax malaria, as they had similar pharmacokinetics to those who were free of malaria infection. No obvious pattern existed between the plasma tafenoquine concentration and the pharmacokinetic parameter values for subjects with and without drug-associated moderate or severe adverse events. This validated population pharmacokinetic model satisfactorily describes the disposition and variability of tafenoquine used for long-term malaria prophylaxis in a large cohort of soldiers on military

  12. Pharmacokinetics and safety of eszopiclone in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Zhao, X L; Wei, M J; Wang, S M; Zhou, H; Guo, S J; Zhang, P

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characters of eszopiclone (CAS: 138729-47-2) after single and multiple-dose oral administration in healthy adult Chinese volunteers.In single-dose study, 12 subjects were given oral administrations of 1.5, 3 and 6 mg eszopiclone in an open-label, randomized, crossover fashion. In multiple-dose study, 8 subjects were given 3 mg eszopiclone once daily consecutively for 7 days. Blood samples were collected over 24 h and plasma eszopiclone were determined using a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay. The safety and tolerability of eszopiclone was evaluated by adverse events recording, physical examination, laboratory testing, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG findings.The main pharmacokinetic parameters of eszopiclone after single-dose administration were as follows: doses of 1.5, 3 and 6 mg; Cmax of 18.08±4.65, 38.29±15.41 and 76.38±23.34 ng/ml; Tmax of 0.94±0.39, 1.04±0.63 and 1.08±0.51 h; AUC0-24 of 110.90±23.06, 227.36±62.41 and 504.10±140.13 ng*h/ml; elimination half-lives of 5.84±1.03, 5.53±1.91 and 6.17±1.23 h. After multiple-dose administration, the steady-state levels of eszopiclone were achieved by the 4th day, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were Css_max at 33.43±5.63 ng/ml and AUCss (0-24) at 263.30±51.21 ng*h/ml. The most common adverse event was bitter or abnormal taste. All the adverse events were judged as mild to moderate and resolved without any medication.The pharmacokinetic character of eszopiclone is linear and dose-proportional over the range of 1.5-6 mg. The systemic exposure does not accumulate with once-daily administrations. Eszopiclone appears to have good safety and is well tolerated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Exosomes-An Important Factor for Elucidating the Biological Roles of Exosomes and for the Development of Exosome-Based Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles containing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Recently, researchers have uncovered that exosomes are involved in various biological events, such as tumor growth, metastasis, and the immune response, by delivering their cargos to exosome-receiving cells. Moreover, exosomes are expected to be used in therapeutic treatments, such as tissue regeneration therapy and antitumor immunotherapy, because exosomes are effective delivery vehicles for proteins, nucleic acids, and other bioactive compounds. To elucidate the biological functions of exosomes, and for the development of exosome-based therapeutics, the pharmacokinetics of exosomes is important. In this review, we aim to summarize current knowledge about the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of exosomes. The pharmacokinetics of exogenously administered exosomes is discussed based on the tissue distribution, types of cells taking up exosomes, and key molecules in the pharmacokinetics of exosomes. In addition, recent progress in the methods to control the pharmacokinetics of exosomes is reviewed. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetic differences of mifepristone between sexes in animals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenge; Cheng, Yunlong; Chen, Jianzhong; Chen, Jiahang; Jiang, Kai; Zhou, Yuyang; Jia, Lee

    2018-05-30

    Mifepristone (RU486) is developed originally as a contraceptive used by hundreds of millions of women world-wide, and also reported as a safe and long-term psychotic depressant, or as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent used by both sexes. In our preliminary study aimed at developing mifepristone as a cancer metastatic chemopreventive, we coincidentally observed that blood mifepristone concentrations in female rats seem to be higher than those in male ones post administration. To substantiate if the pharmacokinetic differences between sexes exist, we established a fast UPLC-MS/MS method to determine mifepristone concentrations in plasma, and analyzed blood concentrations of mifepristone over time in rats and dogs of both sexes. Mifepristone in plasma or incubation liquid was recovered by liquid-liquid extraction using 1 mL of ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C 18 column at 35 °C, with a gradient elution consisting of methanol and water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. And pharmacokinetic parameters such as elimination half-life, and mean residence time were calculated by using the non-compartmental pharmacokinetics data analysis software. In this work, administrations of mifepristone to rats and beagle dogs revealed that the plasma concentrations of mifepristone (AUC, C max ) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in females than that in males. In vitro liver microsomal incubation experiments showed that the metabolic rate of mifepristone in males was higher than that in females, which was consistent with the results of in vivo experiments. In general, we first found the sex-related differences about pharmacokinetic properties of mifepristone and revealed the metabolism difference of hepatic microsomal enzyme is the main reason. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensive pharmacogenetic analysis of irinotecan neutropenia and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Federico; Kroetz, Deanna L; Schuetz, Erin; Dolan, M Eileen; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Relling, Mary; Chen, Peixian; Das, Soma; Rosner, Gary L; Ratain, Mark J

    2009-06-01

    We aim to identify genetic variation, in addition to the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism, that can explain the variability in irinotecan (CPT-11) pharmacokinetics and neutropenia in cancer patients. Pharmacokinetic, genetic, and clinical data were obtained from 85 advanced cancer patients treated with single-agent CPT-11 every 3 weeks at doses of 300 mg/m(2) (n = 20) and 350 mg/m(2) (n = 65). Forty-two common variants were genotyped in 12 candidate genes of the CPT-11 pathway using several methodologies. Univariate and multivariate models of absolute neutrophil count (ANC) nadir and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. Almost 50% of the variation in ANC nadir is explained by UGT1A1*93, ABCC1 IVS11 -48C>T, SLCO1B1*1b, ANC baseline levels, sex, and race (P < .0001). More than 40% of the variation in CPT-11 area under the curve (AUC) is explained by ABCC2 -24C>T, SLCO1B1*5, HNF1A 79A>C, age, and CPT-11 dose (P < .0001). Almost 30% of the variability in SN-38 (the active metabolite of CPT-11) AUC is explained by ABCC1 1684T>C, ABCB1 IVS9 -44A>G, and UGT1A1*93 (P = .004). Other models explained 17%, 23%, and 27% of the variation in APC (a metabolite of CPT-11), SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G), and SN-38G/SN-38 AUCs, respectively. When tested in univariate models, pretreatment total bilirubin was able to modify the existing associations between genotypes and phenotypes. On the basis of this exploratory analysis, common polymorphisms in genes encoding for ABC and SLC transporters may have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CPT-11. Confirmatory studies are required.

  16. Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Oral Cocaine in Humans.

    PubMed

    Coe, Marion A; Jufer Phipps, Rebecca A; Cone, Edward J; Walsh, Sharon L

    2018-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of oral cocaine has not been fully characterized and prospective data on oral bioavailability are limited. A within-subject study was performed to characterize the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral cocaine. Fourteen healthy inpatient participants (six males) with current histories of cocaine use were administered two oral doses (100 and 200 mg) and one intravenous (IV) dose (40 mg) of cocaine during three separate dosing sessions. Plasma samples were collected for up to 24 h after dosing and analyzed for cocaine and metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis, and a two-factor model was used to assess for dose and sex differences. The mean ± SEM oral cocaine bioavailability was 0.32 ± 0.04 after 100 and 0.45 ± 0.06 after 200 mg oral cocaine. Volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (CL) were both greatest after 100 mg oral (Vd = 4.2 L/kg; CL = 116.2 mL/[min kg]) compared to 200 mg oral (Vd = 2.9 L/kg; CL = 87.5 mL/[min kg]) and 40 mg IV (Vd = 1.3 L/kg; CL = 32.7 mL/[min kg]). Oral cocaine area-under-thecurve (AUC) and peak concentration increased in a dose-related manner. AUC metabolite-to-parent ratios of benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester were significantly higher after oral compared to IV administration and highest after the lower oral dose. In addition, minor metabolites were detected in higher concentrations after oral compared to IV cocaine. Oral cocaine produced a pharmacokinetic profile different from IV cocaine, which appears as a rightward and downward shift in the concentration-time profile. Cocaine bioavailability values were similar to previous estimates. Oral cocaine also produced a unique metabolic profile, with greater concentrations of major and minor metabolites.

  17. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Poore, III, Willis P.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Markmore » I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.« less

  18. Pharmacokinetic properties of tandem d-peptides designed for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Leithold, Leonie H E; Jiang, Nan; Post, Julia; Niemietz, Nicole; Schartmann, Elena; Ziehm, Tamar; Kutzsche, Janine; Shah, N Jon; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Langen, Karl-Josef; Willuweit, Antje; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-06-30

    Peptides are more and more considered for the development of drug candidates. However, they frequently exhibit severe disadvantages such as instability and unfavourable pharmacokinetic properties. Many peptides are rapidly cleared from the organism and oral bioavailabilities as well as in vivo half-lives often remain low. In contrast, some peptides consisting solely of d-enantiomeric amino acid residues were shown to combine promising therapeutic properties with high proteolytic stability and enhanced pharmacokinetic parameters. Recently, we have shown that D3 and RD2 have highly advantageous pharmacokinetic properties. Especially D3 has already proven promising properties suitable for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we analyse the pharmacokinetic profiles of D3D3 and RD2D3, which are head-to-tail tandem d-peptides built of D3 and its derivative RD2. Both D3D3 and RD2D3 show proteolytic stability in mouse plasma and organ homogenates for at least 24h and in murine and human liver microsomes for 4h. Notwithstanding their high affinity to plasma proteins, both peptides are taken up into the brain following i.v. as well as i.p. administration. Although both peptides contain identical d-amino acid residues, they are arranged in a different sequence order and the peptides show differences in pharmacokinetic properties. After i.p. administration RD2D3 exhibits lower plasma clearance and higher bioavailability than D3D3. We therefore concluded that the amino acid sequence of RD2 leads to more favourable pharmacokinetic properties within the tandem peptide, which underlines the importance of particular sequence motifs, even in short peptides, for the design of further therapeutic d-peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of (R)- and (S)-methadone in methadone maintenance patients

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David J R; Somogyi, Andrew A; Dyer, Kyle R; White, Jason M; Bochner, Felix

    2000-01-01

    Aims To investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of (R)- and (S)-methadone in a methadone maintenance population. Methods Eighteen patients recruited from a public methadone maintenance program underwent an interdosing interval pharmacokinetic study. Plasma and urine samples were collected and analysed for methadone and its major metabolite (EDDP) using stereoselective h.p.l.c. Methadone plasma protein binding was examined using ultrafiltration, and plasma α1-acid glycoprotein concentrations were quantified by radial immunoassay. Results (R)-methadone had a significantly (P < 0.05) greater unbound fraction (mean 173%) and total renal clearance (182%) compared with (S)-methadone, while maximum measured plasma concentrations (83%) and apparent partial clearance of methadone to EDDP (76%) were significantly (P < 0.001) lower. When protein binding was considered (R)-methadone plasma clearance of the unbound fraction (59%) and apparent partial intrinsic clearance to EDDP (44%) were significantly (P < 0.01) lower than for (S)-methadone, while AUCτSS, (167%) was significantly (P < 0.001) greater. There were no significant (P > 0.2) differences between the methadone enantiomers for AUCτSS, steady-state plasma clearance, trough plasma concentrations and unbound renal clearance. Patients excreted significantly (P < 0.0001) more (R)-methadone and (S)-EDDP than the corresponding enantiomers. Considerable interindividual variability was observed for the pharmacokinetic parameters, with coefficients of variation of up to 70%. Conclusions Steady-state pharmacokinetics of unbound methadone are stereoselective, and there is large interindividual variability consistent with CYP3A4 mediated metabolism to the major metabolite EDDP; the variability did not obscure a significant dose-plasma concentration relationship. Stereoselective differences in the pharmacokinetics of methadone may have important implications for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling but is unlikely to

  20. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to explore potential metabolic pathways of bromochloromethane in rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromochloromethane (BCM) is a volatile organic compound and a by-product of disinfection of water by chlorination. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are used in risk assessment applications and a PBPK model for BCM, Updated with F-344 specific input parameters,...

  1. Crop Damage by Primates: Quantifying the Key Parameters of Crop-Raiding Events

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Graham E.; Hill, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and duration of raid as the primary parameters determining crop loss. Secondary factors include distance travelled onto farm, age composition of the raiding group, and whether raids are in series. Regression models accounted for greater proportions of variation in crop loss when increasingly crop and species specific. Parameter values varied across primate species, probably reflecting differences in raiding tactics or perceptions of risk, and thereby providing indices of how comfortable primates are on-farm. Median raiding-group sizes were markedly smaller than the typical sizes of social groups. The research suggests that key parameters of raiding events can be used to measure the behavioural impacts of deterrents to raiding. Furthermore, farmers will benefit most from methods that discourage raiding by multiple individuals, reduce the size of raiding groups, or decrease the amount of time primates are on-farm. This study demonstrates the importance of directly relating crop loss to the parameters of raiding events, using systematic observations of the behaviour of multiple primate species. PMID:23056378

  2. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Ba, Kamarel; Thiaw, Modou; Lazar, Najih; Sarr, Alassane; Brochier, Timothée; Ndiaye, Ismaïla; Faye, Alioune; Sadio, Oumar; Panfili, Jacques; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans.

  3. A meta-analysis of the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol
.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuchun; Lin, Han; Sun, WenHuan; Wang, YingLi; Ding, YouFang; Zhao, HuanHu; Liu, ShangJian

    2017-06-01

    To conduct a meta-analysis on the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the effect of CYP2D6 polymorphism on metoprolol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was performed by using the China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), database for Chinese technical periodicals (VIP), Wanfang, and PubMed databases up to the end of January 2015. Review Manager 5.3 (the coherence collaboration, www.gradepro.org) and comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software v2 (CMA) Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA) were used for meta-analysis. A total of 567 cases from 7 studies were included in the present study. Meta-analysis results showed that the area under the curve (AUC)0-∞ (RR = -6.75, 95% CI (-9.18, -4.31), p < 0.00001); Cmax (RR = -2.40, 95% CI (-3.25, -1.54), p < 0.00001); T1/2 (RR = -4.81, 95% CI (-6.86, -2.76), p < 0.00001); CL/F (RR = 1.60, 95% CI (1.03,2.17), p < 0.00001); heart rate (RR = 1.48, 95% CI (0.03, 2.92), p = 0.05), systolic blood pressure (RR = -0.69, 95% CI (-1.85,0.47), p = 0.24); and diastolic blood pressure (RR = -1.95, 95% CI (-3.14, -0.76), p = 0.001). Begg's funnel plot test showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-∞, Cmax, T1/2, and CL/F) and pharmacodynamic parameters (HR, DBP, and SBP) were symmetric. Egger's test showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were asymmetrical, and its intercept was statistically significant (p < 0.05), which was indicative of publication bias. The pharmacodynamic parameter intercept was not statistically significant (p > 0.05), indicating that no publication bias existed. CYP2D6 polymorphism significantly influenced the pharmacokinetic parameters of metoprolol. It also affected heart rate and diastolic blood pressure, whereas systolic pressure was not affected.
.

  4. [Pharmacokinetic study of six aconitine alkaloids in aconiti lateralis radix praeparata in beagle dogs].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ri-Ping; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Yai; Yu, Liang-Wen; Zhu, Yue-Lan; Li, Geng

    2014-02-01

    To study the pharmacokinetics characteristics of six Aconitum alkaloids aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylmesaconine (BMA) and benzoylhypaconine (BHA) in beagle dogs. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitation of six Aconitum alkaloids in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata decoction. UPLC/MS/MS system coupled with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was performed in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Sample preparation was performed with solid-phase extraction(SPE) on a 3 mL HLB cartridge before the analysis. The separation was applied on a Waters C8 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) and a gradient elution of methanol and 0.2% formic acid-water was used as mobile phase. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the results of the analysis through the DAS 2. 1 software (Drug and Statistics for Windows). The results showed that the fitting model for the six Aconitum alkaloids was the one-compartment model pharmacokinetics. The method is successfully used for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of the six Aconitum alkaloids in beagle dog plasma, it can help monitor the ADME/Tox process when taking Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata by observing the pharmacokinetic process. The results provide a good reference for clinical treatment and safe application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata.

  5. A stochastic whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to assess the impact of inter-individual variability on tissue dosimetry over the human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Beaudouin, Rémy; Micallef, Sandrine; Brochot, Céline

    2010-06-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have proven to be successful in integrating and evaluating the influence of age- or gender-dependent changes with respect to the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics throughout entire lifetimes. Nevertheless, for an effective application of toxicokinetic modelling to chemical risk assessment, a PBPK model has to be detailed enough to include all the multiple tissues that could be targeted by the various xenobiotics present in the environment. For this reason, we developed a PBPK model based on a detailed compartmentalization of the human body and parameterized with new relationships describing the time evolution of physiological and anatomical parameters. To take into account the impact of human variability on the predicted toxicokinetics, we defined probability distributions for key parameters related to the xenobiotics absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The model predictability was evaluated by a direct comparison between computational predictions and experimental data for the internal concentrations of two chemicals (1,3-butadiene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). A good agreement between predictions and observed data was achieved for different scenarios of exposure (e.g., acute or chronic exposure and different populations). Our results support that the general stochastic PBPK model can be a valuable computational support in the area of chemical risk analysis. (c)2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequential updating of a new dynamic pharmacokinetic model for caffeine in premature neonates.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Sandrine; Amzal, Billy; Bach, Véronique; Chardon, Karen; Tourneux, Pierre; Bois, Frédéric Y

    2007-01-01

    Caffeine treatment is widely used in nursing care to reduce the risk of apnoea in premature neonates. To check the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment against apnoea, caffeine concentration in blood is an important indicator. The present study was aimed at building a pharmacokinetic model as a basis for a medical decision support tool. In the proposed model, time dependence of physiological parameters is introduced to describe rapid growth of neonates. To take into account the large variability in the population, the pharmacokinetic model is embedded in a population structure. The whole model is inferred within a Bayesian framework. To update caffeine concentration predictions as data of an incoming patient are collected, we propose a fast method that can be used in a medical context. This involves the sequential updating of model parameters (at individual and population levels) via a stochastic particle algorithm. Our model provides better predictions than the ones obtained with models previously published. We show, through an example, that sequential updating improves predictions of caffeine concentration in blood (reduce bias and length of credibility intervals). The update of the pharmacokinetic model using body mass and caffeine concentration data is studied. It shows how informative caffeine concentration data are in contrast to body mass data. This study provides the methodological basis to predict caffeine concentration in blood, after a given treatment if data are collected on the treated neonate.

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics of swertiamarin in rats after oral administration of swertiamarin alone, Qing Ye Dan tablets and co-administration of swertiamarin and oleanolic acid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-li; Li, Hong-liang; He, Jian-chang; Feng, En-fu; Shi, Pan-pan; Liu, Yue-qiong; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2013-08-26

    Qing Ye Dan is a well-known herbal drug that is widely used to treat viral hepatitis in the Yi and Hani minority regions in the Yunnan province of China. An LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine the levels of swertiamarin in rat plasma. Swertiamarin and naringin (internal standard, IS) were extracted from rat plasma using solid-phase extraction (SPE) to purify the samples. The pharmacokinetics of the following different administration methods of swertiamarin in rats were studied: oral administration of swertiamarin alone, a Qing Ye Dan tablet (QYDT) and co-administration of swertiamarin and oleanolic acid, with each method delivering approximately 20mg/kg of swertiamarin. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic profiles were constructed by using the software DAS (version 2.1.1), and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared using an unpaired Student's t-test. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-∞, Vz/F and CLz/F were significantly different (P<0.05) among the three types of swertiamarin administration. The data indicate that oleanolic acid and the other ingredients present in QYDT could affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of swertiamarin in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetic comparison and bioequivalence evaluation of losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide tablet between Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudershan; Monif, Tausif; Khuroo, Arshad; Reyar, Simrit; Jain, Rakesh; Singla, Ajay K; Kurachi, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the bioequivalence between the test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablet and evaluate the effect of ethnicity on pharmacokinetics properties of losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide on healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. Randomized, open-label, crossover, bioavailability studies were conducted separately in healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. One tablet either of test or of reference product was administered after 10 hours of overnight fasting. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 48 hours for both the studies. Plasma samples were analyzed for losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide by a validated liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Cmax, tmax, and other pharmacokinetics parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles for both test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablets. Statistical evaluations were done to evaluate bioequivalence between generic test formulation (EPR0001) and Japanese reference product (Preminent®). Losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide were well tolerated by subjects in all periods of each study under fasted conditions. No serious adverse events were observed. The ratios of least square means for AUC0-t and Cmax and the affiliated 90% confidence intervals were within acceptance range recommended by PMDA. Marginal differences were observed in pharmacokinetic values of Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. The results of these bioavailability studies indicate that the test formulation of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg (EPR0001) tablets is bioequivalent to marketed Preminent® reference formulation in Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers, when administered under fasting conditions. Both test and reference formulations were well tolerated

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Michael P.; Alfieris, George M; Sweeney, Dawn M; Angona, Ronald E; Cholette, Jill M; Venuto, Charles; Anderson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Antifibrinolytic medications such as epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) are used in pediatric heart surgery to decrease surgical bleeding and transfusion. Dosing schemes for neonates are often based on adult regimens, or are simply empiric, in part due to the lack of neonatal pharmacokinetic information. We sought to determine the pharmacokinetics of EACA in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery and to devise a dosing regimen for this population. Methods Ten neonates undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were given EACA according to standard practice, and blood was drawn at 10 time points to determine drug concentrations. Time-concentration profiles were analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects models. Parameter estimates (standardized to a 70 kg person) were used to develop a dosing regimen intended to maintain a target concentration shown to inhibit fibrinolysis in neonatal plasma (50 mg/L). Results Pharmacokinetics were described using a two compartment model plus an additional compartment for the cardiopulmonary bypass pump. First order elimination was described with a clearance of 5.07 L/h*(WT/70) 0.75. Simulation showed a dosing regimen with a loading dose of 40 mg/kg, and an infusion of 30 mg/kg/h, with a pump prime concentration of 100 mg/L maintained plasma concentrations above 50 mg/L in 90% of neonates during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Conclusions EACA clearance, expressed using allometry, is reduced in neonates compared to older children and adults. Loading dose and infusion dose are approximately half those required in children and adults. PMID:25723765

  10. The Influence of Normalization Weight in Population Pharmacokinetic Covariate Models.

    PubMed

    Goulooze, Sebastiaan C; Völler, Swantje; Välitalo, Pyry A J; Calvier, Elisa A M; Aarons, Leon; Krekels, Elke H J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2018-03-23

    In covariate (sub)models of population pharmacokinetic models, most covariates are normalized to the median value; however, for body weight, normalization to 70 kg or 1 kg is often applied. In this article, we illustrate the impact of normalization weight on the precision of population clearance (CL pop ) parameter estimates. The influence of normalization weight (70, 1 kg or median weight) on the precision of the CL pop estimate, expressed as relative standard error (RSE), was illustrated using data from a pharmacokinetic study in neonates with a median weight of 2.7 kg. In addition, a simulation study was performed to show the impact of normalization to 70 kg in pharmacokinetic studies with paediatric or obese patients. The RSE of the CL pop parameter estimate in the neonatal dataset was lowest with normalization to median weight (8.1%), compared with normalization to 1 kg (10.5%) or 70 kg (48.8%). Typical clearance (CL) predictions were independent of the normalization weight used. Simulations showed that the increase in RSE of the CL pop estimate with 70 kg normalization was highest in studies with a narrow weight range and a geometric mean weight away from 70 kg. When, instead of normalizing with median weight, a weight outside the observed range is used, the RSE of the CL pop estimate will be inflated, and should therefore not be used for model selection. Instead, established mathematical principles can be used to calculate the RSE of the typical CL (CL TV ) at a relevant weight to evaluate the precision of CL predictions.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of nicotine in rats after multiple-cigarette smoke exposure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rotenberg, K.S.; Adir, J.

    1983-06-15

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its major metabolites was evaluated in male rats after multiple-cigarette smoke exposure. A smoke-exposure apparatus was used to deliver cigarette smoke to the exposure chamber. The rats were exposed to smoke from a single cigarette every 8 hr for 14 days and to the smoke of a cigarette spiked with radiolabeled nicotine on the 15th day. Blood and urine samples were collected at timed intervals during the 10-min smoke-exposure period of the last cigarette and up to 48 hr thereafter. Nicotine, cotinine, and other polar metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by liquidmore » scintillation counting. The data were analyzed by computer fitting, and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those observed after a single iv injection of nicotine and after a single-cigarette smoke exposure. The results indicated that the amount of nicotine absorbed from multiple-cigarette smoke was approximately 10-fold greater than that absorbed from a single cigarette. Also, unlike the single-cigarette smoke exposure experiment, nicotine plasma levels did not decay monotonically but increased after the 5th hr, and high plasma concentrations persisted for 30 hr. The rate and extent of the formation of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, were decreased as compared with their values following a single-cigarette smoke exposure. It was concluded that nicotine or a constituent of tobacco smoke inhibits the formation of cotinine and may affect the biotransformation of other metabolites. Urinary excretion tended to support the conclusions that the pharmacokinetic parameters of nicotine and its metabolites were altered upon multiple as compared to single dose exposure.« less

  12. Nanodrugs: pharmacokinetics and safety

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-01-01

    To date, various nanodrug systems have been developed for different routes of administration, which include dendrimers, nanocrystals, emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Nanodrug systems have been employed to improve the efficacy, safety, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of pharmaceutical substances. In particular, functionalized nanodrug systems can offer enhanced bioavailability of orally taken drugs, prolonged half-life of injected drugs (by reducing immunogenicity), and targeted delivery to specific tissues. Thus, nanodrug systems might lower the frequency of administration while providing maximized pharmacological effects and minimized systemic side effects, possibly leading to better therapeutic compliance and clinical outcomes. In spite of these attractive pharmacokinetic advantages, recent attention has been drawn to the toxic potential of nanodrugs since they often exhibit in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and genotoxicity. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and safety characteristics of nanodrugs and the limitations of each delivery option is necessary for the further development of efficacious nanodrugs with high therapeutic potential and a wide safety margin. This review highlights the recent progress in nanodrug system development, with a focus on the pharmacokinetic advantages and safety challenges. PMID:24591825

  13. Effect of lysine clonixinate on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenprocoumon.

    PubMed

    Russmann, S; Dilger, K; Trenk, D; Nagyivanyi, P; Jähnchen, E

    2001-11-01

    The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug lysine clonixinate ([2-(3-chloro-o-toluidino)nicotinic acid]-L-lysinate, CAS 55837-30-4) on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenprocoumon (4-hydroxy-3-(1-phenylpropyl)-coumarin, CAS 435-97-2) was investigated in an open, randomised, two-fold, cross-over study in 12 healthy male volunteers. These subjects received a single dose of 18 mg phenprocoumon without or with concomitant treatment with lysine clonixinate (125 mg five times a day for 3 days before and 13 days after ingestion of a single dose of phenprocoumon). Pharmacokinetic parameters of phenprocoumon following oral administration were: CL/f: 0.779 +/- 0.157 ml/min, half-life of elimination: 147.2 +/- 19.9 h; free fraction in serum: 0.51 +/- 0.20%. These parameters were not significantly altered by concomitant treatment with lysine clonixinate. Prothrombin time increased from 13.3 +/- 1.3 s (at time 0) to 17.7 +/- 2.7 s following phenprocoumon and from 13.3 +/- 1.2 s to 18.0 +/- 2.2 s following combined administration. Prothrombin time returned to the pretreatment values 240 h after administration of phenprocoumon. The integrated effect (AUEC0-288 h) was identical following both treatments (4.303 +/- 461 and 4.303 +/- 312 s x h for phenprocoumon alone and phenprocoumon with lysine clonixinate, respectively). Thus, lysine clonixinate administered in therapeutic doses does not affect the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenproxoumon.

  14. Pharmacokinetic analysis of flomoxef in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and modified ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Zenichi; Kurosaki, Yuji; Ishino, Kozo; Yamauchi, Keita; Sano, Shunji

    2008-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The purpose of this study was to model the pharmacokinetics of flomoxef, a cephalosporin antibiotic, in pediatric cardiac surgery. Each patient received a flomoxef dose of 30 mg/kg as a bolus after the induction of anesthesia and an additional dose (1 g for a child weighing < 10 kg, 2 g for > or = 10 kg) was injected into the CPB prime. Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) was routinely performed. Blood samples, urine, and ultrafiltrate were collected. In seven patients (group I), serum flomoxef concentration-time courses were analyzed by a modified two-compartment model. Utilizing the estimated parameters, serum concentrations were simulated in another eight patients (group II). The initiation of CPB resulted in an abrupt increase in serum flomoxef concentrations in group I; however, concentrations declined biexponentially. The amount of excreted flomoxef in the urine and by MUF was 47% +/- 8% of the total administered dose. In group II, an excellent fit was found between the values calculated by the program and the observed serum concentrations expressed; most of the performance errors were <1.0. There was no difference in any kinetic parameter between group I and groups I + II (n = 15). The pharmacokinetics of flomoxef in children undergoing CPB and MUF were well fitted to a modified two-compartment model. Using the kinetic data from this study, the individualization of dosage regimens for prophylactic use of flomoxef might be possible.

  15. Comparison of predictability for human pharmacokinetics parameters among monkeys, rats, and chimeric mice with humanised liver.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Maki; Iwasaki, Shinji; Chisaki, Ikumi; Nakagawa, Sayaka; Amano, Nobuyuki; Hirabayashi, Hideki

    2017-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of chimeric mice with humanised liver (PXB mice) for the prediction of clearance (CL t ) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vd ss ), in comparison with monkeys, which have been reported as a reliable model for human pharmacokinetics (PK) prediction, and with rats, as a conventional PK model. 2. CL t and Vd ss values in PXB mice, monkeys and rats were determined following intravenous administration of 30 compounds known to be mainly eliminated in humans via the hepatic metabolism by various drug-metabolising enzymes. Using single-species allometric scaling, human CL t and Vd ss values were predicted from the three animal models. 3. Predicted CL t values from PXB mice exhibited the highest predictability: 25 for PXB mice, 21 for monkeys and 14 for rats were predicted within a three-fold range of actual values among 30 compounds. For predicted human Vd ss values, the number of compounds falling within a three-fold range was 23 for PXB mice, 24 for monkeys, and 16 for rats among 29 compounds. PXB mice indicated a higher predictability for CL t and Vd ss values than the other animal models. 4. These results demonstrate the utility of PXB mice in predicting human PK parameters.

  16. Pharmacokinetic analysis of modified-release metoprolol formulations: An interspecies comparison.

    PubMed

    De Thaye, Elien; Vervaeck, Anouk; Marostica, Eleonora; Remon, Jean Paul; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Vervaet, Chris; Vermeulen, An

    2017-01-15

    In the current study, we investigated the metoprolol absorption kinetics of an in-house produced oral sustained-release formulation, matrices manufactured via prilling, and two commercially available formulations, ZOK-ZID ® (reservoir) and Slow-Lopresor ® (matrix) in both New Zealand White rabbits and Beagle dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic analysis approach. The aim of this study was to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of different formulations based on metoprolol, a selective adrenergic β 1 -receptor antagonist, in dogs and rabbits and to contrast the observed differences. To that end, metoprolol (50 to 200mg) was administered to 6 Beagle dogs and 6 New Zealand White rabbits as a single intravenous (IV) bolus injection and to 8 dogs and 6 rabbits as an oral modified release formulation. To derive pharmacokinetic parameters from the data, a non-linear mixed-effects model was developed using NONMEM ® where the contribution of observations below the limit of detection (BDL, below detection limit) to the parameter estimates was taken into account in the parameter estimation procedure. In both species and for the three modified release formulations, different absorption models were tested to describe the PK of metoprolol following oral dosing. In Beagle dogs, plasma concentration-time profiles were best described using a sequential zero- and first-order absorption model. In rabbits though, the absorption phase was best described using a first-order process only. In both species, the reservoir formulation ZOK-ZID ® was behaving quite similarly. In contrast, the absorption properties of both matrix formulations were rather different between species. This study indicates that the PK of the reservoir formulation is similar in both species, even after accounting for the almost completely missed absorption phase in rabbits. The insights gained further illustrate that rabbits are not very well suited to study the PK of the current matrix

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Rilpivirine in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anna H; Best, Brookie M; Stek, Alice; Wang, Jiajia; Capparelli, Edmund V; Burchett, Sandra K; Kreitchmann, Regis; Rungruengthanakit, Kittipong; George, Kathleen; Cressey, Tim R; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Smith, Elizabeth; Shapiro, David E; Mirochnick, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Rilpivirine pharmacokinetics is defined by its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Pregnancy can affect these factors by changes in cardiac output, protein binding, volume of distribution, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity. Rilpivirine is metabolized by CYP3A4. The impact of pregnancy on rilpivirine pharmacokinetics is largely unknown. International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1026s is a multicenter, nonblinded, prospective study evaluating antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant women that included a cohort receiving rilpivirine 25 mg once daily as part of their combination antiretrovirals for clinical care. Thirty-two women were enrolled in this study. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was performed at steady state during the second trimester, the third trimester, and postpartum. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were obtained at delivery. Plasma rilpivirine concentration was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; lower limit of quantitation was 10 ng/mL. Median (range) AUC0-24 were 1969 (867-4987, n = 15), 1669 (556-4312, n = 28), and 2387 (188-6736, n = 28) ng·h/mL in the second trimester, the third trimester, and postpartum, respectively (P < 0.05 for either trimester vs postpartum). Median (range) C24 were 63 (37-225, n = 17), 56 (<10-181, n = 30), and 81 (<10-299, n = 28) ng/mL (P < 0.05 for either trimester vs postpartum). High variability in pharmacokinetic parameters was observed between subjects. Median (range) cord blood/maternal concentration ratio was 0.55 (0.3-0.8, n = 21). Delivery HIV-1 RNA was ≤50 copies per milliliter in 70% and ≤400 copies per milliliter in 90% of women. Cmin were significantly lower at 15 visits with detectable HIV-1 RNA compared with 61 visits with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, 29 (<10-93) vs 63 (15-200) ng/mL (P = 0.0001). Cmin was below the protein binding-adjusted EC90 concentration (12.2 ng/mL) at 4 visits in 3 of 31 women (10

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Posaconazole in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Sime, Fekade B; Stuart, Janine; Butler, Jenie; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Pandey, Saurabh; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2018-06-01

    To date, there is no information on the intravenous (i.v.) posaconazole pharmacokinetics for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This prospective observational study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of i.v. posaconazole in critically ill patients. Patients with no history of allergy to triazole antifungals and requiring systemic antifungal therapy were enrolled if they were aged ≥18 years, central venous access was available, they were not pregnant, and they had not received prior posaconazole or drugs interacting with posaconazole. A single dose of 300 mg posaconazole was administered over 90 min. Total plasma concentrations were measured from serial plasma samples collected over 48 h, using a validated chromatographic method. The pharmacokinetic data set was analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Eight patients (7 male) were enrolled with the following characteristics: median age, 46 years (interquartile range [IQR], 40 to 51 years); median weight, 68 kg (IQR, 65 to 82 kg); and median albumin concentration, 20 g/liter (IQR, 18 to 24 g/liter). Median (IQR) pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were as follows: observed maximum concentration during sampling period ( C max ), 1,702 ng/ml (1,352 to 2,141 ng/ml); area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ), 17,932 ng · h/ml (13,823 to 27,905 ng · h/ml); clearance (CL), 16.8 liters/h (11.1 to 21.7 liters/h); and volume of distribution ( V ), 529.1 liters (352.2 to 720.6 liters). The V and CL were greater than 2-fold and the AUC 0-∞ was 39% of the values reported for heathy volunteers. The AUC 0-∞ was only 52% of the steady-state AUC 0-24 reported for hematology patients. The median of estimated average steady-state concentrations was 747 ng/ml (IQR, 576 to 1,163 ng/ml), which is within but close to the lower end of the previously recommended therapeutic range of 500 to 2,500 ng/ml. In conclusion, we observed different pharmacokinetics of i.v. posaconazole in

  19. Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Darunavir Boosted with Ritonavir and Omeprazole or Ranitidine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Healthy Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Vanitha J.; Lefebvre, Eric; De Paepe, Els; De Marez, Tine; De Pauw, Martine; Parys, Wim; Hoetelmans, Richard M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Darunavir (DRV; TMC114; Prezista) is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor used in combination with low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (DRV/r) as a pharmacokinetic enhancer. Protease inhibitor absorption may be decreased during coadministration of drugs that limit stomach acid secretion and increase gastric pH. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ranitidine and omeprazole on the plasma pharmacokinetics of DRV and RTV in HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Sixteen volunteers completed the study and received DRV/r, DRV/r plus ranitidine, and DRV/r plus omeprazole, in three separate sessions. Treatment was given for 4 days with an additional morning dose on day 5, and regimens were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Samples were taken over a 12-h period on day 5 for the assessment of DRV and RTV plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters assessed included DRV area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, and trough plasma concentration. The least-squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals are reported with treatment of DRV/r alone as a reference. Compared with DRV/r alone, no significant changes in DRV pharmacokinetic parameters were observed during coadministration of DRV/r and either ranitidine or omeprazole. Treatment regimens were generally well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, coadministration of DRV/r and ranitidine or omeprazole was well tolerated by the volunteers. Ranitidine and omeprazole did not have a significant influence on DRV pharmacokinetics. No dose adjustments are required when DRV/r is coadministered with omeprazole or ranitidine. PMID:17210768

  20. First plasma and tissue pharmacokinetic study of the YSNSG cyclopeptide, a new integrin antagonist, using microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Slimano, Florian; Djerada, Zoubir; Bouchene, Salim; Van Gulick, Laurence; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Dukic, Sylvain

    2017-07-15

    The YSNSG peptide is a synthetic peptide targeting α v β 3 integrin. This peptide exhibits promising activity in vitro and in vivo against melanoma. To determine pharmacokinetic parameters and predictive active doses in the central nervous system (CNS) and subcutaneous tissue (SC), we conducted microdialysis coupled with pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation. After a recovery period of surgical procedures, a microdialysis probe was inserted in the caudate and in subcutaneous tissue. Plasma samples and dialysates collected 5h after YSNSG intravenous administration (10mg/kg) were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. A nonlinear mixed-effect modeling approach implemented in Monolix® 2016R1 was performed. Model selection and evaluation were based on the usual diagnostic plot, precision and information criteria. The primary plasma and tissue pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable with those of other integrin antagonists, such as cilengitide or ATN-161. Tissue/plasma and brain/plasma area under the curve (AUC) ratio were 66.2±21.6% and 3.6±4.7%, respectively. Two models of 2-compartments with an additional microdialysis compartment, parameterized as rate constants (k for elimination, k12/k21 and k13/k31 for distribution) and volumes (central V1 and peripheral microdialysis compartment V3) with zero-order input were selected to describe the dialysate concentrations in CNS and SC. The inter-individual variability (IIV) was described by exponential terms, and residual variability was described by a combined additive and proportional error model. Individual AUC (plasma and tissues) values were derived for each animal using the Empirical-Bayes-Estimates of the individual parameters. The regimens needed to achieve an in vitro predetermined target concentration in tissues were studied by Monte Carlo simulations using Monolix® 2016R1. YSNSG pharmacokinetic parameters show promising results in terms of subcutaneous disposition. Further investigations into such

  1. The effect of breed and sex on sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine pharmacokinetic parameters in swine.

    PubMed

    Howard, J T; Baynes, R E; Brooks, J D; Yeatts, J L; Bellis, B; Ashwell, M S; Routh, P; O'Nan, A T; Maltecca, C

    2014-12-01

    Drug use in livestock has received increased attention due to welfare concerns and food safety. Characterizing heterogeneity in the way swine populations respond to drugs could allow for group-specific dose or drug recommendations. Our objective was to determine whether drug clearance differs across genetic backgrounds and sex for sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine. Two sires from each of four breeds were mated to a common sow population. The nursery pigs generated (n = 114) were utilized in a random crossover design. Drugs were administered intravenously and blood collected a minimum of 10 times over 48 h. A non-compartmental analysis of drug and metabolite plasma concentration vs. time profiles was performed. Within-drug and metabolite analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters included fixed effects of drug administration date, sex and breed of sire. Breed differences existed for flunixin meglumine (P-value<0.05; Cl, Vdss ) and oxfendazole (P-value<0.05, AUC0→∞ ). Sex differences existed for oxfendazole (P-value < 0.05; Tmax ) and sulfamethazine (P-value < 0.05, Cl). Differences in drug clearance were seen, and future work will determine the degree of additive genetic variation utilizing a larger population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Impact of Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Apremilast and Metabolite M12

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Simon; Assaf, Mahmoud; Nissel, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The pharmacokinetics of apremilast and its major metabolite M12 were evaluated in subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment. Men and women with renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 60‒89 mL/min [mild, n = 8], 30‒59 mL/min [moderate, n = 8], or <30 mL/min [severe, n = 8]) or demographically healthy matched (control) subjects (n = 24) received a single oral dose of apremilast 30 mg. Plasma apremilast and metabolite M12 concentrations were determined, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from samples obtained predose and up to 72 hours postdose. In subjects with mild to moderate renal impairment, apremilast pharmacokinetic profiles were similar to healthy matched subjects. In subjects with severe renal impairment, apremilast elimination was significantly slower, and exposures based on area under the plasma concentration‐versus‐time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity and maximum observed plasma concentration were increased versus healthy matched subjects. Metabolite M12 pharmacokinetic profiles for subjects with mild renal impairment were similar to those of the healthy matched subjects; however, they were increased in both the moderate and severe renally impaired subjects. Dose reduction of apremilast is recommended in individuals with severe renal impairment, but not in those with mild to moderate renal impairment. PMID:27870479

  3. Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of rotigotine transdermal patch in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Cawello, Willi; Kim, Seong R; Braun, Marina; Elshoff, Jan-Peer; Ikeda, Junji; Funaki, Tomoo

    2014-02-01

    Rotigotine is a dopamine receptor agonist with activity across the D1 through to D5 receptors as well as select serotonergic and adrenergic sites; continuous transdermal delivery of rotigotine with replacement of the patch once daily maintains stable plasma concentrations over 24 h. Rotigotine is indicated for the treatment of early and advanced-stage Parkinson's disease and moderate-to-severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug may vary between subjects of different ethnic origin. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of single-dose treatment with rotigotine transdermal patch in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. In this open-label, parallel-group study, healthy male and female subjects of Japanese or Caucasian ethnic origin were matched by sex, body mass index, and age. A single transdermal patch delivering 2 mg/24 h rotigotine (patch content 4.5 mg) was applied to the ventral/lateral abdomen for 24 h. The main outcome measures were the plasma concentrations of unconjugated and total rotigotine and its desalkyl metabolites and derived pharmacokinetic parameters (area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to last quantifiable concentration [AUClast], maximum plasma concentration [Cmax], and body weight- and dose-normalized values). The pharmacokinetic analysis included 48 subjects (24 Japanese, 24 Caucasian). The mean apparent dose of rotigotine was 2.0±0.5 mg for Japanese subjects and 2.08±0.58 mg for Caucasians. Plasma concentration-time profiles of unconjugated rotigotine and of the main metabolites were similar for both ethnic groups. Parameters of model-independent pharmacokinetics, Cmax, time to Cmax (tmax), and AUClast, for unconjugated rotigotine showed no statistically significant differences between Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Values of concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters were higher in female subjects; this difference was minimized after

  4. Pharmacokinetics interaction between imatinib and genistein in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Li; Xia, Meng-Ming; Sun, Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ke; Cui, Xiao; Hu, Guo-Xin; Lian, Qing-Quan; Wang, Zeng-Shou

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of orally administered genistein on the pharmacokinetics of imatinib and N-desmethyl imatinib in rats. Twenty-five healthy male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into five groups: A group (control group), B group (multiple dose of 100 mg/kg genistein for consecutive 15 days), C group (multiple dose of 50 mg/kg genistein for consecutive 15 days), D group (a single dose of 100 mg/kg genistein), and E group (a single dose of 50 mg/kg genistein). A single dose of imatinib is administered orally 30 min after administration of genistein (100 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters of imatinib and N-desmethyl imatinib were calculated by DAS 3.0 software. The multiple dose of 100 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg genistein significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the AUC0-t and C max of imatinib. AUC0-t and the C max of N-desmethyl imatinib were also increased, but without any significant difference. However, the single dose of 100 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg genistein has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of imatinib and N-desmethyl imatinib. Those results indicated that multiple dose of genistein (100 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) induces the metabolism of imatinib, while single dose of genistein has no effect.

  5. Comparison of amikacin pharmacokinetics in a killer whale (Orcinus orca) and a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    KuKanich, Butch; Papich, Mark; Huff, David; Stoskopf, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Amikacin, an aminoglycoside antimicrobial, was administered to a killer whale (Orcinus orca) and a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) for the treatment of clinical signs consistent with gram-negative aerobic bacterial infections. Dosage regimens were designed to target a maximal plasma concentration 8-10 times the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the pathogen and to reduce the risk of aminoglycoside toxicity. Allometric analysis of published pharmacokinetic parameters in mature animals yielded a relationship for amikacin's volume of distribution, in milliliters, given by the equation Vd = 151.058(BW)1.043. An initial dose for amikacin was estimated by calculating the volume of distribution and targeted maximal concentration. With this information, dosage regimens for i.m. administration were designed for a killer whale and a beluga whale. Therapeutic drug monitoring was performed on each whale to assess the individual pharmacokinetic parameters. The elimination half-life (5.99 hr), volume of distribution per bioavailability (319 ml/kg). and clearance per bioavailability (0.61 ml/min/kg) were calculated for the killer whale. The elimination half-life (5.03 hr), volume of distribution per bioavailability (229 ml/kg). and clearance per bioavailability (0.53 ml/min/kg) were calculated for the beluga whale. The volume of distribution predicted from the allometric equation for both whales was similar to the calculated pharmacokinetic parameter. Both whales exhibited a prolonged elimination half-life and decreased clearance when compared with other animal species despite normal renal parameters on biochemistry panels. Allometric principles and therapeutic drug monitoring were used to accurately determine the doses in these cases and to avoid toxicity.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of the BCL-2 Inhibitor Venetoclax in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tommy T; Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Menon, Rajeev M; Munasinghe, Wijith P; Bueno, Orlando F; Agarwal, Suresh K

    2018-05-01

    Venetoclax has been approved in the United States, Europe, Canada, and Australia for appropriate patients with difficult-to-treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The objective of this phase 1 study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of venetoclax in Chinese subjects to inform the dose selection of venetoclax in a phase 2 study of patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL in China. Twelve healthy first-generation Han Chinese subjects received a single 100-mg dose of venetoclax following a low-fat breakfast. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods. After a single dose of venetoclax in healthy Chinese subjects, the median time to peak concentration was 6 hours (range, 4 to 6 hours), and the mean ± SD C max , AUC inf , and terminal half-life were 1.0 ± 0.32 μg/mL, 12.6 ± 5.4 μg·h/mL, and 18.4 ± 2.97 hours, respectively. On average, venetoclax C max and AUC inf values were 94% and 66% higher, respectively, in Chinese subjects compared with those observed historically for non-Asian subjects receiving the same dose. Based on these pharmacokinetic results and the established exposure-response relationship of venetoclax in non-Asian CLL subjects, a 400-mg once-daily dosage regimen was selected for evaluating the venetoclax pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in the venetoclax phase 2 open-label study in Chinese subjects with R/R CLL. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. Pharmacokinetic behavior of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide prepared by a hospital pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Masako; Maeda, Shinichiro; Hashida, Noriyasu; Ohguro, Nobuyuki; Tano, Yasuo; Kurokawa, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    We developed a new hospital pharmaceutical preparation of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) for intravitreal injections using sodium hyaluronate as the vehicle. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic behavior of this hospital pharmacy preparation of TA (HPP-TA) to that of a commercial preparation of TA (CP-TA) in rats. We injected the two preparations of TA into the vitreous humor of male Wistar rats. The rats were killed between days 1 and 21, and the concentration of TA in the vitreous was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters. We also examined the microscopic appearance of the TA particles in these preparations. The elimination half-life was 6.08 days for the CP-TA and 5.78 days for the HPP-TA. A two-compartment model was suitable to approximate the pharmacokinetic behavior of HPP-TA in the vitreous body, but this model was not suitable for CP-TA, because its pharmacokinetic behavior was not sufficiently stable. The particle size of CP-TA was largest, followed by TA powder and HPP-TA. Many particles were agglutinated in the CP-TA preparation, whereas the TA particles were fine and dispersed in the HPP-TA medium. The TA particle size and the suspension medium are likely important factors in the preparation of a safe and stable suspension of TA. HPP-TA satisfied these requirements and should be suitable for clinical use.

  8. Optimal designs for population pharmacokinetic studies of the partner drugs co-administered with artemisinin derivatives in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Jamsen, Kris M; Duffull, Stephen B; Tarning, Joel; Lindegardh, Niklas; White, Nicholas J; Simpson, Julie A

    2012-07-11

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently recommended as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but of concern, it has been observed that the effectiveness of the main artemisinin derivative, artesunate, has been diminished due to parasite resistance. This reduction in effect highlights the importance of the partner drugs in ACT and provides motivation to gain more knowledge of their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties via population PK studies. Optimal design methodology has been developed for population PK studies, which analytically determines a sampling schedule that is clinically feasible and yields precise estimation of model parameters. In this work, optimal design methodology was used to determine sampling designs for typical future population PK studies of the partner drugs (mefloquine, lumefantrine, piperaquine and amodiaquine) co-administered with artemisinin derivatives. The optimal designs were determined using freely available software and were based on structural PK models from the literature and the key specifications of 100 patients with five samples per patient, with one sample taken on the seventh day of treatment. The derived optimal designs were then evaluated via a simulation-estimation procedure. For all partner drugs, designs consisting of two sampling schedules (50 patients per schedule) with five samples per patient resulted in acceptable precision of the model parameter estimates. The sampling schedules proposed in this paper should be considered in future population pharmacokinetic studies where intensive sampling over many days or weeks of follow-up is not possible due to either ethical, logistic or economical reasons.

  9. Influence of ABCB1 and CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Alexander Valerevich; Sychev, Dmitry Alekseevich; Andreev, Denis Anatolevich; Ryzhikova, Kristina Anatolievna; Grishina, Elena Anatolievna; Ryabova, Anastasia Vladislavovna; Loskutnikov, Mark Alekseevich; Smirnov, Valeriy Valerevich; Konova, Olga Dmitrievna; Matsneva, Irina Andreevna; Bochkov, Pavel Olegovich

    2018-01-01

    Difficulties in non-vitamin K anticoagulant (NOAC) administration in acute stroke can be associated with changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of NOAC such as biotransformation, distribution, and excretion. Therefore, obtaining data on pharmacokinetics of NOAC and factors that affect it may help develop algorithms for personalized use of this drug class in patients with acute cardioembolic stroke. Pharmacokinetics of apixaban in patients with acute stroke was studied earlier by Kryukov et al. The present study enrolled 17 patients with cardioembolic stroke, who received 5 mg of apixaban. In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of apixaban, venous blood samples were collected before taking 5 mg of apixaban (point 0) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, and 12 hours after drug intake. Blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes. Separate plasma was aliquoted in Eppendorf tubes and frozen at -70°C until analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine apixaban plasma concentration. Genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CYP3A isoenzyme group activity was evaluated by determining urinary concentration of endogenous substrate of the enzyme and its metabolite (6-β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol ratio). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics version 20.0. The protocol of this study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee; patients or their representatives signed an informed consent. ABCB1 ( rs1045642 and rs4148738 ) gene polymorphisms do not affect the pharmacokinetics of apixaban as well as CYP3A5 ( rs776746 ) gene polymorphisms. Apixaban pharmacokinetics in groups with different genotypes did not differ statistically significantly. Correlation analysis showed no statistically significant relationship between pharmacokinetic parameters of apixaban and the metabolic activity of CYP3A. Questions such as depending on genotyping results for apixaban dosing and

  10. Variability and epistemic uncertainty in water ingestion rates and pharmacokinetic parameters, and impact on the association between perfluorooctanoate and preeclampsia in the C8 Health Project population.

    PubMed

    Avanasi, Raghavendhran; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Veronica M; Bartell, Scott M

    2016-04-01

    We recently utilized a suite of environmental fate and transport models and an integrated exposure and pharmacokinetic model to estimate individual perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) serum concentrations, and also assessed the association of those concentrations with preeclampsia for participants in the C8 Health Project (a cross-sectional study of over 69,000 people who were environmentally exposed to PFOA near a major U.S. fluoropolymer production facility located in West Virginia). However, the exposure estimates from this integrated model relied on default values for key independent exposure parameters including water ingestion rates, the serum PFOA half-life, and the volume of distribution for PFOA. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of inter-individual variability and epistemic uncertainty in these parameters on the exposure estimates and subsequently, the epidemiological association between PFOA exposure and preeclampsia. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate inter-individual variability/epistemic uncertainty in the exposure assessment and reanalyzed the epidemiological association. Inter-individual variability in these parameters mildly impacted the serum PFOA concentration predictions (the lowest mean rank correlation between the estimated serum concentrations in our study and the original predicted serum concentrations was 0.95) and there was a negligible impact on the epidemiological association with preeclampsia (no change in the mean adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and the contribution of exposure uncertainty to the total uncertainty including sampling variability was 7%). However, when epistemic uncertainty was added along with the inter-individual variability, serum PFOA concentration predictions and their association with preeclampsia were moderately impacted (the mean AOR of preeclampsia occurrence was reduced from 1.12 to 1.09, and the contribution of exposure uncertainty to the total uncertainty was increased up to 33%). In conclusion

  11. The pharmacokinetics of letrozole: association with key body mass metrics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seok-Joon; Jung, Jin Ah; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kim, Un-Jib; Choe, Sangmin; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Noh, Yook-Hwan; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jung-Chul; Jung, Jin-A; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Bae, Kyun-Seop

    2012-08-01

    To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of letrozole by noncompartmental and mixed effect modeling analysis with the exploration of effect of body compositions on the PK. The PK data of 52 normal healthy male subjects with intensive PK sampling from two separate studies were included in this analysis. Subjects were given a single oral administration of 2.5 mg letrozole (Femara®), an antiestrogenic aromatase inhibitor used to treat breast cancer. Letrozole concentrations were measured using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. PK analysis was performed using NONMEM® 7.2 with first-order conditional estimation with interaction method. The association of body composition (body mass index, soft lean mass, fat free mass, body fat mass), CYP2A6 genotype (*1/*1, *1/*4), and CYP3A5 genotype (*1/*1, *1/*3, *3/*3) with the PK of letrozole were tested. A two-compartment model with mixed first and zero order absorption and first order elimination best described the letrozole concentration-time profile. Body weight and body fat mass were significant covariates for central volume of distribution and peripheral volume of distribution (Vp), respectively. In another model built using more readily available body composition measures, body mass index was also a significant covariate of Vp. However, no significant association was shown between CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphism and the PK of letrozole in this study. Our results indicate that body weight, body fat mass, body mass index are associated with the volume of distribution of letrozole. This study provides an initial step toward the development of individualized letrozole therapy based on body composition.

  12. Dose selection based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approaches.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah M; Mayawala, Kapil; Poulin, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are built using differential equations to describe the physiology/anatomy of different biological systems. Readily available in vitro and in vivo preclinical data can be incorporated into these models to not only estimate pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and plasma concentration-time profiles, but also to gain mechanistic insight into compound properties. They provide a mechanistic framework to understand and extrapolate PK and dose across in vitro and in vivo systems and across different species, populations and disease states. Using small molecule and large molecule examples from the literature and our own company, we have shown how PBPK techniques can be utilised for human PK and dose prediction. Such approaches have the potential to increase efficiency, reduce the need for animal studies, replace clinical trials and increase PK understanding. Given the mechanistic nature of these models, the future use of PBPK modelling in drug discovery and development is promising, however some limitations need to be addressed to realise its application and utility more broadly.

  13. Dose Schedule Optimization and the Pharmacokinetic Driver of Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayankbhai; Palani, Santhosh; Chakravarty, Arijit; Yang, Johnny; Shyu, Wen Chyi; Mettetal, Jerome T.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity often limits the utility of oncology drugs, and optimization of dose schedule represents one option for mitigation of this toxicity. Here we explore the schedule-dependency of neutropenia, a common dose-limiting toxicity. To this end, we analyze previously published mathematical models of neutropenia to identify a pharmacokinetic (PK) predictor of the neutrophil nadir, and confirm this PK predictor in an in vivo experimental system. Specifically, we find total AUC and Cmax are poor predictors of the neutrophil nadir, while a PK measure based on the moving average of the drug concentration correlates highly with neutropenia. Further, we confirm this PK parameter for its ability to predict neutropenia in vivo following treatment with different doses and schedules. This work represents an attempt at mechanistically deriving a fundamental understanding of the underlying pharmacokinetic drivers of neutropenia, and provides insights that can be leveraged in a translational setting during schedule selection. PMID:25360756

  14. Human pharmacokinetics of iohexol. A new nonionic contrast medium

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Olsson, B.; Aulie, A.; Sveen, K.

    1983-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of iohexol, a new nonionic, water-soluble contrast medium, have been determined after intravenous injection in 20 healthy volunteers, at four different dose levels (125-500 mg I/kg). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.27 1/kg, indicating distribution in the extracellular water. The biologic half-life was 121 minutes, comparable with that of other intravascular contrast media. Iohexol was excreted completely unmetabolized in the urine, with a 100% recovery 24 hours after injection. A comparison of iohexol and chromium-51 (/sup 51/Cr)-EDTA clearances indicates that iohexol is mainly excreted by glomerular filtration. The /sup 51/Cr-EDTA clearance was the same when injected separatelymore » and concomitantly with iohexol, indicating that glomerular filtration rate is not affected by iohexol. No dose dependency was observed in the investigated parameters t1/2 alpha, t1/2 beta, Vd, ClT or ClR. Iohexol pharmacokinetics are in correspondence with previously reported data on intravascular contrast media.« less

  15. Pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and carbamazepine in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Bâldea, Ioan; Leucuţa, Sorin E

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and carbamazepine in healthy volunteers. The study consisted of 2 periods: period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem, and period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 400 mg carbamazepine. Between the 2 periods, the participants were treated for 15 days with a single daily dose of 400 mg carbamazepine. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem administered in each treatment period were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. In the 2 periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 59 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 35 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with carbamazepine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.9 hours and 1.0 hour, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 234.9 ng·h/mL and 101.5 ng·h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.3 and 1.6 hours, respectively. Carbamazepine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and lowers its bioavailability by about 57%. The experimental data demonstrate the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and carbamazepine and suggest that the observed interaction may be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed.

  16. Predicting Pharmacokinetic Stability by Multiple Oral Administration of Atypical Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Kazuo; Sakiyama, Yojiro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Sugita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Lower fluctuation, i.e., lower peak-to-trough plasma-concentration variation at steady-state pharmacokinetics, has several advantages for the treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics. The reduction of peak concentration can decrease the risk of dose-dependent side effects, such as extrapyramidal symptom and somnolence, and by contrast the increase in trough concentration can decrease the incidence of lack of efficacy due to subtherapeutic drug concentration. Using a one-compartment simulation technique with pharmacokinetic parameters of each atypical antipsychotic collected from package inserts, the fluctuation index was calculated. Among the antipsychotics, the indices varied from 0.018 to 1.9, depending on dosing regimens, formulations and several pharmacokinetic properties. The order of simulated fluctuation index is active-moiety aripiprazole (b.i.d.)

  17. Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Alirocumab in Healthy Volunteers or Hypercholesterolemic Subjects Using an Indirect Response Model to Predict Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering: Support for a Biologics License Application Submission: Part II.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Xavier; Djebli, Nassim; Rauch, Clémence; Brunet, Aurélie; Hurbin, Fabrice; Martinez, Jean-Marie; Fabre, David

    2018-05-03

    Alirocumab, a human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. This analysis aimed to develop and qualify a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for alirocumab based on pooled data obtained from 13 phase I/II/III clinical trials. From a dataset of 2799 individuals (14,346 low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values), individual pharmacokinetic parameters from the population pharmacokinetic model presented in Part I of this series were used to estimate alirocumab concentrations. As a second step, we then developed the current population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model using an indirect response model with a Hill coefficient, parameterized with increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol elimination, to relate alirocumab concentrations to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. The population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model allowed the characterization of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of alirocumab in the target population and estimation of individual low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and derived pharmacodynamic parameters (the maximum decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values from baseline and the difference between baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the pre-dose value before the next alirocumab dose). Significant parameter-covariate relationships were retained in the model, with a total of ten covariates (sex, age, weight, free baseline PCSK9, total time-varying PCSK9, concomitant statin administration, total baseline PCSK9, co-administration of high-dose statins, disease status) included in the final population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to explain between-subject variability. Nevertheless, the high number of covariates included in the model did not have a clinically meaningful impact on model-derived pharmacodynamic parameters. This model successfully allowed the

  18. Prednisone Pharmacokinetics During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Rachel J; Easterling, Thomas R; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataramanan, Raman; Umans, Jason G; Ahmed, Mahmoud S; Clark, Shannon; Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Hays, Karen; Bennett, Brooke; Honaker, Matthew T; Thummel, Kenneth E; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F

    2018-05-07

    To evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of prednisone and its metabolite prednisolone in pregnant and lactating female subjects, 19 subjects received prednisone (4-40 mg/day orally) in early (n = 3), mid (n = 9), and late (n = 13) pregnancy as well as postpartum with (n = 2) and without (n = 5) lactation. Serial blood and urine samples were collected over 1 dosing interval. Prednisone and its metabolite, prednisolone, steady-state noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. During pregnancy, prednisone apparent oral clearance increased with dose (35.1 ± 11.4 L/h with 5 mg, 52.6 ± 5.2 L/h with 10 mg, and 64.3 ± 6.9 L/h with 20 mg, P = .001). Similarly, unbound prednisone apparent oral clearance increased with dose. In addition, prednisolone renal clearance increased with dose (0.3 ± 0.3 L/h with 5 mg, 0.5 ± 0.4 L/h with 10 mg, and 1.3 ± 1.1 L/h with 20 mg, P = .002). Higher prednisone (r = 0.57, P ≤ .05) and prednisolone (r = 0.75, P ≤ .05) concentrations led to a higher percentage of unbound drug. Breast-milk/plasma area under the concentration-time curve ratios were 0.5-0.6 for prednisone and 0.02-0.03 for prednisolone. Relative infant doses were 0.35% to 0.53% and 0.09% to 0.18%, for prednisone and prednisolone, respectively. Prednisone and prednisolone exhibit dose- and concentration-dependent pharmacokinetics during pregnancy, and infant exposure to these agents via breast milk is minimal. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment of bioavailability for two prodrugs of methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Yates, P. T.; Gregory, A. J.; Brooks, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to establish whether pharmacokinetic differences between two pro-drugs of methylprednisolone (MP) are likely to be of clinical significance. Methods This study was a single-blind, randomized, crossover design comparing the bioequivalence of MP released from the pro-drugs Promedrol (MP suleptanate) and Solu-Medrol (MP succinate) after a single 250 mg (MP equivalent) intramuscular injection to 20 healthy male volunteers. Bioequivalence was assessed by conventional pharmacokinetic analysis, by measuring pharmacodynamic responses plus a novel approach using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling. The main measure of pharmacodynamic response was whole blood histamine (WBH), a measure of basophil numbers. Results The MP Cmax was less for MP suleptanate due to a longer absorption half-life of the prodrug from the intramuscular injection site. The bioavailability of MP was equivalent when based on AUC with a MP suleptanate median 108% of the MP succinate value (90% CI: 102–114%). For Cmax the MP suleptanate median was 81% of the MP succinate value (90% CI: 75–88%). The tmax for MP from MP suleptanate was delayed relative to MP succinate. The median difference was 200% (90% non-parametric CI: 141–283%). The area under the WBH effect-time curve (AUEC) and the maximum response (Emax ) were found to be equivalent (90% CI: 98–113% and 93–109% respectively). The maximum changes in other white blood cell counts, blood glucose concentration and the parameters of the pharmacodynamic sigmoid Emax model (EC50, Emax and γ) were also not significantly different between prodrugs. Conclusions MP suleptanate is an acceptable pharmaceutical alternative to MP succinate. The use of both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response data together gives greater confidence in the conclusions compared with those based only on conventional pharmacokinetic bioequivalence analysis. PMID:9205819

  20. The effect of thalidomide on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and metabolites in advanced solid tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Jacqueline; Wu, Kehua; Janisch, Linda; Karrison, Theodore; House, Larry K.; Innocenti, Federico; Cohen, Ezra E. W.; Ratain, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Irinotecan and thalidomide are commonly administered antineoplastic drugs. Combination treatment may potentiate their antitumor effect and protect against irinotecan's intestinal toxicity. We investigated whether thalidomide can modulate the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and metabolites. Methods The study employed a crossover design in which advanced solid tumor patients were randomized to two arms and treated with irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) every 3 weeks and thalidomide orally (p.o.) 400 mg daily. Pharmacokinetic data when irinotecan was administered as a single agent in each arm were compared to data when the two study agents were co-administered using paired t tests. Eighty percent and 90% confidence intervals for the true difference were also calculated. Results The differences in pharmacokinetic parameters and metabolic markers after thalidomide administration were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. With the exception of APC T1/2, none of the upper confidence limits exceeds a 50% increase. Conclusions This study did not find any clinically meaningful effects of thalidomide on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan or its metabolites. PMID:21861128

  1. Evolution of Antibody-Drug Conjugate Tumor Disposition Model to Predict Preclinical Tumor Pharmacokinetics of Trastuzumab-Emtansine (T-DM1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Aman P; Maass, Katie F; Betts, Alison M; Wittrup, K Dane; Kulkarni, Chethana; King, Lindsay E; Khot, Antari; Shah, Dhaval K

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model capable of accurately characterizing intracellular disposition of ADCs is essential for a priori predicting unconjugated drug concentrations inside the tumor. Towards this goal, the objectives of this manuscript were to: (1) evolve previously published cellular disposition model of ADC with more intracellular details to characterize the disposition of T-DM1 in different HER2 expressing cell lines, (2) integrate the improved cellular model with the ADC tumor disposition model to a priori predict DM1 concentrations in a preclinical tumor model, and (3) identify prominent pathways and sensitive parameters associated with intracellular activation of ADCs. The cellular disposition model was augmented by incorporating intracellular ADC degradation and passive diffusion of unconjugated drug across tumor cells. Different biomeasures and chemomeasures for T-DM1, quantified in the companion manuscript, were incorporated into the modified model of ADC to characterize in vitro pharmacokinetics of T-DM1 in three HER2+ cell lines. When the cellular model was integrated with the tumor disposition model, the model was able to a priori predict tumor DM1 concentrations in xenograft mice. Pathway analysis suggested different contribution of antigen-mediated and passive diffusion pathways for intracellular unconjugated drug exposure between in vitro and in vivo systems. Global and local sensitivity analyses revealed that non-specific deconjugation and passive diffusion of the drug across tumor cell membrane are key parameters for drug exposure inside a cell. Finally, a systems pharmacokinetic model for intracellular processing of ADCs has been proposed to highlight our current understanding about the determinants of ADC activation inside a cell.

  2. Disclosure of pharmacokinetic drug results to understand nonadherence.

    PubMed

    van der Straten, Ariane; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Musara, Petina; Etima, Juliane; Naidoo, Sarita; Laborde, Nicole; Hartmann, Miriam; Levy, Lisa; Bennie, Thola; Cheng, Helen; Piper, Jeanna; Grossman, Cynthia I; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Mensch, Barbara

    2015-10-23

    In VOICE, a phase IIB trial of daily oral and vaginal tenofovir for HIV prevention, at least 50% of women receiving active products had undetectable tenofovir in all plasma samples tested. MTN-003D, an ancillary study using in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs), together with retrospective disclosure of plasma tenofovir pharmacokinetic results, explored adherence challenges during VOICE. We systematically recruited participants with pharmacokinetic data (median six plasma samples), categorized as low (0%, N = 79), inconsistent (1-74%, N = 28) or high (≥75%; N = 20) on the basis of frequency of tenofovir detection. Following disclosure of pharmacokinetic results, reactions were captured and adherence challenges systematically elicited; IDIs and FGDs were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. We interviewed 127 participants from South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The most common reactions to pharmacokinetic results included surprise (41%; low pharmacokinetic), acceptance (39%; inconsistent pharmacokinetic) and happiness (65%; high pharmacokinetic). On the basis of participants' explanations, we developed a typology of adherence patterns: noninitiation, discontinuation, misimplementation (resulting from visit-driven use, variable taking, modified dosing or regimen) and adherence. Fear of product side effects/harm was a frequent concern, fuelled by stories shared among participants. Although women with high pharmacokinetic levels reported similar concerns, several described strategies to overcome challenges. Women at all pharmacokinetic levels suggested real-time drug monitoring and feedback to improve adherence and reporting. Retrospective provision of pharmacokinetic results seemingly promoted candid discussions around nonadherence and study participation. The effect of real-time drug monitoring and feedback on adherence and accuracy of reporting should be evaluated in trials.

  3. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Chlorpyrifos versus its Major Metabolites Following Oral Administration in the Rat

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Campbell, James A.; Smith, Jordan N.

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used diethylphosphorothionate organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. Diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) are products of in vivo metabolism and environmental degradation of CPF and are routinely measured in urine as biomarkers of exposure. Hence, urinary biomonitoring of TCPy, DEP and DETP may be reflective of an individual’s contact with both the parent pesticide and exposure to these metabolites. In the current study, simultaneous dosing of 13C- or 2H- isotopically labeled CPF (13Clabeled CPF, 5 13C on the TCPy ring; or 2H-labeled CPF, diethyl-D10 (deuterium labeled) on the side chain) were exploited to directly compare themore » pharmacokinetics and metabolism of CPF with TCPy, and DETP. Individual metabolites were co-administered (oral gavage) with the parent compound at equal molar doses (14 μmol/kg; ~5mg/kg CPF). The key objective in the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites relative to their formation following a dose of CPF. Major differences in the pharmacokinetics between CPF and metabolites doses were observed within the first 3 h of exposure, due to the required metabolism of CPF to initially form TCPy and DETP. Nonetheless, once a substantial amount of CPF has been metabolized (≥ 3 h post-dosing) pharmacokinetics for both treatment groups and metabolites were very comparable. Urinary excretion rates for orally administered TCPy and DETP relative to 13C-CPF or 2H-CPF derived 13C-TCPy and 2H-DETP were consistent with blood pharmacokinetics, and the urinary clearance of metabolite dosed groups were comparable with the results for the 13C- and 2H-CPF groups. Since the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites were not modified by co-exposure to 3 CPF; it suggests that environmental exposure to low dose mixtures of pesticides and metabolites will not impact the pharmacokinetics of either.« less

  4. Effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of cilostazol.

    PubMed

    Bramer, S L; Forbes, W P

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles of cilostazol and its metabolites following a single oral dose of cilostazol 100 mg were compared between individuals with impaired and normal liver function. The study was conducted as a single-centre, open-label, single dose pharmacokinetic and tolerability trial. 12 patients with impaired and compensated liver function were compared with 12 volunteers with normal liver function. Participants in each group were matched for gender, age and weight. Of the 12 patients with hepatic impairment examined in this study, 10 had mild impairment (Child-Pugh class A) and 2 had moderate impairment (Child-Pugh class B). Blood and urine were collected up to 144 hours after drug administration. Pharmacokinetics were determined by noncompartmental methods. Protein binding did not differ between the groups (95.2% healthy volunteers, 94.6% hepatically impaired patients). Mean +/- SD unbound oral clearance of cilostazol decreased by 8.6% because of hepatic impairment (3380 +/- 1400 ml/min in healthy volunteers, 3260 +/- 2030 ml/min in hepatically impaired patients). Total urinary excretion of metabolites was significantly higher in healthy volunteers (26 vs 17% of dose). Overall, the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol and its metabolites, OPC-13213 and OPC-13015, were not substantially different in those with mild and moderate hepatic disease compared with values in healthy volunteers. Except for terminal-phase disposition half-life and apparent terminal-phase volume of distribution for cilostazol, the ratios of geometric means of pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma cilostazol, OPC-13213 and OPC-13015 in those with hepatic impairment versus healthy volunteers were close to 100%. Based on the results of the pharmacokinetic analysis, dose adjustment in patients with mild hepatic impairment is not necessary. However, caution should be exercised when cilostazol is administered to patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment.

  5. A Bayesian Framework for Coupled Estimation of Key Unknown Parameters of Land Water and Energy Balance Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, L.; Abdolghafoorian, A.

    2015-12-01

    The land surface is a key component of climate system. It controls the partitioning of available energy at the surface between sensible and latent heat, and partitioning of available water between evaporation and runoff. Water and energy cycle are intrinsically coupled through evaporation, which represents a heat exchange as latent heat flux. Accurate estimation of fluxes of heat and moisture are of significant importance in many fields such as hydrology, climatology and meteorology. In this study we develop and apply a Bayesian framework for estimating the key unknown parameters of terrestrial water and energy balance equations (i.e. moisture and heat diffusion) and their uncertainty in land surface models. These equations are coupled through flux of evaporation. The estimation system is based on the adjoint method for solving a least-squares optimization problem. The cost function consists of aggregated errors on state (i.e. moisture and temperature) with respect to observation and parameters estimation with respect to prior values over the entire assimilation period. This cost function is minimized with respect to parameters to identify models of sensible heat, latent heat/evaporation and drainage and runoff. Inverse of Hessian of the cost function is an approximation of the posterior uncertainty of parameter estimates. Uncertainty of estimated fluxes is estimated by propagating the uncertainty for linear and nonlinear function of key parameters through the method of First Order Second Moment (FOSM). Uncertainty analysis is used in this method to guide the formulation of a well-posed estimation problem. Accuracy of the method is assessed at point scale using surface energy and water fluxes generated by the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model at the selected AmeriFlux stations. This method can be applied to diverse climates and land surface conditions with different spatial scales, using remotely sensed measurements of surface moisture and temperature states

  6. Pharmacokinetics of oral gabapentin in greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Kukanich, Butch; Cohen, Rachael L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy greyhound dogs after single oral doses targeted at 10 and 20mg/kg PO. Six healthy greyhounds were enrolled (3 males, 3 females). Blood was obtained at predetermined times for the measurement of gabapentin plasma concentrations by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with computer software. The actual mean (and range) doses administered were 10.2 (9.1-12.0) mg/kg and 20.5 (18.2-24) mg/kg for the 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg targeted dose groups. The mean C(MAX) for the 10 and 20mg/kg groups were 8.54 and 13.22 microg/mL at 1.3 and 1.5h, and the terminal half-lives were 3.3 and 3.4h, respectively. The relative bioavailability of the 10mg/kg group was 1.13 compared to the 20mg/kg group. Gabapentin was rapidly absorbed and eliminated in dogs, indicating that frequent dosing is needed to maintain minimum targeted plasma concentrations. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interspecies Mixed-Effect Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Penicillin G in Cattle and Swine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengjie; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa; Baynes, Ronald; Huang, Qingbiao

    2014-01-01

    Extralabel drug use of penicillin G in food-producing animals may cause an excess of residues in tissue which will have the potential to damage human health. Of all the antibiotics, penicillin G may have the greatest potential for producing allergic responses to the consumer of food animal products. There are, however, no population pharmacokinetic studies of penicillin G for food animals. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to describe the time-concentration data profile of penicillin G across two species. Data were collected from previously published pharmacokinetic studies in which several formulations of penicillin G were administered to diverse populations of cattle and swine. Liver, kidney, and muscle residue data were also used in this study. Compartmental models with first-order absorption and elimination were fit to plasma and tissue concentrations using a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling approach. A 3-compartment model with extra tissue compartments was selected to describe the pharmacokinetics of penicillin G. Typical population parameter estimates (interindividual variability) were central volumes of distribution of 3.45 liters (12%) and 3.05 liters (8.8%) and central clearance of 105 liters/h (32%) and 16.9 liters/h (14%) for cattle and swine, respectively, with peripheral clearance of 24.8 liters/h (13%) and 9.65 liters/h (23%) for cattle and 13.7 liters/h (85%) and 0.52 liters/h (40%) for swine. Body weight and age were the covariates in the final pharmacokinetic models. This study established a robust model of penicillin for a large and diverse population of food-producing animals which could be applied to other antibiotics and species in future analyses. PMID:24867969

  8. Pharmacokinetic study of single- and multiple-dosing with metolazone tablets in healthy Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqing; Wang, Rutao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yun; Zheng, Heng; Feng, Yabo; Zhao, Na; Geng, Hongbin; Zhang, Wanzhi; Wen, Aidong

    2017-11-16

    Metolazone is a diuretic, saluretic and antihypertensive chemical compound from the quinazoline category that possesses medicinal features similar to those of other thiazide diuretic drugs. However, the pharmacokinetics of metolazone in the Chinese population has rarely been studied. This study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetic characteristics, safety characteristic, and tolerability of metolazone in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple doses taken orally as well as the effects that food and gender have on oral metolazone pharmacokinetic parameters. An open-label, randomized, and single- and multiple-dosing investigation was performed in healthy Chinese subjects. The investigation included 3 study groups: the 0.5 mg, 1 mg and 2 mg dose groups were the single-dose study groups in the first stage. Eligible volunteers were randomly and orally administered a single 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg metolazone tablet. The 0.5 mg dose group was also part of the multiple-dose study group, and the 1 mg dose group was the food-effect study group in the second stage. Human plasma samples were gathered pre-dosing and up to 48 h after dosing. The human plasma sample concentration of metolazone was quantified using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated by a noncompartmental analysis method using WinNonlin version 6.4. Tolerability was evaluated based on adverse events, medical examination, 12-lead ECG, and other clinical laboratory exams. Thirty eligible subjects (15 men and 15 women) were registered in our investigation and completed all of the study stages. The AUC and C max showed dose proportionality after a single dose based on the linear-regression analysis. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic data revealed that the differences between the male and female groups were not statistically significant. The t max of metolazone was increased by approximately 100% in the fed condition. Metolazone was

  9. [THE FEATURES OF PHARMACOKINETICS ANTIBIOTIC CEFTRIAXONE WITH INTRAVENOUS WAY THAT ARE DEPOSITED IN AUTOLOGOUS ERYTHROCYTES AND LEUKOCYTES OF RABBIT].

    PubMed

    Yussifov, Z; Lokhvitskii, S; Gulyaev, A

    2016-11-01

    In the experiment on 18 rabbits Сeftriaxone pharmacokinetics after intravenous injection of the medication deposited in autologous erythrocytes and leukocytes were studied. The features of the pharmacokinetics when administered Сeftriaxone in erythrocytes ghost and leukocytes as compared to traditional intravenous drug administration have been determined.It is discussed the possibility of antibiotics transport in the surgical site of infection via cellular carriers in the article. We do the comparative analysis of the main pharmacokinetic parameters of Ceftriaxone in experimental conditions of leukocyte, erythrocyte transport and intravenous way. Based on these results the authors come to the conclusion about the benefits of leukocyte antibiotic transport to the site of surgical infection.

  10. Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Macitentan: Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    de Kanter, Ruben; Sidharta, Patricia N; Delahaye, Stéphane; Gnerre, Carmela; Segrestaa, Jerome; Buchmann, Stephan; Kohl, Christopher; Treiber, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Macitentan is a novel dual endothelin receptor antagonist for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, mainly CYP3A4, to its active metabolite ACT-132577. A physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed by combining observations from clinical studies and physicochemical parameters as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion parameters determined in vitro. The model predicted the observed pharmacokinetics of macitentan and its active metabolite ACT-132577 after single and multiple dosing. It performed well in recovering the observed effect of the CYP3A4 inhibitors ketoconazole and cyclosporine, and the CYP3A4 inducer rifampicin, as well as in predicting interactions with S-warfarin and sildenafil. The model was robust enough to allow prospective predictions of macitentan-drug combinations not studied, including an alternative dosing regimen of ketoconazole and nine other CYP3A4-interacting drugs. Among these were the HIV drugs ritonavir and saquinavir, which were included because HIV infection is a known risk factor for the development of PAH. This example of the application of PBPK modeling to predict drug-drug interactions was used to support the labeling of macitentan (Opsumit).

  11. Intravenous application of HI-6 salts (dichloride and dimethansulphonate) in pigs: comparison with pharmacokinetics profile after intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Zdarova Karasova, Jana; Zemek, Filip; Kunes, Martin; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Chladek, Jaroslav; Jun, Daniel; Bures, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Oxime HI-6 is an acetylcholinesterase reactivator therapeutically efficient against nerve agents. Because of their physico-chemical properties, oximes are typically applied intramuscularly (i.m.). This route of administration has also some disadvantages, and alternative strategies ought to be examined. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles of two HI-6 salts after their intravenous (i.v.) administration, and compare the results with the known pharmacokinetics after i.m. administration. Pigs were administered with HI-6 salts (i.v), either HI-6 dichloride (10.71 mg/kg) or molar equivalent HI-6 dimethansulphonate (13.59 mg/kg). Doses of the HI-6 salts corresponded with a standard HI-6 dichloride dose in one autoinjector (500 mg) and were recalculated for one kilogram of body weight. The main pharmacokinetic parameters are comparable after i.v. and i.m. HI-6 administration. The compared pharmacokinetic parameters were half-life, terminal rate constant, mean residence time of the molecule in the body, clearance, and the apparent volume in the terminal phase. The bioavailability after i.m. administration was comparable with that of i.v.; these results suggest that the oxime is well released from the muscle depot. Significant differences were found in parameters Cmax and Tmax which are important in cases of emergency when rapidity and bioavailability are paramount for the success of treatment. I.v. administration should solve the problem of rapid clearance. Infusion or bolus administration may be considered as a logical subsequent step in oxime treatment strategy. The main advantage is in maintenance of an effective therapeutic plasma concentration, a more easily achievable effective therapeutic concentration, and fewer local adverse reactions.

  12. Simultaneous acquisition sequence for improved hepatic pharmacokinetics quantification accuracy (SAHA) for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of liver.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jia; Sun, Yongliang; Xie, Sheng; Zhang, Bida; Huang, Feng; Koken, Peter; Smink, Jouke; Yuan, Chun; Chen, Huijun

    2018-05-01

    To propose a simultaneous acquisition sequence for improved hepatic pharmacokinetics quantification accuracy (SAHA) method for liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The proposed SAHA simultaneously acquired high temporal-resolution 2D images for vascular input function extraction using Cartesian sampling and 3D large-coverage high spatial-resolution liver dynamic contrast-enhanced images using golden angle stack-of-stars acquisition in an interleaved way. Simulations were conducted to investigate the accuracy of SAHA in pharmacokinetic analysis. A healthy volunteer and three patients with cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma were included in the study to investigate the feasibility of SAHA in vivo. Simulation studies showed that SAHA can provide closer results to the true values and lower root mean square error of estimated pharmacokinetic parameters in all of the tested scenarios. The in vivo scans of subjects provided fair image quality of both 2D images for arterial input function and portal venous input function and 3D whole liver images. The in vivo fitting results showed that the perfusion parameters of healthy liver were significantly different from those of cirrhotic liver and HCC. The proposed SAHA can provide improved accuracy in pharmacokinetic modeling and is feasible in human liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, suggesting that SAHA is a potential tool for liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:2629-2641, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. A systemic study on key parameters affecting nanocomposite coatings on magnesium substrates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ian; Wang, Sebo Michelle; Silken, Christine; Liu, Huinan

    2016-05-01

    Nanocomposite coatings offer multiple functions simultaneously to improve the interfacial properties of magnesium (Mg) alloys for skeletal implant applications, e.g., controlling the degradation rate of Mg substrates, improving bone cell functions, and providing drug delivery capability. However, the effective service time of nanocomposite coatings may be limited due to their early delamination from the Mg-based substrates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to address the delamination issue of nanocomposite coatings, improve the coating properties for reducing the degradation of Mg-based substrates, and thus improve their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The surface conditions of the substrates, polymer component type of the nanocomposite coatings, and post-deposition processing are the key parameters that contribute to the efficacy of the nanocomposite coatings in regulating substrate degradation and bone cell responses. Specifically, the effects of metallic surface versus alkaline heat-treated hydroxide surface of the substrates on coating quality were investigated. For the nanocomposite coatings, nanophase hydroxyapatite (nHA) was dispersed in three types of biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), or poly(caprolactone) (PCL) to determine which polymer component could provide integrated properties for slowest Mg degradation. The nanocomposite coatings with or without post-deposition processing, i.e., melting, annealing, were compared to determine which processing route improved the properties of the nanocomposite coatings most significantly. The results showed that optimizing the coating processes addressed the delamination issue. The melted then annealed nHA/PCL coating on the metallic Mg substrates showed the slowest degradation and the best coating adhesion, among all the combinations of conditions studied; and, it improved the adhesion density of BMSCs

  14. Investigation of a Potential Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Nebivolol and Fluvoxamine in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Briciu, Corina; Muntean, Dana; Bocsan, Corina; Buzoianu, Anca; Achim, Marcela; Tomuta, Ioan; Todor, Ioana; Neag, Maria

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether fluvoxamine coadministration can influence the pharmacokinetic properties of nebivolol and its active hydroxylated metabolite (4-OH-nebivolol) and to assess the consequences of this potential pharmacokinetic interaction upon nebivolol pharmacodynamics. This open-label, non-randomized, sequential clinical trial consisted of two periods: Period 1 (Reference), during which each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg nebivolol and Period 2 (Test), when a combination of 5 mg nebivolol and 100 mg fluvoxamine was given to all subjects, after a 6-days pretreatment regimen with fluvoxamine (50-100 mg/day). Non-compartmental analysis was used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of nebivolol and its active metabolite. The pharmacodynamic parameters (blood pressure and heart rate) were assessed at rest after each nebivolol intake, during both study periods. Fluvoxamine pretreatment increased Cmax and AUC0-∞  of nebivolol (Cmax: 1.67 ± 0.690  vs 2.20 ± 0.970  ng/mL; AUC0-∞: 12.1 ± 11.0  vs 19.3 ± 19.5  ng*h/mL ) and of its active metabolite (Cmax: 0.680  ± 0.220  vs 0.960 ± 0.290  ng/mL; AUC0-∞: 17.6 ±20.1  vs 25.5 ± 29.9  ng*h/mL). Apart from Cmax,AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, the other pharmacokinetic parameters (tmax, kel and t½) were not significantly different between study periods. As for the pharmacodynamic analysis, decreases in blood pressure and heart rate after nebivolol administration were similar with and without fluvoxamine concomitant intake. Due to enzymatic inhibition, fluvoxamine increases the exposure to nebivolol and its active hydroxylated metabolite in healthy volunteers. This did not influence the blood pressure and heart-rate lowering effects of the beta-blocker administered as single-dose. However, more detail studies involving actual patients are required to further investigate the clinical relevance of this drug interaction. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For

  15. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered low-dose rapamycin in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Larson, Jeanne C; Allstadt, Sara D; Fan, Timothy M; Khanna, Chand; Lunghofer, Paul J; Hansen, Ryan J; Gustafson, Daniel L; Legendre, Alfred M; Galyon, Gina D; LeBlanc, Amy K; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of orally administered rapamycin in healthy dogs. 5 healthy purpose-bred hounds. The study consisted of 2 experiments. In experiment 1, each dog received rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg, PO) once; blood samples were obtained immediately before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. In experiment 2, each dog received rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 5 days; blood samples were obtained immediately before and at 3, 6, 24, 27, 30, 48, 51, 54, 72, 75, 78, 96, 96.5, 97, 98, 100, 102, 108, 120, 144, and 168 hours after the first dose. Blood rapamycin concentration was determined by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental and noncompartmental analyses. Mean ± SD blood rapamycin terminal half-life, area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 48 hours after dosing, and maximum concentration were 38.7 ± 12.7 h, 140 ± 23.9 ng•h/mL, and 8.39 ± 1.73 ng/mL, respectively, for experiment 1, and 99.5 ± 89.5 h, 126 ± 27.1 ng•h/mL, and 5.49 ± 1.99 ng/mL, respectively, for experiment 2. Pharmacokinetic parameters for rapamycin after administration of 5 daily doses differed significantly from those after administration of 1 dose. Results indicated that oral administration of low-dose (0.1 mg/kg) rapamycin to healthy dogs achieved blood concentrations measured in nanograms per milliliter. The optimal dose and administration frequency of rapamcyin required to achieve therapeutic effects in tumor-bearing dogs, as well as toxicity after chronic dosing, need to be determined.

  16. Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of lacosamide.

    PubMed

    Cawello, Willi

    2015-09-01

    Lacosamide-a third-generation antiepileptic drug available in multiple formulations-was first approved in 2008 as adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures (POS) in adults. In 2014, lacosamide was approved as monotherapy for POS by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A loading dose administration was approved in 2013 by the European Medicines Agency and in 2014 by the FDA. Unlike traditional sodium channel blockers affecting fast inactivation, lacosamide selectively enhances sodium channel slow inactivation. This mechanism of action results in stabilization of hyperexcitable neuronal membranes, inhibition of neuronal firing and reduction in long-term channel availability without affecting physiological function. Lacosamide is rapidly absorbed, with maximum plasma concentrations reached 0.5-4 h after intake. Oral bioavailability is high (100 %) for a dose up to 800 mg. Bioavailability is irrespective of food intake. Variability in pharmacokinetic parameters is low (coefficients of variation almost all <20 %). The pharmacokinetic profile of lacosamide is consistent in healthy subjects and across different patient populations studied. Lacosamide elimination from plasma occurs with a terminal half-life of approximately 13 h in young subjects and 14-16 h in elderly subjects; this difference does not impact the dose regimen. Lacosamide produces a pharmacodynamic effect that is closely correlated with its plasma concentration. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship for reduction of seizure frequency can be described by a maximum effect (E max) model. Lacosamide does not induce or inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes or known drug transporter systems, has low protein binding of less than 15 % and, because it has multiple elimination pathways, it has no clinically relevant interactions with commonly prescribed medications.

  17. [Pharmacokinetics of digoxin in hyperthyroidism. Effect of methimazole].

    PubMed

    Izbicka, Maria; Gasińska, Teresa; Dec, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities may be the only manifestations of overt hyperthyroidism. In patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation digoxin can be beneficial in controlling the symptoms and signs, but hyperthyroid patients show an impaired response or even resistance to digoxin treatment. The aim of the study is to establish: 1. Are there any differences in the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of digoxin between hypertyroid and euthyroid patients? 2. Does simultaneous administration of digoxin and methimazole affect the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of dogoxin? 3. Does methimazole-induced euthyroidism change the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of digoxin? The subject of the study were 28 patients with hyperthyroidism and 15 healthy persons. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of digoxin. Moreover we evaluated pharmacokinetics of a single dose of digoxin after simultaneous administration of digoxin and methimazole in 12 patients and 12 methimazole treated patients werere-assessed once they had become euthyroid. Hyperthyroid patients showed significantly lower serum digoxin concentrations, shorter T1/2 beta and a significantly smaller area under the concentration curve (AUC) that the control group. Administration of methimazole did not affect digoxin pharmacokinetics. In hyperthyroid patients: 1. the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of digoxin does differ from that observed in healthy subjects. 2.methimazole do not alter digoxin pharmacokinetics.

  18. Single jugular vein cannulated rats may not be suitable for intravenous pharmacokinetic screening of high logP compounds.

    PubMed

    Gaud, Nilesh; Kumar, Anoop; Matta, Muralikrishna; Kole, Prashant; Sridhar, Srikanth; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Holenarsipur, Vinay K

    2017-03-01

    Rat is commonly used for pharmacokinetic screening during pharmaceutical lead optimization. To handle the large number of compounds, rats with a single jugular vein cannulation are commonly utilized for intravenous pharmacokinetic studies, where the same cannula is used both for dose administration and blood sampling. We demonstrate that the single cannula method is not suitable for all compounds, especially for high logP compounds. We propose an alternative dual cannulation technique in which two cannulas are placed in the same jugular vein, thus avoiding an additional surgery. Compounds were administered orally or via intravenous infusion to compare PK parameters, including bioavailability, using both procedures. For itraconazole and amiodarone, known to bind to the cannula, the measured plasma exposures were substantially higher in the single cannulated rats than those from dual cannulated rats. Area under the plasma concentration time curve differed by 79% and 74% for itraconazole and amiodarone, respectively. When compared to the single cannulation approach, clearance, volume of distribution and bioavailability determined by dual cannulation were 39%, 60% and 38% higher for itraconazole, and 46%, 34% and 42% higher for amiodarone, respectively. In contrast, all pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between single and dual-cannulated rats for the hydrophilic compound atenolol. Based on these results, we recommend the use of dual cannulated rats for intravenous pharmacokinetic studies when testing a series of hydrophobic compounds that may be prone to non-specific binding to the cannula. If single cannulated model is selected for pharmacokinetic screening, we recommend a bridging study with dual cannulated rats with representative compounds of a given chemical series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of tobacco smoke exposure on pharmacokinetics of ethyl alcohol in alcohol preferring and non-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Florek, Ewa; Kulza, Maksymilian; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Gomółka, Ewa; Jawień, Wojciech; Teżyk, Artur; Napierała, Marta

    2015-10-01

    A vast majority of people who abuse alcohol are also defined as "heavy smokers". Tobacco smokes induces CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6 isoenzymes, but on the other hand, ethanol activates CYP2E1, which can be important during combined, chronic use of both of them. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of tobacco smoke xenobiotics on ethanol pharmacokinetics and the level of its metabolites in alcohol preferring and non-preferring rats. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, methanol, n-propanol and n-butanol were determined in whole blood by means of gas chromatography. Cotinine in serum was determined by LC-MS/MS. A non-compartmental analysis (cotinine, acetaldehyde) and Widmark equation (ethanol) were used for pharmacokinetic parameters calculation. Ethanol levels were lower in animals exposed to tobacco smoke compared to rats receiving this xenobiotic, without a prior exposure to tobacco smoke. Lower values of the studied pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in the alcohol preferring males compared to the non-alcohol preferring rats. Both n-propanol and n-butanol had higher values of the pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed in the animals exposed to tobacco smoke and ethanol compared to those, which ethanol was administered only once. An increase in maximum concentration and the area under concentration-time curve for ethanol after its administration to rats preferring alcohol and exposed to tobacco smoke are accompanied by a decrease in the volume of distribution. The changes in the volume of distribution may be caused by an increase in the first-pass effect, in the intestinal tract and/or in the liver. The acetaldehyde elimination rate constant was significantly higher in alcohol-preferring animals. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Paracetamol plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics in children

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B J; Holford, N H G; Woollard, G A; Chan, P L S

    1998-01-01

    Aims Paracetamol has a central action for both antipyresis and analgesia. Maximum temperature decrease and peak analgesia are reported at 1–2 h after peak plasma paracetamol concentration. We wished to determine the relationship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics in children. Methods Concentration-time profiles in plasma and CSF after nasogastric paracetamol 40 mg kg−1 were measured in nine children who had indwelling ventricular drains. Estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters was made using both a standard two-stage population approach (MKMODEL) and a nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM). Results were standardized to a 70 kg person using an allometric power model. Results Both approaches gave similar estimates. NONMEM parameter estimates were clearance 10.2 l h−1 (CV 47%), volume of distribution 67.1 l (CV 58%) and absorption rate constant 0.77 h−1 (CV 49%). Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations lagged behind those of plasma. The equilibration half time was 0.72 h (CV 117%). The CSF/plasma partition coefficient was 1.18 (CV 8%). Conclusions Higher concentrations in the CSF probably reflect the lower free water volume of plasma. The CSF equilibration half time suggests that CSF kinetics approximate more closely to the effect compartment than plasma, but further time is required for paracetamol to exert its effects. Effect site concentrations equilibrate slowly with plasma. Paracetamol should be given 1–2 h before anticipated pain or fever in children. PMID:9764964

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-12-01

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  2. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, Christopher M.; Chang, Daniel T.; Brooks, Raina D.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Phillips, Martin B.; Hypes, Ethan D.; Fair, Matthew J.; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Johnson, Jeffre; Dary, Curtis C.; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be a great resource for the construction of models pertaining to new chemicals. A PBPK knowledgebase was compiled and developed from existing PBPK-related articles and used to develop new models. From 2,039 PBPK-related articles published between 1977 and 2013, 307 unique chemicals were identified for use as the basis of our knowledgebase. Keywords related to species, gender, developmental stages, and organs were analyzed from the articles within the PBPK knowledgebase. A correlation matrix of the 307 chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase was calculated based on pharmacokinetic-relevant molecular descriptors. Chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase were ranked based on their correlation toward ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Next, multiple chemicals were selected to represent exact matches, close analogues, or non-analogues of the target case study chemicals. Parameters, equations, or experimental data relevant to existing models for these chemicals and their analogues were used to construct new models, and model predictions were compared to observed values. This compiled knowledgebase provides a chemical structure-based approach for identifying PBPK models relevant to other chemical entities. Using suitable correlation metrics, we demonstrated that models of chemical analogues in the PBPK knowledgebase can guide the construction of PBPK models for other chemicals. PMID:26871706

  3. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingtao; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Grulke, Christopher M; Chang, Daniel T; Brooks, Raina D; Leonard, Jeremy A; Phillips, Martin B; Hypes, Ethan D; Fair, Matthew J; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Johnson, Jeffre; Dary, Curtis C; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be a great resource for the construction of models pertaining to new chemicals. A PBPK knowledgebase was compiled and developed from existing PBPK-related articles and used to develop new models. From 2,039 PBPK-related articles published between 1977 and 2013, 307 unique chemicals were identified for use as the basis of our knowledgebase. Keywords related to species, gender, developmental stages, and organs were analyzed from the articles within the PBPK knowledgebase. A correlation matrix of the 307 chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase was calculated based on pharmacokinetic-relevant molecular descriptors. Chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase were ranked based on their correlation toward ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Next, multiple chemicals were selected to represent exact matches, close analogues, or non-analogues of the target case study chemicals. Parameters, equations, or experimental data relevant to existing models for these chemicals and their analogues were used to construct new models, and model predictions were compared to observed values. This compiled knowledgebase provides a chemical structure-based approach for identifying PBPK models relevant to other chemical entities. Using suitable correlation metrics, we demonstrated that models of chemical analogues in the PBPK knowledgebase can guide the construction of PBPK models for other chemicals.

  4. Prediction of the Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Triptolide in Rats Based on Endogenous Molecules in Pre-Dose Baseline Serum

    PubMed Central

    Aa, Jiye; Zheng, Tian; Shi, Jian; Li, Mengjie; Wang, Xinwen; Zhao, Chunyan; Xiao, Wenjing; Yu, Xiaoyi; Sun, Runbin; Gu, Rongrong; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Liang; Hao, Gang; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Wang, Guangji

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variances usually affect drug metabolism and disposition, and hence result in either ineffectiveness or toxicity of a drug. In addition to genetic polymorphism, the multiple confounding factors of lifestyles, such as dietary preferences, contribute partially to individual variances. However, the difficulty of quantifying individual diversity greatly challenges the realization of individualized drug therapy. This study aims at quantitative evaluating the association between individual variances and the pharmacokinetics. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecules in pre-dose baseline serum were profiled using gas chromatography mass spectrometry to represent the individual variances of the model rats provided with high fat diets (HFD), routine chows and calorie restricted (CR) chows. Triptolide and its metabolites were determined using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Metabonomic and pharmacokinetic data revealed that rats treated with the varied diets had distinctly different metabolic patterns and showed differential Cmax values, AUC and drug metabolism after oral administration of triptolide. Rats with fatty chows had the lowest Cmax and AUC values and the highest percentage of triptolide metabolic transformation, while rats with CR chows had the highest Cmax and AUC values and the least percentage of triptolide transformation. Multivariate linear regression revealed that in baseline serum, the concentrations of creatinine and glutamic acid, which is the precursor of GSH, were linearly negatively correlated to Cmax and AUC values. The glutamic acid and creatinine in baseline serum were suggested as the potential markers to represent individual diversity and as predictors of the disposal and pharmacokinetics of triptolide. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the robust potential of metabonomics in characterizing individual variances and identifying relevant markers that have the potential to facilitate

  5. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting the F(ab)-mediated effect of monoclonal antibodies in vivo by combining cell-level kinetic and pharmacokinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Krippendorff, Ben-Fillippo; Oyarzún, Diego A; Huisinga, Wilhelm

    2012-04-01

    Cell-level kinetic models for therapeutically relevant processes increasingly benefit the early stages of drug development. Later stages of the drug development processes, however, rely on pharmacokinetic compartment models while cell-level dynamics are typically neglected. We here present a systematic approach to integrate cell-level kinetic models and pharmacokinetic compartment models. Incorporating target dynamics into pharmacokinetic models is especially useful for the development of therapeutic antibodies because their effect and pharmacokinetics are inherently interdependent. The approach is illustrated by analysing the F(ab)-mediated inhibitory effect of therapeutic antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor. We build a multi-level model for anti-EGFR antibodies by combining a systems biology model with in vitro determined parameters and a pharmacokinetic model based on in vivo pharmacokinetic data. Using this model, we investigated in silico the impact of biochemical properties of anti-EGFR antibodies on their F(ab)-mediated inhibitory effect. The multi-level model suggests that the F(ab)-mediated inhibitory effect saturates with increasing drug-receptor affinity, thereby limiting the impact of increasing antibody affinity on improving the effect. This indicates that observed differences in the therapeutic effects of high affinity antibodies in the market and in clinical development may result mainly from Fc-mediated indirect mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity.

  7. Prophylactic ranitidine treatment in critically ill children--a population pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hawwa, Ahmed F; Westwood, Paul M; Collier, Paul S; Millership, Jeffrey S; Yakkundi, Shirish; Thurley, Gillian; Shields, Mike D; Nunn, Anthony J; Halliday, Henry L; McElnay, James C

    2013-05-01

    To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in critically ill children and to determine the influence of various clinical and demographic factors on its disposition. Data were collected prospectively from 78 paediatric patients (n = 248 plasma samples) who received oral or intravenous ranitidine for prophylaxis against stress ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding or the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Plasma samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the data were subjected to population pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. A one-compartment model best described the plasma concentration profile, with an exponential structure for interindividual errors and a proportional structure for intra-individual error. After backward stepwise elimination, the final model showed a significant decrease in objective function value (-12.618; P < 0.001) compared with the weight-corrected base model. Final parameter estimates for the population were 32.1 l h(-1) for total clearance and 285 l for volume of distribution, both allometrically modelled for a 70 kg adult. Final estimates for absorption rate constant and bioavailability were 1.31 h(-1) and 27.5%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between age and weight-corrected ranitidine pharmacokinetic parameters in the final model, with the covariate for cardiac failure or surgery being shown to reduce clearance significantly by a factor of 0.46. Currently, ranitidine dose recommendations are based on children's weights. However, our findings suggest that a dosing scheme that takes into consideration both weight and cardiac failure/surgery would be more appropriate in order to avoid administration of higher or more frequent doses than necessary. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and its metabolite in peridural anesthesia administered to pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moisés, Elaine Christine Dantas; Duarte, Luciana de Barros; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Marques, Maria Paula; Lanchote, Vera Lúcia; Duarte, Geraldo; da Cunha, Sérgio Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Peridural blockade with lidocaine, bupivacaine, and fentanyl is an anesthetic procedure extensively used in obstetrics, justifying the pharmacokinetic study of these drugs during labor. To investigate the influence of the physiopathological changes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and its metabolite monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) in pregnant women subjected to peridural anesthesia. Ten normal pregnant women (group 1) and six pregnant women with GDM (group 2) were studied, all of them at term. The patients received 200 mg 2% lidocaine hydrochloride without a vasoconstrictor by the peridural locoregional route. Maternal blood samples were collected at predetermined times for the analysis of lidocaine and MEGX by chromatography and pharmacokinetic analysis. The median pharmacokinetic parameters of lidocaine for groups 1 and 2 (P pharmacokinetic parameters of MEGX for groups 1 and 2 (P

  9. Comparative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two oral formulations of flurbiprofen: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study in Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Aisha; Najmi, Muzammil Hasan; Abbas, Mateen

    2013-11-01

    Comparative bioavailability studies are conducted to establish the bioequivalence of generic formulation with that of branded reference formulation, providing confidence to clinicians to use these products interchangeably. This study was carried out to compare a locally manufactured formulation of flurbiprofen with that of a branded product. Twenty two healthy male adults received a single dose of flurbiprofen (100mg) either generic or branded product according to randomization scheme on each of 2 periods. Blood samples were collected and plasma flurbiprofen concentration was determined by a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters like AUC(0-t), AUC(0-oo), Cmax, Tmax, t½, Vd and clearance were determined. The 90% CI for the ratio of geometric means of test to reference product's pharmacokinetic variables was calculated. Pharmacokinetic parameters for two formulations were comparable. Ratio of means of AUC(0-24), AUC(0-oo) and Cmax for test to reference products and 90% CI for these ratios were within the acceptable range. The p-values calculated by TOST were much less than the specified value (p-0.05). ANOVA gave p-values which were more than the specified value (p-0.05) for sequence, subject, period and formulation. Test formulation of flurbiprofen (tablet Flurso) was found to meet the criteria for bioequivalence to branded product (tablet Ansaid) based on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Scopolamine Intranasal Gel Formulation (INSCOP) During Antiorthostatic Bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, L.; Du, B.; Daniels, V.

    2010-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is experienced during early flight days of space missions and on reduced gravity simulation flights which require treatment with medications. Oral administration of scopolamine tablets is still a common practice to prevent SMS symptoms. Bioavailability of medications taken by mouth for SMS is often low and variable. Intranasal (IN) administration of medications has been reported to achieve higher and more reliable bioavailability than from an equivalent oral dose. In this FDA reviewed phase II clinical trial, we evaluated pharmacokinetics of an investigative new drug formulation, INSCOP during ambulatory (AMB) and antiorthostatic bedrest (HBR), a ground-based microgravity analog. Twelve subjects including 6 males and 6 females received 0.2 and 0.4 mg doses of INSCOP on separate days during AMB and ABR in a randomized, double blind cross over experimental design. Blood samples were collected at regular time intervals for 24 h post dose and analyzed for free scopolamine concentrations by an LC-MS-MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using concentration versus time data and compared between AMB and ABR conditions. Results indicated that maximum concentration and relative bioavailability increased marginally during ABR compared to AMB; differences in PK parameters between AMB and ABR were greater with 0.2 mg than with 0.4 mg dose. Gender specific differences in PK parameters was observed both during AMB and ABR with differences higher in females between the two conditions than in males. A significant observation is that while gender differences in PK appear to exist, the differences in primary PK parameters between AMB and ABR after IN administration, unlike oral administration, are minimal and may not be clinically significant for both genders.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Atazanavir in HIV-1-Infected Children Treated With Atazanavir Powder and Ritonavir: Combined Analysis of the PRINCE-1 and -2 Studies.

    PubMed

    Sevinsky, Heather; Zaru, Luna; Wang, Reena; Xu, Xiaohui; Pikora, Cheryl; Correll, Todd A; Eley, Timothy

    2018-06-01

    Two clinical studies (PRINCE-1 and -2) in HIV-1-infected children assessed the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor background therapy plus once-daily atazanavir (ATV) powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV + RTV). Here, we present a combined analysis of ATV pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics across these studies. Intensive 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles at steady state compared ATV exposures (area under the concentration-time curve in one dosing interval) in 5 ATV + RTV baseline weight-band dosing categories, with historic data in adults receiving ATV + RTV 300/100 mg capsules. Repeated ATV Ctrough measurements over 48 weeks explored relationships between ATV composite Ctrough quartiles (CCQs) with virologic efficacy and key safety parameters. Of 146 children included in this combined analysis, 49.3% were male, 56.8% were Black/African American and 62.3% were antiretroviral experienced. Proportions with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 48 were 13/32, 24/32, 19/32 and 13/28 in the lowest through highest ATV CCQs, respectively. Mean changes from baseline in total bilirubin at week 48 were +0.3, +0.5, +0.6 and +1.0 mg/dL in the lowest through highest ATV CCQs, respectively. Corresponding proportions with adverse events of hyperbilirubinemia by week 48 were 1/36, 4/36, 5/36 and 13/35, respectively. Changes from baseline in total amylase or electrocardiogram parameters and adverse events of diarrhea did not vary by ATV CCQs. Weight-band dosing of ATV + RTV plus optimized dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in young HIV-1-infected children achieved similar ATV exposure to that in adults; no unexpected safety findings occurred, and with the exception of lower virologic suppression in the lowest ATV CCQ, there was no apparent trend in virologic suppression across ATV CCQs.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Phenytoin in Head Trauma and Cerebrovascular Accident Patients in an Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Alimardani, Shahnaz; Sadrai, Sima; Masoumi, Hamidreza Taghvaye; Salari, Pooneh; Najafi, Atabak; Eftekhar, Behzad; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Acute brain injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Phenytoin has been commonly used as an anticonvulsant agent for the treatment or prophylaxis of seizures following acute brain injury. After a severe head injury, several pharmacokinetic changes occur. The aim of this study is the comparative evaluation of phenytoin serum concentration in patients with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury (TBI). This prospective observational study was performed on twenty adult brain injury patients who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit and required phenytoin for the treatment or prophylaxis of postinjury seizures. For all the patients, phenytoin serum concentration was determined in three scheduled time points. Phenytoin serum concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between patients with TBI and cerebrovascular accident (CVA). The V max and K m were significantly higher in head trauma (HT) patients than the CVA group. The phenytoin concentration (C p ) and the C p /dose ratio were significantly higher in the CVA group patients during the first sampling ( P < 0.05). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation П (APACHE П) score was significantly lower than the baseline at the end of the study in each group of patients ( P < 0.05). In addition, no significant correlation was observed between V max , K m , C p , C p /dose ratio, and APACHE II scores at the time of sampling. Due to significant differences in phenytoin plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters between HT and CVA patients, close attention must be paid to the pharmacokinetic behavior of phenytoin in the efforts to improve the patient's outcome after a severe HT.

  13. [LC-MS/MS method for determination of tripterine in plasma: pharmacokinetic study in Beagles].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shi-Jia; Hu, Jie-Hui; Xu, Mei-Juan; Liu, Zi-Xiu; Zhou, Ling; Ju, Wen-Zheng

    2016-07-01

    To establish a LC-MS/MS method for determination of tripterine in Beagle plasma and study its pharmacokinetics after oral administration of tripterygium tablet. Plasma samples were extracted with dichloromethane and separated on a Phenomenex Luna C₈ (2.0 mm×50 mm, 3 μm) column with methanol-acetonitrile isopropanol(1∶1)-1‰formic acid (15∶55 ∶30) as the mobile phase. Tripterine ([M+H] ⁺, m/z 451.3/201.1) and internal standard prednisolone ([M+H] ⁺, m/z 361.1/147.1) were monitored in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The concentration-time curves were simulated by drug and statistic software 1.0 and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. There was a good linear relationship between peak area ratio and concentration of tripterine and internal standard prednisolone within range of 0.680 0-136.0 μg•L⁻¹. The limit of quantitation was 0.680 0 μg•L⁻¹ and the intra- and inter-day precision was within 6.15%. The absolute recovery rate was between 50.42% to 51.65%. The concentration-time curves were consistent with the one-compartment model(w=1/cc). The main pharmacokinetic parameters after a single dose were as follows: Cmax (35.64±9.540) μg •L⁻¹,Tmax(2.62±0.69) h,T1/2(2.93±0.29) h, CL (0.308±0.056) L•kg⁻¹•h⁻¹, AUC0-12 (131.16±31.94) μg•L•h⁻¹, AUC0-∞ (142.83±37.57) μg•L•h⁻¹. The established LC-MS/MS method was proved to be sensitive, accurate and convenient, suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of Tripterygium tablet in Beagle dogs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. An allometric pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics model for BI 893923, a novel IGF-1 receptor inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Titze, Melanie I; Schaaf, Otmar; Hofmann, Marco H; Sanderson, Michael P; Zahn, Stephan K; Quant, Jens; Lehr, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    BI 893923 is a novel IGF1R/INSR inhibitor with promising anti-tumor efficacy. Dose-limiting hyperglycemia has been observed for other IGF1R/INSR inhibitors in clinical trials. To counterbalance anti-tumor efficacy with the risk of hyperglycemia and to determine the therapeutic window, we aimed to develop a translational pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics model for BI 893923. This aimed to translate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics from animals to humans by an allometrically scaled semi-mechanistic model. Model development was based on a previously published PK/PD model for BI 893923 in mice (Titze et al., Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 77:1303-1314, 13). PK and blood glucose parameters were scaled by allometric principles using body weight as a scaling factor along with an estimation of the parameter exponents. Biomarker and tumor growth parameters were extrapolated from mouse to human using the body weight ratio as scaling factor. The allometric PK/PD model successfully described BI 893923 pharmacokinetics and blood glucose across mouse, rat, dog, minipig, and monkey. BI 893923 human exposure as well as blood glucose and tumor growth were predicted and compared for different dosing scenarios. A comprehensive risk-benefit analysis was conducted by determining the net clinical benefit for each schedule. An oral dose of 2750 mg BI 893923 divided in three evenly distributed doses was identified as the optimal human dosing regimen, predicting a tumor growth inhibition of 90.4% without associated hyperglycemia. Our model supported human therapeutic dose estimation by rationalizing the optimal efficacious dosing regimen with minimal undesired effects. This modeling approach may be useful for PK/PD scaling of other IGF1R/INSR inhibitors.

  15. [Determination of plasma concentration of five phenolic acid by LC-MS/MS and study of pharmacokinetics in rats after Mailuoning injection].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Tan, Heng-Shan; Ju, Wen-Zheng; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-05-01

    To establish a LC-MS/MS method for quantification of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 3,4-DCQA, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid in rats plasma and study its pharmacokinetics after administration of Mailuoning injection at a single dose to rats. Plasma samples were acidified with hydrochloric acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The analytes were determined by LC-MS-MS using a ZOBAX SB C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol-water (containing 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetic) (60:40)at a flow rate of 0.5 mL x min(-1) and detected using ESI with negative ionization mode. Ions monitored in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were m/z 353.1/191.0 [M-H]- for chlorogenic acid, m/z 178.9/134.9 [M-H]- for caffeic acid, m/z 515.2/353.0 [M-H]-for 3,4-DCQA, m/z 193.0/133.9 [M-H]-for ferulic acid, m/z 146.9/102.9 [M-H]- for cinnamic acid and m/z 246.0/125.8 [M-H]- for tinidazole (IS). After administration of Mailuoning injection at a single dose to eight Sprague-Dawley rats, the concentrations of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 3,4-DCQA, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid in plasma were determined by LC-MS/MS method. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of measured data were caluculated by using DASver 1.0 software. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 3,4-DCQA and cinnamic acid were 2.006-1,027 microg x L(-1) (r = 0.999 6), 1.953-1,000 microg x L(-1) (r = 0.999 7), 28.51-1.459 x 10(4) microg x L(-1) (r = 0.998 9), 1.836-940.0, g x L(-1) (r = 0.997 7) and 4.780-2,447 microg x L(-1) (r = 0.998 6) respectively. The inner and inter-days relative standard deviations were both less than 5.0%, indicating legitimate precise and accuracy to the requirement of biological sample analysis. For chlorogenic acid, the pharmacokinetic parameter t1/2, AUC0-t, and CL were (49.78 +/- 12.81) min, (123.55 +/- 14.82) mg x min x L(-1) and (0.004 3 +/- 0.000 5) L x min(-1), respectively. For caffeic acid, the pharmacokinetic parameter t1

  16. A system of equations to approximate the pharmacokinetic parameters of lacosamide at steady state from one plasma sample.

    PubMed

    Cawello, Willi; Schäfer, Carina

    2014-08-01

    Frequent plasma sampling to monitor pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), is invasive, costly and time consuming. For drugs with a well-defined PK profile, such as AED lacosamide, equations can accurately approximate PK parameters from one steady-state plasma sample. Equations were derived to approximate steady-state peak and trough lacosamide plasma concentrations (Cpeak,ss and Ctrough,ss, respectively) and area under concentration-time curve during dosing interval (AUCτ,ss) from one plasma sample. Lacosamide (ka: ∼2 h(-1); ke: ∼0.05 h(-1), corresponding to half-life of 13 h) was calculated to reach Cpeak,ss after ∼1 h (tmax,ss). Equations were validated by comparing approximations to reference PK parameters obtained from single plasma samples drawn 3-12h following lacosamide administration, using data from double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group PK study. Values of relative bias (accuracy) between -15% and +15%, and root mean square error (RMSE) values≤15% (precision) were considered acceptable for validation. Thirty-five healthy subjects (12 young males; 11 elderly males, 12 elderly females) received lacosamide 100mg/day for 4.5 days. Equation-derived PK values were compared to reference mean Cpeak,ss, Ctrough,ss and AUCτ,ss values. Equation-derived PK data had a precision of 6.2% and accuracy of -8.0%, 2.9%, and -0.11%, respectively. Equation-derived versus reference PK values for individual samples obtained 3-12h after lacosamide administration showed correlation (R2) range of 0.88-0.97 for AUCτ,ss. Correlation range for Cpeak,ss and Ctrough,ss was 0.65-0.87. Error analyses for individual sample comparisons were independent of time. Derived equations approximated lacosamide Cpeak,ss, Ctrough,ss and AUCτ,ss using one steady-state plasma sample within validation range. Approximated PK parameters were within accepted validation criteria when compared to reference PK values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Penetration and pharmacokinetics of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rat prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Radhakrishnan, Jayashree; Radhakrishnan, Rajan

    2018-02-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) involves inflammation of the prostate and affects the quality of life of men of all ages. It is well reported in clinical studies that the treatment for CP/CPPS using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) produced favorable outcomes. However, currently, there are no guidelines on choice of the NSAIDs for the treatment of CP/CPPS. Therefore, in the current research study, we evaluated the prostate tissue penetration of four NSAIDs in rats to provide guidance on choice of NSAIDs for the treatment of CP/CPPS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered orally with four NSAIDs viz. celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen at 500 mg/kg dose. The animals were then sacrificed at various time points, and their prostate tissues were harvested. The NSAIDs were then extracted from the prostate tissues using liquid extraction technique, and their concentration in prostate tissue was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The prostate tissue penetration and related pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated by non-compartmental analysis. The HPLC method for quantifying NSAIDs in prostate tissue resulted in single, sharp peaks without any interference and all validation parameters were within limits. Celecoxib showed the highest area under the curve (AUC) [146.50 ± 2.75 μg/mL*h] of all NSAID's. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with replication indicated an overall statistically significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters for celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen. This study for the first time reported the relative prostate tissue penetration of four NSAIDs. The pharmacokinetic data indicated that celecoxib has the highest penetration and retention in rat prostate tissues. Therefore, celecoxib may be considered as a better choice for the treatment CP/CPPS involving NSAIDs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Combining benefits of an adrenergic and a muscarinic blocker in a single formulation - a pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nazarudheen, Shabana; Dey, Surajit; Kandhwal, Kirti; Arora, Rachna; Reyar, Simrit; Khuroo, Arshad H; Monif, Tausif; Madan, Sumit; Arora, Vinod

    2013-11-01

    A pharmacokinetic bioequivalence study was conducted in Asian subjects, to compare a fixed dose combination capsule single oral dose of alpha adrenoceptor blocker-Alfuzosin hydrochloride 10mg extended release and muscarinic antagonists-Solifenacin succinate 5mg against individually administered Xatral XL 10mg tablets (Alfuzosin) of Sanofi Synthelabo Limited, United Kingdom (UK) and Vesicare 5mg tablets (Solifenacin) of Astellas Pharma Limited, UK under fed conditions. Blood samples were collected pre-dose up to 72 h post dose for determination of plasma Alfuzosin and Solifenacin concentrations and calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters. ANOVA was performed on the log (natural)-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters. A 90% confidence interval for the ratios of the test and reference product averages (least square means) were calculated for alfuzosin and solifenacin. The 90% confidence intervals obtained for alfuzosin for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 102.74-122.75%, 95.84-116.96% and 95.82-116.76%, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals obtained for Solifenacin for Cmax, and AUC0-72 were 89.55-97.91% and 90.47-99.38%, respectively. Based on the results, the fixed dose combination was concluded to be bioequivalent to individually administered products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microanalysis and preliminary pharmacokinetic studies of a sulfated polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Weihua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with post-column fluorescence derivatization has been developed to determine the amount of low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide (GFS) in vivo. The metabolism of GFS has been shown to fit a two component model following its administration by intravenous injection, and its pharmacokinetic parameters were determined to be as follows: half-time of distribution phase ( t 1/2α)=11.24±2.93 min, half-time of elimination phase ( t 1/2β)=98.20±25.78 min, maximum concentration ( C max)=110.53 μg/mL and peak time ( T max)=5 min. The pharmacokinetic behavior of GFS was also investigated following intragastric administration. However, the concentration of GFS found in serum was too low for detection, and GFS could only be detected for up to 2 h after intragastric administration (200 mg/kg body weight). Thus, the bioavailability of GFS was low following intragastric administration because of the metabolism of GFS. In conclusion, HPLC with postcolumn derivatization could be used for quantitative microanalysis and pharmacokinetic studies to determine the presence of polysaccharides in the serum following intravenous injection.

  20. [Pharmacokinetics of crocetin in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-zheng; Qian, Zhi-yu

    2002-05-01

    To develop an HPLC method for the determination of crocetin in rat plasma and study the pharmacokinetics in rats. Hypersil C18 column (5 microns, 4.6 mm x 200 mm) was used at column temperature 30 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-water-acetic acid (75:24.5:0.5) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL.min-1. The UV detection wave length was 423 nm. The calibration curve was linear (gamma = 0.9996) in the range from 0.49 microgram.mL-1 to 7.87 micrograms.mL-1 for crocetin. The mean recovery was 105.2%. The lowest detectable concentration of crocetin was 0.14 microgram.mL-1 (S/N = 3). The RSDs of within-day and between-day were all less than 5%. The plasma crocetin was steady. The HPLC method of determination of crocetin in the plasma was established. After single dose of 50 mg.kg-1 ig in 10 rats, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated as follows: T1/2 alpha (30 +/- 6) min, Tmax(65 +/- 16) min, Cmax(5.0 +/- 1.0) microgram.mL-1, AUC0-T(845 +/- 109) microgram.min.mL-1, Vd(5.0 +/- 0.8) L.kg-1. Crocetin was shown to be absorbed into the blood through the gastrointestinal tract. This method is quick, precise and reliable. Crocetin was shown to be quickly absorbed in rats.

  1. The effects of febuxostat on the pharmacokinetic parameters of rosiglitazone, a CYP2C8 substrate

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Himanshu; Wu, Jing-tao; Palmer, Robert; McLean, Lachy

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To determine the effect of febuxostat on cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) activity using rosiglitazone as a CYP2C8 substrate. METHODS Healthy subjects received febuxostat 120 mg daily (regimen A) or matching placebo (regimen B) for 9 days along with a single oral dose of rosiglitazone 4 mg on day 5 in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over fashion (≥7 day washout between periods). Plasma samples for analysis of the impact of febuxostat on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of rosiglitazone and its metabolite, N-desmethylrosiglitazone, were collected for 120 h after co-administration. RESULTS Of the 39 subjects enrolled, 36 completed the study and were included in the PK analyses. Rosiglitazone PK parameters were comparable between regimens A and B. Median time to maximal plasma concentration, mean maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–tlqc), AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞), and terminal elimination half-life for regimen A were 0.50 h, 308.6 ng ml−1, 1594.9 ng h ml−1, 1616.0 ng h ml−1 and 4.1 h, respectively, and for regimen B they were 0.50 h, 327.6 ng ml−1, 1564.5 ng h ml−1, 1584.2 ng h ml−1 and 4.0 h, respectively. Point estimates for the ratio of regimen A to regimen B (90% confidence intervals) for rosiglitazone Cmax, AUC0–tlqc and AUC0–∞ central values were 0.94 (0.89–1.00), 1.02 (1.00–1.04) and 1.02 (1.00–1.04), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Co-administration of febuxostat had no effect on rosiglitazone or N-desmethylrosiglitazone PK parameters, suggesting that febuxostat can be given safely with drugs metabolized through CYP2C8. PMID:22242967

  2. The influence of labour on the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered amoxicillin in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Anouk E; Dörr, P Joep; Mouton, Johan W; De Jongh, Joost; Oostvogel, Paul M; Steegers, Eric A P; Voskuyl, Rob A; Danhof, Meindert

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTExamples exist that pharmacokinetics of drugs in pregnant women can differ from that in non-pregnant individuals.In pregnant women before the onset of labour, the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin is similar to that in non-pregnant individuals, but for women during labour this is unknown. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSLabour influences the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin.During labour and even more in the immediate postpartum period, the peripheral volume of distribution was decreased compared with pregnant women before the onset of labour.The volume of distribution increases with an increasing amount of oedema. AIMS Many physiological changes take place during pregnancy and labour. These might change the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, necessitating adjustment of the dose for prevention of neonatal infections. We investigated the influence of labour on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. METHODS Pregnant women before and during labour were recruited and treated with amoxicillin intravenously. A postpartum dose was offered. Blood samples were obtained and amoxicillin concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetics were characterized by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling using NONMEM. RESULTS The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin in 34 patients was best described by a three-compartment model. Moderate interindividual variability was identified in CL, central and peripheral volumes of distribution. The volume of distribution (V) increased with an increasing amount of oedema. Labour influenced the parameter estimate of peripheral volume of distribution (V2). V2 was decreased during labour, and even more in the immediate postpartum period. For all patients the population estimates (mean ± SE) for CL and V were 21.1 ± 4.1 l h−1 (CL), 8.7 ± 6.6 l (V1), 11.8 ± 7.7 l (V2) and 20.5 ± 15.4 l (V3) respectively. CONCLUSIONS The peripheral distribution volume of amoxicillin in pregnant women during

  3. Determination of quantitative retention-activity relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and biological effectiveness fingerprints of Salvia miltiorrhiza constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haoshi; Huang, Hongzhang; Zheng, Aini; Yu, Nuojun; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography (MELC). The quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRARs) of the constituents were established to model their pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and chromatographic retention data, and generate their biological effectiveness fingerprints. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established to determine the abundance of the extracted danshen constituents, such as sodium danshensu, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic aldehyde, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA. And another HPLC protocol was established to determine the abundance of those constituents in rat plasma samples. An experimental model was built in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and calculated the corresponding PK parameterst with 3P97 software package. Thirty-five model drugs were selected to test the PK parameter prediction capacities of the various MELC systems and to optimize the chromatographic protocols. QRARs and generated PK fingerprints were established. The test included water/oil-soluble danshen constituents and the prediction capacity of the regression model was validated. The results showed that the model had good predictability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of oral amantadine in greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Norkus, C; Rankin, D; Warner, M; KuKanich, B

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in greyhound dogs after oral administration. Five healthy greyhound dogs were used. A single oral dose of 100 mg amantadine hydrochloride (mean dose 2.8 mg/kg as amantadine hydrochloride) was administered to nonfasted subjects. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points from 0 to 24 h after administration, and plasma concentrations of amantadine were measured by liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Amantadine was well tolerated in all dogs with no adverse effects observed. The mean (range) amantadine CMAX was 275 ng/mL (225-351 ng/mL) at 2.6 h (1-4 h) with a terminal half-life of 4.96 h (4.11-6.59 h). The results of this study can be used to design dosages to assess multidose pharmacokinetics and dosages designed to achieve targeted concentrations in order to assess the clinical effects of amantadine in a variety of conditions including chronic pain. Further studies should also assess the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in other dog breeds or using population pharmacokinetics studies including multiple dog breeds to assess potential breed-specific differences in the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in dogs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dose-ranging pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) and colistin in rats following single intravenous CMS doses.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sandrine; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Couet, William

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) dose on CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in rats. Three rats per group received an intravenous bolus of CMS at a dose of 5, 15, 30, 60 or 120 mg/kg. Arterial blood samples were drawn at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. CMS and colistin plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters of CMS and colistin were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Linear relationships were observed between CMS and colistin AUCs to infinity and CMS doses, as well as between CMS and colistin C(max) and CMS doses. CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics were linear for a range of colistin concentrations covering the range of values encountered and recommended in patients even during treatment with higher doses.

  6. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  7. Clinical pharmacokinetics and effects of vincristine sulfate in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    PubMed

    Hantrakul, Supannika; Klangkaew, Narumol; Kunakornsawat, Sunee; Tansatit, Tawewan; Poapolathep, Ammart; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Saranya

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine and their correlation with its clinical effects in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). Dogs with TVT were intravenously administered vincristine sulfate at a dose of 0.7 mg/m(2) of body surface area. Blood samples were collected starting from 5 min to 48 hr after drug administration. The plasma concentration of vincristine was determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters of vincristine were characterized using a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model. The volume of distribution, distribution half-life, elimination half-life and plasma clearance were 0.660 ± 0.210 l/kg, 21.5 ± 6.90 min, 47.6 ± 14.2 min and 0.010 ± 0.001 l/min/kg, respectively. Tumor regression was determined at weekly interval by a physical examination and histopathological analysis. In our study, three to eight administrations of vincristine at a dose of 0.7 mg/m(2) were able to induce a complete tumor regression without any evidence of gross lesion of disease. Therefore, this investigation provides the pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine in dogs with TVT, which may be used as an integration tool to gain a better understanding of the disposition properties of the drug and the correlation of these properties with the drug's clinical effects. In addition, we validated the LC-MS/MS method and found that it is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of vincristine in dog plasma.

  8. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Effects of Vincristine Sulfate in Dogs with Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT)

    PubMed Central

    HANTRAKUL, Supannika; KLANGKAEW, Narumol; KUNAKORNSAWAT, Sunee; TANSATIT, Tawewan; POAPOLATHEP, Ammart; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine and their correlation with its clinical effects in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). Dogs with TVT were intravenously administered vincristine sulfate at a dose of 0.7 mg/m2 of body surface area. Blood samples were collected starting from 5 min to 48 hr after drug administration. The plasma concentration of vincristine was determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters of vincristine were characterized using a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model. The volume of distribution, distribution half-life, elimination half-life and plasma clearance were 0.660 ± 0.210 l/kg, 21.5 ± 6.90 min, 47.6 ± 14.2 min and 0.010 ± 0.001 l/min/kg, respectively. Tumor regression was determined at weekly interval by a physical examination and histopathological analysis. In our study, three to eight administrations of vincristine at a dose of 0.7 mg/m2 were able to induce a complete tumor regression without any evidence of gross lesion of disease. Therefore, this investigation provides the pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine in dogs with TVT, which may be used as an integration tool to gain a better understanding of the disposition properties of the drug and the correlation of these properties with the drug’s clinical effects. In addition, we validated the LC-MS/MS method and found that it is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of vincristine in dog plasma. PMID:25649934

  9. Turbulence study in the vicinity of piano key weir: relevance, instrumentation, parameters and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Harinarayan; Sharma, Nayan

    2017-05-01

    This research paper focuses on the need of turbulence, instruments reliable to capture turbulence, different turbulence parameters and some advance methodology which can decompose various turbulence structures at different levels near hydraulic structures. Small-scale turbulence research has valid prospects in open channel flow. The relevance of the study is amplified as we introduce any hydraulic structure in the channel which disturbs the natural flow and creates discontinuity. To recover this discontinuity, the piano key weir (PKW) might be used with sloped keys. Constraints of empirical results in the vicinity of PKW necessitate extensive laboratory experiments with fair and reliable instrumentation techniques. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter was established to be best suited within range of some limitations using principal component analysis. Wavelet analysis is proposed to decompose the underlying turbulence structure in a better way.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    PubMed

    Uney, K; Altan, F; Cetin, G; Aboubakr, M; Dik, B; Sayın, Z; Er, A; Elmas, M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CFQ) following single intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injections of 2 mg/kg body weight in red-eared slider turtles. Plasma concentrations of CFQ were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters following IV injection were as follows: elimination half-life (t 1/2λz ) 21.73 ± 4.95 hr, volume of distribution at steady-state (V dss ) 0.37 ± 0.11 L/kg, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-∞ ) 163 ± 32 μg hr -1  ml -1 , and total body clearance (Cl T ) 12.66 ± 2.51 ml hr -1  kg -1 . The pharmacokinetic parameters after IM injection were as follows: peak plasma concentration (C max ) 3.94 ± 0.84 μg/ml, time to peak concentration (T max ) 3 hr, t 1/2λz 26.90 ± 4.33 hr, and AUC 0-∞ 145 ± 48 μg hr -1  ml -1 . The bioavailability after IM injection was 88%. Data suggest that CFQ has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a long half-life and a high bioavailability in red-eared slider turtles. Further studies are needed to establish a multiple dosage regimen and evaluate clinical efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A population pharmacokinetic analysis of the influence of nutritional status of digoxin in hospitalized Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo An; Yun, Hwi-yeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2014-03-01

    variability in digoxin pharmacokinetics and highlighted the relationship between pharmacokinetic parameters and nutritional status in hospitalized Korean patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals. 1. Models and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, M.G.; Stehly, Guy R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    While clinical and toxicological applications of pharmacokinetics have continued to evolve both conceptually and experimentally, pharmacokinetics modeling in aquatic animals has not progressed accordingly. In this paper we present methods and concepts of pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals using multicompartmental, clearance-based, non-compartmental and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models. These models should be considered as alternatives to traditional approaches, which assume that the animal acts as a single homogeneous compartment based on apparent monoexponential elimination.

  13. Pharmacokinetics in Morbid Obesity: Influence of Two Bariatric Surgery Techniques on Paracetamol and Caffeine Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Goday Arno, Albert; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Ramon, Jose M; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Civit, Ester; Langohr, Klaus; Lí Carbó, Marcel; Boix, David Benaiges; Nino, Olga Castañer; Le Roux, Juana Antonia Flores; Pera, Manuel; Grande, Luis; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the impact of the two most common bariatric surgery techniques on paracetamol pharmacokinetics (a marker of gastric emptying) and caffeine metabolism (a marker of liver function). In the present prospective study, we studied 24 morbid obese patients before, at 4 weeks, and 6 months after having undergone sleeve gastrectomy (n = 10) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 14). For comparative purposes, 28 healthy controls (14 normal weights and 14 overweights) were also included in the study. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics was altered in the obese participants leading to lower bioavailability. Bariatric surgery resulted in faster absorption and normalized pharmacokinetic parameters, prompting an increase in paracetamol bioavailability. No differences were found between surgical procedures. In the case of caffeine, the ratio paraxanthine/caffeine did not differ between morbid obese and healthy individuals. This ratio remained unmodified after surgery, indicating that the liver function (assessed by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity) was unaffected by obesity or bariatric surgery. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics and caffeine plasma levels are altered in severely obese patients. The two studied bariatric surgical techniques normalize paracetamol oral bioavailability without impairing the liver function (measured by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity).

  14. The pharmacokinetics of abacavir 600 mg once daily in HIV-1-positive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schalkwijk, Stein; Colbers, Angela; Konopnicki, Deborah; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Moltó, José; Tenorio, Carmen Hidalgo; Hawkins, David; Taylor, Graham; Wood, Chris; van der Ende, Marchina; Burger, David

    2016-05-15

    To describe the pharmacokinetics of abacavir 600 mg once daily (q.d.) in HIV-1-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. A nonrandomized, open-label, multicentre, phase-IV study. HIV-positive pregnant women receiving abacavir 600 mg q.d. as part of clinical care were included. Intensive 24-h pharmacokinetic sampling was performed during the third trimester and at least 2 weeks after delivery. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. Paired cord blood and maternal blood samples were taken at delivery when feasible. A total of 14 women were included in the analysis. Geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) of third trimester versus postpartum were 1.05 (0.92-1.19) for AUC0-24h and 1.00 (0.83-1.21) for Cmax. The median (range) ratio of abacavir cord plasma to maternal plasma was 1.0 (0.7-1.0, n = 3). Viral load at the third trimester visit was less than 50 copies/ml in 13 participants (93%; one unknown). In total, 13 (93%; one unknown) children were tested HIV-negative. The pharmacokinetics of abacavir 600 mg q.d. during pregnancy are equivalent to postpartum. No dose adjustments are required during pregnancy and similar antiviral activity is expected.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and concentration–effect relationship of adalimumab in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ternant, David; Ducourau, Emilie; Fuzibet, Piéra; Vignault, Céline; Watier, Hervé; Lequerré, Thierry; Le Loët, Xavier; Vittecoq, Olivier; Goupille, Philippe; Mulleman, Denis; Paintaud, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aimed at describing adalimumab pharmacokinetics (PK) and the concentration–effect relationship of adalimumab using pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) modelling in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Adalimumab PK and PK–PD data were obtained from a multicentric observational study. Adalimumab (40 mg) was administered subcutaneously every other week, and its pharmacokinetics was described using a one-compartment model. The relationship between adalimumab concentration and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was described using an indirect response model with inhibition of CRP input, whereas the relationship between adalimumab concentration and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) was described using a direct inhibition model. Dose regimens that included a loading dose of adalimumab were simulated. Results Thirty patients treated for RA were analysed. The following pharmacokinetic and PK–PD parameters were estimated (interidividual coefficient of variation): apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) = 10.8 l (92%); apparent clearance (CL/F) = 0.32 l day−1 (17%); first-order absorption rate (ka) = 0.28 day−1; CRP input (kin) = 22.0 mg l−1 day−1 (65%); adalimumab concentration leading to a 50% decrease in kin (C50) = 3.6 mg l−1 (88%); baseline DAS28 (DAS0) = 5.5 mg l−1 (11%); and adalimumab concentration leading to 50% decrease of DAS0 (IC50) = 11.0 mg l−1 (71%). Simulations showed that a 160 mg loading dose should reduce the time to reach efficacy in terms of both CRP and DAS28 after the first injection. Conclusions This is the first study to describe adalimumab pharmacokinetics and the concentration–effect relationship in RA. A 160 mg loading dose may lead to an increased benefit from treatment in RA patients. PMID:25223394

  16. Safety and pharmacokinetics of Bevirimat (PA-457), a novel inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus maturation, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Martin, David E; Blum, Robert; Wilton, John; Doto, Judy; Galbraith, Hal; Burgess, Gina L; Smith, Philip C; Ballow, Charles

    2007-09-01

    Bevirimat (BVM; formerly known as PA-457) is a novel inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) maturation that is being developed for the treatment of HIV infection. The pharmacokinetics of this agent in healthy male volunteers were studied in a randomized, double-blind study in which the participants received single oral doses of placebo (n = 8) or escalating doses of BVM at 25, 50, 100, or 250 mg (n = 6 per dose); escalation was performed only after the pharmacokinetics and safety of the preceding dose had been evaluated. Plasma was collected over 480 h after dosing and urine was collected over 48 h after dosing for determination of the values of pharmacokinetic parameters. BVM was well absorbed after oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations being achieved 1 to 3 h after dosing. The half-life was 60 to 80 h. The exposure assessed by determination of the peak concentration and the area under the concentration-time curve was dose proportional. Single oral doses of BVM were well tolerated: there were no dose-limiting toxicities, and no serious adverse events were reported. These findings suggest that that BVM offers a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, with predictable pharmacokinetics following the oral administration of single doses. The long half-life of BVM may facilitate once-daily dosing.

  17. Deferasirox pharmacokinetic evaluation in β-thalassaemia paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Sarah; Cusato, Jessica; De Francia, Silvia; Pirro, Elisa; Massano, Davide; Piga, Antonio; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Iron chelation in the transfusion-dependent anaemias management is essential to prevent end-organ damage and to improve survival. Deferasirox is a once-daily orally active tridentate selective iron chelator which pharmacokinetic disposition could influence treatment efficacy and toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring is an important tool for optimizing drug utilization and doses. A fully validated chromatographic method was used to quantify deferasirox concentration in plasma collected from paediatric patients with β-thalassaemia. Samples obtained after 5 days of washout or in naïve patients before and after 2, 4, 6 and 24 h drug administration were evaluated. Associations between variables were tested using the Pearson test. Twenty paediatric patients were enrolled; they were mainly men (13.65%), with median age of 6.35 years and body mass index of 15.45 kg/m 2 . Concerning pharmacokinetic parameters, a higher interindividual variability was shown. A positive, but not significant, correlation (r = 0.363; P = 0.115) was found between deferasirox area under the concentration curve over 24 h (AUC) and drug dose. Monitoring plasma deferasirox concentrations appears beneficial for guiding appropriate patient treatment, enhancing effectiveness and minimizing toxicity. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Translating Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Data into Practice.

    PubMed

    Visser, Marike

    2018-05-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) publications provide scientific evidence for incorporation in evidence-based veterinary medicine, aiding the clinician in selecting doses and dosing intervals. PK and PD studies have reported wide variations within exotic species, due to physiologic differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. PK studies offer species-specific data to help tailor doses and dosing routes to individual patients, minimize toxicity, and provide a cornerstone for PD studies to determine drug efficacy. This article reviews the application of PK parameters and the challenges in determining the PD activity of drugs, with a particular emphasis on exotic species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Beaufrère, Hugues; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Brandão, João; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-06-01

    Pimobendan is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with inotropic, lusitropic, and rasodilator properties used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. The mechanism of action is by inhibition of PDE III and V and by increasing intracellular calcium sensitivity in the cardiac myocardium. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been published in humans, dogs, and cats, but there are no studies in avian species. Pimobendan has been used in birds at the empirical dosage of 0.25 mg/kg q12h. To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 3 pilot studies with 2 birds, each receiving 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg PO, provided the basis for the pivotal trials with 6 birds, each receiving 10 mg/kg PO using 2 different suspensions. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 18 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) by use of electrospray ionization. Because of the erratic and low concentrations of pimobendan, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using naive averaged analysis. Plasma concentrations after commercial pimobendan tablet suspension at 10 mg/kg reached a Cmax of 8.26 ng/mL at 3 hours with a terminal half-life of 2.1 hours, while concentrations after the bulk chemical suspension reached a Cmax of 1.28 ng/mL at 12 hours and had a terminal half-life of 2.3 hours. Further studies evaluating the effect of oral pimobendan in parrots are needed.

  20. In silico evaluation of gadofosveset pharmacokinetics in different population groups using the Simcyp® simulator platform.

    PubMed

    Spanakis, Marios; Marias, Kostas

    2014-12-01

    Gadofosveset is a Gd-based contrast agent used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gadolinium kinetic distribution models are implemented in T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI for characterization of lesion sites in the body. Physiology changes in a disease state potentially can influence the pharmacokinetics of drugs and to this respect modify the distribution properties of contrast agents. This work focuses on the in silico modelling of pharmacokinetic properties of gadofosveset in different population groups through the application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) embedded in Simcyp® population pharmacokinetics platform. Physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of gadofosveset were introduced into Simcyp® simulator platform and a min-PBPK model was applied. In silico clinical trials were generated simulating the administration of the recommended dose for the contrast agent (i.v., 30 mg/kg) in population cohorts of healthy volunteers, obese, renal and liver impairment, and in a generated virtual oncology population. Results were evaluated regarding basic pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC and systemic CL and differences were assessed through ANOVA and estimation of ratio of geometric mean between healthy volunteers and the other population groups. Simcyp® predicted a mean Cmax = 551.60 mg/l, a mean AUC = 4079.12 mg/L*h and a mean systemic CL = 0.56 L/h for the virtual population of healthy volunteers. Obese population showed a modulation in Cmax and CL, attributed to increased administered dose. In renal and liver impairment cohorts a significant modulation in Cmax, AUC and CL of gadofosveset is predicted. Oncology population exhibited statistical significant differences regarding AUC when compared with healthy volunteers. This work employed Simcyp® population pharmacokinetics platform in order to compute gadofosveset's pharmacokinetic profiles through PBPK models and in silico clinical

  1. Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics and pleural fluid penetration in patients with pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Chatzika, Kalliopi; Manika, Katerina; Kontou, Paschalina; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papakosta, Despina; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kioumis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and penetration of moxifloxacin (MXF) in patients with various types of pleural effusion. Twelve patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion (PPE) and 12 patients with malignant pleural effusion were enrolled in the study. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study was performed after intravenous administration of 400 mg MXF. Serial plasma (PL) and pleural fluid (PF) samples were collected during a 24-h time interval after drug administration. The MXF concentration in PL and PF was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Penetration of MXF in PF was determined by the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC24) in PF (AUC24PF) to the AUC24 in PL. No statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics in PL were observed between the two groups, despite the large interindividual variability in the volume of distribution, clearance, and elimination half-life. The maximum concentration in PF (CmaxPF) in patients with empyema/PPE was 2.23±1.31 mg/liter, and it was detected 7.50±2.39 h after the initiation of the infusion. In patients with malignant effusion, CmaxPF was 2.96±1.45 mg/liter, but it was observed significantly earlier, at 3.58±1.38 h (P<0.001). Both groups revealed similar values of AUC24PF (31.83±23.52 versus 32.81±12.66 mg·h/liter). Penetration of MXF into PF was similarly good in both patient groups (1.11±0.74 versus 1.17±0.39). Despite similar plasma pharmacokinetics, patients with empyema/parapneumonic effusion showed a significant delay in achievement of PF maximum MXF levels compared to those with malignant effusion. However, in both groups, the degree of MXF PF penetration and the on-site drug exposure, expressed by AUC24PF, did not differ according to the type of pleural effusion.

  2. Influence of compound danshen tablet on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongfang; Zhang, Hai; Ma, Weina; Sun, Sen; Wang, Benwei; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng

    2013-09-01

    Losartan is an effective anti-hypotension drug frequently used in clinic. Compound danshen tablet (CDST) is an important traditional Chinese multiherbal formula composed of Danshen, Sanqi and Bingpian, which is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. More often, losartan and CDST are simultaneously used for the treatment of anti-hypertension in the clinic. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of losartan and EXP3174 after oral administration of single losartan and both losartan and CDST, and to investigate the influence of CDST on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: a losartan-only group and a losartan and CDST group. Plasma concentrations of losartan and EXP3174 were determined by LC-MS at designated points after drug administration, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan and EXP3174, which showed that CDST influenced the metabolism and excretion of losartan in vivo. The result could be used for clinical medication guidance of losartan and CDST to avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict the Pharmacokinetics of Highly Protein-Bound Drugs and Impact of Errors in Plasma Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Min; Nagar, Swati; Korzekwa, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data was often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding, and blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for terminal elimination half-life (t1/2, 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax, 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0–t, 95.4%), clearance (CLh, 95.4%), mean retention time (MRT, 95.4%), and steady state volume (Vss, 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. PMID:26531057

  4. Prophylactic ranitidine treatment in critically ill children – a population pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Hawwa, Ahmed F; Westwood, Paul M; Collier, Paul S; Millership, Jeffrey S; Yakkundi, Shirish; Thurley, Gillian; Shields, Mike D; Nunn, Anthony J; Halliday, Henry L; McElnay, James C

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in critically ill children and to determine the influence of various clinical and demographic factors on its disposition. Methods Data were collected prospectively from 78 paediatric patients (n = 248 plasma samples) who received oral or intravenous ranitidine for prophylaxis against stress ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding or the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Plasma samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the data were subjected to population pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Results A one-compartment model best described the plasma concentration profile, with an exponential structure for interindividual errors and a proportional structure for intra-individual error. After backward stepwise elimination, the final model showed a significant decrease in objective function value (−12.618; P < 0.001) compared with the weight-corrected base model. Final parameter estimates for the population were 32.1 l h−1 for total clearance and 285 l for volume of distribution, both allometrically modelled for a 70 kg adult. Final estimates for absorption rate constant and bioavailability were 1.31 h−1 and 27.5%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between age and weight-corrected ranitidine pharmacokinetic parameters in the final model, with the covariate for cardiac failure or surgery being shown to reduce clearance significantly by a factor of 0.46. Conclusions Currently, ranitidine dose recommendations are based on children's weights. However, our findings suggest that a dosing scheme that takes into consideration both weight and cardiac failure/surgery would be more appropriate in order to avoid administration of higher or more frequent doses than necessary. PMID:23016949

  5. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of scutellarin in rat plasma, urine, and feces.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jian-feng; You, Hai-sheng; Dong, Ya-lin; Lu, Jun; Chen, Si-ying; Zhu, Hui-fang; Dong, Qian; Wang, Mao-yi; Dong, Wei-hua

    2011-05-01

    To study the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of scutellarin, an active component from the medical plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the low bioavailability of scutellarin though oral or intravenous administration in rats. HPLC method was developed for simultaneous detection of scutellarin and scutellarein (the aglycone of scutellarin) in rat plasma, urine and feces. The in vitro metabolic stability study was carried out in rat liver microsomes from different genders. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the plasma concentrations of scutellarin and scutellarein in female rats were significantly higher than in male ones. Between the female and male rats, significant differences in AUC, t(max2) and C(max2) for scutellarin were found. The pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin in the urine also showed significant gender differences. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the total percentage excretion of scutellarein in male and female rats was 16.5% and 8.61%, respectively. The total percentage excretion of scutellarin and scutellarein in the feces was higher with oral administration than with intravenous administration. The in vitro t(1/2) and CL(int) value for scutellarin in male rats was significantly higher than that in female rats. The results suggest that a large amount of ingested scutellarin was metabolized into scutellarein in the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted with the feces, leading to the extremely low oral bioavailability of scutellarin. The gender differences of pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin and scutellarein are due to the higher CL(int) and lower absorption in male rats.

  6. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of scutellarin in rat plasma, urine, and feces

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jian-feng; You, Hai-sheng; Dong, Ya-lin; Lu, Jun; Chen, Si-ying; Zhu, Hui-fang; Dong, Qian; Wang, Mao-yi; Dong, Wei-hua

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of scutellarin, an active component from the medical plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the low bioavailability of scutellarin though oral or intravenous administration in rats. Methods: HPLC method was developed for simultaneous detection of scutellarin and scutellarein (the aglycone of scutellarin) in rat plasma, urine and feces. The in vitro metabolic stability study was carried out in rat liver microsomes from different genders. Results: After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the plasma concentrations of scutellarin and scutellarein in female rats were significantly higher than in male ones. Between the female and male rats, significant differences in AUC, tmax2 and Cmax2 for scutellarin were found. The pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin in the urine also showed significant gender differences. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the total percentage excretion of scutellarein in male and female rats was 16.5% and 8.61%, respectively. The total percentage excretion of scutellarin and scutellarein in the feces was higher with oral administration than with intravenous administration. The in vitro t1/2 and CLint value for scutellarin in male rats was significantly higher than that in female rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that a large amount of ingested scutellarin was metabolized into scutellarein in the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted with the feces, leading to the extremely low oral bioavailability of scutellarin. The gender differences of pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin and scutellarein are due to the higher CLint and lower absorption in male rats. PMID:21516133

  7. Influence of the Time of Intravenous Administration of Paracetamol on its Pharmacokinetics and Ocular Disposition in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Karbownik, Agnieszka; Bienert, Agnieszka; Płotek, Włodzimierz; Grabowski, Tomasz; Cerbin-Koczorowska, Magdalena; Wolc, Anna; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2017-06-01

    Paracetamol is one of the most common analgesics and antipyretics applied in health care. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the time-of-day administration on the paracetamol pharmacokinetics and its penetration into aqueous humour (AH). Rabbits were divided into three groups: I-receiving paracetamol at 08.00 h, II-receiving paracetamol at 16.00 h, and III-receiving paracetamol at 24.00 h. Paracetamol was administered intravenously at a single dose of 35 mg/kg. The concentrations of paracetamol and its metabolite (paracetamol glucuronide) in the plasma, as well as in AH were measured with the validated HPLC-UV method. No significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol was observed. When the drug was administered at 24.00 h,  elimination half-life (t 1/2kel ) of paracetamol glucuronide was longer than when the drug was administered 08.00 h (P = 0.0193). In addition, a statistically significant increase in the paracetamol glucuronide/paracetamol ratio was observed when the drug was administered at 08.00 vs. 16.00 h (P ≤ 0.0001) and 24.00 h (P ≤ 0.0001). There was no chronobiological effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and variation in the clearance of oxycodone and hydrocotarnine in patients with cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Hideya; Fukawa, Misako; Matoba, Motohiro; Hoka, Sumio; Yamada, Yasuhiko; Yago, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    Compound injections of oxycodone and hydrocotarnine are currently used as one of the treatment options for some cases with cancer pain. However, there have been no reports examining the factors that influence oxycodone and hydrocotarnine clearance, so detailed examination is necessary. As for hydrocotarnine, there have been no reports examining the pharmacokinetics. Therefore in this study, we determined the pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and hydrocotarnine in patients with cancer pain. The study was conducted on 19 patients, in whom pain control was attempted by using the compound injections of oxycodone and hydrocotarnine. We used HPLC-electrochemical detector (ECD) to determine oxycodone and hydrocotarnine serum concentrations, and used the nonlinear least-squares method (MULTI) for calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Furthermore, we examined the factors that influence the clearance of oxycodone and hydrocotarnine by multiple regression analysis (step wise method). The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: Oxycodone; V(d)=226.7+/-105.5 l (mean+/-S.D.), CL=37.9+/-25.1 l/h, t(1/2)=4.1+/-1.9 h. Hydrocotarnine; V(d)=276.8+/-237.2 l, CL=95.1+/-64.3 l/h, t(1/2)=2.0+/-0.7 h. The clearance of oxycodone represented by a regression formula was significantly correlated to the age, the presence or absence of within 7 d on the death or liver metastasis, or of the heart failure of the patients. The clearance of hydrocotarnine represented by a regression formula was significantly correlated to the presence or absence of within 7 d on the death or liver metastasis, or of the heart failure of the patients. The clearance also indicated that oxycodone concentration in the blood was likely to be higher in patients having these factors. Oxycodone/hydrocotarnine compound injections should be used with caution and dose reduction may be necessary in such populations.

  9. Enhancement of curcumin oral absorption and pharmacokinetics of curcuminoids and curcumin metabolites in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhongfa, Liu; Chiu, Ming; Wang, Jiang; Chen, Wei; Yen, Winston; Fan-Havard, Patty; Yee, Lisa D.; Chan, Kenneth K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin has shown a variety of biological activity for various human diseases including cancer in preclinical setting. Its poor oral bioavailability poses significant pharmacological barriers to its clinical application. Here, we established a practical nano-emulsion curcumin (NEC) containing up to 20% curcumin (w/w) and conducted the pharmacokinetics of curcuminoids and curcumin metabolites in mice. Methods This high loading NEC was formulated based on the high solubility of curcumin in polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and the synergistic enhancement of curcumin absorption by PEGs and Cremophor EL. The pharmacokinetics of curcuminoids and curcumin metabolites was characterized in mice using a LC–MS/MS method, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using WinNonlin computer software. Results A tenfold increase in the AUC0→24h and more than 40-fold increase in the Cmax in mice were observed after an oral dose of NEC compared with suspension curcumin in 1% methylcellulose. The plasma pharmacokinetics of its two natural congeners, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, and three metabolites, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), curcumin-O-glucuronide, and curcumin-O-sulfate, was characterized for the first time in mice after an oral dose of NEC. Conclusion This oral absorption enhanced NEC may provide a practical formulation to conduct the correlative study of the PK of curcuminoids and their pharmacodynamics, e.g., hypomethylation activity in vivo. PMID:21968952

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of levamisole in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kreeftmeijer-Vegter, A R; Dorlo, T P C; Gruppen, M P; de Boer, A; de Vries, P J

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of levamisole in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Methods Non-linear mixed effects modelling was performed on samples collected during a randomized controlled trial. Samples were collected from children who were receiving 2.5 mg kg–1 levamisole (or placebo) orally once every other day. One hundred and thirty-six plasma samples were collected from 38 children from India and Europe and included in the analysis. A one compartment model described the data well. Results The apparent clearance rate (CL/F) and distribution volume (V/F) were 44 l h–1 70 kg–1 and 236 l 70 kg–1, respectively; estimated interindividual variability was 32–42%. In addition to allometric scaling of CL/F and V/F to body weight, we identified a significant proportional effect of age on CL/F (–10.1% per year). The pharmacokinetics parameters were not affected by gender, tablet strength or study centre. The median (interquartile range) maximum plasma concentration of levamisole was 438.3 (316.5–621.8) ng ml–1, and the median area under the concentration–time curve was 2847 (2267–3761) ng ml–1 h. Median tmax and t½ values were 1.65 (1.32–2.0) h and 2.60 (2.06–3.65) h, respectively. Conclusions Here, we present the first pharmacokinetic data regarding levamisole in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. The pharmacokinetic profile of levamisole in children was similar to findings reported in adults, although the elimination rate was slightly higher in children. PMID:25677380

  11. Evaluation of the Potential Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Atomoxetine and Fluvoxamine in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Todor, Ioana; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Bocsan, Corina; Buzoianu, Anca; Vlase, Laurian; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Briciu, Corina

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with other psychiatric pathologies. Therefore, the present study investigated a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between atomoxetine (ATX), a treatment option for ADHD, and an antidepressant, namely, fluvoxamine (FVX). Designed as an open-label, non-randomized clinical trial, the study included 2 periods. In period 1 (reference), each subject received ATX 25 mg (single-dose), whereas in period 2 (test), all subjects were given a combination of ATX 25 mg + FVX 100 mg, following a 6-day pretreatment regimen with the enzymatic inhibitor. Non-compartmental methods were employed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ATX and its main active metabolite (glucuronidated form), 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide. The results revealed significant differences between the study periods for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ values corresponding to ATX and its metabolite. Small, but statistically significant increases in AUC values were reported for both parent drug (1,583.05 ± 1,040.29 vs. 2,111.55 ± 1,411.59 ng*h/ml) and 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide (5,754.71 ± 1,235.5 vs. 6,293.17 ± 1,219.34 ng*h/ml) after combined treatment of ATX and the enzymatic inhibitor. FVX had a modest effect on the pharmacokinetics of ATX and 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide. The presence or absence of any clinical consequences associated with this pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction needs to be established in future studies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine: evaluation of a microdose and assessment of absolute oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Graham; Shishikura, Yoko; Jochemsen, Roeline; Weaver, Richard John; Gesson, Charlotte; Houston, Brian; Oosterhuis, Berend; Bjerrum, Ole J; Rowland, Malcolm; Garner, Colin

    2010-05-12

    A human pharmacokinetic study was performed to assess the ability of a microdose to predict the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic dose of fexofenadine and to determine its absolute oral bioavailability. Fexofenadine was chosen to represent an unmetabolized transporter substrate (P-gP and OATP). Fexofenadine was administered to 6 healthy male volunteers in a three way cross-over design. A microdose (100microg) of (14)C-drug was administered orally (period 1) and intravenously by 30min infusion (period 2). In period 3 an intravenous tracer dose (100microg) of (14)C-drug was administered simultaneously with an oral unlabelled therapeutic dose (120mg). Plasma was collected from all 3 periods and analysed for both total (14)C content and parent drug by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). For period 3, plasma samples were also analysed using HPLC-fluorescence to determine total drug concentration. Urine was collected and analysed for total (14)C. Good concordance between the microdose and therapeutic dose pharmacokinetics was observed. Microdose: CL 13L/h, CL(R) 4.1L/h, V(ss) 54L, t(1/2) 16h; therapeutic dose: CL 16L/h, CL(R) 6.2L/h, V(ss) 64L, t(1/2) 12h. The absolute oral bioavailability of fexofenadine was 0.35 (microdose 0.41, therapeutic dose 0.30). Despite a 1200-fold difference in dose of fexofenadine, the microdose predicted well the pharmacokinetic parameters following a therapeutic dose for this transporter dependent compound.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its metabolites theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline after inhalation in combination with diacetylmorphine.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, Anthe S; Huitema, Alwin D R; de Jonge, Milly E; den Hoed, Rob; Sparidans, Rolf W; Hendriks, Vincent M; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2005-01-01

    The stimulant effect of caffeine, as an additive in diacetylmorphine preparations for study purposes, may interfere with the pharmacodynamic effects of diacetylmorphine. In order to obtain insight into the pharmacology of caffeine after inhalation in heroin users, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites were studied. The objectives were to establish the population pharmacokinetics under these exceptional circumstances and to compare the results to published data regarding intravenous and oral administration in healthy volunteers. Diacetylmorphine preparations containing 100 mg of caffeine were used by 10 persons by inhalation. Plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters. The model was evaluated by the jack-knife procedure. Caffeine was rapidly and effectively absorbed after inhalation. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites could adequately and simultaneously be described by a linear multi-compartment model. The volume of distribution for the central compartment was estimated to be 45.7 l and the apparent elimination rate constant of caffeine at 8 hr after inhalation was 0.150 hr(-1) for a typical individual. The bioavailability was approximately 60%. The presented model adequately describes the population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites after inhalation of the caffeine sublimate of a 100 mg tablet. Validation proved the stability of the model. Pharmacokinetics of caffeine after inhalation and intravenous administration are to a large extent similar. The bioavailability of inhaled caffeine is approximately 60% in experienced smokers.

  14. Effects of etravirine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats

    PubMed Central

    John, J; John, M; Wu, L; Hsiao, C; Abobo, CV; Liang, D

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Warfarin is often used with etravirine (ETV) to prevent HIV-related thromboembolic events. As both warfarin and ETV bind to plasma proteins and are metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450s, they are likely to interact. Hence, we evaluated the effect of ETV on the pharmacokinetics and blood clotting time of racemic warfarin in rats. Experimental Approach Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats, in which the jugular vein had been cannulated, were studied. The control group (n = 10) received 1 mg·kg−1 racemic warfarin i.v., and the test group (n = 13) 1 mg·kg−1 of racemic warfarin followed by 25 mg·kg−1 ETV i.v. Serial blood samples were collected for up to 144 h and the blood clotting time (calculated as international normalized ratio [INR]) measured in blood plasma at each sample point. Plasma concentrations of R-warfarin, S-warfarin, R-7-hydroxywarfarin and S-7-hydroxywarfarin were measured by a LC/MS/MS method using a chiral lux cellulose-1 column. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed using non-compartmental methods. Key Results ETV significantly increased, by threefold, the systemic clearance and volume of distribution of S-warfarin, but not those of R-warfarin. ETV decreased the total AUC of warfarin, but had no effect on its elimination half-life. ETV also increased the systemic clearance of both R-7-hydroxywarfarin and S-7-hydroxywarfarin but only increased the volume of distribution of R-7-hydroxywarfarin. Interestingly, the effect of warfarin on blood clotting time (INR) was significantly increased in the presence of etravirine. Conclusion and Implications Our data suggest that etravirine may potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and this could have clinical significance. PMID:23215758

  15. [The enantioselective pharmacokinetic study of desvenlafaxine sustained release tablet in Chinese healthy male volunteers after oral administration].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-xia; Du, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Yi-fan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhong, Da-fang

    2015-04-01

    A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature.

  16. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of polyethylene glycol-coated polyacrylamide nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Dingsheng; Johanson, Gunnar; Emond, Claude; Carlander, Ulrika; Philbert, Martin; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticles' health risks depend on their biodistribution in the body. Phagocytosis may greatly affect this distribution but has not yet explicitly accounted for in whole body pharmacokinetic models. Here, we present a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that includes phagocytosis of nanoparticles to explore the biodistribution of intravenously injected polyethylene glycol-coated polyacrylamide nanoparticles in rats. The model explains 97% of the observed variation in nanoparticles amounts across organs. According to the model, phagocytizing cells quickly capture nanoparticles until their saturation and thereby constitute a major reservoir in richly perfused organs (spleen, liver, bone marrow, lungs, heart and kidneys), storing 83% of the nanoparticles found in these organs 120 h after injection. Key determinants of the nanoparticles biodistribution are the uptake capacities of phagocytizing cells in organs, the partitioning between tissue and blood, and the permeability between capillary blood and tissues. This framework can be extended to other types of nanoparticles by adapting these determinants.

  17. Triprotic acid-base microequilibria and pharmacokinetic sequelae of cetirizine.

    PubMed

    Marosi, Attila; Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Béni, Szabolcs; Kökösi, József; Noszál, Béla

    2009-06-28

    (1)H NMR-pH titrations of cetirizine, the widely used antihistamine and four related compounds were carried out and the related 11 macroscopic protonation constants were determined. The interactivity parameter between the two piperazine amine groups was obtained from two symmetric piperazine derivatives. Combining these two types of datasets, all the 12 microconstants and derived tautomeric constants of cetirizine were calculated. Upon this basis, the conflicting literature data of cetirizine microspeciation were clarified, and the pharmacokinetic absorption-distribution properties could be interpreted. The pH-dependent distribution of the microspecies is provided.

  18. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Biologic Therapeutics for Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian; Enioutina, Elena Y.; Brunner, Hermine I.; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with potentially severe clinical manifestation that mainly affects women of childbearing age. Patients who do not respond to standard-of-care therapies, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, require biologic therapeutics that specifically target a single or multiple SLE pathogenesis pathways. This review summarizes the clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of biologic agents that are approved, used off-label, or in the active pipeline of drug development for SLE patients. Depending on the type of target, the interacting biologics may exhibit linear (non-specific) or nonlinear (target-mediated) disposition profiles, with terminal half-lives varying from approximately 1 week to 1 month. Biologics given by subcutaneous administration, which offers dosing flexibility over intravenous administration, demonstrated a relatively slow absorption with a time to maximum concentration of approximately 1 day to 2 weeks and a variable bioavailability of 30–82 %. The population pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies were best described by a two-compartment model with central clearance and steady-state volume of distribution ranging from 0.176 to 0.215 L/day and 3.60–5.29 L, respectively. The between-subject variability in pharmacokinetic parameters were moderate (20–79 %) and could be partially explained by body size. The development of linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models incorporating SLE disease biomarkers are an attractive strategy for use in dosing regimen simulation and optimization. The relationship between efficacy/adverse events and biologic concentration should be evaluated to improve clinical trial outcomes, especially for biologics in the advanced phase of drug development. New strategies, such as model-based precision dosing dashboards, could be utilized to incorporate information collected from therapeutic drug monitoring into pharmacokinetic

  19. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Biologic Therapeutics for Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian; Enioutina, Elena Y; Brunner, Hermine I; Vinks, Alexander A; Sherwin, Catherine M

    2017-02-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with potentially severe clinical manifestation that mainly affects women of child-bearing age. Patients who do not respond to standard-of-care therapies, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, require biologic therapeutics that specifically target a single or multiple SLE pathogenesis pathways. This review summarizes the clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of biologic agents that are approved, used off-label, or in the active pipeline of drug development for SLE patients. Depending on the type of target, the interacting biologics may exhibit linear (non-specific) or non-linear (target-mediated) disposition profiles, with terminal half-lives varying from approximately 1 week to 1 month. Biologics given by subcutaneous administration, which offers dosing flexibility over intravenous administration, demonstrated a relatively slow absorption with a time to maximum concentration of approximately 1 day to 2 weeks and a variable bioavailability of 30-82 %. The population pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies were best described by a two-compartment model with central clearance and steady-state volume of distribution ranging from 0.176 to 0.215 L/day and 3.60-5.29 L, respectively. The between-subject variability in pharmacokinetic parameters were moderate (20-79 %) and could be partially explained by body size. The development of linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models incorporating SLE disease biomarkers are an attractive strategy for use in dosing regimen simulation and optimization. The relationship between efficacy/adverse events and biologic concentration should be evaluated to improve clinical trial outcomes, especially for biologics in the advanced phase of drug development. New strategies, such as model-based precision dosing dashboards, could be utilized to incorporate information collected from therapeutic drug monitoring into

  20. Population pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of vedolizumab in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Rosario, M; Dirks, N L; Gastonguay, M R; Fasanmade, A A; Wyant, T; Parikh, A; Sandborn, W J; Feagan, B G; Reinisch, W; Fox, I

    2015-07-01

    Vedolizumab, an anti-α(4)β(7) integrin monoclonal antibody (mAb), is indicated for treating patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). As higher therapeutic mAb concentrations have been associated with greater efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease, understanding determinants of vedolizumab clearance may help to optimise dosing. To characterise vedolizumab pharmacokinetics in patients with UC and CD, to identify clinically relevant determinants of vedolizumab clearance, and to describe the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship using population modelling. Data from a phase 1 healthy volunteer study, a phase 2 UC study, and 3 phase 3 UC/CD studies were included. Population pharmacokinetic analysis for repeated measures was conducted using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results from the base model, developed using extensive phase 1 and 2 data, were used to develop the full covariate model, which was fit to sparse phase 3 data. Vedolizumab pharmacokinetics was described by a 2-compartment model with parallel linear and nonlinear elimination. Using reference covariate values, linear elimination half-life of vedolizumab was 25.5 days; linear clearance (CL(L)) was 0.159 L/day for UC and 0.155 L/day for CD; central compartment volume of distribution (V(c)) was 3.19 L; and peripheral compartment volume of distribution was 1.66 L. Interindividual variabilities (%CV) were 35% for CLL and 19% for V(c); residual variance was 24%. Only extreme albumin and body weight values were identified as potential clinically important predictors of CL(L). Population pharmacokinetic parameters were similar in patients with moderately to severely active UC and CD. This analysis supports use of vedolizumab fixed dosing in these patients. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01177228; NCT00783718 (GEMINI 1); NCT00783692 (GEMINI 2); NCT01224171 (GEMINI 3). © 2015 Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co published by John Wiley & Sons

  1. [Pharmacokinetic research strategies of compatibilities and synergistic effects of classical Danshen herb pairs based on pharmacokinetics of "Danshen-Bingpian" and "Danshen-Honghua"].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ren, Wei-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Herb pairs are usual clinical compatibility forms and one of compound prescription sources in Chinese medicine. Pharmacokinetic research in vivo is one of the important items in elucidating the mechanism for synergistic and attenuated mechanisms of herb pairs. The paper comprehensively summarized and systemized the pharmacokinetic researches of marker-ingredients about Danshen-Honghua and Danshen-Bingpian in order to elucidate the rationality and scientificity of herb pairs and provide some feasible suggestions on the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the future. In view of complicated system of Traditional Chinese medicines and a chemical system that is not separated from its natural state, comparative pharmacokinetic researches on marker-ingredients from the herb pairs are reasonable to elucidate the synergistic and attenuated mechanisms of monarch-subjects compatible herbs and monarch-guide compatible herbs. Such pharmacokinetic research can better explain the mechanism of drug compatibility, while the pharmacokinetic researches based on the monomer chemical compositions and marker-ingredients that have been separated from complex chemical environment of traditional Chinese Medicine are still unreasonable and should be discussed deeply. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. PET Pharmacokinetic Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Schauenburg, Wolfgang; Reimold, Matthias

    Positron Emission Tomography is a well-established technique that allows imaging and quantification of tissue properties in-vivo. The goal of pharmacokinetic modelling is to estimate physiological parameters, e.g. perfusion or receptor density from the measured time course of a radiotracer. After a brief overview of clinical application of PET, we summarize the fundamentals of modelling: distribution volume, Fick's principle of local balancing, extraction and perfusion, and how to calculate equilibrium data from measurements after bolus injection. Three fundamental models are considered: (i) the 1-tissue compartment model, e.g. for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with the short-lived tracer [15O]water, (ii) the 2-tissue compartment model accounting for trapping (one exponential + constant), e.g. for glucose metabolism with [18F]FDG, (iii) the reversible 2-tissue compartment model (two exponentials), e.g. for receptor binding. Arterial blood sampling is required for classical PET modelling, but can often be avoided by comparing regions with specific binding with so called reference regions with negligible specific uptake, e.g. in receptor imaging. To estimate the model parameters, non-linear least square fits are the standard. Various linearizations have been proposed for rapid parameter estimation, e.g. on a pixel-by-pixel basis, for the prize of a bias. Such linear approaches exist for all three models; e.g. the PATLAK-plot for trapping substances like FDG, and the LOGAN-plot to obtain distribution volumes for reversibly binding tracers. The description of receptor modelling is dedicated to the approaches of the subsequent lecture (chapter) of Millet, who works in the tradition of Delforge with multiple-injection investigations.

  3. Assessment of hemoglobin responsiveness to epoetin alfa in patients on hemodialysis using a population pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liviawati; Mould, Diane R; Perez Ruixo, Juan Jose; Doshi, Sameer

    2015-10-01

    A population pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model describing the effect of epoetin alfa on hemoglobin (Hb) response in hemodialysis patients was developed. Epoetin alfa pharmacokinetics was described using a linear 2-compartment model. PK parameter estimates were similar to previously reported values. A maturation-structured cytokinetic model consisting of 5 compartments linked in a catenary fashion by first-order cell transfer rates following a zero-order input process described the Hb time course. The PD model described 2 subpopulations, one whose Hb response reflected epoetin alfa dosing and a second whose response was unrelated to epoetin alfa dosing. Parameter estimates from the PK/PD model were physiologically reasonable and consistent with published reports. Numerical and visual predictive checks using data from 2 studies were performed. The PK and PD of epoetin alfa were well described by the model. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oximes in Unanesthetized Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    D-A234 036 U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH p INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE USAMRICD-TR-91-07 PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF OXIMES IN...SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 2-PAM Cl, ICD 467, MMB-4, Pharmacokinetics ...Cardiovascular 06 15 Pharmacodynamics, Oximes06 15 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The pharmacokinetics and

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Analyses of Lithium: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Methaneethorn, Janthima

    2018-02-01

    Even though lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder for several decades, its toxicities are still being reported. The major limitation in the use of lithium is its narrow therapeutic window. Several methods have been proposed to predict lithium doses essential to attain therapeutic levels. One of the methods used to guide lithium therapy is population pharmacokinetic approach which accounts for inter- and intra-individual variability in predicting lithium doses. Several population pharmacokinetic studies of lithium have been conducted. The objective of this review is to provide information on population pharmacokinetics of lithium focusing on nonlinear mixed effect modeling approach and to summarize significant factors affecting lithium pharmacokinetics. A literature search was conducted from PubMed database from inception to December, 2016. Studies conducted in humans, using lithium as a study drug, providing population pharmacokinetic analyses of lithium by means of nonlinear mixed effect modeling, were included in this review. Twenty-four articles were identified from the database. Seventeen articles were excluded based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of seven articles were included in this review. Of these, only one study reported a combined population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of lithium. Lithium pharmacokinetics were explained using both one- and two-compartment models. The significant predictors of lithium clearance identified in most studies were renal function and body size. One study reported a significant effect of age on lithium clearance. The typical values of lithium clearance ranged from 0.41 to 9.39 L/h. The magnitude of inter-individual variability on lithium clearance ranged from 12.7 to 25.1%. Only two studies evaluated the models using external data sets. Model methodologies in each study are summarized and discussed in this review. For future perspective, a population pharmacokinetic

  6. Applied Pharmacokinetics: Course Description and Retrospective Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Diane E.

    1984-01-01

    An applied course designed to allow students to formulate pharmacokinetic recommendations individually for actual patient data and compare their recommendations to those of a pharmacokinetic consulting service is described and evaluated, and an objective student evaluation method is outlined. (MSE)

  7. Investigation of the impact of sarizotan on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa.

    PubMed

    Krösser, Sonja; Neugebauer, Roland; Chassard, Didier; Kovar, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effect of sarizotan on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa in fixed combination with carbidopa or benserazide. In this open-label, randomized, crossover study, healthy male subjects (n=16) received levodopa 100 mg t.i.d. over two 5-day periods, alone or in combination with sarizotan 5 mg b.i.d. Levodopa was administered with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (carbidopa 25 mg, n=8 or benserazide 25 mg, n=8). Pharmacokinetic parameters of levodopa were obtained on days 1 and 5. ANOVA showed the C(max) values for levodopa were not significantly different with or without sarizotan after single doses (1001 vs 1082 ng/ml; point estimate [PE] 1.10, 90% confidence intervals [CI] 0.83-1.45) or at steady-state (1549 vs 1663 ng/ml; PE 1.06, 90% CI 0.89-1.27); nor were AUC values for single doses (1661 vs 1665 ng h/ml; PE 1.01, 90% CI 0.91-1.11) or at steady-state (2462 vs 2482 ng h/ml; PE 1.01, 90% CI 0.97-1.05). Seven subjects reported adverse events of mild-to-moderate intensity; the most frequent were headaches and dizziness. Coadministration of sarizotan with levodopa, in combination with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor had no effect on the pharmacokinetics or adverse event profile of levodopa. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Influence of different proton pump inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fang; Zhu, Liqin; Li, Na; Ge, Tingyue; Xu, Gaoqi; Liao, Shasha

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole and to characterise potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between voriconazole and various PPIs (omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole). Using adjusted physicochemical data and the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of voriconazole and PPIs, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were built and were verified in healthy subjects using GastroPlus TM to predict the plasma concentration-time profiles of voriconazole and PPIs. These models were then used to assess potential DDIs for voriconazole when administered with PPIs. The results indicated the PBPK model-simulated plasma concentration-time profiles of both voriconazole and PPIs were consistent with the observed profiles. In addition, the DDI simulations suggested that the PK values of voriconazole increased to various degrees when combined with several PPIs. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve for the time of the simulation (AUC 0- t ) of voriconazole was increased by 39%, 18%, 12% and 1% when co-administered with omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole, respectively. Omeprazole was the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitor tested, whereas rabeprazole had no influence on voriconazole (omeprazole > esomeprazole > lansoprazole > rabeprazole). However, in consideration of the therapeutic concentration range, dosage adjustment of voriconazole is unnecessary regardless of which PPI was co-administered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of gemfibrozil on the pharmacokinetics of mitiglinide in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Cao, Q

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method was developed and validated for the determination of mitiglinide in plasma using LC-MS/MS. The effect of gemfibrozil on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered mitiglinide in rats was investigated. The validated method in positive electrospray ionization mode using MRM and fully validated according to commonly accepted criteria. The desired sensitivity of mitiglinide was achieved with an LOQ of 0.5 ng/mL and the short run time was suitable for analysis of the large batches of samples. The method was successfully used to analyze rats plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic studies. Pharmacokinetic parameters of mitiglinide were determined in rats following oral (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg) administration to rats in the presence and absence of gemfibrozil (1 mg/kg). Compared to those animals in an oral control group (given mitiglinide alone), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of mitiglinide were increased significantly by 2.8, 3.5, 4.1-fold (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg) by gemfibrozil, respectively. Consequently, the bioavailability of mitiglinide in the presence of gemfibrozil was significantly enhanced compared to that in oral control group (only mitiglinide). Gemfibrozil significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of mitiglinide, suggesting that concurrent use of gemfibrozil and mitiglinide should be monitored closely for potential drug interactions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. A key factor to the spin parameter of uniformly rotating compact stars: crust structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin; Zhang, Nai-Bo; Sun, Bao-Yuan; Wang, Shou-Yu; Gao, Jian-Hua

    2016-04-01

    We study the dimensionless spin parameter j ≡ cJ/(GM2) of different kinds of uniformly rotating compact stars, including traditional neutron stars, hyperonic neutron stars and hybrid stars, based on relativistic mean field theory and the MIT bag model. It is found that jmax ˜ 0.7, which had been suggested in traditional neutron stars, is sustained for hyperonic neutron stars and hybrid stars with M > 0.5 M⊙. Not the interior but rather the crust structure of the stars is a key factor to determine jmax for three kinds of selected compact stars. Furthermore, a universal formula j = 0.63(f/fK) - 0.42(f/fK)2 + 0.48(f/fK)3 is suggested to determine the spin parameter at any rotational frequency f smaller than the Keplerian frequency fK.

  11. Prediction of Human Pharmacokinetic Profile After Transdermal Drug Application Using Excised Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Syunsuke; Karashima, Masatoshi; Arai, Yuta; Tohyama, Kimio; Amano, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    Although several mathematical models have been reported for the estimation of human plasma concentration profiles of drug substances after dermal application, the successful cases that can predict human pharmacokinetic profiles are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the prediction of human plasma concentrations after dermal application using in vitro permeation parameters obtained from excised human skin. The in vitro skin permeability of 7 marketed drug products was evaluated. The plasma concentration-time profiles of the drug substances in humans after their dermal application were simulated using compartment models and the clinical pharmacokinetic parameters. The transdermal process was simulated using the in vitro skin permeation rate and lag time assuming a zero-order absorption. These simulated plasma concentration profiles were compared with the clinical data. The result revealed that the steady-state plasma concentration of diclofenac and the maximum concentrations of nicotine, bisoprolol, rivastigmine, and lidocaine after topical application were within 2-fold of the clinical data. Furthermore, the simulated concentration profiles of bisoprolol, nicotine, and rivastigmine reproduced the decrease in absorption due to drug depletion from the formulation. In conclusion, this simple compartment model using in vitro human skin permeation parameters as zero-order absorption predicted the human plasma concentrations accurately. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Catnip Charcoal on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Main Alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis.

    PubMed

    He, Yanfei; Chen, Siyu; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Long; Liu, Yayun; Han, Chunyang; Liu, Cuiyan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of catnip Nepeta cataria (CNC) charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis in vivo. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and given oral administration of an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis (RCAE), RCAE plus CNC, RCAE plus activated carbon (AC), or distilled water, respectively. Plasma samples were collected after administration. The concentrations of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetics data were calculated using pharmacokinetic DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine increased, while the AUC of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the rabbits that received RCAE plus CNC. Meanwhile, the AUC of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the group given RCAE plus AC. The difference of main pharmacokinetics parameters among the four groups was significant (P < 0.05). This study showed that CNC improved the bioavailability of berberine in comparison to AC and prolonged its release in comparison to RCAE alone. However, it decreased the bioavailability of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. In comparison, AC uniformly declined the bioavailability of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine.

  13. Effect of Catnip Charcoal on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Main Alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yanfei; Chen, Siyu; Yu, Hai; Zhu, Long; Liu, Yayun; Han, Chunyang; Liu, Cuiyan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of catnip Nepeta cataria (CNC) charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis in vivo. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and given oral administration of an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis (RCAE), RCAE plus CNC, RCAE plus activated carbon (AC), or distilled water, respectively. Plasma samples were collected after administration. The concentrations of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetics data were calculated using pharmacokinetic DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine increased, while the AUC of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the rabbits that received RCAE plus CNC. Meanwhile, the AUC of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the group given RCAE plus AC. The difference of main pharmacokinetics parameters among the four groups was significant (P < 0.05). This study showed that CNC improved the bioavailability of berberine in comparison to AC and prolonged its release in comparison to RCAE alone. However, it decreased the bioavailability of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. In comparison, AC uniformly declined the bioavailability of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. PMID:27313645

  14. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics, and Bioavailability of Higher Doses of Tocotrienols in Healthy Fed Humans

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asaf A; Khan, Dilshad A; Silswal, Neerupma; Saleem, Shahid; Qureshi, Nilofer

    2016-01-01

    Background Tocotrienols has been known to lower serum lipid parameters below 500 mg/d, while increase lipid parameters at higher dose of 750 mg/d. δ-Tocotrienol has a novel inflammatory property of concentration-dependent inhibition and activation. Therefore, inhibition (anti-inflammatory) property of tocotrienols at low doses is useful for cardiovascular disease, whereas, activation (pro-inflammatory) property using high dose is found effective for treatments of various types of cancer. We have recently described plasma bioavailability of 125 mg/d, 250 mg/d and 500 mg/d doses of δ-tocotrienol in healthy fed subjects, which showed dose-dependent increases in area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax). Hence, in the current study, higher doses of tocotrienols have used to analyze its effect on plasma pharmacokinetic parameters. Aims To evaluate the safety and bioavailability of higher doses (750 mg and 1000 mg) of annatto-based tocotrienols in healthy fed subjects. All four isomers (α-, β-, γ-, δ-) of tocols (tocotrienols and tocopherols) present in the plasmas of subjects were quantified and analyzed for various pharmacokinetic parameters. Study design An open-label, randomized study was performed to analyze pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of δ-tocotrienol in 6 healthy fed subjects. All subjects (3/dose) were randomly assigned to one of each dose of 750 mg or 1000 mg. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 h intervals and all isomers of α-,β-,γ-,δ-tocotrienols, and tocopherols in plasmas were quantified by HPLC. Results Oral administration of 750 and 1000 mg/d of tocotrienols resulted in dose-dependent increases in plasmas (ng/ml) AUCt0-t8 6621, 7450; AUCt0-∞ 8688, 9633; AUMC t0-∞ 52497, 57199; MRT 6.04, 5.93; Cmax 1444, 1592 (P<0.05), respectively, of δ-tocotrienol isomer. Moreover, both doses also resulted in plasmas Tmax 3.33–4 h; elimination half-life (t1/2 h) 2.74, 2.68; time of clearance (Cl-T, l/h) 0.086, 0

  15. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics, and Bioavailability of Higher Doses of Tocotrienols in Healthy Fed Humans.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asaf A; Khan, Dilshad A; Silswal, Neerupma; Saleem, Shahid; Qureshi, Nilofer

    2016-04-01

    Tocotrienols has been known to lower serum lipid parameters below 500 mg/d, while increase lipid parameters at higher dose of 750 mg/d. δ-Tocotrienol has a novel inflammatory property of concentration-dependent inhibition and activation. Therefore, inhibition (anti-inflammatory) property of tocotrienols at low doses is useful for cardiovascular disease, whereas, activation (pro-inflammatory) property using high dose is found effective for treatments of various types of cancer. We have recently described plasma bioavailability of 125 mg/d, 250 mg/d and 500 mg/d doses of δ-tocotrienol in healthy fed subjects, which showed dose-dependent increases in area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (C max ). Hence, in the current study, higher doses of tocotrienols have used to analyze its effect on plasma pharmacokinetic parameters. To evaluate the safety and bioavailability of higher doses (750 mg and 1000 mg) of annatto-based tocotrienols in healthy fed subjects. All four isomers (α-, β-, γ-, δ-) of tocols (tocotrienols and tocopherols) present in the plasmas of subjects were quantified and analyzed for various pharmacokinetic parameters. An open-label, randomized study was performed to analyze pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of δ-tocotrienol in 6 healthy fed subjects. All subjects (3/dose) were randomly assigned to one of each dose of 750 mg or 1000 mg. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 h intervals and all isomers of α-,β-,γ-,δ-tocotrienols, and tocopherols in plasmas were quantified by HPLC. Oral administration of 750 and 1000 mg/d of tocotrienols resulted in dose-dependent increases in plasmas (ng/ml) AUCt 0- t 8 6621, 7450; AUCt 0-∞ 8688, 9633; AUMC t 0-∞ 52497, 57199; MRT 6.04, 5.93; C max 1444, 1592 (P<0.05), respectively, of δ-tocotrienol isomer. Moreover, both doses also resulted in plasmas T max 3.33-4 h; elimination half-life (t 1/2 h) 2.74, 2.68; time of clearance (Cl-T, l/h) 0.086, 0.078; volume of distribution

  16. Pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin/trimethoprim combination following single-dose intraperitoneal and oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi Belew; Lee, Seung-Jin; Damte, Dereje; Kim, Jong-Choon; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin and trimethoprim was evaluated after single-dose intraperitoneal or oral co-administration in rats. Plasma concentrations of the two drugs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Following intraperitoneal combination, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean values of plasma half-life (t 1/2) and maximum plasma concentration (C max) was observed for enrofloxacin and trimethoprim, respectively. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean values of area under the plasma drug concentration versus time from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and C max between combined oral doses (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) of both antibacterial drugs. Also, after oral conjugation a significant difference in mean values of MRT0-∞ was observed between lower (10 mg/kg) and higher (100 mg/kg) doses of both drugs. A significant increase in pharmacokinetic parameters of both drugs in combined intraperitoneal and oral doses indicated pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin and trimethoprim. Further study is recommended in other species of animals.

  17. Dark energy and key physical parameters of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Chernin, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    We study physics of clusters of galaxies embedded in the cosmic dark energy background. Under the assumption that dark energy is described by the cosmological constant, we show that the dynamical effects of dark energy are strong in clusters like the Virgo cluster. Specifically, the key physical parameters of the dark mater halos in clusters are determined by dark energy: (1) the halo cut-off radius is practically, if not exactly, equal to the zero-gravity radius at which the dark matter gravity is balanced by the dark energy antigravity; (2) the halo averaged density is equal to two densities of dark energy; (3) the halo edge (cut-off) density is the dark energy density with a numerical factor of the unity order slightly depending on the halo profile. The cluster gravitational potential well in which the particles of the dark halo (as well as galaxies and intracluster plasma) move is strongly affected by dark energy: the maximum of the potential is located at the zero-gravity radius of the cluster.

  18. International Solar-Terrestrial Program Key Parameter Visualization Tool Data: USA_NASA_DDF_ISTP_KP_0139

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocuna, M. H.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Baker, D. N.; Curtis, S. A.; Fairfield, D. H.; Mish, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science Program (GGS) is designed to improve greatly the understanding of the flow of energy, mass and momentum in the solar-terrestrial environment with particular emphasis on "Geospace". The Global Geospace Science Program is the US contribution to the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Science Initiative. This CD-ROM issue describes the WIND and POLAR spacecraft, the scientific experiments carried onboard, the Theoretical and Ground Based investigations which constitute the US Global Geospace Science Program and the ISTP Data Systems which support the data acquisition and analysis effort. The International Solar-Terrestrial Physics Program (ISTP) Key Parameter Visualization Tool (KPVT), provided on the CD-ROM, was developed at the ISTP Science Planning and Operations Facility (SPOF). The KPVT is a generic software package for visualizing the key parameter data produced from all ISTP missions, interactively and simultaneously. The tool is designed to facilitate correlative displays of ISTP data from multiple spacecraft and instruments, and thus the selection of candidate events and data quality control. The software, written in IDL, includes a graphical/widget user interface, and runs on many platforms, including various UNIX workstations, Alpha/Open VMS, Macintosh (680x0 and PowerPC), and PC/Windows NT, Windows 3.1, and Windows 95.

  19. International Solar-Terrestrial Program Key Parameter Visualization Tool Data: USA_NASA_DDF_ISTP_KP_0192

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocuna, M. H.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Baker, D. N.; Curtis, S. A.; Fairfield, D. H.; Mish, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science Program (GGS) is designed to improve greatly the understanding of the flow of energy, mass and momentum in the solar-terrestrial environment with particular emphasis on "Geospace". The Global Geospace Science Program is the US contribution to the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Science Initiative. This CD-ROM issue describes the WIND and POLAR spacecraft, the scientific experiments carried onboard, the Theoretical and Ground Based investigations which constitute the US Global Geospace Science Program and the ISTP Data Systems which support the data acquisition and analysis effort. The International Solar-Terrestrial Physics Program (ISTP) Key Parameter Visualization Tool (KPVT), provided on the CD-ROM, was developed at the ISTP Science Planning and Operations Facility (SPOF). The KPVT is a generic software package for visualizing the key parameter data produced from all ISTP missions, interactively and simultaneously. The tool is designed to facilitate correlative displays of ISTP data from multiple spacecraft and instruments, and thus the selection of candidate events and data quality control. The software, written in IDL, includes a graphical/widget user interface, and runs on many platforms, including various UNIX workstations, Alpha/Open VMS, Macintosh (680x0 and PowerPC), and PC/Windows NT, Windows 3.1, and Windows 95.

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people.

  1. Carprofen pharmacokinetics in plasma and in control and inflamed canine tissue fluid using in vivo ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Messenger, K M; Wofford, J A; Papich, M G

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of unbound drug concentrations at their sites of action is