Science.gov

Sample records for key control technologies

  1. [Key Technology and Quantity Control of Wearable Medical Devices].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongen; Yao, Shaowei

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, because the wearable medical devices can indicate the health monitoring index of blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen content, temperature, respiration of the human body anytime and anywhere, can also be used for the treatment of various diseases, accompanied by the development of large data, which will bring a subversive revolution for the medical device industry. This paper introduces the development of wearable devices, key technical index of main products, and to make a preliminary study on its quantity control.

  2. Surface chemistry: key to control and advance myriad technologies.

    PubMed

    Yates, John T; Campbell, Charles T

    2011-01-18

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field.

  3. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  4. Advanced Key Technologies for Hot Control Surfaces in Space Re- Entry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogigli, Michael; Pradier, Alain; Tumino, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    (1)MAN Technologie AG, D- 86153 Augsburg, Germany (2,3) ESA, 2200 Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands Current space re-entry vehicles (e.g. X-38 vehicle 201, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)) require advanced control surfaces (so called body flaps). Such control surfaces allow the design of smaller and lighter vehicles as well as faster re-entries (compared to the US Shuttle). They are designed as light-weight structures that need no metallic parts, need no mass or volume consuming heat sinks to protect critical components (e.g. bearings) and that can be operated at temperatures of more than 1600 "C in air transferring high mechanical loads (dynamic 40 kN, static 70 kN) at the same time. Because there is a need for CRV and also for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) in future, the European Space Agency (ESA) felt compelled to establish a "Future European Space Transportation and Investigation Program,, (FESTIP) and a "General Support for Technology Program,, (GSTP). One of the main goals of these programs was to develop and qualify key-technologies that are able to master the above mentioned challenging requirements for advanced hot control surfaces and that can be applied for different vehicles. In 1996 MAN Technologie has started the development of hot control surfaces for small lifting bodies in the national program "Heiü Strukturen,,. One of the main results of this program was that especially the following CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) key technologies need to be brought up to space flight standard: Complex CMC Structures, CMC Bearings, Metal-to-CMC Joining Technologies, CMC Fasteners, Oxidation Protection Systems and Static and Dynamic Seals. MAN Technologie was contracted by ESA to continue the development and qualification of these key technologies in the frame of the FESTIP and the GSTP program. Development and qualification have successfully been carried out. The key technologies have been applied for the X-38 vehicle

  5. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, Michael R; Onar, Omer C; DeVault, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  6. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-02-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over -30 ppm K(-1). Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  7. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade. PMID:27877465

  8. Latest key technology for NGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Toshihiko

    2007-11-01

    The several optical components and modules technologies are reviewed for use in Re-configurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexter (ROADM) systems in Next Generation Network (NGN) ring networks. Especially, Athermal-AWG, PLC-ROADM and MEMS-WSS are now deployed in the actual field because of its maturity, good performance and highly reliability. In this paper, we introduced the technologies and actual performance and reliability data for actual use. In the near future, ROADM application must be more advanced and complex with these technologies and new technologies.

  9. Building Technologies Program Key Activities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building Technologies Program (BTP) employs a balanced approach to making buildings more energy efficient. The three pillars of our program, research and development (R&D), market stimulation, and building and equipment standards, help meet our strategic vision.

  10. Key integration technologies for nanoscale FRAMs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong J; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Kinam

    2007-12-01

    We discuss key technologies of 180-nm node ferroelectric memories, whose process integration is becoming extremely complex when device dimension shrinks into a nano scale. This is because process technology in ferroelectric integration does not extend to conventional shrink technology due to many difficulties of coping with metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors. The key integration technologies in ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) comprise: etching technology to have less plasma damage; stack technology for the preparation of robust ferroelectrics; capping technology to encapsulate cell capacitors; and vertical conjunction technology to connect cell capacitors to the plate line. What has been achieved from these novel approaches is not only to have a peak-to-peak value of 675 mV in bit-line potential but also to ensure a sensing margin of 300 mV in opposite-state retention, even after 1000 hour suffering at 150 degrees C.

  11. SMART-1: key technologies and autonomy implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfving, A.; Stagnaro, L.; Winton, A.

    2003-01-01

    SMART-1 is the first of the Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Horizons 2000 Science Plan. The main mission objective of SMART-1 is to demonstrate innovative and key technologies for scientific deep-space missions. One of the key technologies is the solar electric propulsion used as primary propulsion. The electric propulsion will be using 1400 W to transfer the 350 kg spacecraft from an Ariane 5 standard GTO to an elliptic Moon polar orbit, 10000×300 km. The total mission time is 24 months including a maximum of 18 months transfer time. The spacecraft development entered the detailed design and implementation phase in October 1999, under the responsibility of the Swedish Space Cooperation as prime contractor, and the flight acceptance is targeted for the 3rd quarter of 2002. The committed total life cost budget is 84 million Euro. Apart from the in-orbit demonstration of electric propulsion as primary propulsion, SMART-1 is implementing many other enabling technologies for deep-space missions such as deep-space transponder with communication in X-band for uplink and in X- and Ka-band for downlink, highly integrated and radiation tolerant microprocessors, FPGAs and memories, high on-board autonomy driven by ground communication only once per 4 days, maximum available power to electric propulsion by centralised and software-controlled power management, minimum propellant consumption through innovative angular momentum management. In addition, the spacecraft avionics design is tailored to the low-cost philosophy by enabling flexible integration of commercial off the shelf (COTS) equipment. The scientific instruments, five in total, support characterisation of the electric propulsion thrust environment during the long transfer phase and detailed imaging and spectroscopy of the lunar surface in visible, infrared and X-ray during the Moon orbiting phase. Several of the instruments implement new enabling technologies, e.g. swept charge devices

  12. Security of a control key in quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur Rehman, Junaid; Qaisar, Saad; Jeong, Youngmin; Shin, Hyundong

    2017-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) schemes rely on the randomness to exchange secret keys between two parties. A control key to generate the same (pseudo)-randomness for the key exchanging parties increases the key exchange rate. However, the use of pseudo-randomness where true randomness is required makes a classical system vulnerable to the known plain-text attack. Contrary to the belief of unavailability of this attack in QKD, we show that this attack is actually possible whenever a control key is employed. In this paper, we show that it is possible to make use of the uncertainty principle to not only avoid this attack, but also remove the hazards of photon-number splitting attack in quantum setting. We define the secrecy of control key based on the guessing probability, and propose a scheme to achieve this defined secrecy. We show the general applicability of our framework on the most common QKD schemes.

  13. Key technology issues for space robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, Roger T.

    1987-01-01

    Robotics has become a key technology consideration for the Space Station project to enable enhanced crew productivity and to maximize safety. There are many robotic functions currently being studied, including Space Station assembly, repair, and maintenance as well as satellite refurbishment, repair, and retrieval. Another area of concern is that of providing ground based experimenters with a natural interface that they might directly interact with their hardware onboard the Space Station or ancillary spacecraft. The state of the technology is such that the above functions are feasible; however, considerable development work is required for operation in this gravity-free vacuum environment. Furthermore, a program plan is evolving within NASA that will capitalize on recent government, university, and industrial robotics research and development (R and D) accomplishments. A brief summary is presented of the primary technology issues and physical examples are provided of the state of the technology for the initial operational capability (IOC) system as well as for the eventual final operational capability (FOC) Space Station.

  14. Key technology for reusable rocket engine turbopump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, A.; Ohta, T.; Kamijyo, A.; Yamada, H.

    2002-03-01

    Recently, there has been an increased need for evolved space transportation and the research of reusable rocket which enable low cost and high reliability and is generating a lot of interest all over the world. In the USA, the development of reusable launch vehicle "Venture Star" which will be used instead of space shuttle is planned and its half scale model "X-33" was developed for the first flight in 1999. In Japan, there has been agreement on the main points to develop the rocket type RLV based on the technology of H-IIA, HOPE-X before developing space plane type RLV. The planned reusable rocket engine was LOX/LH2 as propellant, has 100- 200 ton thrust and has a throttling capability. In addition, long life and high reliability are required for the engine system including LOX/LH2 turbopump. The paper introduces some key technologies for the reusable turbopump which IHI is promoting for research and development with NAL and Tohoku University.

  15. Space Station Displays and Controls Technology Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Greg C.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space station displays and controls technology evolution are presented. Topics covered include: a historical perspective; major development objectives; current development activities; key technology areas; and technology evolution issues.

  16. Research on Key Technologies of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shufen; Yan, Hongcan; Chen, Xuebin

    With the development of multi-core processors, virtualization, distributed storage, broadband Internet and automatic management, a new type of computing mode named cloud computing is produced. It distributes computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, so the application systems can obtain the computing power, the storage space and software service according to its demand. It can concentrate all the computing resources and manage them automatically by the software without intervene. This makes application offers not to annoy for tedious details and more absorbed in his business. It will be advantageous to innovation and reduce cost. It's the ultimate goal of cloud computing to provide calculation, services and applications as a public facility for the public, So that people can use the computer resources just like using water, electricity, gas and telephone. Currently, the understanding of cloud computing is developing and changing constantly, cloud computing still has no unanimous definition. This paper describes three main service forms of cloud computing: SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, compared the definition of cloud computing which is given by Google, Amazon, IBM and other companies, summarized the basic characteristics of cloud computing, and emphasized on the key technologies such as data storage, data management, virtualization and programming model.

  17. Process control strategies key to refining operations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-22

    Panelists and attendees at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association Question and Answer Session on Refining and Petrochemical Technology discussed process control issues in detail. Participants shared their experiences on: personal computers (PCs) in process control; programmable logic control issues; neural networks; fieldbus technology; and statistical analyses of refinery data. Questions and answers on each of these subjects are presented.

  18. Overview of key technologies for TMT telescope structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezaki, Yutaka; Kato, Atsushi; Hattori, Tomoya; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Haruna, Masaki; Tabata, Masaki; Hosokawa, Yoshihiro; Kusumoto, Hiroshi; Usuda, Tomonori

    2016-07-01

    For the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that aims high-resolution and high-sensitivity observations for optical-infrared astronomy, detailed design is underway for Telescope Structure System (STR) including the mount control system and the segment handling system. The technical requirements for the STR system are very challenging on its performance and interface condition with telescope-mounted optics and observation instruments. The major challenging technical requirements include low flexure of mirror support structure and low optical path length variation due to gravitational deformation, high seismic performance against large earthquake, very accurate mount drive control for high tracking and guiding performance, and fast, safe and labor-saving segment exchange. To meet these technical requirements, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) has made a detailed design and technology development. In this paper, overview of major key technologies is introduced that is adopted for the TMT telescope structure in the detailed design and technology development.

  19. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  20. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  1. Key Emerging Technologies for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laurence F.; Levine, Alan; Smith, Rachel S.; Haywood, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The…

  2. Key Emerging Technologies for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laurence F.; Levine, Alan; Smith, Rachel S.; Haywood, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The…

  3. Key Emerging Technologies for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laurence F.; Levine, Alan; Smith, Rachel S.; Haywood, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. This…

  4. Key Emerging Technologies for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laurence F.; Levine, Alan; Smith, Rachel S.; Haywood, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. This…

  5. DoD Key Technologies Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    radar technology developments suess improved detection at extended ranges, including inbound missile warning, counter-ARM techniques, and air target... detection . hard target lery and ship gun • Power for laser initialion of penetration, extended range. warheads. - 50-/ I,,crease in anti- • Advanced fuze...capabilities as a result of improvements in hardware, architectural designs. networking, and computational methods . 2. Software The tools and techniques that

  6. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  7. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  8. Microalgae for bioenergy: key technology nodes.

    PubMed

    Maleterova, Ywetta; Kastanek, Frantisek; Rouskova, Milena; Matejkova, Martina; Kastanek, Petr; Solcova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have increasingly gained research interest as a source of lipids for biodiesel production. The wet way processing of harvested microalgae was suggested and evaluated with respect to the possible environmental impacts and production costs. This study is focused on the three key steps of the suggested process: flocculation, water recycling, and extraction of lipids. Microalgae strains with high content of lipids were chosen for cultivation and subsequent treatment process. Ammonium hydroxide was tested as the flocculation agent and its efficiency was compared with chitosan. Determined optimal flocculation conditions for ammonium hydroxide enable the water recycling for the recurring microalgae growth, which was verified for the use of 30, 50, and 80% recycled water. For extraction of the wet microalgae hexane, hexane/ethanol and comparative chloroform/methanol systems were applied. The efficiency of hexane/ethanol extraction system was found as comparable with chloroform/methanol system and it seems to be promising owing to its low volatility and toxicity and mainly the low cost.

  9. Microalgae for Bioenergy: Key Technology Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kastanek, Frantisek; Rouskova, Milena; Matejkova, Martina; Kastanek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have increasingly gained research interest as a source of lipids for biodiesel production. The wet way processing of harvested microalgae was suggested and evaluated with respect to the possible environmental impacts and production costs. This study is focused on the three key steps of the suggested process: flocculation, water recycling, and extraction of lipids. Microalgae strains with high content of lipids were chosen for cultivation and subsequent treatment process. Ammonium hydroxide was tested as the flocculation agent and its efficiency was compared with chitosan. Determined optimal flocculation conditions for ammonium hydroxide enable the water recycling for the recurring microalgae growth, which was verified for the use of 30, 50, and 80% recycled water. For extraction of the wet microalgae hexane, hexane/ethanol and comparative chloroform/methanol systems were applied. The efficiency of hexane/ethanol extraction system was found as comparable with chloroform/methanol system and it seems to be promising owing to its low volatility and toxicity and mainly the low cost. PMID:26000336

  10. Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

    The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

  11. Tag Content Access Control with Identity-based Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Rong, Chunming

    2010-09-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that used to identify objects and users has been applied to many applications such retail and supply chain recently. How to prevent tag content from unauthorized readout is a core problem of RFID privacy issues. Hash-lock access control protocol can make tag to release its content only to reader who knows the secret key shared between them. However, in order to get this shared secret key required by this protocol, reader needs to communicate with a back end database. In this paper, we propose to use identity-based secret key exchange approach to generate the secret key required for hash-lock access control protocol. With this approach, not only back end database connection is not needed anymore, but also tag cloning problem can be eliminated at the same time.

  12. Technologies for Legionella Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation includes a review of new Office of Water document entitled "Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems", and discussion on ORD research projects involving Legionella and disinfection.

  13. Technologies for Legionella Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation includes a review of new Office of Water document entitled "Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems", and discussion on ORD research projects involving Legionella and disinfection.

  14. Macrofouling control technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Armor, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.

  15. Key participants in codeveloped technology pose for group picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Following the presentation of the Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), a new piece of technology developed through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partnership with industry, to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Director Roy Bridges, Jr., key participants in the partnership pose for a group portrait. They are (from left) Bill Larson, NASA; Dr. Pedro Medelius, INET; Roy Bridges, Jr., KSC Director; Ed Gladney and William Saputo, L-3 Communications; Pam Gillespi, representing Congressman Dave Weldon; and Frank Kinney, Technological Research and Development Authority. The USCA is a key component of the codeveloped Automated Data Acquisition System (ADAS) that measures temperature, pressure and vibration at KSC's launch pads. The breakthrough technology is expected to reduce sensor setup and configuration times from hours to seconds. KSC teamed up with Florida's Technological Research and Development Authority and manufacturer L-3 Communications to produce a system that would benefit the aerospace industry and other commercial markets.

  16. Key participants in codeveloped technology pose for group picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Following the presentation of the Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), a new piece of technology developed through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partnership with industry, to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Director Roy Bridges, Jr., key participants in the partnership pose for a group portrait. They are (from left) Bill Larson, NASA; Dr. Pedro Medelius, INET; Roy Bridges, Jr., KSC Director; Ed Gladney and William Saputo, L-3 Communications; Pam Gillespi, representing Congressman Dave Weldon; and Frank Kinney, Technological Research and Development Authority. The USCA is a key component of the codeveloped Automated Data Acquisition System (ADAS) that measures temperature, pressure and vibration at KSC's launch pads. The breakthrough technology is expected to reduce sensor setup and configuration times from hours to seconds. KSC teamed up with Florida's Technological Research and Development Authority and manufacturer L-3 Communications to produce a system that would benefit the aerospace industry and other commercial markets.

  17. Does Technology Integration "Work" when Key Barriers Are Removed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Inan, Fethi A.; Strahl, J. Daniel; Ross, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of Tennessee EdTech Launch (TnETL), a statewide technology program designed to meet the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandate, was investigated in this matched treatment-control quasi-experimental study. The goal of the program was to provide full-time, on-site technology coaches to prepare teachers to create lessons that engage…

  18. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI), Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems. PMID:21569633

  19. Research on the architecture and key technologies of SIG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhongliang; Meng, Qingxiang; Huang, Yan; Liu, Shufan

    2007-06-01

    Along with the development of computer network, Grid has become one of the hottest issues of researches on sharing and cooperation of Internet resources throughout the world. This paper illustrates a new architecture of SIG-a five-hierarchy architecture (including Data Collecting Layer, Grid Layer, Service Layer, Application Layer and Client Layer) of SIG from the traditional three hierarchies (only including resource layer, service layer and client layer). In the paper, the author proposes a new mixed network mode of Spatial Information Grid which integrates CAG (Certificate Authority of Grid) and P2P (Peer to Peer) in the Grid Layer, besides, the author discusses some key technologies of SIG and analysis the functions of these key technologies.

  20. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  1. Technological options for acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements.

  2. Analysis and testing of key technologies of PTN on MAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Chen, Ying; Cui, Wanlong

    2009-08-01

    Broadband connectivity to Internet has quickly become one of the most successful telecom service offerings ever. The meeting and marketplace of the future requires Full-Service Broadband. Full Service Broadband encompasses a unique combination of products and experience that will enable operators and network providers to meet this emerging demand for anywhere access to broadband services, quickly, cost-effectively and with minimal risk. Firstly, the standard of PTN (Packet Transmission Network) are analyzed. Then ,by deep analysis the key technology of PTN on MAN. The key technologies of PTN on MAN can be divided into two group: PBT, PBBREP, RRPP, ERP technology, and Carrier Ethernet with MPLS technology. At the same time, communication each other of MSTP and PTN,T-MPLS and IP/MPLS ,PBT and IP/MPLS are carried out by figures. At last, testing of PTN are analyzed, testing contents mainly include: TDM service function of PTN equipment, long time BER capability of STM-1service, time delay capability of PTN equipment, protection and provisioned backup path function of T-MPLS, Wrapping protection a function of T-MPLS loop network,and OAM functions.

  3. Academic Primer Series: Key Papers About Teaching with Technology.

    PubMed

    Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Cooney, Robert; Gottlieb, Michael; Chan, Teresa M; Brown, Aaron; King, Andrew; Tobias, Adam; Thoma, Brent

    2017-06-01

    Modern learners have immediate, unlimited access to a wide variety of online resources. To appeal to this current generation of learners, educators must embrace the use of technology. However, educators must balance newer, novel technologies with traditional methods to achieve the best learning outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to review several papers useful for faculty members wishing to incorporate technology into instructional design. We identified a broad list of papers relevant to teaching and learning with technology within the online discussions of the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator. This list was augmented with suggestions by a guest expert (BT) and an open call on Twitter (tagged with the #meded and #FOAMed hashtags) yielding 24 papers. We then conducted a modified three-round Delphi process within the authorship group, including junior and senior faculty members, to identify the most impactful papers. We pared the list of 24 papers to five that were most highly rated. Two were research papers and three were commentaries or editorials. The authorship group reviewed and summarized these papers with specific consideration to their value to junior educators and faculty developers. This is a key reading list for junior faculty members and faculty developers interested in teaching with technology. The commentary contextualizes the importance of these papers for medical educators, to optimize use of technology in their teaching or incorporate into faculty development.

  4. Environmental Control Technology

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-10

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) study was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. On September 13, 1996, the ECTC completed an independent test block for a third-party company, Air Purification Inc. (API). For this testing, the ECTC's staff (O&M and Testing) were contracted to conduct performance and validation testing across a new, integrated emissions control device, the Rotorfilter{trademark}. This testing was conducted for a thirty (30) day period simultaneously with the B&W/CHX test block. The HAP testing resumed as this third-party test block was completed. Testing in September at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI's overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury

  5. An overview of key technology thrusts at Bell Helicopter Textron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harse, James H.; Yen, Jing G.; Taylor, Rodney S.

    1988-01-01

    Insight is provided into several key technologies at Bell. Specific topics include the results of ongoing research and development in advanced rotors, methodology development, and new configurations. The discussion on advanced rotors highlight developments on the composite, bearingless rotor, including the development and testing of full scale flight hardware as well as some of the design support analyses and verification testing. The discussion on methodology development concentrates on analytical development in aeromechanics, including correlation studies and design application. New configurations, presents the results of some advanced configuration studies including hardware development.

  6. Key Enabling Physical Layer Technologies for LTE-Advanced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Meilong; Prasad, Narayan; Xin, Yan; Yue, Guosen; Khojastepour, Amir; Liu, Le; Inoue, Takamichi; Koyanagi, Kenji; Kakura, Yoshikazu

    The 3GPP Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) system, as compared to the LTE system, is anticipated to include several new features and enhancements, such as the usage of channel bandwidth beyond 20MHz (up 100MHz), higher order multiple input multiple output (MIMO) for both downlink and uplink transmissions, larger capacity especially for cell edge user equipment, and voice over IP (VoIP) users, and wider coverage and etc. This paper presents some key enabling technologies including flexible uplink access schemes, advanced uplink MIMO receiver designs, cell search, adaptive hybrid ARQ, and multi-resolution MIMO precoding, for the LTE-A system.

  7. Advanced core technology - Key to subsonic propulsion benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Knip, Gerald, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the potential performance benefits and key technology drivers associated with advanced cores for subsonic high bypass turbofan engines. Investigated first were the individual sensitivities of varying compressor efficiency, pressure ratio and bleed (turbine cooling); combustor pressure recovery; and turbine efficiency and inlet temperature on thermal efficiency and core specific power output. Then, engine cycle and mission performance benefits were determined for systems incorporating all potentially achievable technology advancements. The individual thermodynamic sensitivities are shown over a range of turbine temperatures (at cruise) from 2900 to 3500 R and for both constant (current technology) and optimum (maximum thermal efficiency) overall pressure ratios. It is seen that no single parameter alone will provide a large increase in core thermal efficiency, which is the thermodynamic parameter of most concern for transport propulsion. However, when all potentially achievable advancements are considered, there occurs a synergism that produces significant cycle and mission performance benefits. The nature of these benefits are presented along with the technology challenges.

  8. Advanced core technology: Key to subsonic propulsion benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Knip, Gerald, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the potential performance benefits and key technology drivers associated with advanced cores for subsonic high bypass turbofan engines. Investigated first were the individual sensitivities of varying compressor efficiency, pressure ratio and bleed (turbine cooling); combustor pressure recovery; and turbine efficiency and inlet temperature on thermal efficiency and core specific power output. Then, engine cycle and mission performance benefits were determined for systems incorporating all potentially achievable technology advancements. The individual thermodynamic sensitivities are shown over a range of turbine temperatures (at cruise) from 2900 to 3500 R and for both constant (current technology) and optimum (maximum thermal efficiency) overall pressure ratios. It is seen that no single parameter alone will provide a large increase in core thermal efficiency, which is the thermodynamic parameter of most concern for transport propulsion. However, when all potentially achievable advancements are considered, there occurs a synergism that produces significant cycle and mission performance benefits. The nature of these benefits are presented along with the technology challenges.

  9. Research on key technology of space laser communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chengwu; Huang, Huiming; Liu, Hongyang; Gao, Shenghua; Cheng, Liyu

    2016-10-01

    Since the 21st century, Spatial laser communication has made a breakthrough development. Europe, the United States, Japan and other space powers have carried out the test of spatial laser communication technology on-orbit, and put forward a series of plans. In 2011, China made the first technology demonstration of satellite-ground laser communication carried by HY-2 satellite. Nowadays, in order to improve the transmission rate of spatial network, the topic of spatial laser communication network is becoming a research hotspot at home and abroad. This thesis, from the basic problem of spatial laser communication network to solve, analyzes the main difference between spatial network and ground network, which draws forth the key technology of spatial laser communication backbone network, and systematically introduces our research on aggregation, addressing, architecture of spatial network. From the perspective of technology development status and trends, the thesis proposes the development route of spatial laser communication network in stages. So as to provide reference about the development of spatial laser communication network in China.

  10. Thermal control system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Wilbert E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on thermal control systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: heat rejection; heat acquisition and transport; monitoring and control; passive thermal control; and analysis and test verification.

  11. [Key technologies in synthetic biology of natural products].

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xue-Jun; Zou, Li-Qiu; Li, Ying; Sun, Chao; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    Natural products with complex and diverse structures are the major sources of new drugs. The biosynthesis of natural products is considered to be one of the best ways to solve the problems of complex and scarce natural products. DNA assembly technology and genome editing technology are two key technologies in the emerging interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology. A number of novel DNA assembly methods developed in the last few years have paved the way for the engineering of high molecular weight DNA molecules, including whole genomes, hence, it can realize the reconstruction of the metabolic pathways and speed up optimization process. A wide variety of new tools for microbial genome editing will be applied widely to modify the chassis genome to increase its adaptation with the exogenetic pathways. This article summarized the latest advance with respect to DNA assembly and genome editing, which aims to provide help for reconstruction and optimization of the synthetic biological systems of natural products. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Quality, equipment hold keys to infection control.

    PubMed

    2006-02-01

    EDs that are the most successful at infection control are the ones that look for new ways to improve on proven strategies and techniques. Follow and observe staff during hand-washing, and make them repeat steps that were omitted or performed improperly. Increase the percentage of isolation rooms in your department to help improve surge capacity. Have all cleaning supplies readily at hand to improve flow.

  13. Control Center Technology Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Conference papers and presentations are compiled and cover evolving architectures and technologies applicable to flight control centers. Advances by NASA Centers and the aerospace industry are presented.

  14. Partially Key Distribution with Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Error Control Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallaei, Saeed Ebadi; Falahati, Abolfazl

    Due to the low level of security in public key cryptosystems based on number theory, fundamental difficulties such as "key escrow" in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and a secure channel in ID-based cryptography, a new key distribution cryptosystem based on Error Control Codes (ECC) is proposed . This idea is done by some modification on McEliece cryptosystem. The security of ECC cryptosystem obtains from the NP-Completeness of block codes decoding. The capability of generating public keys with variable lengths which is suitable for different applications will be provided by using ECC. It seems that usage of these cryptosystems because of decreasing in the security of cryptosystems based on number theory and increasing the lengths of their keys would be unavoidable in future.

  15. Application and the key technology on high power fiber-optic laser in laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Li, Qiushi; Meng, Haihong; Sui, Xin; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhai, Xuhua

    2014-12-01

    The soft-killing laser weapon plays an important role in photoelectric defense technology. It can be used for photoelectric detection, search, blinding of photoelectric sensor and other devices on fire control and guidance devices, therefore it draws more and more attentions by many scholars. High power fiber-optic laser has many virtues such as small volume, simple structure, nimble handling, high efficiency, qualified light beam, easy thermal management, leading to blinding. Consequently, it may be used as the key device of soft-killing laser weapon. The present study introduced the development of high power fiber-optic laser and its main features. Meanwhile the key technology of large mode area (LMA) optical fiber design, the beam combination technology, double-clad fiber technology and pumping optical coupling technology was stated. The present study is aimed to design high doping LMA fiber, ensure single mode output by increasing core diameter and decrease NA. By means of reducing the spontaneous emission particle absorbed by fiber core and Increasing the power density in the optical fiber, the threshold power of nonlinear effect can increase, and the power of single fiber will be improved. Meantime, high power will be obtained by the beam combination technology. Application prospect of high power fiber laser in photoelectric defense technology was also set forth. Lastly, the present study explored the advantages of high power fiber laser in photoelectric defense technology.

  16. Air Traffic Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas; Lebacqz, Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The steady growth in air travel will lead to heightened demands for additional airspace capacity, particularly in the vicinity of terminals. New computer-aided processing of aircraft and navigational capability exemplified by the Global Positioning System will allow more sophisticated management of air traffic. Additional altitudes and over-flight areas may be necessary to effectively use the newer technology,

  17. Key technologies for high-accuracy large mesh antenna reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Akira; Harada, Satoshi; Watanabe, Mitsunobu

    2003-12-01

    Nippon Telephone and Telegram Corporation (NTT) continues to develop the modular mesh-type deployable antenna. Antenna diameter can be changed from 5 m to about 20 m by changing the number of modules used with surface accuracy better than 2.4 mm RMS (including all error factors) with sufficient deployment reliability. Key technologies are the antenna's structural design, the deployment mechanism, the design tool, the analysis tool, and modularized testing/evaluation methods. This paper describes our beam steering mechanism. Tests show that it yields a beam pointing accuracy of better than 0.1°. Based on the S-band modular mesh antenna reflector, the surface accuracy degradation factors that must be considered in designing the new antenna are partially identified. The influence of modular connection errors on surface accuracy is quantitatively estimated. Our analysis tool SPADE is extended to include the addition of joint gaps. The addition of gaps allows non-linear vibration characteristics due to gapping in deployment hinges to be calculated. We intend to design a new type of mesh antenna reflector. Our new goal is an antenna for Ku or Ka band satellite communication. For this mission, the surface shape must be 5 times more accurate than is required for an S-band antenna.

  18. Odor Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Amos; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Dispersion, chemical oxidation, and masking are reviewed as techniques primarily employed for odor control. Devices and systems, costs, and problems of measurement are considered in light of environmental agencies' efforts to curb smelly emissions. (BL)

  19. Odor Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Amos; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Dispersion, chemical oxidation, and masking are reviewed as techniques primarily employed for odor control. Devices and systems, costs, and problems of measurement are considered in light of environmental agencies' efforts to curb smelly emissions. (BL)

  20. Control Structures Interaction (CSI) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, W. E.

    1989-01-01

    Control Structures Interaction (CSI) technology for control of space structures is being developed cooperatively by JPL, LaRC and MSFC for NASA OAST/RM. The mid-'90s goal of JPL's CSI program is to demonstrate with analysis, ground and flight tests, the super quiet structures needed for large diffraction-limited instruments such as optical stellar interferometers and large advanced successors to the Hubble Space Telescope. Microprecision CSI technology is intended as a new "building block" for use by the designers of large optical systems. The thrust of the microprecision CSI technology effort is to achieve nanometer-levels of space structure stability/accuracy with designs which employ otherwise conventional spacecraft technologies. JPL design experiences have indicated the following CSI technology development areas are especially applicable to large optical system projects: (1) Active structural members; (2) Control/structures design methods; (3) Microdynamic effects characterization; and (4) Ground and flight test validation of CSI methods.

  1. Magnetic bearings: A key technology for advanced rocket engines?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girault, J. PH.

    1992-01-01

    For several years, active magnetic bearings (AMB) have demonstrated their capabilities in many fields, from industrial compressors to control wheel suspension for spacecraft. Despite this broad area, no significant advance has been observed in rocket propulsion turbomachinery, where size, efficiency, and cost are crucial design criteria. To this respect, Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) had funded for several years significant efforts to delineate the advantages and drawbacks of AMB applied to rocket propulsion systems. Objectives of this work, relative technological basis, and improvements are described and illustrated by advanced turbopump layouts. Profiting from the advantages of compact design in cryogenic environments, the designs show considerable improvements in engine life, performances, and reliability. However, these conclusions should still be tempered by high recurrent costs, mainly due to the space-rated electronics. Development work focused on this point and evolution of electronics show the possibility to decrease production costs by an order of magnitude.

  2. Magnetic bearings: A key technology for advanced rocket engines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, J. Ph.

    1992-05-01

    For several years, active magnetic bearings (AMB) have demonstrated their capabilities in many fields, from industrial compressors to control wheel suspension for spacecraft. Despite this broad area, no significant advance has been observed in rocket propulsion turbomachinery, where size, efficiency, and cost are crucial design criteria. To this respect, Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) had funded for several years significant efforts to delineate the advantages and drawbacks of AMB applied to rocket propulsion systems. Objectives of this work, relative technological basis, and improvements are described and illustrated by advanced turbopump layouts. Profiting from the advantages of compact design in cryogenic environments, the designs show considerable improvements in engine life, performances, and reliability. However, these conclusions should still be tempered by high recurrent costs, mainly due to the space-rated electronics. Development work focused on this point and evolution of electronics show the possibility to decrease production costs by an order of magnitude.

  3. Using Technology to Control Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  4. Using Technology to Control Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  5. 33. Launch Control Center, close view of launch key inserted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Launch Control Center, close view of launch key inserted in the launch panel. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  6. 32. Launch Control Center, commander's console. Note launch key at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Launch Control Center, commander's console. Note launch key at right. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  7. Variability control: key to regulatory compliance and sustainability goals.

    PubMed

    Englande, A J; Eckenfelder, W W; Jin, G

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on variability concerns in wastewater treatment and approaches to control unacceptable fluctuations in effluent quality. Areas considered include: factors contributing to variability in both waste loads and process technology performance; variability assessment; control of variability employing the process best management practice (BMP); design/operation of biological waste treatment technologies for variability reduction; and modelling to enhance process control.

  8. Server-Controlled Identity-Based Authenticated Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    We present a threshold identity-based authenticated key exchange protocol that can be applied to an authenticated server-controlled gateway-user key exchange. The objective is to allow a user and a gateway to establish a shared session key with the permission of the back-end servers, while the back-end servers cannot obtain any information about the established session key. Our protocol has potential applications in strong access control of confidential resources. In particular, our protocol possesses the semantic security and demonstrates several highly-desirable security properties such as key privacy and transparency. We prove the security of the protocol based on the Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model.

  9. Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Fuguo; Long, G.L.

    2003-10-01

    A technique is devised to perform orthogonal state quantum key distribution. In this scheme, entangled parts of a quantum information carrier are sent from Alice to Bob through two quantum channels. However, before the transmission, the order of the quantum information carrier in one channel is reordered so that Eve cannot steal useful information. At the receiver's end, the order of the quantum information carrier is restored. The order rearrangement operation in both parties is controlled by a prior shared control key which is used repeatedly in a quantum key distribution session.

  10. Flow Control Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    downstream of the propeller system. Figure 16 and Figure 17 show the ADV used by Huxley and Hartman [5] as well as a flow diagram for their...Max 17° Figure 23: Power Coefficient of Asymmetric Test Trials vs. Sinusoid pitch schedule. The aim of the work by Huxley and Hartman [5] was...Fagley, Ph.D. candidate, worked with Cadets Thiago Huxley and Christopher Hartman on a feedback controlled cycloidal wave energy converter in

  11. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  12. AFWAL space control technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehne, V. O.

    1985-04-01

    An overview of space oriented control technology programs which are applicable to flexible large space structures is presented. The spacecraft control activity is interdisciplinary with activities in structures, structural dynamics and control brought together. The large flexible structures to be controlled have many physical factors that influence the final controllability of the vehicle. Factors are studied such as rigidity of both structural elements and joints, damping inherent in both material as well as discrete dampers located throughout the structure, and the bandwidth of both sensors and actuators used to sense motion and control it. Descriptions of programs both in-house and contracted are given.

  13. Wireless Networking for Control: Technologies and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Mikael; Jäntti, Riku

    This chapter discusses technologies and models for low power wireless industrial communication. The aim of the text is to narrow the gap between the models used in the theoretical control literature with models that arise when tools from communication theory are used to model emerging standards for industrial wireless. The chapter provides a tutorial overview covering basic concepts and models for wireless propagation, medium access control, multi-hop networking, routing and transport protocols. Throughout, an effort is made to describe both key technologies and associated models of control-relevant characteristics such as latency and loss. Some existing and emerging specifications and standards, including Zigbee, WirelessHART and ISA100, are described in some detail, and links are made between the developed models and useful network abstractions for control design.

  14. Technology Literacy: A Key to the New Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard

    The United States needs a vocational educational system that delivers, in an applied technological setting, the new basic skills that industry needs, as well as a general education system that provides creative instruction in applied math, physics, and science. To be effective, technological training should encompass, along with machine-specific…

  15. Key Emerging Technologies for Elementary and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laurence F.; Levine, Alan; Smith, Rachel S.; Haywood, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The Horizon Report series is the most visible outcome of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, an ongoing research effort that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within education around the globe. The report examines emerging technologies for…

  16. Key Emerging Technologies for Elementary and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laurence F.; Levine, Alan; Smith, Rachel S.; Haywood, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The "Horizon Report" series is the most visible outcome of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, an ongoing research effort that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within education around the globe. The report examines emerging technologies for…

  17. Pen, Ink, Keys, and Cards: Some Reflections on Library Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Michael Stuart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the adoption of new technologies in libraries throughout history focuses on two innovations in particular: the card catalog and the typewriter. Topics discussed include the replacement of one technology by another; budget considerations; requirements and attitudes of the labor force; reactions of library users; and attitudes of…

  18. Simplified Key Management for Digital Access Control of Information Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-02

    encrypting large numbers of information assets. Often, grouping and segmenting objects by type is done to reduce the number of keys needed and hence...recording [2]. The advent of digital media and analog/digital conversion technologies, especially those that are usable on mass- market general...Dean Takahashi, “With online sales growing, video game market to hit $81B by 2016 (exclusive),” 2011. http://venturebeat.com/2011/09/07/with-online

  19. [Research progress on key technology of power and signal transmission in neuroprosthetic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Peng, Chenglin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Rui; Hou, Wensheng; Zheng, Xiaolin; Zheng, Erxin

    2011-10-01

    The power and signal transmission technology is one of the key technologies in neuroprosthetic research. This paper proposes firstly the related theory of power and signal transmission technology in neuroprosthetic, then summarizes the three key aspects of the power and signal transmission technology in neuroprosthetic. After analyzed the development of the inductive wireless power harvesting technology, the wireless telemetry technology and the wireless power harvesting telemetry technology, the emphasis on research contents will be proposed and discussed, which will help accelerate the further research of prosthetic.

  20. Attitude control and stabilization technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on attitude control and stabilization technology discipline for the Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: attitude control technologies for multi-user accommodation; flexible dynamics and control; computational control techniques; and automatic proximity operations.

  1. Research on the Key Technology of Large Scale Mapping from Low Altitude Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo-Yi, Wu; Ning, Zhang; Guo-Zhong, Su

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theoretic analysis of the accuracy in large scale photogrammetric mapping, some defects in traditional procedure were discussed. A set of key technologies dedicate to accuracy improvement in low altitude photogrammetry were analyzed in detail, namely the utilization of wide angle camera and low altitude flight, enhancement in image matching, predesigned layout of Ground Control Points (GCPs) in field survey, optimization of adjustment model and improvement in map processing. Besides, a low altitude aerial unmanned airship system was established. Finally, successful implementation in 1:500 topographic mapping project in built-up areas of 30 counties in Shanxi Province proves the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  2. The Development Status and Key Technologies of Solar Powered Unmanned Air Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Li; Wei, Zhou; Xueren, Wang

    2017-03-01

    By analyzing the development status of several typical solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) at home and abroad, the key technologies involved in the design and manufacture of solar powered UAV and the technical difficulties need to be solved at present are obtained. It is pointed out that with the improvement of energy system efficiency, advanced aerodynamic configuration design, realization of high applicability flight stability and control system, breakthrough of efficient propulsion system, the application prospect of solar powered UAV will be more extensive.

  3. Key Factors Influencing Pupil Motivation in Design and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, E. Stephanie

    1999-01-01

    Assessments of 50 British high school students before and after design and technology (D&T) instruction indicated that only 20% were motivated by D&T project work for their General Certificate of Secondary Education. A positive relationship was found between ability to perform and motivation, but no relationship between creativity and…

  4. Technology: The Key to the Reformation of Developmental Mathematics Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Jacob, Marion G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a movement nationwide to enhance the learning experience of college students who need to take courses in developmental mathematics. Technology is instrumental in eliminating the non-credit bearing courses from their programs of study. The restructuring of the mathematics programs allows for greater confidence on the parts of the students…

  5. Key Issue: Recruiting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraner, Kristin L.

    2009-01-01

    A STEM teacher is one who teaches in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In K-12 schooling, most STEM teachers instruct mathematics and science classes, which continue to be critical shortage areas. As part of a comprehensive human capital strategy, designing recruitment initiatives to attract qualified STEM teachers…

  6. Technology: The Key to the Reformation of Developmental Mathematics Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Jacob, Marion G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a movement nationwide to enhance the learning experience of college students who need to take courses in developmental mathematics. Technology is instrumental in eliminating the non-credit bearing courses from their programs of study. The restructuring of the mathematics programs allows for greater confidence on the parts of the students…

  7. Technology in Education: Equity and Theory Are Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, La Vergne

    2001-01-01

    The author shares ways technology may empower students and how it has enabled her as a teacher to expand beyond some of the traditional boundaries for writing, reading, and assessment. In the discussion, the importance of economic and environmental equity and the need for theory to inform pedagogy are emphasized. (AEF)

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical objective of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Center is to verify environmental technology performance by obtaining objective quality-assured data, thus providing potential purchasers and permitters wi...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical objective of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Center is to verify environmental technology performance by obtaining objective quality-assured data, thus providing potential purchasers and permitters wi...

  10. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew Ryan; Stahle, Carl M.; Balasubramaniam, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.; Mosier, Gary E.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David C.; Rioux, Norman M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 20 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  11. The Square Kilometer Array: Key Science and Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    This paper summarizes the science goals for the Square Kilometer Array and its possible implementation. The SKA is the next generation radio telescope that will revolutionize our knowledge of the universe. The SKA will enable massive surveys of many kinds at meter and centimeter wavelengths. It is being designed to probe fundamental questions in physics, such as the nature of dark energy and dark matter and the properties of gravity in the strong-field limit. The SKA will also lead to a better understanding of complexity in the universe, viz. the origins of magnetic fields, galaxies, stars, planets and life. Currently the purpose and specifications of the SKA are defined in terms of five key science areas, which are summarized here, along with the enormous discovery space that will be opened up by the SKA. The key ``axes of discovery'' for the SKA include a huge boost in sensitivity combined with high angular resolution and wide field of view (FoV). These innovations, combined with those developed in radio astronomy contexts over the last few decades, will open new windows to the universe. It will also provide numerous synergistic studies with telescopes that span the electromagnetic spectrum as well as with non-electromagnetic telescopes, especially gravitational wave detectors.

  12. Research on the key technology of LTCC pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Yukun; Wei, Tanyong; Tan, Qiulin

    2015-09-01

    This article introduces the fabrication technology processes of the capacitive pressure sensor based on the low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) material. Filling the cavity with different materials as a sacrificial layer is mainly discussed, and two different materials are chosen in the fabrication. It is found that the cavity filled with polyimide expands largely during sintering, while carbon ESL49000 material filled is more preferable to keep the cavity flat. Finally, the structure leaving without an air evacuation channel is designed and tested in a built-up pressure environment, the frequency measured decreases approximately linearly with the pressure applied, which proves the design leaving no air evacuation channel advisable.

  13. Ice technology seen as key to world market

    SciTech Connect

    Redden, J.

    1985-05-01

    Viewing the arctic as their last chance of entering the international offshore market, the West Germans are intensifying development of ice technology. From designing arctic-class structures and icebreakers to development of low temperature steels, German researchers firmly believe they have a product to export. Convincing the international market, however, thus far has faced a number of obstacles primarily centering on protectionism. The desire of the Germans to gain a foothold in the worldwide offshore market is exemplified by the number of government-funded projects formulated of late. Most recently the West German government has initiated an arctic offshore project in which several proposals will be examined for possible funding.

  14. Modeling and simulation: A key to future defense technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muccio, Anthony B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to express the rationale for continued technological and scientific development of the modeling and simulation process for the defense industry. The defense industry, along with a variety of other industries, is currently being forced into making sacrifices in response to the current economic hardships. These sacrifices, which may not compromise the safety of our nation, nor jeopardize our current standing as the world peace officer, must be concentrated in areas which will withstand the needs of the changing world. Therefore, the need for cost effective alternatives of defense issues must be examined. This paper provides support that the modeling and simulation process is an economically feasible process which will ensure our nation's safety as well as provide and keep up with the future technological developments and demands required by the defense industry. The outline of this paper is as follows: introduction, which defines and describes the modeling and simulation process; discussion, which details the purpose and benefits of modeling and simulation and provides specific examples of how the process has been successful; and conclusion, which summarizes the specifics of modeling and simulation of defense issues and lends the support for its continued use in the defense arena.

  15. Modeling and simulation: A key to future defense technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muccio, Anthony B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to express the rationale for continued technological and scientific development of the modeling and simulation process for the defense industry. The defense industry, along with a variety of other industries, is currently being forced into making sacrifices in response to the current economic hardships. These sacrifices, which may not compromise the safety of our nation, nor jeopardize our current standing as the world peace officer, must be concentrated in areas which will withstand the needs of the changing world. Therefore, the need for cost effective alternatives of defense issues must be examined. This paper provides support that the modeling and simulation process is an economically feasible process which will ensure our nation's safety as well as provide and keep up with the future technological developments and demands required by the defense industry. The outline of this paper is as follows: introduction, which defines and describes the modeling and simulation process; discussion, which details the purpose and benefits of modeling and simulation and provides specific examples of how the process has been successful; and conclusion, which summarizes the specifics of modeling and simulation of defense issues and lends the support for its continued use in the defense arena.

  16. The key to enabling biosurveillance is cooperative technology development.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Peter; Jones, Franca; Smith, Michael; Huff, William; Jaffe, Richard; Roos, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The world population will continue to face biological threats, whether they are naturally occurring or intentional events. The speed with which diseases can emerge and spread presents serious challenges, because the impact on public health, the economy, and development can be huge. The U.S. government recognizes that global public health can also have an impact on national security. This global perspective manifests itself in U.S. policy documents that clearly articulate the importance of biosurveillance in providing early warning, detection, and situational awareness of infectious disease threats in order to mount a rapid response and save lives. In this commentary, we suggest that early recognition of infectious disease threats, whether naturally occurring or man-made, requires a globally distributed array of interoperable hardware and software fielded in sufficient numbers to create a network of linked collection nodes. We argue that achievement of this end state will require a degree of cooperation that does not exist at this time-either across the U.S. federal government or among our global partners. Successful fielding of a family of interoperable technologies will require interagency research, development, and purchase ("acquisition") of biosurveillance systems through cooperative ventures that likely will involve our strategic allies and public-private partnerships. To this end, we propose leveraging an existing federal interagency group to integrate the acquisition of technologies to enable global biosurveillance.

  17. Amplitude-weighted quadrature phase shift keying using SAW technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkerdid, M. A.; Malocha, D. C.

    1985-09-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) convolvers are capable of performing programmable matched filtering with the desirable properties of large processing gain, good dynamic range, broad bandwidth, small size and weight, and low power requirements. Equally powerful are the SAW-based modulators, which produce the desired pseudo-random code sequence for secure transmission in a spread-spectrum system. The SAW filter provides precise reproducible pulse shaping of the coded waveform with the same advantages of the convolver. It is very important as spectrum space becomes more crowded to optimize the spectral efficiency of transmitted information. Quadrature phase (QPSK) and minimum phase shift keying (MSK) are the two more popular quadrature modulation schemes. A new modulation technique that is composed of several amplitude-weighted QPSK signals (AWQPSK) and exhibits better bandwidth efficiency than OPSK or MSK is introduced. System analysis and performance parameters are presented for evaluation. A SAW modulator implementation is discussed and proposed.

  18. Are Key Principles for improved health technology assessment supported and used by health technology assessment organizations?

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter J; Drummond, Michael F; Jönsson, Bengt; Luce, Bryan R; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2010-01-01

    Previously, our group-the International Working Group for HTA Advancement-proposed a set of fifteen Key Principles that could be applied to health technology assessment (HTA) programs in different jurisdictions and across a range of organizations and perspectives. In this commentary, we investigate the extent to which these principles are supported and used by fourteen selected HTA organizations worldwide. We find that some principles are broadly supported: examples include being explicit about HTA goals and scope; considering a wide range of evidence and outcomes; and being unbiased and transparent. Other principles receive less widespread support: examples are addressing issues of generalizability and transferability; being transparent on the link between HTA findings and decision-making processes; considering a full societal perspective; and monitoring the implementation of HTA findings. The analysis also suggests a lack of consensus in the field about some principles--for example, considering a societal perspective. Our study highlights differences in the uptake of key principles for HTA and indicates considerable room for improvement for HTA organizations to adopt principles identified to reflect good HTA practices. Most HTA organizations espouse certain general concepts of good practice--for example, assessments should be unbiased and transparent. However, principles that require more intensive follow-up--for example, monitoring the implementation of HTA findings--have received little support and execution.

  19. The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shannon D.; Caruso, Judith Borreson

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010". Since 2004, the annual ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of undergraduate students and information technology has sought to shed light on how information technology affects the college experience. We…

  20. Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Duddzinski, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

  1. Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George; Sutliff, Tom; Dudzinski, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

  2. Monitoring Key Parameters in Bioprocesses Using Near-Infrared Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is known to be a rapid and non-destructive technique for process monitoring. Bioprocesses are usually complex, from both the chemical (ill-defined medium composition) and physical (multiphase matrix) aspects, which poses an additional challenge to the development of robust calibrations. We investigated the use of NIRS for on-line and in-line monitoring of cell, substrate and product concentrations, during aerobic and anaerobic bacterial fermentations, in different fermentation strategies. Calibration models were built up, then validated and used for the automated control of fermentation processes. The capability of NIR in-line to discriminate among differently shaped bacteria was tested. PMID:25313494

  3. Monitoring key parameters in bioprocesses using near-infrared technology.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola

    2014-10-13

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is known to be a rapid and non-destructive technique for process monitoring. Bioprocesses are usually complex, from both the chemical (ill-defined medium composition) and physical (multiphase matrix) aspects, which poses an additional challenge to the development of robust calibrations. We investigated the use of NIRS for on-line and in-line monitoring of cell, substrate and product concentrations, during aerobic and anaerobic bacterial fermentations, in different fermentation strategies. Calibration models were built up, then validated and used for the automated control of fermentation processes. The capability of NIR in-line to discriminate among differently shaped bacteria was tested.

  4. [The key points of Chinese children myopia prevention and control].

    PubMed

    Chu, Renyuan

    2014-01-01

    With the development of information technology and urbanization, the prevalence of myopia in Chinese children is rising each year, meanwhile, there appears to be some cognitive and behavioral misunderstanding about the prevention and treatment of myopia now. To control the development of myopia, we should make efforts to focus on prevention of myopia, promote scientific ways of diagnosis and treatment, as well as implement integrated project.

  5. Key performance measures to control maintenance-associated HAIs.

    PubMed

    Njuangang, Stanley; Liyanage, Champika; Akintoye, Akintola

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to improve overall healthcare maintenance (HM) service performance in NHS infection control (IC). Hence, the authors identify critical success factors (CSFs) and key performance measures in maintenance-associated infections. These infections occur because of the poor performance of HM service in IC. In the first Delphi exercise, complete CSFs and performance measures were presented to the Delphi participants for refinement and modification. Delphi round 1 data were analysed manually and used to refine the rounds 2 and 3 Delphi instruments. In subsequent Delphi rounds, the results were analysed through descriptive statistics. In total, eight CSFs and 53 key performance measures were identified for reducing maintenance-associated infections in hospitals. For example, establishing clear communication between the infection control team (ICT) and HM unit is important for preventing maintenance-associated HAIs. Dust prevention is also identified by the healthcare experts as an important measure to prevent maintenance-associated HAIs in high-risk patient areas. The findings provide CSFs and key performance measures for measuring performance in HM in IC. Reducing the rate of maintenance-associated infections will have important socio-economic and health ramifications for hospitals. It will reduce cost and free up additional resources for alternative projects. It will also raise confidence among healthcare users about the quality of services provided by hospitals.

  6. Study of application and key technology of the high-energy laser weapon in optoelectronic countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Xing, Hao; Wang, Dawei; Wang, Qiugui

    2015-10-01

    High-energy Laser weapon is a new-style which is developing rapidly nowadays. It is a one kind of direction energy weapon which can destroy the targets or make them invalid. High-energy Laser weapon has many merits such as concentrated energy, fast transmission, long operating range, satisfied precision, fast shift fire, anti-electromagnetic interference, reusability, cost-effectiveness. High-energy Laser weapon has huge potential for modern warfare since its laser beam launch attack to the target by the speed of light. High-energy Laser weapon can be deployed by multiple methods such as skyborne, carrier borne, vehicle-mounted, foundation, space platform. Besides the connection with command and control system, High-energy Laser weapon is consist of high-energy laser and beam steering. Beam steering is comprised of Large diameter launch system and Precision targeting systems. Meanwhile, beam steering includes the distance measurement of target location, detection system of television and infrared sensor, adaptive optical system of Laser atmospheric distortion correction. The development of laser technology is very fast in recent years. A variety of laser sources have been regarded as the key component in many optoelectronic devices. For directed energy weapon, the progress of laser technology has greatly improved the tactical effectiveness, such as increasing the range and strike precision. At the same time, the modern solid-state laser has become the ideal optical source for optical countermeasure, because it has high photoelectric conversion efficiency and small volume or weight. However, the total performance is limited by the mutual cooperation between different subsystems. The optical countermeasure is a complex technique after many years development. The key factor to evaluate the laser weapon can be formulated as laser energy density to target. This article elaborated the laser device technology of optoelectronic countermeasure and Photoelectric tracking

  7. Integrated Seismological Network of Brazil: Key developments in technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirchiner, Marlon; Assumpção, Marcelo; Ferreira, Joaquim; França, George

    2010-05-01

    The Integrated Seismological Network of Brazil - BRASIS - will integrate the main Brazilian seismology groups in an extensive permanent broadband network with a (near) real-time acquisition system and automatic preliminary processing of epicenters and magnitudes. About 60 stations will cover the whole country to continuously monitor the seismic activity. Most stations will be operating by the end of 2010. Data will be received from remote stations at each research group and redistributed to all other groups. In addition to issuing a national catalog of earthquakes, each institution will make its own analysis and issue their own bulletins taking into account local and regional lithospheric structure. We chose the SEED format, seedlink and SeisComP as standard data format, exchange protocol and software framework for the network management, respectively. All different existing equipment (eg, Guralp/Scream, Geotech/CD1.1, RefTek/RTP, Quanterra/seedlink) will be integrated into the same system. We plan to provide: 1) improved station management through remote control, and indexes for quality control of acquired data, sending alerts to operators in critical cases. 2) automatic processing: picking, location with local and regional models and determination of magnitudes, issuing newsletters and alerts. 3) maintainence of an earthquakes catalog, and a waveforms database. 4) query tools and access to metadata, catalogs and waveform available to all researchers. In addition, the catalog of earthquakes and other seismological data will be available as layers in a Spatial Data Infrastructure with open source standards, providing new analysis capabilities to all geoscientists. Seiscomp3 has already been installed in two centers (UFRN and USP) with successful tests of Q330, Guralp, RefTek and Geotech plug-ins to the seedlink protocol. We will discuss the main difficulties of our project and the solutions adopted to improve the Brazilian seismological infrastructure.

  8. Keys to active ageing: new communication technologies and lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Díaz-López, M Del Pilar; López-Liria, Remedios; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Padilla-Góngora, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the creation and implementation of an ICT education program for the elderly in various Active Participation Centers in Almería (Spain), assessing its impact on quality of life. From a randomized sample of 200 individuals over the age of 55. Results reveal a high degree of participant satisfaction (76.6 %), as well as improvements in quality of life as compared to the control group after the 3 month program health factor: p = 0.004; leisure and activity factor: p = 0.001; Satisfaction with Life Factor: p < 0.001. The analysis conducted to determine the influence of age and gender on quality of life indicates that there are statistically significant differences in regards to age (the younger groups had higher scores) and gender (the males). This study may serve to facilitate similar works that promotes on-going education in different locations and across the lifespan.

  9. Key Technologies for Ultra High Dose CMOS Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Y.; Koo, I.; Singh, V.; Oh, J.; Jin, S.; Lee, J.; Rouh, K.; Ju, M.; Jeon, S.; Ku, J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, S. W.; Ok, M. T.; Butterbaugh, J.; Lee, A.; Kim, K.; Lee, S. W.; Ju, K. J.; Park, J. W.

    2008-11-03

    The trend towards shrinking advanced microelectronic Logic and DRAM devices will require ultra high dose implantation. One ultra high dose application in DRAM, being rapidly adopted in production is Dual Poly Gate (DPG). Three main challenges existed for the adoption of this high dose dual poly gate (DPG) doping applications: monitoring of high dose implantation, photoresist stripping and maintaining high throughput. In this paper we present how these challenges have been addressed. VSEA's plasma doping (PLAD) tool offers several unique advantages for DPG applications. When compared to conventional or molecular beam line implanters or other immersion techniques, PLAD delivers 3 to 7 times higher throughput (compared to traditional ion implanter) without dopant penetration through the thin doped polysilicon layer into the gate oxide. It also improves P{sup +} poly silicon DPG device properties at superior throughput. In this work we demonstrate how hot spray photoresist strip processing eliminates the need for multiple-tools required for wet+ash+wet process. In addition to PLAD's patented in-situ dose control metrology we also demonstrate an ex-situ high dose implantation metrology using spectroscopic ellipsometer (SE) and spectroscopic reflectometer (SR). The technique shows good correlation (R{sup 2}{approx}0.99) between implant dose and damaged layer thickness.

  10. Portal monitoring technology control process

    SciTech Connect

    York, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Portal monitors are an important part of the material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) programs in Russia and the US. Although portal monitors are only a part of an integrated MPC and A system, they are an effective means of controlling the unauthorized movement of special nuclear material (SNM). Russian technical experts have gained experience in the use of SNM portal monitors from US experts ad this has allowed them to use the monitors more effectively. Several Russian institutes and companies are designing and manufacturing SNM portal monitors in Russia. Interactions between Russian and US experts have resulted in improvements to the instruments. SNM portal monitor technology has been effectively transferred from the US to Russia and should be a permanent part of the Russian MPC and A Program. Progress in the implementation of the monitors and improvements to how they are used are discussed.

  11. SKA CSP controls: technological challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baffa, C.; Giani, E.; Vrcic, S.; Vela Nuñez, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project is an international effort to build the world's largest radio telescope, with eventually over a square kilometer of collecting area. For SKA Phase 1, Australia will host the low-frequency instrument with more than 500 stations, each containing around 250 individual antennas, whilst South Africa will host an array of close to 200 dishes. The scale of the SKA represents a huge leap forward in both engineering and research and development towards building and delivering a unique instrument, with the detailed design and preparation now well under way. As one of the largest scientific endeavors in history, the SKA will brings together close to 100 organizations from 20 countries. Every aspect of the design and development of such a large and complex instrument requires state-of-the-art technology and innovative approach. This poster (or paper) addresses some aspects of the SKA monitor and control system, and in particular describes the development and test results of the CSP Local Monitoring and Control prototype. At the SKA workshop held in April 2015, the SKA monitor and control community has chosen TANGO Control System as a framework, for the implementation of the SKA monitor and control. This decision will have a large impact on Monitor an Control development of SKA. As work is on the way to incorporate TANGO Control System in SKA is in progress, we started to development a prototype for the SKA Central Signal Processor to mitigate the associated risks. In particular we now have developed a uniform class schema proposal for the sub-Element systems of the SKA-CSP.

  12. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  13. Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  14. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplandiu, Maria J.; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David

    2016-03-01

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  15. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors.

    PubMed

    Esplandiu, Maria J; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  16. Controllability, not chaos, key criterion for ocean state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey; Hsieh, Tsung-Lin

    2017-07-01

    The Lagrange multiplier method for combining observations and models (i.e., the adjoint method or 4D-VAR) has been avoided or approximated when the numerical model is highly nonlinear or chaotic. This approach has been adopted primarily due to difficulties in the initialization of low-dimensional chaotic models, where the search for optimal initial conditions by gradient-descent algorithms is hampered by multiple local minima. Although initialization is an important task for numerical weather prediction, ocean state estimation usually demands an additional task - a solution of the time-dependent surface boundary conditions that result from atmosphere-ocean interaction. Here, we apply the Lagrange multiplier method to an analogous boundary control problem, tracking the trajectory of the forced chaotic pendulum. Contrary to previous assertions, it is demonstrated that the Lagrange multiplier method can track multiple chaotic transitions through time, so long as the boundary conditions render the system controllable. Thus, the nonlinear timescale poses no limit to the time interval for successful Lagrange multiplier-based estimation. That the key criterion is controllability, not a pure measure of dynamical stability or chaos, illustrates the similarities between the Lagrange multiplier method and other state estimation methods. The results with the chaotic pendulum suggest that nonlinearity should not be a fundamental obstacle to ocean state estimation with eddy-resolving models, especially when using an improved first-guess trajectory.

  17. Key Knowledge Gaps for Plasmodium vivax Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Bassat, Quique; Velarde, Mar; Mueller, Ivo; Lin, Jessica; Leslie, Toby; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Baird, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    There is inadequate understanding of the biology, pathology, transmission, and control of Plasmodium vivax, the geographically most widespread cause of human malaria. During the last decades, study of this species was neglected, in part due to the erroneous belief that it is intrinsically benign. In addition, many technical challenges in culturing the parasite also hampered understanding its fundamental biology and molecular and cellular responses to chemotherapeutics. Research on vivax malaria needs to be substantially expanded over the next decade to accelerate its elimination and eradication. This article summarizes key knowledge gaps identified by researchers, national malaria control programs, and other stakeholders assembled by the World Health Organization to develop strategies for controlling and eliminating vivax malaria. The priorities presented in this article emerged in these technical discussions, and were adopted by expert consensus of the authors. All involved understood the priority placed upon pragmatism in this research agenda, that is, focus upon tools delivering better prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of P. vivax. PMID:27430544

  18. Aerospace laser communications technology as enabler for worldwide quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Florian; Weinfurter, Harald; Rau, Markus; Schmidt, Christopher; Melén, Gwen; Vogl, Tobias; Nauerth, Sebastian; Fuchs, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A worldwide growing interest in fast and secure data communications pushes technology development along two lines. While fast communications can be realized using laser communications in fiber and free-space, inherently secure communications can be achieved using quantum key distribution (QKD). By combining both technologies in a single device, many synergies can be exploited, therefore reducing size, weight and power of future systems. In recent experiments we demonstrated quantum communications over large distances as well as between an aircraft and a ground station which proved the feasibility of QKD between moving partners. Satellites thus may be used as trusted nodes in combination with QKD receiver stations on ground, thereby enabling fast and secure communications on a global scale. We discuss the previous experiment with emphasis on necessary developments to be done and corresponding ongoing research work of German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (LMU). DLR is performing research on satellite and ground terminals for the high-rate laser communication component, which are enabling technologies for the QKD link. We describe the concept and hardware of three generations of OSIRIS (Optical High Speed Infrared Link System) laser communication terminals for low Earth orbiting satellites. The first type applies laser beam pointing solely based on classical satellite control, the second uses an optical feedback to the satellite bus and the third, currently being in design phase, comprises of a special coarse pointing assembly to control beam direction independent of satellite orientation. Ongoing work also targets optical terminals for CubeSats. A further increase of beam pointing accuracy can be achieved with a fine pointing assembly. Two ground stations will be available for future testing, an advanced stationary ground station and a transportable ground station. In parallel the LMU QKD source size will be reduced by more than an

  19. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's new emphasis on human exploration program for missions beyond LEO requires development of innovative and revolutionary technologies. Thermal control requirements of future NASA science instruments and missions are very challenging and require advanced thermal control technologies. Limited resources requires organizations to cooperate and collaborate; government, industry, universities all need to work together for the successful development of these technologies.

  20. Regaining Control Over Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2005-01-01

    Living in postindustrial, 21st-century society means being surrounded by the accoutrements of information technology. Information technology is in people's offices, cars and homes. One third of adults do not deal well with information technology, according to the research of Larry Rosen, psychology professor, author, and pundit. Rosen is the Paul…

  1. Regaining Control Over Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2005-01-01

    Living in postindustrial, 21st-century society means being surrounded by the accoutrements of information technology. Information technology is in people's offices, cars and homes. One third of adults do not deal well with information technology, according to the research of Larry Rosen, psychology professor, author, and pundit. Rosen is the Paul…

  2. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation: Department of Defense Public Key Infrastructure and Key Management Infrastructure Token Protection Profile (Medium Robustness)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation Department of Defense Public Key Infrastructure and Key Management ...for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...Infrastructure and Key Management Infrastructure Token Protection Profile (Medium Reobustness) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  3. Study of key technologies of visible light communications based on white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, De; Zhang, Ningbo

    2010-11-01

    With the feature of energy-saving, reliability, long life and so on, LED lighting is considered as the next generation of mainstream lighting technology. Based on the characteristics of LED's higher switching speed than fluorescent lamp and incandescent, the technology that uses the white LED light source of interior lighting as the communication base station to transmit information wirelessly, is the hot technology being studied at home and abroad-visible light communication technology. In this paper, the study status of the white LED visible-light wireless communication technology is briefly described; its key technologies are analyzed; and the development trend of LED visible light wireless communication technology is elaborated from the application point of view.

  4. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-02-01

    Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further.

  5. Status and trends in active control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Szalai, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    The emergence of highly reliable fly-by-wire flight control systems makes it possible to consider a strong reliance on automatic control systems in the design optimization of future aircraft. This design philosophy has been referred to as the control configured vehicle approach or the application of active control technology. Several studies and flight tests sponsored by the Air Force and NASA have demonstrated the potential benefits of control configured vehicles and active control technology. The present status and trends of active control technology are reviewed and the impact it will have on aircraft designs, design techniques, and the designer is predicted.

  6. Recent Technology Advances in Distributed Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work performed at NASA Glenn Research Center in distributed engine control technology. This is control system hardware technology that overcomes engine system constraints by modularizing control hardware and integrating the components over communication networks.

  7. Modular Technology Education Planning Guide: 15 Key Steps To Creating a Successful Technology Education Program at Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearlihy & Co., Springfield, OH.

    Modular Technology Education (MTE) uses a combination of multi-media and hands-on activities to teach important concepts that increase the student's interest level as well as provide students with career choices that best fit their individual interests. This booklet provides 15 key planning steps for developing an MTE program and avoiding…

  8. Challenges of Technology, Social Media, and Information Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Today's youth must deal with friend management 24 hours a day, seven days a week, through smartphones and such social networking sites as Facebook. Technology in the classroom can be valuable, but not without challenges. The key is well-thought-out policies. While school districts can't completely control how students use their…

  9. Challenges of Technology, Social Media, and Information Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Today's youth must deal with friend management 24 hours a day, seven days a week, through smartphones and such social networking sites as Facebook. Technology in the classroom can be valuable, but not without challenges. The key is well-thought-out policies. While school districts can't completely control how students use their…

  10. Circadian Clock Genes Universally Control Key Agricultural Traits.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Claire; Marshall, Carine M; Harmon, Frank G

    2015-08-01

    Circadian clocks are endogenous timers that enable plants to synchronize biological processes with daily and seasonal environmental conditions in order to allocate resources during the most beneficial times of day and year. The circadian clock regulates a number of central plant activities, including growth, development, and reproduction, primarily through controlling a substantial proportion of transcriptional activity and protein function. This review examines the roles that alleles of circadian clock genes have played in domestication and improvement of crop plants. The focus here is on three groups of circadian clock genes essential to clock function in Arabidopsis thaliana: PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORs, GIGANTEA, and the evening complex genes early flowering 3, early flowering 4, and lux arrhythmo. homologous genes from each group underlie quantitative trait loci that have beneficial influences on key agricultural traits, especially flowering time but also yield, biomass, and biennial growth habit. Emerging insights into circadian clock regulation of other fundamental plant processes, including responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, are discussed to highlight promising avenues for further crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Szuch, J. R.; Merrill, W. C.; Lehtinen, B.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a more sophisticated engine control system is discussed. The improvements in better thrust-to-weight ratios demand the manipulation of more control inputs. New technological solutions to the engine control problem are practiced. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system is a step in the evolution to digital electronic engine control. Technology issues are addressed to ensure a growth in confidence in sophisticated electronic controls for aircraft turbine engines. The need of a control system architecture which permits propulsion controls to be functionally integrated with other aircraft systems is established. Areas of technology studied include: (1) control design methodology; (2) improved modeling and simulation methods; and (3) implementation technologies. Objectives, results and future thrusts are summarized.

  12. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  15. The Key Technologies. Some Implications for Education and Training. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Jack; And Others

    National competitiveness depends in large part on the practical application of technologies. Educational planners must, therefore, identify key (newly emerging) topics in science and engineering that are likely to have a major evolutionary effect on industry and incorporate these areas into existing vocational and technical curricula. Because…

  16. The Transformation of China's Key Science and Technology Universities in the Move to Mass Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangli; Zha, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    China's key science and technology universities are modelled on the French "Ecole Polytechnique". As such, they are utilitarian institutions, rooted in the concept of cultivating manpower for society's economic progress, and tending to ignore the development of the individual. As China's elite higher education system took in a rapidly…

  17. The Transformation of China's Key Science and Technology Universities in the Move to Mass Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangli; Zha, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    China's key science and technology universities are modelled on the French "Ecole Polytechnique". As such, they are utilitarian institutions, rooted in the concept of cultivating manpower for society's economic progress, and tending to ignore the development of the individual. As China's elite higher education system took in a rapidly…

  18. The Key Technologies. Some Implications for Education and Training. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Jack; And Others

    National competitiveness depends in large part on the practical application of technologies. Educational planners must, therefore, identify key (newly emerging) topics in science and engineering that are likely to have a major evolutionary effect on industry and incorporate these areas into existing vocational and technical curricula. Because…

  19. Medical technology as a key driver of rising health expenditure: disentangling the relationship

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Corinna; Drummond, Michael; Bhuiyan Khan, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Health care spending has risen steadily in most countries, becoming a concern for decision-makers worldwide. Commentators often point to new medical technology as the key driver for burgeoning expenditures. This paper critically appraises this conjecture, based on an analysis of the existing literature, with the aim of offering a more detailed and considered analysis of this relationship. Several databases were searched to identify relevant literature. Various categories of studies (eg, multivariate and cost-effectiveness analyses) were included to cover different perspectives, methodological approaches, and issues regarding the link between medical technology and costs. Selected articles were reviewed and relevant information was extracted into a standardized template and analyzed for key cross-cutting themes, ie, impact of technology on costs, factors influencing this relationship, and methodological challenges in measuring such linkages. A total of 86 studies were reviewed. The analysis suggests that the relationship between medical technology and spending is complex and often conflicting. Findings were frequently contingent on varying factors, such as the availability of other interventions, patient population, and the methodological approach employed. Moreover, the impact of technology on costs differed across technologies, in that some (eg, cancer drugs, invasive medical devices) had significant financial implications, while others were cost-neutral or cost-saving. In light of these issues, we argue that decision-makers and other commentators should extend their focus beyond costs solely to include consideration of whether medical technology results in better value in health care and broader socioeconomic benefits. PMID:23807855

  20. Computer-Based Learning: The Key 'Technological Multiplier' for Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Angus

    1982-01-01

    The use of computer-based learning (CBL) is discussed. The author examines the appropriate use of the technology; its cost; identifying the best potential applications of CBL; and the use of CBL by major airlines, oil companies, universities, manufacturers, and government. (CT)

  1. Engineering Lessons Learned and Technical Standards Integration: Capturing Key Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellen, Daniele P.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing engineering lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies, then integrating them with technical standards, provides a viable process for enhancing engineering capabilities. The development of future space missions will require ready access, not only to the latest technical standards, but also to lessons learned derived from past experiences and new technologies. The integration of this information such that it is readily accessible by engineering and programmatic personnel is a key aspect of enabling technology. This paper addresses the development of a new and innovative Lessons Learned/Best Practices/Applications Notes--Standards Integration System, including experiences with its initial implementation as a pilot effort within the NASA Technical Standards Program. Included are metrics on the Program, feedbacks from users, future plans, and key issues that are being addressed to expand the System's utility. The objective is the enhancement of engineering capabilities on all aspects of systems development applicable to the success of future space missions.

  2. Current status of health technology reassessment of non-drug technologies: survey and key informant interviews.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Laura E; Mackean, Gail; Noseworthy, Tom W; Sutherland, Lloyd; Clement, Fiona

    2012-12-14

    Health Technology Reassessment (HTR) is a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, social, ethical and economic effects of a technology currently used in the health care system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. Little is known about current international HTR practices. The objective of this research was to summarize experience-based information gathered from international experts on the development, initiation and implementation of a HTR program. A mixed methods approach, using a survey and in-depth interviews, was adopted. The survey covered 8 concepts: prioritization/identification of potentially obsolete technologies; program development; implementation; mitigation; program championing; stakeholder engagement; monitoring; and reinvestment. Members of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) formed the sampling frame. Participation was solicited via email and the survey was administered online using SurveyMonkey. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To gather more in-depth knowledge, semi-structured interviews were conducted among organizations with active HTR programs. Interview questions were developed using the same 8 concepts. The hour-long interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Ninety-five individuals responded to the survey: 49 were not discussing HTR, 21 were beginning to discuss HTR, nine were imminently developing a program, and 16 participants had programs and were completing reassessments. The survey results revealed that methods vary widely and that although HTR is a powerful tool, it is currently not being used to its full potential. Of the 16 with active programs, nine agreed to participate in follow-up interviews. Interview participants identified early and extensive stakeholder engagement as the most important factors for success

  3. Secure NFV Orchestration Over an SDN-Controlled Optical Network With Time-Shared Quantum Key Distribution Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, Alejandro; Hugues-Salas, Emilio; Haigh, Paul Anthony; Marhuenda, Jaume; Price, Alasdair B.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Erven, Chris; Rarity, John G.; Thompson, Mark Gerard; Lord, Andrew; Nejabati, Reza; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, a secure optical network architecture that combines NFV orchestration and SDN control with quantum key distribution (QKD) technology. A novel time-shared QKD network design is presented as a cost-effective solution for practical networks.

  4. How we develop and sustain innovation in medical education technology: Keys to success.

    PubMed

    McGee, James B; Kanter, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    The use of information technology to support the educational mission of academic medical centers is nearly universal; however, the scope and methods employed vary greatly (Souza et al. 2008 ). This article reviews the methods, processes, and specific techniques needed to conceive, develop, implement, and assess technology-based educational programs across healthcare disciplines. We discuss the core concepts, structure, and techniques that enable growth, productivity, and sustainability within an academic setting. Herein are specific keys to success with examples including project selection, theory-based design, the technology development process, implementation, and evaluation that can lead to broad participation and positive learning outcomes. Most importantly, this article shares methods to involve students, faculty, and stakeholders in technology design and the development process that fosters a sustainable culture of educational innovation.

  5. Research on the key technology and application of the packet transmission network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Xiang; Wang, Zhong

    2009-08-01

    In proportion to the rapid development of telecommunication service, Telecom Operators already have made a strategic transition from "Network, Communication Operators" into "integrated information service provider" to provide customer with varied information service, such as the BT "21st century plan", "Next" plan proposed by France Telecom, FNE and BMS plan by Australia Telstra, RANE Programs by NTT. Domestic Carries also made strategic transition plans. And the priority of network transition is to find the way to build a unified and integrated network supporting carrier-grade Ethernet service also compatible with the conventional network service. The division of the service results in the Packet transmission, namely packet technology, makes Packet-based Transmission Network keeping the virtues of transmission network. The virtues are good scalability, varied operation and maintenance, high-speed protection switching, connection-oriented feature, and building up connection with NMS. At the same time, it adds some characteristics to adapt the statistical multiplexing in the packet service, for instance: connection-oriented label switching, QoS mechanism, dynamic and flexible control plane. The Packet Transmission Network (PTN) can be divided into four layers: packet transmission channel layer (PTC), packet transmission path layer (PTP), and optional packet transmission section Layer (PTS) and physical layer. The key technologies of PTN are as follows: the connection-oriented based label transmission and the statistical multiplexing on packet switching. The use of layer and sub-domain is to provide good scalability. Supporting for fault detection and performance testing and other Operation, Management and Maintenance (OAM) function, linear protection switching, ring protection, dynamics survival technology of pre-placed re-route, QoS, circuit emulation for TDM service, ATM based on PWE3 technique, and MAC layer or physical layer based packet clock synchronization

  6. Sticky Situations: Key Components That Control Bacterial Surface Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Olga E.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilms is initiated by cells transitioning from the free-swimming mode of growth to a surface. This review is aimed at highlighting the common themes that have emerged in recent research regarding the key components, signals, and cues that aid in the transition and those involved in establishing a more permanent surface association during initial attachment. PMID:22389478

  7. Ten key considerations for the successful implementation and adoption of large-scale health information technology

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of health information technology interventions is at the forefront of most policy agendas internationally. However, such undertakings are often far from straightforward as they require complex strategic planning accompanying the systemic organizational changes associated with such programs. Building on our experiences of designing and evaluating the implementation of large-scale health information technology interventions in the USA and the UK, we highlight key lessons learned in the hope of informing the on-going international efforts of policymakers, health directorates, healthcare management, and senior clinicians. PMID:23599226

  8. Ten key considerations for the successful implementation and adoption of large-scale health information technology.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of health information technology interventions is at the forefront of most policy agendas internationally. However, such undertakings are often far from straightforward as they require complex strategic planning accompanying the systemic organizational changes associated with such programs. Building on our experiences of designing and evaluating the implementation of large-scale health information technology interventions in the USA and the UK, we highlight key lessons learned in the hope of informing the on-going international efforts of policymakers, health directorates, healthcare management, and senior clinicians.

  9. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D IC) Key Technology: Through-Silicon Via (TSV).

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2017-12-01

    3D integration with through-silicon via (TSV) is a promising candidate to perform system-level integration with smaller package size, higher interconnection density, and better performance. TSV fabrication is the key technology to permit communications between various strata of the 3D integration system. TSV fabrication steps, such as etching, isolation, metallization processes, and related failure modes, as well as other characterizations are discussed in this invited review paper.

  10. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D IC) Key Technology: Through-Silicon Via (TSV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2017-01-01

    3D integration with through-silicon via (TSV) is a promising candidate to perform system-level integration with smaller package size, higher interconnection density, and better performance. TSV fabrication is the key technology to permit communications between various strata of the 3D integration system. TSV fabrication steps, such as etching, isolation, metallization processes, and related failure modes, as well as other characterizations are discussed in this invited review paper.

  11. Instrumentation and Control. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in instrumentation and controls is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  12. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  14. Avionics and controls research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A. (Editor); Mciver, D. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The workshop provided a forum for industry and universities to discuss the state-of-the-art, identify the technology needs and opportunities, and describe the role of NASA in avionics and controls research.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  16. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  17. Current submarine atmosphere control technology.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, W

    1998-01-01

    Air purification in submarines was introduced towards the end of World War II and was limited to the use of soda lime for the removal of carbon dioxide and oxygen candles for the regeneration of oxygen. The next major advances came with the advent of nuclear-powered submarines. These included the development of regenerative and, sometimes, energy-intensive processes for comprehensive atmosphere revitalization. With the present development of conventional submarines using air-independent propulsion there is a requirement for air purification similar to that of the nuclear-powered submarines but it is constrained by limited power and space. Some progress has been made in the development of new technology and the adoption of air purification equipment used in the nuclear-powered submarines for this application.

  18. SOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The options for pollution abatement in WWF can be implemented at the source by land management and pollution prevention techniques, in the collection system, offline by storage, or in a treatment plant. An integrated system that combines prevention, control, and treatment has of...

  19. SOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The options for pollution abatement in WWF can be implemented at the source by land management and pollution prevention techniques, in the collection system, offline by storage, or in a treatment plant. An integrated system that combines prevention, control, and treatment has of...

  20. Regenerative thermal oxidation and alternative technologies for VOC control

    SciTech Connect

    Biedell, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal oxidation technologies have been used successfully to control VOC`s for many years but the recent 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have spurred improvements in the established processes and development of economic alternatives. The combination of the regulatory maze and confusion in the selection of the best technology for a particular application has created a potential nightmare for those companies facing a need to reduce their VOC EMISSIONS. The relative advantages and disadvantages of regenerative, recuperative and catalytic oxidizers will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the economic justification for regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO). Control efficiencies of more than 99% have been demonstrated for RTO`s on a multitude of industrial process exhaust streams. Lowest evaluated cost over a fifteen to twenty year effective equipment life is a key selection criteria. This paper describes the underlying principles of thermal oxidation, and discusses the applicability of these and other emerging technologies for VOC control.

  1. Thermal Control Technologies for Complex Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal control is a generic need for all spacecraft. In response to ever more demanding science and exploration requirements, spacecraft are becoming ever more complex, and hence their thermal control systems must evolve. This paper briefly discusses the process of technology development, the state-of-the-art in thermal control, recent experiences with on-orbit two-phase systems, and the emerging thermal control technologies to meet these evolving needs. Some "lessons learned" based on experience with on-orbit systems are also presented.

  2. Technology - The basis for the past, the key to the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Colladay, Raymond S.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between new technology and space missions, and the objectives of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) are studied. The CSTI is concerned with technologies for safe and efficient access to space, earth-orbiting operations, and future science missions. The initiative focuses on research in the areas of propulsion, vehicles, information systems, large space structures and their control, power, and automation and robotics. Consideration is given to the development of high-performance engines for next-generation vehicles, booster technology for hybrid and pressure-fed propulsion systems, and a space OTV based on the aerobrake concept. Research involved with the application of automation and robotics to earth-orbiting operations are discussed. The control of flexible structure flight experiment, the use of nuclear systems for space propulsion, and the development of sensor devices and high-rate, high-capacity data systems are examined.

  3. Technology innovations and experience curves for nitrogen oxides control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sonia Yeh; Edward S. Rubin; Margaret R. Taylor; David A. Hounshell

    2005-12-15

    This paper reviews the regulatory history for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutant emissions from stationary sources, primarily in coal-fired power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the 1970 Clean Air Act where National Ambient Air Quality Standards were established to protect public health and welfare. Patent data are used to show that in the cases of Japan, Germany, and the United States, innovations in NOx control technologies did not occur until stringent government regulations were in place, thus 'forcing' innovation. It is demonstrated that reductions in the capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of new generations of high-efficiency NOx control technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are consistently associated with the increasing adoption of the control technology: the so-called learning-by-doing phenomena. The results show that as cumulative world coal-fired SCR capacity doubles, capital costs decline to {approximately} 86% and O&M costs to 58% of their original values. The observed changes in SCR technology reflect the impact of technological advance as well as other factors, such as market competition and economies of scale. 38 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Technology innovations and experience curves for nitrogen oxides control technologies.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S; Taylor, Margaret R; Hounshell, David A

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the regulatory history for nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutant emissions from stationary sources, primarily in coal-fired power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the six criteria pollutants regulated by the 1970 Clean Air Act where National Ambient Air Quality Standards were established to protect public health and welfare. We use patent data to show that in the cases of Japan, Germany, and the United States, innovations in NOx control technologies did not occur until stringent government regulations were in place, thus "forcing" innovation. We also demonstrate that reductions in the capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of new generations of high-efficiency NOx control technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are consistently associated with the increasing adoption of the control technology: the so-called learning-by-doing phenomena. The results show that as cumulative world coal-fired SCR capacity doubles, capital costs decline to approximately 86% and O&M costs to 58% of their original values. The observed changes in SCR technology reflect the impact of technological advance as well as other factors, such as market competition and economies of scale.

  5. Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

  6. Aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langehough, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of this control has been to develop the control technology required to identify the sophistication required for the Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) control system. An angle of attack, bank angle command control technique has been developed which uses either on-off thruster or proportional thruster. An angle of attack adaptive controller was included to minimize the reactor control system (RCS) usage due to payload center of gravity uncertainties. The guidance and control techniques were verified using a detail six degrees-of-freedom simulation. Mission sensitivity was developed for uncertainties in the entry state, mass properties, atmosphere, aerodynamic, and sensor.

  7. Controls and Health Management Technologies for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Engine are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  8. NASA Thermal Control Technologies for Robotic Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.; Biur, Gajanana C.

    2002-01-01

    Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a basic plan to help guide and focus such an effort. Although this plan will be a living document that changes with time to reflect technological developments, perceived needs, perceived opportunities, and the ever-changing funding environment, it is still a very useful tool. This presentation summarizes the current efforts at NASA/Goddard and NASA/JPL to develop new thermal control technology for future NASA missions.

  9. NASA Thermal Control Technologies for Robotic Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    2003-01-01

    Technology development is inevitably a dynamic process in search of an elusive goal. It is never truly clear whether the need for a particular technology drives its development, or the existence of a new capability initiates new applications. Technology development for the thermal control of spacecraft presents an excellent example of this situation. Nevertheless, it is imperative to have a basic plan to help guide and focus such an effort. Although this plan will be a living document that changes with time to reflect technological developments, perceived needs, perceived opportunities, and the ever-changing funding environment, it is still a very useful tool. This presentation summarizes the current efforts at NASA/Goddard and NASA/JPL to develop new thermal control technology for future robotic NASA missions.

  10. Bioprocess monitoring and computer control: key roots of the current PAT initiative.

    PubMed

    Junker, B H; Wang, H Y

    2006-10-05

    This review article has been written for the journal, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, to commemorate the 70th birthday of Daniel I.C. Wang, who served as doctoral thesis advisor to each of the co-authors, but a decade apart. Key roots of the current PAT initiative in bioprocess monitoring and control are described, focusing on the impact of Danny Wang's research as a professor at MIT. The history of computer control and monitoring in biochemical processing has been used to identify the areas that have already benefited and those that are most likely to benefit in the future from PAT applications. Past applications have included the use of indirect estimation methods for cell density, expansion of on-line/at-line and on-line/in situ measurement techniques, and development of models and expert systems for control and optimization. Future applications are likely to encompass additional novel measurement technologies, measurements for multi-scale and disposable bioreactors, real time batch release, and more efficient data utilization to achieve process validation and continuous improvement goals. Dan Wang's substantial contributions in this arena have been one key factor in steering the PAT initiative towards realistic and attainable industrial applications.

  11. Advanced control technology for LSST platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmunds, R. S.

    1981-02-01

    Basic technology in the design, mechanization, and analysis of control systems for large flexible space structures was examined. The focus of the platform control effort was on pointing control. The reason for this emphasis was because of the unique problems in this area posed by multiple independent experiment packages operating simultaneously on a single platform. Attitude control and stationkeeping were also addressed for future consideration.

  12. Environmental control technology (ECT) for geothermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, G.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the environmental control technology (ECT) program are to develop research priorities, research new and alternative technologies and to improve economics and performance of ECT systems. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council, Environmental Control Panel developed priorities and obtained industry input during 1980. H/sub 2/S controls, injection monitoring, solid waste characterization and control and subsidence were reviewed as high priority while noise controls were considered low priority. Since geothermal technology is still developing there is a need to continue researching new and alternative ECT. Often ECT systems must be designed for site specific applications and need modification for use of other sites. Most of the US geothermal experience is found at the Geysers, California where H/sub 2/S abatement is required. Various systems have been tested with mixed results. The bottom line is that the economics and performance of H/sub 2/S abatement systems are less than desirable.

  13. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  14. Usp16: key controller of stem cells in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin-chong; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2013-01-01

    Nature 501: 380–384 Somatic stem cell activity is critical for tissue homeostasis. Defects in stem cells are thought to be involved in many diseases, including inherited disorders and aging (He et al, 2009). In a recent paper published in Nature, Adorno et al (2013) demonstrate that there is a general somatic stem cell defect in Down syndrome (DS), a congenital disorder with triplication of human chromosome 21 (HSA21; Roper and Reeves, 2006; Mégarbané et al, 2009). They report that the deubiquitinase Usp16 gene located on HSA21 is a key epigenetic switch that regulates stem cell self-renewal and senescence in DS, and suggest that inhibiting or reducing HSA21 may be beneficial in treating the sequelae of DS. PMID:24076652

  15. Hydrogen storage for vehicular applications: Technology status and key development areas

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.L.; Handrock, J.L.

    1994-04-01

    The state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage technology is reviewed, including gaseous, liquid, hydride, surface adsorbed media, glass microsphere, chemical reaction, and liquid chemical technologies. The review of each technology includes a discussion of advantages, disadvantages, likelihood of success, and key research and development activities. A preferred technological path for the development of effective near-term hydrogen storage includes both cur-rent DOT qualified and advanced compressed storage for down-sized highly efficient but moderate range vehicles, and liquid storage for fleet vehicle applications. Adsorbate media are also suitable for fleet applications but not for intermittent uses. Volume-optimized transition metal hydride beds are also viable for short range applications. Long-term development of coated nanoparticulate or metal matrix high conductivity magnesium alloy, is recommended. In addition, a room temperature adsorbate medium should be developed to avoid cryogenic storage requirements. Chemical storage and oxidative schemes present serious obstacles which must be addressed for these technologies to have a future role.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  18. Using WWW technology in a control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billè, Fulvio; Pugliese, Roberto

    1997-02-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) technology, based on the hyper-text principles and highly focused on the man-machine interface, is an easy and intuitive way of accessing data. By integrating Web and distributed control system technologies, operators and specialists may supervise a process without having to install any specific software and without bothering about the type of computer to use. Nearly any computer, loaded with a little piece of world-wide available software, may have access to the status variables, archive files and documentation of the controlled process. The enhanced inter-active features of the new Java technology make this scenario even more appealing. The paper describes a WWW-based control system: the Beamline Access Control System (BACS) of ELETTRA, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility.

  19. Downhole control -- The key to coiled tubing drilling efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Coiled tubing drilling has experienced dramatic growth in recent years. Originally a step-child, the technique now claims built-for-purpose equipment and promises cost-effective drilling with little damage to formations. The paper describes a bottom hole assembly and an orienting tool designed to be used to control coiled tubing drilling.

  20. Lon protease: A key enzyme controlling mitochondrial bioenergetics in cancer.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Pedro M; Bárcena, Clea; López-Otín, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We have recently explored the in vivo functional and oncologic relevance of Lon protease (LONP1), an enzyme involved in mitochondrial quality control. We found that LONP1 is an essential protein for life and that it also performs a critical function in tumorigenesis by regulating the bioenergetics of cancer cells.

  1. Controlling Water Intercalation Is Key to a Direct Graphene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Verguts, Ken; Schouteden, Koen; Wu, Cheng-Han; Peters, Lisanne; Vrancken, Nandi; Wu, Xiangyu; Li, Zhe; Erkens, Maksiem; Porret, Clement; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Van Haesendonck, Chris; De Gendt, Stefan; Brems, Steven

    2017-10-11

    The key steps of a transfer of two-dimensional (2D) materials are the delamination of the as-grown material from a growth substrate and the lamination of the 2D material on a target substrate. In state-of-the-art transfer experiments, these steps remain very challenging, and transfer variations often result in unreliable 2D material properties. Here, it is demonstrated that interfacial water can insert between graphene and its growth substrate despite the hydrophobic behavior of graphene. It is understood that interfacial water is essential for an electrochemistry-based graphene delamination from a Pt surface. Additionally, the lamination of graphene to a target wafer is hindered by intercalation effects, which can even result in graphene delamination from the target wafer. For circumvention of these issues, a direct, support-free graphene transfer process is demonstrated, which relies on the formation of interfacial water between graphene and its growth surface, while avoiding water intercalation between graphene and the target wafer by using hydrophobic silane layers on the target wafer. The proposed direct graphene transfer also avoids polymer contamination (no temporary support layer) and eliminates the need for etching of the catalyst metal. Therefore, recycling of the growth template becomes feasible. The proposed transfer process might even open the door for the suggested atomic-scale interlocking-toy-brick-based stacking of different 2D materials, which will enable a more reliable fabrication of van der Waals heterostructure-based devices and applications.

  2. Pathogen refuge: a key to understanding biological control.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth B

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen refuge is the idea that some potentially infectious pathogen propagules are not susceptible to the influence of an antagonistic microbial agent. The existence of a refuge can be attributable to one or more factors, including temporal, spatial, structural, and probabilistic, or to the pathogen's evolved ability to acquire antagonist-free space prior to ingress into a plant host. Within a specific pathosystem, refuge size can be estimated in experiments by measuring the proportion of pathogen propagules that remain infective as a function of the amount of antagonist introduced to the system. Refuge size is influenced by qualities of specific antagonists and by environment but less so by the quantity of antagonist. Consequently, most efforts to improve and optimize biological control are in essence efforts to reduce refuge size. Antagonist mixtures, optimal timing of antagonist introductions, integrated biological and chemical control, environmental optimization, and the utilization of disarmed pathogens as antagonists are strategies with potential to minimize a pathogen refuge.

  3. Neutral recirculation—the key to control of divertor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. S.; Pacher, H. D.

    2016-12-01

    Interaction of the plasma with neutral gas in the divertor affects virtually all aspects of divertor functionality (power loading of the targets, pumping and fuelling, sustaining the operational conditions of the core plasma). In the course of ITER design development, this interaction has been the subject of intense modelling analysis, supported by experiments on various tokamaks. Neutral gas puffing is found to be the most effective means of divertor control. The results of those studies are summarized and assessed in the paper.

  4. Approach to key technologies identification for rocket powered single stage to orbit vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneu, F.; Terrenoire, P.

    1996-03-01

    A reusable vertical take off, vertical landing rocket powered single stage to orbit vehicle has been studied as a part of the Aérospatiale future launchers systematic study policy. The main goal of this study is to investigate the key points of this kind of configurations, especially identify, classify and quantify the specific problems, key technologies, tools and test facilities needed and the development costs and schedule. Concurrent engineering techniques were used to take into account all the viewpoints (such as RAMS, abort, operations viewpoints) from the very beginning of this study in order to perform a multidisciplinary conceptual design. The configuration presented here is a conical shape, 60 m long, 1200 ton gross lift-off weight vehicle which delivers to and is able to bring back from a space station a 10 ton payload. This paper presents the study methodology, the systems requirements taken into account and the reference vehicle.

  5. Risk factor control is key in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gareth; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged duration of diabetes, poor glycaemic control and hypertension are major risk factors for both diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Optimising blood sugar control together with excellent control of blood pressure can reduce the risk of developing diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy should be considered in any patient with diabetes when persistent albuminuria develops. Microalbuminuria is the earliest clinically detectable indicator of diabetic nephropathy risk. The majority of patients with diabetic nephropathy are appropriately diagnosed based on elevated urinary albumin excretion and/or reduced 0032-6518 renal function. Patients with type 2 diabetes should have annual urinary ACR measurements from the time of diabetes diagnosis while those with type 1 diabetes should commence five years after diagnosis. Blood pressure lowering to 130/80mmHg and reduction of proteinuria to <1 g/day retards progression of diabetic nephropathy and reduces the number of cardiovascular events. Drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are effective in reducing proteinuria, managing hypertension and reducing cardiovascular risk. Unless there are clear contraindications or intolerance all patients with diabetic nephropathy should be prescribed an ACEI or ARB. Stopping an ACEI or ARB during intercurrent illness or times of volume depletion is critically important. Patients with diabetic nephropathy should have at least yearly measurements of blood pressure, renal function and urinary ACR.

  6. Emerging-technology systems and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lempert, R.; Chang, I.Y.; McCallum, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START) and the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) agreements call for unprecedented cuts in strategic nuclear and conventional forces. But in contrast to earlier attempts to restrict technology development in previous arms control agreements, these two treaties will have no significant limitations on emerging technology weapons systems. This report examines whether the decision to set aside emerging technology restrictions may undermine the benefits of START and CFE over the lifetimes of these treaties. The United States and the Soviet Union may continue further arms control negotiations after current treaties have been completed. In particular, the two countries committed themselves at the June 1990 Summit to negotiations on a follow-on to START. This report examines how emerging technology systems might influence the approach the United States and the Soviet Union pursue in negotiations toward START II or CFE II treaties.

  7. Key issues in controlling air pollutants in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) sampling for both coarse and fine fractions was conducted in a semi-residential site (AECD) in Dhaka from February 2005 to December 2006. The samples were analyzed for mass, black carbon (BC), and elemental compositions. The resulting data set were analyzed for sources by Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA-PMF). From previous studies, it is found that, the air quality became worse in the dry winter period compared to the rainy season because of higher particulate matter concentration in the ambient air. Therefore, seasonal source contributions were determined from seasonally segregated data using EPA-PMF modeling so that further policy interventions can be undertaken to improve air quality. From the source apportionment results, it is observed that vehicular emissions and emission from brick kiln are the major contributors to air pollution in Dhaka especially in the dry seasons, while contribution from emissions from metal smelters increases during rainy seasons. The Government of Bangladesh is considering different interventions to reduce the emissions from those sources by adopting conversion of diesel/petrol vehicles to CNG, increasing traffic speed in the city and by introducing green technologies for brick production. However, in order to reduce the transboundary effect it is necessary to take action regionally.

  8. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  9. Development of a Novel Brayton-Cycle Cryocooler and Key Component Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieczkoski, S. J.; Mohling, R. A.

    2004-06-01

    Brayton-cycle cryocoolers are being developed to provide efficient cooling in the 6 K to 70 K temperature range. The cryocoolers are being developed for use in space and in terrestrial applications where combinations of long lifetime, high efficiency, compactness, low mass, low vibration, flexible interfacing, load variability, and reliability are essential. The key enabling technologies for these systems are a mesoscale expander and an advanced oil-free scroll compressor. Both these components are nearing completion of their prototype development phase. The emphasis on the component and system development has been on invoking fabrication processes and techniques that can be evolved to further reduction in scale tending toward cryocooler miniaturization.

  10. A review on several key problems of standoff trace explosives detection by optical-related technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Xiao, Cheng; Xiao, Wenjian; Qin, Mengze; Liu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    To prevent tragic disasters caused by terror acts and warfare threats, security check personnel must be capable of discovering, distinguishing and eliminating the explosives at multiple circumstances. Standoff technology for the remote detection of explosives and their traces on contaminated surfaces is a research field that has become a heightened priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. There has been a huge increase in research within this area, the improvement of standoff trace explosives detection by optical-related technology. This paper provides a consolidation of information relating to recent advances in several key problems of, without being limited to one specific research area or explosive type. Working laser wavelength of detection system is discussed. Generation and collection of explosives spectra signal are summarized. Techniques for analysing explosives spectra signal are summed up.

  11. S-BVT for next-generation optical metro networks: benefits, design, and key enabling technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svaluto Moreolo, Michela; Fabrega, Josep M.; Nadal, Laia

    2017-01-01

    This work elaborates on: i) why the sliceable bandwidth variable transceiver (S-BVT) represents a key enabler for next-generation optical metro networks; ii) how it should be designed to take benefit of its capabilities and advanced features; and iii) which are the promising technologies to be adopted addressing the most relevant requirements and challenges. Specifically, S-BVT architectures based on multicarrier modulation and flexi-grid technologies, adopting cost-effective optoelectronic front-ends, enable flexible adaptation to dynamic traffic and variable path condition, targeting high capacity and scalability, while saving network resources and costs. Programmability and modularity are envisioned for integration in software-defined optical metro networks.

  12. Space Technology Experiment Platform (STEP). A Shuttle-borne support facility for structures, structural dynamics, and control technology flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.; Pinson, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) is used for technology experiments in space. The Space Technology Experiment Platform (STEP) is a Shuttle-borne experiment support facility for use by structures, structural dynamics, and controls technology flight experiments. STEP represents a key element in the commitment to STS utilization. The STEP concept and definition process is discussed, and the results obtained to date on the configuration and function capability are summarized, and preliminary schedule information is presented.

  13. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  14. Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

  15. Historical water control maps - key to understand current challenges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, János

    2014-05-01

    The 19th century and post-World War II decades were the main eras of water controlling in former Hungarian Kingdom and Hungary. Due to those large projects, the number and frequency of big floods were minimized but changes caused several other problems what we have to face off in the present. The main help to understand or highlight the fundamentals of those problems can be the flood control maps which, in some cases, show the original, natural riverbed and neighbouring areas of the river. There is other advantage of these maps compared to other surveys: while the main focus of the water control surveys was the river, there was sufficient time to measure the fine differences of land-use and relief in detail. Our sample area is the middle part of Tisza river and three different maps were chosen to show the changes before and after the regulations: Map of the Middle-Tisza, mapping until 1790 by János Lietzner This map is the earliest, known, topographic scale map about the river. Due to its age, the sheets are in bad state, especially their parts close to the edges and corners. A photographed, greyscale copy exists about the sheets, that was used in our research. Despite such bad conditions, it contains lots of information about the river and settlements, as well as detailed land-use before any flood regulation. New survey of Tisza river, mapping until 1932 by the Directorate of Water and Construction Because of the changes, due to time and regulation, several new surveys were ordered at the end of 19th century and between the world wars. During those new surveys, the river was re-triangulated and mapped, although cross and longitudinal section measurements also were carried out. This map clearly shows the results and changes of regulations, especially on populated areas, newly built dykes etc. but before the changes happened between 1950 and 1980. Topographic maps of the Hungarian Defence Forces - Geoinformation Services As a current, base-dataset, topographic maps

  16. The social determinants of health: key to global tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Rasanathan, K; Sivasankara Kurup, A; Jaramillo, E; Lönnroth, K

    2011-06-01

    Improved tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment through the DOTS and Stop TB strategies have saved millions of lives; however, their impact on TB incidence has been disappointing and the scale of the epidemic remains overwhelming. To reduce the incidence of TB, the drivers of the epidemic and social determinants of TB need to be addressed. These include co-morbidities and substance use and, moreover, the social and economic conditions that determine both the course of the TB epidemic and exposure to these risk factors. Doing so builds on the history of TB prevention and treatment during the public health revolution that resulted in a dramatic reduction in incidence in many countries. Addressing the social determinants is also imperative to address pervasive inequities in the incidence, mortality and morbidity of TB between different population groups, including in the performance of health systems in delivering diagnostic and treatment interventions, and in the financial consequences of people seeking care. Action on the social determinants can be categorised in terms of health-sector interventions, intersectoral policies impacting across society, and measurement and research to better understand inequities and links between TB and other factors. TB programmes cannot carry out these actions alone; however, they can make important contributions in the delivery of interventions and in advocating and negotiating for intersectoral efforts. The considerable progress seen in the clinical care of TB needs to be sustained; however, the attainment of TB targets, including elimination by 2050, will require expansion of the lens of TB control efforts beyond 'business as usual' to address the social determinants of the disease.

  17. Active Noise and Vibration Control Literature Survey: Controller Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    Vibration Control Literature Survey: Controller Technologies System Number: Patron Number: Requester: Notes: DSIS Use only: Deliver to: This page is...ixthos.com T: 703-779-7800 F:703-779-7805 Mango Computers, Ltd. http:/ lwww .mc.com - info@mc.com T: 978-256-1300 F:978-256-3599 MicroLAB Systems Ltd

  18. Decoupling control technology for medium STOL transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, D. K.; Neighbor, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    The advanced control technology is considered that is necessary to cope with the medium STOL transport landing problem and, in particular, the necessity to decouple with active control techniques. It is shown that the need to decouple is independent of the powered lift concept but that the provisioning for decoupling is most greatly dependent on the preassumed piloting technique. The implications of decoupling and active control techniques with respect to pilot technique options, handling quality criteria, flight control mechanization, and the use of piloted simulation as a design tool, are also discussed.

  19. The Method and Key Technology of Dynamic RS-GIS Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping; Xiang, Jie; Tarolli, Paolo; Lai, Zili

    2016-04-01

    Demographic growth, socio-economic development and urbanization have resulted in excessive exploitation and exerted increasing pressure on limited resources and the fragile ecological environment in China. There is an urgent need for theory and technology to achieve the comprehensive evaluation of environment. Remote sensing is one of the most important technology to monitor and evaluate environment. This study summed up dynamic RS (Remote Sensing)-GIS (Geographic Information System) environment monitoring theory, and established a dynamic monitoring system, adopting comprehensive methods of multi-source, multi-scale and multi-temporal remote sensing data acquisition. A software system is developed based on RS-GIS analysis method to support the whole dynamic monitoring and evaluation theory. The main work and results obtained are as follows: 1)Summarized the evaluation theory of dynamic RS-GIS environment monitoring, using remote sensing technology as the main method to monitor environment; 2) established an advanced space-air-ground digital terrain data acquisition and processing technology (advanced satellite constellations, airborne and terrestrial laser scanner, low-cost Structure from Motion (SfM), photogrammetry, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and ground camera surveys); 3) Deeply study the application of quantitative digital terrain analysis in the assessment of environment, which successfully position geological disaster information and automatically extracted information; 4) Developed the RESEE software to support the whole dynamic monitoring and evaluation theory based on 4D-GIS; 5) A demonstration study of the dynamic monitoring environment is carried out in Beijing Miyun Iron Mine. Results show that the space-air-ground integrated and dynamic RS-GIS environment monitoring method and key technology can realize the positioning and quantitative monitoring the environment problem, and realize the risk assessment of the geological hazard.

  20. Technologies for antenna shape and vibration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Scheid, Robert; Eldred, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the application of advanced control methods and techniques to the second- and third-generation mobile satellite (MSAT) configurations having wrap-rib offset feed construction. The technologies are generically applicable to other designs such as hoop-column and other elastically deformable non-rigid structures. The focus of the discussion is on reflector shape determination and control, dynamics identification, and pointing jitter suppression.

  1. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  2. Review of key factors controlling engineered nanoparticle transport in porous media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Gao, Bin; Tang, Deshan

    2016-11-15

    Nanotechnology, an emerging technology, has witnessed rapid development in production and application. Engineered nanomaterials revolutionize the industry due to their unique structure and superior performance. The release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into the environment, however, may pose risks to the environment and public health. To advance current understanding of environmental behaviors of ENPs, this work provides an introductory overview of ENP fate and transport in porous media. It systematically reviews the key factors controlling their fate and transport in porous media. It first provides a brief overview of common ENPs in the environment and their sources. The key factors that govern ENP transport in porous media are then categorized into three groups: (1) nature of ENPs affecting their transport in porous media, (2) nature of porous media affecting ENP transport, and (3) nature of flow affecting ENP transport in porous media. In each group, findings in recent literature on the specific governing factors of ENP transport in porous media are discussed in details. Finally, this work concludes with remarks on the importance of ENP transport in porous media and directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Innovative traffic control: Technology practice in Europe. International technology exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Tignor, S.C.; Brown, L.L.; Butner, J.L.; Cunard, R.; Davis, S.C.

    1999-08-01

    This summary report describes a may 1998 transportation technology scanning tour of four European countries. The tour was co-sponsored by FHWA, AASHTO, and TRB. The tour team consisted of 10 traffic engineers who visited England, France, Germany, and Sweden to observe traffic control devices and methodology and to determine if any European practices should and could be recommended for use in the United States. This report is organized into five key chapters: Traffic Control Devices, Freeway Control, Operational Practices, Information Management, and Administrative Practices. Among the devices and practices recommended for further study for US adoption are specific freeway pavement markings, variable speed control, lane control signals, intelligent speed adaptation, innovative intersection control, and variable message signs that incorporate pictograms. The report includes statements for proposed research problems.

  4. Increasing operational command and control security by the implementation of device independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Messina, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    In a very simplistic way, the Command and Control functions can be summarized as the need to provide the decision makers with an exhaustive, real-time, situation picture and the capability to convey their decisions down to the operational forces. This two-ways data and information flow is vital to the execution of current operations and goes far beyond the border of military operations stretching to Police and disaster recovery as well. The availability of off-the shelf technology has enabled hostile elements to endanger the security of the communication networks by violating the traditional security protocols and devices and hacking sensitive databases. In this paper an innovative approach based to implementing Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution system is presented. The use of this technology would prevent security breaches due to a stolen crypto device placed in an end-to-end communication chain. The system, operating with attenuated laser, is practical and provides the increasing of the distance between the legitimate users.

  5. Key Technologies for the Development of Fossil Fuels in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2002-11-22

    As the world faces growing economic and environmental challenges, the energy mix that fuels the global economy is undergoing rapid change. Yet how this change will evolve in the future is uncertain. What will be the sources of primary energy in twenty years? In fifty years? In different regions of the globe? How will this energy be utilized? Fossil energy currently supplies about ninety percent of the world's primary energy. In Japan this number is closer to eighty percent. It is clear that fossil energy will be a major supplier of global energy for some time to come, but what is not clear is the types of fossil energy and how it will be utilized. The degree to which the abundant supplies of fossil energy, especially coal, will continue to play a major role will depend on whether technology will provide safe, clean and affordable fuel for electricity and transportation. Technology will not only assist in finding more fossil energy in varying regions of the globe but, most importantly, will play a strong role in efficient utilization and in determining the cost of delivering that energy. Several important questions will have to be answered: (1) Will cost effective technologies be found to burn coal more cleanly? Can this be done with drastically reduced or no emitted carbon? (2) Can enough oil be found outside the Middle East to ensure more adequate and secure supplies to fuel the transportation and industrial needs? (3) Will the transportation sector, so heavily dependent on oil, be fueled on another source? (4) Can enough natural gas be assured from enough secure places to ensure investment in the utilization of this lowest-carbon fossil fuel? (5) What will these options cost in research and in the price of energy? The answers to these and other questions challenge leaders and researchers in the fossil energy industry. A World Energy Council (WEC) study of those technologies that might be key sheds some light on what might happen in terms of a wide range of

  6. Environmental control technology for biomass flash pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Seward, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies will raise questions concerning the environmental impacts of these systems and the associated costs for appropriate control technologies. This study concentrates on characterizing the effluent emissions and control technologies for a dual fluid-bed pyrolysis unit run by Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. The ASU system produces a raw product gas that is passed through a catalytic liquefaction system to produce a fuel comparable to No. 2 fuel oil. Argonne National Laboratory is conducting a program that will survey several biomass systems to standardize the sampling techniques, prioritize standard analyses and develop a data base so that environmental issues later may be addressed before they limit or impede the commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies. Emissions will be related to both the current and anticipated emissions standards to generate material balances and set design parameters for effluent treatment systems. This will permit an estimate to be made of the capital and operating costs associated with these technologies.

  7. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  8. Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring key technology in coastal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    The coastal wetland, a transitional zone between terrestrial ecosystems and marine ecosystems, is the type of great value to ecosystem services. For the recent 3 decades, area of the coastal wetland is decreasing and the ecological function is gradually degraded with the rapid development of economy, which restricts the sustainable development of economy and society in the coastal areas of China in turn. It is a major demand of the national reality to carry out the monitoring of coastal wetlands, to master the distribution and dynamic change. UAV, namely unmanned aerial vehicle, is a new platform for remote sensing. Compared with the traditional satellite and manned aerial remote sensing, it has the advantage of flexible implementation, no cloud cover, strong initiative and low cost. Image-spectrum merging is one character of high spectral remote sensing. At the same time of imaging, the spectral curve of each pixel is obtained, which is suitable for quantitative remote sensing, fine classification and target detection. Aimed at the frontier and hotspot of remote sensing monitoring technology, and faced the demand of the coastal wetland monitoring, this paper used UAV and the new remote sensor of high spectral imaging instrument to carry out the analysis of the key technologies of monitoring coastal wetlands by UAV on the basis of the current situation in overseas and domestic and the analysis of developing trend. According to the characteristic of airborne hyperspectral data on UAV, that is "three high and one many", the key technology research that should develop are promoted as follows: 1) the atmosphere correction of the UAV hyperspectral in coastal wetlands under the circumstance of complex underlying surface and variable geometry, 2) the best observation scale and scale transformation method of the UAV platform while monitoring the coastal wetland features, 3) the classification and detection method of typical features with high precision from multi scale

  9. NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

  10. NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

  11. Ten key considerations for the successful optimization of large-scale health information technology.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Implementation and adoption of complex health information technology (HIT) is gaining momentum internationally. This is underpinned by the drive to improve the safety, quality, and efficiency of care. Although most of the benefits associated with HIT will only be realized through optimization of these systems, relatively few health care organizations currently have the expertise or experience needed to undertake this. It is extremely important to have systems working before embarking on HIT optimization, which, much like implementation, is an ongoing, difficult, and often expensive process. We discuss some key organization-level activities that are important in optimizing large-scale HIT systems. These include considerations relating to leadership, strategy, vision, and continuous cycles of improvement. Although these alone are not sufficient to fully optimize complex HIT, they provide a starting point for conceptualizing this important area.

  12. Research and validation of key measurement technologies of large aperture optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Renhui; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhou, Binbin; Song, Le

    2015-07-01

    A lot of optical components with large aperture are employed in high-power solid-state laser driver. These optical components are with high requirement on the surface shape, optical homogeneity and stress distribution. In order to test these parameters, different types of interferometers, surface profilers and stress meters from different manufacturers are needed. But the problem is the products from different manufacturers may provide different test results. To solve the problem, the research and verification of the key measurement technologies of large aperture optical components are carried out in this paper. The absolute flatness and optical homogeneity measurement methods are analyzed. And the test results of different interferometric software are compared. The test results from different surface profilers and stress meters are also compared. The consistency and reliability of different test software are obtained with the comparing results, which will guide users to select a suitable product.

  13. Key Technologies Development of Transient Signals Based Protection Device Using DSP and S-Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingmao; Zheng, Gao

    2017-05-01

    The correctness of new principle of transient signal based protection used to be verified by simulating. In order to further introduce the dynamic simulation experiments for the transient signal based protection algorithm, the key technologies of transient signal based protection device were developed. The hardware of the synchronous multi-channel data acquisition and high-speed data processing was designed with kernel of high speed floating point digital signal processor TMS320C6748 and simultaneous sampling analog-to-digital converter. The sampling program reads the AD conversion data using DMA mode, which reduce the consumption of CPU time. The S transform was used to extract the fault traveling wave signals from the sampled data. The time consumption of algorithm which extract the traveling wave was analyzed when it ran on TMS320C6748. The test result shows that the hardware and software design is feasible.

  14. Key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design - the US perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design, particularly as they relate to cost reduction; and (2) to provide an overview of activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy to resolve the issues and to establish stable, standardized, and defensible structural design methods and criteria. Specific areas of discussion include: weldments, structural validation tests, simplified design analysis procedures, design procedures for piping, validation of the methodology for notch-like geometries, improved life assessment procedures, thermal striping, extension of the methodology to new materials, and ASME high-temperature Code reform needs. The perceived problems and needs in each area are discussed, and the current status of related US activities is given.

  15. Robotics-Control Technology. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the materials required for presenting an 8-day competency-based technology learning activity (TLA) designed to introduce students in grades 6-10 to advances and career opportunities in the field of robotics-control technology. The guide uses hands-on exploratory experiences into which activities to help students develop…

  16. Pollution control applications of pulsed power technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1993-08-16

    Much of the activity and growth in the field of pulsed power technology has been spawned by government-sponsored research for military applications. During the last two decades significant advances have been made in pulsed power modulators and accelerators. Pollution control systems for large industrial applications could benefit a great deal by exploring the results of this research and development. In this paper I will present the history of how pulsed power technology got involved in pollution control applications. Emphasis will be placed on the application of pulsed power to pollution control in utility and industrial coal-fired power plants. The use of pulsed techniques for improving the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators will first be discussed; then the parallel developments in electron beam and pulsed corona processing for flue gas treatment will be presented. Pulsed power techniques are essential as supporting technologies for these advanced pollution control methods. To illustrate the large scale of these applications, I will discuss the power requirements of these methods.

  17. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  18. Willingness to Pay for Mosquito Control in Key West, Florida, and Tucson, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Katherine L.; Hayden, Mary H.; Haenchen, Steven; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Walker, Kathleen R.; Ernst, Kacey C.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue are growing threats to the United States. Proactive mosquito control is one strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In 2012, we measured the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for increased mosquito control in two cities: Key West, FL, where there have been recent dengue outbreaks, and Tucson, AZ, where dengue vectors are established and WNV has been circulating for over a decade. Nearly three quarters of respondents in both cities (74% in Tucson and 73% in Key West) would be willing to pay $25 or more annually toward an increase in publicly funded mosquito control efforts. WTP was positively associated with income (both cities), education (Key West), and perceived mosquito abundance (Tucson). Concerns about environmental impacts of mosquito control were associated with lower WTP in Key West. Expanded mosquito control efforts should incorporate public opinion as they respond to evolving disease risks. PMID:26903603

  19. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  20. Omnichannel Customer Behavior: Key Drivers of Technology Acceptance and Use and Their Effects on Purchase Intention

    PubMed Central

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Mosquera, Ana; Sierra Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The advance of the Internet and new technologies over the last decade has transformed the retailing panorama. More and more channels are emerging, causing consumers to change their habits and shopping behavior. An omnichannel strategy is a form of retailing that, by enabling real interaction, allows customers to shop across channels anywhere and at any time, thereby providing them with a unique, complete, and seamless shopping experience that breaks down the barriers between channels. This paper aims to identify the factors that influence omnichannel consumers' behavior through their acceptance of and intention to use new technologies during the shopping process. To this end, an original model was developed to explain omnichannel shopping behavior based on the variables used in the UTAUT2 model and two additional factors: personal innovativeness and perceived security. The model was tested with a sample of 628 Spanish customers of the store Zara who had used at least two channels during their most recent shopping journey. The results indicate that the key determinants of purchase intention in an omnichannel context are, in order of importance: personal innovativeness, effort expectancy, and performance expectancy. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. PMID:27516749

  1. Key Technology Research on Open Architecture for The Sharing of Heterogeneous Geographic Analysis Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, S. S.; Wen, Y. N.; Lv, G. N.; Hu, D.

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the increasing development of cloud computing technologies laid critical foundation for efficiently solving complicated geographic issues. However, it is still difficult to realize the cooperative operation of massive heterogeneous geographical models. Traditional cloud architecture is apt to provide centralized solution to end users, while all the required resources are often offered by large enterprises or special agencies. Thus, it's a closed framework from the perspective of resource utilization. Solving comprehensive geographic issues requires integrating multifarious heterogeneous geographical models and data. In this case, an open computing platform is in need, with which the model owners can package and deploy their models into cloud conveniently, while model users can search, access and utilize those models with cloud facility. Based on this concept, the open cloud service strategies for the sharing of heterogeneous geographic analysis models is studied in this article. The key technology: unified cloud interface strategy, sharing platform based on cloud service, and computing platform based on cloud service are discussed in detail, and related experiments are conducted for further verification.

  2. Component improvement of free-piston Stirling engine key technology for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    The successful performance of the 25 kW Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine during an extensive testing period has provided a baseline of free piston Stirling engine technology from which future space Stirling engines may evolve. Much of the success of the engine was due to the initial careful selection of engine materials, fabrication and joining processes, and inspection procedures. Resolution of the few SPD engine problem areas that did occur has resulted in the technological advancement of certain key free piston Stirling engine components. Derivation of two half-SPD, single piston engines from the axially opposed piston SPD engine, designated as Space Power Research (SPR) engines, has made possible the continued improvement of these engine components. The two SPR engines serve as test bed engines for testing of engine components. Some important fabrication and joining processes are reviewed. Also, some component deficiencies that were discovered during SPD engine testing are described and approaches that were taken to correct these deficiencies are discussed. Potential component design modifications, based upon the SPD and SPR engine testing, are also reported.

  3. Omnichannel Customer Behavior: Key Drivers of Technology Acceptance and Use and Their Effects on Purchase Intention.

    PubMed

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Mosquera, Ana; Sierra Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The advance of the Internet and new technologies over the last decade has transformed the retailing panorama. More and more channels are emerging, causing consumers to change their habits and shopping behavior. An omnichannel strategy is a form of retailing that, by enabling real interaction, allows customers to shop across channels anywhere and at any time, thereby providing them with a unique, complete, and seamless shopping experience that breaks down the barriers between channels. This paper aims to identify the factors that influence omnichannel consumers' behavior through their acceptance of and intention to use new technologies during the shopping process. To this end, an original model was developed to explain omnichannel shopping behavior based on the variables used in the UTAUT2 model and two additional factors: personal innovativeness and perceived security. The model was tested with a sample of 628 Spanish customers of the store Zara who had used at least two channels during their most recent shopping journey. The results indicate that the key determinants of purchase intention in an omnichannel context are, in order of importance: personal innovativeness, effort expectancy, and performance expectancy. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  4. Anaerobic treatment: a key technology for a sustainable management of wastes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lema, J M; Omil, F

    2001-01-01

    Environmental regulations in the European Union, based on the concept of integrated prevention and control of pollution, are oriented towards the sustainability of the production processes, and this leads to better recovery of resources from raw materials, energy saving, etc. This philosophy introduces a new framework to Environmental Engineers, who have to make efforts concerning waste minimisation. During the last few decades technologies based on the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters and organic wastes have been applied successfully to a wide variety of problems. A case study on the impact of applying anaerobic technology to the treatment of wastewaters from the sugar industry in Spain is presented. Nowadays, processes based on anaerobic treatment appear to be an excellent option as the core of an integrated process for waste and wastewater treatment.

  5. Predictive Thermal Control Technology for Stable Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    Predictive Thermal Control (PTC) project is a multiyear effort to develop, demonstrate, mature towards TRL6, and assess the utility of model based Predictive Thermal Control technology to enable a thermally stable telescope. PTC demonstrates technology maturation by model validation and characterization testing of traceable components in a relevant environment. PTC's efforts are conducted in consultation with the Cosmic Origins Office and NASA Program Analysis Groups. To mature Thermally Stable Telescope technology, PTC has three objectives: • Validate models that predict thermal optical performance of real mirrors and structure based on their designs and constituent material properties, i.e. coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) distribution, thermal conductivity, thermal mass, etc. • Derive thermal system stability specifications from wavefront stability requirements. • Demonstrate utility of Predictive Thermal Control for achieving thermal stability. To achieve these objectives, PTC has five quantifiable milestones: 1. Develop a high-fidelity model of the AMTD-2 1.5 meter ULE® mirror, including 3D CTE distribution and reflective optical coating, that predicts its optical performance response to steady-state and dynamic thermal gradients under bang/bang and proportional thermal control. 2. Derive specifications for thermal control system as a function of wavefront stability. 3. Design and build a predictive Thermal Control System for a 1.5 meter ULE® mirror using new and existing commercial-off-the-shelf components that sense temperature changes at the 1mK level and actively controls the mirrors thermal environment at the 20mK level. 4. Validate the model by testing a 1.5-m class ULE® mirror in a relevant thermal vacuum environment in the MSFC X-ray and Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) test facility. 5. Use validated model to perform trade studies to optimize thermo-optical performance as a function of mirror design, material selection, mass, etc. PTC advances

  6. Optical technology for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayanagi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Optical applications to the flight control system including optical data bus, sensors, and transducers are analyzed. Examples of optical data bus include airborne light optical fiber technology (ALOFT), F-5E, YA-7D, MIL-STD-1553 fiber optic data bus and NAL-optic data bus. This NAL-optic data bus is applied to STOL, and its characteristics are stressed. Principles and advantages of optical pulse-digital transducers are discussed.

  7. Evolving Systems: Nonlinear Adaptive Key Component Control with Persistent Disturbance Rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to Evolving Systems, which are autonomously controlled subsystems that self-assemble into a new Evolved System with a higher purpose. Evolving Systems of aerospace structures often require additional control when assembling to maintain stability during the entire evolution process. This is the concept of Adaptive Key Component Control which operates through one specific component to maintain stability during the evolution. In addition this control must overcome persistent disturbances that occur while the evolution is in progress. We present theoretical results for the successful operation of Nonlinear Adaptive Key Component control in the presence of such disturbances and an illustrative example.

  8. ROLE OF DOM PHOTOREACTIONS IN CONTROLLING UV EXPOSURE OF CORAL ASSEMBLAGES IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have indicated that solar LTV radiation is a significant stressor of coral assemblages in tropical and subtropical marine environments. Here evidence is presented that UV exposure of coral reefs in the Florida Keys near Key West is controlled by the colored compone...

  9. ROLE OF DOM PHOTOREACTIONS IN CONTROLLING UV EXPOSURE OF CORAL ASSEMBLAGES IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have indicated that solar LTV radiation is a significant stressor of coral assemblages in tropical and subtropical marine environments. Here evidence is presented that UV exposure of coral reefs in the Florida Keys near Key West is controlled by the colored compone...

  10. New technologies for broadband quantum key distribution: Sources, detectors, and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Daniel J.

    interference. To mitigate this effect, the link is designed around a Fraunhofer line in the solar spectrum where the background solar light levels are reduced by up to 90%. By implementing this system, we expect at least a two-fold increase in the secret key rate, coming ever closer to the goal of a 10 Mb/s QKD system compatible with first-generation ethernet technology.

  11. The future for weed control and technology.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Dale L; Beckie, Hugh J

    2014-09-01

    This review is both a retrospective (what have we missed?) and prospective (where are we going?) examination of weed control and technology, particularly as it applies to herbicide-resistant weed management (RWM). Major obstacles to RWM are discussed, including lack of diversity in weed management, unwillingness of many weed researchers to conduct real integrated weed management research or growers to accept recommendations, influence or role of agrichemical marketing and governmental policy and lack of multidisciplinary research. We then look ahead to new technologies that are needed for future weed control in general and RWM in particular, in areas such as non-chemical and chemical weed management, novel herbicides, site-specific weed management, drones for monitoring large areas, wider application of 'omics' and simulation model development. Finally, we discuss implementation strategies for integrated weed management to achieve RWM, development of RWM for developing countries, a new classification of herbicides based on mode of metabolism to facilitate greater stewardship and greater global exchange of information to focus efforts on areas that maximize progress in weed control and RWM. There is little doubt that new or emerging technologies will provide novel tools for RMW in the future, but will they arrive in time?

  12. Control technology assessment of petroleum refinery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.

    1983-03-01

    A major research area for NIOSH is the evaluation of control technologies which may be used to reduce occupational exposures to potentially toxic chemical substances and harmful physical agents. The primary purpose of this study conducted by Radian Corporation was to identify and evaluate examples of good employee exposure control techniques associated with several petroleum refining operations: Lube oil and wax processing and packaging; catalytic reforming and aromatics extraction; oil-water separation; alkylation; and hydrogen sulfide handling. Indepth visits were conducted at seven petroleum refineries across the U.S. and employee exposure controls of interest were documented and evaluated. The information obtained from the program will be disseminated to the industry and other interested parties. This information transfer is designed to promote the use of successful exposure control ideas.

  13. [Control situation and primary task of key parasitic diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Lei, Zheng-long; Wang, Li-ying

    2012-02-29

    In the "11th Five-year Plan" period, China unveiled a mid-term planning on the control of the key parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis, malaria, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), as well as some other parasitic diseases. It clarifies the goals on the control of the major parasitic diseases in the national control program during the "12th Five-year' Plan" period (2011-2015) , formulates current main tasks based on analyzing the progress of the national control program on key parasitic diseases, in order to meet the challenges appearing in the future implementation.

  14. Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

  15. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Cipiti, Ben; Demuth, Scott Francis; Fallgren, Andrew James; Jarman, Ken; Li, Shelly; Meier, Dave; Miller, Mike; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  16. Key technologies for manufacturing and processing sheet materials: A global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeri, Mahmoud Y.

    2001-02-01

    Modern industrial technologies continue to seek new materials and processes to produce products that meet design and functional requirements. Sheet materials made from ferrous and non-ferrous metals, laminates, composites, and reinforced plastics constitute a large percentage of today’s products, components, and systems. Major manufacturers of sheet products include automotive, aerospace, appliance, and food-packaging industries. The Second Global Symposium on Innovations in Materials Processing & Manufacturing: Sheet Materials is organized to provide a forum for presenting advances in sheet processing and manufacturing by worldwide researchers and engineers from industrial, research, and academic centers. The symposium, sponsored by the TMS Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD), was planned for the 2001 TMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 11 15, 2001. This article is a review of key papers submitted for publication in the concurrent volume. The selected papers present significant developments in the rapidly expanding areas of advanced sheet materials, innovative forming methods, industrial applications, primary and secondary processing, composite processing, and numerical modeling of manufacturing processes.

  17. Research progress in the key device and technology for fiber optic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deming; Sun, Qizhen; Lu, Ping; Xia, Li; Sima, Chaotan

    2016-03-01

    The recent research progress in the key device and technology of the fiber optic sensor network (FOSN) is introduced in this paper. An architecture of the sensor optical passive network (SPON), by employing hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) techniques similar to the fiber communication passive optical network (PON), is proposed. The network topology scheme of a hybrid TDM/WDM/FDM (frequency division multiplexing) three-dimension fiber optic sensing system for achieving ultra-large capacity, long distance, and high resolution sensing performance is performed and analyzed. As the most important device of the FOSN, several kinds of light source are developed, including the wideband multi-wavelength fiber laser operating at C band, switchable and tunable 2 μm multi-wavelength fiber lasers, ultra-fast mode-locked fiber laser, as well as the optical wideband chaos source, which have very good application prospects in the FOSN. Meanwhile, intelligent management techniques for the FOSN including wideband spectrum demodulation of the sensing signals and real-time fault monitoring of fiber links are presented. Moreover, several typical applications of the FOSN are also discussed, such as the fiber optic gas sensing network, fiber optic acoustic sensing network, and strain/dynamic strain sensing network.

  18. Key beliefs influencing young drivers' engagement with social interactive technology on their smartphones: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni M; White, Katherine M; Watson, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify young drivers' underlying beliefs (i.e., behavioral, normative, and control) regarding initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding to social interactive technology (i.e., functions on a Smartphone that allow the user to communicate with other people). This qualitative study was a beliefs elicitation study in accordance with the theory of planned behavior and sought to elicit young drivers' behavioral (i.e., advantages, disadvantages), normative (i.e., who approves, who disapproves), and control beliefs (i.e., barriers, facilitators) that underpin social interactive technology use while driving. Young drivers (N = 26) aged 17 to 25 years took part in an interview or focus group discussion. Though differences emerged between the 3 behaviors of initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding for each of the behavioral, normative, and control belief categories, the strongest distinction was within the behavioral beliefs category (e.g., communicating with the person that they were on the way to meet was an advantage of initiating; being able to determine whether to respond was an advantage of monitoring/reading; and communicating with important people was an advantage of responding). Normative beliefs were similar for initiating and responding behaviors (e.g., friends and peers more likely to approve than other groups) and differences emerged for monitoring/reading (e.g., parents were more likely to approve of this behavior than initiating and responding). For control beliefs, there were differences between the beliefs regarding facilitators of these behaviors (e.g., familiar roads and conditions facilitated initiating; having audible notifications of an incoming communication facilitated monitoring/reading; and receiving a communication of immediate importance facilitated responding); however, the control beliefs that presented barriers were consistent across the 3 behaviors (e.g., difficult traffic/road conditions). The

  19. Research and implementation of the key technology of digital lock-in amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; You, Jia; Feng, Cheng; Li, Xisheng

    2017-08-01

    Lock-in amplifier technology is a very effective means of weak signal detection, with a center frequency stability, narrow pass band, high quality factor, which has been widely applied in physics, chemistry, biomedicine, remote sensing, materials science, etc. With the development of digital signal processing technology, digital phase-locked amplifier gradually replace analog lock-in amplifier, phase sensitive detector improved analog lock-in amplifier using analog method, by the way of the digital signal processing to achieve phase sensitive detector. FPGA has strong flexibility, can be programmed, and debugged, can be fully developed and verified. In this paper, we complete the construction of the digital lock-in amplifier based on the FPGA platform, using DSP Builder as design tool, using the ALTER's IP core to achieve rapid implementation. It is mainly divided into three modules: numerically controlled oscillator, Fast Fourier Transformation, digital phase sensitive detector. According to the process of MATLAB/Simulink/DSP Builder/Quartus II, it calls fft_v13_0 core, nco_v13_0 core provided by DSP Builder toolbox to build the model. The experimental results show that the designed digital phase-locked amplifier can effectively remove the noise interference and improve the detection accuracy.

  20. Key Items to Get Right When Conducting a Randomized Controlled Trial in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This is a checklist of key items to get right when conducting a randomized controlled trial to evaluate an educational program or practice ("intervention"). It is intended as a practical resource for researchers and sponsors of research, describing items that are often critical to the success of a randomized controlled trial. A significant…

  1. Command, Control and Emerging Technologies: Implications for the Operational COmmander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-16

    of these cost effective solutions and alternatives will be required to insure the military’s unique needs are satisfied. Command and control, C2 Technology, Operational command and control, Emerging technology .

  2. Lightweight active controlled primary mirror technology demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzinghi, P.; Bratina, V.; Ferruzzi, D.; Gambicorti, L.; Simonetti, F.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.; Salinari, P.; Lisi, F.; Olivier, M.; Bursi, A.; Gallieni, D.; Biasi, R.; Pereira, J.

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the design, manufacturing and test of a ground demonstrator of an innovative technology able to realize lightweight active controlled space-borne telescope mirror. This analysis is particularly devoted to applications for a large aperture space telescope for advanced LIDAR, but it can be used for any lightweight mirror. For a space-borne telescope the mirror weight is a fundamental parameter to be minimized (less than 15 Kg/m2), while maximizing the optical performances (optical quality better than λ/3). In order to guarantee these results, the best selected solution is a thin glass primary mirror coupled to a stiff CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) panel with a surface active control system. A preliminary design of this lightweight structure highlighted the critical areas that were deeply analyzed by the ground demonstrator: the 1 mm thick mirror survivability on launch and the actuator functional performances with low power consumption. To preserve the mirror glass the Electrostatic Locking technique was developed and is here described. The active optics technique, already widely used for ground based telescopes, consists of a metrology system (wave front sensor, WFS), a control algorithm and a system of actuators to slightly deform the primary mirror and/or displace the secondary, in a closed-loop control system that applies the computed corrections to the mirror's optical errors via actuators. These actuators types are properly designed and tested in order to guarantee satisfactory performances in terms of stroke, force and power consumption. The realized and tested ground demonstrator is a square CFRP structure with a flat mirror on the upper face and an active actuator beneath it. The test campaign demonstrated the technology feasibility and robustness, supporting the next step toward the large and flat surface with several actuators.

  3. Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Tuned Linear Optics Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Qiu, Deli; Huang, Peng; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-09-01

    We show that the tolerable excess noise can be elegantly controlled while inserting a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) for continuous-variable key distribution (CVQKD). The LOCM-tuned noise can be stabilized to an optimal value by the reference partner of reconciliation to guarantee the high secret key rate. Simulation results show that there is a considerable improvement of the performance for the LOCM-based CVQKD protocol in terms of the secret rate while making a fine balance between the secret key rate and the transmission distance with the dynamically tuned parameters in suitable ranges.

  4. Adaptive wing and flow control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanewsky, E.

    2001-10-01

    The development of the boundary layer and the interaction of the boundary layer with the outer “inviscid” flow field, exacerbated at high speed by the occurrence of shock waves, essentially determine the performance boundaries of high-speed flight. Furthermore, flight and freestream conditions may change considerably during an aircraft mission while the aircraft itself is only designed for multiple but fixed design points thus impairing overall performance. Consequently, flow and boundary layer control and adaptive wing technology may have revolutionary new benefits for take-off, landing and cruise operating conditions for many aircraft by enabling real-time effective geometry optimization relative to the flight conditions. In this paper we will consider various conventional and novel means of boundary layer and flow control applied to moderate-to-large aspect ratio wings, delta wings and bodies with the specific objectives of drag reduction, lift enhancement, separation suppression and the improvement of air-vehicle control effectiveness. In addition, adaptive wing concepts of varying complexity and corresponding aerodynamic performance gains will be discussed, also giving some examples of possible structural realizations. Furthermore, penalties associated with the implementation of control and adaptation mechanisms into actual aircraft will be addressed. Note that the present contribution is rather application oriented.

  5. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United...

  6. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United Kingdom...

  7. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement among the United States, the United Kingdom, the...

  8. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29... DEFINITIONS § 120.29 Missile Technology Control Regime. (a) For purposes of this subchapter, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United Kingdom...

  9. Conceptual study and key technology development for Mars Aeroflyby sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Ozawa, T.; Okudaira, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takayanagi, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Ogawa, N.; Tachibana, S.; Satoh, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual study of Mars Aeroflyby Sample Collection (MASC) is conducted as a part of the next Mars exploration mission currently entertained in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. In the mission scenario, an atmospheric entry vehicle is flown into the Martian atmosphere, collects the Martian dust particles as well as atmospheric gases during the guided hypersonic flight, exits the Martian atmosphere, and is inserted into a parking orbit from which a return system departs for the earth to deliver the dust and gas samples. In order to accomplish a controlled flight and a successful orbit insertion, aeroassist orbit transfer technologies are introduced into the guidance and control system. System analysis is conducted to assess the feasibility and to make a conceptual design, finding that the MASC system is feasible at the minimum system mass of 600 kg approximately. The aerogel, which is one of the candidates for the dust sample collector, is assessed by arcjet heating tests to examine its behavior when exposed to high-temperature gases, as well as by particle impingement tests to evaluate its dust capturing capability.

  10. The Autonomy of Technology: Do Courts Control Technology or Do They Just Legitimize Its Social Acceptance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on the suggestion that modern technology is "autonomous" in that our social control mechanisms are unable to control technology and instead merely adapt society to integrate new technologies. In this article, I suggest that common law judges tend systematically to support the integration of novel technologies into…

  11. Technology Infusion Strategy: Beginning with a Pilot Project is the Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, John

    1996-01-01

    Presents an effective way to start a technological revolution in schools by beginning with a single exciting project that incorporates new technologies and then letting interest in the project prompt others to action. (JRH)

  12. Development of Key Performance Indicators for the Engineering Technology Education Programs in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2004-01-01

    In comparison with engineering, engineering technology is more practical and purposeful. The engineering technology education programs in Taiwan have been mainly offered in 56 universities/colleges of technology (UTs/CTs) and are anticipated to continuously improve their performance to prepare quality engineering technologists. However, it is…

  13. Keys to the Adoption and Use of Voice Recognition Technology in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goette, Tanya

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a field study of individuals with disabilities who used voice recognition technology (VRT). Results indicated that task-technology fit, training, the environment, and disability limitations were the differentiating items, and that using VRT for a trial period may be the major factor in successful adoption of the technology.…

  14. Citations as a Key to Identity in the Field of Instructional Design Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Ma, Ziyan; Almeida, Luis C.; Gursoy, Husra T.; Modak, Rucha S.; Pastore, Raymond S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, many people have studied the identity of the field of Instructional Design and Technology (IDT), in order to understand this emerging discipline more completely. Defining the field is itself a difficult prospect. Circumscribing a space that includes all educational technology, instructional technology, instructional systems,…

  15. 10. Freiburger Symposium 2011 der SCG-Division Industrielle Chemie Technology Progress, Success Key for our Production Sites.

    PubMed

    Naef, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This short paper presents the abstracts of the different presentations during 10. Freiburger Symposium 2011 der SCG-Division Industrielle Chemie: Technology Progress, Success key for our production sites held Thursday and Friday, September 29 and 30, 2011 at the Ecole d'ingénieurs et d'architectes de Fribourg (Switzerland).

  16. Human genetic technology: who shall control?

    PubMed

    Blank, R H

    1984-01-01

    The biotechnical "revolution" has fast come upon us. It promises to produce both substantial benefits and difficult dilemmas for individuals and society. Despite the growing attention being paid to biotechnology, a major unanswered question is who shall control the development and use of the powerful array of human genetic and reproductive innovations. Should the decisions be left to individual consumers and private industry or should they be made by the government or other social institutions? After briefly reviewing development in human genetics and reproduction and describing trends toward commercialization of them, this article discusses the dilemmas these trends raise for a democratic society. It argues for the urgent need to delineate societal goals and priorities for the future and for technology assessment as early as possible in the developmental process. The article concludes by presenting some examples of the social policy problems now emerging.

  17. Control of Technology Transfer at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Controlled Technology: 1) Design: preliminary or critical design data, schematics, technical flow charts, SNV code/diagnostics, logic flow diagrams, wirelist, ICDs, detailed specifications or requirements. 2) Development: constraints, computations, configurations, technical analyses, acceptance criteria, anomaly resolution, detailed test plans, detailed technical proposals. 3) Production: process or how-to: assemble, operated, repair, maintain, modify. 4) Manufacturing: technical instructions, specific parts, specific materials, specific qualities, specific processes, specific flow. 5) Operations: how-to operate, contingency or standard operating plans, Ops handbooks. 6) Repair: repair instructions, troubleshooting schemes, detailed schematics. 7) Test: specific procedures, data, analysis, detailed test plan and retest plans, detailed anomaly resolutions, detailed failure causes and corrective actions, troubleshooting, trended test data, flight readiness data. 8) Maintenance: maintenance schedules and plans, methods for regular upkeep, overhaul instructions. 9) Modification: modification instructions, upgrades kit parts, including software

  18. (Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation technology)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1990-10-10

    While on vacation, the traveler attended the European Nuclear Conference in Lyon, France. This trip was part of an outside activity approved by DOE. The traveler is a consultant to Loyola College, serving as chairman of a panel to assess the state of the art in the controls and instrumentation technology in the European nuclear community. This study is being conducted by Loyola College under subcontract to the National Science Foundation. The traveler was surprised by the level of automation claimed (by the company Siemens AG KWU) to be present in the German Konvoi nuclear power plants. The claim was that this was done to improve the safety of the plant by keeping the operator out of the loop'' for the first 30 minutes of some transients or accidents.

  19. Willingness to Pay for Mosquito Control in Key West, Florida and Tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Hayden, Mary H; Haenchen, Steven; Monaghan, Andrew J; Walker, Kathleen R; Ernst, Kacey C

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue are growing threats to the United States. Proactive mosquito control is one strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In 2012, we measured the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for increased mosquito control in two cities: Key West, FL, where there have been recent dengue outbreaks, and Tucson, AZ, where dengue vectors are established and WNV has been circulating for over a decade. Nearly three quarters of respondents in both cities (74% in Tucson and 73% in Key West) would be willing to pay $25 or more annually toward an increase in publicly funded mosquito control efforts. WTP was positively associated with income (both cities), education (Key West), and perceived mosquito abundance (Tucson). Concerns about environmental impacts of mosquito control were associated with lower WTP in Key West. Expanded mosquito control efforts should incorporate public opinion as they respond to evolving disease risks. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Does This Really Work? The Keys to Implementing New Technology while Providing Evidence that Technology Is Successful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawtelle, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Proving that technology works is not as simple as proving that a new vendor for art supplies is more cost effective. Technology effectiveness requires both the right software and the right implementation. Just having the software is not enough. Proper planning, training, leadership, support, pedagogy, and software use--along with many other…

  1. Machine Translation Technology: A Potential Key to the Information Age. Report of the FCCSET Committee on Industry and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC.

    Machine translation (MT), an emerging technology that enables text to be translated from one language to another by computer, represents an indispensable contribution to the sharing of technical information particularly since nearly half of the world's scientific and technological literature is written in languages other than English. The state of…

  2. Model of the Students' Key Competences Development through Interactive Whiteboard in the Subject of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecka, Peter; Valentová, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The basis of the submitted study are the continuously rising demands to alter the curricula with the aim to develop students' key competences in order to increase their professional versatility. The lack of scientific research and discussions show that little investigation has been done on the issue of development of key competences. Therefore,…

  3. Department of Defense: Further Actions Needed to Institutionalize Key Business System Modernization Management Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    reported that the pace of DOD’s efforts in defining and implementing key institutional modernization management controls had slowed compared with...Carl Barden, Shaun Byrnes, Debra Conner, Elena Epps, Rebecca Eyler, Nancy Glover, Neelaxi Lakhmani (Assistant Director), Anh Le, Lori Martinez

  4. Development of Key Technologies for White Lighting Based on Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Werner Goetz; Bill Imler; James Kim; Junko Kobayashi; Andrew Kim; Mike Krames; Rick Mann; Gerd Mueller-Mach; Anneli Munkholm; Jonathan Wierer

    2004-03-31

    This program was organized to focus on materials development issues critical to the acceleration of solid-state lighting, and was split into three major thrust areas: (1) study of dislocation density reduction for GaN grown on sapphire using 'cantilever epitaxy', and the impact of dislocation density on the performance of state-of-the-art high-power LEDs; (2) the evaluation of in situ techniques for monitoring gas phase chemistry and the properties of GaN-based layers during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD), and (3) feasibility for using semiconductor nanoparticles ('quantum dots') for the down-conversion of blue or ultraviolet light to generate white light. The program included a partnership between Lumileds Lighting (epitaxy and device fabrication for high power LEDs) and Sandia National Laboratories (cantilever epitaxy, gas phase chemistry, and quantum dot synthesis). Key findings included: (1) cantilever epitaxy can provide dislocation density reduction comparable to that of more complicated approaches, but all in one epitaxial growth step; however, further improvements are required to realize significant gains in LED performance at high drive currents, (2) in situ tools can provide detailed knowledge about gas phase chemistry, and can be used to monitor and control epitaxial layer composition and temperature to provide improved yields (e.g., a fivefold increase in color targeting is demonstrated for 540nm LEDs), and (3) quantum efficiency for quantum dots is improved and maintained up to 70% in epoxy thin films, but further work is necessary to increase densification (absorption) and robustness before practical application to LEDs.

  5. Technology as system innovation: a key informant interview study of the application of the diffusion of innovation model to telecare.

    PubMed

    Sugarhood, Paul; Wherton, Joseph; Procter, Rob; Hinder, Sue; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2014-01-01

    To identify and explore factors that influence adoption, implementation and continued use of telecare technologies. As part of the Assistive Technologies for Healthy Living in Elders: Needs Assessment by Ethnography (ATHENE) project, 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key participants from organisations involved in developing and providing telecare technologies and services. Data were analysed thematically, using a conceptual model of diffusion of innovations. Participants identified numerous interacting factors that facilitated or hindered adoption and use. As predicted by the model, these related variously to the technology, individual adopters, the process of social influence, the innovativeness and readiness of organisations, implementation and routinisation processes following initial adoption, and the nature and strength of linkages between these elements. Key issues included (i) the complexity and uniqueness of the "user system", (ii) the ongoing work needed to support telecare use beyond initial adoption, and (iii) the relatively weak links that typically exist between users of telecare technologies and the organisations who design and distribute them. Telecare is not merely a technology but a complex innovation requiring input from, and coordination between, people and organisations. To promote adoption and use, these contextual factors must be specified, understood and addressed.

  6. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for...

  7. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for any...

  8. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for any...

  9. 40 CFR 725.422 - Physical containment and control technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... technologies. 725.422 Section 725.422 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies. The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for...

  10. [A model for evaluation of key measures for control of chikungunya fever outbreak in China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin; Liu, Ruchun; Chen, Shuilian; Chen, Tianmu

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the transmission pattern of Chikungunya (CHIK) fever in community and evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito control, case isolation and other key control measures by using ordinary differential equation (ODE) model. According to natural history of CHIK, an ODE model for the epidemiological analysis of CHIK outbreak was established. The key parameters of the model were obtained by fitting the model with reported outbreak data of the first CHIK outbreak in China. Then the outbreak characteristics without intervention, the effectiveness of mosquito control and case isolation were simulated. Without intervention, an imported case would cause an outbreak in a community with population of 11 000, and cumulative case number would exceed 941 when the total attack rate was 8.55%. The results of our simulation revealed that the effectiveness of case isolation was not perfect enough when it was implemented alone. Although the number of cases could be decreased by case isolation, the duration of outbreak would not be shortened. Differently, the effectiveness of mosquito control was remarkable. In addition, the earlier the measure was implemented, the better the effectiveness would be. The effectiveness of mosquito control plus case isolation was same with mosquito control. To control a CHIK outbreak, mosquito control is the most recommended measures. However, case isolation is also necessary as the supplementation of mosquito control.

  11. Developing Technology Needs Assessments for Educational Programs: An Analysis of Eight Key Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Erin N.

    2016-01-01

    As access to information and communication technology grows, educators have increasing opportunities to experiment with and to adapt both hardware and software to their current practice. Technology's integration, however, can vary widely between teachers within the same program for numerous reasons. Understanding the challenges practitioners face…

  12. Positioning Technology and Engineering Education as a Key Force in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strimel, Greg; Grubbs, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    As the presence of engineering content and practices increases in science education, the distinction between the two fields of science and technology education becomes even more vague than previously theorized. Furthermore, the addition of engineering to the title of the profession raises the question of the true aim of technology education. As a…

  13. Transforming Schools with Technology: How Smart Use of Digital Tools Helps Achieve Six Key Education Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    In this timely and thoughtful book, Andrew Zucker argues that technology can and will play a central role in efforts to achieve crucial education goals, and that it will be an essential component of further improvement and transformation of schools. The book is marked not only by Zucker's cutting-edge sophistication about digital technologies, but…

  14. The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-22

    House Committee on Homeland Security, Subcommittee on Emerging Threats, Cybersecurity , and Science and Technology, on June 27, 2007. See, for example...Act of 2002 included the DOE Chemical and Biological National Security program, activities of the DOE Life Sciences program related to genomic ...testimony before the House Committee on Homeland Security, Subcommittee on Emerging Threats, Cybersecurity , and Science and Technology, February

  15. Controlling Complex Systems and Developing Dynamic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avizienis, Audrius Victor

    In complex systems, control and understanding become intertwined. Following Ilya Prigogine, we define complex systems as having control parameters which mediate transitions between distinct modes of dynamical behavior. From this perspective, determining the nature of control parameters and demonstrating the associated dynamical phase transitions are practically equivalent and fundamental to engaging with complexity. In the first part of this work, a control parameter is determined for a non-equilibrium electrochemical system by studying a transition in the morphology of structures produced by an electroless deposition reaction. Specifically, changing the size of copper posts used as the substrate for growing metallic silver structures by the reduction of Ag+ from solution under diffusion-limited reaction conditions causes a dynamical phase transition in the crystal growth process. For Cu posts with edge lengths on the order of one micron, local forces promoting anisotropic growth predominate, and the reaction produces interconnected networks of Ag nanowires. As the post size is increased above 10 microns, the local interfacial growth reaction dynamics couple with the macroscopic diffusion field, leading to spatially propagating instabilities in the electrochemical potential which induce periodic branching during crystal growth, producing dendritic deposits. This result is interesting both as an example of control and understanding in a complex system, and as a useful combination of top-down lithography with bottom-up electrochemical self-assembly. The second part of this work focuses on the technological development of devices fabricated using this non-equilibrium electrochemical process, towards a goal of integrating a complex network as a dynamic functional component in a neuromorphic computing device. Self-assembled networks of silver nanowires were reacted with sulfur to produce interfacial "atomic switches": silver-silver sulfide junctions, which exhibit

  16. Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) Technologies for Thermal Control of Future Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Bhandari, Pradeep; Prina, Mauro; Bame, Dave; Yavrouian, Andre; Plett, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Mechanically pumped fluid loop has been the basis of thermal control architecture for the last two Mars lander and rover missions and is the key part of the MSL thermal architecture. Several MPFL technologies are being developed for the MSL rover include long-life pumps, thermal control valves, mechanical fittings for use with CFC-11 at elevated temperatures of approx.100 C. Over three years of life tests and chemical compatibility tests on these MPFL components show that MPFL technology is mature for use on MSL. The advances in MPFL technologies for MSL Rover will benefit any future MPFL applications on NASA s Moon, Mars and Beyond Program.

  17. Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) Technologies for Thermal Control of Future Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Bhandari, Pradeep; Prina, Mauro; Bame, Dave; Yavrouian, Andre; Plett, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Mechanically pumped fluid loop has been the basis of thermal control architecture for the last two Mars lander and rover missions and is the key part of the MSL thermal architecture. Several MPFL technologies are being developed for the MSL rover include long-life pumps, thermal control valves, mechanical fittings for use with CFC-11 at elevated temperatures of approx.100 C. Over three years of life tests and chemical compatibility tests on these MPFL components show that MPFL technology is mature for use on MSL. The advances in MPFL technologies for MSL Rover will benefit any future MPFL applications on NASA s Moon, Mars and Beyond Program.

  18. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  19. Emerging technologies in microguidance and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Marc S.

    1993-01-01

    Employing recent advances in microfabrication, the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory has developed inertial guidance instruments of very small size and low cost. Microfabrication employs the batch processing techniques of solid state electronics, such as photolithography, diffusion, and etching, to carve mechanical parts. Within a few years, microfabricated gyroscopes should perform in the 10 to 100 deg/h range. Microfabricated accelerometers have demonstrated performance in the 50 to 500 microgravity range. These instruments will result in not only the redesign of conventional military products, but also new applications that could not exist without small, inexpensive sensors and computing. Draper's microfabricated accelerometers and gyroscopes will be described and test results summarized. Associated electronics and control issues will also be addressed. Gimballed, vibrating gyroscopes and force rebalance accelerometers constructed from bulk silicon, polysilicon surface-machined tuning fork gyroscopes, and quartz resonant accelerometers and gyroscopes are examined. Draper is pursuing several types of devices for the following reasons: to address wide ranges of performance, to realize construction in a flat pack, and to lessen the risks associated with emerging technologies.

  20. Recent developments in radiation field control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposures over the past ten years. There has been over a fourfold reduction in the person-rem incurred for each MW.year of electric power generated: from 1.8 in 1980, to only 0.39 person-rems in 1991 and 1992. Preliminary data for 1993 are even lower: approximately 0.37 person-rem.MW.year. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in ICRP 60 and there will be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts with be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the industry goals for 1995. Reducing out-of-core radiation fields offer the best chance of continuing the downward trend in exposures. To assist utilities select the most economic technology for their specific plants, EPRI has published a manual capturing worldwide operating experience with radiation-field control techniques (TR-100265). No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this collection will enable utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: outages are shorter, manpower requirements are reduced and work quality is improved. Despite the up front costs, the benefits over the following 1-3 years typically outweigh the expenses.

  1. Software reconfigurable processor technologies: the key to long-life infrastructure for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, J.; Farrington, A.; Gray, A.

    2001-01-01

    They present an overview of long-life reconfigurable processor technologies and of a specific architecture for implementing a software reconfigurable (software-defined) network processor for space applications.

  2. Emerging technology: A key enabler for modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing and advancing product quality.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas F; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Sau L

    2016-07-25

    Issues in product quality have produced recalls and caused drug shortages in United States (U.S.) in the past few years. These quality issues were often due to outdated manufacturing technologies and equipment as well as lack of an effective quality management system. To ensure consistent supply of safe, effective and high-quality drug products available to the patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing for improvements in product quality. Specifically, five new initiatives are proposed here to achieve this goal. They include: (i) advancing regulatory science for pharmaceutical manufacturing; (ii) establishing a public-private institute for pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation; (iii) creating incentives for investment in the technological upgrade of manufacturing processes and facilities; (iv) leveraging external expertise for regulatory quality assessment of emerging technologies; and (v) promoting the international harmonization of approaches for expediting the global adoption of emerging technologies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Software reconfigurable processor technologies: the key to long-life infrastructure for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, J.; Farrington, A.; Gray, A.

    2001-01-01

    They present an overview of long-life reconfigurable processor technologies and of a specific architecture for implementing a software reconfigurable (software-defined) network processor for space applications.

  4. Emerging technology for advancing the treatment of epilepsy using a dynamic control framework.

    PubMed

    Stanslaski, Scott; Giftakis, John; Stypulkowski, Paul; Carlson, Dave; Afshar, Pedram; Cong, Peng; Denison, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    We briefly describe a dynamic control system framework for neuromodulation for epilepsy, with an emphasis on its practical challenges and the preliminary validation of key prototype technologies in a chronic animal model. The current state of neuromodulation can be viewed as a classical dynamic control framework such that the nervous system is the classical "plant", the neural stimulator is the controller/actuator, clinical observation, patient diaries and/or measured bio-markers are the sensor, and clinical judgment applied to these sensor inputs forms the state estimator. Technology can potentially address two main factors contributing to the performance limitations of existing systems: "observability," the ability to observe the state of the system from output measurements, and "controllability," the ability to drive the system to a desired state. In addition to improving sensors and actuator performance, methods and tools to better understand disease state dynamics and state estimation are also critical for improving therapy outcomes. We describe our preliminary validation of key "observability" and "controllability" technology blocks using an implanted research tool in an epilepsy disease model. This model allows for testing the key emerging technologies in a representative neural network of therapeutic importance. In the future, we believe these technologies might enable both first principles understanding of neural network behavior for optimizing therapy design, and provide a practical pathway towards clinical translation.

  5. NASA/DOD Control/Structures Interaction Technology, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Robert L. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Papers presented at the CSI Technology Conference are given. The conference was jointly sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology and the Department of Defense. The conference is the beginning of a series of annual conferences whose purpose is to report to industry, academia, and government agencies the current status of Control/Structures Interaction technology. The conference program was divided into five sessions: (1) Future spacecraft requirements; Technology issues and impact; (2) DOD special topics; (3) Large space systems technology; (4) Control of flexible structures, and (5) Selected NASA research in control structures interaction.

  6. Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.

    1983-12-01

    The Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) program is to establish the technology necessary to satisfy space station and related large space structures requirements for efficient, reliable, and cost effective energy storage and attitude control. Technology advances in the area of integrated flywheel systems capable of performing the dual functions of energy storage and attitude control are outlined.

  7. Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.; Groom, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advanced control and power system (ACAPS) program is to establish the technology necessary to satisfy space station and related large space structures requirements for efficient, reliable, and cost effective energy storage and attitude control. Technology advances in the area of integrated flywheel systems capable of performing the dual functions of energy storage and attitude control are outlined.

  8. Emerging Technology Systems and Arms Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    treaties will have no significant limitations on emerging technology weapons systems. This report examines whether the decision to set aside emerging ...Summit to negotiations on a follow-on to START. This report examines how emerging technology systems might influence the approach the United States... technology restrictions may undermine the benefits of START and CFE over the lifetimes of these treaties. The United States and the Soviet Union may continue

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, CATALYTICA COMBUSTION SYSTEMS, INC., XONON FLAMELESS COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Xonon Cool Combustion System manufactured by Catalytica Energy Systems, Inc., formerly Catalytica Combustion Systems, Inc., to control NOx emissions from gas turbines that operate wit...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, CATALYTICA COMBUSTION SYSTEMS, INC., XONON FLAMELESS COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Xonon Cool Combustion System manufactured by Catalytica Energy Systems, Inc., formerly Catalytica Combustion Systems, Inc., to control NOx emissions from gas turbines that operate wit...

  11. Translational control of regA, a key gene controlling cell differentiation in Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Babinger, Karin; Hallmann, Armin; Schmitt, Rüdiger

    2006-10-01

    The complete division of labour between the reproductive and somatic cells of the green alga Volvox carteri is controlled by three types of genes. One of these is the regA gene, which controls terminal differentiation of the somatic cells. Here, we examined translational control elements located in the 5' UTR of regA, particularly the eight upstream start codons (AUGs) that have to be bypassed by the translation machinery before regA can be translated. The results of our systematic mutational, structural and functional analysis of the 5' UTR led us to conclude that a ribosome-shunting mechanism--rather than leaky scanning, ribosomal reinitiation, or internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation--controls the translation of regA mRNA. This mechanism, which involves dissociation of the 40S initiation complex from the message, followed by reattachment downstream, in order to bypass a secondary structure block in the mRNA, was validated by deleting the predicted ;landing site' (which prevented regA expression) and inserting a stable 64 nucleotide hairpin just upstream of this site (which did not prevent regA expression). We believe that this is the first report suggesting that translation of an mRNA in a green eukaryote is controlled by ribosome shunting.

  12. A Review of Efficacious Technology-Based Weight-Loss Interventions: Five Key Components

    PubMed Central

    Yiaslas, Themis; Bergstrom, Jessica; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Obesity is highly prevalent among American adults and has negative health and psychosocial consequences. The purpose of this article was to qualitatively review studies that used technology-based interventions for weight loss and to identify specific components of these interventions that are effective in facilitating weight loss. Materials and Methods: We conducted a narrow, qualitative review, focusing on articles published in the last 10 years that used an experimental or pre/posttest design and used a technology-based intervention for weight loss. Results: Among the 21 studies reviewed, we identified the following five components that we consider to be crucial in technology-based weight-loss interventions that are successful in facilitating weight loss: self monitoring, counselor feedback and communication, social support, use of a structured program, and use of an individually tailored program. Conclusions: Short-term results of technologically driven weight-loss interventions using these components have been promising, but long-term results have been mixed. Although more longitudinal studies are needed for interventions implementing these five components, the interface of technology and behavior change is an effective foundation of a successful, short-term weight-loss program and may prove to be the basis of long-term weight loss. PMID:21091286

  13. Key technologies and applications of laser cooling and trapping {sup 87}Rb atomic system

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, Ning Zhang, Li; Wang, Yu; Fan, Shangchun

    2016-06-28

    Atom Interferometry is proved to be a potential method for measuring the acceleration of atoms due to Gravity, we are now building a feasible system of cold atom gravimeter. In this paper development and the important applications of laser cooling and trapping atoms are introduced, some key techniques which are used to obtain {sup 87}Rb cold atoms in our experiments are also discussed.

  14. The 3rd Annual Controlled Structures Technology Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of presentations at the Controlled Structures Technology (CST) MIT Space Engineering Research Center 3rd Annual Symposium are included. Topics covered include optical interferometer testbed; active impedence matching of complex structural systems; application of CST to adaptive optics; middeck 0-G dynamics Experiment (MODE); inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems; the middeck active control experiment (MACE); robust control for uncertain structures; cost averaging techniques for robust structural control; and intelligent structures technology.

  15. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles." It provides guidelines for each chapter. The guide includes objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for…

  16. An improved arbitrated quantum signature protocol based on the key-controlled chained CNOT encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Sun, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ke-Jia; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new quantum encryption based on the key-controlled chained CNOT operations, which is named KCCC encryption, is proposed. With the KCCC encryption, an improved arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol is presented. Compared with the existing protocols, our protocol can effectively prevent forgery attacks and disavowal attacks. Moreover, only single state is required in the protocol. We hope it is helpful to further research in the design of AQS protocols in future.

  17. Information management and information technologies: keys to professional and business success.

    PubMed

    Otten, K W

    1984-01-01

    Personal computers, spreadsheets, decision support software, electronic mail and video disks are just a few of the innovations of information technology which attract the attention of information professionals and managers alike: they are all concerned with the rapidly changing face of information technology and how to cope with a changing competitive environment, personally, and for the benefit of their companies. This paper is the first in a monthly series which tries to illuminate some of the factors and changes which shape our future as professionals and managers. In so doing, it guides and motivates the reader to become "information literate," a prerequisite for personal advancement in an information-based economy. This first paper outlines the relationship between technological innovations, use of information tools and information management and what to consider in order to benefit from the information revolution. It explains the risks of becoming professionally obsolete and alerts the reader to get personally involved to remain or become "information and computer literate."

  18. Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L. ); Mussalli, Y.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

  19. Health care organization improvement reports using control charts for key quality characteristics: ORYX measures as examples.

    PubMed

    Caron, A; Neuhauser, D V

    2001-01-01

    Some medical centers have developed quarterly quality performance reports consisting of key quality characteristics reported in the form of annotated control charts. The content of these reports needs to be linked with the mission, vision, values, and the structure of the organization. A partial example using one hospital's Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' ORYX measures is presented along with comments. The examples have been chosen to show the use of different types of control charts (XmR, P, and rare events) and different clinical conditions (congestive heart failure, low birth weight, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

  20. The Status of and key barriers in lignocellulosic ethanol production : a technological perspective

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; G.S. Wang; X.J. Pan; R. Gleisner

    2008-01-01

    The development of biorefineries to produce fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is a potential alternative to current reliance on non-renewable resources. However, many technological barriers remain despite research progress in the past several decades. This article examines the major process barriers in biochemical conversion of biomass...

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Key Tech Center Advanced Communications Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    connections have also transcended the barriers of individual industries, leading to interindustry communications. Thus this decade is worthy of being...overcoming factors in business that could interfere with implementation, there must be an approach supporting the technical aspects of interconnection. In this... approach the 21st century, several new technologies capable of renovat- ing current telecommunications networks and improving their operability have been

  2. Technology Plays a Key Role in Preparing Students for the World beyond Graduation. Best Practices Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers use the Internet and other electronic and web-based resources to engage students in meaningful assignments for independent learning, greater ownership of learning and better preparation for college and careers. The technology practices should align with the new college- and career-readiness standards (CCRS). They also should enhance…

  3. Educational Technology as a Key to Educational Innovation: State of the Art Report from Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issing, Ludwig, J.; Schaumburg, Heike

    2001-01-01

    Reports current governmental initiatives and projects on the elementary/secondary school and university level to provide a brief overview on the state of educational technology in Germany. Discusses conferences and exhibitions concerning the use of media in education, and uses of the Internet and distance education. (AEF)

  4. Technology Plays a Key Role in Preparing Students for the World beyond Graduation. Best Practices Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers use the Internet and other electronic and web-based resources to engage students in meaningful assignments for independent learning, greater ownership of learning and better preparation for college and careers. The technology practices should align with the new college- and career-readiness standards (CCRS). They also should enhance…

  5. Learning Scientific Reasoning Skills May Be Key to Retention in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jamie L.; Neeley, Shannon; Hatch, Jordan B.; Piorczynski, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The United States produces too few Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) graduates to meet demand. We investigated scientific reasoning ability as a possible factor in STEM retention. To do this, we classified students in introductory biology courses at a large private university as either declared STEM or non-STEM majors and…

  6. Key Features of Management of Technology (MoT) Undergraduate Program in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsuddin, Alina; Abdullah, Nor Hazana; Wahab, Eta

    2011-01-01

    Management of Technology (MoT) Education is growing both in numbers and importance. There are more than 200 universities in the world that are offering MoT programs. However, these universities have taken different approaches with respect to the names and designs of the programs. In Malaysia, some of the programs are known as Technology…

  7. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; Postma, A K; Jeppson, D W

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues.

  8. Successful Implementation of Clinical Information Technology: Seven Key Lessons from CPOE.

    PubMed

    Gellert, G A; Hill, V; Bruner, K; Maciaz, G; Saucedo, L; Catzoela, L; Ramirez, R; Jacobs, W J; Nguyen, P; Patel, L; Webster, S L

    2015-01-01

    To identify and describe the most critical strategic and operational contributors to the successful implementation of clinical information technologies, as deployed within a moderate sized system of U.S. community hospitals. CHRISTUS Health is a multi-state system comprised of more than 350 services and 60 hospitals with over 9 000 physicians. The Santa Rosa region of CHRISTUS Health, located in greater San Antonio, Texas is comprised of three adult community hospital facilities and one Children's hospital each with bed capacities of 142-180. Computerized Patient Order Entry (CPOE) was first implemented in 2012 within a complex market environment. The Santa Rosa region has 2 417 credentialed physicians and 263 mid-level allied health professionals. This report focuses on the seven most valuable strategies deployed by the Health Informatics team in a large four hospital CHRISTUS region to achieve strong CPOE adoption and critical success lessons learned. The findings are placed within the context of the literature describing best practices in health information technology implementation. While the elements described involved discrete de novo process generation to support implementation and operations, collectively they represent the creation of a new customer-centric service culture in our Health Informatics team, which has served as a foundation for ensuring strong clinical information technology adoption beyond CPOE. The seven success factors described are not limited in their value to and impact on CPOE adoption, but generalize to - and can advance success in - varied other clinical information technology implementations across diverse hospitals. A number of these factors are supported by reports in the literature of other institutions' successful implementations of CPOE and other clinical information technologies, and while not prescriptive to other settings, may be adapted to yield value elsewhere.

  9. Who's in Control of the Technology-Integrated School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, principals have had to act as referees for a new type of match between teachers and technology staff members, affectionately known as the "techies." This time the match is for the control of the technology-integrated classroom. Creating technology-integrated classrooms often puts the interests of teachers in opposition to the…

  10. [Performance evaluation of rural latrine renovation in key schistosomiasis control areas, Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Xiang-Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Jin; Cao, Han-Jun; Shen, Ming-Xue; Jiang, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Gang

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the hygienic, environmental, social and economic benefits achieved by rural latrine renovation in key schistosomiasis control areas, Jiangsu Province. Eights villages (evaluation villages) that finished and the three villages (control villages) that did not finish the latrine renovation work were sampled and investigated through field visits, questionnaire, referring to information and so on, to collect relevant data, and human waste samples were detected for laboratory indicators in hygiene and environment, in key schistosomiasis control areas in three counties (cities, districts), Jiangsu Province. A total of 11 villages and 220 households were investigated. In the evaluation villages, the owning rate and quality conformity rate of three-format sanitary latrines were 98.6% and 98.8%, respectively. The human schistosome infection rate, intestinal parasite infection rate, the incidence of intestinal infectious diseases, and related medical costs decreased by 100%, 44.5%, 34.2% and 82.8%, respectively, compared with those before latrine renovation. In laboratory testing, the removal rates of fecal coliform values, CODcr, BOD5 and ammonia nitrogen in the third cell of household latrine were 99.99%, 68.50%, 63.17% and 52.30%, respectively, compared to those in the first cell. The village appearance had changed fundamentally, the villagers were satisfied with the latrine renovation, and their health knowledge and health behavior improved significantly. Rural latrine renovation in key schistosomiasis control areas has got great achievements in hygienic, environmental, social and economic benefits. It plays an important role in the promotion of schistosomiasis control, economic development and social harmony.

  11. Bank-to-turn control technology survey for homing missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The potential advantages of bank-to-turn control are summarized. Recent and current programs actively investigating bank-to-turn steering are reviewed and critical technology areas concerned with bank-to-turn control are assessed.

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuromodulation: DTI as key technology for deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Volker Arnd; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Allert, Niels; Mädler, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more than just a useful adjunct to invasive techniques like optogenetics which recently have tremendously influenced our understanding of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with other technologies, DTI helps us to understand which parts of the brain tissue are connected to others and which ones are truly influenced with neuromodulation. The complex interaction of DBS with the surrounding tissues-scrutinized with DTI-allows to create testable hypotheses that can explain network interactions. Those interactions are vital for our understanding of the net effects of neuromodulation. This work naturally was first done in the field of movement disorder surgery, where a lot of experience regarding therapeutic effects and only a short latency between initiation of neuromodulation and alleviation of symptoms exist. This chapter shows the journey over the past 10 years with first applications in DBS toward current research in affect regulating network balances and their therapeutic alterations with the neuromodulation technology.

  13. Smart image sensors: an emerging key technology for advanced optical measurement and microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Peter

    1996-08-01

    Optical microsystems typically include photosensitive devices, analog preprocessing circuitry and digital signal processing electronics. The advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible today to integrate all photosensitive and electronical devices on one 'smart image sensor' or photo-ASIC (application-specific integrated circuits containing photosensitive elements). It is even possible to provide each 'smart pixel' with additional photoelectronic functionality, without compromising the fill factor substantially. This technological capability is the basis for advanced cameras and optical microsystems showing novel on-chip functionality: Single-chip cameras with on- chip analog-to-digital converters for less than $10 are advertised; image sensors have been developed including novel functionality such as real-time selectable pixel size and shape, the capability of performing arbitrary convolutions simultaneously with the exposure, as well as variable, programmable offset and sensitivity of the pixels leading to image sensors with a dynamic range exceeding 150 dB. Smart image sensors have been demonstrated offering synchronous detection and demodulation capabilities in each pixel (lock-in CCD), and conventional image sensors are combined with an on-chip digital processor for complete, single-chip image acquisition and processing systems. Technological problems of the monolithic integration of smart image sensors include offset non-uniformities, temperature variations of electronic properties, imperfect matching of circuit parameters, etc. These problems can often be overcome either by designing additional compensation circuitry or by providing digital correction routines. Where necessary for technological or economic reasons, smart image sensors can also be combined with or realized as hybrids, making use of commercially available electronic components. It is concluded that the possibilities offered by custom smart image sensors will influence the design

  14. Solid oxide electrolysis--a key enabling technology for sustainable energy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hansen, John Bøgild

    2015-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals from steam and/or CO2 with solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) and electricity have attracted considerable interest recently. This paper is an extended version of the introductory lecture presented at the first Faraday Discussions meeting on the subject. The focus is on the state of the art of cells, stacks and systems. Thermodynamics, performance and degradation are addressed. Remaining challenges and potential application of the technology are discussed from an industrial perspective.

  15. Generating social impact scenarios, a key step in making technology assessment studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. V.

    1972-01-01

    The social impact scenario, a method used to trace the effects of new technological applications, is discussed. The research seeks to anticipate the secondary social impacts that arise from: (1) government or private programs that cope with major social problems like poverty, environmental pollution, or public safety; and (2) a concerted national effort to achieve a widely supported specific goal like landing a man on the moon or finding a cure for cancer.

  16. Generating social impact scenarios: A key step in making technology assessment studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. V.

    1975-01-01

    The MITRE methodological studies were conducted to define relevant questions in relation to the concept of total impact analysis and to provide a procedure for integrating diverse checklists of questions which trace the initial and secondary impacts of any major technological application or of society's attempts to respond to or redirect that application. Some of the results of that study are presented in tabular form.

  17. Generating social impact scenarios: A key step in making technology assessment studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. V.

    1975-01-01

    The MITRE methodological studies were conducted to define relevant questions in relation to the concept of total impact analysis and to provide a procedure for integrating diverse checklists of questions which trace the initial and secondary impacts of any major technological application or of society's attempts to respond to or redirect that application. Some of the results of that study are presented in tabular form.

  18. CONTACT: An Air Force technical report on military satellite control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weakley, Christopher K.

    1993-07-01

    This technical report focuses on Military Satellite Control Technologies and their application to the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). This report is a compilation of articles that provide an overview of the AFSCN and the Advanced Technology Program, and discusses relevant technical issues and developments applicable to the AFSCN. Among the topics covered are articles on Future Technology Projections; Future AFSCN Topologies; Modeling of the AFSCN; Wide Area Communications Technology Evolution; Automating AFSCN Resource Scheduling; Health & Status Monitoring at Remote Tracking Stations; Software Metrics and Tools for Measuring AFSCN Software Performance; Human-Computer Interface Working Group; Trusted Systems Workshop; and the University Technical Interaction Program. In addition, Key Technology Area points of contact are listed in the report.

  19. Luminescence Dating Work From The Heidelberg Group: A Key Technology In Geoarchaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, G. A.; Kadereit, A.

    Geoarchaeology is a growing discipline in archaeological science. It aims at the natural environment as context of past human societies and at the interaction between both, the environment and man as part of a joint ecosystem. This topic is also of considerable concern of present societies. Like other historic sciences, geoarchaeology requires accurate chronologies. Since one deals in geoarchaeology predominantly with sediments and rocks, luminescence methods play a key role. This is demonstrated in two case studies from Phlious in southern Greece and Nasca in southern Peru. The results show clearly climatically triggered social developments and feedbacks to the environment.

  20. 22 CFR 120.29 - Missile Technology Control Regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime. 120.29 Section 120.29 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND... Technology Control Regime (MTCR) means the policy statement between the United States, the United...

  1. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  2. Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.

  3. Key regulators control distinct transcriptional programmes in blood progenitor and mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Calero-Nieto, Fernando J; Ng, Felicia S; Wilson, Nicola K; Hannah, Rebecca; Moignard, Victoria; Leal-Cervantes, Ana I; Jimenez-Madrid, Isabel; Diamanti, Evangelia; Wernisch, Lorenz; Göttgens, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite major advances in the generation of genome-wide binding maps, the mechanisms by which transcription factors (TFs) regulate cell type identity have remained largely obscure. Through comparative analysis of 10 key haematopoietic TFs in both mast cells and blood progenitors, we demonstrate that the largely cell type-specific binding profiles are not opportunistic, but instead contribute to cell type-specific transcriptional control, because (i) mathematical modelling of differential binding of shared TFs can explain differential gene expression, (ii) consensus binding sites are important for cell type-specific binding and (iii) knock-down of blood stem cell regulators in mast cells reveals mast cell-specific genes as direct targets. Finally, we show that the known mast cell regulators Mitf and c-fos likely contribute to the global reorganisation of TF binding profiles. Taken together therefore, our study elucidates how key regulatory TFs contribute to transcriptional programmes in several distinct mammalian cell types. PMID:24760698

  4. [Controlling arachidonic acid metabolic network: from single- to multi-target inhibitors of key enzymes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Zheng; Shang, Er-chang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Deng-guo; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Xiao-lu; He, Chong; Lai, Lu-hua

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common medical conditions seen in disorders of human immune system. There is a great demand for anti-inflammatory drugs. There are major inflammatory mediators in arachidonic acid metabolic network. Several enzymes in this network have been used as key targets for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, specific single-target inhibitors can not sufficiently control the network balance and may cause side effects at the same time. Most inflammation induced diseases come from the complicated coupling of inflammatory cascades involving multiple targets. In order to treat these complicated diseases, drugs that can intervene multi-targets at the same time attracted much attention. The goal of this review is mainly focused on the key enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolic network, such as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and eukotriene A4 hydrolase. Advance in single target and multi-targe inhibitors is summarized.

  5. Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727

  6. Evolving Systems: Adaptive Key Component Control and Inheritance of Passivity and Dissipativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. A.; Balas, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. Autonomous assembly of large, complex flexible structures in space is a target application for Evolving Systems. A critical requirement for autonomous assembling structures is that they remain stable during and after assembly. The fundamental topic of inheritance of stability, dissipativity, and passivity in Evolving Systems is the primary focus of this research. In this paper, we develop an adaptive key component controller to restore stability in Nonlinear Evolving Systems that would otherwise fail to inherit the stability traits of their components. We provide sufficient conditions for the use of this novel control method and demonstrate its use on an illustrative example.

  7. Technology initiatives for the autonomous guidance, navigation, and control of single and multiple satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, John; Deily, John; Hartman, Kathy; Weidow, David

    1998-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, NASA envisions frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. To realize NASA's goal, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center sponsors technology programs that enhance spacecraft performance, streamline processes and ultimately enable cheaper science. Our technology programs encompass control system architectures, sensor and actuator components, electronic systems, design and development of algorithms, embedded systems and space vehicle autonomy. Through collaboration with government, universities, non-profit organizations, and industry, the GNCC incrementally develops key technologies that conquer NASA's challenges. This paper presents an overview of several innovative technology initiatives for the autonomous guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) of satellites.

  8. NASA Space controls research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mciver, D. E.; Key, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA technological organization is outlined. The Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) is one of the four major technical offices that comprise NASA. The Office of Space Science and Applications administers programs directed towards using space-based or related techniques to further understanding of the total universe and to apply that understanding to practical applications in such areas as Astrophysics, Solar System exploration, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Communications and Information Systems. The Office of Space Flight administers the programs for all U.S. civil launch capability, plus Spacelab development and operations. The Office of Space Tracking & Data Systems administers the programs that operate and maintain a world-wide network of facilities for data acquisition, processing, and ground to spacecraft communications for all NASA missions. The OAST has primary responsibility within NASA for conducting space research and technology development to support commercial and military as well as NASA space interests.

  9. Round table part 5 : Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for waste management and recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Any manned missions will produce solid waste with or without on board food production. Of course in case of high food production, the percentage of waste of plant origin will be much higher and may pass the 80 %. Consequently the ultimate objective of a closed loop system is not achievable without an efficient waste r4cycling system. Over the years, a large panel of investigations of technologies have been performed form microbial degradation to wet oxidation. These part 5 is aiming to be a platform of discussion on the current world wide investigations related to solid waste treatment and to allow synergies and collaborations.

  10. Research on key technologies of data processing in internet of things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yangqing; Liang, Peiying

    2017-08-01

    The data of Internet of things (IOT) has the characteristics of polymorphism, heterogeneous, large amount and processing real-time. The traditional structured and static batch processing method has not met the requirements of data processing of IOT. This paper studied a middleware that can integrate heterogeneous data of IOT, and integrated different data formats into a unified format. Designed a data processing model of IOT based on the Storm flow calculation architecture, integrated the existing Internet security technology to build the Internet security system of IOT data processing, which provided reference for the efficient transmission and processing of IOT data.

  11. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  12. Eat-me signals: Keys to molecular phagocyte biology and “appetite” control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Hundreds of billions of cells undergo apoptosis in our body everyday and are removed by immunologically silent phagocytosis to maintain tissue homeostasis. Impairments in phagocytosis result in autoimmune and/or degenerative diseases. Eat-me signals are the key to the recognition of extracellular cargos and the initiation of the phagocytosis process by activating phagocytic receptors and signaling cascades, and are convenient targets for therapeutic modulation. Despite their importance, eat-me signals and other phagocytosis players are mostly identified on case-by-case basis with daunting challenges. This Commentary focuses on our latest knowledge of the extracellular players, highlights our approaches to systematically map unknown pathways by functional genetic and proteomic technologies, and discusses future direction to unravel the mystery of molecular phagocyte biology. PMID:21520079

  13. Eat-me signals: keys to molecular phagocyte biology and "appetite" control.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Hundreds of billions of cells undergo apoptosis in our body everyday and are removed by immunologically silent phagocytosis to maintain tissue homeostasis. Impairments in phagocytosis result in autoimmune and/or degenerative diseases. Eat-me signals are the key to the recognition of extracellular cargos and the initiation of the phagocytosis process by activating phagocytic receptors and signaling cascades, and are convenient targets for therapeutic modulation. Despite their importance, eat-me signals and other phagocytosis players are mostly identified on case-by-case basis with daunting challenges. This Commentary focuses on our latest knowledge of the extracellular players, highlights our approaches to systematically map unknown pathways by functional genetic and proteomic technologies, and discusses future direction to unravel the mystery of molecular phagocyte biology.

  14. Survey of multi-function display and control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Tonkin, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multi-function display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space and crew training time. The technology applicable to the development of a MFDCS for orbiter application is surveyed. Technology thought to be applicable presently or in the next five years is highlighted. Areas discussed include display media, data handling and processing, controls and operator interactions and the human factors considerations which are involved in a MFDCS design. Several examples of applicable MFDCS technology are described.

  15. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  16. Key points of condenser refurbishment illustrated by our experience on Russian technology nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Somville, C.

    1998-07-01

    In 1990, the refurbishment of the condensers of the VVER 440 MW LOVIISA 2 Finnish power station was the first reference of GEC ALSTHOM Delas on a Russian type nuclear power station, covering the optimization studies, technical and-economical choices, manufacture and site operations. The current contract for the condenser renovation of the 4 units of the VVER 440 MW PAKS Hungarian power station goes even further through an investment of this company in a local manufacturing installation and a significant participation of the local industry. Their expertise has helped reducing site operation times from 28 days for one condenser of one Loviisa unit, to 26 days for two condensers of one Paks unit. This paper describes the various aspects and the improvements brought for both operations and highlights the technical and economical key advantages of a condenser renovation (quick return on investment, better performances, reliability and life extension of the power station).

  17. Control technology development. [distributed parameter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1981-01-01

    Static and dynamic control design approaches were developed for distributed parameter systems. A hardware flexible beam facility was constructed to demonstrate and verify the theoretical control concepts. Efforts were made in the area of model order estimation for control systems with uncertain or time varying parameters.

  18. Research on prognostics and health management technology of numerical control equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Yingzhi

    2014-03-01

    Scheduled maintenance and corrective maintenance both construct the tradition l maintenance policy of numerical control equipment, which may bring some problems such as excessive maintenance and inadequate maintenance. Aiming at this phenomena, Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) technology is introduced to improve the reliability and availability of numerical control equipment. Before using this technology, Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)should be firstly made for all the subsystems of numerical control equipment. FMECA is indispensable before PHM, and its purpose is to identify the key subsystems which are suitable for using PHM technology, find out the failure mechanisms of this subsystems, and provide references for building failure mechanism models and defining conditional parameters being monitored. Then a PHM system of numerical control equipment is designed. In this system, every conditional parameter of key subsystems is monitored by various sensors according to its respective failure mechanisms. A method based on multi - sensor data fusion is built to process information from sensors. The method uses the neural network algorithm. Applying the method can analyze the operation condition of numerical control equipment, and then prognoses its performance degradation, life evaluation, machining accuracy, and reliability. All the results can supply helpful evidence for making maintenance policy. Finally, key issues of implementing PHM theology in numerical control equipment are cited with the goal of better practical uses.

  19. Electronic game: A key effective technology to promote behavioral change in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Goodini, Azadeh; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebraeil

    2016-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis is a very unpleasant and unbelievable experience. Appropriate management and treatment of these diseases require a high degree of patient engagement. Interactive health electronic games are engaging, fun, challenging, and experiential and have the potential to change the attitude and behavior, which can improve the player's health. The use of these digital tools, as one of the most attractive and entertaining modern technologies, canem power patients, provide suitable palliative care, promote health behavior change strategies, increase patient engagement, enhance healthy lifestyle habits, improve self.management, and finally improve the quality of life of the patients. Finally, the aim of this article was to describe electronic games and their effects on the promotion of behavior change in cancer patients. In addition, this article describes categories, characteristic features, and benefits of this digital media in the lifestyle modification of cancer patients.

  20. Interfacial Charge Transport in Organic Electronic Materials: the Key to a New Electronics Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Campbell, I.H.; Davids, P.S.; Heller, C.M.; Laurich, B.K.; Crone, B.K.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Ferraris, J.P.; Yu, Z.G.

    1999-06-04

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The primary aim of this project is to obtain a basic scientific understanding of electrical transport processes at interfaces that contain an organic electronic material. Because of their processing advantages and the tunability of their electronic properties, organic electronic materials are revolutionizing major technological areas such as information display. We completed an investigation of the fundamental electronic excitation energies in the prototype conjugated polymer MEH-PPV. We completed a combined theoretical/experimental study of the energy relation between charged excitations in a conjugated polymer and the metal at a polymer/metal interface. We developed a theoretical model that explains injection currents at polymer/metal interfaces. We have made electrical measurements on devices fabricated using the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV a nd a series of metals.

  1. None pilot-tones and training sequence assisted OFDM technology based on multiple-differential amplitude phase shift keying.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Yu, Jianjun

    2012-09-24

    This paper proposes a novel none pilot-assisted orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology based on multi-differential amplitude phase shift keying (mDAPSK) for optical OFDM system. It doesn't require any bandwidth-consuming pilot tones or training sequence for channel estimation due to the differential detection during demodulation. In the experiment, a 41.31 Gb/s 64DAPSK-OFDM signal without pilot tones is successfully transmitted over 160-km single mode fiber (SMF). The performance comparison between multi-quadrature amplitude modulation (mQAM) and mDAPSK is also given in the experiment, and the results indicate a prospect of this technology in optical OFDM system.

  2. Research on key technology of yacht positioning based on binocular parallax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zengzhi

    2016-10-01

    Yacht has become a fashionable way for entertainment. However, to obtain the precise location of a yacht docked at a port has become one of the concerns of a yacht manager. To deal with this issue, we adopt a positioning method based on the principle of binocular parallax and background difference in this paper. Binocular parallax uses cameras to get multi-dimensional perspective of the yacht based on geometric principle of imaging. In order to simplify the yacht localization problem, we install LED light indicator as the key point on a yacht. And let it flash at a certain frequency during day time and night time. After getting the distance between the LED and the cameras, locating the yacht is easy. Compared with other traditional positioning methods, this method is simpler and easier to implement. In this paper, we study the yacht positioning method using the LED indicator. Simulation experiment is done for a yacht model in the distance of 3 meters. The experimental result shows that our method is feasible and easy to implement with a small 15% positioning error.

  3. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  4. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  5. Monsanto: Taking the next environmental step; New technologies are key in reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-08-03

    In meeting a 1988 pledge to reduce its worldwide air emissions 90% by the end of 1992, Monsanto completed one of the industry`s most ambitious-and costly-voluntary pollution reduction programs. After $130 million in expenditures and the completion of 250 emission reduction projects, the company had cut its worldwide air emissions 92%, to 5 million lbs, and its U.S. emissions 85%, to 2.7 million lbs. Now Monsanto is looking to take the next step by slashing emission levels of all pollutants. Monsanto has scheduled another round of deadlines that go far beyound regulatory compliance. The company plans on making further reductions, including eliminating the release of waste to underground injection wells, which will likely involve fundamental changes in technology. The company`s goal is to reduce its worldwide toxic chemical releases and transfers to less that 100 million lbs/year by 1995, down 240 million lbs for 1990`s 337 million lbs. Many of Monsanto`s efforts since it made its 1988 pledge have focused on reducing air emissions, because those emissions were the highest. While Monsanto reports about half of its air reductions come from shutdowns of inefficient processes, the 1995 reduction efforts will require increased capital investment for new processes.

  6. Enterprise project management is key to success: addressing the people, process and technology dimensions of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Becker, JoAnn; Rhodes, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The world of healthcare professionals is in a constant state of transition, requiring different processes for the organization, and for completing projects and programs. Projects that manage transition are complex undertakings prone to cost and time overruns. An enterprise project management model is proposed to address the people, process and technology dimensions. It includes the five-step PMI project process, vocabulary, processes, soft skills, stakeholder expectation management, portfolio management and talent diversity. Differences in project deliverables and organizational results are discussed, along with a technique to analyze gaps from the current to the new state, which then defines the projects and programs for an organizational initiative. The role and responsibilities of an executive decision team are defined. Learning the model is needed by all members of the organization, regardless of their role or level, for successfully adapting to future changes. Finally, a case is made for healthcare organizations to implement these competencies if they are to be well-performing organizations in this continuous world of change.

  7. Key telecommunications technologies for increasing data return for future Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. D.; Depaula, R.

    2007-06-01

    NASA's plans for Mars exploration demand increasing telecommunications capabilities in the coming decades. Ambitious robotic missions will deploy high-rate instruments in Mars orbit and on the Martian surface, with increasing spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. Orbiters will require high-performance direct-to-Earth links, while landed missions will benefit from energy-efficient communications through relay-equipped orbiters to increase data return while minimizing landed mass. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Exploration Rovers define the current state-of-the-art for Martian orbiters and landers, respectively. Even with respect to these capabilities, however, significant growth appears to be very feasible based on infusion of relatively mature technologies. Deployable spacecraft antennas, high-power traveling wave tube amplifiers, and migration to Ka-band provide a path to much higher spacecraft equivalent isotropic radiated power. When combined with proposed upgrades to the Deep Space Network, future orbiters can envision downlink rates more than two orders of magnitude beyond current capability. Similar growth can be achieved on relay links between landers and relay orbiters, based on improved relay capabilities which can be infused into the current generation of Electra software-defined relay radios, and by migration to high-frequency directional relay links.

  8. How Mockups, a Key Engineering Tool, Help to Promote Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    The United States ranking among the world in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is decreasing. To counteract this problem NASA has made it part of its mission to promote STEM education among the nation s youth. Mockups can serve as a great tool when promoting STEM education in America. The Orion Cockpit Working Group has created a new program called Students Shaping America s Next Space Craft (SSANS) to outfit the Medium Fidelity Orion Mockup. SSANS will challenge the students to come up with unique designs to represent the flight design hardware. There are two main types of project packages created by SSANS, those for high school students and those for university students. The high school projects will challenge wood shop, metal shop and pre-engineering classes. The university projects are created mainly for senior design projects and will require the students to perform finite element analysis. These projects will also challenge the undergraduate students in material selection and safety requirements. The SSANS program will help NASA in its mission to promote STEM education, and will help to shape our nations youth into the next generation of STEM leaders.

  9. Key Technologies for Hypersonic Sustained Flight Assessed within LAPCAT and ATLLAS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelant, J.

    2009-01-01

    LAPCAT and ATLLAS are two EC funded projects to explore long-term aspects related to high- speed transport. Within both projects, a total of 19 partners are involved including 6 industries, 7 research institutions and 6 universities representing 7 EU member states. The main topics of both studies are related to technical feasibility studies and technology development related to high-speed flows within a range from Mach 3 to 8. The following items are the major objectives of these studies: overall design for high-speed transports with proper development and validation of engine-airframe integration tools and methodology high-speed airbreathing cycle analysis: precooled turbo-ramjet up to dual mode ramjets off- and on-design behaviour of engine and airframe dedicated experiments to evaluate the design in various operation points development and characterisation of lightweight, temperature resistant materials cooling techniques and their interaction with the aerothermal loads for both the airframe and propulsion components. The preliminary vehicle concepts will direct the conditions and constraints for the different topics highlighted as well as for the experiments and simulations

  10. Round table part 4: Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for Food production and preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Although the two first metabolic needs are based on simple molecule (i.e. oxygen and water), the third metabolic needs considered a tremendously large number and diversity of molecules: food. Today, physical chemical technologies do not allow to synthetize all the spectrum of molecules and biological processes have to be considered. Moreover, the raw material products by plants or by microorganisms are generally not directly edible or palatable and would need either transformation, assembly and/or storage. In other words the challenges of the food cannot be reduced to the plant production but need to include as well the complete chain, from the production conditions and the biomass quality up to the final edible products and its acceptance. In other words all the steps have to be considered and characterize. Today these challenges requires a high level of plants characterization. This round table part 4 would allow the participants to present some of their results and express some domain of activities. Re4serach for collaboration will be identified.

  11. Simultaneous Detection of Nine Key Bacterial Respiratory Pathogens Using Luminex xTAG® Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luxi; Ren, Hongyu; Zhou, Haijian; Qin, Tian; Chen, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the outcome of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). In this study, we developed an assay combining multiplex PCR and Luminex technology (MPLT) for the detection of nine important respiratory bacterial pathogens, which frequently cause LRTIs. These were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Through the hybridization reaction between two new synthesized multiplex PCR products and MagPlex-TAG Microspheres, we demonstrate that the detection limits for these nine pathogens were as low as 102–103 CFU/mL. Furthermore, 86 clinical bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens were used to evaluate this method. Compared with the results of nine simplex real-time PCR reactions targeting these nine pathogens, this MPLT assay demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy for Streptococcus pneumoniae (sensitivity, 87.5% and specificity, 100%). Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity for the other eight pathogens all attained 100% diagnostic accuracy. In addition, the consistency between MPLT and the nine real-time PCR reactions exceeded 98.8%. In conclusion, MPLT is a high-throughput, labor-saving and reliable method with high sensitivity and specificity for identifying nine respiratory pathogens responsible for LRTIs. Indeed, this assay may be a promising supplement to conventional methods used to diagnose LRTIs. PMID:28241513

  12. Xeroradiography: A key to the nature of technological change in ancient ceramic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzman, William D.; Fleming, Stuart J.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last two decades Industry and Medicine have developed and fully exploited various X-ray techniques, especially xeroradiography. It is only recently, however, that the latter has found significant use in museum-related disciplines, the appeal being that it is nondestructive in its usual mode of application. Though the production of xeroradiographic images has been largely constrained to situations where the X-ray beam incidence is normal to the object's surface — we will illustrate that information recovery is not optimized in that configuration — some valuable data has been gleaned about certain characteristic features of ceramic structure. For example, the frequency, grain structure and gross aspects of rock and mineral inclusions are often radiographically distinct, when their effective atomic number is significantly different from the surrounding clay matrix. (Haematite, muscovite and calcite show up particularly clearly.) Similarly, remnants of organic matter, such as any rice or straw temper that the potter may have added, produce quite distinct images. We have now adapted routine xeroradiographic methods to accurately reconstruct the method of manufacture of individual pottery vessel types from a wide range of past cultural horizons. Adjustments in X-ray exposure settings and angles of incidence, coupled to an internal study of certain vessel forms (using a "thick section" technique that we will describe in detail), has allowed us to identify subtle changes with time in ancient pottery production methods, and has prompted much reassessment of current ideas about technological innovation within several cultures, including those of Bronze Age Jordan and prehistoric Thailand. This paper will summarize the technical aspects of these changes, and consider the past social conditions which may have stimulated them.

  13. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J.

    1988-07-01

    This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.

  14. Technology Assessment Report: Duty Cycling Controllers Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom; Benenson, Peter

    1998-05-01

    This report covers an assessment of two brands of energy management controllers that are currently being offered that utilize the principle of duty cycling to purportedly save energy for unitary air conditioners and heat pumps, gas furnaces, and gas fired boilers. The results of an extensive review of past research on this subject as well as a review of vendor sponsored field testing of these controllers compares these newer controllers to those of the past. Included also is a discussion of how the duty cycling principle is prone to misinterpretation as to its potential to save energy.

  15. Research on key technologies of non-contact measurement system of optical aspheric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gujin; Guo, Yinbiao; Liu, Jianchun

    2007-12-01

    According to the requirement of high precision measurement of optical aspheric surface, 4D measurement platform is under development. Open motion control system is adapted and multi-axes motion control card is mounted in IPC. Repeatability accuracy and positioning accuracy of the full travel of the driving unit of the platform can reach to 0.3μm and 1μm respectively. Laser sensor is droven by the ultrasonic LM (USLM) to the position needed to be tested. The fine positioning of the unit is achieved by USLM with its DC drive mode, which can perform nanometer steps proportional to the input voltages. The positioning error of the driving unit can not be prevented. In this paper, the mathematic model of error compensation of the USLM driving unit is found and software compensation is introduced. Results of compensation show that the position accuracy of this driving unit is greatly improved and can fulfill the task of optical aspheric mirror surface measurement.

  16. Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

  17. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  18. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-11-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  19. Technology R&D for Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    intensity to produce neutrons from photofission or (γ,n) reactions in the fissile material. The resulting neutrons then induce fission chains in the...ation detectors, two of these emissions are relevant to arms control applications: neu- trons and gamma rays. For heavy elements, spontaneous fission is...of considerable interest to arms control , particularly that of plutonium (Z = 94). Spontaneous fission is a decay process in which the nucleus splits

  20. Elaborating Surface Topology Control System for Technological Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Andreeva, M. A.; Lapteva, U. V.

    2017-07-01

    The basics of elaborating topology control system for technological objects are presented in the paper. The main part of the system is measuring block with laser and ultrasonic distance measuring devices, which enables to have technological object scanned with accuracy demanded. The algorithm of scanning technological object, in particular, vertical storage tank, is presented as well. The system elaborated is an integral part of intellectual decision-support system.

  1. Present and future technologies for tick control.

    PubMed

    George, J E

    2000-01-01

    Arsenic dips were the first effective method for controlling ticks and tick-borne diseases, and were used in many parts of the world for over 50 years before resistance to the chemical became a problem. Until organochlorine products became available about 1946 as alternatives to arsenic, significant losses occurred in cattle herds exposed to arsenic-resistant tick strains. Since the discovery of organochlorines, virtually every chemical group of pesticides developed for the control of arthropods is represented among the list of products employed for the control of ticks on cattle. The evolution of tick resistance to acaricides has been a major determinant of the need for new products. The variety of procedures for treating animals with acaricides ranges from dipping cattle to injecting systemic acaricides, but regardless of the treatment method used, producers need to know and follow proper application procedures to derive maximum benefits. The possibility of stocking with cattle breeds that acquire pronounced resistance to ticks or using recombinant antigen antitick vaccines are the most promising alternatives to acaricides. Most ranchers depend completely on acaricides to control ticks, but do not have access to guidelines on how to make a profit from their tick control program or how to detect and resolve problems with resistance to acaricides. Extension programs are needed to help ranchers manage animal health problems, including how to control ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  2. Technology and tuberculosis control: the OUT-TB Web experience.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Jennifer L; Alexander, David C; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Lam, Karen; Whelan, Michael; Lee, Brenda; Furness, Colin; Rea, Elizabeth; Stuart, Rebecca; Lechner, Julia; Varia, Monali; McLean, Jennifer; Jamieson, Frances B

    2017-04-01

    Develop a tool to disseminate integrated laboratory, clinical, and demographic case data necessary for improved contact tracing and outbreak detection of tuberculosis (TB). In 2007, the Public Health Ontario Laboratories implemented a universal genotyping program to monitor the spread of TB strains within Ontario. Ontario Universal Typing of TB (OUT-TB) Web utilizes geographic information system (GIS) technology with a relational database platform, allowing TB control staff to visualize genotyping matches and microbiological data within the context of relevant epidemiological and demographic data. OUT-TB Web is currently available to the 8 health units responsible for >85% of Ontario's TB cases and is a valuable tool for TB case investigation. Users identified key features to implement for application enhancements, including an e-mail alert function, customizable heat maps for visualizing TB and drug-resistant cases, socioeconomic map layers, a dashboard providing TB surveillance metrics, and a feature for animating the geographic spread of strains over time. OUT-TB Web has proven to be an award-winning application and a useful tool. Developed and enhanced using regular user feedback, future versions will include additional data sources, enhanced map and line-list filter capabilities, and development of a mobile app.

  3. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  4. [Key technologies elements of clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Chun; Hu, Si-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    We assessed and graded the evidence of relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, combined with our clinical study practice to identify eleven key elements as a focus for the clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema: the primary purpose and design of the study, the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the treatment, the trail procedure,the effectiveness and safety evaluation, and quality control, etc, as well. In addition, seven recommendations for the design of clinical study of TCM new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema were provided.

  5. Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M; Albanese, A S

    1980-01-01

    The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

  6. STOVL hot gas ingestion control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Amuedo, K.C.; Williams, B.R.; Flood, J.D. ); Johns, A.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a comprehensive wind tunnel test program conducted to evaluate control of Hot Gas Ingestion (HGI) on a 9.2 percent scale model of the McDonnell Aircraft Company model 279-3C advanced Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) configuration. The test was conducted in the NASA-Lewis Research Center 9 ft by 15 ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel during the summer of 1987. Initial tests defined baseline HGI levels as determined by engine face temperature rise and temperature distortion. Subsequent testing was conducted to evaluate HGI control parametrically using Lift Improvement Devices (LIDs), forward nozzle splay angle, a combination of LIDs and forward nozzle splay angle, and main inlet blocking. The results from this test program demonstrate that HGI can be effectively controlled and that HGI is not a barrier to STOVL aircraft development.

  7. Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards in Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (MACTs) are applicable requirements under the Title V operating permit program. This is a resource for permit writers and reviewers to learn about the rules and explore other helpful tools.

  8. Ethylene Production Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Compliance Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 2006 document is intended to help owners and operators of ethylene processes understand and comply with EPA's maximum achievable control technology standards promulgated on July 12, 2002, as amended on April 13, 2005 and April 20, 2006.

  9. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  10. NASA/DOD Controls-Structures Interaction Technology 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Jerry R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to report to industry, academia, and government agencies on the current status of controls-structures interaction technology. The agenda covered ground testing, integrated design, analysis, flight experiments, and concepts.

  11. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  12. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  13. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  14. Development of electrical conductivity measurement technology for key plant physiological information using microneedle sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Eunyong; Choi, Seungyul; Yeo, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Kyoung Sub; Rathod, Mitesh L.; Lee, Junghoon

    2017-08-01

    Impedance measurement is a widely used technique for monitoring ion species in various applications. In plant cultivation, the impedance system is used to measure the electrical conductivity (EC) of nutrient solutions. Recent research has shown that the quality and quantity of horticultural crops, e.g. tomato, can be optimized by controlling the salinity of nutrient solutions. However, understanding the detailed response of a plant to a nutrient solution is not possible until the fruit is fully grown or by sacrificing the stem. To overcome this issue, horticultural crop cultivation requires real-time monitoring of the EC inside the stem. Using this data, the growth model of a plant could be constructed, and the response of the plant to external environment determined. In this paper, we propose an implantable microneedle device equipped with a micro-patterned impedance measurement system for direct measurement of the EC inside the tomato stem. The fabrication process includes silicon-based steps such as microscale deposition, photolithography, and a deep etching process. Further, microscale fabrication enables all functional elements to fulfill the area budget and be very accurate with minimal plant invasion. A two-electrode geometry is used to match the measurement condition of the tomato stem. Real-time measurement of local sap condition inside the plant in which real-time data for tomato sap EC is obtained after calibration at various concentrations of standard solution demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed device.

  15. Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Maolin; Wang, Yixuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Shi, Yan

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines. The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described, and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results. Finally, the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated. Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.

  16. Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert D.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Singh, Itender; LaRue, Barb; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pericytes play a key role in the development of cerebral microcirculation. The exact role of pericytes in the neurovascular unit in the adult brain and during brain aging remains, however, elusive. Using adult viable pericyte-deficient mice, we show that pericyte loss leads to brain vascular damage by two parallel pathways: (1) reduction in brain microcirculation causing diminished brain capillary perfusion, cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow responses to brain activation which ultimately mediates chronic perfusion stress and hypoxia, and (2) blood-brain barrier breakdown associated with brain accumulation of serum proteins and several vasculotoxic and/or neurotoxic macromolecules ultimately leading to secondary neuronal degenerative changes. We show that age-dependent vascular damage in pericyte-deficient mice precedes neuronal degenerative changes, learning and memory impairment and the neuroinflammatory response. Thus, pericytes control key neurovascular functions that are necessary for proper neuronal structure and function, and pericytes loss results in a progressive age-dependent vascular-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21040844

  17. Software Technology Transfer and Export Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    capabilities based on research primarily conducted by U.S. laboratories , even before U.S. companies have been willing to make the investment. c) Several...configuration control tools. The tools oermit ex-ression, proof, and enforcement of correctness of software to its specifications at several levels of detail

  18. Technology Of Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) for commercial production of organisms, whether plants or animals. Practiced in greenhouses to produce food on nonarable lands. Describes conceptual regenerative system that incorporates biological, physical, and chemical processes to support humans in extraterrestrial environments.

  19. Spacecraft active thermal control technology status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Four advanced space radiator concepts that were pursued in an integrated effort to develop multi-mission-use and low cost heat rejection systems which can overcome the limitations of current radiator systems are briefly discussed and described. Also, in order to establish a firm background to compare the advanced space radiator concepts, the Orbiter active thermal control system is also briefly described.

  20. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Contamination control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The strong influence NASA-sponsored research has had on the development of solutions to difficult contamination problems is considered. The contamination control field is comprised of an industrial base, supplying the tools of control; a user base, adopting control techniques; and a technical base, expanding the concepts of control. Both formal and informal mechanisms used by NASA to communicate a variety of technical advances are reviewed and certain examples of the expansion of the user base through technology transfer are given. Issues related to transfer of NASA-generated contamination control technology are emphasized.

  1. A key process controlling the wet removal of aerosols: new observational evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, Sho; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Mori, Tatsuhiro; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka

    2016-10-01

    The lifetime and spatial distributions of accumulation-mode aerosols in a size range of approximately 0.05–1 μm, and thus their global and regional climate impacts, are primarily constrained by their removal via cloud and precipitation (wet removal). However, the microphysical process that predominantly controls the removal efficiency remains unidentified because of observational difficulties. Here, we demonstrate that the activation of aerosols to cloud droplets (nucleation scavenging) predominantly controls the wet removal efficiency of accumulation-mode aerosols, using water-insoluble black carbon as an observable particle tracer during the removal process. From simultaneous ground-based observations of black carbon in air (prior to removal) and in rainwater (after removal) in Tokyo, Japan, we found that the wet removal efficiency depends strongly on particle size, and the size dependence can be explained quantitatively by the observed size-dependent cloud-nucleating ability. Furthermore, our observational method provides an estimate of the effective supersaturation of water vapour in precipitating cloud clusters, a key parameter controlling nucleation scavenging. These novel data firmly indicate the importance of quantitative numerical simulations of the nucleation scavenging process to improve the model’s ability to predict the atmospheric aerosol burden and the resultant climate forcings, and enable a new validation of such simulations.

  2. A key process controlling the wet removal of aerosols: new observational evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ohata, Sho; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Mori, Tatsuhiro; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The lifetime and spatial distributions of accumulation-mode aerosols in a size range of approximately 0.05–1 μm, and thus their global and regional climate impacts, are primarily constrained by their removal via cloud and precipitation (wet removal). However, the microphysical process that predominantly controls the removal efficiency remains unidentified because of observational difficulties. Here, we demonstrate that the activation of aerosols to cloud droplets (nucleation scavenging) predominantly controls the wet removal efficiency of accumulation-mode aerosols, using water-insoluble black carbon as an observable particle tracer during the removal process. From simultaneous ground-based observations of black carbon in air (prior to removal) and in rainwater (after removal) in Tokyo, Japan, we found that the wet removal efficiency depends strongly on particle size, and the size dependence can be explained quantitatively by the observed size-dependent cloud-nucleating ability. Furthermore, our observational method provides an estimate of the effective supersaturation of water vapour in precipitating cloud clusters, a key parameter controlling nucleation scavenging. These novel data firmly indicate the importance of quantitative numerical simulations of the nucleation scavenging process to improve the model’s ability to predict the atmospheric aerosol burden and the resultant climate forcings, and enable a new validation of such simulations. PMID:27703169

  3. Actin polymerization as a key innate immune effector mechanism to control Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Ekpenyong, Andrew; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Wright, John A; Cicuta, Pietro; Guck, Jochen R; Bryant, Clare E

    2014-12-09

    Salmonellosis is one of the leading causes of food poisoning worldwide. Controlling bacterial burden is essential to surviving infection. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), such as NLRC4, induce inflammasome effector functions and play a crucial role in controlling Salmonella infection. Inflammasome-dependent production of IL-1β recruits additional immune cells to the site of infection, whereas inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis of macrophages releases bacteria for uptake by neutrophils. Neither of these functions is known to directly kill intracellular salmonellae within macrophages. The mechanism, therefore, governing how inflammasomes mediate intracellular bacterial-killing and clearance in host macrophages remains unknown. Here, we show that actin polymerization is required for NLRC4-dependent regulation of intracellular bacterial burden, inflammasome assembly, pyroptosis, and IL-1β production. NLRC4-induced changes in actin polymerization are physically manifested as increased cellular stiffness, and leads to reduced bacterial uptake, production of antimicrobial molecules, and arrested cellular migration. These processes act in concert to limit bacterial replication in the cell and dissemination in tissues. We show, therefore, a functional link between innate immunity and actin turnover in macrophages that underpins a key host defense mechanism for the control of salmonellosis.

  4. Key analytic considerations in design and analysis of randomized controlled trials in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Ranstam, Jonas; Collins, Jamie; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To highlight methodologic challenges pertinent to design, analysis, and reporting of results of randomized clinical trials in OA and offer practical suggestions to overcome these challenges. Design The topics covered in this paper include subject selection, randomization, approaches to handling missing data, subgroup analysis, sample size, and issues related to changing design mid-way through the study. Special attention is given to standardizing the reporting of results and economic analyses. Results Key findings include the importance of blinding and concealment, the distinction between superiority and non-inferiority trials, the need to minimize missing data, and appropriate analysis and interpretation of subgroup effects. Conclusion Investigators may use the findings and recommendations advanced in this paper to guide design and conduct of randomized controlled trials of interventions for osteoarthritis. PMID:25952341

  5. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  6. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  7. NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

    2001-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent

  8. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  9. Technology research for digital flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  10. Will, Technology, and Tactical Command and Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-06

    number) ’LThe Army is bccomin- increasingly dependent On techinical commxunications systems for com-an an d control althou-;,i the system s are vulnerable...34 . - . . . •. -. .. . . .. - . . . . . - .° , . . - ,., - - . ’- . - ". . - . -. "*- S.L.A. Marshall’s book The River and the Gauntlet cites communications failures within the 9th Infantry...not been used. Although the impact of interference on unit effectiveness has not been researched , it can be hypothesized that unit effectiveness is

  11. CVX Damage Control Information Technology Evolutionary Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    NAVSEA Attn: Guy Ballou , NC3, 8E55 2351 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington VA., 22242-5172 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11...Mr Guy Ballou . I would like to thank the dedicated and talented people of Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division, particularly Peggy Brown...extended periods of time. A careful balance of priorities must be controlled by the already overwhelmed chain of command to keep the right number of

  12. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovative technology for contamination control in plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    The causes and contributing factors to wafer contamination during plasma processing are discussed in the context of future technologies for controlling particle contamination by tool and process design and by the development of wafer dry cleaning technology. The importance of these developments is linked with the history of technological innovation and with the continuing evolution of the cleanroom from a highly developed facility for reducing ambient particle levels to an integrated, synergistic approach involving facilities and tooling for impeding the formation and transport of particles while also actively removing particles from sensitive surfaces. The methods, strategy and requirements for innovation in contamination control for plasma processing is discussed from a diachronic viewpoint.

  14. Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

    2000-06-19

    The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.

  15. Integrated Tools for Future Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Turbine engines are highly complex mechanical systems that are becoming increasingly dependent on control technologies to achieve system performance and safety metrics. However, the contribution of controls to these measurable system objectives is difficult to quantify due to a lack of tools capable of informing the decision makers. This shortcoming hinders technology insertion in the engine design process. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hardware-inthe- Loop (HIL) platform and analysis tool set that will serve as a focal point for new control technologies, especially those related to the hardware development and integration of distributed engine control. The HIL platform is intended to enable rapid and detailed evaluation of new engine control applications, from conceptual design through hardware development, in order to quantify their impact on engine systems. This paper discusses the complex interactions of the control system, within the context of the larger engine system, and how new control technologies are changing that paradigm. The conceptual design of the new HIL platform is then described as a primary tool to address those interactions and how it will help feed the insertion of new technologies into future engine systems.

  16. Advanced Technology Direction and Control Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-16

    WORK UN4IT NUMBERS The MITRE Corporation ’ 1820 flolley Madison Blvd. Work Unit 2214G McLean, VJ rginia 22102 Ii. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS...Satellite communications using low power technique. A spread spectrum system being developed by The MITRE Corporation for the Maritime Commission. vI I,: I...300-3000 MHz; SHF (super high frequency), 3-30 GHz; EHF (extra high frequency), 30-300 GHz. 3-3 The MITRE Corporation prepared a survey of

  17. Plastics pollution control technology research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    During the past two years, The Keystone Center has continued to convene the participants in the Keystone Dialogue on Navy Plastics Pollution Control. Participants have been working with Navy personnel during this time period to implement the recommendations from the report, Reducing Navy Plastic Pollution (1986). Discussions have focused on: the development of new machines which will compact and process plastic and eliminate the need for storage of food waste; substitutions and reduction efforts in the supply centers and onboard ships; and the results of the recycling demonstration project involving the U.S.S. Lexington and ships based at Norfolk.

  18. The NASA controls-structures interaction technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Jerry R.; Layman, W. E.; Waites, H. B.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between a flexible spacecraft structure and its control system is commonly referred to as controls-structures interaction (CSI). The CSI technology program is developing the capability and confidence to integrate the structure and control system, so as to avoid interactions that cause problems and to exploit interactions to increase spacecraft capability. A NASA program has been initiated to advance CSI technology to a point where it can be used in spacecraft design for future missions. The CSI technology program is a multicenter program utilizing the resources of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The purpose is to describe the current activities, results to date, and future activities of the NASA CSI technology program.

  19. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Richard A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21314456

  20. Preliminary structural design and key technology demonstration of cryogenic assembly in the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Tadahito; Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Komatsu, Keiji; Goto, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao

    2015-04-01

    The infrared space telescope SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) is a next-generation astronomical project of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, which features a 3 m class and 6 K cryogenically cooled space telescope. This paper outlines the current status for the preliminary structural design of the SPICA payload module. Dedicated studies were conducted for key technologies to enhance the design accuracy of the SPICA cryogenic assembly and mitigate the development risk. One of the results is described for the concept of the on-orbit truss separation mechanisms, which aim to both reduce the heat load from the main truss assembly and isolate the microvibration by changing the natural frequency of the spacecraft.

  1. Preliminary structural design and key technology demonstration of cryogenic assembly in the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Tadahito; Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Komatsu, Keiji; Goto, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Shinozaki, Keisuke

    2014-08-01

    The infrared space telescope SPICA, Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, is a next-generation astronomical project of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), which features a 3m-class and 6K cryogenically- cooled space telescope. This paper outlines the current status for the preliminary structural design of the SPICA payload module. Dedicated studies were conducted for key technologies to enhance the design accuracy of the SPICA cryogenic assembly and mitigate the development risk. One of the results is described in this paper for the concept of the on-orbit truss separation mechanisms, which aim to both reduce the heat load from the main truss assembly and isolate the micro-vibration by changing the natural frequency of the spacecraft.

  2. Research on the key technology of update of land survey spatial data based on embedded GIS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Yanfang; Yu, Hai; Xia, Yin

    2009-10-01

    According to the actual needs of the second land-use survey and the PDA's characteristics of small volume and small memory, it can be analyzed that the key technology of the data collection system of field survey based on GPS-PDA is the read speed of the data. In order to enhance the speed and efficiency of the analysis of the spatial data on mobile devices, we classify the layers of spatial data; get the Layer-Grid Index by getting the different levels and blocks of the layer of spatial data; then get the R-TREE index of the spatial data objects. Different scale levels of space are used in different levels management. The grid method is used to do the block management.

  3. Air emissions and control technology for leather tanning and finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, B.F.; Howie, R.H.; McClintock, S.C.

    1993-06-01

    The document provides information for use in assessing appropriate measures to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from leather tanning and finishing facilities. It also provides a general description of the industry; describes the key processes employed in manufacturing leather; characterizes the emissions of VOC's and HAPs from the industry; describes applicable emission reduction technologies; and finally, discusses current State and local air pollution regulations affecting the industry.

  4. Key Considerations of Community, Scalability, Supportability, Security, and Functionality in Selecting Open-Source Software in California Universities as Perceived by Technology Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Todd Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the key considerations of community, scalability, supportability, security, and functionality for selecting open-source software in California universities as perceived by technology leaders. Methods: After a review of the cogent literature, the key conceptual framework categories were identified…

  5. Key Considerations of Community, Scalability, Supportability, Security, and Functionality in Selecting Open-Source Software in California Universities as Perceived by Technology Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Todd Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the key considerations of community, scalability, supportability, security, and functionality for selecting open-source software in California universities as perceived by technology leaders. Methods: After a review of the cogent literature, the key conceptual framework categories were identified…

  6. Reactive Power and Voltage Optimization Control Strategy in Active Distribution Network Based on the Determination of the Key Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingmeng; Che, Renfei; Gao, Shi

    2017-05-01

    The distributed generation which is integrated in the active distribution network changes power flow, bringing new challenges to the voltage control. When voltage limit violation happens, in order to make the voltage return to normal range and improve the voltage quality, a novel voltage control strategy is proposed. Considering the voltage quality and node importance, the electrical closeness centrality and key node contribution degree are defined, and the key nodes are determined by the orders of the key node contribution degree. This paper uses the reactive power compensation devices which are installed at the key nodes coordinated with the reactive power output of the distributed generation to realize the voltage optimization control. The voltage optimization control model is established by taking the minimum power loss as an objective function. Using the particle swarm optimization algorithm solves the model. The simulation results of the improved IEEE-33 bus system verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Nitric oxide control of cardiac function: is neuronal nitric oxide synthase a key component?

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Claire E; Ashley, Euan A; Casadei, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to regulate cardiac function, both in physiological conditions and in disease states. However, several aspects of NO signalling in the myocardium remain poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the disparate functions ascribed to NO result from its generation by different isoforms of the NO synthase (NOS) enzyme, the varying subcellular localization and regulation of NOS isoforms and their effector proteins. Some apparently contrasting findings may have arisen from the use of non-isoform-specific inhibitors of NOS, and from the assumption that NO donors may be able to mimic the actions of endogenously produced NO. In recent years an at least partial explanation for some of the disagreements, although by no means all, may be found from studies that have focused on the role of the neuronal NOS (nNOS) isoform. These data have shown a key role for nNOS in the control of basal and adrenergically stimulated cardiac contractility and in the autonomic control of heart rate. Whether or not the role of nNOS carries implications for cardiovascular disease remains an intriguing possibility requiring future study. PMID:15306414

  8. Queen control of a key life-history event in a eusocial insect

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Jacob G.; Guidat, Florian S.; Bourke, Andrew F. G.

    2013-01-01

    In eusocial insects, inclusive fitness theory predicts potential queen–worker conflict over the timing of events in colony life history. Whether queens or workers control the timing of these events is poorly understood. In the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, queens exhibit a ‘switch point’ in which they switch from laying diploid eggs yielding females (workers and new queens) to laying haploid eggs yielding males. By rearing foundress queens whose worker offspring were removed as pupae and sexing their eggs using microsatellite genotyping, we found that queens kept in the complete absence of adult workers still exhibit a switch point. Moreover, the timing of their switch points relative to the start of egg-laying did not differ significantly from that of queens allowed to produce normal colonies. The finding that bumble-bee queens can express the switch point in the absence of workers experimentally demonstrates queen control of a key life-history event in eusocial insects. In addition, we found no evidence that workers affect the timing of the switch point either directly or indirectly via providing cues to queens, suggesting that workers do not fully express their interests in queen–worker conflicts over colony life history. PMID:23637392

  9. Queen control of a key life-history event in a eusocial insect.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jacob G; Guidat, Florian S; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2013-06-23

    In eusocial insects, inclusive fitness theory predicts potential queen-worker conflict over the timing of events in colony life history. Whether queens or workers control the timing of these events is poorly understood. In the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris, queens exhibit a 'switch point' in which they switch from laying diploid eggs yielding females (workers and new queens) to laying haploid eggs yielding males. By rearing foundress queens whose worker offspring were removed as pupae and sexing their eggs using microsatellite genotyping, we found that queens kept in the complete absence of adult workers still exhibit a switch point. Moreover, the timing of their switch points relative to the start of egg-laying did not differ significantly from that of queens allowed to produce normal colonies. The finding that bumble-bee queens can express the switch point in the absence of workers experimentally demonstrates queen control of a key life-history event in eusocial insects. In addition, we found no evidence that workers affect the timing of the switch point either directly or indirectly via providing cues to queens, suggesting that workers do not fully express their interests in queen-worker conflicts over colony life history.

  10. Mineralogical controls on aluminum and magnesium in uranium mill tailings: Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M A; Hendry, M J; Koshinsky, J; Essilfie-Dughan, J; Paikaray, S; Chen, J

    2013-07-16

    The mineralogy and evolution of Al and Mg in U mill tailings are poorly understood. Elemental analyses (ICP-MS) of both solid and aqueous phases show that precipitation of large masses of secondary Al and Mg mineral phases occurs throughout the raffinate neutralization process (pH 1-11) at the Key Lake U mill, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data from a suite of analytical methods (ICP-MS, EMPA, laboratory- and synchrotron-based XRD, ATR-IR, Raman, TEM, EDX, ED) and equilibrium thermodynamic modeling showed that nanoparticle-sized, spongy, porous, Mg-Al hydrotalcite is the dominant mineralogical control on Al and Mg in the neutralized raffinate (pH ≥ 6.7). The presence of this secondary Mg-Al hydrotalcite in mineral samples of both fresh and 15-year-old tailings indicates that the Mg-Al hydrotalcite is geochemically stable, even after >16 years in the oxic tailings body. Data shows an association between the Mg-Al hydrotalcite and both As and Ni and point to this Mg-Al hydrotalcite exerting a mineralogical control on the solubility of these contaminants.

  11. Inhibition of VEGF: a novel mechanism to control angiogenesis by Withania somnifera's key metabolite Withaferin A.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sanjib; Islam, Md Khirul; Shilpi, Jamil A; Hasan, Shihab

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation from existing one, plays both beneficial and detrimental roles in living organisms in different aspects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a signal protein, well established as key regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. VEGF ensures oxygen supply to the tissues when blood supply is not adequate, or tissue environment is in hypoxic condition. Limited expression of VEGF is necessary, but if it is over expressed, then it can lead to serious disease like cancer. Cancers that have ability to express VEGF are more efficient to grow and metastasize because solid cancers cannot grow larger than a limited size without adequate blood and oxygen supply. Anti-VEGF drugs are already available in the market to control angiogenesis, but they are often associated with severe side-effects like fetal bleeding and proteinuria in the large number of patients. To avoid such side-effects, new insight is required to find potential compounds as anti-VEGF from natural sources. In the present investigation, molecular docking studies were carried out to find the potentiality of Withaferin A, a key metabolite of Withania somnifera, as an inhibitor of VEGF. Molecular Docking studies were performed in DockingServer and SwissDock. Bevacizumab, a commercial anti-VEGF drug, was used as reference to compare the activity of Withaferin A. X-ray crystallographic structure of VEGF, was retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB), and used as drug target protein. Structure of Withaferin A and Bevacizumab was obtained from PubChem and ZINC databases. Molecular visualization was performed using UCSF Chimera. Withaferin A showed favorable binding with VEGF with low binding energy in comparison to Bevacizumab. Molecular Docking studies also revealed potential protein-ligand interactions for both Withaferin A and Bevacizumab. Conclusively our results strongly suggest that Withaferin A is a potent anti-VEGF agent as ascertained by its potential

  12. Toner display based on particle control technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Toner Display is based on an electrical movement of charged particles. Two types of black toner and white particles charged in the different electric polarity are enclosed between two electrodes. The particle movement is controlled by the external electric field applied between two transparent electrodes. The toner is collected to the electrode by an electrostatic force across the insulating layer to display a black image. The toners can be put back to the counter electrode by applying a reverse electric field, and white solid image is displayed. We have studied on the movement of three color particles independently to display color image in Toner Display. Two positively charged color particles with different amount of charge to mass ratio and negatively charged white particles were enclosed in the toner display cell. Yellow, cyan and white images were displayed by an application of voltage.

  13. Research on NC motion controller based on SOPC technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingbiao; Meng, Biao

    2006-11-01

    With the rapid development of the digitization and informationization, the application of numerical control technology in the manufacturing industry becomes more and more important. However, the conventional numerical control system usually has some shortcomings such as the poor in system openness, character of real-time, cutability and reconfiguration. In order to solve these problems, this paper investigates the development prospect and advantage of the application in numerical control area with system-on-a-Programmable-Chip (SOPC) technology, and puts forward to a research program approach to the NC controller based on SOPC technology. Utilizing the characteristic of SOPC technology, we integrate high density logic device FPGA, memory SRAM, and embedded processor ARM into a single programmable logic device. We also combine the 32-bit RISC processor with high computing capability of the complicated algorithm with the FPGA device with strong motivable reconfiguration logic control ability. With these steps, we can greatly resolve the defect described in above existing numerical control systems. For the concrete implementation method, we use FPGA chip embedded with ARM hard nuclear processor to construct the control core of the motion controller. We also design the peripheral circuit of the controller according to the requirements of actual control functions, transplant real-time operating system into ARM, design the driver of the peripheral assisted chip, develop the application program to control and configuration of FPGA, design IP core of logic algorithm for various NC motion control to configured it into FPGA. The whole control system uses the concept of modular and structured design to develop hardware and software system. Thus the NC motion controller with the advantage of easily tailoring, highly opening, reconfigurable, and expandable can be implemented.

  14. 22 CFR 121.16 - Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 121.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.16 Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. Some of... Commerce on the Commodity Control List and by the Department of State on the United States Munitions List...

  15. 22 CFR 121.16 - Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 121.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.16 Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. Some of... Commerce on the Commodity Control List and by the Department of State on the United States Munitions List...

  16. Status of fiberoptics technology for propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Optical sensors and optically controlled actuators for use in airbreathing engine control systems are discussed. The environmental conditions in which the aircraft will operate require the fiberoptic cables and optical connectors to perform reliably at temperatures over the -55 C to 260 C range. The status of fiberoptics technology for operation in this environment is reviewed.

  17. Pseudoscience in Instructional Technology: The Case of Learner Control Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    Scientific research that is conducted without the structure of a supporting scientific paradigm should be labeled pseudoscience in that such research is deceptive or false science. It is argued that much of the research in educational technology is pseudoscience, with the focus on learner control research. Learner control is the design feature of…

  18. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  19. Bacteriological Aspects of Hand Washing: A Key for Health Promotion and Infections Control

    PubMed Central

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Ataee, Mohammad Hosein; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Salesi, Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male's hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001). The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient's manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control. PMID:28382192

  20. Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

  1. Open modular architecture controls at GM Powertrain: technology and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailo, Clark P.; Yen, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has been the leader in implementing open, modular architecture controller (OMAC) technologies in its manufacturing applications since 1986. The interest in OMAC has been greatly expanded for the past two years because of the advancement of personal computer technologies and the publishing of the OMAC whitepaper by the US automotive companies stating the requirements of OMAC technologies in automotive applications. The purpose of this paper is to describe the current OMAC projects and the future direction of implementation at GMPTG. An overview of the OMAC project and the definition of the OMAC concept are described first. The rationale of pursuing open technologies is explained from the perspective of GMPTG in lieu of its agile manufacturing strategy. Examples of existing PC-based control applications are listed to demonstrate the extensive commitment to PC-based technologies that has already been put in place. A migration plan form PC-based to OMAC-based systems with the thorough approach of validation are presented next to convey the direction that GMPTG is taking in implementing OMAC technologies. Leveraged technology development projects are described to illustrate the philosophy and approaches toward the development of OMAC technologies at GMPTG. Finally, certain implementation issues are discussed to emphasize efforts that are still required to have successful implementations of OMAC systems.

  2. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  3. Control research in the NASA high-alpha technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Gera, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    NASA is conducting a focused technology program, known as the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, to accelerate the development of flight-validated technology applicable to the design of fighters with superior stall and post-stall characteristics and agility. A carefully integrated effort is underway combining wind tunnel testing, analytical predictions, piloted simulation, and full-scale flight research. A modified F-18 aircraft has been extensively instrumented for use as the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle used for flight verification of new methods and concepts. This program stresses the importance of providing improved aircraft control capabilities both by powered control (such as thrust-vectoring) and by innovative aerodynamic control concepts. The program is accomplishing extensive coordinated ground and flight testing to assess and improve available experimental and analytical methods and to develop new concepts for enhanced aerodynamics and for effective control, guidance, and cockpit displays essential for effective pilot utilization of the increased agility provided.

  4. Ethylene Control Technologies in Extending Postharvest Shelf Life of Climacteric Fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Cheng, Dong; Wang, Baobin; Khan, Iqbal; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-08-30

    Fresh fruit is important for a healthy diet. However, because of their seasonal production, regional specific cultivation, and perishable nature, it is essential to develop preservation technologies to extend the postharvest shelf life of fresh fruits. Climacteric fruit adopt spoilage because of ethylene, a key hormone associated with the ripening process. Therefore, controlling ethylene activity by following safe and effective approaches is a key to extend the postharvest shelf life of fruit. In this review, ethylene control technologies will be discussed aiming for the need of developing more innovative and effective approaches. The biosynthesis pathway will be given first. Then, the technologies determining the postharvest shelf life of climacteric fruit will be described with special attention to the latest and significant published works in this field. Special attention is given to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which is effective in fruit preservation technologies. Finally, the encapsulation technology to improve the stability of 1-MCP will be proposed, using a potential encapsulation agent of 1-MCP, calixarene.

  5. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. PMID:25873679

  6. Key two-component regulatory systems that control biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Helga; Sivaneson, Melissa; Filloux, Alain

    2011-07-01

    Biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa is a highly regulated process that proceeds through a number of distinct stages. This development is controlled by a wide range of factors, of which two-component systems (TCSs) play a key role. In this review, we focus on some of the TCSs that regulate the switch from a motile to a sessile bacterial lifestyle, either via the production of extracellular appendages or by the production of exopolysaccharides. Extracellular appendages, such as flagella, type IV pili and Cup fimbriae are often involved in the initial attachment of bacteria to a surface. In P. aeruginosa, many of these surface structures are regulated by TCSs, and some systems regulate more than one type of appendage. Furthermore, the production of exopolysaccharides, such as Pel and Psl, is required for P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. The regulation of Pel and Psl is post-transcriptionally repressed by RsmA, the activity of which is controlled by a complex regulatory system involving several sensor kinases and accessory components. Furthermore, the Rsm system is a major control system that inversely regulates factors involved in motility and acute infection on one hand, and factors involved in biofilm formation and chronic infection on the other hand. Finally, a series of TCSs has recently been discovered that regulates biofilm development in a stage-specific manner. Taken together, these complex regulatory networks allow the bacterium to respond appropriately to diverse environmental stimuli, and increased knowledge of their mechanisms and signals could be of great importance in the design of novel antibacterial strategies. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    PubMed

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  9. The key technologies research on the large field-of-view and high-resolution optical synthesis telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Luo, Qiufeng; Zhu, Yongkai; Ma, Wantai; Zhang, Yajing; Tian, Gui Yun

    2010-08-01

    It briefly introduces the international development status of the high resolution for air-to-ground remote sensing satellite. High resolution for the air-to-ground observation is also the civil and martial pursuing target. Because of the rising cost along with the large-diameter telescope, the weight, cubage will also become large. Nowadays, how to get high resolution with light weight, small cubage launch and large diameter is one of the important research directions in many countries. We raise a method of large field-of-view and high resolution optical synthesis telescope which can solve this problem. It is a co-phased segment mirrors which synthetic aperture diameter is about 1 m. Four 50cm diameter segment mirrors can fulfill the requirement. It is folded during its launch and is spread after it reaches to its working spot. In this way, it can reach the requirement of low launch weight, small launch cubage and can get high resolution observation. This method contains the key technologies of real-time UV coverage, optics design optimization, co-phase measurement and adjustment, micro-displacement sensor technology, the optics design and structure design. We explore the technology which can fulfill field-of-view of 1.86° and the resolution of 0.4m. We will discuss the UV-coverage method which includes the aperture arrangement, the relationship between the aperture number and the synthetic aperture diameter. There are much more detail calculation and analysis to it. Something is discussed about its structure design and optics design in the paper.

  10. The key technologies research on the large field-of-view and high resolution optical synthesis telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhu, Yongkai; Ma, Wantai; Cai, Jiahui; Zhang, Yajing; Tian, Gui Yun

    2008-08-01

    It briefly introduces the international development status of the high resolution for air-to-ground remote sensing satellite. High resolution for the air-to-ground observation is also the civil and martial pursuing target. Because of the rising cost along with the large-diameter telescope, the weight, cubage will also become large. Nowadays, how to get high resolution with light weight, small cubage launch and large diameter is one of the important research directions in many countries. We raise a method of large field-of-view and high resolution optical synthesis telescope which can solve this problem. It is a co-phased segment mirrors which synthetic aperture diameter is about 1 m. Four 50cm diameter segment mirrors can fulfill the requirement. It is folded during its launch and is spread after it reaches to its working spot. In this way, it can reach the requirement of low launch weight, small launch cubage and can get high resolution observation. This method contains the key technologies of real-time UV coverage, optics design optimization, co-phase measurement and adjustment, micro-displacement sensor technology, the optics design and structure design. We explore the technology which can fulfill field-of-view of 1.86° and the resolution of 0.4m. We will discuss the UV-coverage method which includes the aperture arrangement, the relationship between the aperture number and the synthetic aperture diameter. There are much more detail calculation and analysis to it. Something is discussed about its structure design and optics design in the paper.

  11. Decision-directed automatic gain control for MAPSK systems. [M-ary Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1974-01-01

    An automatic gain control (AGC) loop is presented for use with M-ary amplitude and phase shift keying (MAPSK) systems. The gain control amplifier is regulated by an error signal formed by the difference between the estimated amplitude level and the received amplitude level. The AGC performance is thus independent of the short-term average received signal energy. AGC loop analysis and simulation is presented for M-ary amplitude shift keying and quadrature amplitude shift keying. The AGC is shown to have a negligible degradation on the symbol probability of error for most practical cases. A generalized AGC for an arbitrary MAPSK system is presented.

  12. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) software system definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Propulsion Flight Control Integration Technology (PROFIT) program is designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The control software for PROFIT is defined. Maximum flexibility, needed for long term use of the flight facility, is achieved through a modular design. The Host program, processes inputs from the telemetry uplink, aircraft central computer, cockpit computer control and plant sensors to form an input data base for use by the control algorithms. The control algorithms, programmed as application modules, process the input data to generate an output data base. The Host program formats the data for output to the telemetry downlink, the cockpit computer control, and the control effectors. Two applications modules are defined - the bill of materials F-100 engine control and the bill of materials F-15 inlet control.

  13. L(sub 1) Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kaminer, Isaac; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu

    2010-01-01

    Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present the results of a piloted simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.

  14. Technologies for the marketplace from the Centers for Disease Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid-Sanden, Frances L.; Greene, R. Eric; Malvitz, Dolores M.

    1991-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control, a Public Health Service agency, is responsible for the prevention and control of disease and injury. Programs range from surveillance and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases to occupational health and injury control. These programs have produced technologies in a variety of fields, including vaccine development, new methods of disease diagnosis, and new tools to ensure a safer work environment.

  15. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  16. Application technology of stacked film with highly controlled edge structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichino, Katsunori; Tanouchi, Keiji; Iseki, Tomohiro; Ogata, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Taro; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Fujimoto, Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    On the device manufacturing, the film edge control around the wafer edge has been critical at the point of edge control of deposited film. So far, the film edge control is operated by the wafer edge exposure system and/or the edge beam remover. The immersion lithography which is applied to the device generation below 65 nm node requires more additional and severe items for film edge control. These typical requirements are position control of coating film and wafer bevel cleanness. For examples, top coat film is widely applied to the immersion lithography. But this topcoat film is easily peeled off, if top coat film edge should be directly located on the wafer substrate like Si wafer. Thus, the edge position of topcoat film must be controlled very carefully. And the particle or residues on the wafer bevel is thought to be one of the causes to generate immersion defect. Wafer bevel must be clean in order to reduce the immersion defect. Then we have developed novel application technology in order to solve these kinds of immersion defectivities. This new application technology is based on rinse solution technology and new hardware concept. This new application technology can control the edge position of coating film with high accuracy and can reduce the particle and residues. We show the edge position accuracy using our application technology and furthermore, the stability of edge position accuracy in case of multi-layered resist process. We also show the cleanness of the wafer bevel area at the same time. And we can achieve the immersion process with wide process latitude with innovative application technology.

  17. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  18. Economic convergence of environmental control and advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.E.; Haslbeck, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emerging advanced technologies for environmental control have many advantages over conventional, single pollutant removal processes. Features include high efficiencies, multiple pollutant control and zero waste streams. In the past, the economics for state-of-the-art emission control processes could not compete with proven, low-efficiency scrubbers that create throw away by-products. With the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the entire economic environment has changed. If a single process can provide a facility`s compliance requirements for Title I, Title III and Title IV of the CAAA, its net costs can be lower than conventional technology and actually provide economic incentives for overcontrol. The emission allowance program is maturing and the annual revenues from overcontrol of SO{sub 2} are easily quantified. The economics of NO{sub x} control and offsets are currently being realized as EPA identified Title IV requirements, and facilities begin to realize the impact from Title I NO{sub x} control. Air toxic control from Title III could require yet a third control process for a facility to maintain emission compliance. The costs associated with single control strategies vs. multiple pollutant control processes will be discussed and compared. This paper will also present a specific application of the NOXSO Process and identify the potential advantages that can transform advanced technologies, like NOXSO, into the prudent solution for overall environmental compliance.

  19. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  20. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  1. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  2. Babcock & Wilcox technologies for power plant stack emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Polster, M.; Nolan, P.S.; Batyko, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    The current status of sulfur dioxide control in power plants is reviewed with particular emphasis on proven, commercial technologies. This paper begins with a detailed review of Babcock & Wilcox commercial wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This is followed by a brief discussion of B&W dry FGD technologies, as well as recent full-scale and pilot-scale demonstration projects which focus on lower capital cost alternatives to conventional FGD systems. A comparison of the economics of several of these processes is also presented. Finally, technology selections resulting from recent acid rain legislation in various countries are reviewed.

  3. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  4. Evidence for key enzymatic controls on metabolism of Arctic river organic matter.

    PubMed

    Mann, Paul J; Sobczak, William V; Larue, Madeleine M; Bulygina, Ekaterina; Davydova, Anna; Vonk, Jorien E; Schade, John; Davydov, Sergei; Zimov, Nikita; Holmes, Robert M; Spencer, Robert G M

    2014-04-01

    Permafrost thaw in the Arctic driven by climate change is mobilizing ancient terrigenous organic carbon (OC) into fluvial networks. Understanding the controls on metabolism of this OC is imperative for assessing its role with respect to climate feedbacks. In this study, we examined the effect of inorganic nutrient supply and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition on aquatic extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) in waters draining the Kolyma River Basin (Siberia), including permafrost-derived OC. Reducing the phenolic content of the DOM pool resulted in dramatic increases in hydrolase EEAs (e.g., phosphatase activity increased >28-fold) supporting the idea that high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in DOM (e.g., plant structural tissues) inhibit enzyme synthesis or activity, limiting OC degradation. EEAs were significantly more responsive to inorganic nutrient additions only after phenolic inhibition was experimentally removed. In controlled mixtures of modern OC and thawed permafrost endmember OC sources, respiration rates per unit dissolved OC were 1.3-1.6 times higher in waters containing ancient carbon, suggesting that permafrost-derived OC was more available for microbial mineralization. In addition, waters containing ancient permafrost-derived OC supported elevated phosphatase and glucosidase activities. Based on these combined results, we propose that both composition and nutrient availability regulate DOM metabolism in Arctic aquatic ecosystems. Our empirical findings are incorporated into a mechanistic conceptual model highlighting two key enzymatic processes in the mineralization of riverine OM: (i) the role of phenol oxidase activity in reducing inhibitory phenolic compounds and (ii) the role of phosphatase in mobilizing organic P. Permafrost-derived DOM degradation was less constrained by this initial 'phenolic-OM' inhibition; thus, informing reports of high biological availability of ancient, permafrost-derived DOM with clear ramifications

  5. Phytochrome C is a key factor controlling long-day flowering in barley.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hidetaka; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ishii, Makoto; Kaneko, Takuma; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Yukari; Saisho, Daisuke; Tanaka, Katsunori; Handa, Hirokazu; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kato, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    The spring-type near isogenic line (NIL) of the winter-type barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) var. Hayakiso 2 (HK2) was developed by introducing VERNALIZATION-H1 (Vrn-H1) for spring growth habit from the spring-type var. Indo Omugi. Contrary to expectations, the spring-type NIL flowered later than winter-type HK2. This phenotypic difference was controlled by a single gene, which cosegregated only with phytochrome C (HvPhyC) among three candidates around the Vrn-H1 region (Vrn-H1, HvPhyC, and CASEIN KINASE IIα), indicating that HvPhyC was the most likely candidate gene. Compared with the late-flowering allele HvPhyC-l from the NIL, the early-flowering allele HvPhyC-e from HK2 had a single nucleotide polymorphism T1139C in exon 1, which caused a nonsynonymous amino acid substitution of phenylalanine at position 380 by serine in the functionally essential GAF (3', 5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase, adenylate cyclase, formate hydrogen lyase activator protein) domain. Functional assay using a rice (Oryza sativa) phyA phyC double mutant line showed that both of the HvPhyC alleles are functional, but HvPhyC-e may have a hyperfunction. Expression analysis using NILs carrying HvPhyC-e and HvPhyC-l (NIL [HvPhyC-e] and NIL [HvPhyC-l], respectively) showed that HvPhyC-e up-regulated only the flowering promoter FLOWERING LOCUS T1 by bypassing the circadian clock genes and flowering integrator CONSTANS1 under a long photoperiod. Consistent with the up-regulation, NIL (HvPhyC-e) flowered earlier than NIL (HvPhyC-l) under long photoperiods. These results implied that HvPhyC is a key factor to control long-day flowering directly.

  6. LOOP- SIMULATION OF THE AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SUBSYSTEM OF A DIFFERENTIAL MINIMUM SHIFT KEYING RECEIVER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    1994-01-01

    The LOOP computer program was written to simulate the Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) subsystem of a Differential Minimum Shift Keying (DMSK) receiver with a bit rate of 2400 baud. The AFC simulated by LOOP is a first order loop configuration with a first order R-C filter. NASA has been investigating the concept of mobile communications based on low-cost, low-power terminals linked via geostationary satellites. Studies have indicated that low bit rate transmission is suitable for this application, particularly from the frequency and power conservation point of view. A bit rate of 2400 BPS is attractive due to its applicability to the linear predictive coding of speech. Input to LOOP includes the following: 1) the initial frequency error; 2) the double-sided loop noise bandwidth; 3) the filter time constants; 4) the amount of intersymbol interference; and 5) the bit energy to noise spectral density. LOOP output includes: 1) the bit number and the frequency error of that bit; 2) the computed mean of the frequency error; and 3) the standard deviation of the frequency error. LOOP is written in MS SuperSoft FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC operating under PC DOS with a memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  7. Quartz dustiness: A key factor in controlling exposure to crystalline silica in the workplace.

    PubMed

    López-Lilao, A; Escrig, A; Orts, M J; Mallol, Gustavo; Monfort, E

    2016-11-01

    The classification of Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) as carcinogenic for humans has drawn greater attention to crystalline silica exposure in the workplace in recent years, leading to recommendations by safety and health bodies in Europe and the U.S. for lower occupational exposure limits. In view of this new scenario, the present study examined quartz dustiness, as quartz handling is a major source of crystalline silica in the workplace. The study was conducted on test samples with different mean particle sizes, prepared from several commercial quartzes. The quartz particle samples were characterised and the influence of certain quartz particle parameters on quartz dustiness was determined. The results indicate that quartz dustiness may be significantly affected by mean particle size, specific surface area, the Hausner ratio, and fine particle content. The study shows that, in order to minimise the adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of crystalline silica, quartz dustiness may be deemed a key factor in controlling the generation of fugitive quartz emissions during quartz processing, both into the outside atmosphere (air pollution) and inside the facilities (occupational health).

  8. Insights into key factors controlling GO stability in natural surface waters.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Ren, Xuemei; Tan, Xiaoli; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Chen, Changlun

    2017-08-05

    The effects of pH, cations (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Al(3+)), and anions (Cl(-), HCO3(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-)) on graphene oxide (GO) stability were investigated to address the current limitations in the knowledge regarding the stability of GO in natural surface water and its underlying mechanism. The threshold values of cations that destabilize GO were obtained and affected by both pH and anions. By employing elemental mapping and studying the effects of polyacrylic acid (PAA) on GO sedimentation and the re-dispersion of GO aggregates, we find that the GO aggregates induced by Na(+) and K(+) via electric double layer suppression and by Ca(2+) and Al(3+) via strong complxing are difficult to re-disperse completely. Specifically, more PAA is needed to re-disperse GO aggregates than to stabilize GO, which suggests that after GO binds with heavy metal ions. It is less likely to be transported over a long distance even in natural water that are rich in natural organic matter. Finally, we find that the key factor controlling GO sedimentation in natural surface waters is its binding with Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). This study is expected to provide critical knowledge to more accurately predict the fate of GO in natural surface aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System - precision control flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmain, Andrew J.; Dunn, Charles; Folkner, William; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; O'Donnell, James; Markley, Landis; Maghami, Peiman; Hsu, Oscar; Demmons, N.; hide

    2005-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program Space Technology 7 (ST7) project will validate technology for precision spacecraft control. The Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) will be part of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder project. The DRS will control the position of the spacecraft relative to a reference to an accuracy of one nanometer over time scales of several thousand seconds. To perform the control, the spacecraft will use a new colloid thruster technology. The thrusters will operate over the range of 5 to 30 micro-Newtons with precision of 0.1 micro- Newton. The thrust will be generated by using a high electric field to extract charged droplets of a conducting colloid fluid and accelerating them with a precisely adjustable voltage. The control reference will be provided by the European LISA Technology Package, which will include two nearly freefloating test masses. The test mass positions and orientations will be measured using a capacitance bridge. The test mass position and attitude will be adjustable using electrostatically applied forces and torques. The DRS will control the spacecraft position with respect to one test mass while minimizing disturbances on the second test mass. The dynamic control system will cover eighteen degrees of freedom: six for each of the test masses and six for the spacecraft. After launch in late 2009 to a low Earth orbit, the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft will be maneuvered to a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point for operations.

  10. Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System - precision control flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmain, Andrew J.; Dunn, Charles; Folkner, William; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; O'Donnell, James; Markley, Landis; Maghami, Peiman; Hsu, Oscar; Demmons, N.; Roy, T.; Gasdaska, C.; Young, J.; Connolly, W.; McCormick, R.; Gasdaska, C.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program Space Technology 7 (ST7) project will validate technology for precision spacecraft control. The Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) will be part of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder project. The DRS will control the position of the spacecraft relative to a reference to an accuracy of one nanometer over time scales of several thousand seconds. To perform the control, the spacecraft will use a new colloid thruster technology. The thrusters will operate over the range of 5 to 30 micro-Newtons with precision of 0.1 micro- Newton. The thrust will be generated by using a high electric field to extract charged droplets of a conducting colloid fluid and accelerating them with a precisely adjustable voltage. The control reference will be provided by the European LISA Technology Package, which will include two nearly freefloating test masses. The test mass positions and orientations will be measured using a capacitance bridge. The test mass position and attitude will be adjustable using electrostatically applied forces and torques. The DRS will control the spacecraft position with respect to one test mass while minimizing disturbances on the second test mass. The dynamic control system will cover eighteen degrees of freedom: six for each of the test masses and six for the spacecraft. After launch in late 2009 to a low Earth orbit, the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft will be maneuvered to a halo orbit about the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point for operations.

  11. Biofiltration: An innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Leson, G. ); Winer, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.

  12. Breakthrough Control Technologies in the Japanese Steel Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamura, Tadaaki

    The Japanese steel industry started to progress in the 1950s and reached maximum production in the 1970s. In the 1980s it changed its policy of pursuing quantity in production to pursuing quality. A slight decrease in production levels at the beginning of 2000 followed, but the industry has recently recovered production quantity while maintaining quality. In the process it has developed and accumulated a variety of innovative technologies, called “Japan original technologies” which were exported around the world. These are highly advanced control technologies, including sensors, controllers and control logics, and other electrical and automated equipment. This paper introduces some of the technologies developed by the Japanese steel industry that ushered in a new era in steel making worldwide.

  13. Customizing graphical user interface technology for spacecraft control centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Edward; Giancola, Peter; Gibson, Steven; Mahmot, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    The Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) project is applying the latest in graphical user interface technology to the spacecraft control center environment. This project of the Mission Operations Division's (MOD) Control Center Systems Branch (CCSB) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed an architecture for control centers which makes use of a distributed processing approach and the latest in Unix workstation technology. The TPOCC project is committed to following industry standards and using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components wherever possible to reduce development costs and to improve operational support. TPOCC's most successful use of commercial software products and standards has been in the development of its graphical user interface. This paper describes TPOCC's successful use and customization of four separate layers of commercial software products to create a flexible and powerful user interface that is uniquely suited to spacecraft monitoring and control.

  14. Accounting Control Technology Using SAP: A Case-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Joseph; Puccio, Christopher; Talisesky, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) revolutionized the accounting and audit industry. The use of preventative and process controls to evaluate the continuous audit process done via an SAP ERP ECC 6.0 system is key to compliance with SOX and managing costs. This paper can be used in a variety of ways to discuss issues associated with auditing and testing…

  15. Controlled quantum key distribution with three-photon polarization-entangled states via the collective noise channel

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Yi, X. X.

    2011-10-15

    Using three-photon polarization-entangled GHZ states or W states, we propose controlled quantum key distribution protocols for circumventing two main types of collective noise, collective dephasing noise, or collective rotation noise. Irrespective of the number of controllers, a three-photon state can generate a one-bit secret key. The storage technique of quantum states is dispensable for the controller and the receiver, and it therefore allows performing the process in a more convenient mode. If the photon cost in a security check is disregarded, then the efficiency theoretically approaches unity.

  16. Evaluating Security Controls Based on Key Performance Indicators and Stakeholder Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Abercrombie, Robert K; Mili, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Good security metrics are required to make good decisions about how to design security countermeasures, to choose between alternative security architectures, and to improve security during operations. Therefore, in essence, measurement can be viewed as a decision aid. The lack of sound practical security metrics is severely hampering progress in the development of secure systems. The Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) offers the following advantages over traditional measurement systems: (1) CSES reflects the variances that exist amongst different stakeholders of the same system. Different stakeholders will typically attach different stakes to the same requirement or service (e.g., a service may be provided by an information technology system or process control system, etc.). (2) For a given stakeholder, CSES reflects the variance that may exist among the stakes she/he attaches to meeting each requirement. The same stakeholder may attach different stakes to satisfying different requirements within the overall system specification. (3) For a given compound specification (e.g., combination(s) of commercial off the shelf software and/or hardware), CSES reflects the variance that may exist amongst the levels of verification and validation (i.e., certification) performed on components of the specification. The certification activity may produce higher levels of assurance across different components of the specification than others. Consequently, this paper introduces the basis, objectives and capabilities for the CSES including inputs/outputs and the basic structural and mathematical underpinnings.

  17. Technology review of flight crucial flight control systems (application of optical technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The survey covers the various optical elements that are considered in a fly-by-light flight control system including optical sensors and transducers, optical data links, so-called optical actuators, and optical/electro-optical processing. It also addresses airframe installation, maintenance, and repair issues. Rather than an in-depth treatment of optical technology, the survey concentrates on technology readiness and the potential advantages/disadvantages of applying the technology. The information was assembled from open literature, personal interviews, and responses to a questionnaire distributed specifically for this survey. Not all of the information obtained was consistent, particularly with respect to technology readiness. The synthesis of information into the perception of the state-of-technology is presented.

  18. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    SciTech Connect

    Sanusi Fasilat, A. Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-11

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  19. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  20. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  1. Application of multi-function display and control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Holcomb, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays, and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multifunction display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space, and crew training time. Technology identified as applicable to a MFDCS is applied to the orbiter orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and the electrical power distribution and control system (EPDCS) to derive concepts for a MFDCS design. Several concepts of varying degrees of performance and complexity are discussed and a suggested concept for further development is presented in greater detail. Both the hardware and software aspects and the human factors considerations of the designs are included.

  2. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  3. Essential surgery: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles N; Donkor, Peter; Gawande, Atul; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E; Debas, Haile T

    2015-05-30

    The World Bank will publish the nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition, in 2015-16. Volume 1--Essential Surgery--identifies 44 surgical procedures as essential on the basis that they address substantial needs, are cost effective, and are feasible to implement. This report summarises and critically assesses the volume's five key findings. First, provision of essential surgical procedures would avert about 1·5 million deaths a year, or 6-7% of all avertable deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Second, essential surgical procedures rank among the most cost effective of all health interventions. The surgical platform of the first-level hospital delivers 28 of the 44 essential procedures, making investment in this platform also highly cost effective. Third, measures to expand access to surgery, such as task sharing, have been shown to be safe and effective while countries make long-term investments in building surgical and anaesthesia workforces. Because emergency procedures constitute 23 of the 28 procedures provided at first-level hospitals, expansion of access requires that such facilities be widely geographically diffused. Fourth, substantial disparities remain in the safety of surgical care, driven by high perioperative mortality rates including anaesthesia-related deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Feasible measures, such as WHO's Surgical Safety Checklist, have led to improvements in safety and quality. Fifth, the large burden of surgical disorders, cost-effectiveness of essential surgery, and strong public demand for surgical services suggest that universal coverage of essential surgery should be financed early on the path to universal health coverage. We point to estimates that full coverage of the component of universal coverage of essential surgery applicable to first-level hospitals would require just over US$3 billion annually of additional spending and yield a benefit-cost ratio of more than 10:1. It would

  4. Plant growth chamber based on space proven controlled environment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatius, R.W.; Ignatius, M.H.; Imberti, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum Devices, Inc., in conjunction with Percival Scientific, Inc., and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) have developed a controlled environment plant growth chamber for terrestrial agricultural and scientific applications. This chamber incorporates controlled environment technology used in the WCSAR ASTROCULTURE{trademark} flight unit for conducting plant research on the Space Shuttle. The new chamber, termed CERES 2010, features air humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide control, an atmospheric contaminant removal unit, an LED lighting system, and a water and nutrient delivery system. The advanced environment control technology used in this chamber will increase the reliability and repeatability of environmental physiology data derived from plant experiments conducted in this chamber. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Phytochrome C Is A Key Factor Controlling Long-Day Flowering in Barley1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hidetaka; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ishii, Makoto; Kaneko, Takuma; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Yukari; Saisho, Daisuke; Tanaka, Katsunori; Handa, Hirokazu; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kato, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The spring-type near isogenic line (NIL) of the winter-type barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) var. Hayakiso 2 (HK2) was developed by introducing VERNALIZATION-H1 (Vrn-H1) for spring growth habit from the spring-type var. Indo Omugi. Contrary to expectations, the spring-type NIL flowered later than winter-type HK2. This phenotypic difference was controlled by a single gene, which cosegregated only with phytochrome C (HvPhyC) among three candidates around the Vrn-H1 region (Vrn-H1, HvPhyC, and CASEIN KINASE IIα), indicating that HvPhyC was the most likely candidate gene. Compared with the late-flowering allele HvPhyC-l from the NIL, the early-flowering allele HvPhyC-e from HK2 had a single nucleotide polymorphism T1139C in exon 1, which caused a nonsynonymous amino acid substitution of phenylalanine at position 380 by serine in the functionally essential GAF (3′, 5′-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase, adenylate cyclase, formate hydrogen lyase activator protein) domain. Functional assay using a rice (Oryza sativa) phyA phyC double mutant line showed that both of the HvPhyC alleles are functional, but HvPhyC-e may have a hyperfunction. Expression analysis using NILs carrying HvPhyC-e and HvPhyC-l (NIL [HvPhyC-e] and NIL [HvPhyC-l], respectively) showed that HvPhyC-e up-regulated only the flowering promoter FLOWERING LOCUS T1 by bypassing the circadian clock genes and flowering integrator CONSTANS1 under a long photoperiod. Consistent with the up-regulation, NIL (HvPhyC-e) flowered earlier than NIL (HvPhyC-l) under long photoperiods. These results implied that HvPhyC is a key factor to control long-day flowering directly. PMID:24014575

  6. US Export Controls and Technology Transfer Requirements: A UK Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    engage. A further point noted by Haddon-Cave was the need to control the supply chain. Again, this was under the overarching issue of the MoD’s need...benefits of participation in US-led multinational projects will be influenced by its JSF experience. And the UK provides a unique perspective on the...impact of US export control and technology transfer regulations an issue of significance to those interested in multinational military cooperation with

  7. The Surveillance Society: Information Technology and Bureaucratic Social Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how communications and information technologies are being used to increase the reach and influence of bureaucratic surveillance, creating an increasing inequality between those who provide and those who gather personal information. Argues that the current legal system is hopelessly inadequate to the challenge of controlling the…

  8. The Surveillance Society: Information Technology and Bureaucratic Social Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how communications and information technologies are being used to increase the reach and influence of bureaucratic surveillance, creating an increasing inequality between those who provide and those who gather personal information. Argues that the current legal system is hopelessly inadequate to the challenge of controlling the…

  9. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  10. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  11. Test and evaluation of item control technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dvukhsherstnov, V.

    1998-03-01

    A brief summary is given of the work carried out on Task 3 at the IPPE`s BFS facility in Obninsk, Russia. Methods and concepts of Item Control Technology from LANL and SNL were examined. At BFS the nuclear material accounting items are plutonium and highly enriched uranium disks. Work was done on identification techniques and safeguards for these materials.

  12. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  13. Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: key messages from Disease Control Priorities 3rd Edition.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E; Levin, Carol; Walker, Neff; Chou, Doris; Liu, Li; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-12-03

    As part of Disease Control Priorities 3rd Edition, the World Bank will publish a volume on Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health that identifies essential cost-effective health interventions that can be scaled up to reduce maternal, newborn, and child deaths, and stillbirths. This Review summarises the volume's key findings and estimates the effect and cost of expanded implementation of these interventions. Recognising that a continuum of care from the adolescent girl, woman, or mother to child is needed, the volume includes details of preventive and therapeutic health interventions in integrated packages: Maternal and Newborn Health and Child Health (along with folic acid supplementation, a key reproductive health intervention). Scaling up all interventions in these packages from coverage in 2015 to hypothetically immediately achieve 90% coverage would avert 149 000 maternal deaths, 849 000 stillbirths, 1 498 000 neonatal deaths, and 1 515 000 additional child deaths. In alternative calculations that consider only the effects of reducing the number of pregnancies by provision of contraceptive services as part of a Reproductive Health package, meeting 90% of the unmet need for contraception would reduce global births by almost 28 million and consequently avert deaths that could have occurred at 2015 rates of fertility and mortality. Thus, 67 000 maternal deaths, 440 000 neonatal deaths, 473 000 child deaths, and 564 000 stillbirths could be averted from avoided pregnancies. Particularly effective interventions in the Maternal and Newborn Health and Child Health packages would be management of labour and delivery, care of preterm births, and treatment of serious infectious diseases and acute malnutrition. Nearly all of these essential interventions can be delivered by health workers in the community or in primary health centres, which can increase population access to needed services. The annual incremental cost of immediately scaling

  14. NASA Environmental Control and Life Support Technology Development and Maturation for Exploration: 2015 to 2016 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Walter F.; Gatens, Robyn L.; Anderson, Molly S.; Broyan, James L.; MaCatangay, Ariel V.; Shull, Sarah A.; Perry, Jay L.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Over the last year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has continued to refine the understanding and prioritization of technology gaps that must be closed in order to achieve Evolvable Mars Campaign objectives and near term objectives in the cislunar proving ground. These efforts are reflected in updates to the technical area roadmaps released by NASA in 2015 and have guided technology development and maturation tasks that have been sponsored by various programs. This paper provides an overview of the refined Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) strategic planning, as well as a synopsis of key technology and maturation project tasks that occurred in 2014 and early 2015 to support the strategic needs. Plans for the remainder of 2015 and subsequent years are also described.

  15. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

    2005-10-01

    The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for

  16. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  17. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  18. Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

  19. Use of Soft Computing Technologies For Rocket Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Olcmen, Semih; Polites, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to further improve overall engine system reliability and performance. Specifically, this will be presented by enhancing rocket engine control and engine health management (EHM) using SCT coupled with conventional control technologies, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall s Flight Software Group. The principle goals are to improve software management, software development time and maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control and EHM methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, EHM, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion, software engineering for embedded systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian belief networks), much of which is presented in this paper. The first targeted demonstration rocket engine platform is the MC-1 (formerly FASTRAC Engine) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed laboratory that

  20. The flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liwen; Yao, Bin; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao; Yao, Boshi

    2012-01-01

    A flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control is presented to resolve the problem of low rigidity of PCB during grinding, the thickness of which varies from 0.1mm up to 3.5 mm. The comparative results between the real-time current and the setting current in the process of grinding control the frequency and the number of servo pulse, and then the servo motor adjusts the grinding depth of brushing roller at several different rotational speeds, namely, realizing the constant grinding force during grinding. The results show that the PCB can be grinded efficiently and accurately by means of the flexible grinding technology based on the electric current control.

  1. Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollefson, Scott D.

    1990-03-01

    This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S. policy of restricting space and missile technology to Brazil under the MTCR has succeeded in stalling Brazil's missile program, but has also: (1) further strained Brazilian security relations with the United States; (2) weakened U.S. influence over Brazil's rocket and missile programs; (3) strengthened Brazilian ties with European suppliers (especially France) of space and missile technology; (4) driven Brazil into closer technological cooperation with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union; and (5) intensified Brazilian negotiations with Iraq and Libya. As Brazil moves away from the United States (its traditional supplier of space and missile technology), it is becoming relatively more autonomous and less vulnerable to U.S. restrictions on space and missile technology. The successful implementation of an internationalist development strategy by Brazil's new president, Fernando Collor de Mello, could provide the United States with an exceptional opportunity to improve relations with Brazil.

  2. Thermal control of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Ann B.; Roettker, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) will employ lidar techniques to study the atmosphere from space. The LITE instrument will be flown in the Space Shuttle Payload Bay with an earth directed orientation. The experiment thermal control incorporates both active and passive techniques. The Laser Transmitter Module (LTM) and the system electronics will be actively cooled through the Shuttle pallet coolant loop. The receiver system and experiment platform will be passsively controlled through the use of insulation and component surface properties. This paper explains the thermal control techniques used and the analysis results, with primary focus on the receiver system.

  3. Impact of active controls technology on structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Thomas; Austin, Edward; Donley, Shawn; Graham, George; Harris, Terry

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of The Technical Cooperation Program to assess the impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles and to evaluate the present state-of-the-art for predicting the loads caused by a flight-control system modification and the resulting change in the fatigue life of the flight vehicle. The potential for active controls to adversely affect structural integrity is described, and load predictions obtained using two state-of-the-art analytical methods are given.

  4. Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies for Embedded Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Michelle L.; Mackie, Scott A.; Gissen, Abe; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Lakebrink, Matthew T.; Glezer, Ari; Mani, Mori; Mace, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Fail-safe, hybrid, flow control (HFC) is a promising technology for meeting high-speed cruise efficiency, low-noise signature, and reduced fuel-burn goals for future, Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft with embedded engines. This report details the development of HFC technology that enables improved inlet performance in HWB vehicles with highly integrated inlets and embedded engines without adversely affecting vehicle performance. In addition, new test techniques for evaluating Boundary-Layer-Ingesting (BLI)-inlet flow-control technologies developed and demonstrated through this program are documented, including the ability to generate a BLI-like inlet-entrance flow in a direct-connect, wind-tunnel facility, as well as, the use of D-optimal, statistically designed experiments to optimize test efficiency and enable interpretation of results. Validated improvements in numerical analysis tools and methods accomplished through this program are also documented, including Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of steady-state flow physics for baseline, BLI-inlet diffuser flow, as well as, that created by flow-control devices. Finally, numerical methods were employed in a ground-breaking attempt to directly simulate dynamic distortion. The advances in inlet technologies and prediction tools will help to meet and exceed "N+2" project goals for future HWB aircraft.

  5. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  6. 40 CFR 51.1010 - Requirements for reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably available control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1010 Requirements for reasonably available control technology (RACT...

  7. Simulation and control of the technological processes of metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salikhov, Z. G.; Genkin, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical and applied reports in the field of simulation, prediction, and control of the technological processes of metal forming are reviewed. These reports were presented by researchers from Austria, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, Canada, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, the United States, Thailand, Ukraine, Finland, Czech Republic, and Switzerland in international scientific and technical congress on metal forming "OMD-2014. Fundamental Problems. Innovative Materials and Technologies." The advanced innovative trends in MF investigations, which were presented by well-known scientific teams and Russian and foreign companies, are discussed.

  8. Developments in centrifugal compressor surge control: A technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botros, K. K.; Henderson, J. F.

    1994-04-01

    There are a number of surge control schemes in current use for centrifugal compressors employed in natural gas transmission systems. Basically, these schemes consist of a set of detection devices that either anticipate surge or detect it at its inception, and a set of control devices that act to prevent surge from occurring. A patent search was conducted in an attempt to assess the level and direction of technology development over the last 20 years and to define the focus for future R&D activities. In addition, the paper presents the current state of technology in three areas: surge control, surge detection, and surge suppression. Patent data obtained from on-line databases showed that most of the emphasis has been on surge control rather than on detection and control and that the current trend in surge control will likely continue toward incremental improvement of a basic or conventional surge control strategy. Various surge suppression techniques can be grouped in two categories: (i) those that are focused on better compressor interior design, and (ii) others that attempt to suppress surge by external and operational means.

  9. Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Entanglement in the Middle Using Tunable Linear Optics Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao Dong; Chen, Feng; Wu, Xiang Hua; Guo, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) can provide detection efficiency, as compared to discrete-variable quantum key distribution (DVQKD). In this paper, we demonstrate a controllable CVQKD with the entangled source in the middle, contrast to the traditional point-to-point CVQKD where the entanglement source is usually created by one honest party and the Gaussian noise added on the reference partner of the reconciliation is uncontrollable. In order to harmonize the additive noise that originates in the middle to resist the effect of malicious eavesdropper, we propose a controllable CVQKD protocol by performing a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) at one participant's side, say Alice. Simulation results show that we can achieve the optimal secret key rates by selecting the parameters of the tuned LOCM in the derived regions.

  10. Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Entanglement in the Middle Using Tunable Linear Optics Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao Dong; Chen, Feng; Wu, Xiang Hua; Guo, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) can provide detection efficiency, as compared to discrete-variable quantum key distribution (DVQKD). In this paper, we demonstrate a controllable CVQKD with the entangled source in the middle, contrast to the traditional point-to-point CVQKD where the entanglement source is usually created by one honest party and the Gaussian noise added on the reference partner of the reconciliation is uncontrollable. In order to harmonize the additive noise that originates in the middle to resist the effect of malicious eavesdropper, we propose a controllable CVQKD protocol by performing a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) at one participant's side, say Alice. Simulation results show that we can achieve the optimal secret key rates by selecting the parameters of the tuned LOCM in the derived regions.

  11. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  12. Developments and advances in emission control technology. SP-1120

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Automotive emission control is an increasingly complex subject that continues to be of vital importance. Tighter emission standards as well as requirements for increased emission system performance and durability have resulted in ongoing development and continuing advances in emission control technology. A great deal of attention continues to be focused on technologies for emission control during cold-start. Detailed analyses are required to determine fundamental mechanisms which govern emission control under a wide variety of operating conditions. Effects of possible catalyst poisons as well as the mechanical durability of aftertreatment systems are being evaluated. Engine, vehicle, and aftertreatment sensors are being utilized to monitor and ensure emission control performance. Improved analytical techniques are being used to help understand emissions problems and to suggest avenues to solutions. Papers assembled in this volume touch on all of these areas. Catalyst durability papers address issues related to hot vibration testing and catalyst durability based on substrate surface area. A variety of papers related to the chemical composition of fuels address issues such as fuel hydrocarbon and NO conversion in three-way catalysts, fuel composition effects on emissions in urban traffic, and fuel sulfur effects on catalysts and on-board diagnostics (OBD-II) systems. Information useful for understanding the performance of cold-start technologies is described in papers on a numerical method for predicting warm-up characteristics of catalysts systems, axial characterization of warmup and underfloor catalytic converters, and EHC impact on extended soak times. Other approaches for reducing cold-start emissions are addressed in papers on in-cylinder catalysts and the use of intake air oxygen enrichment technology. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  13. ACTS TDMA network control. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inukai, T.; Campanella, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents basic network control concepts for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. Two experimental systems, called the low-burst-rate and high-burst-rate systems, along with ACTS ground system features, are described. The network control issues addressed include frame structures, acquisition and synchronization procedures, coordinated station burst-time plan and satellite-time plan changes, on-board clock control based on ground drift measurements, rain fade control by means of adaptive forward-error-correction (FEC) coding and transmit power augmentation, and reassignment of channel capacities on demand. The NASA ground system, which includes a primary station, diversity station, and master control station, is also described.

  14. The Possible Effects of Potential Key Technological Developments on the Force Structure of the Australian Army in 2040

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    technological developments that are likely to impact on the Army After Next 2020-2040, an analysis of future technologies on Army functions was...undertaken focussing on impacts to force structures. A modified TOWS (Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses & Strengths) technique was applied to eleven...Army functions across each technology area. Brief assessments are made to the possible impact of future technologies on a range of Army unit types

  15. NO{sub x} control technologies applicable to municipal waste combustion

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.M.; Nebel, K.L.; Gundappa, M.; Ferry, K.R.

    1994-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are of environmental significance because of their role as a criteria pollutant, acid gas, and ozone precursor. The current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for municipal waste combustors (MWCS) limit NO{sub x} emissions to a daily average of 180 parts per million (ppM) at 7% oxygen, dry basis. By comparison, typical NO{sub x} emissions from modern mass burn waterwall (MB/WW) MWCs range from 220 to 320 ppM. To comply with the NSPS, most recently built MWCs have used a combination of combustion controls to limit NO{sub x} formation and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) to convert NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen. Because of pressure to achieve even lower emission levels, questions have been raised regarding the potential for advancement in NO{sub x} control technologies. To respond to these questions, the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated this assessment of three alternative NO{sub x} control technologies: natural gas injection (NGI), SNCR, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The objectives of this assessment were to (1) document the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of each technology, and (2) identify technology research and development needs.

  16. Developing an Integration Infrastructure for Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis; Zinnecker, Alicia; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Kratz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine engine control technology is poised to make the first revolutionary leap forward since the advent of full authority digital engine control in the mid-1980s. This change aims squarely at overcoming the physical constraints that have historically limited control system hardware on aero-engines to a federated architecture. Distributed control architecture allows complex analog interfaces existing between system elements and the control unit to be replaced by standardized digital interfaces. Embedded processing, enabled by high temperature electronics, provides for digitization of signals at the source and network communications resulting in a modular system at the hardware level. While this scheme simplifies the physical integration of the system, its complexity appears in other ways. In fact, integration now becomes a shared responsibility among suppliers and system integrators. While these are the most obvious changes, there are additional concerns about performance, reliability, and failure modes due to distributed architecture that warrant detailed study. This paper describes the development of a new facility intended to address the many challenges of the underlying technologies of distributed control. The facility is capable of performing both simulation and hardware studies ranging from component to system level complexity. Its modular and hierarchical structure allows the user to focus their interaction on specific areas of interest.

  17. Embedded Web Technology: Internet Technology Applied to Real-Time System Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, Carl J.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing software tools to bridge the gap between the traditionally non-real-time Internet technology and the real-time, embedded-controls environment for space applications. Internet technology has been expanding at a phenomenal rate. The simple World Wide Web browsers (such as earlier versions of Netscape, Mosaic, and Internet Explorer) that resided on personal computers just a few years ago only enabled users to log into and view a remote computer site. With current browsers, users not only view but also interact with remote sites. In addition, the technology now supports numerous computer platforms (PC's, MAC's, and Unix platforms), thereby providing platform independence.In contrast, the development of software to interact with a microprocessor (embedded controller) that is used to monitor and control a space experiment has generally been a unique development effort. For each experiment, a specific graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. This procedure works well for a single-user environment. However, the interface for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility will have to enable scientists throughout the world and astronauts onboard the ISS, using different computer platforms, to interact with their experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Developing a specific GUI for all these users would be cost prohibitive. An innovative solution to this requirement, developed at Lewis, is to use Internet technology, where the general problem of platform independence has already been partially solved, and to leverage this expanding technology as new products are developed. This approach led to the development of the Embedded Web Technology (EWT) program at Lewis, which has the potential to significantly reduce software development costs for both flight and ground software.

  18. Assessment of pollution prevention and control technology for plating operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmer, Paul D.; Sonntag, William A.; Cushnie, George C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is sponsoring an on-going project to assess pollution prevention and control technology available to the plating industry and to make this information available to those who can benefit from it. Completed project activities include extensive surveys of the plating industry and vendors of technologies and an indepth literature review. The plating industry survey was performed in cooperation with the National Association of Metal Finishers. The contractor that conducted the surveys and prepared the project products was CAI Engineering. The initial products of the project were made available in April, 1994. These products include an extensive report that presents the results of the surveys and literature review and an electronic database. The project results are useful for all those associated with pollution prevention and control in the plating industry. The results show which treatment, recovery and bath maintenance technologies have been most successful for different plating processes and the costs for purchasing and operating these technologies. The project results also cover trends in chemical substitution, the identification of compliance-problem pollutants, sludge generation rates, off-site sludge recovery and disposal options, and many other pertinent topics.

  19. Aging related methylation influences the gene expression of key control genes in colorectal cancer and adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Galamb, Orsolya; Kalmár, Alexandra; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Patai, Árpád V; Leiszter, Katalin; Péterfia, Bálint; Wichmann, Barnabás; Valcz, Gábor; Veres, Gábor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2016-01-01

    with significantly increased SFRP1 mRNA levels in children compared to normal adult samples (P < 0.05). In CRC tissue the mRNA expression of 117 age-related genes were changed, while in adenoma samples 102 genes showed differential expression compared with normal colonic tissue (P < 0.05, logFC > 0.5). The change of expression for several genes including SYNE1, CLEC3B, LTBP3 and SFRP1, followed the same pattern in aging and carcinogenesis, though not for all genes (e.g., MGP). CONCLUSION Several age-related DNA methylation alterations can be observed during CRC development and progression affecting the mRNA expression of certain CRC- and adenoma-related key control genes. PMID:28058013

  20. Aging related methylation influences the gene expression of key control genes in colorectal cancer and adenoma.

    PubMed

    Galamb, Orsolya; Kalmár, Alexandra; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Patai, Árpád V; Leiszter, Katalin; Péterfia, Bálint; Wichmann, Barnabás; Valcz, Gábor; Veres, Gábor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2016-12-21

    increased SFRP1 mRNA levels in children compared to normal adult samples (P < 0.05). In CRC tissue the mRNA expression of 117 age-related genes were changed, while in adenoma samples 102 genes showed differential expression compared with normal colonic tissue (P < 0.05, logFC > 0.5). The change of expression for several genes including SYNE1, CLEC3B, LTBP3 and SFRP1, followed the same pattern in aging and carcinogenesis, though not for all genes (e.g., MGP). Several age-related DNA methylation alterations can be observed during CRC development and progression affecting the mRNA expression of certain CRC- and adenoma-related key control genes.